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Sample records for malaysia saudi arabia

  1. Information Policies in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…

  2. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1986-12-01

    In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development.

  3. Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The country of Saudi Arabia contains 830,000 square miles, mostly desert with mountains in the southwest. It has population of 11 million and an annual growth rate of 3.5%. The population is 90% Arab and the rest Afro-Asian; the religion is Islam, and the language is Arabic. There is an 80% literacy rate, an infant mortality rate of 78/1000, and life expectancy of 60 years. There is a 4.8 million person work force, of which 25% is Saudi and 75% foreign. Until recently most of the people were nomadic and seminomadic; but with rapid economic growth, urbanization has progressed quickly and 90% are now settled, with some cities having high population densities (2,000/square mile). The country is very conservative due to the adherence to strict Islamic law. Oil was discovered in 1903 but large production was not introduced until after World War II. The country is now the world's largest oil exporter and 50% of the governments funds come from it. The country has developed rapidly in the 1970's and 1980's and present plans are for consolidation of the country's defenses, more government efficiency. Greater private sector employment is sought for Saudis, with reduction of foreign workers and more regional development The US and Saudis have mutual interest is stability in the region and have worked closely for peaceful development.

  4. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-20

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  5. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  6. Tabanidae (Diptera) of saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Dhafer, H M; Dawah, H A; Abdullah, M A

    2009-10-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region.

  7. Update: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy; Nydell, Margaret

    A guide for persons planning on living in or relocating to Saudi Arabia for extended periods of time, this book features information on such topics as entry requirements, transportation, money matters, housing, schools, and insurance. The guide's contents include the following sections: (1) an overview; (2) before leaving; (3) on arrival; (4)…

  8. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11087

  9. Health Education in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hashem, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the evolution of health education in Saudi Arabia. It outlines milestones in the development of the health education profession and traces the roles of various health sectors and their achievements in the health education field. Additionally, this review seeks to describe the status of health education professionals in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27606106

  10. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Karlin, Nancy J.; Weil, Joyce; Felmban, Wejdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes. PMID:28138483

  11. Saudi Arabia Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is the world's largest holder of crude oil proved reserves and was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013. In 2013, Saudi Arabia was the world's second-largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States and was the world's second-largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabia's economy remains heavily dependent on petroleum. Petroleum exports accounted for 85% of total Saudi export revenues in 2013, according to the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)'s Annual Statistical Bulletin 2014. With the largest oil projects nearing completion, Saudi Arabia is expanding its natural gas, refining, petrochemicals, and electric power industries. Saudi Arabia's oil and natural gas operations are dominated by Saudi Aramco, the national oil and gas company and the world's largest oil company in terms of production. Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources and the Supreme Council for Petroleum and Minerals have oversight of the oil and natural gas sector and Saudi Aramco.

  12. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H.A.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

  13. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Women's Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsuwaida, Nouf

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the historical, political, ideological (value), and government policies of women's education in Saudi Arabia implicated within teaching and learning, how women's higher education has changed over time in the realm of Saudi cultural traditions and religious norms. It also highlights the golden era of women's higher education.…

  16. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Cader, Akram; Anthony, Peter John

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the factors that affect motivation of faculty in Saudi Arabia. It included two surveys and open-ended queries to a focus group of five academic managers and 25 faculty members of varying nationalities, rank, and institutes in Saudi Arabia. The research showed that the faculties in Saudi Arabia's highest education industry…

  17. Optometric Education in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuaid, Robert D.; Kusztyk, George M.

    1990-01-01

    The first attempt at optometric education in the Middle East, a program developed at King Saud University (Saudi Arabia), is described. The university's second class of optometrists is being trained in the College of Applied Medical Sciences. Professional identity, limited faculty, and development of resources have been problems. (MSE)

  18. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-13

    Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background...high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring (continued...) Saudi Arabia ...Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20

  19. Organ Transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Faissal A M

    2016-07-01

    Organ transplantation started in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in 1979 with a kidney transplanted from a live donor. The Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation has been established in 1985 as a governmental agency that supervises all national transplant activities in the KSA. Organ transplantation in the KSA has made great strides since 1985. Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation is playing a central role in all aspects of transplantation including education on all levels, allocation, coordination and procurement. A new initiative has started an ambitious program in 2014 to improve the identification and reporting of organ donors aiming at an annual rate of 15 donors per million populations within 3 years in the KSA.

  20. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

  1. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 4 discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves...appropriated by the bill for assistance to Saudi Arabia , subject to national security waiver authority granted to the Secretary of State. This...21 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 22 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  2. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-16

    forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard... Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports

  3. Empty Quarter, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    In the northeast end of the Saudi Arabian desert called the Rub-Al-Khali (Empty Quarter) (21.0N, 53.0E) is the great sand dune field known as the Ash Shaiba. Here, the dunes reach great heights and are held at the maximum angle of repose by the wind. Any disturbance of the base will cause a great cascade of sand burying an intruder like a great wave. The dunes are of a classic style known as 'Barcans'.

  4. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  5. Wadi Al Dawasir, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-20

    In the middle of the Arabian desert the city Green Oasis Wadi Al Dawasir is being developed as a new urban center for the Wadi Al Dawasir region of Saudi Arabia, as shown in this image from NASA Terra spacecraft. Huge solar fields supply the entire city and the surrounding region with energy. Hundreds of circular agricultural fields are fed by center pivot irrigation apparatus, drawing water from subterranean aquifers. The image was acquired March 30, 2013, covers an area of 30 x 45 km, and is located at 20.2 degrees north, 44.8 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20077

  6. Wadi As-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-09

    Acquired by NASA Terra spacecraft on in 2011, this image shows the Wadi As-Sirhan Basin in northwest Saudi Arabia, which has been steadily developing agricultural fields using center pivot irrigation by tapping into fossil ground water.

  7. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almoallim, Hani M.; Alharbi, Laila A.

    2014-01-01

    The status of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Saudi Arabia (SA) was examined from various perspectives based on a systematic literature review and the authors’ personal experiences. In this regard, database and journal search were conducted to identify studies on RA in SA, yielding a total of 43 articles. Although efforts have been made to promote RA research in SA, current studies mostly represent only a few centers and may not accurately portray the national status of RA care. Notably, biological therapies were introduced early for almost all practicing rheumatologists in SA (government and private). However, no national guidelines regarding the management of RA have been developed based on local needs and regulations. Also, while efforts were made to establish RA data registries, they have not been successful. Taken together, this analysis can contribute to the planning of future guidelines and directives for RA care in SA. PMID:25491208

  9. Innovations in Industrial Training for Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    1980-01-01

    To develop a more diversified economic base in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs implemented the Development Plan for the Vocational Training and Manpower Division, which intends to train a large number of Saudis in employable trades. Methods include building modern training facilities, developing competency based learning…

  10. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations Congressional...production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP...U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) ........................................... 20 Saudi Arabian National Guard

  11. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s discovery in 1938 of substantial oil reserves in eastern Saudi Arabia and subsequent private and public... national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion, and an Enduring Rivalry, USIP, Special Report No. 157, January 2006, p...20 U.S. Military Training Mission in Saudi Arabia (USMTM) . . . . . . . . 21 Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization Program (PM

  12. [The weight of immigration in Saudi Arabia].

    PubMed

    De Klebnikoff, S

    1982-01-01

    The social, political, and economic implications of the immigrant presence in Saudi Arabia are explored. The author notes that about one-third of the population of the country is made up of working nonnationals. The tensions that exist are examined, with reference to the exclusion of the migrants from Saudi Arabian society and the extreme imbalance in the sex ratio caused by predominately male migration. The author suggests that dependence on migrant labor is likely to increase rather than decrease as Saudi nationals are oriented toward nontechnical studies and Saudi women are excluded from the labor force.

  13. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  14. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D

    1994-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  15. Epilepsy services in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alfayez, Saud M.; Aljafen, Bandar N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the epilepsy services and identify the challenges in hospitals without epilepsy monitoring units (EMUs). In addition, comparisons between governmental and private sectors, as well as between regions, are to be performed. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted using an online questionnaire distributed to the secondary and tertiary hospitals without EMUs throughout the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study was conducted from September 2013 to September 2015 and regular updates from all respondents were constantly made. Items in the questionnaire included the region of the institution, the number of pediatric and adult neurologists and neurosurgeons along with their subspecialties, the number of beds in the Neurology Department, whether they provide educational services and have epilepsy clinics and if they refer patients to an EMU or intend to establish one in the future. Results: Forty-three institutions throughout the Kingdom responded, representing a response rate of 54%. The majority of hospitals (58.1%) had no adult epileptologists. A complete lack of pediatric epileptologists was observed in 72.1% of hospitals. Around 39.5% were utilizing beds from internal medicine. Hospitals with an epilepsy clinic represented 34.9% across all regions and sectors. Hospitals with no intention of establishing an EMU represented 53.5%. Hospitals that did not refer their epileptic patients to an EMU represented 30.2%. Conclusions: Epilepsy services in KSA hospitals without EMUs are underdeveloped. PMID:27744461

  16. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-09

    Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi Arabia : Background and U.S. Relations...of the Iraqi need for maximum production at high prices to fund national reconstruction.” See Joseph McMillan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq: Oil , Religion... Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85% Area: 1,960,582 sq.km. (756,985

  17. Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.; Gregory, R.T.; Brown, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

  18. Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

    2008-01-01

    Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs…

  19. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  20. Research and Scientific Publishing in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Manzurul

    1989-01-01

    Discusses current trends in scientific research and the publication of research results in Saudi Arabia. Areas discussed include fields of research; marketing of scholarly publications; publication of books, scholarly journals, conference papers, monographs, and research reports; local and foreign publishers serving researchers; leading Saudi…

  1. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  2. Gulfnet in Saudi Arabia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khulaifi, M.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Gulfnet Academic network, set in the context of development in Saudi Arabia and the establishment of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Goals and objectives of KACST are presented, Gulfnet members in the Gulf States are listed, and Gulfnet management, services, and facilities are discussed. (JKP)

  3. English Language Teaching Profile: Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English in Saudi Arabia are examined, with attention directed to: (1) English within the education system; (2) teachers of English; (3) English outside the education system; (4) materials support; (5) British support for the teaching of English; and (6) English syllabi at intermediate, secondary, and higher education levels.…

  4. Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwehdi, M. H.

    2005-09-01

    A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency

  5. Demographic perspectives on Saudi Arabia's development.

    PubMed

    Looney, R E

    1985-06-01

    Demographic movements likely to be taking place in Saudi Arabia were hypothesized on the basis of general knowledge. The discussion reports on population size, general Arab demographic patterns, general determinants of fertility, Arab fertility patterns, Saudi fertility patterns, mortality in general, mortality in the Middle East, mortality in Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabian population growth, immigration, the changing composition of the work force, and third plan targets. Some doubt exists as to the size of Saudi Arabia's population, but there is little question that the total is growing rapidly. This expansion is taking place through stepped up immigration and a relatively high natural growth of indigenous Saudis, but statistics on population size, structure, and on the number of births and deaths leaves the magnitude of a number of important demographic trends in doubt. Yet, considerable evidence exists that several of the Arab countries in the region with fairly good demographic data are likely to have similar demographic patterns. In depth analysis of the demographic dynamics of these countries, particularly Jordan and Kuwait, identified several common elements bearing on several key parameters. Using what Saudi data is available and making comparisons with these neighboring countries, one can, based on expected levels of birth and death rates, indirectly infer the natural growth of Saudi Arabia's population. With several notable exceptions, Saudi Arabia's demographic patterns show a marked similarity to those experienced in the region as a whole. The average rate of population growth in both Saudi Arabia and the Arab region is about 3% a year and in both instances fertility rates are high. The demographic structure of these countries is characterized by the youthfulness of the population. In most of the Arab countries, the population aged 15 years or under accounts for over 48% of the population. The rate of the economically active population is low, ranging from

  6. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    Oil Company [CASOC, the forerunner of the Arabian American Oil Company ( Aramco , the forerunner of today’s Saudi Aramco )]. CASOC’s Saudi ...Assistance to Saudi Arabia , FY2002-FY2009 ....................................................... 15 Table 3. U.S. Oil Consumption and Imports...New York University Press, 2000. Saudi Arabia in Brief Population (2009): 28,686,633 (includes 5,576,076 non- nationals ) Growth rate: 1.85%

  7. Tumors of the eye in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Huaman, A; Cavender, J C

    1991-11-01

    The geographic incidence of tumors usually uncovers the influence that environment, race and culture exert upon the prevalence of cancer. Therefore this study of tumors of the eye is presented as a baseline for Saudi Arabia between the years 1982G and 1989G. The most common malignant tumors, in decreasing order of frequency, are retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva, basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, and malignant melanoma. The most common benign tumors, in the same order, are nevi, epithelial cysts, hemangiomas and dermoid cysts. There are, in Saudi Arabia, certain unique features for retinoblastoma, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Furthermore, these conditions have distinctive incidence rates when compared with cancer incidence in Western countries.

  8. NASA Remote Sensing Validation Data: Saudi Arabia

    DOE Data Explorer

    Myers, Daryl R. [NREL; Al-Abbadi, Naif [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Energy Research Institite; Wilcox, Steve [NREL

    Since 1995, the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have co-operated to establish a 12 station network of high quality solar radiation monitoring installations across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. NREL and KACST realized the value of accurate surface solar radiation flux measurements for validation of satellite derived surface and atmospheric solar radiation flux measurements, and is making this data available to support validation of satellite data products related to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth component of the Earth Science Enterprise Earth Observing System (EOS) project to evaluate long term climate trends based on measuements from EOS Terra Platforms. A CIMEL 8 channel sunphotometer for measuring aerosol optical depth at 6 wavelengths and total column water has been deployed at the Solar Village station since February 24, 1999. [Taken from http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/new_data/Saudi_Arabia/

  9. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  10. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Fawzia; El Hazmi, Malak M

    2010-01-01

    Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

  11. Saudi Arabia's experience in solar energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huraib, Fahad S.

    The progress in solar energy research in Saudi Arabia is discussed with emphasis on the efforts of a government research entity - King Adbulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Three programs currently underway at KACST are considered: the continuation of activities initiated under the Solar Energy Research American/Saudi (SOLERAS) program, a Saudi/German program, and projects developed and conducted completely by KACST. The objectives, management structure, and program organization of SOLEARS are outlined, and attention is focused on urban, rural/agricultural, and industrial applications as well as resource development activities and accomplishments. Solar-hydrogen projects pursued together with Germany are reviewed, and their objectives, program management, and technical plans are covered. Domestic programs dealing with photovoltaic-powered lightning and hot-water systems are summarized.

  12. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  13. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alquraini, Turki

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

  14. Saudi Arabia and Regional Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Islamic law. 24 OCCUPIED LANDS Historically, official Saudi policy has pushed for the recovery of occupied Arab territories and the liberation of Jerusalem ...will retain special interest in resolution of the status of Jerusalem (a Muslim holy city)--seeking return of east Jerusalem and the guarantee of freedom...19 Population ........................................ 22 Religious/Ethnic Problems ......................... 23 Occupied Lands ...... 0

  15. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-14

    Turki Al Faisal, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9...the Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over...killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http://www.saudiembassy.net

  16. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Turki, were entitled to foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9 (D.D.C...Palestinian Authority (PA), donations to charitable organizations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, and by means of direct assistance to over 35,000 needy...often referred to as martyrs. Nevertheless, the Saudi government does not condone the act of killing oneself and killing others by means of suicide

  17. Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-08

    foreign sovereign immunity for their official acts. [Burnett v. Al Baraka Inv. and Development Corp., 292 F.Supp.2d 9 (D.D.C. 2003)]12 Linde v. Arab...and by means of direct assistance to over 35,000 needy Palestinian individuals. In addition to financial assistance, the Al Quds Intifada Committee...oneself and killing others by means of suicide bombings, and Saudi religious leaders have condemned the taking of innocent lives.” See [http

  18. Strategies to address the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aboshaiqah, A

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nursing shortage in Saudi Arabia and specifically the shortage of Saudi nurses in the healthcare workforce and to propose solutions. Literature published from 1993 to 2013 providing relevant information on the nursing shortage, cultural traditions and beliefs, and nursing education and policies in Saudi was accessed from multiple sources including Medline, CINAHL Plus and Google Scholar and from official Saudi government document and was reviewed. Saudi Arabia depends largely on an expatriate workforce, and this applies to nursing. Saudi Arabia is experiencing a nursing shortage in common with most countries in the world and a shortage of Saudi nationals, especially women, in the healthcare workforce. The world shortage of nursing is extrinsic to Saudi, but intrinsic factors include a poor image of the nursing profession in the country that is exacerbated by cultural factors. With the call for the Saudization of the workforce to replace the imported workforce by Saudi nationals, including nurses, through the 1992 Royal Decree, Saudi Arabia faces a problem in attracting and retaining Saudi nationals in the nursing workforce. Solutions are suggested that are aimed at improving the public image of nursing through education and the use of the media and improvements in the workplace by addressing working processes such as teamwork, ensuring adequate staffing levels and addressing some aspects of culture which may make working in nursing more compatible with being a Saudi national. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. California and Saudi Arabia: geologic contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.G. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Assessing hydrocarbon futures in unexplored basins involves geology by analogy. Through 1978, approximately 265 fields were discovered in California containing 22 billion bbl of oil, 53% being in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 0.6 to 2.4 billion bbl. Through 1978, about 50 fields were found in Saudi Arabia containing 206 billion bbl of oil, 78% in the 10 largest fields, ranging in size from 7 to 83 billion bbl. The contrasts in field size distribution and in the total amount of oil present are explained by the dramatically different geology and geologic histories. California's surface geology is characterized by rare Precambrian, isolated Paleozoic, and widespread Mesozoic accreted terranes and intrusions, and by highly uplifted and depressed Tertiary sedimentary prisms bounded by widespread high-angle thrusting and strike-slip and normal faulting. Numerous families of medium to small anticlines and fault traps, commonly involving moderately dipping to overturned beds, have resulted from Tertiary tectonism, which segmented California dramatically. Saudi Arabia is characterized by a broad Precambrian shield area, flanked on the east by very long, gently dipping cuestas of Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments, with an upper thin veneer of nearly flat Tertiary strata. Most structures involving the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are large, but gentle and unfaulted, representing a passive reaction of the sediments to underlying mild basement distortion and/or movement of Cambrian salt, all occurring while the arabian plate continued to subside and tip to the northeast. The contrasts between California and Saudi Arabia oil field and geology result from contrasting plate-tectonic settings and history.

  20. Eastern Egypt, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-04-29

    STS031-79-015 (24-29 April 1990) --- The 330-plus nautical mile orbital altitude of the Space Shuttle Discovery allowed for this unique high oblique 70mm Hasselblad frame. Egypt is in the foreground, with the Nile River and Lake Nasser readily identifiable. Cairo and Alexandria are visible. The Mediterranean Sea is on the horizon in upper left. The Red Sea is in the center. Other areas seen include Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Palestine and Israel; the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez.

  1. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  2. Assessing Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed

    2014-08-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.

  3. Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-13

    Herb Keinon and David Horovitz, “Olmert: ‘Not one refugee can return’” Jerusalem Post, March 30, 2007. 44 David Blair, “Accept Peace Plan or Face War...5. 64 “Avoiding Political Talk, Saudis and Chinese Build Trade,” New York Times, April 23, 2006. sector. In 2001, Saudi Arabia signed three...billion.63 Saudi- Chinese Commercial Contacts. Saudi- Chinese commercial relationships continue to expand. Bilateral trade peaked at $15 billion in

  4. Managing dental caries in children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Ziad D

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes oral health among children in Saudi Arabia, the dental health system in the country, and some possible solutions and recommendations to improve the oral health status. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for

  6. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the

  7. The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah

    2014-08-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field.

  8. High School Graduates' Readiness for Tertiary Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr

    2017-01-01

    There has been a huge improvement in the education system in Saudi Arabia quantitatively and qualitatively. Nevertheless, many researchers indicated that high school graduates are not ready for higher education. Especially when considering mathematical compensations, high-demanded skills for tertiary academic programs, Saudi students have been…

  9. Measuring the Climate of Training in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)

  10. Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althubaiti, Alaa; Alkhazim, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128…

  11. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  12. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsharari, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions…

  13. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsharari, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions…

  14. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia, ruled by the Al Saud family since its founding in 1932, wields significant global influence through its administration...of the birthplace of the Islamic faith and by virtue of its large oil reserves. Close U.S.-Saudi official relations have survived a series of

  15. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  16. The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

  17. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bajammal, Sohail; Zaini, Rania; Abuznadah, Wesam; Al-Rukban, Mohammad; Aly, Syed Moyn; Boker, Abdulaziz; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Al-Omran, Mohammad; Al-Habib, Amro; Al-Sheikh, Mona; Al-Sultan, Mohammad; Fida, Nadia; Alzahrani, Khalid; Hamad, Bashir; Al Shehri, Mohammad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Al-Damegh, Saleh; Al-Nozha, Mansour M; Donnon, Tyrone

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written) which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate. PMID:19032779

  18. The nursing profession in Saudi Arabia: an overview.

    PubMed

    Almalki, M; FitzGerald, G; Clark, M

    2011-09-01

    The study aims to provide an overview of the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia, including its history, educational development, workforce and professional practice. Saudi Arabia is faced with a chronic shortage of Saudi nurses, accompanied by high rates of turnover. Expatriate nurses form a large proportion of the nursing workforce in Saudi healthcare facilities, with Saudis comprising only 29.1% of the total nursing workforce. Despite the fact that the proportion of Saudi nurses is very low in general, this rate is lower in the private health sector where local nurses comprise only 4.1% of the total. Data relating to the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia were extracted from published literature identified through search of a range of publically available databases such as Medline, CINAHL, Google Scholar, Saudi health databases, Saudi health journals, government reports and relevant texts. Obtained information was evaluated for relevance and grouped on a thematic basis. The status of nursing in Saudi Arabia should be enhanced in order to make it a worthwhile career. The media should engage in helping to promote a positive image of the nursing profession. The education sector should reconsider the length of nursing training (5 years compared with 3 years in many developed countries) while maintaining competent and safe practice. Reducing the financial burden on the nursing student through provision of additional financial support would encourage more students. In particular, nurses should be paid a full salary during the intern year as currently occurs with medical students. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. PMID:17136159

  20. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia

  1. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of δ18O and δD are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed δ18O and δD values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of δ-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory

  2. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  3. The respiratory care profession in Saudi Arabia: Past and present.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Hajed M; AlAhmari, Mohammed Dhafer

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory care (RC) profession in Saudi Arabia is over 40-year-old. Although there have been major advancements in the profession, no history and enough information are available about its development and evolvement at current. This paper describes the history and development of the field of RC and future prospects for the profession in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive review and assessment were conducted through direct contact, interviews, and a review of existing documents in the Medical Services Division of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Health, The Ministry of Civil Services, representative hospitals, academic institutions, and other relevant texts. The data obtained were evaluated for its relevance and grouped on a thematic basis. This is currently the first paper about the history and development of the RC profession in Saudi Arabia over the last 45 years.

  4. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11,069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007-2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  5. Patient's medicinal knowledge in Saudi Arabia: Are we doing well?

    PubMed

    Alshammari, Thamir M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education is one of the main factors of patient therapeutic plan and without it, the patient may not benefit from his/her medications. Several studies showed the effectiveness of educating patients about their disease(s) and their medication(s) which ultimately enhance their quality of life especially in chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Concept of patient education is well known and understood in the Western countries while in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia it is not well established despite some efforts made by few big hospitals. In Saudi Arabia, different stakeholders such as hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, healthcare professionals, health societies and association and governmental agencies do not do their job as patient education. Aim of this paper was to throw some light about the current situation in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). The entire country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in northwest Saudi Arabia. The sweep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulates around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under clouds top right.

  7. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). The entire country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in northwest Saudi Arabia. The sweep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulates around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under clouds top right.

  8. The respiratory care profession in Saudi Arabia: Past and present

    PubMed Central

    Al-Otaibi, Hajed M.; AlAhmari, Mohammed Dhafer

    2016-01-01

    The respiratory care (RC) profession in Saudi Arabia is over 40-year-old. Although there have been major advancements in the profession, no history and enough information are available about its development and evolvement at current. This paper describes the history and development of the field of RC and future prospects for the profession in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive review and assessment were conducted through direct contact, interviews, and a review of existing documents in the Medical Services Division of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Health, The Ministry of Civil Services, representative hospitals, academic institutions, and other relevant texts. The data obtained were evaluated for its relevance and grouped on a thematic basis. This is currently the first paper about the history and development of the RC profession in Saudi Arabia over the last 45 years. PMID:27803748

  9. New Faults Map Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2006-05-01

    The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.

  10. Health ATMs in Saudi Arabia: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aldosari, Bakheet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Health ATMs are terminals which are connected to a centrally located database storing patients’ electronic healthcare records (EHR). These machines are capable of collecting information in a far superior fashion than humans and are also able to rectify obsolete data in a manner that humans are generally not inclined to. Objectives: The main goal of this study is to assess the importance of adopting health ATMs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which can improve the confidence of patients, reward health self-management, and achieve positive health outcomes through their easy-to-use applications that are secure and accessible through various devices. Methods: Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis was used to assess the efficiency of adopting health ATMs in KSA and reveal the said characteristics. Three focus groups assembled in the cities of Riyadh, Jeddah and Dammam during the period 2013-2014. The groups consisted of individuals experienced in the function of health ATMs. Results: It was found that the sector possessed a number of strengths that would help it in reaching the goals outlined therein, thereby achieving successful outcomes. Conclusions: Health ATMs could be a promising new advancement in the field of health if the project were to be planned and implemented correctly. Their benefits would consequently reach organizational and national levels. It is, therefore, crucial to educate the project managers about the benefits of learning from others as well as educating them about the needs and the requirements of the concerned organization. PMID:28883680

  11. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Guthami, Faiz M. Al; Gethami, Ahmed F. M. Al; Allah, Fyrouz M. Abd; Saleh, Ashraf A.; Fouad, Ehab A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28344408

  12. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, epidemiology and patterns in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A; Al-Barrak, Ali M

    2002-05-01

    Annual incidence rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis have been increasing over the last few years in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. True rates may even be higher due to incomplete reporting. Diagnosis of this condition requires high clinical suspicion, special diagnostic procedures, special staining, and culture media for acid fast bacilli. Delayed diagnosis results in increasing morbidity, mortality, and cost to the health care system. Particularly in areas of high endemicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, clinicians should be aware of the various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The available epidemiology and patterns of various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are presented in this review.

  13. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, epidemiology and patterns in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A; Al-Barrak, Ali M

    2002-07-01

    Annual incidence rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis have been increasing over the last few years in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. True rates may even be higher due to incomplete reporting. Diagnosis of this condition requires high clinical suspicion, special diagnostic procedures, special staining, and culture media for acid fast bacilli. Delayed diagnosis results in increasing morbidity, mortality, and cost to the health care system. Particularly in areas of high endemicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, clinicians should be aware of the various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The available epidemiology and patterns of various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are presented in this review.

  14. Rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis (Cyprinidae) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hamidan, N; Aloufi, A

    2014-04-01

    This study documents the rediscovery of Acanthobrama hadiyahensis in Saudi Arabia and the first report since it was described in 1983. One female and one juvenile were collected from Qusaiba'a Dam, in the Al-Thamad area of Khaybar City. Threats facing this species are the same as those facing all other freshwater fishes in Arabia, mainly habitat loss and damming. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. A Survey of Technical and Skills Training in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    The most important task of development in Saudi Arabia is the cultivation of indigenous manpower to operate the equipment and run the factories. The Kingdom has recognized the importance of education and established a modern curriculum (elementary, junior, senior high) starting in the 1950s. Although there is some resistance to technical training…

  16. Faculty Perceptions of Transition Personnel Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhossan, Bandar A.; Trainor, Audrey A.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent faculty members include and value transition curricula in special education preparation programs in Saudi Arabia. A web-based survey was conducted and sent to special education professors across 20 universities. Descriptive statistics and a t-test analysis generated three main findings: (a) Institutions…

  17. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  18. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  19. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Intakhab Alam

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as…

  20. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ....ita.doc.gov/doctm/tmcal.html ) and other Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media... International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade... Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing an...

  1. Aetiology of Neonatal Septicaemia in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)

  2. University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

  3. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  4. Brucellosis control in Saudi Arabia: prospects and challenges.

    PubMed

    Memish, Z

    2001-04-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution. Despite its control in many developed countries the disease remains endemic in Saudi Arabia where the national seroprevalence of the disease is 15%. In Saudi Arabia the disease is introduced through uncontrolled importation of animals that are poorly screened for the disease. Every year the Kingdom imports a few million heads of sheep and goats for sacrifice during Hajj from Africa, India, and Autstralia. Brucella melitensis remains the principle cause of human brucellosis in Saudi Arabia, causing 88-93% of the cases. Recent national statistics indicate that the disease incidence in humans is close to 40 cases per 100,000. The eradication of human brucellosis in Saudi Arabia will ultimately depend on the eradication of animal brucellosis. There is an urgent need for a national program for controlling brucellosis in the Kingdom. The components of this program will include recruitment and training of qualified veterinarians, development of an adequate number of animal quarantine centers and implementing legislation to control marketing and movement of animals.

  5. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  6. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  7. iPad Acceptance by English Learners in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barry A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT; Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, & Davis, 2003) model to investigate factors predicting the acceptance of iPad tablets by learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) at a technical vocational college in Saudi Arabia. An online survey was conducted on 199 male learners,…

  8. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  9. Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-13

    Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

  10. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  11. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    Issues,” Al Ikhbariyah Satellite Channel in Arabic, Riyadh, (continued...) Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research...their occupied territories, including Al-Quds [ Jerusalem ]. The Crown Prince expressed the kingdom’s condemnation of all Israeli plans to build

  12. Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

    With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

  13. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  14. Education and the Satellite: Possibilities for Saudi Arabia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharhan, Jamal

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of developments in satellite communications and educational applications focuses on the possibilities of adapting satellite technology for instruction in developing countries. Topics include satellite use in Australia and the United States; and recommendations for the adoption of satellite technology in Saudi Arabia. (Author/LRW)

  15. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-151-220 (4-18 March 1994) --- Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of the northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). So many plots now exist that the face of Saudi Arabia as seen from low earth orbit has changed. Until a few years ago, there were only a few scattered center-pivots. Now the entire swath of country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in NW Saudi Arabia. Water from this higher country flows east towards the agricultural region where it is pumped up from underground aquifers. The weep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulate around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under cloud top right.

  16. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  17. Human Resource Development in Saudi Arabia: An International Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.

    Saudi Arabia has a modern nationwide school system that embraces institutions from kindergarten through the university level and encompasses special, adult, industrial, and commercial education. Education is not compulsory, and coeducation does not exist. Secondary vocational industrial schools have been established for young men who have…

  18. Pharmacy Curriculum and Health Care Needs in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sowaygh, Ibrahim A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Based on recognized health care needs, a curriculum revision was undertaken at the College of Pharmacy at Saudi Arabia's University of Riyadh. The revised curriculum included a unified basic health sciences core program for Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Medical Sciences. (Author/MLW)

  19. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. PMID:23966783

  20. Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baki, Roula

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of…

  1. Is Saudi Arabia a Nuclear Threat?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom through informal security agreements, but a deterioration in U.S.-Saudi relations...replace their aging missile force with a nuclear-tipped inventory. The United States has provided for the external security of the oil Kingdom...48 1. Construction of Saudi Armed Forces...................................................48 2. The 1973 Oil Embargo

  2. The demographic and clinical characteristics of leprosy in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammad H; Bahammam, Salman A; Ur Rahman, Saeed; Bahnassy, Ahmed A; Hassan, Imad S; Alothman, Adel F; Alkayal, Abdulkareem M

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Although the occurrence of leprosy has declined in Saudi Arabia, it has not yet been eradicated. To our knowledge, this descriptive retrospective study is the first to assess the clinical presentation of leprosy at the time of diagnosis in Saudi Arabia. All study subjects were leprosy patients admitted to Ibn Sina hospital, the only referral hospital for leprosy in Saudi Arabia, between January 2000 and May 2012. A total of 164 subjects, the majority of whom (65%) were between 21 and 50 years of age, were included, and the male-to-female ratio was 2.8:1. Of these 164 patients, 63% were Saudis, and 77% of all admitted patients were from the western region. Lepromatous leprosy was observed most frequently (33%), and 31% of cases had a positive history of close contact with leprosy. At the time of diagnosis, 84% of all subjects presented with skin manifestation. The prevalence of neurological deficit at the time of diagnosis was 87%. Erythema nodosum leprosum (E.N.L.) developed in only 10% of all subjects. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical characteristics pertaining to each type of leprosy in the region, and training courses in caring for and diagnosing patients with leprosy should be organized for health workers. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial autocorrelation of cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-12-16

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran's I and Anselin's local Moran's I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran's I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin's local Moran's I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin's disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin's disease (r² = 0.49-0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52-0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  4. C.N.S. tumors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, A W

    1992-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, there were no attempts previously to describe a population based frequency or incidence, particularly so the age adjusted incidence of various CNS tumors. This paper presents the primary CNS tumors from a population based tumor registry over two years period, from January 1987 till December 1988. There was a total of 85 cases representing 5.4% of the total captured cases (1,568 cases of malignant tumors at all sites). The population of the Eastern Province is estimated to be 1.37 million, the Saudis forming 80% of the total population. Out of the 85 cases captured over two years, there were 64 cases diagnosed in indigenous Saudi population forming 75%. The remaining occurred in non-Saudi residents. The male/female ratio in Saudis was 1:1.1 with a slight predominance of the female, while the reverse is true in the non-Saudis (2:1). The total captured cases per annum is 43, making the incidence of primary CNS neoplasms in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia 3.1/100,000 of all the population and 2.9/100,000 in Saudi nationals. Comparing this incidence to the international figure, it was clear that it is far less than the incidence reported from North America and Europe, particularly in the Caucasian population, but similar to incidences reported in the Chinese, black Americans, Romanians and Yugoslavians, but certainly less than the Ashkenazi or Safari Jews, and slightly higher than the incidence reported in Japan and Southeast Asia. Malignant brain tumors of various types dominated the primary CNS neoplasms reported over these two years forming 69% of the cases and 52% of the primary brain tumors.

  5. The obstacles facing scientific and medical publishing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsanea, Nasser; Al-Ghammas, Amal; Pangan-Menor, Jeruly; Tejano, Reina Vidad; Al-Bassam, Nada; Duero-Ebora, Jennifer; Vales, Janelle A

    2014-01-01

    Medical and scientific publishing in Saudi Arabia has flourished in the last ten years. Such a form of publishing faces its own obstacles and the experience of the Annals of Saudi Medicine if analyzed can delineate such obstacles. The aim of this study is to identify the workflow obstacles facing the Annals of Saudi Medicine. Root-cause analysis of the workflow process and output from submission till publication for the period January 2012-December 2013. Key performance indicators were developed and analyzed after being extracted from the online submission system. For the period of the study, 1058 manuscripts were received annually. These manuscripts originated in descending order from: Saudi Arabia 34%, Turkey 16%, India 12%, China 8% and Western Countries 3%. Categories of the submissions were: original articles 53%, case reports 31% and others 16%. Only 103 of the submissions were accepted annually for publication. Out of 7,709 requests to review a manuscript, only 1,579 (20%) resulted in a review. Out of a sample of 744 rated reviews, only 10% were poor in quality. The average turnaround time for review was 79 days. The main reason for the delay was the low response of the reviewers. The Annals of Saudi Medicine is a regional or continental journal with substantial submissions as case reports. This affected its Impact Factor and Hirsch Index. Moreover, the review process is delayed due to the poor response of the reviewers.

  6. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    PubMed

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended.

  7. The Failure of Jihad in Saudi Arabia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    high organizational capability of returnees from Afghanistan, and the weakness of the Saudi intelligence apparatus. That gap has since been closed...slowly and discreetly to build the organization that would become AQAP. While the attention of U.S. and Saudi intelligence was focused on al-Nashiri... intelligence agencies allegedly intercepted messages indicative of a fierce debate within al-Qa’ida over the wisdom of launching the May 2003

  8. Post occupancy evaluation of primary schools in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Omari, Sana; Woodcock, Andree

    2012-01-01

    The physical school environment has been shown to be important in helping children fulfill their academic potential and in providing appropriate working conditions for staff. However, few tools have been developed that enable multi stakeholder consultation which takes into account the opinions of young students. In Saudi Arabia there has been widespread investment in schools, but few guidelines have been provided to assist design or continuous evaluation. A Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) method was developed and used to evaluate three international primary schools in Saudi Arabia. The methods identified weaknesses in the three schools and differences in responses from the three groups consulted (children, teachers and parents). Conclusions drawn from the study are that greater efforts need to be made to draw together research about how school facilities can support teaching and learning, increase effectiveness and levels of satisfaction. POE, when used in conjunction with checklists could be used as a means of driving up standards of educational facilities.

  9. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the maximum-likelihood and thresholding statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock-types can be discriminated.

  10. Geological mapping in northwestern Saudi Arabia using LANDSAT multispectral techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.; Moik, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various computer enhancement and data extraction systems using LANDSAT data were assessed and used to complement a continuing geologic mapping program. Interactive digital classification techniques using both the parallel-piped and maximum-likelihood statistical approaches achieve very limited success in areas of highly dissected terrain. Computer enhanced imagery developed by color compositing stretched MSS ratio data was constructed for a test site in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Initial results indicate that several igneous and sedimentary rock types can be discriminated.

  11. Migration and its sociological impact in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Dabla, B

    1986-12-01

    Demographic developments in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait since World War II are reviewed using data from governmental, international, and other published sources. Following an overview of trends in population size and distribution, attention is focused on internal and international migration and the associated social, economic, and political implications. The concentration of immigrants in cities, migrants' occupations, acculturation, and the security concern arising from the volume of immigration flows are briefly discussed.

  12. Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-14

    and £30 million fine agreement struck between BAE and Britain’s Serious Fraud Office ( SFO ) in February 2010. British press reports have long alleged...countries also were subject to SFO scrutiny. 42 United States of America V. BAE Systems plc, United...www.guardian.co.uk/world/bae. . Saudi Arabia: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 23 The SFO dropped its original investigation into BAE

  13. The Implications of Unstable Yemen on Saudi Arabia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    The U.S. Army War College is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market ...Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education...complicated history. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest oil -exporting country with an excellent economy and a stable government. Its southern neighbor, Yemen

  14. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Desert Wadis and Smoke from Kuwait Oil Fires, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Smoke from the Kuwait Oil Fires obscures the view of the desert wadis, Saudi Arabia (29.5N, 42.5E). During the brief Gulf war between Iraq and the Allied forces, many of the oil wells in Kuwait were destroyed and set afire. For several months, those fires burned out of control, spewing smoke and ash for hundreds of miles in many directions depending on the altitude, time of year and the prevailing winds.

  17. The Dermatology workforce in Saudi Arabia: Current trends, challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saif ¹, Ghada A.; Al-haddab¹, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a snapshot of the dermatology work force in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We collected data on the supply and distribution of dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. We discussed the current status of dermatology manpower issues in Saudi Arabia. Results: We found that between 1987 and 2007, the availability of dermatologists to population in Saudi Arabia rose by 60 %, from 2.35 to 3.76 dermatologists per 100,000 Saudi Arabian individuals. However, the current workforce is already out of balance in several ways. We have an excess of non-Saudi citizen dermatologists and a barely adequate supply of Saudi dermatologists. The dermatologist population is unbalanced with regard to gender and uneven in terms of geographic distribution. Conclusions: The dermatology workforce does not match well with the nation’s health care goals. We should create a more successful and stable match between the talent supply and health care system requirements. PMID:21475556

  18. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Al Mahyijari, Nawal; Shaik, Shaik A

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used.  Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle  (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60.  University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance.

  19. Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaik, Shaffi A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones. Seventy-five percent used at least 4 applications per day, primarily for social networking and watching news. As a consequence of using the smartphones, at least 43% had decrease sleeping hours, and experienced a lack of energy the next day, 30% had a more unhealthy lifestyle (ate more fast food, gained weight, and exercised less), and 25% reported that their academic achievement been adversely affected. There are statistically significant positive relationships among the 4 study variables, consequences of smartphone use (negative lifestyle, poor academic achievement), number of hours per day spent using smartphones, years of study, and number of applications used, and the outcome variable score on the PUMP. The mean values of the PUMP scale were 60.8 with a median of 60. Conclusion: University students in Saudi Arabia are at risk of addiction to smartphones; a phenomenon that is associated with negative effects on sleep, levels of energy, eating habits, weight, exercise, and academic performance. PMID:27279515

  20. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M.S.

    2010-07-07

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9{+-}5 to 163{+-}32 Bqm{sup -3} and an average of 49{+-}2 Bqm{sup -3}. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm{sup -3} set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  1. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alyami, S. H.; Al-Ghamdi, S. S.; Baig, M. R.; Al-Garawi, M. S.

    2010-07-01

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  2. Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jastaniah, Wasil

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care. PMID:21623060

  3. New Seismicity Map for Central Part of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A. A.

    2007-05-01

    Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.

  4. Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

    1985-01-01

    Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

  5. Identifying Twitter influencer profiles for health promotion in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albalawi, Yousef; Sixsmith, Jane

    2015-10-29

    New media platforms, such as Twitter, provide the ideal opportunity to positively influence the health of large audiences. Saudi Arabia has one of the highest number of Twitter users of any country, some of whom are very influential in setting agendas and contributing to the dissemination of ideas. Those opinion leaders, both individuals and organizations, influential in the new media environment have the potential to raise awareness of health issues, advocate for health and potentially instigate change at a social level. To realize the potential of the new media platforms for public health, the function of opinion leaders is key. This study aims to identify and profile the most influential Twitter accounts in Saudi Arabia. Multiple measures, including: number of followers and four influence scores, were used to evaluate Twitter accounts. The data were then filtered and analysed using ratio and percentage calculations to identify the most influential users. In total, 99 Saudi Twitter accounts were classified, resulting in the identification of 25 religious men/women, 16 traditional media, 14 sports related, 10 new media, 6 political, 6 company and 4 health accounts. The methods used to identify the key influential Saudi accounts can be applied to inform profile development of Twitter users in other countries.

  6. Teachers' Role in the Development of EFL Curriculum in Saudi Arabia: The Marginalised Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnefaie, Sultan Klaib

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' participation in curriculum development is an area of research that has not been given adequate attention in the context of Saudi Arabia. This critical exploratory study investigated the issue of teachers' marginalisation in the curriculum development process with the aim of problematising power relations in Saudi Arabia's education…

  7. 75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the... section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive...

  8. 78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination and the accompanying Memorandum...

  9. 78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of...

  10. 75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline... . Natalia Susak, 202-482-4423, Natalia.Susak@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts:...

  11. National Culture-Management Practices: United States and Saudi Arabia Contrasted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashmi, Mahmud S.

    Successful conduct of business in Saudi Arabia requires attitudes and skills significantly different from those needed in the United States. Distinct societal differences can turn winning practices in one culture into failures in another. Despite Saudi Arabia's recent emergence as a wealthy marketplace, traditional values and a unique lifestyle…

  12. Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

  13. Perinatal Morbidity and Mortality in Offsprings of Diabetic Mothers in Qatif, Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…

  14. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects

  15. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR) and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR) in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations. PMID:24351742

  16. Regional variation in organ donation in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsiesy, H; Al Sebayel, M; Shoukri, M M; Hashim, A; Mohamed, H H; Mahmoud, T; Al Hamoudi, W; Al Bahili, H; Broering, D; Abaalkhail, F

    2014-01-01

    There is marked regional variation in organ donation among the different regions of Saudi Arabia. Our aim was to study the dominating factors for these variations to improve organ donation in low-donation areas. This study was a retrospective review of the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation data for cadaveric organ donation from 2006 to 2012, with the number of cases reported, documented, consented, and harvested in various regions (northern, southern, eastern, western, and central). The region, number, and size of contributing intensive care units (ICUs), overall donation rate, and transplanted rate (potential donor and those harvested, respectively) were also reviewed. Between 2006 and 2012, a total of 512 cases were procured and analyzed from Saudi Arabia. From the central region, 393 were acquired, representing 76.7% of the total consented cases. These 393 cases came from 30 of 97 contributing ICUs (31%). The eastern region was ranked second, followed by the western region. The conversion rate for all regions followed a similar trend. There is marked variation with regard to organ donation in different regions throughout Saudi Arabia, from 1.9% in the southern region to 76.7% in the central region. This finding is related to the presence of a Mobile Action Donor Team in the central region. The number of potential donors and the contributing ICUs were strong predictors of the number of actual donors. We suggest that having a mobile donor team in each region will increase the number of donors by at least 3 times within the next 3 to 5 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year.

  18. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

    2015-01-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score.

  19. Diet in Saudi Arabia: findings from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Afshin, Ashkan; Daoud, Farah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2017-04-01

    No recent original studies on the pattern of diet are available for Saudi Arabia at the national level. The present study was performed to describe the consumption of foods and beverages by Saudi adults. The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) was conducted in 2013. Data were collected through interviews and anthropometric measurements were done. A diet history questionnaire was used to determine the amount of consumption for eighteen food or beverage items in a typical week. The study was a household survey in all thirteen administrative regions of Saudi Arabia. Participants were 10 735 individuals aged 15 years or older. Mean daily consumption was 70·9 (se 1·3) g for fruits, 111·1 (se 2·0) g for vegetables, 11·6 (se 0·3) g for dark fish, 13·8 (se 0·3) g for other fish, 44·2 (se 0·7) g for red meat, 4·8 (se 0·2) g for processed meat, 10·9 (se 0·3) g for nuts, 219·4 (se 5·1) ml for milk and 115·5 (se 2·6) ml for sugar-sweetened beverages. Dietary guideline recommendations were met by only 5·2 % of individuals for fruits, 7·5 % for vegetables, 31·4 % for nuts and 44·7 % for fish. The consumption of processed foods and sugar-sweetened beverages was high in young adults. Only a small percentage of the Saudi population met the dietary recommendations. Programmes to improve dietary behaviours are urgently needed to reduce the current and future burden of disease. The promotion of healthy diets should target both the general population and specific high-risk groups. Regular assessments of dietary status are needed to monitor trends and inform interventions.

  20. Nutritional knowledge and desire to change of food preferences among Saudi women in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bakhotmah, Balkees Abed

    2012-01-01

    Effective nutritional education programs are based on a proper understanding of many factors, including a population's nutritional knowledge, behavior, food preferences, and a desire to change these preferences. Our study examined these variables through a convenience sample (N = 151) of adult Saudi women living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Results indicated a gap between perceived and actual knowledge (p < .05) and the desire to increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and reduce fat consumption. Taste was the main barrier for not to change. Future nutritional education programs should target women with low-education background, and the best time may be in primary school curricula.

  1. A study of health centers in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A A; al-Osimy, M

    1996-06-01

    Saudi Arabia is a developing country with a tremendous potential for growth and development. In an attempt to endorse Primary Health Care (PHC) concepts, it abolished all its former dispensaries and maternal and child health centers, and amalgamated their services into health centers that deliver PHC services. This expansion in centers development created a need for evaluation to assess the extent at which the new objectives are being achieved. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the resources available in three large health centers in Saudi Arabia, and determine consumers' satisfaction with the services provided. The study was conducted in the City of Riyadh. Three centers were chosen purposefully and the consumers of the respective centers were interviewed as to their satisfaction with the services provided. The results show that there was a discrepancy between the findings obtained from the centers' resources evaluation and those derived from the satisfaction portion. It is recommended that the Saudi Ministry of Health would upgrade its centers' resources, and that more studies would be conducted in the other centers of the country.

  2. Burnout among plastic surgery residents. National survey in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aldrees, Turki; Hassouneh, Basil; Alabdulkarim, Abdulaziz; Asad, Loujin; Alqaryan, Saleh; Aljohani, Emad; Alqahtani, Khalid

    2017-08-01

    To develop a more comprehensive explanation and understanding of the prevalence of and factors associated with burnout for residents of the Saudi Plastic Surgery Residency Program.  Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Data was gathered using a survey, which was distributed during April 2015, among all 57 plastic surgery residents enrolled in training programs across all regions of Saudi Arabia, 38 of whom responded (60% response rate). The dependent variable was professional burnout, which was measured by 3 subscales of the validated Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). High scores on emotional exhaustion (EE) or depersonalization (DP) or low scores on personal accomplishment (PA) were taken to be indicative of professional burnout. Variables evaluating possible predictors of burnout, such as sociodemographic and professional characteristics, were also included. Results: The validated rate of high burnout status was 18%. Nearly three quarters (71%) of residents scored high in emotional exhaustion, and half (50%) scored high in depersonalization. A third (34%) scored low in personal accomplishment. However, only 5% were dissatisfied with the plastic surgery specialty as a career, and 69% would choose the same specialty again. Workload was not found to play a significant role in the development of burnout (mean 70 hours per week).  Conclusion: Approximately half of plastic surgery trainees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have signs of professional burnout.

  3. The ecological context of child health in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Serenius, F; Hofvander, Y

    1988-01-01

    The general background to child health in Saudi Arabia is reviewed. Information is provided on the social and demographic characteristics of the population, on common health indicators, on the health care system and its utilization, and on the general pattern of childhood morbidity and mortality. The unprecendented socioeconomic development has transformed the health care system. In 15 years the number of nurses have increased from 3261 to 29896, physicians from 1172 to 14335, primary health care centers from 591 to 1821, and hospital beds from 9036 to 30707. In spite of this progress, the disease pattern seems to resemble that of some developing countries with more limited resources. Parasitic diseases are still widespread, and sample surveys have indicated suboptimal nutrition of rural preschool children. Recent estimates on the infant mortality rate have ranged from 65 to 120 per 1000 live births. The preferred marriage partner is a close relative, and genetic diseases, such as hemoglobin disorders, are common in certain areas. Thus, the prevalence of alpha thalassemia is reported at 50 percent, and the sickle cell trait at 4.4-20 percent in sample surveys from the Eastern Province. The modest educational attainment of the mother, the heavy reliance on foreign manpower in all sectors, including the health sector, and the further development of the primary health care system are key issues today. It is emphasized that demographic and epidemiological information from Saudi Arabia is scarce and frequently uncertain, and that further studies are needed to identify the health needs of Saudi children.

  4. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity.

  5. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity

  6. Learning and Teaching Vocabulary Acquisition: Analysing One Unit of a Textbook in the Saudi Arabia Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashrah, Hind Talal

    2013-01-01

    Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education is seeking for the best English language textbook to be taught in schools in order to develop the Saudi education in the future. To choose the most beneficial one, frameworks or tools were designed to analyze and to evaluate a unit of a textbook in Saudi Arabia based on standard criteria. These standard criteria…

  7. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alhowaish, Abdulkarim K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic

  8. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: Major Challenges and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz; Braham, Rim; Musallam, Maha Ali; Al Hayek, Ayman Abdullah; Al Kahtany, Nasser Hazza

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization has ranked Saudi Arabia as having the second highest rate of diabetes in the Middle East (7th highest in the world) with an estimated population of 7 million living with diabetes and more than 3 million with pre-diabetes. This presents a pressing public health problem. Several challenges in diabetes management need to be tackled in Saudi Arabia, including the growing prevalence (chiefly among children and young adults), micro-and macrovascular complications, lifestyle changes, late diagnosis, poor awareness and high treatment costs. Over the last two decades, the Saudi population saw an increase in the expenses in healthcare and treatment of diabetes by more than 500%. In 2014, the health care budget was 180 billion (Saudi Riyal) of which 17 billion was spent on all Saudis, with an approximate 25 billion on the entire Saudi diabetic population. This implies that the direct expense of diabetes is costing Saudi Arabia around 13.9% of the total health expenditure. Therefore, unless a comprehensive epidemic control program/ multidisciplinary approach is stringently enforced, the diabetes mellitus burden on Saudi Arabia will probably increase to very serious levels. It is crucial to implement improved health and health-related quality of life of to those with diabetes, thus minimizing the social and personal expenses for diabetes care in Saudi Arabia. In this study we discuss the significant and major threats posed by diabetes mellitus to the Saudi population and recommend essential possible solutions to delay/ prevent this formidable issue.

  9. The Fate of Saudi Arabia: Regime Evolution in the Saudi Monarchy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    they would be more apt to support him rather than seek his demise. Fourth, he formed external relationships that effectively let internal force decide...other authoritarian regimes to democratization. The relationship between the regime and the population is evolving and is facilitated by external and...time of the creation of Saudi Arabia, and some of these groups demand more effective government. Several earlier attempts at liberal reforms failed to

  10. Aborting a Malformed Fetus: A Debatable Issue in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; AlFaleh, Khalid M.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  11. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance.

  12. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A vision of the future.

    PubMed

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Asiri, Yousef; Albogami, Yaser; Spratto, George; Alshehri, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pharmacy education in developing countries faces many challenges. An assessment of the challenges and opportunities for the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia has not been conducted. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to ascertain the views and opinions of pharmacy education stakeholders regarding the current issues challenging pharmacy education, and to discuss the future of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 48 participants attended a one-day meeting in October 2011, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into six round-table discussion sessions with eight persons in each group. Six major themes were explored in these sessions, including the need to improve pharmacy education, program educational outcomes, adoption of an integrated curriculum, the use of advanced teaching methodologies, the need to review assessment methods, and challenges and opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results: Participants agreed that pharmacy education in the country needs improvement. Participants agreed on the need for clear, measureable, and national educational outcomes for pharmacy programs in the Kingdom. Participants raised the importance of collaboration between faculty members and departments to design and implement an integrated curriculum. They also emphasized the use of new teaching methodologies focusing on student self-learning and active learning. Assessments were discussed with a focus on the use of new tools, confidentiality of examinations, and providing feedback to students. Several points were raised regarding the opportunities to improve pharmacy experiential training, including the need for more experiential sites and qualified preceptors, addressing variations in training quality between experiential sites, the need for

  13. The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Ameera; Barriball, Louise; While, Alison

    2013-09-01

    The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

  14. Isotopic composition of bottled water in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Basheer, Watheq; Al-Jalal, AbdulAziz; Gasmi, Khaled

    2017-09-15

    The (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/(1)H ratios of 18 water brands representing the most popular bottled water brands in the Saudi market were measured using a system based on the latest advancements in tunable off-axis integrated cavity output diode laser spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) in the near-infrared spectral region. Utilizing δ(18)O and the δ(2)H values of locally produced water samples, a meteoric water line (δ(2)H = 7.84 δ(18)O + 2.11) was extracted and found to be consistent with the slope of the global meteoric water line (GMWL) and the geographic location of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Strategic directions for university hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards.

  16. Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ± 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites.

  17. [Indonesians in Saudi Arabia for worship and work].

    PubMed

    Husson, L

    1997-01-01

    "This article is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian immigration in Saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 20th century, and to describe the evolution over time of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work.... This paper considers the methods of hiring labour, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad...." (EXCERPT)

  18. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi…

  19. Diabetes Mellitus in Saudi Arabia: A Review of the Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Al Dawish, Mohamed Abdulaziz; Robert, Asirvatham Alwin; Braham, Rim; Al Hayek, Ayman Abdallah; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed; Al Sabaan, Fahad Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that Saudi Arabia ranks the second highest in the Middle East, and is seventh in the world for the rate of diabetes. It is estimated that around 7 million of the population are diabetic and almost around 3 million have pre-diabetes. Even more worrying perhaps, is the increasing pattern of diabetes noted in Saudi Arabia in the recent past. In fact, diabetes has approximately registered a ten-fold increase in the past three eras in Saudi Arabia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been found to be related to high mortality, morbidity and vascular complications, accompanied by poor general health and lower quality of life. In Saudi Arabia, DM is quickly reaching disturbing proportions and becoming a significant cause of medical complications and even death. However, when compared with the developed countries, the research work conducted, focusing particularly on the incidence, prevalence and socio-demographic properties of DM is woefully inadequate. The health burden due to DM in Saudi Arabia is predicted to rise to catastrophic levels, unless a wide-ranging epidemic control program is incorporated, with great emphasis laid on advocating a healthy diet, including exercise and active lifestyles, and weight control. To properly manage the DM in Saudi Arabia, a multidisciplinary approach is required. In this review we discuss all the aspects of DM in Saudi Arabia drawing from the published literature currently available.

  20. Incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Assiri, A A; Yousuf, B I; Quantock, A J; Murphy, P J

    2005-11-01

    To assess the incidence and associated signs and symptoms of patients with keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia. 125 new keratoconus patients (51 male, 74 female; mean age 18.5 (SD 3.8) years; range 8--28 years) were recruited from referrals to the department of ophthalmology, Asir Central Hospital, over a 1 year period. Age, visual acuity, and keratometry were recorded along with clinical signs and symptoms. The incidence of keratoconus in Asir Province is 20 cases per 100,000 population. Also, the disease severity is high, as indicated by an early mean age (17.7 (3.6) years) with advanced stage keratoconus. Visual acuity, with either spectacles or rigid contact lenses, was 6/12 or better in 98% of eyes measured. Just over half (56%) of patients had atopic ocular disease. 16% of patients had a positive family history of the disease and 16% had atopic dermatitis (eczema and/or vitiligo). The incidence and severity of keratoconus in Asir Province, Saudi Arabia, is high with an early onset and more rapid progress to the severe disease stage at a young age. This might reflect the influence of genetic and/or environmental factor(s) in the aetiology of keratoconus.

  1. Timing of uplift peripheral to the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; Zimmermann, R.A.; Bohannon, R.G.; Schmidt, D.L.; ,

    1990-01-01

    A Prominent escarpment is found along the western margin of the Arabian Shield. Elevations along this escarpment are up to 3200 m above the Red Sea. Between the Red Sea and the crest of the escarpment is a relatively featureless coastal plane that is ??? 50 km across. The coastal plane abruptly gives way to the steep mountainous terrain, the elevation of which increases abruptly towards the high crest. The elevation slowly decreases to the east of the high crest. Forty-four apatite fission-track ages have been determined on rocks from the Proterozoic Arabian Shield in southwestern Saudi Arabia. These ages range from 13.8 to 568 Ma. In general, the youngest ages are found at low elevations along the base of the escarpment near the eastern edge of the coastal plane. The oldest ages are from along and to the east of the crest. The fission-track data from Saudi Arabia show that there was a period of minor uplift and cooling during the Cretaceous. This was followed by a relatively stable period which lasted until the Mid to Upper Miocene. The latest uplift and erosion began slightly younger than 13.8 Ma. This latest episode resulted in a minimum uplift of 3 km and is related to the Red Sea Rift. Samples totally annealed prior to this latest episode of uplift and cooling have not yet reached the surface.

  2. Predictors of smoking among male college students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S

    2013-11-01

    Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia.

  3. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Amer, M.H.; El-Yazigi, A.; Hannan, M.A.; Mohamed, M.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Between January 1980 and December 1982, 183 patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the esophagus who were referred to a tertiary referral hospital were studied. Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area. A case-control study showed a significant regional difference within Saudi Arabia and the most referrals from Gassim area. A prospective case-control study showed persistently high numbers of referrals from that region during 1983-1987. When patients from Gassim Region were compared with those referred from other locations, no statistical differences were noted between the two groups except for the source of drinking water. Water analysis from Gassim area showed a high solid content with elevated levels of calcium, magnesium, and to a lesser extent, chromium iron, cadmium, and cobalt. Traces of petroleum oil were found in five of six water samples from Gassim during 1983, compared with 3 of 49 samples from other areas. Mutagenicity tests on water specimens form Gassim Region indicated the presence of possible carcinogens. It is being suggested that the high prevalence of esophageal cancer in this region may be related to contamination of water by impurities such as petroleum oils. Malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, as well as other factors may have promoted such malignancies.

  4. Biodiversity characteristics of Teucrium polium species in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M

    2015-03-01

    Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world.

  5. Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-04-01

    Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials.

  6. Conflict and professionalism: perceptions among nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Zakari, N M; Al Khamis, N I; Hamadi, H Y

    2010-09-01

    To examine the relationship between nurses' perceptions of conflict and professionalism. In Saudi Arabia, health-care sectors are constantly undergoing major changes because of social, consumer-related, governmental, technological and economic pressures. These changes will influence the nature of health-care organizations, such as hospitals' work environment. The ability of nurses to practise in a professional manner may be influenced by their work environment and conflict level. A cross-sectional design was conducted in this study. A simple random selection of three health-care sectors in Saudi Arabia was performed and 346 nurse managers, as well as bedside nurses participated to provide information about conflict levels and professionalism. The Perceived Conflict Scale was used to assess the level of conflict, and the Valiga Concept of Nursing Scale was used to assess the professionalism perception among nurses. The intragroup/other department type of conflict had a statistically significant correlation with the perception of professionalism. In addition, the findings point to a low perception among the participating nurses regarding their professionalism. A number of factors might explain the low level of perception of professionalism. These relate to the workplace itself, as well as to the personal background of the nurses, which includes the personal interest in the nursing profession, as well as the family's, society's and the consumers' views of the profession. Given the findings of this study, nurse managers are encouraged to create a work environment that supports professionalism and minimizes conflict.

  7. Saudi Arabia Today. A Teaching Program on the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: (1) Grades 1-3, Our Visit to Saudi Arabia; (2) Grades 4-6, A Modern Kingdom; (3) Junior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; (4) Senior High School, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Enrichment, Inc., Williamsburg, VA.

    This package includes materials for students and accompanying teaching guides and posters for teaching about life in contemporary Saudi Arabia for grades 1-8. The student folder for grades 1-3 presents information about the Middle Eastern nation in the form of a boy's letter to a friend back home. In the letter are descriptions of the cities of…

  8. Undergraduate teaching of forensic medicine in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M

    2016-07-01

    Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abanmy, Norah

    2017-09-01

    Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26-40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  10. Assessment of maternal knowledge about infantile colic in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Hassan; Al-Mogheer, Bader H; Al-Sawyan, Talal H; Abualalaa, Abdulaziz Badr; Jarrah, Omar Ahmed; Jabari, Mosleh; Al-Faris, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The infantile colic is a difficult experience met by parents in the first few months of an infant’s life. This may lead to increased discomfort for infants as well as psychological distress for mothers. This study aimed at assessing the baseline knowledge of mothers in Saudi Arabia about infantile colic mainly in regard to the etiology and management. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was distributed among mothers in six primary healthcare centers (PHCC) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during their visit for immunization clinics in 2016. The questionnaire consisted of two domains for determining the sociodemography characteristics and the maternal knowledge of participants about infantile colic. SPSS version 20 and chi-square test were used for data analysis. Results A total of 230 mothers completed the survey questionnaire. Of these, 208 participants were Saudis. The majority of the participants were in the age group of 18–29 years (42.6%). The average age of the infants in this study was found to be 5.75±4.26 months. Eighty percent replied that they did not have any previous knowledge of infantile colic; 42.6% mothers believed that the causes of infantile colic were unclear and might involve several factors; 36% of the participants perceived milk allergy as the attributing cause for infantile colic. The source of knowledge about infantile colic was mainly through experiences of dealing with previous siblings who have the same issue (34.4%); 27.4% of mothers prefer the use of herbal medicines to treat this condition. Conclusions It is recommended that health education needs to be provided to mothers at outpatient clinics during their antenatal hospital visits. This reduces the discomfort of infant and distress in mothers. PMID:28163842

  11. Magnetically inferred basement structure in central Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, P.R.; Stewart, I.C.F.

    1995-01-01

    A compilation of magnetic data acquired during the past three decades for a region in central Saudi Arabia where Precambrian basement is partly exposed on the Arabian shield and partly concealed by overlying Phanerozoic strata, shows a central sector of conspicuous N-S-trending anomalies, a heterogeneous western sector of short-wavelength, high-intensity anomalies, and an eastern sector of low- to moderate-intensity broad-wavelength anomalies. Anomalies in the western and central sectors correlate with Neoproterozoic metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks of the Arabian shield and are interpreted as delineating extensions of shield-type rocks down-dip beneath Phanerozoic cover. These rocks constitute terranes making up part of a Neoproterozoic orogenic belt that underlies Northeast Africa and western Arabia and it is proposed that their magnetically indicated easternmost extent marks the concealed eastern edge of the orogenic belt in central Arabia. The flat magnetic signature of the eastern sector, not entirely accounted for as an effect of deep burial, may reflect the presence of a crustal block different in character to the terranes of the orogenic belt and, speculatively, may outline a continental block that, according to some tectonic models of the region, collided with the Neoproterozoic terranes and thereby caused their deformation and tectonic accretion.

  12. Prevalence and genotyping ofToxoplasma gondii among Saudi pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Jawahir; Elamin, Maha Hussein; Alhabib, Samia

    2016-11-01

    Introduction: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan that can infect all mammals, who serve as intermediate host. It causes congenital, neurological, eyes complications and mild or asymptomatic infections in humans. Purpose of this study: To investigate not only the prevalence of T. gondii, but also to find out its genotyping using multiple sequential molecular methods to predict exactly the precise genotyping of T. gondii among Saudi pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using multi-stage methods. Initial stage involved enrolment of 250 Saudi pregnant women from multi-centre healthcare and community based settings in the capital of Saudi Arabia Riyadh. The second stage was embracement of the laboratory investigation that included Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), DNA extraction, PCR, nested-PCR assay, and genotyping of the seropositive cases. Results: 203 women agreed to take part in our study with a response rate of 81.2% (203/250). Using ELISA, we found that the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 32.5% and 6.4%, respectively. We found that 29 samples (80.6%) were of genotype II; however 7 samples (19.4%) were of genotype III. Conclusion: Defining the population structure of T. gondii from Saudi Arabia has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity, pathogenesis, and in planning preventive strategies. Relationship between such variation in structure and disease manifestation in pregnant women is still difficult to assess due to the role of host immune status and genetic background on the control of infection, and of other parasitic features such as the infecting dose or parasite stage. Our finding of the genotyping of T. gondii might facilitate and inform future studies on comparative genomics and identification of genes that control important biological phenotypes including pathogenesis and transmission among Saudi women.

  13. Profile of benign breast diseases in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Albasri, Abdulkader M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the histopathological patterns of benign breast diseases (BBD) among Saudi patients. Methods: This is a retrospective review of BBD reports of Saudi patients of both genders and all age groups seen between January 2006 and December 2013 at King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of the total 1005 breast biopsies, 603 cases (60%) were BBD. The female to male ratio was 30.7:1. The overall mean age for BBD was 27.5 years, with an age range of 14-80 years. The most common lesion was fibroadenoma (FA) accounting for 44.3% of cases (mean age: 23.5 years), followed by 23.4% fibrocystic change (FCC) (mean age: 37.1 years). Both lesions had a peak occurrence in the third decade. Inflammatory lesions constituted 13.9% of cases. Most common were granulomatous mastitis (3.5%), chronic mastitis (3.3%), and acute mastitis with abscess (3.1%). Other major lesions encountered were fibroadenomatoid hyperplasia (3.1%), intraductal papilloma (2.8%), and benign phylloides tumor (2.6%). All benign diagnoses in male patients were gynecomastia and most patients (68.4%) were under 40 years. Conclusion: In this study, BBD constituted 60% of breast lumps, and were mostly FA and FCC. The BBD peaked at the 20-29 year age range. PMID:25491220

  14. Obesity and Associated Factors — Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980

  15. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  16. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... in the safety and security industries, including Information Communications Technology (ICT..., skills and resources from the United States to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the areas of critical... communication systems, electronic detection equipment, cyber intrusion detection and prevention, perimeter...

  17. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  18. The Challenges Faced by New Science Teachers in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsharari, Salman

    Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional

  19. Reprioritizing current research trends in medical education: a reflection on research activities in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Akef S; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous national efforts to determine and develop research priorities of medical education in Saudi Arabia. These priorities were first proposed in 2010 by "Dr Al-Khuli's Chair for Developing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia". The proposed priority domains were: curriculum, students, faculty, and quality assurance and accreditation. To investigate publications in medical education at the national and international levels in areas relating to these proposed priorities. Electronic search within PubMed database for papers relating to each domain of priority was conducted at national and international levels in the last three years, using the same keywords as the priority domains, but only confined to undergraduate medical education. Out of 3145 articles retrieved when searching with keyword as broad as "undergraduate medical curriculum" only 81 articles worldwide and 3 articles from Saudi Arabia were dealing with curriculum related issues as a whole. Further search on the sub-domains "effective strategies to manage undergraduate curriculum" and "undergraduate medical education models", resulted in the retrieval of few articles worldwide and none from Saudi Arabia. At the national level, there were 63 publications from Saudi Arabia that were either course (topic)-specific or could not be classified under the four domains specified by Dr Al-Khuli's Chair. Research activities in medical education in Saudi Arabia in the last 3 years showed diversity and lack of focus in the research priorities. Efforts of academic and research centers should continue to monitor and encourage these activities toward achieving the recommended priorities.

  20. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ≥24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ≥16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ≥19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of

  1. Prevalence and distribution of selected dental anomalies among saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dental anomalies are not an unusual finding in routine dental examination. The effect of dental anomalies can lead to functional, esthetic and occlusal problems. The Purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of selected developmental dental anomalies in Saudi children. Material and Methods The study was based on clinical examination and Panoramic radiographs of children who visited the Pediatric dentistry clinics at King Khalid University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia. These patients were examined for dental anomalies in size, shape, number, structure and position. Data collected were entered and analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version. Results Of the 1252 children (638 Boys, 614 girls) examined, 318 subjects (25.39%) presented with selected dental anomalies. The distribution by gender was 175 boys (27.42%) and 143 girls (23.28%). On intergroup comparison, number anomalies was the most common anomaly with Hypodontia (9.7%) being the most common anomaly in Saudi children, followed by hyperdontia (3.5%). The Prevalence of size anomalies were Microdontia (2.6%) and Macrodontia (1.8%). The prevalence of Shape anomalies were Talon cusp (1.4%), Taurodontism (1.4%), Fusion (0.8%).The prevalence of Positional anomalies were Ectopic eruption (2.3%) and Rotation (0.4%). The prevalence of structural anomalies were Amelogenesis imperfecta (0.3%) Dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.1%). Conclusions A significant number of children had dental anomaly with Hypodontia being the most common anomaly and Dentinogenesis imperfecta being the rare anomaly in the study. Early detection and management of these anomalies can avoid potential orthodontic and esthetic problems in a child. Key words:Dental anomalies, children, Saudi Arabia. PMID:27957258

  2. Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, M. A.; Nimmo, B. G.

    Spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26° 23', Long. 50° 00'), using broad-band niter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and R08) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrhcliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angström Coefficient of Turbidity, β, were obtained for the wavelength exponent, α = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain α and β values for each month. The 12-month average values of β and α were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively.

  3. Casualty management: scud missile attack, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J C

    1999-05-01

    On the evening of February 25, 1991, an Iraqi scud missile plunged into a "barracks/warehouse" used to house U.S. Army soldiers assigned to the 475th Quartermaster Group in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. As a consequence of this scud attack, 28 soldiers died, 110 were hospitalized, and 150 experienced minor physical injuries and/or subsequent mental health problems. This one scud's impact accounted for more than one-third of all U.S. soldiers killed during the war. Fortunately, there were very few "models" of mass casualty experiences during the Persian Gulf War to evaluate the critical clinical outcomes to the soldiers. An analysis of this event has important implications for future military operations that feature a multinational medical force structure. This article summarizes the medical preparations before the war, the key, chronological events, and the medical outcomes of the mass casualty event. Lessons learned in casualty management for future Army contingency medical planners are identified.

  4. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  5. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  6. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A preliminary survey of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive was performed in Al-Jouf region, north Saudi Arabia. Olive is a newly introduced crop in this region, and is cultivated in the agricultural enterprises of some of the biggest Saudi agricultural companies. Seedlings are mostly im...

  7. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Mashael K; Filippidis, Filippos T; Baldove, Juren P; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women.

  8. Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangura, Abdul Karim

    2004-01-01

    The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

  9. Where English, Neoliberalism, Desire and Internationalization Are Alive and Kicking: Higher Education in Saudi Arabia Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Phan Le; Barnawi, Osman Z.

    2015-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education globally continues to grow more and more towards commercialization and neoliberalism paths, despite growing concerns about the underlying consequences. Building further on our work and using Saudi Arabia as a national case, this article critically investigates how and in what ways the Saudi government's…

  10. Special Education in Saudi Arabia: A Synthesis of Literature Written in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.

    2015-01-01

    Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…

  11. Women in Saudi Arabia and the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Filippidis, Filippos T.; Baldove, Juren P.; Majeed, Azeem; Rawaf, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Saudi Arabia. Saudi women in particular are more susceptible as there are sociocultural restrictions on female physical activities that may lead to high prevalence of CVD risks, especially obesity, and physical inactivity. This study aims to systematically review the published articles related to the prevalence of CVD risk among women in Saudi Arabia. The search strategy covers all published articles that assess the risk factor of CVD in Saudi Arabia from January 2000 to December 2015, using the following sources: Medline, Embase, and PsycINFO. A total of 61 studies were included. Results. Prevalence among Saudi women of smoking ranged from 1.1% to 9.1%, hypertension was 21.8%, diabetes ranged from 9.6% to 27.6%, overweight was 27%, and obesity was 40.23%, and physical inactivity ranged from 53.2% to 98.1%. Hypercholesterolemia prevalence on Saudi women on average was 24.5%, while metabolic syndrome ranged from 13.6% to 40.3%. Conclusion. The prevalence of CVD risk factors is high among women in Saudi Arabia especially in obesity and physical inactivity. Public health authorities must implement solutions from a gender specific aspect to reverse the trend and decrease the prevalence of CVDs among Saudi women. PMID:27777590

  12. Surveillance for foodborne illness outbreaks in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, 2006.

    PubMed

    Al-Goblan, Abdullah Saleh; Jahan, Saulat

    2010-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of foodborne illness, and to identify the specific foods and causative organisms responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks in Qassim, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2006. The study is a descriptive analysis of the surveillance data for foodborne illness outbreaks, collected by the Preventive Medicine Department, Primary Health Care Administration, Qassim province. We analyzed the foodborne illness surveillance data for the year 2006, using SPSS-11 statistical package. The distribution of foodborne illnesses was examined in relation to age, sex, nationality, and month of occurrence. In addition, types of food, place of food preparation, and pathogenic agent responsible for the outbreaks were also analyzed. During the year 2006, 31 foodborne illness outbreaks, accounting for 251 cases, were reported. The highest proportion (64.5%) of outbreaks was reported during summer months of June to August. Men constituted 66.9% of the cases, and 68.1% were adults. Salmonella species was the commonest causative agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. The majority (68.9%) of the cases got sick after consuming commercially prepared foods. Meat intake caused 67.7% cases, and Middle Eastern meat sandwich was a commonly implicated food. Our study concludes that foodborne illness is an important public health problem in Qassim province. A comprehensive approach is required to assure food safety in commercial food establishments. Health education of the community, food handlers, and food industry workers regarding food and personal hygiene will reduce the incidence of foodborne illnesses in Qassim and Saudi Arabia.

  13. Rayleigh-Wave Group-Velocity Tomography of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, P. Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2017-04-01

    We use surface-wave tomography to investigate the lithospheric structure of the Arabian plate, which is traditionally divided into the Arabian shield in the west and the Arabian platform in the east. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks. The Arabian platform is primarily covered by very thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments. We develop high-resolution tomographic images from fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocities across Saudi Arabia, utilizing the teleseismic data recorded by the permanent Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN). Our study extends previous efforts on surface wave work by increasing ray path density and improving spatial resolution. Good quality dispersion measurements for roughly 3000 Rayleigh-wave paths have been obtained and utilized for the group-velocity tomography. We have applied the Fast Marching Surface Tomography (FMST) scheme of Rawlinson (2005) to obtain Rayleigh-wave group-velocity images for periods from 8 s to 40 s on a 0.8° 0.8° grid and at resolutions approaching 2.5° based on the checkerboard tests. Our results indicate that short-period group-velocity maps (8-15 s) correlate well with surface geology, with slow velocities delineating the main sedimentary features including the Arabian platform, the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. For longer periods (20-40 s), the velocity contrast is due to the differences in crustal thickness and subduction/collision zones. The lower velocities are sensitive to the thicker continental crust beneath the eastern Arabia and the subduction/collision zones between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, while the higher velocities in the west infer mantle velocity.

  14. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 μg/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 μg/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 μg/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 μg/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  15. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns’ views and perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Background Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. Subjects and methods A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. Conclusion It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:28203115

  16. Medical internship training in Saudi Arabia: interns' views and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Swaid, Ali I; Elhilu, Abdelkhalig H; Mahfouz, Mohamed S

    2017-01-01

    Internship training offers an important opportunity for personal development and career planning. However, there are many factors affecting the efficiency of training, and the views of interns are rarely considered. The main objective of this study was to explore the views of interns enrolled in Jazan University internship program during the year 2015. A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the academic year 2015. To achieve the study goals, an online questionnaire was distributed to all interns (n=85) enrolled in the Jazan University internship program. Results revealed that satisfaction with training was more evident in general surgery and pediatrics (76.1%, n=54 and 77.5%, n=55, respectively). Satisfaction was lowest for obstetrics and gynecology programs (45.1%, n=32), while in internal medicine it was 54.9% (n=39). Training in general surgery and pediatrics was rated as excellent by most of the interns (45.8% and 43.1%, respectively). The picture is reversed in obstetrics and gynecology, as 43.1% rated it as average. More than half of the study sample felt that they were well prepared to start the next step in their career at the end of internship (50.7%), while 25.4% felt that they were moderately prepared. It is clear that training quality in views of interns is variable across the major specialties, and there are some problems in obstetrics and gynecology training. More studies are needed to explore in-depth dimensions of internship training program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Nationwide community survey of tuberculosis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Kassimi, F A; Abdullah, A K; al-Hajjaj, M S; al-Orainey, I O; Bamgboye, E A; Chowdhury, M N

    1993-08-01

    In the first nationwide community-based survey of the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia, 7721 subjects were screened in the 5 provinces (using an equal proportional allocation formula) for 2 parameters: (1) prevalence of positive Mantoux test in non BCG vaccinated subjects; (2) prevalence of bacillary cases on sputum culture. The prevalence of positive Mantoux reaction in children aged 5-14 years was 6% +/- 1.8; higher in urban areas (10%), and lower in rural areas (2%), thus classifying Saudi Arabia among the middle prevalence countries. These relatively good results (by Third World standards) could reflect the rise of the standard of living and wide availability of free treatment for active cases with a lowered risk of infection in the community. This view is supported by the fact that in our survey, only one subject grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum. However, there were foci of high prevalence of Mantoux reaction in the urban communities in the Western province (20% +/- 8.7 urban; 1% +/- 1.9 rural). The problem may be caused by the fact that the province receives every year over a million pilgrims, some of whom are known to settle illegally and escape the usual screening for tuberculosis imposed on foreign labourers. In conclusion, even in the absence of an enforceable national programme for the eradication of tuberculosis, the economic standard and wide availability of free treatment for active cases has resulted in relatively low rates of prevalence of tuberculin sensitivity in children. The foci of high prevalence in the Western Province require special screening arrangements.

  18. Aerosols physical properties at Hada Al Sham, western Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.

    2016-06-01

    This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.

  19. Implementing TQM in a military hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, E J; Abdul al-Hamid Noor, F; Ghasib, S H

    1994-08-01

    Health care services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are unique not only in the varied patient population served and multinational staff recruited to provide services, but also because they are not driven by financial or medicolegal constraints. As part of a five-year plan (carried out in four phases) to improve the quality of health care provided in the Kingdom, the North West Armed Forces Hospitals (NWAFH) in Tabuk became the first health care facility in the Kingdom to implement total quality management (TQM). This was not an implementation de novo, but a well-coordinated transition from quality assurance (QA) to TQM. The hospital leadership believe that TQM is best implemented when there is a strong foundation of QA to provide a pre-existing process for data collection and performance measurement. Using the eight-step model for implementing TQM adapted from Joint Commission standards and The Health Care Manager's Guide to Continuous Quality Improvement, the QA staff identified the customers of the QA department, their needs, and professional requirements; implemented changes to meet these needs; identified internal monitors to evaluate the effectiveness of the operational changes and monitor performance; reported results and identified opportunities for improvement; and problem solved with FOCUS-PDCA. These efforts yielded a customer satisfaction survey in the form of a report card. In addition, three case studies launched by the QA department to address abstract data accuracy and completion, nosocomial infection rates in cesarean-section patients, and receipt of hospital laboratory reports by peripheral clinics are described in detail. The NWAFH Program leadership believes that TQM is a pancultural concept and that these first successful efforts can provide a model for the expansion of TQM not only in Saudi Arabia but throughout the rest of the Middle East.

  20. Incident reporting at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Arabi, Yaseen; Alamry, Ahmed; Al Owais, Souzan M; Al-Dorzi, Hasan; Noushad, Seema; Taher, Saadi

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the rates and categories of incident reports in an academic tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia both hospital-wide and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Such information would help in redesigning systems and in planning and developing strategies with the goal of improving patient safety and quality of care. In this descriptive study, we evaluated all incident reports submitted through the paper-based reporting system in the hospital and the ICU for the year 2008. Incident report rates were calculated as the number of incident reports per 1000 patient days. We also reviewed the major and minor categories of the generated reports. A total of 3041 incident reports were submitted from all hospital areas; yielding a rate of 5.8 per 1000 patient days. Sixty-two incident reports were reported from the ICU, yielding a rate of 5.8 per 1000 patient days. The most frequent type of incident reports was procedural variances (37%), followed by behavior and communication incidents (34%), hazardous and safety incidents (9.5%), and medication errors (7.4%). In the ICU, the most frequently reported type of incidents was behavior and communication incidents (30.6%), followed by procedural variances (21%) and medication errors (13%). Rates of incident reports at a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia were low compared with reported international rates. The main categories of incident reports were related to procedural variances and behavior and communication incidents. These findings suggest that patient safety initiatives should focus primarily on these 2 domains. Additional prospective research is needed in this important area to further understand patient safety challenges and reporting practice and culture in the country.

  1. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  2. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  3. Calculation of sky turbidity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mostafa, Z. A.

    The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.

  4. Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast milk contains all the nutrients infants need for their first 6 months of life. However, only a minority of Saudi Arabian mothers exclusively breastfeed, so the influencing factors must be examined to encourage more to do so. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and its associated factors in Tabuk, North West Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 589 mothers of healthy infants aged between 6 and 24 months were interviewed while attending Well-Baby Clinics within 5 primary health care centers. Interviews deployed a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic information and detailed data concerning breastfeeding practices. A logistic regression analysis was then performed on the data to identify the factors independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice for infants at 6 months. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 31.4% of mothers for the first 6 months of their infant’s life. The logistic regressions indicated that exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less likely to be practiced by working mothers, Saudi nationals, and for babies born via cesarean delivery or at low birth weights. Conversely, the mother’s awareness of the recommended exclusive breastfeeding duration was positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: Programs promoting 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding should target high-risk groups. Two factors identified by this study are modifiable: working mothers and mothers’ awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding duration recommendation. Strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates should therefore focus on workplace facilities and increasing awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding recommendation. PMID:28469519

  5. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050

  6. Emergence of new virulent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus strains in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mahmoud M; Mohamed, Mahmoud H A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M; Al-Hammadi, Mohamed A

    2017-02-01

    Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is an acute fatal highly contagious viral infectious disease that causes high losses among rabbitries. The disease was first reported in China in 1984 and later on in Saudi Arabia in 1996. The aim of this study was to investigate the emergence and pathogenicity of new rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains in Saudi Arabia. The pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation in susceptible rabbits. Three RHDV strains were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting VP60 capsid protein gene in infected rabbitries during 2012 and 2013. These strains clustered into two genetically distinct genogroups related to year of isolation (G2 and G3). All new Saudi Arabia viruses clustered with the European strains, while the old strains clustered with strains from China and America. Based on amino acids and nucleotide sequences, the Saudi Arabia strains (RHD/1/SA/2012, RHD/2/SA/2012, and RHD/3/SA /2013) had high identity with Mexico89, Ca11-ITA, and 00-13,FRA virus; on the other hand, there was a relatively high identity with Bahrain strain. The evolutionary relationship of Saudi RHDVs strains revealed significant nucleotides and amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region E, suggesting the emergence of new RHDVs circulating in Saudi Arabia rabbitries. These antigenic changes represented by the antigenic index might be a potential cause of vaccination failure and raises the need to review the vaccination strategies against RHD.

  7. Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal A; Mohammed, Viqaruddin K; Al-Hokail, Abdullah A

    2007-02-01

    This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantage family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection.

  8. Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, J; Yousuf, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary health care in Saudi Arabia: applying global aspects of health for all, locally This paper describes the application of primary health care principles in the Islamic Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It arose from a doctoral supervisory experience on a joint programme for women students, operating between a British and Saudi Arabian University. The research looked at nutritional advice given by diploma-level nurses to pregnant women attending primary health care centres in Saudi Arabia. The supervisor supported research that drew on internationally recognized trends in nursing research (the reflexive learner) whilst attending to local requirements and conventions of the culture. The student was encouraged explicitly to site the research within the framework of Islamic teaching and Saudi culture. The Qur'an was used as an overarching framework within which the tenets of primary health care were explored. This was seen to be crucial in addressing World Health Organisation and the International Council of Nurses' views on contextualizing nursing for the greatest benefit of the population. This was of particular relevance in Saudi Arabia where research carried out in the community by women is novel, and as yet there are no nurse theorists from within Saudi culture.

  9. Research progress and prospects of Saudi Arabia in global medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Meo, S A; Hassan, A; Usmani, A M

    2013-12-01

    Since last decade, Saudi Arabia has been swiftly moving ahead to promote an education and research in the country. This study aimed to investigate the research outcome of Saudi Arabia in medical sciences during the period 1996-2012. In this study, the research papers published in various global science journals during the period 1996-2012 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an affiliation with Saudi Arabia. The main source for information was Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science, Thomson Reuters and SCI-mago/Scopus. In global science data base, Saudi Arabia contributed 103804 documents in all science and social sciences. In medicine the total number of research papers from Saudi Arabia are 16196, citable documents 14732, total citations 102827, citations per documents 6.36 and Hirsch index (h-index) is 92. However, in combined medical and allied health sciences the total number of research papers are 27246, citable documents 25416, total citations 181999, mean citations per documents 7.07 and mean h-index is 41.44. Furthermore, Saudi Arabia contributed 40797 research documents in ISI indexed journals only and also 151 research documents in highly reputable and towering science journals. Saudi Arabia's research performance in global medical sciences has markedly increased during the period 2006-2012. The research publications are continuously on mounting path; however, the number of citations has decreased. The country improved its regional as well as international research rankings and graded 45 in the world in year 2012.

  10. Revisiting the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS): The Anxiety of Female English Language Learners in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.

    With the increase in globalization, the study of English has become common in Saudi Arabia, but students' experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) have been underexamined. Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries are culturally distinct from the Western world, where the most popular assessments of FLA were developed. Through a qualitative and…

  11. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  12. Climate Change and Water Scarcity: The Case of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to bring increases in average global temperatures (1.4°C-5.8°C [34.52°F-42.44°F] by 2100) and precipitation levels to varying degrees around the globe. The availability and quality of water will be severely affected, and public health threats from the lack of this valuable resource will be great unless water-scarce nations are able to adapt. Saudi Arabia provides a good example of how the climate and unsustainable human activity go hand in hand in creating stress on and depleting water resources, and an example for adaptation and mitigation. A search of the English literature addressing climate change, water scarcity, human health, and related topics was conducted using online resources and databases accessed through the University at Albany, State University of New York library web page. Water scarcity, which encompasses both water availability and water quality, is an important indicator of health. Beyond drinking, water supply is intimately linked to food security, sanitation, and hygiene, which are primary contributors to the global burden of disease. Poor and disadvantaged populations are the ones who will suffer most from the negative effects of climate change on water supply and associated human health issues. Examples of adaptation and mitigation measures that can help reduce the strain on conventional water resources (surface waters and fossil aquifers or groundwater) include desalination, wastewater recycling and reuse, and outsourcing food items or "virtual water trade." These are strategies being used by Saudi Arabia, a country that is water poor primarily due to decades of irresponsible irrigation practices. The human and environmental health risks associated with these adaptation measures are examined. Finally, strategies to protect human health through international collaboration and the importance of these efforts are discussed. International, multidisciplinary cooperation and collaboration will be needed to promote

  13. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  14. New Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Mooney, W. D.; Suzuki, J.; Zahran, H. M.; El-Hadidy, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) operates a nationwide digital seismic network with more than 160 broadband seismometers that transmit to a central location at the SGS. These seismic data have been used to measure shear-wave splitting in infer anisotropy within and beneath the Arabian plate. We selected for analysis more than 300 teleseismic recordings between January, 2008 and February, 2015. Individual seismometers located on the crystalline rock of the Arabian shield provide 20 to 30 shear-wave splitting results, whereas seismometers located on volcanic rocks provide 2 to 14 reliable measurements. Here we summarize results obtained from the Tertiary volcanic fields ("harrats") of western Saudi Arabia, in particular Harrat Lunayyir and Harrat Rahat. Both of these volcanic fields have been active in historic times. Eighteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 10 km are located within Harrat Lunayyir. Seismic stations there have consistent shear-wave splitting directions ranging from N2°E to N20°W and delay times from 0.7 s to 1.6 s. This volcanic field is of particular interest because in 2009 it experienced abundant seismic activity and measureable crustal deformation that was associated with a dike intrusion into the upper crust (Pallister et al., 2010, Nature Geoscience). However, our analysis does not reveal any anomalous splitting results beneath this harrat. Fifteen seismic stations with an average inter-station spacing of 30 km are located in or adjacent to Harrat Rahat. These show very similar splitting directions to Harrat Lunayyir, ranging from N1°W to N16°W, with delay times of 1.0 s to 1.4 s. Following previous studies, we assume that these delay times are dominantly due to mantle anisotropy, with crustal anisotropy being secondary. Our results indicate a highly uniform fast-direction of anisotropy oriented approximately N10°W beneath these two volcanic fields. The measured orientation is inconsistent with the N40

  15. Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worl, Ronald G.

    1978-01-01

    Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

  16. The 9th Annual Meeting of the Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery Dammam, Saudi Arabia, 3-5 March 2015

    PubMed Central

    Al-Habib, Amro

    2015-01-01

    The 9th Saudi Association of Neurological Surgery (9th SANS) Annual Meeting was held in the Sheraton Dammam Hotel and Towers, Dammam, Saudi Arabia on March 3-5, 2015, organized by the Department of Neurosurgery, University of Dammam with a theme of “Research is the Bridge to the Future.” The meeting was preceded by a Public Awareness Campaign on March 2, 2015 held at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, and several pre-conference workshops that were highly beneficial for neurosurgery today. The scientific program was loaded with innovative and interactive presentations from respected and reputable speakers from different parts of the world. Abstracts were carefully selected and reviewed based on their scientific value and relevance to the clinical, surgical, academic, and research aspects of neurosurgery in the Kingdom, and the world.

  17. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of

  18. Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bents, E.R.

    1995-05-01

    The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

  19. An overview of wetlands of Saudi Arabia: Values, threats, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaid, Sami; Samraoui, Boudjéma; Thomas, Jacob; El-Serehy, Hamed A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Schneider, Wolfgang; O'Connell, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The wetlands of Saudi Arabia are located in a water-stressed region that is highly vulnerable to climate and other global changes. Sebkhas, mudflats, mangroves, and wadis are the dominant wetlands in the arid regions of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. These unique wetlands are recognized as a sanctuary for biodiversity and for their economic services generated from mineral extraction, agriculture, and grazing. Despite their ecological values and societal services, the long-term permanence of Saudi Arabia's wetlands faces strong challenges resulting from human activities associated with sustained population growth, habitat degradation, and coastal development. This paper consolidates a literature review of Saudi Arabia's wetlands from local to global importance, highlights their biodiversity, and identifies threats and evolution of these vulnerable ecosystems in the arid Arabian Peninsula by focusing on the status of key freshwater taxa (Odonata, freshwater fishes, amphibians, and waterbirds) and documenting changes affecting important wetlands.

  20. Description of Nematotaenia dispar from gray monitor (Varanus griseus) a new record in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohammed, Hamdan I

    2009-04-01

    Due to the increasing information on the reptile fauna in Saudi Arabia and the importance of this group of vertebrate animals, it is of great interest to study the parasites that can infect them. Out of total ten gray monitor Varanus griseus of both sex, only three were found to be infected (representing an infection rate of 30%) with parasitic worms. The parasitic burden index was 20. As regards to sex, 60.7% of the infected Varanus were males. These gray monitor, Varanus griseus of both sexes were caught from the arid area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The present study provided that Nematotaenia dispar was the only worm isolated and identified from the infected gray monitor. The present is the first record of this parasite from Saudi Arabia.

  1. Assessment of nitrate concentration in groundwater in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Al-Rehaili, Abdullah M; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I; Khan, Mujahid A

    2010-02-01

    Contamination of groundwater by nitrate is considered a global problem. Nitrates are introduced in the groundwater from a variety of sources like agricultural activities, poor sewer system, wastewaters, and industrial activities. In the present research, a survey of wells (n = 1,060) was undertaken in all 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained nitrate (NO(3)) levels. The results indicated variation in nitrate levels from 1.1 to 884.0 mg/L as NO(3) throughout the Kingdom. The average nitrate levels in milligrams per liter as NO(3) were as follows in descending order: 65.7 (Jizan), 60.3 (Asir), 60.0 (Qassim), 51.3 (Hail), 41.8 (Makkah Al Mukaramma), 41.3 (Madina Al Munnawara), 38.0 (Al Baha), 37.0 (Najran), 30.7, (Tabouk), 25.2 (Eastern Province), 18.8 (Riyadh), 15.8 (Al Jouf), and 9.1 (Hadwed Shamalyah). The results indicated that nitrate levels exceeded the maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (45 mg/L as NO(3)) in a number of wells (n = 213) in different regions of the Kingdom. The maximum and minimum wells exceeding the maximum contaminant limits for nitrate in drinking water were in Jizan (52.6%) and Hadwed Shamalyah (4.9%), respectively. Most of the wells which exceeded the maximum allowed limits for nitrate were in the areas which were used for agricultural and residential purposes.

  2. Uranium and trace elements in phosphate fertilizers--Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2012-01-01

    Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia.

  3. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03–0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17–0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors. PMID:24192792

  4. Hydrocarbon habitat in main producing areas, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, M.G.; Bilal, M.; Jones, R.W.; Slentz, L.W.; Tartir, M.; Wilson, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    Current hydrocarbon production in Saudi Arabia is from reservoirs of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. Geochemical studies of the sediments and oils suggest that the hydrocarbons were derived from two separate source-rock provinces. Oil production from the large fields in the southern part of the area is from Jurassic carbonate reservoirs. Most of these oils were derived from thermally mature, thinly laminated, organic-rich carbonate rocks of Jurassic age (Callovian-Oxfordian). These source rocks were deposited in an intrashelf basin which is limited to the southern part of the main producing areas. Extensive vertical migration of oils originating in these sediments is prevented by superjacent evaporite seals deposited during the Late Jurassic. Fields in the northern producing areas appear to have derived their hydrocarbons from a source-rock province on the north. Production from Cretaceous clastic and carbonate reservoirs is limited to the northeastern part of the producing areas. This distribution may be explained by limitation of thermally mature Cretaceous source rocks to the northeastern areas or by the local lack of subjacent evaporite seals to separate these reservoirs from Jurassic source rocks. Thermal maturation studies indicate that the hydrocarbons in Mesozoic reservoirs migrated into the present traps during the early Tertiary.

  5. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Adel A

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  6. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  7. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  8. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  9. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  10. Radon exhalation from granites used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Jarallah, M

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series.

  11. Prevalence of Dental Anxiety among Dental Patients in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Fayad, Mostafa I.; Elbieh, Ahmed; Baig, Mohammed N.; Alruwaili, Selham Alhabib

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Anxiety towards dental procedures are common difficulties that may be experienced by dental patients all over the world. This study focused on evaluating the dental anxiety frequency and its relationship with age, gender, educational level, and past dental visits among patients attending the outpatient clinics of College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A total of 221 patients, aged 21–50 years were selected for the study. A questionnaire comprising the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure the level of dental anxiety. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: The mean anxiety score of the 221 patients was 11.39 (SD ± 2.7). Independent t-test showed a significant variation between the age groups with regards to their mean overall anxiety score (P < 0.05), which reduced with increasing age. A significant difference was found by independent t-test in the mean total score between male and female groups and regarding previous dental visit (P < 0.05). Regarding education level, there was no significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Younger patients, female, and patients with previous unpleasant dental experience were associated with increased MDAS score. Clinical Significance: The present study was done for better patient management and proper treatment plan development for dentally anxious patients. PMID:28462178

  12. Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdou, Adel A.

    2003-03-01

    The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.

  13. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE IN DAMMAM AREA OF SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi Arabia. Results: The exclusive breastfeeding rate and predominantly breastfeeding rates were 33% and 11.5%, respectively, under 4 months of age among these children. The timely complementary feeding rate was 31.7% only. All the values were far behind those recommended. The reasons given in order of their frequencies by the mothers for failure to breastfeed were insufficient milk, advice and example of other mothers and formula milk advertisement. Conclusion: This study recognizes the low level of exclusive breastfeeding among children under 4 months of age and lays emphasis on changing the behavior of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding. This can be achieved by special integrated community-based approaches among potential mothers by supporting them after delivery and proper follow-up, to prevent failure of milk formation and discontinuation of breastfeeding. PMID:23008584

  14. NO(2) and cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Ahmadi, Khalid; Al-Zahrani, Ali

    2013-11-04

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32-0.71), weaker at the governorate level (r2 = 0.03-0.43), and declined slightly at the city level (r2 = 0.17-0.33), suggesting that an increased aggregated spatial level increased the explained variability and the model GOF. However, the low GOF at the lowest spatial level suggests that additional variation remains unexplained. At different spatial levels, associations between NO2 concentration and the most common cancers were marginally improved in geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis, which explained both global and local heterogeneity and variations in cancer incidence. High coefficients of determination were observed between NO2 concentration and lung and breast cancer incidences, followed by prostate, bladder, cervical and ovarian cancers, confirming results from other studies. These results could be improved using individual explanatory variables such as environmental, demographic, behavioral, socio-economic, and genetic risk factors.

  15. The syphilis problem in Asir province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El Ghoroury, A. A.

    1954-01-01

    A combined national and international venereal disease team began activities in Saudi Arabia in November 1952, moving from Mecca to Asir province in May 1953, where it remained for two months examining and treating various groups of the population. A total of 309 cases of syphilis among a population of approximately 3,000 at Abha was given complete clinical and serological examination and treatment with PAM, in doses varying from 2.4 to 6.0 million units. Serological tests were made on 2,359 blood samples. Only one primary lesion was found; but secondary lesions were quite common, amounting to 5.8% of all cases treated, while tertiary lesions represented 12.6% of all cases treated and 67.2% of all clinical cases. Considerable variations in the prevalence of syphilis were noted among the different quarters of the town of Abha and among different tribes and villages. All the age-groups were more or less equally affected, but the females generally showed a higher positivity-rate than the males. All these features—together with the low social, economic, and sanitary standards of the population and many prevalent social habits, such as the use of common eating and drinking implements — would seem to indicate that the syphilis met in Asir, and locally known as “shadjar”, “balash”, “fringi”, “mabrouk”, or “wardi”, should be included with the endemic treponematoses met with elsewhere in the world. PMID:13182591

  16. HEALTH AWARENESS AMONG FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS IN SAUDI ARABIA.

    PubMed

    Alonazi, Wadi B; Albaiz, Alyaa S; Albejaidi, Fahd M; Alenazi, Fatimah Z

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the level of health awareness (HA) among students attending three undergraduate programs in the Colleges of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (SA). A modified self-reported survey was utilized to measure HA demonstrating four domains: Nutrition (NU), Personal Health (PH), Physical Exercise (PE), and Body Build (BB). The questionnaire was distributed to 302 female students attending the first semester of the academic year 2014-2015 BS degree in Radiology Sciences (RS), Clinical Laboratory (CL), and Health Education (HE) departments. Bloom's taxonomy was utilized to describe the three cognitive levels. Synthesizing, creating, and evaluating were grouped to represent high level indicators; applying cognitive skills only revealed an intermediate level; while memorizing and listing demonstrated low levels. In a 5-point Likert scale, the overall mean (M) of HA among CAMS students was 3.82 with the highest among students attending HE (M = 3.89). The domain of PH ranked first with a high average (M = 4.30). There were significant differences (α = 0.05), in the level of HA in PH and BB domains, among students in terms of program specialty only, but no such significant differences were found for other characteristics. The study recommended incorporating health promotion concepts within teaching curricula and conducting health and education campaigns by health education institutions.

  17. Professionals' Attitude Toward Reporting Child Sexual Abuse in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saif, Dalia M; Al-Eissa, Majid; Saleheen, Hassan; Al-Mutlaq, Huda; Everson, Mark D; Almuneef, Maha A

    2017-09-14

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) requires specialized knowledge and training that includes forensic interview skills. The aim of this study was to determine variations in professionals' attitudes toward CSA by measuring three aspects of forensic attitudes (sensitivity, specificity, and skepticism) and evaluating disagreements concerning the assessment of CSA cases in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional, web-based study, in which the Child Forensic Attitude Scale was used to measure professionals' attitudes, was conducted. Professionals who dealt with suspected cases of CSA as part of their jobs or were in professions that necessitated involvement with such cases, were selected as participants. Of 327 participants, 53% were aged ≤40 years, and 54% were men. In addition, 24% were doctors/nurses, 20% were therapists/psychiatrists, 24% were social workers, 17% were educators, 9% were law enforcement professionals, and 5% were medical examiners. Attitude subscale scores differed significantly according to participants' sex, specialty, and training. Women, healthcare professionals, and those who had participated in more than five training courses were more concerned about the underreporting of abuse (high sensitivity) relative to other professionals. In comparison, men, medical examiners, law enforcement officers, and undertrained professionals tended to underreport suspected sexual abuse cases (high specificity). High specificity in attitudes toward suspected cases of CSA could affect professionals' judgment and contribute to low reporting rates. Certain strategies, including increasing self-awareness of personal bias, specific CSA recognition courses, and team approaches to case assessment and management, should be implemented to control the influence of subjective factors.

  18. Factors leading to refractory asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moamary, Amal M.; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al Moamary, Mohamed S.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to study the clinical characteristic of patient with refractory asthma (RA) from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This paper prospectively studied in a university hospital factors leading to RA in a cohort of patients who have inadequately controlled asthma or with frequent exacerbations despite optimum controller therapy. It also studied patients with asthma that requires extended periods of oral steroids to control. RESULTS: The mean age was 45.1 years (±9.1) where 74 patients were enrolled in this study with the age group (37–48 years) is having the highest percentage (64.8%). Female patients represented 62.2%. The two major comorbid conditions were allergic rhinitis (54.1%) and gastroesophageal reflux (33.8%). The vast majority (72 patients) had at least one trigger factor for asthma (97.3%). The asthma control test showed that 86.4% had an uncontrolled status. Spirometry showed mild disease in 9.5%, moderate in 47.3%, and severe in 43.2%. Eosinophilia was seen in only 16.2%. Immunoglobulin E level between 70 and 700 μg/L was found in 58.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: RA has certain clinical characteristics and associated comorbid conditions as well as precipitating factors that facilitate the identifications of these cases. PMID:28197221

  19. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74 ± 2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n = 98) using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n = 43) reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n = 32) believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%), 81 (82.6%), and 51 (52.0%) athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%), creatine (16.3%), and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%). A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance. PMID:23762541

  20. Structural evolution of Halaban Area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Amri, Yousef; Kassem1, Osama M. K.

    2017-04-01

    Neoproterozoic basement complex comprises a metamorphic/igneous suite (Abt schist and sheared granitoids) with syn-accretionary transpressive structures, unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence. This study aims to attempt to exposed post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures at Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield. The Rf/ϕ and Fry methods are utilized on quartz and feldspar porphyroclasts, as well as on mafic crystals, such as hornblende and biotite, in eighteen samples. The X/Z axial ratios range from 1.12 to 4.99 for Rf/ϕ method and from 1.65 to 4.00 for Fry method. The direction of finite strain for the long axes displays clustering along the WNW trend (occasionally N) with slight plunging. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It indicates that the contacts between various lithological units in the Halaban area were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions. The penetrative subhorizontal foliation was concurrent with thrusting and shows nearly the same attitudes of tectonic contacts with the overlying nappes. Keywords: Finite strain analysis, volcanosedimentary sequence, Halaban area, Eastern Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia.

  1. Medical students' assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Al-Muhaidib, Nouria Saab

    2011-01-01

    To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences. All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire. Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students' achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of 'understanding' and 'application' were the most preferred type while those entailing 'analysis' were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7%) at both pre- and clinical stages. Students' assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students' assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students' progress through their medical courses.

  2. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Kaliyadan, Feroze; Al-Muhaidib, Nouria Saab

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences. Subjects and methods All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire. Results Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’ achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7%) at both pre- and clinical stages. Conclusion Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses. PMID:23745080

  3. Gas bubble disease in farmed fish in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M O; al-Thobaiti, S A

    1997-06-28

    Four outbreaks of gas bubble disease were encountered among farmed fish in Saudi Arabia. Two of them occurred among subadult (52.5 g) saltwater tilapia (Oreochromis spilurus), the first affecting about 50 per cent of the stock and resulting in about 30 per cent mortality, and the second affecting about 25 per cent of the population with about 5 per cent mortality. Another outbreak occurred among adult (270 g) brackish water (0.5 per cent salinity) tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), affecting about 40 per cent of the population with about 25 per cent mortality. The fourth outbreak occurred among three-month-old (15 g) grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutiatus) and resulted in 10 per cent mortality. In all cases the total water gas pressure ranged between 111.2 and 113.4 per cent saturation and nitrogen was supersaturated while oxygen was undersaturated. The outbreaks were alleviated by reducing the gas pressure by splashing the source water or by switching to a source of water with lower gas pressure. However, in O niloticus the conditions of gas supersaturation resulted in a heavy infection by monogenetic trematodes which was treated with formalin at 40 mg/litre for seven hours on five successive days.

  4. Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I

    2014-12-01

    Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone.

  5. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804

  6. Seismic hazard assessment of Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia: deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Faisal; El-Hady, Sherif M.; Atef, Ali H.; Harbi, Hussein M.

    2016-10-01

    Seismic hazard assessment is carried out by utilizing deterministic approach to evaluate the maximum expected earthquake ground motions along the Western Coastal Province of Saudi Arabia. The analysis is accomplished by incorporating seismotectonic source model, determination of earthquake magnitude ( M max), set of appropriate ground motion predictive equations (GMPE), and logic tree sequence. The logic tree sequence is built up to assign weight to ground motion scaling relationships. Contour maps of ground acceleration are generated at different spectral periods. These maps show that the largest ground motion values are emerged in northern and southern regions of the western coastal province in Saudi Arabia in comparison with the central region.

  7. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-10-10

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. 

  8. Mapping the epidemiology and trends of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Bright; Al-Hajoj, Sahal

    2015-12-01

    An extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection rate of 30% in Saudi Arabia remains above the global rate. A variable rate of infection in each province has been reported and the involvement of most organs has been cited. Nationwide collective data on the current trends of infection are scarce and the factors behind the increased rate of EPTB are perplexing. This review endeavors to shed light into the epidemiology of EPTB, various types of infections sites, geographical differences in the infection rate, known risk factors, and challenges in the diagnosis and management of EPTB in Saudi Arabia.

  9. Historical, cultural, and contemporary influences on the status of women in nursing in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Rosser, Kolleen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2006-07-19

    Global nursing shortages have necessitated closer scrutiny of recruitment and retention initiatives of nurses both locally and internationally. For many decades the nursing workforce of Saudi Arabia has relied on international expatriates to be the backbone of the industry. In recent years however, Saudi women have been recruited into nursing preparation courses conducted at degree level. The many twists and turns of providing a local Saudi Arabian nursing workforce has paralleled Saudi's own history and this paper follows that journey. Our research has enabled us to provide some insights into nursing pre and post the enlightenment that accompanied the Prophet Mohammed's influence. We emphasize the influences of women leaders who emerged in Mohammed's time and bring lasting authority to the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The cultural issues that bind women in this society are explicated and related to recruitment and retention issues in nursing. Education matters, both past and present, are highlighted emphasizing the gains that nursing as a distinct occupation has made. Finally the paper concludes with a summation of contemporary achievements in Saudi Arabia moving nursing towards the much needed professional status and parity with other careers in health care.

  10. Pattern of skin cancer among Saudi patients attending a tertiary care center in Dhahran, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A 20-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dawsari, Najla A; Amra, Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Skin cancer is the ninth most common malignancy in Saudi Arabia. It represented 3.2% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases in the year 2010. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of skin cancer in relation to age, sex, and anatomic location among Saudi patients attending the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center in Dhahran, Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. We retrospectively reviewed the surgical pathology records of Saudi nationals from 1995 to 2014 at the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare center, which directly provides for the healthcare needs of Saudi Aramco company employees and dependents in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Tumor metastases to skin, skin involvement by primary breast carcinoma, and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma with secondary involvement by skin were excluded. The total number of primary skin tumors was 204. The commonest cutaneous malignancies were basal cell carcinoma (36%) followed by squamous cell carcinoma (23%), with the head and neck being the commonest location for both tumors. Mycosis fungoides (MF) was the third most common malignancy (11%). Malignant melanoma was the fourth commonest skin malignancy (7%) with the lower extremities being the commonest location. The four most common skin cancers in our tertiary center in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, MF, and malignant melanoma. Other regions of Saudi Arabia report a similar pattern of skin cancers as our center, with MF having a higher frequency at our center.

  11. Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

  12. A qualitative exploration of the major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Alshammari, Thamir M.; Al-Dhaeefi, Mohammed; Louet, Hervé Le; Perez-Gutthann, Susana; Pitts, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals were invited to participate in the discussion. The predefined themes of the study were the current practice and major challenges facing pharmacovigilance in regulatory bodies, hospitals, the community, and academia, as well as recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance practice. Result: Of the 29 participants invited, 27 attended the discussion. Challenges facing regulatory bodies included complicated adverse drug reactions (ADR) reporting forms, lack of feedback on ADRs submitted to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority, lack of decisions from the local authority to withdraw medications, and lack of data on pharmacovigilance. The challenges to pharmacovigilance in hospitals included the lack of knowledge of the significance of ADR reporting, workload, blaming culture, and lack of collaboration between regulatory bodies and hospitals. However, challenges facing pharmaceutical industries included the lack of drug manufacturers in Saudi Arabia and lack of interest in pharmacovigilance. Recommendations to improve pharmacovigilance included the need for communication, stronger regulatory requirements, the need for research, the need for unified ADRs reporting, and continuous education and training. Conclusion: The study has identified the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and made certain recommendations to overcome them. These recommendations might be helpful for regulatory bodies to enhance spontaneous reporting and promote pharmacovigilance. PMID:26318468

  13. Evaluation of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide at nine sites in Saudi Arabia during 2007.

    PubMed

    Butenhoff, Christopher L; Khalil, M Aslam K; Porter, William C; Al-Sahafi, Mohammed Saleh; Almazroui, Mansour; Al-Khalaf, Abdulrahman

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a one-year record of in situ air-quality data from nine sites throughout Saudi Arabia. The data set is composed of hourly measurements of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) at six of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Jeddah, Makkah, Yanbu, Dammam, Hafouf) and two remote locations in the mountainous southwestern region of Alsodah for the year 2007. The authors found that international O3 and CO standards were routinely exceeded throughout the year at many sites, and that exceedances increased during Ramadan (Sep. 12-Oct. 13), the Islamic month of fasting when much of normal daily activity is shifted to nighttime hours. In general NO2 and CO levels were higher in Saudi cities compared to U.S. cities of comparable population, while O3 levels were lower. There was a general trend for O3 and NO2 to be negatively correlated in Saudi cities in contrast to U.S. cities where the correlation is positive, suggesting that ozone chemistry in Saudi Arabia is limited by volatile organic compound emissions. This may be caused by low biogenic emissions from vegetation. Pollutant levels were lower at most Saudi sites during the four day Hajj period (Dec. 18-21) but higher in Makkah which receives millions of visitors during Hajj. The authors also found that ozone levels were elevated during the weekend (Thursday & Friday) relative to weekday levels despite lower NO2, a phenomenon known as the "weekend effect." As little air quality data is available from Saudi Arabia in the English-language literature, this data set fills a knowledge gap and improves understanding of air quality in an important but under-reported region of the world. Air quality measurements at nine sites in Saudi Arabia provide a detailed look at spatial and temporal patterns of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). NO2 and CO levels increased in most cities during the fasting month of Ramadan, whereas O3 levels decreased. This led to

  14. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  15. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, p<0.000). Findings revealed that the empathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  16. Thyroid Cancer in Saudi Arabia: A Histopathological and Outcome Study

    PubMed Central

    Alomar, Haneen; Alzahrani, Nada

    2017-01-01

    Most data on differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) came from the Western world. We describe its salient characteristics and outcome from a Middle Eastern country. Patients and Methods. We studied all cases of TC seen during a 2-year period (2004-2005) seen at our institution. Results. A total of 600 consecutive cases of DTC with a median age at diagnosis of 39 years (5–85) and the female : male ratio of 459 : 141 (76.5% : 23.5%). The cases included classical papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in 77%, follicular variant PTC in 13.3%, follicular thyroid cancer in 3.2%, and other rare subtypes 6.5%. Total or near-total thyroidectomy was performed in 93%, central and/or lateral neck dissection in 64.5% of cases, and radioactive iodine ablation in 82% of cases. Additional therapies were administered to 154 patients (25.7%). At a median follow-up period of 7.63 years (0.22–13.1), 318 patients (53.3%) were in excellent response, 147 (24.5%) having an indeterminate response, 55 (9.2%) biochemically incomplete, 33 (5.5%) structurally incomplete, and 27 (4.5%) unclassifiable. Twenty cases died secondary to DTC (disease-specific mortality 3.3%). Conclusions. In Saudi Arabia, DTC is common and occurs at young age and predominantly in females. Although remission is common, persistent disease is also common but disease-specific mortality is low. PMID:28348588

  17. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M

    2015-05-01

    To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage.

  18. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

  19. Stratigraphy and sedimentation of the Unayzah reservoir, central Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Senalp, M.; Abdulaziz, A.

    1995-08-01

    Significant reserves of Arabian super light oil, condensate, and associated gas occur in the various genetically different sandstone bodies of the upper Permian Unayzah and Khuff Formations in Central Saudi Arabia. The Unayzah Formation which rests unconformably on the older formations is composed of red colored, poorly sorted conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, caliche and nodular anhydrite. Facies changes occur due to the presence of various subenvironments and possible faulting and structural growth in the basin during deposition. However, the entire Unayzah Formation shows an overall fining and thinning-upward sequence. It was deposited as coalescing alluvial fans dominated by braided streams which graded into meandering stream and playa lakes under and to semi-arid conditions. Eolian processes were also inferred. A marked unconformity which is indicated by the occurrence of thick caliche and soil horizons separate the Unayzah and the overlying Khuff Formation. The Khuff Formation consists primarily of marine shale, marl, and fine- to very coarse-grained sandstones in the lower parts; shale, limestone, dolomite, and amhydrite in the upper parts. The sandstones were deposited as incised channel fills and their associated low stand deltaic sediments as a result of fluctuating sea level during the deposition of the Khuff Formation. The base of the incised channels represent a sequence boundary. Red colored and rooted paleosols were formed on the underlying marine sediments. During relative sea level rise, good quality reservoir sands were deposited by aggradation within the incised channels. Sand deposition within the channels terminated at the same time, and the area was covered by shallow marine limestones, shales and marls during maximum sea level highstand. Although the Unayzah reservoir occurs in both the Unayzah and the Khuff Formations because of their different geometry, continuity, and reservoir quality, they have been studied separately.

  20. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  1. Exploring medication use by blind patients in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Kentab, Basma Y; Al-Rowiali, Kholuod Z; Al-Harbi, Rehab A; Al-Shammari, Nouf H; Balhareth, Wiam M; Al-Yazeed, Huda F

    2015-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of medication use and challenges experienced by the blind patients. This cross-sectional descriptive study included blind persons living in Saudi Arabia who were at least 18 years of age. Participants were recruited through a number of nongovernmental blind associations (in the central, western, eastern regions), universities, social networks, and specialized websites for the blind. A questionnaire was designed and administered via face-to-face meetings with participants and made available online through Google Docs. There were a total of 121 respondents of which 26 were excluded based on their ability to visually identify their medications or being <18 years old. The majority of the respondents were 18-29 years old (68%), 49% were male and 51% were female. Around 57% had a college degree while 27% had a high school degree. Diagnosis with a chronic disease was reported by 71 participants (79%, 5 missing). The most common diseases were diabetes and asthma (22%) followed by hypertension (17%). Most blind patients (75%) believed that physicians were the most reliable source of medication information. The medication information and services provided by pharmacists were viewed as inadequate by 46%. The most common challenges encountered by blind patients were linked to drug identification (75%), dose recognition (82%), and identification of expiration date (92%). A large number of patients had to rely on persons with normal vision for dispensing and administering the medications. Pharmacists can no longer ignore the medication use problems encountered by the blind people. This study may serve as an initial step for planning improvements in pharmaceutical services provided to blind patients. The government, pharmaceutical companies and pharmacists must work in collaboration to address the special needs of the blind.

  2. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177

  3. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  4. Occurrence of fluoride in ground waters of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.

    2013-09-01

    The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.

  5. Ash Shutbah: A possible impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be

  6. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. V. The lizard fauna of Turaif region.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad S

    2016-09-01

    Turaif area located in the Northern border region of Saudi Arabia is one of the most important regions of the Kingdom. This work was proposed to throw light on the diversity of lizard fauna investigated through the collection and subsequent identification of specimens from different localities of Turaif region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Sixteen species of lizards belonging to 5 families (Agamidae, Gekkonidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae and Varanidae) were recorded. Lacertidae was the most common family. Three species of lizards namely Acanthodactylus orientalis, Acanthodactylus scutellatus and Acanthodactylus grandis were reported for the first time in the Turaif region of Saudi Arabia. The geographical distribution of the collected species within this province was mapped.

  7. Survey of the reptilian fauna of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. VI. The snake fauna of Turaif region.

    PubMed

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammed K; Paray, Bilal Ahmad; Al-Otaibi, Hamad

    2017-05-01

    A collection of snakes in Turaif region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, an area that has been poorly documented for reptiles, consists of 28 specimens representing 11 species belonging to 4 families (Colubridae, Elapidae, Viperidae and Atractaspididae). This study presents the first comprehensive inventory of the herpetofauna of the Turaif province of Saudi Arabia. Co-ordinates: Latitude, longitude and altitude, of the collected specimens were mapped using GPS. Three of the snake species Lytorhynchus diadema, Pseudocerastes fieldi and Walterinnesia morgani reported by the authors in the present survey proved to be new records for Turaif region of Saudi Arabia.

  8. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  10. 75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations Act, 2010 (Division F, Pub....

  11. Special Education Programs for Students with Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Special education services in Saudi Arabia have received much attention over the past 15 years. This increased attention has been reflected in the increasing amount of such services offered, including services aimed at students with intellectual disability. However, the enormous expansion of special education services was not followed by…

  12. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  13. Impacts of Groundwater Constraints on Saudi Arabia's Low-Carbon Electricity Supply Strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H

    2016-02-16

    Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems.

  14. Transition Services for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward transition services for students with mild intellectual disability in Saudi Arabia, and also examined the relationship between teachers' attitudes regarding transition services for students with mild intellectual disability and teachers' gender and educational background. Three hundred…

  15. Saudi Arabia, Cyprus, America and the World: September 11th from Another Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Niki

    This paper employs an autobiographical method using biographical elements from narrated experiences from Cyprus, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, where she has come to study. The paper offers perspectives on the September 11, 2001 tragedy and other acts of terrorism, violence, and mass destruction. It describes how the author's Cyprus…

  16. Climatology of the 500-hPa mediterranean storms associated with Saudi Arabia wet season precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almazroui, Mansour; Kamil, S.; Ammar, K.; Keay, Kevin; Alamoudi, A. O.

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the Mediterranean 500-hPa storm tracks and wet season (November-April) rainfall over Saudi Arabia is investigated. The analysis is based on the application of an objective tracking scheme to the 6-hourly 500-hPa geopotential height ERA-Interim dataset (0.75° × 0.75°) for the period 1979-2012. The resulting tracks are then associated with the ERA-Interim rainfall events over Saudi Arabia. The association procedure showed that 34 % of the tracks are related to about 70 % of the rainfall. These associated tracks are used to construct climatology. A climatology of these storm tracks revealed that the eastern Mediterranean region is the preferred location for cyclogenesis with a maximum in the southwest parts of the Black Sea. The study also examined the mean radius, average intensity and average depth of the storms. The number of tracks in winter (December-February) is about 60 % of the total number which confirms the major contribution of the Mediterranean storms to rainfall over Saudi Arabia. A significant negative trend was found for storm cyclogenesis over the central Mediterranean, and the Black sea. A significant trend decrease in track density is observed over most of the northern parts of Saudi Arabia. The peaks of storm activities are observed in December and January in 1996, 1997 and 2009. Storm activity generally declines after 2000, especially in the second half of the wet season months (February-April).

  17. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  18. Wikis in EFL Writing Classes in Saudi Arabia: Identifying Instructors' Reflections on Merits, Demerits and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khateeb, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the pre-and-post-reflections of English language instructors concerning the incorporation of a new pedagogy in English as foreign language (EFL) writing classes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This approach is to integrate and blend wiki-mediated writing into a different course plan, with tasks that fit with the normal syllabi…

  19. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  20. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  1. Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

  2. Saudi Arabia Puts Its Billions behind Western-Style Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has been developing at breakneck speed since the end of World War II, when oil production transformed this country of Bedouins into one of the richest polities in the world. Its higher-education system, however, has not kept pace. The Ministry of Higher Education was not established until 1975, and its task was to educate a population…

  3. Women in dentistry: A perspective on major universities in Saudi Arabia. Part 1: Historical background

    PubMed Central

    Shaker, Randa E.; Babgi, Amani A.

    2009-01-01

    As the works of females have been present in many fields of our lives, the history mentions little trace of these facts. The field of dentistry was among these professions. This paper will review the presence of dental practice by women world wide and will present a review of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24151403

  4. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  5. Human orf (ecthyma contagious) a report of two cases from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Roy-Boulos, A M; Akhtar, M; Bendl, B

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of orf occuring in one family are reported. The patients developed characteristic skin lesions one week after sustaining cuts while slaughtering a sheep. The diagnosis of orf was confirmed by electron microscopy which revealed numerous large oval virus particle characteristics of parapox virus. This we believe is the first report of orf in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  7. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  8. Sources of Stress among Parents of Children with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldosari, Mubarak S.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified differences in sources of stress between parents of male children with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia. Seventeen pairs of parents completed the Parent Stress Index (Abidin, 1995). Each pair of parents had a male child diagnosed with intellectual disability who either attended an institute for male children with…

  9. Quality of Diabetes Management in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Existing Barriers.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Khalid M

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that requires continuous management and medical care. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize the barriers that affect diabetes management in Saudi Arabia. Studies that have examined the quality of diabetes management in Saudi Arabia were identified through online and manual literature searches. Two researchers independently searched and assessed for inclusion/exclusion criteria. All studies were screened by a specialist for the significance of the review. Studies that were included were evaluated for relevance, methodological rigor, and credibility by giving a quality score based on Russell and Gregory's criteria. This review presents an overview of the quality of diabetes management and issues and barriers concerning the improvement of diabetes care in Saudi Arabia. The online literature search yielded 11 studies which met the inclusion criteria. Factors affecting the quality of diabetes care can be categorized into patient factors (such as adherence, compliance, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, financial resources and co-morbidities) and healthcare providers' factors (including beliefs, attitudes and knowledge, patient - provider interaction and communication). The identified barriers, both from patients and healthcare providers, will help healthcare authorities to improve diabetes management in Saudi Arabia. Improvement of health awareness about disease and disease management should be tailored through continuous patient education. Continuous training and seminars will also expand providers' knowledge that will ensure quality and effective diabetes management.

  10. Special Education Teacher Transition-Related Competencies and Preparation in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb

    2014-01-01

    Preparing special education teachers to engage in transition services is a critical part of their preparation. This study examined how special education teachers perceive their preparation for transition services in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 350 teachers participated in this study. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. The findings…

  11. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth order,…

  12. Education Context and English Teaching and Learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…

  13. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  14. Kumaravadivelu's Framework as a Basis for Improving English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…

  15. A new species of Tricholabiodes Radoszkowski, 1885 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M

    2016-01-20

    A new species, Tricholabiodes aldryhimi Soliman, sp. nov., with a posteromesal bifurcal sessile process on the third metasomal sternum is described and illustrated from Najd Region, Saudi Arabia. The new species looks like T. brothersi Lelej, 2010 in having a bifurcal process on S3 but differs from it mainly in colour and the shape of the genitalia.

  16. Achieving Competitive Advantage in Human Resource Management in General School District of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…

  17. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  18. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  19. The Impact of Bilingualism on the Creative Capabilities of Kindergarten Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Saud, Al Johara Fahad

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is one of the countries that encounter the issue of bilingualism due to the spread of private schools that offer programs in different languages. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of bilingualism on the creative capabilities (Fluency, Flexibility, Originality, Details) of kindergarten children in Riyadh. It aims at…

  20. Developing a generic model for total quality management in higher education in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shafei, Ahmad I; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid; Al-Qumaizi, Khalid I; El-Mardi, Abdelmoniem S

    2015-04-01

    The field of higher education has been progressing at a rapid pace in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past decade, with doubling the number of government and private universities and colleges. Quality and accreditation are of great importance to higher education institutes world-wide. Thus, developing a generic model for quality management in higher education is badly needed in the country.

  1. A new dermochelyid turtle from the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Haiyan; Buffetaut, Eric; Thomas, Herbert; Roger, Jack; Halawani, Mohammed; Memesh, Abdallah; Lebret, Patrick

    1999-12-01

    A new dermochelyid sea turtle, Arabemys crassiscutata n. gen, n. sp., is described on the basis of epithecal shell mosaic ossicles from the Late Paleocene—Early Eocene of Saudi Arabia. This is the oldest and the most primitive known representative of the dermochelyids having an epithecal shell mosaic.

  2. Assessing Saudi Arabia: A Review of Leading American and European Analysts (1982-1995),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Campbell Michael Field Raymond Close *Christine Helms Anthony Cordesman *David Holden * Herman Eilts *Richard Johns Fred Halliday *J.B. Kelly Parker Hart...Military Balance, i98o-i8t (London: IISS, 1980), p. 47; and Abdul Kasim Mansur (pseud.), "The American Threat to Saudi Arabia," Armed Forces Journal

  3. Barriers to Accountability Implementation in the Education Directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentab, Mohammad Yousef

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…

  4. Prevalence of Congenital Hypothyroidism in Northern Border Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alenazi, Shehab A; Abdalla, Sawsan H; Mohamed, Hassan T; Balla, Amer A; Abukanna, Abdelrahman M

    2017-02-15

    This retrospective study was done to assess the prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism among children born in Arar city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during years 2008 to 2014. Data were collected from newborns registry in Central hospital. The prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was 2.6 per 10,000 live births with no gender difference.

  5. Special Education Programs for Students with Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Special education services in Saudi Arabia have received much attention over the past 15 years. This increased attention has been reflected in the increasing amount of such services offered, including services aimed at students with intellectual disability. However, the enormous expansion of special education services was not followed by…

  6. Level of Job Creativity among Learning Disabilities Teachers from Their Perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamadneh, Burhan M.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…

  7. The Barriers to the Use of ICT in Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mulhim, Ensaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack…

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease register: Steps towards Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA).

    PubMed

    Masoodi, Ibrahim; Alsayari, Khalid; Albishri, Jamal

    2012-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are among the leading cause of financial burden, morbidity and employee absenteeism in developed countries because of their chronic remitting and relapsing courses. IBD is estimated to affect the Canadian economy to the tune of 100 million dollars per year. The data regarding exact prevalence in Asian countries, including Saudi Arabia, is still incomplete as there is underreporting and lack of proper registry of the diagnosed cases. The prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease) has increased over the last decade in Saudi Arabia due to increased IBD awareness among population, as more patients seek medical help and also due to unknown reasons. There is a need of proper registration of IBD patients and establishment of Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia (CCFSA) as in other parts of the world. The Crohn's & colitis foundation of Saudi Arabia will be a forum which will co ordinate IBD treatment and research in the country in addition to health education among IBD population.

  9. The Prevalence and Determinants of Tobacco Use among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Agili, Dania E.; Park, Hyoun-Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Background: Adolescent tobacco use has been a serious public health issue, resulting in longer duration of tobacco use and higher nicotine dependence in adulthood. This study identified the current status of tobacco use among middle schools students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and the factors leading to tobacco use, to provide information on how to…

  10. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshayea, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment…

  11. Services for Children with Autism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnemary, Fahad M.; Aldhalaan, Hesham M.; Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Alnemary, Faisal M.

    2017-01-01

    Little information is available about autism spectrum disorder services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A sample of 205 parents completed an online survey about the use of autism spectrum disorder services for their children. The results revealed that on average, children began services by 3.3 years. Most parents reported utilizing non-medical…

  12. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  13. Teacher Evaluation as a Tool for Professional Development: A Case of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakim, Badia Muntazir

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the use of teacher evaluation and appraisal process as a tool for professional development. A group of 30 teachers from seven different nationalities with diverse qualifications and teaching experiences participated in this case study at the English Language Institute (ELI) at King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabia.…

  14. An Exploration of E-Learning Benefits for Saudi Arabia: Toward Policy Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrashidi, Abdulaziz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…

  15. International Education Issues in Saudi Arabia's Public Education Curricula: An Analytical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almogbel, Ali Naser

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the situation of the general education curriculum in Saudi Arabia, in line with global aspirations in this area and a proposal to implement international education issues in general education curricula. The study was centered on answering the following questions: What is the reality of issues of…

  16. The Academic Profession in a Rentier State: The Professoriate in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazawi, Andre Elias

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…

  17. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ..., Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam: Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the..., and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular goods, provided for primarily in subheadings 7304.29, 7305..., Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Accordingly...

  18. Red Sea coastal area of Saudi Arabia as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-15

    AS07-07-1774 (15 Oct. 1968) --- Red Sea coastal area of Saudi Arabia as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 58th revolution of Earth. This picture shows extent of coral reefs in the Red Sea. Photographed from an altitude of 88 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 91 hours and 17 minutes.

  19. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  20. Salient Key Features of Actual English Instructional Practices in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…

  1. Salmonella species and serotypes isolated from farm animals, animal feed, sewage, and sludge in Saudi Arabia*

    PubMed Central

    Nabbut, N. H.; Barbour, E. K.; Al-Nakhli, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 264 salmonellae representing 65 different species and serotypes were isolated for the first time in Saudi Arabia, from various animal species, animal feed, sewage, and sludge. The six most frequently isolated Salmonella species or serotypes were: livingstone, concord, “S. schottmuelleri” (invalid), lille, S. typhimurium, and cerro. PMID:6983931

  2. Students' Struggle with First-Year University Mathematics Courses in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem

    2015-01-01

    Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…

  3. Prevalence of the Emotional (Emo) Subculture among University Students in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Alsukah, Aljawharh; Algadheeb, Nourah Abdulrhman

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the prevalence of the emotional (emo) subculture among students at Princess Noura bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, and to detect differences in emo behavior and orientation among university departments and academic levels. A questionnaire assessing emo behavior/orientation was developed and…

  4. Health Data Standards and Adoption Process: Preliminary Findings of a Qualitative Study in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkraiji, Abdullah; Jackson, Thomas; Murray, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to carry out a critical study of health data standards and adoption process with a focus on Saudi Arabia. Design/methodology/approach: Many developed nations have initiated programs to develop, promote, adopt and customise international health data standards to the local needs. The current status of, and future plans for,…

  5. Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. ) germination and establishment under arid environmental conditions of Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hedaithy, S.S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to conduct an autecological investigation of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) in the Al-Gassim region of Saudi Arabia, upon which range rehabilitation could be based. Germination, seedling, transplanting, and water relation characteristics of the species under controlled and field conditions were determined. Most of the field work was conducted at plain and sand dune areas of the Al-Gassim, Saudi Arabia, and supplemented with growth chamber experiments. Seeds of tetrapolid and diploid forms, native to the United States, were introduced to Saudi Arabia, and their performance was determined. The Al-Gassim soil and climatic features were analyzed. Laboratory and field tests proved that fourwing saltbush was able to become established under and tolerate wide ranges of soil and harsh climatic conditions as found in the Al-Gassim. The best temperature range for germination was 15 to 35 C. High salinity in the soil of the plains area was found to be the only soil character that slightly decreased seedling growth, but germination and survival behaviors were not affected. The adaptation to extreme environmental conditions coupled with its known high nutritional forage values makes fourwing saltbush a valuable range plant in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia. As demand on rangeland increases, improved forage plants must have drough and salinity resistance mechanisms, and improved range management techniques should be used to achieve optimum returns.

  6. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  7. Research Map of Research Priorities in HE Studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSumih, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a research map for the key research priorities of higher education (HE) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study diagnoses and analyzes the research reality in HE studies in KSA in terms of strength points and improvement opportunities. It also explores the research map fields of current and prospective research priorities in…

  8. Characteristics of the Home Context for the Nurturing of Gifted Children in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth order,…

  9. The Institutional Context of School to Work Transition in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Alromi, Naif H.

    Using questionnaire data collected in 2000 from 524 senior general high school students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, researchers explored the gap between national development goals and student educational interests. They analyzed the relationship between available curriculum and student perceptions of the curriculum's ability to prepare them for the…

  10. Evaluation of Preparation Program for Teachers Specializing in Learning Disabilities in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Omer A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an evaluation of the undergraduate special education teacher preparation program at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A final sample of 160 LD teachers provided the data used for analysis. Data for the study were collected by a survey consisting of five subscales: coursework, internship quality,…

  11. Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Journey of Recognition to Implementation of National Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…

  12. An International Perspective on Academic Advising: A Report from Students at a University in Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mahmoud A.

    1988-01-01

    The advising program at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, is examined. Students' responses to a 20-item questionnaire are discussed. The study sought to determine whether a difference in student responses to the survey existed between the colleges and between the academic levels of the students. (Author/MLW)

  13. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  14. Burden of traumatic injuries in Saudi Arabia: lessons from a major trauma registry in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghnam, Suliman; Alkelya, Muhamad; Al-Bedah, Khalid; Al-Enazi, Saleem

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia (SA), injuries are the second leading cause of death; however, little is known about their frequencies and outcomes. Trauma registries play a major role in measuring the burden on population health. This study aims to describe the population of the only hospital-based trauma registry in the country and highlight challenges and potential opportunities to improve trauma data collection and research in SA. Using data between 2001 and 2010, this retrospective study included patients from a large trauma center in Riyadh, SA. A staff nurse utilized a structured checklist to gather information on patients' demographic, physiologic, anatomic, and outcome variables. Basic descriptive statistics by age group ( 14 years) were calculated, and differences were assessed using student t and chi-square tests. In addition, the mechanism of injury and the frequency of missing data were evaluated. 10 847 patients from the trauma registry were included. Over 9% of all patients died either before or after being treated at the hospital. Patients who were older than 14 years of age (more likely to be male) sustained traffic-related injuries and died in the hospital as compared to patients who were younger than or equal to years of age. Deceased patients were severely injured as measured by injury severity score and Glasgow Coma Scale (P < .001). Overall, the most frequent type of injury was related to traffic (52.0%), followed by falls (23.4%). Missing values were mostly prevalent in traffic-related variables, such as seatbelt use (70.2%). This registry is a key step toward addressing the burden of injuries in SA. Improved injury classification using the International Classification of Disease-external cause codes may improve the quality of the registry and allow comparison with other populations. Most importantly, injury prevention in SA requires further investment in data collection and research to improve outcomes.

  15. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  16. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    PubMed

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions.

  17. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences

    PubMed Central

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  18. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Gosadi, Ibrahim M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS. PMID:26739969

  19. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  20. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  1. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-02-01

    To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

  2. Understanding cultural competence in a multicultural nursing workforce: registered nurses' experience in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Adel F; McCarthy, Alexandra; Gardner, Glenn E

    2015-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the health system is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Given the potential risks this situation poses for patient care, it is important to understand how cultural diversity can be effectively managed in this multicultural environment. The purpose of this study was to explore notions of cultural competence with non-Saudi Arabian nurses working in a major hospital in Saudi Arabia. Face-to-face, audio-recorded, semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 non-Saudi Arabian nurses. Deductive data collection and analysis were undertaken drawing on Campinha-Bacote's cultural competence model. The data that could not be explained by this model were coded and analyzed inductively. Nurses within this culturally diverse environment struggled with the notion of cultural competence in terms of each other's cultural expectations and those of the dominant Saudi culture. The study also addressed the limitations of Campinha-Bacote's model, which did not account for all of the nurses' experiences. Subsequent inductive analysis yielded important themes that more fully explained the nurses' experiences in this environment. The findings can inform policy, professional education, and practice in the multicultural Saudi setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Common Eye Diseases in Children in Saudi Arabia (Jazan)

    PubMed Central

    Darraj, Abdulrahman; Barakat, Walid; Kenani, Mona; Shajry, Reem; Khawaji, Abdullah; Bakri, Sultan; Makin, Abdulrahman; Mohanna, Azza; Yassin, Abu Obaida

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rise in childhood eye diseases has become a matter of concern in Saudi Arabia, and hence a study has been conducted on the residents of Jazan. The aim of the research was to find out the root cause of such issues and provide a solution to prevent such circumstances for it may affect the vision of children. In this study, therefore, we aimed to determine the types of childhood eye diseases in Jazan and to discuss the best ways to prevent them or prevent their effect on the vision of our children. Our institutions are working toward the longevity and welfare of the residents, and healthcare is one of the important aspects in such a field. METHODS This is a retrospective review of all patients less than 18 years of age who presented to the pediatric ophthalmology clinic of Prince Mohammed Bin Nasser Hospital, Jazan, between October 2014 and October 2015. The data, collected on 385 cases, included the age at first presentation, sex, clinical diagnosis, refractive error (RE) if present, and whether the child had amblyopia. If the child did not undergo complete ophthalmic examination with cycloplegic refraction, he/she was excluded. All data were collected and analyzed using the software SPSS. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS We reviewed the files of 385 children, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. The group aged 0–6 years made up the largest group (P = 0.01), and the ratio is an expression to define the credibility of the study using a chi-squared test. Strabismus (36.9%), RE (26.5%), ocular trauma (7.5%), infection of cornea and conjunctiva (7.3%), and keratoconus (6.2%) were the most common conditions. There was no significant difference in presentation by age group and sex among children with REs and squint. Trauma was seen more commonly among males and in the group aged 12–18 years. CONCLUSION In this retrospective study, the focus was on the common childhood eye diseases that were considerably high

  4. Institute for Scientific Information-indexed biomedical journals of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rohra, Dileep K.; Rohra, Vikram K.; Cahusac, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the journal impact factor (JIF) and Eigenfactor score (ES) of Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)-indexed biomedical journals published from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 8 years. Methods: This is a retrospective study, conducted at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, KSA from January to March 2016. The Journal Citation Reports of ISI Web of Knowledge were accessed, and 6 Saudi biomedical journals were included for analysis. Results: All Saudi journals have improved their IF compared with their baseline. However, the performance of the Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Neurosciences has been exceptionally good. The biggest improvement in percent growth in JIF was seen in the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (approximately 887%) followed by Neurosciences (approximately 462%). Interestingly, the ES of all biomedical journals, except Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology and Saudi Medical Journal, increased over the years. The greatest growth in ES (more than 5 fold) was noted for Neurosciences and Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. Conclusion: This study shows that the overall quality of all Saudi biomedical journals has improved in the last 8 years. PMID:27761565

  5. Surveillance and Testing for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus, Saudi Arabia, April 2015–February 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A.; Alzahrani, Abdullah G.; Salameh, Iyad; Abdirizak, Fatima; Alhakeem, Raafat; Algarni, Homoud; El Nil, Osman A.; Mohammed, Mutaz; Assiri, Abdullah M.; Alabdely, Hail M.; Watson, John T.; Gerber, Susan I.

    2017-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has reported >80% of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) cases worldwide. During April 2015–February 2016, Saudi Arabia identified and tested 57,363 persons (18.4/10,000 residents) with suspected MERS-CoV infection; 384 (0.7%) tested positive. Robust, extensive, and timely surveillance is critical for limiting virus transmission. PMID:28322710

  6. A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to

  7. Using SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics in assessment, monitoring and proposing environmental restoration tools in central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Hennekens, Stephan; Alfarhan, Ahmed; Thomas, Jacob; Schaminee, Joop; El-Keblawy, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Successful restoration of degraded habitats requires information about the history and factors led to the deterioration of these habitats. This study analyzed SaudiVeg Ecoinformatics, which is a big phytosociological database about plant communities and other environmental factors affecting them in the Najd-Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A phytosociological survey with more than 3000 vegetation relevés was conducted during 2013. The data were used to correlate the plant community attributes, such as abundance and species diversity in natural and ruderal habitats with environmental factors, such as human impacts, soil physical and chemical properties, and land uses. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses using programs, such as TWINSPAN, DCA and CCA, via Juice package. Fourteen vegetation associations were described under provisional classification of the Central Saudi Arabia deserts. These associations were broadly grouped into desert vegetation types. One alliance group, Haloxylonion salicornici, is the most widespread and contains four associations on the wadis and desert plains. Three associations are dominant on the depression habitats (raudhas) and two associations of Tamarixidetum spp. on the wetland and salt pan habitats. Four associations inhabit the man-made habitat and abandoned field habitats and one association, the Neurado procumbentis-Heliotropietum digyni, dominates the overgrazed sandy dunes. As human impact is huge and increasing, the vegetation ecoinformatics of the present study would form a baseline description that could be used as a vital tool for future monitoring and for proposing environmental restoration processes in central Saudi Arabia. It could also help both Governmental and Non-governmental organizations (NGO) in formulating strategies and on-ground plans for protection, management and restoration of the natural vegetation.

  8. A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Laith A; Omer, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generation in Saudi Arabia is increasingly growing at a fast rate, as it hurtles towards ever increasing urban development coupled with rapid developments and expanding population. Saudi Arabia's energy demands are also rising at a faster rate. Therefore, the importance of an integrated waste management system in Saudi Arabia is increasingly rising and introducing Waste to Energy (WTE) facilities is becoming an absolute necessity. This paper analyzes the current situation of MSW management in Saudi Arabia and proposes a financial model to assess the viability of WTE investments in Saudi Arabia in order to address its waste management challenges and meet its forecasted energy demands. The research develops a financial model to investigate the financial viability of WTE plants utilizing gasification and Anaerobic Digestion (AD) conversion technologies. The financial model provides a cost estimate of establishing both gasification and anaerobic digestion WTE plants in Saudi Arabia through a set of financial indicators, i.e. net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), modified internal rate of return (MIRR), profitability index (PI), payback period, discounted payback period, Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and Levelized Cost of Waste (LCOW). Finally, the analysis of the financial model reveals the main affecting factors of the gasification plants investment decision, namely: facility generation capacity, generated electricity revenue, and the capacity factor. Similarly, the paper also identifies facility waste capacity and the capacity factor as the main affecting factors on the AD plants' investment decision.

  9. Personal and Moral Adolescent Values in England and Saudi Arabia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Cyril; Simmons, Christine

    1994-01-01

    Reports on surveys comparing personal and moral values of 89 Saudi Arabian and 96 British adolescents. Finds that Islam has a profound impact on the values of the Saudi students, whereas religious views have only a limited effect on the British students. Also finds that the British students place a higher value on friends and family. (ACM)

  10. The epidemiology of Dengue fever in Saudi Arabia: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A

    2016-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients.

  11. Epidemiology of Viral Hepatitis in Saudi Arabia: Are We Off the Hook?

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Ayman A.; Sanai, Faisal M.; Al-Faleh, Faleh Z.

    2012-01-01

    Some 400 million people worldwide are currently infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and the infection is common in the Middle East. Another 170 million people around the globe presently live with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Both HBV and HCV represent a worldwide epidemic. Despite significant decline in the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in Saudi Arabia, these viral diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, and impose a great burden on the country's healthcare system. On the other hand, Saudi epidemiology studies have shown that the hepatitis A virus seroprevalence in the country has reduced considerably over the past two decades. The progress in mapping the epidemiological pattern of viral hepatitis in Saudi Arabia has not only aided our understanding of the disease, but has also exposed the small but relevant gaps in our identification of the intricate details concerning the disease's clinical expression. In this review, we aim to document the timeline of viral hepatitis epidemiology in Saudi Arabia, while summarizing the relevant published literature on the subject. PMID:23150019

  12. Coronary heart disease mortality in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 1989 and 1990.

    PubMed

    Alobaid, A A; Gilchrist, R; Bointon, B

    1994-09-01

    Unfortunately, mortality statistics are not available for Saudi Arabia. In the absence of such data, this paper introduces data collected on the number of deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD), considered as a proportion of the total number of deaths, for patients in six hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, for each month of the years 1409H and 1410H of the Hijri lunar calendar. These proportions, the so-called proportionate mortality ratio (PMR), are categorized in terms of gender and age, and in terms of a three-level lifestyle variable; namely, rural, urban, or bedouin. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. As might be expected, female deaths from CHD are a lower proportion of total deaths than are male deaths from CHD. However, an interesting conclusion is that CHD seems to be a less prevalent recorded cause of death among bedouins than among rural or urban Saudis. Some possible reasons are discussed. The proportion of recorded CHD deaths is higher in winter months and generally increases with increasing age (except for the very old). This study suggests some hypotheses about the size of the future CHD incidence in Saudi Arabia; it a) indicates the urgent need for comprehensive data collection and b) suggests the need for an effective health care program.

  13. Shortage of psychotropic medications in community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia: Causes and solutions.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruthia, Yazed Sulaiman; Mansy, Wael; Barasin, Mohammad; Ghawaa, Yazeed Mohammad; AlSultan, Mohammed; Alsenaidy, Mohammad A; Alhawas, Solaiman; AlGhadeer, Sultan

    2017-07-01

    Background: Patients with mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, who seek medical care in private psychiatric clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, have recently expressed concerns to doctors about difficulty in filling psychotropic medications, such as Amitriptyline and Aripiprazole, at retail community pharmacies. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a shortage of some commonly prescribed psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies in Saudi Arabia, and if so, to explore the possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications. Methods: The availability of 28 commonly prescribed psychotropic medications was checked in multiple retail community pharmacies in 4 different regions of Saudi Arabia. Further, potential reasons behind the shortage of some psychotropic medications in retail community pharmacies were also explored. Results: Amitriptyline, Amoxapine, Aripiprazole, Bupropion, Buspirone, Duloxetine, Haloperidol, Hydroxyzine, Lithium, Prochlorperazine, Procyclidine, Promethazine, Thioridazine, Trazodone, and Trifluoperazine were unavailable in over half of the 248 community pharmacies surveyed. Four possible reasons behind the shortage of these medications were reported by 31 pharmacists working in different retail community pharmacies' purchasing departments, with a majority (58.06%) reporting the primary reason for a shortage of these medications that they are slow-moving items with low profit margins. Conclusions: The findings of this study should expedite the reform process in both the Ministry of Health and the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) to publish and enforce an essential list of medications for retail community pharmacies, which should include the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medications.

  14. A comparison of public attitudes in Britain and Saudi Arabia towards auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Wahass, S; Kent, G

    1997-01-01

    The successful introduction of community interventions is partly dependent on public beliefs about the aetiology and treatment of psychiatric difficulties and tolerance of community integration. This study examined community attitudes towards auditory hallucinations in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Kingdom (UK) concerning (a) causes of auditory hallucinations, (b) the efficacy of interventions and (c) levels of social rejection. Responses from 281 patients attending their general practitioners indicated that those living in Saudi Arabia were most likely to believe that hallucinations are caused by Satan or due to magic, while the UK sample were more likely to cite schizophrenia or brain damage. While the Saudi sample believed that religious assistance would be most effective, the UK sample supported medication and psychological therapies. Beliefs about aetiology and treatment were unrelated to educational attainment. There was a greater degree of social rejection of patients in Saudi Arabia, but here educational attainment was of significance. These results suggest that beliefs about aetiology are related to treatment recommendations and social distancing, and thus have implications for the care of Arabic patients living in Western countries as well as for the use of Western interventions in non-Western cultures.

  15. The major medical ethical challenges facing the public and healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alkabba, Abdulaziz F.; Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.; Albar, Adnan A.; Bahnassy, Ahmad A.; Qadi, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite the relatively high expenditure on healthcare in Saudi Arabia, its health system remains highly centralized in the main cities with its primary focus on secondary and tertiary care rather than primary care. This has led to numerous ethical challenges for the healthcare providers. This article reports the results of a study conducted with a panel of practitioners, and non-clinicians, in Saudi Arabia, in order to identify the top ten ethical challenges for healthcare providers, patients, and their families. Materials and Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and qualitative one. The participants were asked the question: “What top ten ethical challenges are Saudis likely to face in health care?” The participants were asked to rank the top ten ethical challenges throughout a modified Delphi process, using a ranking Scale. A consensus was reached after three rounds of questions and an experts’ meeting. Results: The major 10 ethical issues, as perceived by the participants in order of their importance, were: (1) Patients’ Rights, (2) Equity of resources, (3) Confidentiality of the patients, (4) Patient Safety, (5) Conflict of Interests, (6) Ethics of privatization, (7) Informed Consent, (8) Dealing with the opposite sex, (9) Beginning and end of life, and (10) Healthcare team ethics. Conclusion: Although many of the challenges listed by the participants have received significant public and specialized attention worldwide, scant attention has been paid to these top challenges in Saudi Arabia. We propose several possible steps to help address these key challenges. PMID:22518351

  16. Saudi Arabia: A future regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2015-10-01

    Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy.

  17. Dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs in Saudi Arabia: A call for implementation.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Alkattan, Wael; Alkattan, Khaled; Obeidat, Akef S

    2016-01-01

    Engaging medical students in scholarly research activities and producing clinically competent and research-oriented medical workforces are essential demands, particularly in developing countries. Dual-degree MD-PhD programs offer simultaneous rigorous education in medicine and research, and train its graduates (physician-scientists) to successfully catalyze translational research evolutions. Literature fundamentally identifies dual-degree MD-PhD programs as the single most important, well-established, popular and influential programs toward commencing physician-scientist professions. While the physician-scientist population is alarmingly vanishing in the West with ongoing efforts to reverse this undesired trend, such population is largely nonexisting, unfortunately to start with, in Saudi Arabia. This is simply because no single dual-degree MBBS-PhD program is yet established in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we call on the Saudi Higher Education bodies to implement dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs with anticipated generation of competent physician-scientists in Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report to call for such innovative implementation.

  18. Glycemic indices, glycemic load and glycemic response for seventeen varieties of dates grown in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlGeffari, Metab Ali; Almogbel, Ebtehal Solaiman; Alhomaidan, Homaidan Turki; El-Mergawi, Ragab; Barrimah, Issam Alsaed

    2016-01-01

    Dates are consumed worldwide, and are an important fruit for many individuals in Saudi Arabia. Currently, limited information is available on the glycemic indices of different date varieties. To determine the glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL) and glycemic response for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. Prospective clinical trial on healthy subjects. College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. The available carbohydrate content of Tamer stage dates was determined using standard laboratory methods. Healthy subjects (ten males and nine females) received 50 g of glucose (on three separate occasions) and 50 g equivalent of available carbohydrates from the seventeen varieties of date (each once). The GI and GL were then calculated. GI, GL, and glycemic response. The mean (SEM) GI of the date samples was 55.2 (7.7) (range, 42.8-74.6). Sellaj and Maktoomi exhibited the highest GI (74.6 [10.1] and 71.0 [11.1]), respectively, whereas Shaqra, Sukkary, and Sag'ai had the lowest GI (42.8 [5.5], 43.4 [4.7] and 44.6 [6]), respectively. The GL of the date samples ranged from 8.5 to 24. Sellaj had a high GL (24), whereas Ajwah and Shaqra had a low GL (8.5 and 9.2). The analyses suggested no significant difference in GI between the date varieties. However, the GL values differed significantly between the 17 date varieties (P < .001). The results provide reliable GI and GL values for 17 common date varieties in Saudi Arabia. The identification of date varieties with lower glycemic responses may help lower the GI of the diet of both healthy and diabetic Saudi individuals. We used dates at the Tamer stage, which may not be translatable to all types of dates.

  19. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Alharbi, Othman R; Azzam, Nahla A; Almalki, Ahmed S; Alswat, Khalid A; Almadi, Majid A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn's disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn's disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn's disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS), was used to register Crohn's disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients' characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Among 497 patients with Crohn's disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Crohn's disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  20. Cultural competence among nursing students in Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, J P; Alquwez, N; Cruz, C P; Felicilda-Reynaldo, R F D; Vitorino, L M; Islam, S M S

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the cultural competence of nursing students in a Saudi University. With the current situation of immigration in Saudi Arabia, the cultural diversity in healthcare facilities is anticipated to grow. This presents a great challenge to the members of the healthcare team. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 272 nursing students in a Saudi university using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts, namely the respondents' demographics and cultural background information sheet and the Cultural Capacity Scale Arabic version. The respondents showed the highest competence in their ability to demonstrate communication skills with culturally diverse patients and lowest in the familiarity with health- or illness-related cultural knowledge or theory. Gender, academic level, clinical exposure, prior diversity training, the experience of taking care of culturally diverse patients and patients belonging to special population groups were significant factors that could likely to influence cultural competence. The findings suggest that the Saudi nursing students possess the ability to provide culturally appropriate nursing care to patients with a diverse cultural background. Despite the good cultural competence reflected in this study, some aspects in ensuring a culturally competent care rendered by Saudi nursing students need to be improved. With the country's Saudization policy in health care (replacing foreign nurses with Saudi nurses), the findings can be used in designing training and interventions to meet the needs of Saudi nursing students regarding cultural competence development, which is integral in their preparation to assume their future roles as nurses. Policy guidelines, such as including cultural competency training and foreign languages training as mandatory continuing education for nurses, as well as integrating cultural competency and foreign languages in the prelicensure curriculum, should be developed and implemented in

  1. Public knowledge on cancer and its determinants among Saudis in the Riyadh Region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Mohamed, Gamal; Al-Hamdan, Nasser Abdulrahman

    2010-01-01

    Earlier studies on cancer knowledge/awareness from Saudi Arabia have been few and mostly limited to knowledge of and attitude towards breast cancer. The objectives of the present cross sectional study were to determine the levels of knowledge concerning cancer and to identify associated factors. This study was carried out among 1,407 Saudis who were either patients or their escorts, attending selected hospitals in Riyadh region and aged 15 years or more. Required information was obtained by interview using a piloted Arabic questionnaire. Associations between different variables and respondents knowledge were evaluated by Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the potential impact of the variables. This study population consisted of 688 males and 719 females. Approximately two thirds of participants (67.6%) had never heard of any cancer warning signals, but 80.7% believed some cancers can be cured if detected early, 27.1% believed cancer means end of life and 74.2% believed cancer will appear overnight. The majority of the respondents (65.1%) received information about cancer from television/radio. Although 1,159 had high level knowledge (scored 50.0% and more), only 233 individuals scored 75.0% and more. Significant differences in the knowledge level across age groups, educational levels and marital status were observed. Females had higher level knowledge than males. Odds of having high level knowledge about cancer was 5.27 times higher among those who had undergone any of the tests (breast self examination, mammography, occult blood, Papanicolau smear) compared to those who had none of those tests (95% CI: 1.87-14.8). Those who had heard about any cancer warning signal were more knowledgeable (OR=1.55; 95% CI: 1.10-2.19) than those who hadn't. The other most important determinants of knowledge level included age, and attending a primary health care centre. Our results suggest that the knowledge of cancer is poor among the

  2. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  3. The Political, Socio-Economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilal, Kholoud T.; Scott, Safiyyah; Maadad, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country's King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and…

  4. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  5. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  6. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-10-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor's degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1-6.3]). Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results.

  7. Sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior as risk factors for human papillomavirus infection in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alhamlan, F S; Khayat, H H; Ramisetty-Mikler, S; Al-Muammar, T A; Tulbah, A M; Al-Badawi, I A; Kurdi, W I; Tulbah, M I; Alkhenizan, A A; Hussain, A N; Ahmed, M; Al-Ahdal, M N

    2016-05-01

    To determine the prevalence and the sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behavior risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a hospital-based cohort of women in Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens and questionnaire data were collected from women attending clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Cervical specimens were examined for abnormal cytology using a standard Pap test and for the presence of HPV-DNA using PCR and reverse line blot hybridization tests. Approximately 73% of the 400 women tested were Saudi nationals. Nearly 50% were under 40 years old (range 22-80 years, mean±standard deviation 41.20±10.43 years). Approximately 17% of the women were HPV-positive. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-18 (34%) and HPV-16 (19%), with multiple infections detected in 10% of positive specimens. Multivariate analyses revealed that smoking and multiple partners were significant risk factors for HPV infection (p<0.01). Because of societal challenges and an unsubstantiated assumption of low HPV prevalence, few studies have examined sociodemographic characteristics or sexual behaviors associated with HPV in Saudi women. However, a high prevalence of HPV infection was found, with smoking and multiple partners as significant risk factors, in this hospital-based cohort of predominantly Saudi women. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The education and contribution of women health care professionals in Saudi Arabia: the case of nursing.

    PubMed

    el-Sanabary, N

    1993-12-01

    "Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject.

  9. Assessing the current state of dental informatics in saudi arabia: the new frontier.

    PubMed

    Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research.

  10. Patients' Satisfaction with Primary Health Care Centers' Services, Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elsadig Yousif; Sami, Waqas; Alotaibi, Abdullah; Alfarag, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Ahmed; Alanzi, Fahad

    2015-04-01

    PHC Patient' satisfaction represents a key marker for the quality of health care delivery and this internationally accepted factor needs to be studied repeatedly for smooth functioning of the health care systems. The objectives of the current study were to determine the level of patients' satisfaction with the primary health care services provided in Majmaah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; to identify the reasons behind satisfaction or dissatisfaction and to determine the effect of the social factors on the level of satisfaction. The study was a cross-sectional facility- based. The sample comprised 370 patients selected by stratified and systematic sampling at the health centers' level and the patients' level respectively. The data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Patients' level of satisfaction was 82%. The reasons behind satisfaction were cleanliness of the facilities and technical competencies of the staff (33.1% and 24.2%). The study showed that the most stated reason behind dissatisfaction was the unsuitable buildings (29%). Significant association was found between the level of patients' satisfaction about PHC centers services and the respondents' level of education. The level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers in Majmaah is high. The gender, marital status and income have no effect on the level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers. However, the lower educated are more satisfied than the higher educated. Cleanliness, competence of the staff along with respect and good handling are the drivers behind the high level of satisfaction.

  11. Outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Aleanizy, Fadilah Sfouq; Mohmed, Nahla; Alqahtani, Fulwah Y; El Hadi Mohamed, Rania Ali

    2017-01-05

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is proposed to be a zoonotic disease. Dromedary camels have been implicated due to reports that some confirmed cases were exposed to camels. Risk factors for MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans are incompletely understood. This study aimed to describe the demographic characteristics, mortality rate, clinical manifestations and comorbidities with confirmed cases of MERS-CoV. Retrospective chart review were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia who reported to the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Saudi Arabia and WHO between April 23, 2014 and August 31, 2015. Patients' charts were also reviewed for demographic information, mortality, comorbidities, clinical presentations, health care facility and presented with descriptive and comparative statistics using non parametric binomial test and Chi-square test. Confirmed cases of male patients (61.1%) exceeded those of female patients (38.9%). Infections among Saudi patients (62.6%) exceeded those among non-Saudi patients (37.4%; P = 0.001). The majority of the patients were aged 21-40 years (37.4%) or 41-60 years (35.8%); 43 (22.6%) were aged >61 years, and (8) 4.2% were aged 0-20 years. There was a difference in mortality between confirmed MERS-CoV cases (63.7% alive versus 36.3% dead cases, respectively). Furthermore, fever with cough and shortness of breath (SOB) (n = 39; 20.5%), fever with cough (n = 29; 15.3%), fever (n = 18; 9.5%), and fever with SOB (n = 13; 6.8%), were the most common clinical manifestations associated with confirmed MERS-CoV cases. MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The results of the present study showed that the frequency of cases is higher among men than women, in Saudi patients than non-Saudi, and those between 21 to 60 years are most affected. Further studies are required to improve the surveillance associated with MERS-CoV to get definite and clear answers

  12. Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

  13. Geology of the Jabal Riah area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Jabal Riah area is in the southern part of the Jibal al Hamdah quadrangle (lat 19?00'00'' to 19?07'S0'' N., long 45?37'30'' to 43?45'00' E.) in the southeastern Precambrian Shield, Asir Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines, which is part of the Jabal Ishmas-Wadi Tathlith gold belt, is in the west-central part of the area. Rocks in the Jabal Riah area consist of Precambrian layered metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks intruded by Precambrian igneous rocks. The metamorphic rocks are, from oldest to youngest, interlayered hornblende and biotite schist, quartz-biotite schist, hornblende schist, serpentinite, and chlorite schist. The igneous rocks are, from oldest to youngest, diorite-gabbro including dikes, granodiorite, monzogranite-granodiorite, leucocratic quartz porphyry, rhyolite, and aplite and pegmatite dikes. A large area of jasper replaces serpentinite. On the valley floors, recent alluvium and pediment deposits overlie the bedrock. The structure of the area is dominated by a dome centered over the eastern border of the area; leucocratic quartz porphyry forms the core of the dome. Minor folds and faults are present. The Jabal Mahanid group of ancient gold mines is on a northwest-trending vein system, and major ancient mine areas are found where the system splits or changes direction. The veins consist of zones of brecciated and crushed rock, which are generally less than 0.5 m wide but may be as wide as 1 m. These zones contain quartz and calcite stringers and commonly are along hornblende schist-serpentinite contacts; however, they also cut both units. Most aplite, pegmatite, and quartz dikes in the area are thin and discontinuous and are intruded along the vein trend. Similar veins, at the same stratigraphic interval, have been found beyond the northeastern part of the map area. The veins contain detectable gold and silver (median gold, approximately 0.14 ppm; median silver, approximately 1 ppm). Gold and

  14. Saudi Arabia’s Nuclear Posture: Is Hedging the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    encourage Iran to uphold the treaty. As evident in Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu’s 2015 campaign to deter U.S.–Iranian negotiations as well as...debate over whether the Saudis are even capable of pacing the Iranians in terms of technological progress. Fareed Zakaria speaks to the viability of a...manufactured automobile rolls off the assembly line in the next few years.17 This thesis considers this debate in deliberating over Saudi Arabia’s ability to

  15. Sedimentological, Mineralogical and Geochemical Characterization of Sand Dunes in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Abdullatif, Osman

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical, morphological and geochemical studies of sand dunes from ten locations in Saudi Arabia were conducted in order to determine the differences between them and to find out the provenance and tectonic setting of these sand dunes. Sixty seven samples were collected from different sand dunes types ranging in morphology from linear, barchans, parabolic to stars dunes. In overall, the sand dunes are fine to coarse grained mean grain size, moderately sorted, near symmetrical skewness with mesokurtic distribution characterized sand dunes in most locations. The sand dunes grains are subrounded in all locations except in the Red sea, Qassim, central Arabia and the eastern province which showed sub-angular grains. The main mineral compositions of studied aeolian sand dunes are quartz, feldspar, calcite, and mica. Quartz is the dominant mineral in locations with significant amount of feldspars and mica in Najran, Red sea and Central Arabia locations. Moreover, calcite is present in Sakaka and NW Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Basement related sand dunes in Najran, Central Arabia and Red sea locations are sub-mature in terms of their mineralogical maturity. Whereas, sand dunes in other locations are texturally mature except those from the Red sea which showed sub-mature sand. The sands are classified as quartz arenite, except in the basement related sand dunes in Najran, central Arabia and the Red sea are ranging from sub-arkose, sub-litharenite and lithraenite. Morphologically, parallel to sub-parallel sand ridges with NE-SW orientation occurred in east and north parts of Empty Quarter (Najran and Jafurah) and NW-SE orientation in Dahna and Nafud deserts in central and north regions of Saudi Arabia. Parabolic sand dunes characterized the Nafud desert (Hail, Sakaka, Tayma locations). Barchans and star sand dunes characterize the Empty Quarter (Jafurah). Major, trace, and rare earth elements studies were carried out to determine the composition

  16. Stratigraphy and macrofauna of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Gameil, Mohamed; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled M.

    2017-10-01

    The stratigraphy and macrofaunal content of the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Marrat Formation was studied at Khashm adh Dhibi, central Saudi Arabia. The studied succession is dominated by limestones and dolomites, with subordinate occurrences of sandstones, siltstones and claystones. The formation is highly fossiliferous with brachiopods, gastropods, bivalves, ammonites and echinoids, particularly the lower and upper members. Twenty nine species are identified, they include 7 species of brachiopods, 8 gastropods, 8 bivalves, 4 ammonites and 2 echinoids. Many of the identified fauna are correlated with Jurassic equivalents in Jordan, Italy, Morocco, Egypt and India. Three gastropod species: Globularia subumbilicata, Ampullospira sp., Purpuroidea peristriata and seven bivalve species: Palaeonucula lateralis, Chlamys (Radulopecten) fibrosa, Eligmus weiri, E.integer, E. asiaticus, Musculus somaliensis and Pholadomya orientalis were recognized for the first time in the Lower Jurassic deposits of Saudi Arabia.

  17. Public perceptions and attitudes to biological risks: Saudi Arabia and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Saud Ali; Rezgui, Yacine; Li, Haijiang

    2016-10-01

    Saudi Arabia has experienced frequent occurrences of biological disasters due to a wide range of generator factors, including natural disasters and epidemics. A national survey (n=1,164) was conducted across 13 regions of Saudi Arabia to examine public perceptions to the risk of a biological disaster. The primary results reveal: (a) a degree of knowledge about biological threats such as SARS and H5N1 flu, despite the lack of individual experience with disasters; (b) age, gender, education and faith are positively related to the perception of biological risk; and (c) a number of important community resilience factors exist, including faith, education and willingness. This study concludes that the development of adapted resilience strategies in disaster management can be achieved through public education and training involving cooperation with official organisations and religious authorities in the country to increase public awareness, knowledge and skills in mitigating biological threats.

  18. Continuing medical education as a national strategy to improve access to primary care in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program in family medicine for general practitioners in Saudi Arabia from 2009 to 2011. A continuing medical education program called Family Medicine Education (FAME) was developed with 7 modules each consisting of 12-14 hours of teaching to be delivered in 3 day blocks, over 45 days. Twenty percent (2,761) of all general practitioners participated in the FAME program. Initial assessment of the program showed significant improvement of knowledge from scores of 49% on a pre-test to 89% on post-tests. FAME program in Saudi Arabia facilitated primary care physicians’ knowledge. PMID:24250833

  19. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    To explore medical students' attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills.   In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students' attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%.  The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group.   Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age.

  20. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

    2013-08-29

    Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus.

  1. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  2. Gender and risk of depression in Saudi Arabia, a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alibrahim, Osama A.; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Elawad, Nagi A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the year 2000 depression accounted for 4.4% of the global disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a population of 28 million people and is one of the countries experiencing demographic transition in its population structure. Improvements in socioeconomic status have been shown to be associated with increased chronic diseases including chronic mental diseases like depression, but still there is no comprehensive review summarizing the various reports currently existing in the literature. Although individual studies within Saudi Arabia have reported prevalence rates and risks, the quality of such studies need to be subjected to rigorous assessment and their findings pooled to give combined weighted evidence that will provide basis for targeted intervention. Pooled risks have the advantage of adjusting inherent variations within sampled populations and therefore providing more reliable estimates even though there are concerns about possible magnification of smaller individual risks.

  3. STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

  4. Attitudes of medical students toward communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Fawaz S.; Alsaeedi, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore medical students’ attitudes towards communication skills learning in Western Saudi Arabia and to examine impact of socio-demographic variables on the attitudes towards learning these skills. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, sample of medical students were recruited from Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the second semester (January-May 2014). Participants were all year 2 (197 students) and year 5 (151 students). The study utilize the Communication Skills Attitude Scale (CSAS) to measure students’ attitudes toward communication skills learning. The response rate was 93.9%. Results: The study showed that Taif medical students hold highly positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitude score (PAS) was significantly higher in level 5 students, older age group. Conclusion: Significant positive attitude toward learning communication skills clearly observed in target group. Students with more positive attitudes towards communication skills learning tended to be higher level and older age. PMID:27381541

  5. Development of GIS-based Wind Potential Map of Makkah Province, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.

    2011-12-01

    Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.

  6. STS-65 Earth observation of center-pivot irrigation in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of center-pivot irrigation in North Central Saudi Arabia. This 250mm color photograph shows a small section of desert land where center-pivot irrigation is used for crop production. This particular area is representative of a much larger area within Saudi Arabia where this agricultural practice is being applied. The water is being extracted from subsurface reserves that infiltrated deep aquifers over the Central Arabian Arch during previous geological periods, when the climate was much wetter than present. This view is an example of the use of abundant fossil water to achieve self sufficiency in food production. Note OV-102's vertical stabilizer and tail cap are visible in the view.

  7. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Saudi Arabia: Are We Ready?

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed as a global healthcare priority with an emphasis on evidence-based interventions. In addition, this paper will assess Saudi Arabia's readiness to prevent CAN and the challenges that will be faced by the professionals in implementing evidence-based CAN prevention programs. PMID:22048511

  8. Evaluation of hearing among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia).

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Fahd Ali; Ahmed, Mohamed Rifaat

    2015-09-01

    Hearing loss among kindergarten children is considered as a major health problem especially when there is a deficiency in routine hearing screening during the clinical examination. The aim of the study was to detect any pattern of hearing loss among kindergarten children in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). A total of 1220 kindergarten students in Jazan (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) were subjected to meticulous hearing evaluation using otological examination, Tuning fork tests, pure tone audiometry (PTA), speech audiometry, and tympanometry. We found that 18 kindergarten students had type C tympanogram (Eustachian tube dysfunction), 28 had type B tympanogram (secretory otitis media with conductive hearing loss), 4 had chronic otitis media with conductive hearing loss, and 6 had mild sensorineural hearing loss. Early detection and eradication of hearing loss improves quality of life outcomes of children which reduces the incidence of social burden from unrecognized hearing loss.

  9. Association between food intake frequency and obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to discover the association between the intake of certain foods and the occurrence of obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multistage sampling method was conducted among girls aged 12-19 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The total sample was 512. Obesity was calculated based on the International Obesity Task Force standards. Findings revealed that obese girls were less likely to eat fruit, vegetables, meat, chicken and dairy products than non-obese girls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, the risk of being obese was greater for those who consumed chocolates and sweets (odds ratio=1.57) and fast foods (odds ratio=1.35) more than three times a week. Thus, programs to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren should include appropriate intervention on changing dietary habits.

  10. Natural and human-induced sinkhole hazards in Saudi Arabia: distribution, investigation, causes and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.

  11. Demonstration and development of control mechanism for radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Kheliewi, A. S.

    2012-06-06

    Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.

  12. Micro-seismic Study for Central Part of Saudi Arabia y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Fayez, A.

    2005-05-01

    Having experience with monitoring Earthquakes plus the fact that Riyadh is yconstantly subjected to Micro-earthquakes through out the year. Riyadh city and ycentral part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a yrelativity stable platform. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at yKing Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed 9 earthquake portable ystations in central part of Saudi Arabia to record micro-seismicty that caused by local yfaults and natural artificial. We recorded many events in study area mostly theses yevents were not felt. We used digital digitizer recorders ( RefTek 72A) in collecting ythe data and SAISAN software for analyses. The main objective of this study is to ydefine the active faults in Riyadh city and surrounded area that can affect the city. y

  13. The occurrence of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater effluents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alidina, Mazahirali; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Yoon, Min; Hamadeh, Ahmed F; Li, Dong; Drewes, Jörg E

    2014-04-15

    Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health.

  14. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. Objectives We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. Methods A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants’ suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. Results The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse

  15. Economic Dimensions of US Relations with Iran and Saudi Arabia in the 1980’s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-26

    dissemination of wealth among middle and lower classes (including expatriates) in Saudi Arabia has proven to be a remarkably effective emollient for latent...extra revenues. The large drop in price resulted in only 200,000 b/d rise in exports, some of which went to barter deals in Eastern Europe. In effect ...capital. While these programs are expensive, the stabilizing effect of satisfying rising expectations has not been lost on the ruling house of Saud, and

  16. A new species of Leptadenia (Apocynaceae) and two other new records from southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Masrahi, Yahya S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptadenia jazanica Y. Masrahi from the province of Jazan, southwestern Saudi Arabia is described as a new species and illustrated. The species differs from the other known nearest species of the genus, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, by decumbent to scrambling habit of stems and persistent leaves. In the same province also two new records belonging to the genera Canavalia (Fabaceae) and Craterostigma (Scrophulariaceae) were collected; they were identified as Canavalia virosa (Roxb.) Wight & Arn. and Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. PMID:26288569

  17. Television watching, diet and body mass index of school children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Iqbal, Zaheen A

    2016-04-01

    Watching television has been widely associated with various health and psychological outcomes in children. Excessive intake of carbonated, sweetened beverages and fast foods, inadequate intake of fruit and dairy products; and reduced levels of physical activity also pose a risk to healthy lifestyle among youth. Limited literature is available, however, on the cross-cultural aspects of duration of television viewing, diet preferences and their effect on weight in school children in the Middle East, especially in Saudi Arabia. We conducted an online survey in school children in Saudi Arabia (age 12-16 years) to determine whether there is any association between duration of daily television watching, body mass index (BMI), eating habits and diet preferences. A self-administered questionnaire was uploaded online and the link was sent to school children, inviting them to participate in the study. It included questions on demographic data; family medical status; daily routine in and after school; number of hours of daily TV watching, self-perception of health and daily diet habits and preferences. A total of 220 children aged between 12 and 16 years participated in the present study. There was a higher duration of television viewing, and higher consumption of high-fat fast foods and high-sugar drinks, and this was significantly associated with BMI (P < 0.05). The availability of television in children's bedrooms, and of high-fat foods and drinks at school and in other cafeterias in Saudi Arabia seems to be the major cause of the association between sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits, which needs to be checked and limited. Parents and teachers need to be trained because they can play a major role in its prevention. Saudi Arabia is a growing country banking on its youth. Their awareness can prevent the incidence and lower the prevalence of such ill health habits among them. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Almdal, T P; Handlos, L N; Valerius, M; Juul, E; Nielsen, K E; Vistisen, D; Nielsen, L B; Sheikh, A; Belhadj, M; Nadir, D; Zinai, S; Raposo, J; Lund-Andersen, H; Witte, D R

    2014-03-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% (42-47 mmol/mol) and in individuals with HbA(1c) >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstetric and gynecologic malpractice claims in Saudi Arabia: Incidence and cause.

    PubMed

    AlDakhil, Lateefa O

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of a bad outcome, injury or death of a patient during treatment increases the chance of malpractice litigation, increases legal responsibility and leads to increased fees for malpractice insurance. Physicians practicing obstetrics and gynecology face among the highest risks of malpractice litigation, and such litigation has led to an increase in the practice of defensive medicine and has made this specialty less appealing. Previous clinical data from Saudi Arabia have shown that more malpractice litigation concerns claims in obstetrics and gynecology than claims in any other field of medicine. To identify the main causes of obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) professional liability claims in Saudi Arabia to have a better understanding and management of risks. All OBGYN claims opened in Saudi Arabia between 2008 and 2013 were analyzed to identify the most common causes of claims. The results of these claims and the times until a final judgment made were also analyzed. Out of a total of 463 malpractice claims that were closed during the study period, 114 (24.6%) claims were in obstetrics and gynecology, and 92 (80.7%) of these claims concerned complications related to delivery room events. The most common causes of obstetric malpractice litigation were shoulder dystocia (brachial plexus injury) and fetal distress (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy). Urinary system injury was the most common cause of gynecology cases. Most cases were decided in favor of the defendants with the exception of cases for which maternal and/or fetal death was the cause of litigation; nearly all of those cases were decided against the defendants. Obstetricians face a high risk of malpractice claims in Saudi Arabia, although most claims do not end in payments to plaintiffs. However, the effects of such claims on obstetric care should not be underestimated. Adherence to standards of care and careful documentation may decrease litigation and the number of indefensible malpractice

  20. Occupational ocular incidents in dentists: a multicentre study in southwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alsabaani, Nasser A; Awadalla, Nabil J; Abu Saq, Ibrahim H; Abualiat, Zeyad M; Alshahrani, Mohammed A; Alqahtani, Abdulaziz M; Alshuraym, Masoud M

    2017-07-04

    Dental practitioners are at high risk of occupational ocular incidents during their daily work practice. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, pattern and determinants of ocular incidents and to establish the use of eye protection by dental staff in southwestern Saudi Arabia. This multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted among dental practitioners working in private, military and Ministry of Health dental clinics in southwestern Saudi Arabia. A predesigned self-report questionnaire was used to elicit information on demographics, splash or foreign body ocular incidents, postincident practices and use of eye protection. Of the 233 dental practitioners examined, 29.6% and 51.1% reported ocular incidents as a result of foreign bodies and fluid splashing, respectively. The risk of ocular incidents as a result of fluid splashing was significantly higher in the absence of postgraduate qualification [odds ratio (OR) = 3.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.70-5.43], poor compliance with wearing eye protection (OR = 2.52, 95% CI: 1.49-4.28) and long work hours (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.17-3.96). The most frequent postexposure practice was to rinse eyes under running water (87.5%). Approximately 4.2% and 9.2% of dental practitioners reported incidents of ocular injury and infection, respectively, and 14% reported that they never wore any eye protection. Occupational ocular incidents as a result of splashing and foreign bodies are relatively common among dental practitioners in southwestern Saudi Arabia. The absence of postgraduate qualification, poor compliance with wearing eye protection and working long hours are predictors of ocular incidents. Awareness about eye safety is therefore considered mandatory for dental practitioners in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Also, dental clinic administrators should provide and promote the use of eye protection. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Methods A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011–2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Results Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. Conclusion The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion

  2. Community pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors at community pharmacy setting in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Arifi, Mohamed N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The main objective of this study was to survey pharmacists’ attitudes toward dispensing errors in community pharmacy settings in Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia was conducted over a period of 6 months from March through September 2012. A stratified random sample of eight hundred registered pharmacy practitioners was collected all over Riyadh region. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version19.0 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois). Results The response rate was almost 82%. The majority of the respondents are young adults (90.2%). The median for years of registration of respondent pharmacists was 9 years (range 1–37 years). About 62% (407) of the respondents have a positive response while only 37.8% (n = 248) have a negative response in this respect. The major factors identified were pharmacist assistant (82.2%) and high workload (72.5%). The most appreciated factors that help reducing dispensing errors are improving doctors’ hand writing and reducing work load of the pharmacist (82.9% and 82.8% respectively), having drug names that are distinctive (76.1%) and having more than one pharmacist in duty (75.5%). Conclusion In conclusion, majority of community pharmacists indicated that the risk of dispensing errors was increasing and most of them were aware of dispensing errors. It is obvious from the study results that dispensing errors is a big concern for community pharmacy practice in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the professional organizations and Pharmacy Boards in Saudi Arabia to determine standards for the profession. PMID:25061403

  3. Broadband Seismic Station Deployment at Hadabat Al-Marhi, Halban, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Lewis, J P; Al-Amri, A

    2002-02-11

    A broadband three-component seismic station was deployed on the Arabian Shield near the town of Halban in central Saudi Arabia. This site is near the proposed site of a primary seismic array (PS38) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The purpose of this deployment was to collect calibration data for the primary array to be deployed in the future.

  4. Burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia among hospitalized patients in Lebanon and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O; Matar, Madonna J; Moghnieh, Rima; Alothman, Adel F; Alenazi, Thamer H; Farahat, Fayssal; Corman, Shelby; Solem, Caitlyn T; Raghubir, Nirvana; Macahilig, Cynthia; Haider, Seema; Stephens, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the real-world treatment patterns and burden of suspected or confirmed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. A retrospective chart review study evaluated 2011-2012 data from hospitals in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon. Patients were included if they had been discharged with a diagnosis of MRSA pneumonia, which was culture proven or suspected based on clinical criteria. Hospital data were abstracted for a random sample of patients to capture demographics (eg, age and comorbidities), treatment patterns (eg, timing and use of antimicrobials), hospital resource utilization (eg, length of stay), and clinical outcomes (eg, clinical status at discharge and mortality). Descriptive results were reported using frequencies or proportions for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables. Chart-level data were collected for 93 patients with MRSA pneumonia, 50 in Saudi Arabia and 43 in Lebanon. The average age of the patients was 56 years, and 60% were male. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (39%), congestive heart failure (30%), coronary artery disease (29%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (28%). Patients most frequently had positive cultures from pulmonary (87%) and blood (27%) samples. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and linezolid, and only one-third of the isolates tested were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. Beta-lactams (inactive therapy for MRSA) were prescribed 21% of the time across all lines of therapy, with 42% of patients receiving first-line beta-lactams. Fifteen percent of patients did not receive any antibiotics that were considered to be MRSA active. The mean hospital length of stay was 32 days, and in-hospital mortality was 30%. The treatment for MRSA pneumonia in Saudi Arabia and Lebanon may be suboptimal with inactive therapy prescribed a substantial proportion of the time. The information gathered

  5. Challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Mahmoud, Mansour Adam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Alrasheedy, Alian; Alahmad, Amjad; Saleem, Fahad; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Michael; Bates, David W

    2014-09-01

    Medication safety is a global concern among healthcare providers. However, the challenges to and the future of medication safety in Saudi Arabia have not been explored. We explored the perspectives of healthcare practitioners on current issues about medication safety in hospitals and community settings in Saudi Arabia in order to identify challenges to improving it and explore the future of medication safety practice. A total of 65 physicians, pharmacists, academics and nurses attended a one-day meeting in March 2010, designed especially for the purpose of this study. The participants were divided into nine round-table discussion sessions. Three major themes were explored in these sessions, including: major factors contributing to medication safety problems, challenges to improving medication safety practice, and participants' suggestions for improving medication safety. The round-table discussion sessions were videotaped and transcribed verbatim and analyzed by two independent researchers. The round-table discussions revealed that major factors contributing to medication safety problems included unrestricted public access to medications from various hospitals and community pharmacies, communication gaps between healthcare institutions, limited use of important technologies such as computerized provider order entry, and the lack of medication safety programs in hospitals. Challenges to current medication safety practice identified by participants included underreporting of medication errors and adverse drug reactions, multilingualism and differing backgrounds of healthcare professionals, lack of communication between healthcare providers and patients, and high workloads. Suggestions for improving medication safety practices in Saudi Arabia included continuous education for healthcare professionals and competency assessment focusing on medication safety, development of a culture that encourages medication error and adverse drug reactions reporting, use of technology

  6. A new case for promoting wastewater reuse in Saudi Arabia: bringing energy into the water equation.

    PubMed

    Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz

    2012-07-15

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially

  7. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies. PMID:22140343

  8. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  9. Incidence and potential causative factors associated with chronic benign neutropenia in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Benign neutropenia often presents in certain populations without any genotype nor phenotype. Middle East countries are among the regions where endemic cases of chronic benign neutropenia are reported in the general population with an incidence of approximately between 10-15%. Not many studies have been performed to ascertain the cause or burden associated with this condition. The objective of the current study was to identify the frequency and characterize the consequences of chronic benign neutropenia in the country of Saudi Arabia. Results Benign neutropenia was found to be high in the Saudi Arabia general population (up to 20%), with an average neutrophil count of 1.48 (range 0.99 – 1.95 × 109cells/L), with Saudis having a higher incidence of chronic benign neutropenia compared to non-Saudis (p = <0.05). Complete blood count analyses showed significant difference in the total white cell count of neutrophils (p < 0.0001), WBC (p < 0.0001), lymphocytes (p < 0.001), monocytes (p < 0.001), eosinophils (p = 0.013) as well as the CD19 B cells (p = 0.008). Conclusions Our study is the first to carefully quantitate benign neutropenia in Saudi Arabia. We identified that this condition is prevalent in the middle aged population (18 years to 55 years). These individuals not only had lower neutrophil counts, but also reduced peripheral blood cells types, especially the B-lymphocyte population (CD19 subset). As B-lymphocytes are involved in antibody production and antigen recognition, a decrease might easily predispose the individuals to infectious agents. As such more mechanistic studies need to be undertaken to understand the cause and potential long-term consequences of benign neutropenia. PMID:25810761

  10. A country on the verge of malaria elimination--the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Michael; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H; Coleman, Marlize; Hemingway, Janet; Omar, Abdiasiis; Stanton, Michelle C; Thomsen, Eddie K; Alsheikh, Adel A; Alhakeem, Raafat F; McCall, Phillip J; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-01-01

    Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population) until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015.

  11. A Country on the Verge of Malaria Elimination – The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Michael; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H.; Coleman, Marlize; Hemingway, Janet; Omar, Abdiasiis; Stanton, Michelle C.; Thomsen, Eddie K.; Alsheikh, Adel A.; Alhakeem, Raafat F.; McCall, Phillip J.; Rabeeah, Abdullah A. Al; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Significant headway has been made in the global fight against malaria in the past decade and as more countries enter the elimination phase, attention is now focused on identifying effective strategies to shrink the malaria map. Saudi Arabia experienced an outbreak of malaria in 1998, but is now on the brink of malaria elimination, with just 82 autochthonous cases reported in 2012. A review of published and grey literature was performed to identify the control strategies that have contributed to this achievement. The number of autochthonous malaria cases in Saudi Arabia decreased by 99.8% between 1998 and 2012. The initial steep decline in malaria cases coincided with a rapid scaling up of vector control measures. Incidence continued to be reported at low levels (between 0.01 and 0.1 per 1,000 of the population) until the adoption of artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as first line treatment and the establishment of a regional partnership for a malaria-free Arabian Peninsula, both of which occurred in 2007. Since 2007, incidence has decreased by nearly an order of magnitude. Malaria incidence is now very low, but a high proportion of imported cases, continued potential for autochthonous transmission, and an increased proportion of cases attributable to Plasmodium vivax all present challenges to Saudi Arabia as they work toward elimination by 2015. PMID:25250619

  12. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almuneef, Maha A; Alghamdi, Linah A; Saleheen, Hassan N

    2016-08-01

    To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients' files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse.  The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (less than 6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children.  The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors.

  13. Towards integration of health economics into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Da'ar, Omar B; Al Shehri, Ali M

    2015-04-01

    In an era of expanding health sectors and rising costs, doctors are expected to have a working knowledge of health economics to better use resources and improve outcomes and quality of health care. This article recognizes the dearth of knowledge and application of economic analyses in medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it highlights the desirability of knowledge of health economics in ensuring certain competencies in medical education and the rationale for inviting doctors to apply knowledge of economics in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the article discusses challenges that hinder integrating health economics into clinical practice. Furthermore, the article typifies some of the important economic phenomena that physicians need to discern. Besides, the article provides implications for incorporating economic analysis into medical education and clinical practice in Saudi Arabia. Finally, the article concludes by demonstrating how health economics can enhance doctors' knowledge and recommends the country to move towards integrating health economics into medical education and clinical practice for best practice.

  14. Fluoride content of bottled drinking waters available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aldrees, Abdullah M.; Al-Manea, Saad M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to examine the fluoride concentration of commercially available bottled water products in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to assess the accuracy of the labeling of fluoride concentration on the tested brands. Methods Fifteen randomly selected commercial brands of bottled water were obtained from supermarkets in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Three bottles of each brand were purchased, and fluoride content was measured using a combination fluoride-ion-selective electrode. The average reading for each brand was estimated and also compared with the fluoride content printed on the label. Results The mean (±SD) fluoride content of the 12 local bottled water samples was 0.79 (±0.09) mg/L with a range from 0.5 to 0.83 mg/L. The mean fluoride concentration of the three imported brands was 0.67 (±0.02) mg/L with a narrow range of fluoride content (0.65–0.69). All tested samples mention the fluoride content on the label except two imported brands. Five samples showed a significant difference between our evaluation and stated content of fluoride that ranged between +0.46 and −0.2 mg/L. Conclusions Bottled drinking waters available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia contain differing concentration of fluoride, but within a safe range for use as a source of systemic fluoride. In addition, the manufactures’ labeling of fluoride content may be inaccurate. PMID:23960496

  15. Use of the target group index survey to evaluate the cigarette smoking profile in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albedah, Abdullah M; Khalil, Mohamed K; Khalil, Asim A; Elolemy, Ahmed T

    2011-10-01

    To draw a profile, and study the media habits for cigarette smokers in Saudi Arabia using the Target Group Index survey (TGI). A household survey using the TGI sample was conducted in March 2008 in 21 cities in Saudi Arabia. A sample of 7003 individuals aged 15 years or more, male and females, living in town and cities, were randomly selected using the multistage sampling technique. One individual per household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire covering socio-economic profile, media exposure, and cigarette consumer information. The study was conducted in Arabian Center for Tobacco Control, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Cigarette smoking was 35.9% in males, and 2.3% in females. This was significantly higher in the age group 30-49 years compared with younger ages (p=0.001). Among smokers, 22.3% were heavy smokers, 69.3% were using regular flavor cigarettes, and 22.4% tried to quit smoking but failed. The most common methods of quitting smoking were; nicotine gum (18.5%), hypnosis (14%), nicotine patch (8%), and acupuncture (3%). Ninety-eight percent of the smokers watched TV daily, noticed mainly big outdoor ads, and 46% used the Internet daily. Favorite TV and radio channels, newspaper, magazine, and interesting topics for the smokers were recorded, and the main smoker profile was drawn. The TGI can be used to draw a smoker profile and identify different segments with the greatest opportunities to send anti-smoking messages.

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  17. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866

  18. Electronic Dental Record (EDR) Use in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Ahmad; Bahkali, Salwa; Bahkali, Ahlam; Almaiman, Sarah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to provide an overview of the electronic dental records (EDR) systems used at National Guard Health Affair (NGHA) hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Different sources of data were collected between February 18 and March 16, 2014. Sources of data included interviews with key informants. Key informants interviews included one 30 minute interview with an information technology specialist working at NGHA; seven 30-40 minute interview with dentists working in both the NGHA hospital and affiliated NGHA Primary Healthcare Clinics (PHCs). Two dental ward clerks were interviewed for 30 minutes and two dental directors were interviewed for 1 hour each. Four main themes emerged as a result of the analysis of the data. The main themes that emerged centered on staff satisfaction and workload, incomplete information, missing files, and adoption of EDRs. There were several challenges identified with the use of EDRs in Saudi Arabia. The challenges related to resistance to use the EDRs by clinical staff; lack of computer skills by clinical staff; usability of the systems; lack of interest in using EDRs; and lack of a clear management change strategy. Moving forward, these issues should be addressed so that more EDRs are implemented in all healthcare institutions in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Meedani, Laila A; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health.

  20. Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 – 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. Conclusion: It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail – Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law. PMID:24298474

  1. Perception on the Relationship between Cancer and Usage of Tobacco and Alcohol in Hail, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed

    2013-10-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption in many countries is an important cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of tobacco use and alcohol consumption and its related perception among population of Hail, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey from March to April 2012 covering 451 participants, in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. Out of 451 respondents, 355(78.7%) were male and 96 (21.3%) were female giving a male to female ratio of 3.7:1. The age range of respondents was 11 - 77 years with a mean of 32 years. Prevalence of tobacco use and alcoholic beverages consumption were 30.3% and 7.5%, respectively. Most of the tobacco users and alcohol consumers showed positive knowledge concerning the relation between tobacco use and/or alcohol consumption and cancer. It is evident that the prevalence of tobacco consumption is rising in the Hail region. Female participation in tobacco and alcohol related studies in the Hail - Saudi Arabia represent a major obstacle since it is considered as social stigma due to complete prohibition by law.

  2. Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture.

  3. Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47. PMID:24155577

  4. Stress, shift duty, and eating behavior among nurses in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almajwal, Ali M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403

  5. Alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes in Saudi Arabia: A study in the central province.

    PubMed

    Warsy, A S; El-Hazmi, M A; Sedrani, S H; Kinhal, M

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted on 204 plasma samples obtained from Saudis living in the central province of Saudi Arabia, to determine the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) phenotypes. The alpha1AT phenotypes were separated by isoelectric focusing on ampholine gels (pH 4-5). The prevalences of PiMM, MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ were 0.8676, 0.0931, 0.0245, 0.0098, and 0.0049, respectively. The gene frequencies of the alpha1AT variants, i.e.., PiM, PiS, and PiZ, were 0.9265, 0.0515, 0.022, respectively. We describe and compare our results in a Saudi population with those reported for other populations.

  6. Are we providing modern anesthetics services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia?

    PubMed Central

    Seraj, Mohamed Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This illustrated detailed article will describe history of over forty years struggle, of hardship and discrimination to the specialty. I have with my colleagues faced obstacles and disappointments during the development of modern anaesthesia services with its subspecialties in Saudi Arabia. I have all support and encouragement from the top authorities of the university. I have managed to establish a top class anaesthesia department, Saudi Anaesthetic Association and the King Saud Fellowship in anaesthesia and intensive care within one decade. The next decade was assigned for expansion to create the Arab Board of anaesthesia and Intensive Care followed by the Saudi Specialty of anaesthesia and intensive care and its fellowship in different Subspecialties. I always wonder within myself, have I and my colleagues achieved our goal and did we do well. PMID:25885493

  7. Knowledge and Attitude towards Organ Donation among Males in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Altraif, I H; Al Sebayel, M I; Nondo, H

    1996-01-01

    Organ transplant programs are increasing in Saudi Arabia with the major barrier to transplantation being a shortage of organs. The majority of Saudi Nationals are reluctant and unwilling to donate or consent for donation. This study was undertaken to determine the knowledge and attitude towards organ donation among males in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 223 men attending the out-patient department of the National Guard Hospital, Riyadh. A total of 205 (92%) individuals answered the questionnaire. Of them, 187 (91%) were Saudis and 18 (9%) were non-Saudis. A total of 187 (88%) had heard about organ donation of whom 80 (43%) each, had acquired this knowledge through television or radio, 16 (8%) through newspaper and magazines, seven (4%) through friends and relatives, and four (2%) through health-care workers. Of the 205 study subjects, 88 (43%) claimed they understood the concept of brain-death, 96 (47%) did not, and 19 (10%) did not respond to this question. One hundred and thirty-eight (67%) were willing to donate, and 156 (76%) were willing to receive an organ. One hundred and fifteen (56%) believed that Islam permits people to donate organs, five (2%) thought Islam does not permit organ donation, 64 (31%) gave a "don't know" answer and 21 (11%) did not attempt to answer the question. In addition, 41 (20%) thought organ donation disfigures the body. In conclusion although 67% of the respondents in this survey were willing to donate, there was a significant lack of knowledge and misconception with regard to Islamic support to, and the mutilating effects of, organ donation. Public educational programs and other measures addressing these issues may help in increasing the rate of organ donation among Saudis.

  8. Biomedical research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1982-2000).

    PubMed

    Tadmouri, Ghazi O; Tadmouri, Nisrine B

    2002-01-01

    Because of the leading position of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in biomedical research among the Arab States, we aimed this study at providing a detailed analysis of the development of this domain in the Kingdom. More than 1500 queries were mainly directed to the PubMed bibliographic database. Tags, boolean operators, and wild cards were utilized. Most of the Saudi biomedical citations originated from the capital city of Riyadh (70%), particularly from the King Saud University (29.5%) and King Faisal Specialist Hospital (21.5%). One of every 5 Saudi papers either describes a disease, a blood related analysis, or surgical observations. Only 0.5% of Saudi papers appear in the 200 highest impact-factor journals. A steady advancement in biomedical research is observed in the Kingdom mainly in years 1987-1996. The absence of uniformity in writing the addresses of authors in published articles from Saudi Arabia results in misleading data about the geographical distribution of biomedical research and sometimes improper rating of the scientific institutions in the Kingdom. The most dynamic biomedical fields in the Kingdom observed in the present analysis are Hematology, Surgery, Cancer, Pharmacology, and Microbiology. The main reasons behind the small number of Saudi papers appearing in high impact-factor journals are the bias and the economics of scientific publishing. We hope that the present study will lay the foundation for more detailed investigations on the directions of biomedical research in the Kingdom and will be of great importance to better found future strategies in this important realm.

  9. The lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia: Young volcanism in an old shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Mai, P. Martin

    2016-04-01

    We are utilizing receiver function and surface wave dispersion data to investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian plate consists of the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform. The Arabian shield is a complicated mélange of several Proterozoic terrains, separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (so-called harrats). The Arabian platform is covered by thick Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. To understand the geo-dynamics and present-day geology in western Saudi Arabia, the origin and activity of the harrats needs to be investigated: are they controlled primarily by a local mantle plume underneath western Saudi Arabia or by lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps) Jordan hotspots? In our study, we first estimate Vp/Vs ratios by applying the H-κ stacking technique and construct local shear-wave velocity-depth profiles by jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). Our results reveal significant lateral variations in crustal thickness, S-velocity, and bulk Vp/Vs ratio. The Arabian shield has, on average a ~34 km thick crust with Vs ~3.72 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.73. Thinner crust (~25 - 32 km thick) with strong lateral variations is present along the Red Sea coast. In contrast, the Arabian platform reveals a ~41 km thick crust with Vs ~3.52 km/s and Vp/Vs ~1.77. We find anomalously high Vp/Vs ratios at Harrat Lunayyir, interpreted as solidified magma intrusions. Slow shear-velocities in the upper-mantle lid throughout the southernmost and northernmost Arabian shield suggest lateral heating from hot mantle upwellings centered beneath Afar and (perhaps) Jordan. Our findings on crustal S-velocity structures, Vp/Vs ratios, and upper-mantle lid velocities support the hypothesis of lateral mantle flow from the Afar and (perhaps

  10. A case cluster of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Coulthart, Michael B; Geschwind, Michael D; Qureshi, Shireen; Phielipp, Nicolas; Demarsh, Alex; Abrams, Joseph Y; Belay, Ermias; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Jansen, Gerard H; Lang, Anthony E; Schonberger, Lawrence B

    2016-10-01

    As of mid-2016, 231 cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease-the human form of a prion disease of cattle, bovine spongiform encephalopathy-have been reported from 12 countries. With few exceptions, the affected individuals had histories of extended residence in the UK or other Western European countries during the period (1980-96) of maximum global risk for human exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. However, the possibility remains that other geographic foci of human infection exist, identification of which may help to foreshadow the future of the epidemic. We report results of a quantitative analysis of country-specific relative risks of infection for three individuals diagnosed with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the USA and Canada. All were born and raised in Saudi Arabia, but had histories of residence and travel in other countries. To calculate country-specific relative probabilities of infection, we aligned each patient's life history with published estimates of probability distributions of incubation period and age at infection parameters from a UK cohort of 171 variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. The distributions were then partitioned into probability density fractions according to time intervals of the patient's residence and travel history, and the density fractions were combined by country. This calculation was performed for incubation period alone, age at infection alone, and jointly for incubation and age at infection. Country-specific fractions were normalized either to the total density between the individual's dates of birth and symptom onset ('lifetime'), or to that between 1980 and 1996, for a total of six combinations of parameter and interval. The country-specific relative probability of infection for Saudi Arabia clearly ranked highest under each of the six combinations of parameter × interval for Patients 1 and 2, with values ranging from 0.572 to 0.998, respectively, for Patient 2 (age at infection × lifetime) and

  11. Comparison of the gut microbiota of people in France and Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Yasir, M; Angelakis, E; Bibi, F; Azhar, E I; Bachar, D; Lagier, J-C; Gaborit, B; Hassan, A M; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alshali, K Z; Robert, C; Dutour, A; Raoult, D

    2015-04-27

    The gut microbiota contributes to energy acquisition from food, and changes in the gut microbiome are associated with obesity. The eating habits of Saudis are much different than those of Europeans, and our objective was to compare the fecal microbiota of obese and normal weight Saudis and French. Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing was used to test the gut microbiota of 9 normal weight and 9 obese individuals from Saudi Arabia and 16 normal weight and 12 obese individuals from France. Obese French possessed significantly more relative Proteobacteria (P=0.002) and Bacteroidetes (P=0.05) and had lower richness and biodiversity at all the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) cutoffs (P<0.05) than normal weight French. Obese Saudis possessed significantly more Firmicutes (P=0.001) without a difference in richness (P=0.2) and biodiversity (P=0.3) compared with normal weight Saudis. We found a common bacterial species core of 23 species existing in ⩾50% of obese and normal weight Saudis and 29 species in ⩾50% of obese and normal weight French. Actinomyces odontolyticus, Escherichia coli and Ruminococcus obeum were present in at least 50% of all individuals tested. French individuals had significantly higher richness and biodiversity compared with Saudis at all the OTU cutoffs (P<0.05). Microbiota differences between obese and normal weight French were not similar to those between obese and normal weight Saudis. The studies of different populations can result in contrasting data regarding the associations of the gut microbiota and obesity.

  12. Comparison of the gut microbiota of people in France and Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Yasir, M; Angelakis, E; Bibi, F; Azhar, E I; Bachar, D; Lagier, J-C; Gaborit, B; Hassan, A M; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alshali, K Z; Robert, C; Dutour, A; Raoult, D

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The gut microbiota contributes to energy acquisition from food, and changes in the gut microbiome are associated with obesity. The eating habits of Saudis are much different than those of Europeans, and our objective was to compare the fecal microbiota of obese and normal weight Saudis and French. Subjects/Methods: Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing was used to test the gut microbiota of 9 normal weight and 9 obese individuals from Saudi Arabia and 16 normal weight and 12 obese individuals from France. Results: Obese French possessed significantly more relative Proteobacteria (P=0.002) and Bacteroidetes (P=0.05) and had lower richness and biodiversity at all the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) cutoffs (P<0.05) than normal weight French. Obese Saudis possessed significantly more Firmicutes (P=0.001) without a difference in richness (P=0.2) and biodiversity (P=0.3) compared with normal weight Saudis. We found a common bacterial species core of 23 species existing in ⩾50% of obese and normal weight Saudis and 29 species in ⩾50% of obese and normal weight French. Actinomyces odontolyticus, Escherichia coli and Ruminococcus obeum were present in at least 50% of all individuals tested. French individuals had significantly higher richness and biodiversity compared with Saudis at all the OTU cutoffs (P<0.05). Conclusion: Microbiota differences between obese and normal weight French were not similar to those between obese and normal weight Saudis. The studies of different populations can result in contrasting data regarding the associations of the gut microbiota and obesity. PMID:25915742

  13. The Social Validation of Behaviors Included in the Critical Events Index of the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders in Male Saudi Arabia Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwan, Emad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) identify which behaviors from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Critical Events Index occur in male Saudi Arabia primary schools and how often teachers perceive their occurrence; (b) determine the extent of concern male Saudi Arabia primary school teachers report regarding these behaviors;…

  14. Content Analysis of Science Books for Upper Primary Stage in Jordan and Intermediate Stage in Saudi Arabia from an Islamic Perspective: Analytical Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldossari, Ali Tarad; Al Khaldi, Jamal Khalil; Altarawneh, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the current situation of science books in Jordan and Saudi Arabia from an Islamic perspective. For this end, the content analysis approach has been used through the analysis of the unit concept in the science books for the seventh, eighth and ninth grades in the academic year (2015/2016) in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The…

  15. Professional Values Among Female Nursing Students in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Allari, Rabia S; Ismaile, Samantha; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-01-01

    Professional values are essential to nursing practice because they guide standards for working, provide a structure for evaluating behavior, and influence decisions making. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of Saudi female nursing students on professional values and to assess the correlation between their perception of professional values in relation to their year of academic studies. We used a cross-sectional descriptive study where a survey was administered to 150 Saudi female nurses living in Riyadh. Results show that Saudi female nurses have a high perception of professional values relating to confidentiality, privacy, moral and legal rights, health and safety, and the work environment. Whereas Saudi nursing students have a low perception for participating in professional nursing activities, utilizing research in practice, peer review, public policy, and engaging in on-going self-evaluation. There was positive correlation between different professional values and academic years. The highest correlations were for the items related to caring and trust more than activism because nursing students at higher academic levels viewed the relationship with patients as more important than advancing health care systems through public policy, research, and professional organizations. In conclusion, nursing program administrators should put emphasis on improving the development of professional values through a role modeling approach to promote activism and professional values through the arrangement of meetings, exchange forums, and conferences with other nurses, managers, policy makers, innovators, and researchers within the nursing field.

  16. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  17. Preschool Education in Saudi Arabia: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aljabreen, Haifa Hassan; Lash, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Despite differences in specific teaching styles, nations around the world are united in the belief that early education is essential for preparing children for success throughout their school life and beyond. This tenet is as applicable to the Saudi Arabian early childhood education (ECE) system as it is anywhere else. Yet, little is actually…

  18. Religious Fundamentalism among Young Muslims in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moaddel, Mansoor; Karabenick, Stuart A.

    2008-01-01

    Religious fundamentalism is conceived as a distinctive set of beliefs and attitudes toward one's religion, including obedience to religious norms, belief in the universality and immutability of its principles, the validity of its claims, and its indispensability for human happiness. Surveys of Egyptian and Saudi youth, ages 18-25, reveal that…

  19. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  20. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  1. Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali

    2006-01-01

    After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to…

  2. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years

    PubMed Central

    Asiri, Yousif A.

    2010-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of “pharmacy education” to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective. PMID:23960737

  3. Health rights knowledge among medical school students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sayegh, Nasser Y.; Eldeek, Basem S.; Kafy, Souzan M.; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S.; Bondagji, Nabeel S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens. Objectives To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs. Results Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9%) were female, and 252 (94.4%) were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6%) and 113 (42.3%) participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7%) knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7%) believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8%) were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9%) knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8%) believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7%) or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3%) and senile patients (122, 45.7%). Conclusions The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school. PMID:28459869

  4. Health rights knowledge among medical school students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Amoudi, Samia M; Al-Harbi, Abdullah A; Al-Sayegh, Nasser Y; Eldeek, Basem S; Kafy, Souzan M; Al-Ahwal, Mahmoud S; Bondagji, Nabeel S

    2017-01-01

    Health care is a basic human right, and Saudi Arabia affirms these rights for all its citizens. To assess the knowledge of medical students regarding health rights in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) from September 2015 through November 2015. A questionnaire written in English collected demographic data and included questions about reproductive health care and health rights of women and patients with cancer, senility, or special needs. Of the 267 participants, 184 (68.9%) were female, and 252 (94.4%) were Saudi. Regarding consent, 87 (32.6%) and 113 (42.3%) participants believed a female patient required the consent of a male guardian to receive medical treatment or surgery, respectively, in Saudi Arabia, and only 106 (39.7%) knew that a female patient could provide consent for a caesarean section. Sixty-six (24.7%) believed that abortion is never allowed in Islam. Only 93 (34.8%) were aware that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients had health rights, about half (144, 53.9%) knew that cancer patients have a right to full information, and most (181, 67.8%) believed that a patient had the right to withhold health information from his/her family. Approximately half were aware that cancer patients have the right to free medical treatment (138, 51.7%) or that health rights applied to special needs patients (137, 51.3%) and senile patients (122, 45.7%). The knowledge of KAU medical students regarding health rights of certain patient populations highlights the importance of health rights education in medical school.

  5. Quality of life among adults with beta-thalassemia major in western Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Amoudi, Abdullah S; Balkhoyor, Abdulrahman H; Abulaban, Abdulrahman A; Azab, Abdulrahman M; Radi, Suhaib A; Ayoub, Mohammed D; Albayrouti, Basim T

    2014-08-01

    To assess the quality of life in the thalassemia adult patients and clarify how effective the management is of these patients and whether a change in care is warranted. In this cross-sectional study, adult thalassemia patients (>18 years) of both genders, attending the day care unit in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeedah, Saudi Arabia were surveyed using SF-36 questionnaire. Data were collected between October 2012 and December 2012. The questions highlighted 3 health status scales; physical functioning (PF), emotional functioning (EF), and social functioning (SF). Scores were analyzed using SPSS. Forty-eight adults were surveyed (mean+/-SD: 26.02+/-5.56). These were made up of 60.4% males and 41.7% were Saudis. The frequency of blood transfusion was every 3 weeks in 81.3% of patients, but 18.8% were having transfusions less frequently. Half of our sampled patients were splenectomized (54.2%). The PF score for the total sample was 61.4 (SD=22.7), the SF score was 75 (SD=26.4) and the EF score was 69.7 (SD= 21.6); the SF and EF scores were lower in females and non-Saudis compared to male Saudis. The PF score in our sample was low compared to other regional studies; the SF and EF scores were low in females and non-Saudis

  6. Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States - Workshop Papers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Venezuela, others. ’Norway, United Kingdom, others ’Abu Dhabi, Dubai , Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Neutral Zone, Oman, Qatar, Saudi... Dubai , have had substantial oil revenues but clearly less on a per T Ministry of Finance and National Economy, Foreign Trade Statistics, 1984. 35...diversification than Kuwait, still have achieved substantial diversification through the accumulation of external assets. Oman and Dubai have not relied on oil to

  7. Ibn Sina plans giant methanol plant in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-14

    Following an announcement last week by Saudi Basic Industries Corp. that its Ar Razi joint venture plans to build an 850,000 m.t./year methanol plant at Al Jubail (CW December 7, p. 20) comes word that Sabic`s other domestic methanol production subsidiary, Ibn Sina, plans to add 1 million m.t./year of capacity. The new project will likely exceed $300 million.

  8. Occlusal Status among 12-16 Year-Old School Children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Asiry, Moshabab A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying occlusal status in a particular population will be valuable in planning the appropriate preventive and treatment programs. The purpose of this study was to assess the status of occlusion among school children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to June 2013. A total of 1825 Saudis (1007 males and 818 females) of 12-16 years old were randomly selected from 20 schools in different areas of Riyadh city to determine the status of their occlusion. The examiners assessed molar and canine relationships, spacing and crowding, overjet, overbite, anterior and posterior cross bite. These occlusal parameters were examined by two experienced examiners using a mouth mirror, small light source and calibrated fiber ruler. Results: About 60.11% of Saudis presented with Class I molar relationship while 7.12% and 10.13% of the subjects had Class II and III molar relationship, respectively. The most prevalent canine relationship was Class I (54.13%), followed by Class II (12.4%) and Class III (11.2). Normal overjet and overbite were observed in 76% and 67% of the sample, respectively. The prevalence of malocclusion traits were crowding (45.4%), Spacing (26.9%), excessive over jet (16.4%), posterior cross bite (8.9%), anterior open bite (8.4%) and excessive overbite (6.68%). No statistically significant differences were found between the genders about the prevalence of any occlusion traits (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Class I molar relationship, normal overbite, and normal overjet were dominant features among Saudis. Crowding was the most prevalent malocclusion trait, followed by spacing. These findings will help in understanding the occlusion status in order to plan for prevention and treatment of malocclusion in Riyadh city. PMID:26028897

  9. Adherence to OTC directory--the perception of community pharmacists in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rukban, Mohammed Othman; Khalil, Mohammad Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide Ministries of Health (MoH) are encouraged to publish an updated Over-the-Counter (OTC)-Directory that pharmacists should adhere to in dispensing non-prescription medications. The Saudi Ministry of Health has published the OTC-Directory in the year 2000, and since then, it was readily available to all practicing pharmacists at no cost. This study was aimed to investigate the knowledge of practicing pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, regarding permitted self-prescription medications (i.e., OTC-Directory), as well as pharmacists professional competence and adherence at dispensing OTC drugs without prescription. The study was cross-sectional by design. A computer generated list of simple random sampling was used to select the pharmacies out of 1,500 working in Riyadh. The data was collected from 384 randomly selected community pharmacies by questionnaire using direct investigation method and the total respondents were 405. Associations between qualitative variables were observed using Pearson Chi-square and Fisher Exact test. Four hundred and five (405) pharmacists participated in the survey of which 100% were males and 362 (89.4%) were below the age of 40 years. Majority of them (361, 88.9%) were holding bachelors degree. Almost one-third of the respondents (123, 30.4%) were not aware of the existence of the Saudi OTC-Directory. The pharmacists' geographical location, nationality and attendance of CME activity had significant association with knowledge about the OTC-directory (p < 0.05). Two hundred and eighty-two (69.6%) of the pharmacists who had knowledge about Saudi OTC-directory did not comply with its guidelines. Pharmacists with higher degrees were more observant of the OTC-Directory as compared to those with diploma and Bachelor Degree (p = 0.014). There is significant non-compliance of OTC-directory by the community pharmacists while providing non-prescription drugs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  10. Vitamin D status among population of Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Zahid; AlMohaimeed, AbdulRahman; Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil; Ismail, Hisham; Shaukat, Faiza; Inam, SN Bazmi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to assess serum 25OHD level among healthy Saudi population of Qassim region, besides socio-demographic characters, dietary habits, sun exposure and common symptoms of vitamin D deficiency were also evaluated. Subjects and Methods One hundred and eighty healthy males and females subjects above the age of 18 years were randomly selected from five primary health care centers of Qassim region. A predesigned structured questionnaire was administered by the doctor working in Primary Health Care Center and blood sample was obtained for measuring vitamin D (serum 25 OHD) level. Vitamin D sufficiency was defined as serum level of 25 OHD 30ng/ml or above. A level ranging 20 to 29 ng/ml was considered as vitamin D insufficiency, whereas below 20ng/ml as vitamin D deficiency. Results Out of 180 study participants, 51(28.3%) subjects were vitamin D deficient, 71 (39.4%) were vitamin insufficient and 58 (32.2%) had normal vitamin D level. Commonest symptom of vitamin D deficiency was bone pain (20%) and fatigue (11.1%). Conclusion Vitamin D inadequacy is a major public health problem in Saudi population. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency among healthy Saudi population residing in Qassim region is 67.8%. If the issue is not urgently addressed it could lead to serious health consequences. PMID:23267289

  11. Progress Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Amoudi, Anmed; Alawaji, Saleh H.; Cornwall, Chris; Mahfoodh, Mohammed bin; Marion, Bill; Maxwell, Eugene L.; Wilcox, Stephen M.

    1999-08-20

    In 1987, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) signed a five-year Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development (R and D), which has been extended to 2000. Tasks include: (1) upgrade solar radiation measurements in Saudi Arabia; (2) assemble a database of concurrent solar radiation, satellite (METEOSAT), and meteorological data; (3) adapt NREL models and other software for Saudi Arabia; (4) develop procedures, algorithms, and software to estimate solar irradiance; and (5) prepare a grid of solar radiation data for preparing maps and atlases and estimating solar radiation resources and solar energy system performances at locations in Saudi Arabia.

  12. Summary of Tertiary investigations in western Saudi Arabia, current work by the U.S. Geological Survey and recommended future studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadley, Donald G.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Coleman, Robert Griffin

    1983-01-01

    In 1936, geologic work related to the Tertiary System in western Saudi Arabia began with a study of the Umm Gerad barite deposit by K. S. Twitchell. In 1944, a study focusing specifically on Tertiary rocks was conducted by Steineke and others near Jiddah. Small-scale mapping of Tertiary sequences began in 1950 in southwestern Saudi Arabia and later in northern 3audi Arabia as part of the Kingdom's early mapping program. These studies were part of a larger program being directed by the Government of Saudi Arabia in connection with mineral resource investigations. In the mid- to late-1960's, the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres discovered mineralized Tertiary rocks al Jabal Dhaylan and began a study, which continues to the present, of both the Tertiary rocks and the mineralization. Following a number of early local studies, in 1973 the U.S. Geological Survey began detailed study of the Tertiary layered rocks along the Red Sea coastal plain south of Jiddah. More recently, Riofinex and Seltrust have been exploring for selected commodities in Tertiary sequences of northwestern Saudi Arabia and the Red Sea coastal plain. Results of these studies, including work by the Saudi Arabian Directorate General of Mineral Resources and the Saudi government agency preceding it, are summarized in this report. Characteristics of the Tertiary rocks south of lat 23? N. and the Tertiary mineral deposits of western Saudi Arabia are also summarized. Recommendations are made for future geologic studies and mineral assessment of the Tertiary rocks of western Saudi Arabia.

  13. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2013-11-27

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.

  14. Planning guidance for emergency response to a hypothetical nuclear attack on Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubayr, Nasser Ali M.

    The threat of nuclear attack will remain imminent in an ever-advancing society. Saudi Arabia is not immune to this threat. This dissertation establishes planning guidance for response to a nuclear attack on Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, based on a hypothetical scenario of a nuclear detonation. A case scenario of a one-megaton thermonuclear bomb detonated at ground level over Riyadh is used to support the thesis. Previous nuclear tests and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings have been used to present possible effects on Riyadh. US planning guidance and lessons learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plants accidents have been used to develop the emergency response guidance. The planning guidance outlines a rapid response to the nuclear detonation. Four damage zones have been identified; severe damage zone, moderate damage zone, light damage zone and dangerous fallout zone. Actions that are recommended, and those that should be avoided, have been determined for each zone. Shelter/ evacuation evaluation for blast-affected and fallout-affected areas is the basis for the recommendation that shelter in place is the best decision for the first hours to days after the attack. Guidelines for medical care response and population monitoring and decontamination are included to reduce the early and long-term effects of the attack. Recommendations to the Saudi Arabian authorities have been made to facilitate suitable preparedness and response for such an event.

  15. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, J.S.; McCausland, W.A.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Lu, Zhiming; Zahran, H.M.; El, Hadidy S.; Aburukbah, A.; Stewart, I.C.F.; Lundgren, P.R.; White, R.A.; Moufti, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees.

  16. Investigating Solutions for Peak Electrical Demand in Central Region, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlMaarik, Abdulhameed

    This thesis studies the electrical power challenges of the Central Region, Saudi Arabia. This includes a look into the geography of Saudi Arabia, to assess the lack of traditional power sources such as coal and hydroelectric. Next, a comprehensive look into the nature of demand in Riyadh, which include the demand types, and comprehensive data about the peak demand and the times associated with it. A problem of very high peak demand that is unique to the region is identified. Then, a study into current electric generation methods to meet this demand, and the associated technologies and fuel costs. This thesis then goes on into discussing the current implemented solutions to reduce peak demand by the Saudi Electricity Company, and then a further discussion about possible further improvements to the system, which includes a study of renewable energy resources, which includes solar and wind. These proposed solutions were evaluated for cost and return on investment, with a particular interest into the price of crude oil.

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to ‘try them’ (51.9%) and ‘to get energy’ (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001). About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively). The greater majority (67%) considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364

  18. Knowledge and attitude toward the hemoglobinopathies premarital screening program in Saudi Arabia: population-based survey.

    PubMed

    Al Sulaiman, Ayman; Suliman, Ahmed; Al Mishari, May; Al Sawadi, Aziza; Owaidah, Tarek M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic screening is an important tool to control, minimize, and prevent genetic disorders. Saudi Arabia started the first national premarital screening (PMS) program to control inherited hemoglobin (Hb) disorders that are the most commonly inherited genetic disorders in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perception, and attitude among the Saudi population about the PMS program through a questionnaire-based survey. A total of 1,047 candidates were included, divided into three groups. Group A represented the general population, group B was composed of couples presenting for PMS, and group C represented couples who had received their results. There was a fair knowledge among participants of the three groups about the nature of the tests and the targeted disorders, with more than 80% believing that it should include both sexually and genetically transmitted diseases. The concept of genetic counseling was liked by most of the participants. There was a positive attitude toward the program and the majority agreed to apply the PMS program to all couples in all country regions. More than 60% of all the participants were in favor of preventing at-risk marriages.

  19. Perceptions of medical students towards antibiotic prescribing for upper respiratory tract infections in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Harakeh, Steve; Almatrafi, Musab; Ungapen, Haifa; Hammad, Rotana; Olayan, Feras; Hakim, Reema; Ayoub, Mohammed; Bakhsh, Noura; Almasaudi, Saad B; Barbour, Elie; Bahijri, Suhad; Azhar, Esam; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Qari, Yousef; Kumosani, Taha; Harakeh, Zeena; Ahmad, Muhammad S; Cals, JochenW L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This survey evaluates knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students towards use of antibiotics for upper respiratory infections (URTIs). Methodology Cross-sectional questionnaire study among 1042 randomly selected medical students in Saudi Arabia. Results Respondents were mostly Saudis (97.5%), had previous knowledge of antibiotics (99.7%) and their usage (98.3%) against bacterial infections (93.7%). 18.1% thought that they could be used for viral infections. Nearly all students (97.2%) used antibiotics themselves during the previous year and self-medication without a prescription was high at 49% of cases. Most antibiotics were taken for URTI symptoms (61.8%). Female medical students had better knowledge on antibiotic effectiveness against bacteria and viruses, and overall knowledge increased with study year. Health seeking behaviour rates for symptoms of RTI and associated estimated necessity for antibiotics varied but were highest for cough with yellow/green phlegm. Conclusions The depth of knowledge that healthcare professionals have in relation to the proper use of antibiotics is essential in spreading the right message within communities. This is the first large study among medical students in Saudi Arabia, shedding important light on areas for improvement in the medical curriculum as well as antibiotic practices of medical students themselves. PMID:26175907

  20. Parents’ perception of children's obesity, in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child's weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children's weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child's weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children's weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child's weight status. Parents’ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved. PMID:27625586

  1. Soil Ciliates from Saudi Arabia, Including Descriptions of Two New Genera and Six New Species

    PubMed Central

    FOISSNER, Wilhelm; QUINTELA-ALONSO, Pablo; AL-RASHEID, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Summary Six soil samples from natural and cultivated sites of Saudi Arabia were investigated for ciliate diversity, using the non-flooded Petri dish culture method, live observation, and silver impregnation. We identified 135 species, all new for the fauna of Saudi Arabia, of which seven were undescribed: Spathidium alqasabi nov. spec.; Enchelyodon alqasabi nov. spec.; Metauroleptus arabicus nov. gen., nov. spec.; Pseudohemisincirra arabica nov. gen., nov. spec.; Saudithrix terricola​ Berger, Al-Rasheid and Foissner, 2006; Oxytricha arabica nov. spec.; and Erimophrya monostyla nov. spec. Based on Spathidium alqasabi, S. seppelti foissneri​ Vd’ačný et al., 2006 and S. seppelti etoschense​ Foissner et al., 2002 are raised to species rank; for the latter, a new name is required to avoid homonymy: Spathidium fraterculum nov. nom. The new genus Metauroleptus, which possesses two long and two to three short ventral cirral rows, generates all dorsal kineties intrakinetally and produces caudal cirri exclusively in dorsal kinety 1. Metauroleptus belongs to the hypotrichs, while family classification remains doubtful. The same applies to the new hypotrich genus Pseudohemisincirra, which has frontoventral and transverse cirri, while buccal cirri and caudal cirri are absent. The number of species contained in Saudi Arabian soils, including sand dunes, is in the range reported from other regions of the earth, suggesting that ciliates are well adapted to dry habitats, possibly mainly by their ability to produce very resistant resting cysts, most surviving for a long time due to reduced metazoan predation. PMID:20890459

  2. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Aqeel, Sinaa Abdulmohsen; Al-Sabhan, Jawza Fahad; Sultan, Noha Yahia

    2013-07-01

    Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia. Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO) ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51%) were for over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and 71 (38%) were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8%) advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7%) of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%), 58 (31%), and 33 (16.5%) advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64%) provided references for information presented. Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.

  3. Oral hygiene, dietary pattern and smoking habits of Bedouin (nomadic Arabs) population in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Almas, K; al-Amri, M; al-Eid, A; al-Shahrani, S

    2003-09-01

    The estimated population of the Bedouins are up to two million in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but relatively little information is available about them. The aim of the study was to assess the oral hygiene dietary pattern and smoking habits of Saudi Bedouins population around Medina, Qaseen and Khamis Moshayte areas. Five hundred and twenty five Bedouins (296 male, 229 female) with the age range 2-90 years were interviewed and examined clinically over a period of four months (July to October 1998). It was found that 25% of the subjects were miswak users, 30% used miswak and tooth brush, while 26% never cleaned their teeth. Almost 50% of the subjects were regular in their oral hygiene habits. Seventy percent were rice eaters while meat and dates were second and third preference. Tea was the most common drink with 2-3 teaspoons of sugar per cup. Only ten percent were cigarette smokers and less than 5% used shisha (traditional smoking pipe). It is concluded from the study that within the surveyed Bedouin population one fourth of them never cleaned their teeth while almost the same number used miswak (Chewing stick) to clean their teeth. Rice was the most common food item, while tea with refined sugar was the most common drink. Only 15% were smoker. Further research is needed with a larger and a more representative sample of Bedouins from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Khalidi, Nabil; Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Althiab, Khalifa; Alharbi, Shmeylan; Aldekhael, Saleh; Qandil, Amjad M; Alknawy, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009-2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. The combined initiatives were aimed at (1) instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2) expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3) offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4) recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60-65 positions will be added by 2017-2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem.

  5. Retention practices and factors affecting retainer choice among orthodontists in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Hamidaddin, Mohammad A.; Alotaibi, Hamdan M.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; Albarakati, Sahar F.; Alkofide, Eman A.; Al-Moammar, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the retention protocols practiced by orthodontists in Saudi Arabia, and the factors affecting retainer choice. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and March of 2015 at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A previously tested electronic survey of 34 items was sent to all 1,200 orthodontic members of the Saudi Orthodontic Society. The questionnaire elicited data on the subjects’ demographics, orthodontic treatment practices, retention, and post-retention protocols. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven (13.9%) responses were received during the study period. The results showed predominant use of Hawley in the maxillary arch (61.3%), and fixed lingual in the mandibular arch (58.5%). Approximately 90.3% recommended full-time maxillary removable retainer wear. Overall, orthodontists who performed fewer extractions tended to use fixed retainers, and those who performed more extractions used removable retainers (p=0.018). Interproximal enamel reduction was used by 28% of the respondents as an adjunct procedure to enhance retention. Approximately 64% practiced a post-retention phase of retainer wear. Participants who used removable retainers most commonly prescribed lifetime retention. Conclusion: Hawley in the maxilla, and fixed lingual in the mandible were the most common retention protocols prescribed. Lifetime retention was the most common choice for participants who used removable retainers, especially when extractions were carried out. PMID:27464868

  6. Strategic initiatives to maintain pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacists sufficiency in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khalidi, Nabil; Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Althiab, Khalifa; Alharbi, Shmeylan; Aldekhael, Saleh; Qandil, Amjad M; Alknawy, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The shortage of clinical pharmacists in Saudi Arabia has limited the full implementation of pharmaceutical care in most of its hospitals. The National Guard Health Affairs hospitals. This work discussed the Department of Pharmaceutical Care, and the King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences College of Pharmacy four initiatives that were planned in 2009–2010 to develop and recruit clinical pharmacists, practitioners, or faculty. Methods: The combined initiatives were aimed at (1) instituting a 4-year clinical skills development career ladder, (2) expanding the National Guard Health Affairs postgraduate residency program, (3) offering scholarships to qualified pharmacy graduates to pursue the PharmD degree and a PGY-1 residency training in the United States, and (4) recruiting non-Saudi clinical pharmacists educated and trained in the United States to ameliorate the current shortage of practitioner. Results: The current number of clinical pharmacists practicing at the National Guard Health Affairs at central region is 24, most of whom are Board Certified by the American Pharmacists Association Board of Pharmacy Specialties. Conclusions: The four initiatives, based on current trends, suggest that 60–65 positions will be added by 2017–2018, barring attrition. Saudi Arabia and many developing countries will continue to experience a shortage in clinical pharmacists due to the high demand for clinical pharmacy services. A multifaceted approach is recommended to address the problem. PMID:26770792

  7. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L.; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharmaco-industrial fields. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted on all final-year pharmacy students in King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results: Out of a total of 130 students registered in the final-year of the pharmacy program in KSU, 122 (93.8%) were able to complete the questionnaire. The results showed that the majority (83%) of Saudi pharmacy students indicated that they had not received practical training in the pharmaceutical companies, while only 17.2% of the students felt that they had the knowledge and the skills to work in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. The majority of the students (66.7%) chose clinical pharmacy as their future career field while only 10.9% indicated willingness to work in a pharmaceutical industry career. Only 8.2% selected working in the pharmaceutical industry. The significant predictor of possibly choosing a career in the local drug industry is a student with a bachelor’s degree (compared to Pharm D degree) in pharmacy (OR = 2.7 [95% CI 1.1–6.3]). Conclusion: Pharmacy students who are enrolled in the capital city of Riyadh are not properly trained to play an influential role in local drug companies. As a result, their level of willingness to have a career in such important business is not promising (more among Pharm D program). Future research in other pharmacy colleges within Saudi Arabia is needed to confirm such results. PMID:26594125

  8. Molecular characterization and epidemic history of hepatitis C virus using core sequences of isolates from Central Province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shier, Medhat K; Iles, James C; El-Wetidy, Mohammad S; Ali, Hebatallah H; Al Qattan, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    The source of HCV transmission in Saudi Arabia is unknown. This study aimed to determine HCV genotypes in a representative sample of chronically infected patients in Saudi Arabia. All HCV isolates were genotyped and subtyped by sequencing of the HCV core region and 54 new HCV isolates were identified. Three sets of primers targeting the core region were used for both amplification and sequencing of all isolates resulting in a 326 bp fragment. Most HCV isolates were genotype 4 (85%), whereas only a few isolates were recognized as genotype 1 (15%). With the assistance of Genbank database and BLAST, subtyping results showed that most of genotype 4 isolates were 4d whereas most of genotype 1 isolates were 1b. Nucleotide conservation and variation rates of HCV core sequences showed that 4a and 1b have the highest levels of variation. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Coalescent methods was used to explore the source of HCV transmission by investigating the relationship between Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Middle East and Africa. Coalescent analysis showed that transmissions of HCV from Egypt to Saudi Arabia are estimated to have occurred in three major clusters: 4d was introduced into the country before 1900, the major 4a clade's MRCA was introduced between 1900 and 1920, and the remaining lineages were introduced between 1940 and 1960 from Egypt and Middle Africa. Results showed that no lineages seem to have crossed from Egypt to Saudi Arabia in the last 15 years. Finally, sequencing and characterization of new HCV isolates from Saudi Arabia will enrich the HCV database and help further studies related to treatment and management of the virus.

  9. Studies on coccidia species of genus Eimeria from domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Toula, F H; Ramadan, H H

    1998-12-01

    Five Eimeria species were reported from domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.) caught from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. According to their prevalences, they were: Eimeria perfarans (65%), E. magna (45%), E. stiedae (25%), E. exigua (20%) and E. piriformis (10%). 90% of the examined rabbits were positive and mixed infection with two or three Eimeria species was most frequent. E. stiedae, E. piriformis and E. exigua were identified and recorded for the first time from rabbits in Saudi Arabia and are considered as new locality or geographical distribution.

  10. Using a digital marketing platform for the promotion of an internet based health encyclopedia in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Primary Care Physicians About Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Northern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazmi, Ahmad H.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Primary health care (PHC) physicians manage most patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In Saudi Arabia, there are limited data on their knowledge, attitudes, and practices about this disorder. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary care physicians about IBS. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 70 practitioners aged 36 ± 10.25 years was carried out in primary care centers in AlJouf Province of Saudi Arabia. The physicians were asked to fill a valid questionnaire containing their sociodemographic data, and well-modified questions regarding their knowledge, attitudes, and practices about IBS. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS (version 15) program, and the level of significance was set at P<0.05. Results: A response rate of 92.9% yielded 65 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of physicians surveyed (83.1%) considered IBS as a common health problem in Saudi Arabia, and (55.4%) believed it is underestimated. There was a significant association between physicians’ qualifications and using diagnostic tools to facilitate IBS diagnosis (14.3% vs 35.5%; P<0.05), while utilization of “Rome or Manning criteria” was more frequent by physicians with master's degree (35.5%) compared to residents (14.3%). Also, 35.4% of physicians (15 males and 8 females) were not sure how to diagnose IBS. Conclusions: This study suggested that PHC physicians had a suitable attitude toward IBS, but they lacked knowledge, and their practices toward this condition were inappropriate. PMID:22626796

  12. Prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Southern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hajar, Saad; Al Hazmi, Ali; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assessment including visual acuity (VA) and fundus examination. Among participants with VA less than 6/18 in either eye, the cause(s) of visual impairment was determined. Participants were classified as diabetic if they had previous diagnoses of diabetes, or random blood glucose more than 200 mg/dl. Diabetic participants were assessed for DR using dilated fundus examination. All data were recorded using the RAAB + DR standardized forms. The prevalence of bilateral blindness less than 3/60 was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74 - 3.90). Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (58.6%); followed by posterior segment diseases (20%), which included DR (7; 3.3%). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 22.4%, (95% CI: 21.09 - 23.79]), among them; 27.8% had DR. The prevalence of sight-threatening DR was 5.7%. The prevalence of DM and the corresponding proportion of DR in this region is lower than that reported in other regions of Saudi Arabia. However, the prevalence of blindness not related to DR is relatively higher than the other studies.

  13. Prevalence of sleep-related accidents among drivers in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmad S.; Alkhunizan, Muath A.; Lesloum, Rabea H.; Alshanqiti, Amer M.; Aldakhil, Abdulrahman M.; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Sharif, Munir M.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of sleepy driving and sleep-related accidents (SRA) varies widely, and no data exist regarding the prevalence of sleepy driving in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the prevalence and predictors of sleepy driving, near-misses, and SRA among drivers in Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to assess sleep and driving in detail based on previously published data regarding sleepy driving. The questionnaire included 50 questions addressing socio-demographics, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), driving items, and the Berlin Questionnaire. In total, 1,219 male drivers in public places were interviewed face-to-face. RESULTS: The included drivers had a mean age of 32.4 ± 11.7 years and displayed a mean ESS score of 7.2 ± 3.8. Among these drivers, 33.1% reported at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness. Among those who had actual accidents, 11.6% were attributed to sleepiness. In the past six months, drivers reported the following: 25.2% reported falling asleep at least once during, driving and 20.8% had to stop driving at least once because of severe sleepiness. Young age, feeling very sleepy during driving, and having at least one near-miss accident caused by sleepiness in the past six months were the only predictors of accidents. CONCLUSION: Sleepy driving is prevalent among male drivers in Saudi Arabia. Near-miss accidents caused by sleepiness are an important risk factor for car accidents and should be considered as a strong warning signal of future accidents. PMID:25276244

  14. Prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy in Southern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hajar, Saad; Hazmi, Ali Al; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assessment including visual acuity (VA) and fundus examination. Among participants with VA <6/18 in either eye, the cause(s) of visual impairment was determined. Participants were classified as diabetic if they had previous diagnoses of diabetes, or random blood glucose >200 mg/dl. Diabetic participants were assessed for DR using dilated fundus examination. All data were recorded using the RAAB + DR standardized forms. Results: The prevalence of bilateral blindness <3/60 was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.74 - 3.90). Cataract was the leading cause of blindness (58.6%); followed by posterior segment diseases (20%), which included DR (7; 3.3%). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was 22.4%, (95% CI: 21.09 - 23.79), among them; 27.8% had DR. The prevalence of sight-threatening DR was 5.7%. Conclusion: The prevalence of DM and the corresponding proportion of DR in this region is lower than that reported in other regions of Saudi Arabia. However, the prevalence of blindness not related to DR is relatively higher than the other studies. PMID:25828282

  15. The Prevalence of Using Social Media among Healthcare Professionals in Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Almaiman, Sarah; Bahkali, Salwa; Al Farhan, Ali; Bamuhair, Samera; Househ, Mowafa; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up-to-date with new health information is a necessity for healthcare professionals. Today, social media platforms such as Twitter, among others, are important sources for healthcare professionals. Within the Arab world, little is known about how healthcare professionals use social media to update their healthcare information. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of healthcare professionals, primarily physicians, in seeking online health information in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a web-based survey among Twitter participants between February 1 and March 10, 2015. The primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of Twitter use, perceived effects, and the influence of Twitter information on clinical practice. Our results revealed that the prevalence rate of physician's seeking online health information was 79% (n=166); the majority of them (71.4%, n=150) reported that Twitter had a significant impact in increasing their medical knowledge and in improving their clinical practice. Over half of the survey participates reported the need for investment in establishing trustworthy and credible health Twitter accounts. The participants reported that their preference for social media health accounts that focus on women's health, non-communicable disease and psychotherapy (20%, 18.1% and 14.5% respectively). The findings showed clearly that seeking web-based medical information through social media is popular among physicians, in general, but especially among younger physicians in Saudi Arabia. The study findings indicate to the necessity for further research on designing and implementing a national social media based educational outreach program to provide evidence-based healthcare information and improve healthcare providers' knowledge and skills in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Trauma patterns in patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad; Gonna, Abdelaziz; Zakaria, Ossama; El-shemally, Amany

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern civilization and the sharp rise in living standards have led to dramatic changes in trauma pattern in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to describe the different patterns of injuries of patients attending the Emergency Department of Jazan General Hospital (JGH) in the southwest corner of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A total number of 1 050 patients were enrolled in the study. A pre-organized data sheet was prepared for each patient attended the Emergency Department of JGH from February 2012 to January 2013. It contains data about socio-demographics, trauma data, clinical evaluation results, investigations as well as treatment strategies. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 25.3±16.8 years. Most (45.1%) of the patients were at age of 18–30 years. Males (64.3%) were affected by trauma more common than females. More than half (60.6%) of the patients were from urban areas. The commonest kind of injury was minor injury (60%), followed by blunt trauma (30.9%) and then penetrating trauma (9.1%). The mean time from the incident to arrival at hospital was 41.3±79.8 minutes. The majority (48.2%) of the patients were discharged after management of trivial trauma, whereas 2.3% were admitted to ICU, 7.7% transferred to inpatient wards, and 17.7% observed and subsequently discharged. The mortality rate of the patients was 2.6%. CONCLUSION: Trauma is a major health problem, especially in the young population in Saudi Arabia. Blunt trauma is more frequent than penetrating trauma, with road traffic accidents accounting for the majority. PMID:25802567

  17. Gestational trophoblastic disease in the western region of Saudi Arabia (single-institute experience).

    PubMed

    Anfinan, Nisrin; Sait, Khalid; Sait, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in the western region of Saudi Arabia, and to evaluate the success of treatment and the effect of age and risk group on survival. Between January 2001 and December 2010, all patients treated for GTD were identified from the King Abdulaziz University Hospital database. Patients with persistent disease were evaluated according to their clinical treatment outcomes. In total, 122 cases of GTD were identified in the database. Of these, 77 (63%) cases were diagnosed and received initial treatment at the study centre, resulting in an incidence of 1.26 cases per 1000 deliveries. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the study participants was 31.52 ± 10.8 years, mean gestational age at diagnosis was 12.42 ± 3.2 weeks, and mean follow-up for each patient was 24 months. There were 20 cases (26%) of persistent GTD after treatment. The majority of patients with low-risk disease were treated with single-agent methotrexate, with an overall success rate of 83%. The overall 5-year survival rate for all patients was 98%. Using the Wilcoxon (Gehan) test, risk group and age (cut-off 40 years) were not found to be significantly associated with survival (p=0.69). This single-institute study reports the first survival data for GTD for Saudi Arabia. However, the overall incidence of GTD in Saudi Arabia will be defined by establishment of a GTD registry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metal pollution records in core sediments of some Red Sea coastal areas, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Badr, Nadia B E; El-Fiky, Anwar A; Mostafa, Alaa R; Al-Mur, Bandr A

    2009-08-01

    In the last three decades, the industrial and human activities in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia have increased dramatically and resulted in the continuous invasion of different types of pollutants including heavy metals. Seven sediment cores were collected from three major industrialized areas; Jeddah, Rabigh and Yanbu, along the coast of Saudi Arabia to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of metals and to assess the magnitude of pollution and their potential biological effects. Sediments were analyzed for texture, calcium carbonate contents, organic matter and metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn). Some metals like, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn, were enriched in the upper 15 cm of core samples (recent deposition of sediments). Cadmium concentrations showed high fluctuations with depth and reverse pattern to that for Al, Fe and Mn which indicated land based sources of this element to the studied areas. Elevated concentrations of lead were recorded in the bottom layers of cores in Jeddah that indicated the most dramatic increase in usage of gasoline in early 1970s. The calculated contamination factors (CF's) were found in the following sequences: Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn > Cr > Mn for all studied areas. Results of Pollution Load Index (PLI) revealed that Jeddah is the most polluted area, followed by Rabigh while Yanbu is the least contaminated area. Except for Ni, the concentrations of most metals in the majority of sediment samples were believed to be safe for living organisms. As no data were available on the concentration of metals in core sediments in the coastal area of Saudi Arabia, the results of this study would serve as a baseline against which future anthropogenic effects can be assessed.

  19. Self reported awareness of child maltreatment among school professionals in Saudi Arabia: impact of CRC ratification.

    PubMed

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Inam, Sarah S; AlEissa, Majid A; Noor, Ismail K; Almuneef, Maha A

    2011-12-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying those in danger or at risk. The objective of this study is to identify school professional's awareness of child maltreatment and the existing national policies and procedures to examine the extent of efforts made in Saudi Arabia and to activate the roles of schools and school professionals in protecting children from violence and implementation of Article 19 of the CRC. This was a cross-sectional study, where school professionals from randomly selected schools throughout the country were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 3,777 school professionals participated in the study. Fifty-five percent of professionals had at least 10 years of work experience. A low-level of awareness of child maltreatment was found in about 1/3 of school professionals. Only 1.9% of school professionals had ever attended any sort of specific training on child maltreatment, though 69.3% of those who had not, were willing to attend future training. With regards to awareness of CRC Article 19 or policies and procedures addressing child maltreatment, only 22% reported being aware of it. The majority of school professionals in Saudi Arabia have a low-intermediate level of awareness of child maltreatment, ratification of CRC, and related national policies and procedures, yet most are willing to attend training programs on this subject matter. Efforts need to be made in the country to fill this gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating PM 10 air concentrations from dust storms in Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxler, Roland R.; Gillette, Dale A.; Kirkpatrick, Jeffrey S.; Heller, Jack

    A model for the emission of PM 10 dust has been constructed using the concept of a threshold friction velocity which is dependent on surface roughness. Surface roughness in turn was correlated with geomorphology or soil properties for Kuwait, Iraq, part of Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman. The PM 10 emission algorithm was incorporated into a Lagrangian transport and dispersion model. PM 10 air concentrations were computed from August 1990 through August 1991. The model predicted about the right number of dust events over Kuwait (events occur 18% of the time). The model results agreed quantitatively with measurements at four locations in Saudi Arabia and one in Kuwait for one major dust event (>1000 μg/m 3). However, for smaller scale dust events (200-1000 μg/m 3), especially at the coastal sampling locations, the model substantially over-predicted the air concentrations. Part of the over-prediction was attributed to the entrainment of dust-free air by the sea breeze, a flow feature not represented by the large-scale gridded meteorological data fields used in the model computation. Another part of the over-prediction was the model's strong sensitivity to threshold friction velocity and the surface soil texture coefficient (the soil emission factor), and the difficulty in accurately representing these parameters in the model. A comparison of the model predicted PM 10 spatial pattern with the TOMS satellite aerosol index (AI) yielded a spatial pattern covering a major portion of Saudi Arabia that was quite similar to the observed AI pattern.