Erejuwa, O O; Sulaiman, S A; Wahab, M S; Sirajudeen, K N S; Salleh, M S Md; Gurtu, S
Glucotoxicity contributes to beta-cell dysfunction through oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that tualang honey ameliorated renal oxidative stress and produced hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. This present study investigated the hypothesis that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might partly be due to protection of pancreas against oxidative stress. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats were randomly divided into two groups and administered distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). Similarly, two groups of non-diabetic rats received distilled water (0.5 ml/d) and tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/d). The animals were treated orally for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the honey-treated diabetic rats had significantly (p<0.05) reduced blood glucose levels [8.8 (5.8)mmol/L; median (interquartile range)] compared with the diabetic control rats [17.9 (2.6)mmol/L]. The pancreas of diabetic control rats showed significantly increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced while glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unchanged in the pancreas of diabetic rats. Tualang honey significantly (p<0.05) reduced elevated MDA levels. Honey treatment also restored SOD and CAT activities. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effect of tualang honey might be attributed to its antioxidative effect on the pancreas.
Tan, Hern Tze; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Gan, Siew Hua; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Hassan, Siti Asma'; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; BS, Kirnpal-Kaur
Background Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is on the rise, thus the discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity. Although the antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established against an extensive spectrum of microorganisms, it differs depending on the type of honey. To date, no extensive studies of the antibacterial properties of tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey on wound and enteric microorganisms have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to conduct such studies and to compare the antibacterial activity of tualang honey with that of manuka honey. Methods Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity of tualang honey against 13 wound and enteric microorganisms was determined; manuka honey was used as the control. Different concentrations of honey [6.25-25% (w/v)] were tested against each type of microorganism. Briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. MICs were determined by both visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay at 620 nm. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) also was determined by culturing on blood agar plates. Results By visual inspection, the MICs of tualang honey ranged from 8.75% to 25% compared to manuka honey (8.75-20%). Spectrophotometric readings of at least 95% inhibition yielded MIC values ranging between 10% and 25% for both types of honey. The lowest MBC for tualang honey was 20%, whereas that for manuka honey was 11.25% for the microorganisms tested. The lowest MIC value (8.75%) for both types of honey was against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Tualang honey had a lower MIC (11.25%) against Acinetobacter baumannii compared to manuka honey (12.5%). Conclusion Tualang honey
Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Tanvir, E. M.; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation. PMID:26064893
Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua
The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.
Kadir, Erazuliana Abd; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Othman, Nor Hayati
The study was conducted to determine the effect of Malaysian jungle Tualang Honey (TH) on development of breast cancer induced by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) in rats. Forty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 80 mg/kg DMBA then randomly divided into four groups: Group 1 served as a Control while Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 0.2, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg bodyweight/day of TH, respectively, for 150 days. Results showed that breast cancers in the TH-treated groups had slower size increment and smaller mean tumor size (≤ 2 cm3) compared to Controls (≤ 8 cm3). The number of cancers developing in TH-treated groups was also significantly fewer (P<0.05). Histological grading showed majority of TH-treated group cancers to be of grade 1 and 2 compared to grade 3 in controls. There was an increasing trend of apoptotic index (AI) seen in TH-treated groups with increasing dosage of Tualang Honey, however, the mean AI values of all TH-treated groups were not significantly different from the Control value (p>0.05). In conclusion, Tualang Honey exerted positive modulation effects on DMBA-induced breast cancers in rats in this preliminary study.
Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other
Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the
Background The use of honey as a natural product of Apis spp. for burn treatment has been widely applied for centuries. Tualang honey has been reported to have antibacterial properties against various microorganisms, including those from burn-related diagnoses, and is cheaper and easier to be absorbed by Aquacel dressing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antibacterial properties of tualang honey dressing and to determine its effectiveness as a partial thickness burn wound dressing. Methods In order to quantitate the bioburden of the swabs, pour plates were performed to obtain the colony count (CFU/ml). Swabs obtained from burn wounds were streaked on blood agar and MacConkey agar for bacterial isolation and identification. Later, antibacterial activity of Aquacel-tualang honey, Aquacel-Manuka honey, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel- plain dressings against bacteria isolated from patients were tested (in-vitro) to see the effectiveness of those dressings by zone of inhibition assays. Results Seven organisms were isolated. Four types of Gram-negative bacteria, namely Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., and three Gram-positive bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CONS) and Streptococcus spp., were isolated. Total bacterial count decreased on day 6 and onwards. In the in-vitro antibacterial study, Aquacel-Ag and Aquacel-Manuka honey dressings gave better zone of inhibition for Gram positive bacteria compared to Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. However, comparable results were obtained against Gram negative bacteria tested with Aquacel-Manuka honey and Aquacel-Tualang honey dressing. Conclusions Tualang honey has a bactericidal as well as bacteriostatic effect. It is useful as a dressing, as it is easier to apply and is less sticky compared to Manuka honey. However, for Gram positive bacteria, tualang honey is not as effective as usual care products such as silver
Background Honey is a highly nutritional natural product that has been widely used in folk medicine for a number of therapeutic purposes. We evaluated whether Malaysian Tualang honey (AgroMas, Malaysia) was effective in reducing menopausal syndrome in ovariectomised female rats; an animal model for menopause. Methods The rats were divided into two control groups and three test groups. The control groups were sham-operated (SH) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The SH and OVX control rats were fed on 0.5 ml of distill water. The rats in the test groups were fed with low dose 0.2 g/kg (THL), medium dose, 1.0 g/kg (THM) and high dose 2.0 g/kg (THH) of Tualang honey in 0.5 ml of distill water. The administration was given by oral gavage once daily for 2 weeks. The reproductive organs (uterus and vagina), tibia bone and aorta were taken for histopathological examination while serum for hormonal assays. Results Administration of Tualang honey for 2 weeks to ovariectomised rats significantly increased the weight of the uterus and the thickness of vaginal epithelium, restored the morphology of the tibia bones and reduced the body weight compared to rats in the ovariectomised group. The levels of estradiol and progesterone, in honey treated groups were markedly lower than that in the OVX group. At low doses (0.2 g/kg; THL group) of Tualang honey there was an increased in serum free testosterone levels compared to OVX group (P < 0.01). Progesterone concentrations was significantly decreased in the OVX group as compared to SHAM group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tualang honey was shown to have beneficial effects on menopausal (ovariectomised) rats by preventing uterine atrophy, increased bone density and suppression of increased body weight. Honey could be an alternative to HRT. PMID:21194469
Sulaiman, Siti Amrah
Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (p < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung. PMID:28127418
Tang, Suk Peng; Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam, Sirajudeen; Jaafar, Hasnan; Gan, Siew Hua; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah
Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (p < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.
Aziz, Che Badariah Abd; Ismail, Che Aishah Nazariah; Hussin, Che Maraina Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem
Tualang honey ( Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats.
Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin
Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system. PMID:27119005
Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma; Mohd Ismail, Zul Izhar; Muthuraju, Sangu
Recently, our research team has reported that Tualang honey was able to improve immediate memory in postmenopausal women comparable with that of estrogen progestin therapy. Therefore the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of Tualang honey supplement on hippocampal morphology and memory performance in ovariectomized (OVX) rats exposed to social instability stress. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: (i) sham-operated controls, (ii) stressed sham-operated controls, (iii) OVX rats, (iv) stressed OVX rats, (v) stressed OVX rats treated with 17β-estradiol (E2), and (vi) stressed OVX rats treated with Tualang honey. These rats were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by novel object recognition (NOR) test. Right brain hemispheres were subjected to Nissl staining. The number and arrangement of pyramidal neurons in regions of CA1, CA2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) were recorded. Two-way ANOVA analyses showed significant interactions between stress and OVX in both STM and LTM test as well as number of Nissl-positive cells in all hippocampal regions. Both E2 and Tualang honey treatments improved both short-term and long-term memory and enhanced the neuronal proliferation of hippocampal CA2, CA3 and DG regions compared to that of untreated stressed OVX rats.
Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin
Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system.
Zaid, Siti Sarah Mohamad; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Othman, Nor Hayati; Soelaiman, Ima-Nirwana; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun; Mohamad, Norazlina; Muhamad, Norliza
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tualang honey on trabecular structure and compare these effects with those of calcium supplementation in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Forty female, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8): four controls and one test arm. The control arm comprised a baseline control, sham-operated control, ovariectomized control, and ovariectomized calcium-treated rats (receiving 1% calcium in drinking water ad libitum). The test arm was composed of ovariectomized, Tualang honey-treated rats (received 0.2 g/kg body weight of Tualang honey). Both the sham-operated control and ovariectomized control groups received vehicle treatment (deionized water), and the baseline control group was sacrificed without treatment. RESULTS: All rats were orally gavaged daily for six weeks after day one post-surgery. The bone structural analysis of rats in the test arm group showed a significant increase in the bone volume per tissue volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) compared with the ovariectomized control group. The trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in the test arm group was significantly higher compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group, and the inter-trabecular space (Tb.Sp) in the test arm group was significantly narrower compared with the ovariectomized-calcium treated group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ovariectomized rats that received Tualang honey showed more improvements in trabecular bone structure than the rats that received calcium. PMID:22892923
Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma'; Ahmad, Asma Hayati
The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant and anxiolytic-like effect of Tualang honey in stressed ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into; (i) nonstressed sham-operated control rats, (ii) sham-operated control rats exposed to stress, (iii) nonstressed OVX rats, (iv) OVX rats exposed to stress, (v) OVX rats exposed to stress and treated with 17 β-oestradiol (E2) (20 μg daily, sc), and (vi) OVX rats exposed to stress and treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight, orally). The open field test was used to evaluate the anxiety-like behaviour and ELISA kits were used to measure oxidant/antioxidant status of the brain homogenates. The result showed that anxiety-like behavior was significantly increased in stressed OVX compared to other groups, and administering either E2 or Tualang honey significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour in stressed OVX rats. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) were significantly decreased while the levels/activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferases (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly increased in the brain homogenates of treated stressed OVX groups compared to untreated stressed OVX. In conclusion, Tualang honey has protective effects against brain oxidative stress and may be useful alternative anxiolytic agent especially for postmenopausal women. PMID:27379299
Mohd Effendy, Nadia; Mohamed, Norazlina; Muhammad, Norliza; Mohamad, Isa Naina; Shuid, Ahmad Nazrun
Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects. PMID:22973408
Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Bakar, Mohd. Bustamanizan; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan; Draman, Samsul; Ramli, Roszaman; Wan Yusoff, Wan Zahanim
Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750 mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P < 0.001), motility (P = 0.015) and morphology (P = 0.008) was seen in Tualang honey group. In Tribestan group, a significant increment of mean sperm concentration (P = 0.007), and morphology (P = 0.009) was seen. No significant differences of sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were seen between Tualang honey and Tribestan group and similar results were also seen in erectile function and hormonal profile. All safety profiles were normal and no adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event. PMID:25505918
Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Nengsih, Agustine; Norazmi, Mohd. Nor
Tualang honey (TH) is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM), in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-)responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects. PMID:23476711
Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya
Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.
Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous
Background Full-thickness burn wounds require excision and skin grafting. Multiple surgical procedures are inevitable in managing moderate to severe full-thickness burns. Wound bed preparations prior to surgery are necessary in order to prevent wound infection and promote wound healing. Honey can be used to treat burn wounds. However, not all the honey is the same. This study aims to evaluate the wound contraction and antibacterial properties of locally-produced Tualang honey on managing full-thickness burn wounds in vivo. Methods Thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Under anaesthesia, three full-thickness burn wounds were created on the dorsum of the rats. The full-thickness burn wounds were inoculated with a specific organism (104), namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 12), or Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 12). The three burn wounds were dressed with Tualang honey, hydrofibre and hydrofibre silver respectively. Swab samples were obtained every 3 days (day 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21) for quantitative and semi-quantitative microbiological analyses. Clinical assessments, including observations concerning the appearance and wound size, were measured at the same time. Results There was a rapid 32.26% reduction in wound size by day 6 (p = 0.008) in the Tualang honey-treated wounds, and 49.27% by day 15 (p = 0.005). The wounds remained smaller by day 18 (p < 0.032). Tualang honey-treated rats demonstrated a reduction in bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated wounds (p = 0.005). However, hydrofibre silver and hydrofibre-treated wounds are superior to honey-treated wounds with Acinetobacter baumannii (p = 0.035). There was no statistical significant of antibacterial property in Klebsiella pneumonia inoculated wounds. Conclusions Tualang honey has better results with regards to its control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its wound contraction effects on full-thickness burn wound in vivo
Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107
Enhancement of BDNF concentration and restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis accompany reduced depressive-like behaviour in stressed ovariectomised rats treated with either Tualang honey or estrogen.
Al-Rahbi, Badriya; Zakaria, Rahimah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Hassan, Asma'; Ahmad, Asma Hayati
A possible interaction between glucocorticoids and estrogen-induced increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in enhancing depressive-like behaviour has been documented. Here we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey, a phytoestrogen, and 17 β -estradiol (E2) on the depressive-like behaviour, stress hormones, and BDNF concentration in stressed ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The animals were divided into six groups: (i) nonstressed sham-operated control, (ii) stressed sham-operated control, (iii) nonstressed OVX, (iv) stressed OVX, (v) stressed OVX treated with E2 (20 μg daily, sc), and (vi) stressed OVX treated with Tualang honey (0.2 g/kg body weight daily, orally). Two months after surgery, the animals were subjected to social instability stress procedure followed by forced swimming test. Struggling time, immobility time, and swimming time were scored. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels, and the BDNF concentration were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. Stressed OVX rats displayed increased depressive-like behaviour with significantly increased serum ACTH and corticosterone levels, while the BDNF concentration was significantly decreased compared to other experimental groups. These changes were notably reversed by both E2 and Tualang honey. In conclusion, both Tualang honey and E2 mediate antidepressive-like effects in stressed OVX rats, possibly acting via restoration of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and enhancement of the BDNF concentration.
Tan, Jun Jie; Azmi, Siti Maisura; Yong, Yoke Keong; Cheah, Hong Leong; Lim, Vuanghao; Sandai, Doblin; Shaharuddin, Bakiah
Stem cells with enhanced resistance to oxidative stress after in vitro expansion have been shown to have improved engraftment and regenerative capacities. Such cells can be generated by preconditioning them with exposure to an antioxidant. In this study we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey (TH), an antioxidant-containing honey, on human corneal epithelial progenitor (HCEP) cells in culture. Cytotoxicity, gene expression, migration, and cellular resistance to oxidative stress were evaluated. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that HCEP cells were holoclonal and expressed epithelial stem cell marker p63 without corneal cytokeratin 3. Cell viability remained unchanged after cells were cultured with 0.004, 0.04, and 0.4% TH in the medium, but it was significantly reduced when the concentration was increased to 3.33%. Cell migration, tested using scratch migration assay, was significantly enhanced when cells were cultured with TH at 0.04% and 0.4%. We also found that TH has hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging ability, although a trace level of H2O2 was detected in the honey in its native form. Preconditioning HCEP cells with 0.4% TH for 48 h showed better survival following H2O2-induced oxidative stress at 50 µM than untreated group, with a significantly lower number of dead cells (15.3±0.4%) were observed compared to the untreated population (20.5±0.9%, p<0.01). Both TH and ascorbic acid improved HCEP viability following induction of 100 µM H2O2, but the benefit was greater with TH treatment than with ascorbic acid. However, no significant advantage was demonstrated using 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, a compound that was found abundant in TH using GC/MS analysis. This suggests that the cellular anti-oxidative capacity in HCEP cells was augmented by native TH and was attributed to its antioxidant properties. In conclusion, TH possesses antioxidant properties and can improve cell migration and cellular resistance to oxidative stress in HCEP cells in
Hussein, Saba Zuhair; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Makpol, Suzana; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd
Two types of monofloral Malaysian honey (Gelam and Nenas) were analyzed to determine their antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents, with and without gamma irradiation. Our results showed that both types of honey can scavenge free radicals and exhibit high antioxidant-reducing power; however, Gelam honey exhibited higher antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Nenas honey, which is in good correlation (r = 0.9899) with its phenolic contents. Interestingly, we also noted that both irradiated honeys have higher antioxidant activities and total phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to nonirradiated honeys by Folin-Ciocalteu and UV-spectrophotometry methods, respectively. However, HPLC analysis for phenolic compounds showed insignificant increase between irradiated and nonirradiated honeys. The phenolic compounds such as: caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, p- coumaric acid, quercetin and hesperetin as indicated by HPLC method were found to be higher in Gelam honey versus Nenas honey. In conclusion, irradiation of honey causes enhanced antioxidant activities and flavonoid compounds.
Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.
Almaleeh, Abd Alazeez; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Fathinul-Syahir, A. S.
The aim of this study is to perform the classification of three brands of Malaysian honeys according to their botanical origin using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The ability to classify honey according to their botanical origin is important to ensure the quality of the product. A total of nine samples from three commercial brands of honey produces were measured by a Lambda 35 UV-Vis Spectrometer. The wavelength range recorded was from 200 nm to 400 nm and used for model calibration. The (PCs) were extracted from principal components analysis (PCA), the first three (PCs) which accounted 98.03% of disparity of the spectra were combined separately with support vector machine (SVM) for the development of (PC-SVM) model, and achieved 100% discrimination accuracy. The results can be utilized in the development of device for the classification of honey accurately and rapid as well as safe guarantee to ordinary consumers.
Yusoff, Nik Yusliyana Nik; Mohamad, Suharni; Abdullah, Haswati@Nurhayati; Rahman, Nurhayu Ab
Malaysian honey and propolis extracts were investigated for their antifungal properties against pathogens implicated in denture stomatitis. Each of the honey and aqueous extracts propolis at net preparation, 1:1 and 1:2 dilutions was evaluated by using agar well diffusion assay and further investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range of 500 mg/mL to 62.5 mg/mL against oral fungi. The findings indicated that there was no effect of propolis on Candida spp for both types of propolis based on no inhibition zones was recorded. Meanwhile, for antifungal activity of honey, only honey from Trigona spp has shown activity at net preparation against C. albicans (10.47 ± 0.23 mm), C. tropicalis (12.29 ± 0.23 mm) and C. glabrata (8.69 ± 0.53 mm). For minimum inhibitory concentration, the data indicates that both propolis have shown inhibitory effect at 500 mg/mL. As for honey, Trigona spp was the effective honey that give MIC value at 250 mg/mL against Candida spp. Apis dorsata honey has shown MIC value at 500 mg/mL while Apis mellifera honey had inhibited C.albicans and C.glabrata at 500 mg/mL except for C.tropicalis at 250 mg/mL. It can be concluded that both propolis has shown weaker antifungal activity against oral fungi while only honey produced from Trigona spp had strong antifungal activity compare to other honey against oral fungi implicated in denture stomatitis.
Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina
Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat. PMID:28246535
Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani
Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.
Subari, Norazian; Saleh, Junita Mohamad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar
This paper presents a comparison between data from single modality and fusion methods to classify Tualang honey as pure or adulterated using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistical classification approaches. Ten different brands of certified pure Tualang honey were obtained throughout peninsular Malaysia and Sumatera, Indonesia. Various concentrations of two types of sugar solution (beet and cane sugar) were used in this investigation to create honey samples of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% adulteration concentrations. Honey data extracted from an electronic nose (e-nose) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were gathered, analyzed and compared based on fusion methods. Visual observation of classification plots revealed that the PCA approach able to distinct pure and adulterated honey samples better than the LDA technique. Overall, the validated classification results based on FTIR data (88.0%) gave higher classification accuracy than e-nose data (76.5%) using the LDA technique. Honey classification based on normalized low-level and intermediate-level FTIR and e-nose fusion data scored classification accuracies of 92.2% and 88.7%, respectively using the Stepwise LDA method. The results suggested that pure and adulterated honey samples were better classified using FTIR and e-nose fusion data than single modality data. PMID:23202033
Erejuwa, Omotayo Owomofoyon; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Abdul; Salam, Sirajudeen Kuttulebbai Nainamohammed; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil
Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic beta-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.
Ng, Wen-jie; Lim, Mei-siew
Honey is well-known for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, which are also involved in antibacterial activities. In this study, properties (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing-antioxidant power, reducing sugar content, and pH) of Malaysian Melaleuca honey were investigated for their antistaphylococcal activity, against both methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains using a hole-in-plate diffusion method. The outcome revealed there is a significant positive correlation between the antistaphylococcal activity and increase in honey concentration [20%-80% (v/v) in distilled water], which also correlated with each of the above mentioned parameter in honey, except for pH value that shows negative correlation. Furthermore, there was no difference in susceptibility to Melaleuca honey between MSSA and MRSA strains. Thus, in addition to being an antioxidant product, Melaleuca honey has a potential as a natural antistaphylococcal agent.
Rahaman, Norul Liza A.; Adnan, Nur Ardawati; Eddie Tan, Ti Tjih
The antioxidant activities based on the free radical scavenging, reducing power, and bleaching inhibition were investigated for the three commonly used honeys in Malaysia, namely, tualang, gelam, and acacia honey. The antioxidant capacity of the honey samples was correlated with their biochemical constituents such as total phenol, total flavonoid content, and total water-soluble vitamins (vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, B12, and vitamin C). The total flavonoid content of honey samples was strongly correlated with the three antioxidative processes (r = 0.9276–0.9910). In contrast, the total water-soluble vitamins was found to be well correlated with the free radical scavenging activity (r = 0.8226). Vitamin B3 was likely to be in the highest concentration, which covered for 69–80% of the total vitamin content. A number of five phenolic acids, three flavonoids, and two organic acids had also been detected from the honey samples using UPLC-MS/MS, without sugar-removal procedure. PMID:24027653
Conway, John R.
Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)
Nasrolahi, Ozra; Heidari, Reza; Rahmani, Fatima; Farokhi, Farah
Objective(s): Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem and one of the five leading causes of death globally. In the present study, the effect of Metformin with natural honey was investigated on glycemia in the Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six groups including C: non diabetic rats received distilled water, CH: non diabetic rats received honey, CD: diabetic rats administered with distilled water, DM: Metformin treated diabetic rats, DH: honey treated diabetic rats, and DMH: diabetic rats treated with a combination of Metformin and natural honey. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p.). The animals were treated by oral gavage once daily for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed and their blood samples collected. Amount of glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total bilirubin, and albumin were determined in serum. Results: Group CD: showed hyperglycemia (252.2±4.1 mg/dl), while level of blood glucose was significantly (p<0.01) reduced in groups DH (124.2±2.7 mg/dl), DM (108.0±3.4 mg/dl), and DMH (115.4±2.1 mg/dl). Honey in combination with Metformin significantly (p<0.01) reduced level of bilirubin but Metformin alone did not reduce bilirubin. Honey alone and in combination with Metformin also significantly reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and increased HDL, but Metformin did not reduced triglycerides and increased HDL. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that consuming natural honey with Metformin improves glycemic control and is more useful than consuming Metformin alone. The higher therapeutic effect of Ilam honey on lipid abnormalities than Tualang honey was also evident. PMID:25050251
Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.
The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488
Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Hassan, Zaiton; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G
The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species.
Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua
Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.
Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua
The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination.
Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua
The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869
Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua
There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.
Ahmad, Tengku Ahbrizal Farizal Tengku; Jubri, Zakiah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Rahim, Khairuddin Abdul; Yusof, Yasmin Anum Mohd; Makpol, Suzana
The present study was designed to determine the radioprotective effects of Malaysian Gelam honey on gene expression and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Six groups of HDFs were studied: untreated control, irradiated HDFs, Gelam honey-treated HDFs and HDF treated with Gelam honey pre-, during- and post-irradiation. HDFs were treated with 6 mg/mL of sterilized Gelam honey (w/v) for 24 h and exposed to 1 Gray (Gy) of gamma rays at the dose rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Gamma-irradiation was shown to down-regulate SOD1, SOD2, CAT and GPx1 gene expressions (p < 0.05). Conversely, HDFs treated with Gelam honey alone showed up-regulation of all genes studied. Similarly, SOD, CAT and GPx enzyme activities in HDFs decreased with gamma-irradiation and increased when cells were treated with Gelam honey (p < 0.05). Furthermore, of the three different stages of study treatment, pre-treatment with Gelam honey caused up-regulation of SOD1, SOD2 and CAT genes expression and increased the activity of SOD and CAT. As a conclusion, Gelam honey modulates the expression of antioxidant enzymes at gene and protein levels in irradiated HDFs indicating its potential as a radioprotectant agent.
Kwakman, Paulus H S; Zaat, Sebastian A J
The antibacterial activity of honey has been known since the 19th century. Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey, but incomplete knowledge of the antibacterial activity is a major obstacle for clinical applicability. The high sugar concentration, hydrogen peroxide, and the low pH are well-known antibacterial factors in honey and more recently, methylglyoxal and the antimicrobial peptide bee defensin-1 were identified as important antibacterial compounds in honey. The antibacterial activity of honey is highly complex due to the involvement of multiple compounds and due to the large variation in the concentrations of these compounds among honeys. The current review will elaborate on the antibacterial compounds in honey. We discuss the activity of the individual compounds, their contribution to the complex antibacterial activity of honey, a novel approach to identify additional honey antibacterial compounds, and the implications of the novel developments for standardization of honey for medical applications.
Kwakman, Paulus H S; te Velde, Anje A; de Boer, Leonie; Speijer, Dave; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Zaat, Sebastian A J
With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria tested, including Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, were killed by 10-20% (v/v) honey, whereas > or = 40% (v/v) of a honey-equivalent sugar solution was required for similar activity. Honey accumulated up to 5.62 +/- 0.54 mM H(2)O(2) and contained 0.25 +/- 0.01 mM methylglyoxal (MGO). After enzymatic neutralization of these two compounds, honey retained substantial activity. Using B. subtilis for activity-guided isolation of the additional antimicrobial factors, we discovered bee defensin-1 in honey. After combined neutralization of H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1, 20% honey had only minimal activity left, and subsequent adjustment of the pH of this honey from 3.3 to 7.0 reduced the activity to that of sugar alone. Activity against all other bacteria tested depended on sugar, H(2)O(2), MGO, and bee defensin-1. Thus, we fully characterized the antibacterial activity of medical-grade honey.
Snowdon, J A; Cliver, D O
Knowledge of the moisture and temperature conditions influencing growth of microorganisms in honey has long been used to control the spoilage of honey. However, the need for additional microbiological data on honey will increase as new technologies for, and uses of honey develop. Microorganisms in honey may influence quality or safety. Due to the natural properties of honey and control measures in the honey industry, honey is a product with minimal types and levels of microbes. Microbes of concern in post-harvest handling are those that are commonly found in honey (i.e., yeasts and spore-forming bacteria), those that indicate the sanitary or commercial quality of honey (i.e., coliforms and yeasts), and those that under certain conditions could cause human illness. Primary sources of microbial contamination are likely to include pollen, the digestive tracts of honey bees, dust, air, earth and nectar, sources which are very difficult to control. The same secondary (after-harvest) sources that influence any food product are also sources of contamination for honey. These include air, food handlers, cross-contamination, equipment and buildings. Secondary sources of contamination are controlled by good manufacturing practices. The microbes of concern in honey are primarily yeasts and spore-forming bacteria. Total plate counts from honey samples can vary from zero to tens of thousands per gram for no apparent reason. Most samples of honey contain detectable levels of yeasts. Although yeast counts in many honey samples are below 100 colony forming units per gram (cfu/g), yeasts can grow in honey to very high numbers. Standard industry practices control yeast growth. Bacterial spores, particularly those in the Bacillus genus, are regularly found in honey. The spores of C. botulinum are found in a fraction of the honey samples tested-normally at low levels. No vegetative forms of disease-causing bacterial species have been found in honey. Bacteria do not replicate in honey
... COMMISSION [Investigation No. TA-406-13] Honey From China Determination On the basis of the information... respect to imports of honey 2 from China--that is, imports of honey from China are increasing rapidly so... Brunsdale dissenting. \\2\\The honey products included in this investigation are imports of natural...
Khoo, L S; Hasmi, A H; Abdul Ghani Aziz, S A; Ibrahim, M A; Mahmood, M S
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of the people; and overwhelms the capacity of the community to cope with the event. The recent tragic aviation accidents in 2014 involving Malaysia Airlines flights MH370 and MH17 shocked the world in an unprecedented manner. This paper focuses on the Malaysian experience in the MH17 mission in Ukraine as well as the first ever international Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) operation for the Malaysian DVI team. The DVI operations in Hilversum, the Netherlands were well described in stages. The Netherlands' Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing as the lead DVI team in Hilversum operated systematically, ensuring the success of the whole mission. This paper discusses the lessons learned by the Malaysian team on proper DVI structure, inter- and intra-agency cooperation, facilities planning and set up, logistics and health and safety aspects, as well as effective communication and collaboration with other international delegates. Several issues and challenges faced by the Malaysian team were also documented. In addition, the authors shared views, opinions and recommendations for a more comprehensive DVI operation in the future.
Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.
Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…
... cough remedy? Is it true that honey calms coughs better than cough medicine does? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... throat. But honey alone may be an effective cough suppressant, too. In one study, children age 2 ...
Ball, David W.
Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…
Kassim, Mustafa; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd; Ong, Gracie; Sekaran, Shamala; Yusof, Mohd Yasim Bin Md; Mansor, Marzida
Malaysian Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, a high antioxidant capacity, and free radical-scavenging activity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates immune cells to sequentially release early pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and induces the synthesis of several related enzymes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intravenous injection of honey in rats with LPS-induced endotoxemia. The results showed that after 4h of treatment, honey reduced cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 1β, and 10) and NO levels and increased heme oxygenase-1 levels. After 24h, a decrease in cytokines and NO and an increase in HO-1 were seen in all groups, whereas a reduction in HMGB1 occurred only in the honey-treated groups. These results support the further examination of honey as a natural compound for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory diseases.
Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation.
ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati
Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.
Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced... merchantable quality deemed by CCC to be suitable for loan; that is, the honey: (1) Is not adulterated; (2)...
Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae
Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.
Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae
Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010
Ruiz-Argueso, T; Rodriguez-Navarro, A
Two main groups of bacteria, classified as Gluconobacter and Lactobacillus, are present in ripening honey. A third bacterial group, classified as Zymomonas, and several types of yeast are occasionally isolated. Both in natural honey and in synthetic syrup the bacterial population decreases in the course of the ripening process. Lactobacillus and Gluconobacter disappear after minimum moisture (about 18%) is reached, but the former does so sooner than the latter. The presence of these bacteria in different parts of the bee has been also investigated.
Juhary, Jowati binti
This paper begins with an analysis of the changing security scenario in the Asian region, with special focus on Malaysian defence strategies and foreign policies. Beginning in the mid 1990s, the Malaysian government shifted its attention away from the counter insurgency strategies of the early decades of independence to focus on wider questions of…
Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya
Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.
Duarte, Fátima Cabral; Mendes, Ana; Bartolomé, Borja; Barbosa, Manuel Pereira
Honey allergy is a very rare, but serious health condition. In this study, we presented 1 patient who had anaphylaxis after the honey allergological investigation with skin prick-prick test with honey. Honey as a food has been associated to allergic reactions and as the increased consumption of honey in health food may increase the incidence of honey-related allergic reactions. PMID:28154806
de Laguérenne, Claude
The archives of Nantes contain two manuscripts of the XVIIth century from which we found 63 formulae which enter bees, honey and wax. Our study concerns these various galeniques forms for internal use or external used in therapeutics and in beauty care.
Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.
Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab
Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614
Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.
Suresh, K; Smith, H V; Tan, T C
Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis.
Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds.
Espinosa-Luna, Rafael; Saucedo-Orozco, Izcoatl; Santiago-Lona, Cynthia V.; Franco-Sánchez, Juan M.; Magallanes-Luján, Alejandro
A polarimetric characterization, consisting of the Mueller matrix determination and the measurement of the refractive index, is employed to study bee honey and corn syrup differences. Two samples of commercial marks of bee honey and one sample of commercial mark corn syrup are studied. Results show the corn syrup and one of the bee honey samples have a similar polarimetric behavior, which differs from the second bee honey sample. This behavior can be employed as a simple, qualitative test, to discriminate true bee honey from corn syrup or from adulterated bee honey.s-powe
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Proper Labeling of Honey and Honey Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Proper Labeling ] of Honey and Honey Products.'' FDA...
Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei
The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.
Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc., a/k/a The Honey Do Service, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristol, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Bristol, Virginia.
Nair, Samira; Meddah, Boumedienne; Aoues, Abdelkader
A pollen analysis of Algerian honey was conducted on a total of 10 honey samples. The samples were prepared using the methodology described by Louveaux et al., that was then further adapted by Ohe et al. The samples were subsequently observed using light microscopy. A total of 36 pollen taxa were discovered and could be identified in the analyzed honey samples. Seventy percent of the studied samples belonged to the group ofmonofloral honeys represented by Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, Citrus sp. and Lavandula angustifolia. Multifloral honeys comprised 30% of the honey samples, with pollen grains of Lavandula stoechas (28.49%) standing out as the most prevalent. Based on cluster analysis, two different groups of honey were observed according to different pollen types found in the samples. The identified pollen spectrum of honey confirmed their botanical origin. PMID:28239099
... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion... saccharine exudations of plants that are gathered, modified, and stored in the comb by honeybees,...
... COMMISSION Honey From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... honey from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... contained in USITC Publication 4364 (November 2012), entitled Honey from China: Investigation No....
Since the beginning of honey production, certain honey types are preferred because they taste better, are better for cooking, or do not rapidly crystallize. Because some honey types are preferred over others, these preferred types are in high demand and are sold at higher prices. One of the goals ...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...
Bong, Jessie; Loomes, Kerry M; Schlothauer, Ralf C; Stephens, Jonathan M
The fluorescence characteristics of various New Zealand honeys were investigated to establish if this technique might detect signatures unique to manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and kanuka (Kunzea ericoides) honeys. We found unique fluorescence profiles for these honeys which distinguished them from other New Zealand honey floral types. Two excitation-emission (ex-em) marker wavelengths each for manuka and kanuka honeys were identified; manuka honey at 270-365 (MM1) and 330-470 (MM2) nm and kanuka honey at 275-305 (KM1) and 445-525 (KM2) nm. Dilution of manuka and kanuka honeys with other honey types that did not possess these fluorescence profiles resulted in a proportional reduction in fluorescence signal of the honeys at the marker wavelengths. By comparison, rewarewa (Knightia excelsa), kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa), and clover (Trifolium spp.) honeys did not exhibit unique fluorescence patterns. These findings suggests that a fluorescence-based screening approach has potential utility for determining the monoflorality status of manuka and kanuka honeys.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research,...
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.10 Honey products. “Honey...
Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu
Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country in which the government gives preferential treatment in education, employment, and ownership to its majority ethnic group: Bumiputera. However, affirmative action policies in the current Malaysian context should work according to John Rawls' Theory of Justice by being based on income rather than ethnicity.…
This article evaluates the effectiveness of using a simulation in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) class at a university in the United States and discusses the integration of simulations into the Malaysian curriculum. A new approach is needed in Malaysia wherein language learners are given maximum exposure to the language. The article…
Ghazali, Ghaziah Mohd.; McPherson, Gary E.
A sample of 1060 Malaysian children were surveyed in order to examine differences in their motivation to study music in school and to learn a musical instrument outside of school. Adopting the expectancy-value motivation theory, the children were asked questions concerning their perception of music as being important, useful, interesting,…
Othman, Norasmah; Nasrudin, Norfadhilah
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate students' views on the on-the-campus entrepreneurship programs in Malaysian polytechnics. Participation in the entrepreneurship programs is able to stimulate an interest in entrepreneurship, and improve the knowledge, skills, and entrepreneurial experience of its students.…
The purpose of this survey study was to examine the level of Malaysian students' motivation with regards to the learning of Physics at the secondary school level, and its influencing factors. The study was carried out on 337 Form Four students who took Physics as a subject, from six schools in a northern state of Malaysia--three from urban areas,…
Sungif, Nur Atiqah binti Md; Ahmad, Dayang Hartijah binti Abang; Mukundan, Jayakaran
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contents of in-use Year 5 and Year 6 textbooks in Malaysian primary schools in exploring the strengths and weaknesses of the textbooks. Does it really apply all the methods and suitability for the pupils? It is also aim to study whether the textbooks fit to all level of pupils' proficiency in English…
Lee, Chih Fang; Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifly; Ahmad, Kamarul Arifin; Lutfi Shuaib, Ibrahim
This research focuses on creating a standardized nasal cavity model of adult Malaysian females. The methodology implemented in this research is a new approach compared to other methods used by previous researchers. This study involves 26 females who represent the test subjects for this preliminary study. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was carried out to better understand the characteristics of the standardized model and to compare it to the available standardized Caucasian model. This comparison includes cross-sectional areas for both half-models as well as velocity contours along the nasal cavities. The Malaysian female standardized model is larger in cross-sectional area compared to the standardized Caucasian model thus leading to lower average velocity magnitudes. The standardized model was further evaluated with four more Malaysian female test subjects based on its cross-sectional areas and average velocity magnitudes along the nasal cavities. This evaluation shows that the generated model represents an averaged and standardized model of adult Malaysian females.
Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam
A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.
Cutting, Keith F
A growing body of research and empirical evidence have supported the re-discovery of medicinal grade honey as a wound management agent. Pre-clinical study results suggest that honey has therapeutic benefit; clinical study results have shown that honey effectively addresses exudate, inflammation, devitalized tissue, and infection. Honey-containing dressings and gels have been developed to facilitate the application of medicinal-grade honey to the wound. Clinical studies to compare the safety and effectiveness of these products to other moisture-retentive dressings and treatment modalities are warranted.
Grande-Grande, A.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Paez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.
We present a comparative analysis between the diffraction gratings efficiencies recorded on films corn honey and corn honey whit ereoglaucine dye (Blue Â® No. 1). For recording the diffraction gratings in the films using the technique of lithography pattern obtained by computer and exposure of the samples to ultraviolet radiation. Although the main reason of the addition of dye to the honey was the one of increasing its diffraction efficiency, the experimental results demonstrated that the gratings recorded in honey had bigger diffraction efficiency than those recorded in honey with dye.
... COMMISSION Investigations Nos. 701-TA-402 (Final) and 731-TA-892-893 (Final) Honey From Argentina and China... Argentina and less-than-fair-value imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings... honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of...
Morales, Paloma; Haza, Ana Isabel
Background: Current evidence supports that consumption of polyphenols has beneficial effects against numerous diseases mostly associated with their antioxidant activity. Honey is a good source of antioxidants since it contains a great variety of phenolic compounds. Objective: The main objective of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of three crude commercial honeys of different floral origin (heather, rosemary and polyfloral honey) from Madrid Autonomic Community (Spain) as well as of an artificial honey in human peripheral blood promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). Material and Methods: HL-60 cells were cultured in the presence of honeys at various concentrations for up to 72 hours and the percentage of cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by chromatin condensation and flow cytometry analysis. ROS production was determined using 2´,7´-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Results: The three types of crude commercial honey induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent-manner. In addition, honeys with the higher phenolic content, heather and polyfloral, were the most effective to induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells. However, honeys did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) could not block honeys-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. Conclusion: These data support that honeys induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a ROS-independent cell death pathway. Moreover, our findings indicate that the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of honey varied according to the floral origin and the phenolic content. PMID:23930007
Lusby, P E; Coombes, A; Wilkinson, J M
Although honey has been used as a traditional remedy for burns and wounds, the potential for its inclusion in mainstream medical care is not well recognized. Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. The physicochemical properties (eg, osmotic effects and pH) of honey also aid in its antibacterial actions. Research has also indicated that honey may possess antiinflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. It is also known that honeys derived from particular floral sources in Australia and New Zealand (Leptospermum spp) have enhanced antibacterial activity, and these honeys have been approved for marketing as therapeutic honeys (Medihoney and Active Manuka honey). This review outlines what is known about the medical properties of honey and indicates the potential for honey to be incorporated into the management of a large number of wound types.
Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada
Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748
Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada
Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities.
Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza
When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.
Godart, V; Dan, B; Mascart, G; Fikri, Y; Dierick, K; Lepage, P
Infant botulism is a rare neuroparalytic disease caused by the neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum. Initial clinical features are constipation, poor feeding, descending hypotonia, drooling, irritability, weak crying and cranial nerve dysfunctions. We describe the clinical progression and the epidemiological investigation carried out in a 3-month-old infant. Better knowledge of the disease should allow faster diagnosis and adequate management. We emphasize the risks associated with honey exposure in children less than one year old and that honey should not be fed to infants under 12 months of age.
... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information... Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... comments regarding proposed amendments to the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information...
Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd
Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.
Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.
Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246
The mid-1960s saw civil rights victories in Congress during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency. In "Going Down Jericho Road," Michael Honey wrote how Martin Luther King Jr.'s final focus showed that the struggle for black and working class parity continued. The 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike was a gritty struggle won in the streets by a host…
Chalkbrood is an invasive mycosis in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) produced by Ascosphaera apis (Maassen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir (Spiltoir, 1955) that exclusively affects bee brood. Although fatal to individual larvae, the disease does not usually destroy an entire bee colony. However, it c...
Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...
Imm, Tan Siew
This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…
Abu Said, Al-Mansor; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Silong, Abu Daud; Sulaiman, Suzaimah
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a career success model for academics at the Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered and online surveys were used for data collection among 325 academics from Malaysian research universities. Findings: Based on the analysis of structural equation modeling, the…
Tse, Andrew Yau Hau
Just a few Malaysian universities offer self-access language learning activities to students. The objective of this study is to investigate if self-access learning can promote self-directed or autonomous learning in a public Malaysian technical university. Data collection is by means of interviewing the Director, lecturers, and students in a…
Sankar, Lokasundari Vijaya
This article examines the coverage in three Malaysian newspapers on an issue popularly known as the "Allah" issue. In 2009, the Catholic Church took the Malaysian government to court over the right to use the word "Allah". In a landmark court decision, the Church was given the right to use the word "Allah" in the…
Bowman, Laura L.; Anthonysamy, Angela
Differences in perceptions of research ethics between Malaysian and American students were assessed using a questionnaire that measured perceptions of voluntary informed consent for adults and children, assessment of the risk/benefit ratio, issues of deception, and issues of privacy and confidentiality. As predicted, Malaysian students had less…
Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem
The study describes and examines Malaysian pre-university students' integrative and instrumental motivation toward learning English language. In this study, 182 non-English major students in one of the Malaysian public universities are selected to fill out a questionnaire reflecting their attitudes and motivation towards learning English. The…
Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…
Law, Kian Aun
This paper deals with a case study of Management Development (MD) practices at Malaysian Assurance Alliance (MAA). The aim of this research is to investigate how a large Malaysian insurance corporation developed and integrated MD initiatives with current organizational needs and tasks. Attempts were made to map and categorize the MD initiatives…
Narinasamy, Ilhamanggai; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Nimehchisalem, Vahid
Studies on ESL/EFL learners' use of the progressives reveal that it is one of the grammatical aspects most problematic to them. This paper presents the results of a study on the use of progressives among Year 5, Form 1 and Form 4 Malaysian ESL learners' compositions using the English of Malaysian School Students (EMAS) corpus. The purpose of this…
Werner, A; Laccourreye, O
In this review of the literature devoted to the use of honey, the authors analyse the composition, indications, benefits and adverse effects of this product in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck surgery. Published data indicate that honey applied topically to skin and mucosal wounds and/or burns and administered orally as antitussive medication (after the first year of life) is highly effective with no adverse effects. The physiological action of honey is the result of various mechanisms (osmotic, detersion, bactericidal action). Various medicinal honeys are available worldwide, but only one has Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of wounds. After the first year of life, the use of food honey appears to be as effective as medicinal honey, while decreasing the overall cost of treatment.
Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.
Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.
Dur, Ali; Sonmez, Ertan; Civelek, Cemil; AhmetTurkdogan, Kenan; AkifVatankulu, Mehmet; Sogut, Ozgur
Mad honey intoxication or grayanotoxin poisoning is caused by consumption of grayanotoxin-containing toxic honey produced from leaves and flowers of the Rhododendron family. Despite the rarity of intoxication cases, the correct diagnosis and treatment are required because of the significance of haemodynamic disturbance and confounding of symptoms for disease identification. We report herein a case of a patient with mad honey intoxication mimicking acute non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and review the pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations.
Budge, Giles E; Adams, Ian; Thwaites, Richard; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Drew, Georgia C; Hurst, Gregory D D; Tomkies, Victoria; Boonham, Neil; Brown, Mike
Non-targeted approaches are useful tools to identify new or emerging issues in bee health. Here, we utilise next generation sequencing to highlight bacteria associated with healthy and unhealthy honey bee colonies, and then use targeted methods to screen a wider pool of colonies with known health status. Our results provide the first evidence that bacteria from the genus Arsenophonus are associated with poor health in honey bee colonies. We also discovered Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc spp. were associated with healthier honey bee colonies. Our results highlight the importance of understanding how the wider microbial population relates to honey bee colony health.
Martos, I; Ferreres, F; Yao, L; D'Arcy, B; Caffin, N; Tomás-Barberán, F A
The HPLC analyses of Australian unifloral Eucalyptus honeys have shown that the flavonoids myricetin (3,5,7,3',4', 5'-hexahydroxyflavone), tricetin (5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavone), quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (5,7,3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), and kaempferol (3,5,7, 4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) are present in all samples. These compounds were previously suggested as floral markers of European Eucalyptus honeys. The present results confirm the use of flavonoid analysis as an objective method for the botanical origin determination of eucalyptus honey. Honeys from E. camaldulensis (river red gum honey) contain tricetin as the main flavonoid marker, whereas in honeys from E. pilligaensis (mallee honey), luteolin is the main flavonoid marker, suggesting that species-specific differences can be detected with this analysis. The main difference between the flavonoid profiles of Australian and European Eucalyptus honeys is that in the Australian honeys, the propolis-derived flavonoids (pinobanksin (3,5, 7-trihydroxyflavanone), pinocembrin (5,7-dihydroxyflavanone), and chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone)) are seldom found and in much smaller amounts.
Evans, Julie; Flavin, Susan
There is a growing body of literature promoting the use of honey-based products in wound care, demonstrating their efficacy, cost-effectiveness and excellent record of safety. Thus, there has been a sizeable renaissance in the use of honey as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds. This resurgence has brought an array of new honey-based wound products into the market place. Honey for the purposes of wound management has to be 'medical grade', which ensures that it has been sterilized by gamma irradiation and has a standardized antibacterial activity--only these honeys can be registered as medical devices. Hence, practitioners should exercise caution before using any unregulated unlicensed honey product as a treatment for wounds. This article provides healthcare practitioners with the information they need to make a considered decision when choosing between honey-based products. It highlights the importance of established clinical evidence in demonstrating the therapeutic properties of honey and supporting the use of honey-based products in the management of wounds. The practitioner needs to consider the written information provided by manufacturers as to the clinical evidence base of the product, indications and contraindications for use and safety of the product.
Hemmerling, C; Augustyniak, B; Risto, C
A total of 330 bee honey samples was analysed in 1986-1990, and the results are reported. Analysis was performed according to the method for the amitraz total residue determination by hydrolysis and steam distillation as described. 60% of the honeys were practically not contamined (total residue content amounting to 0.01 mg/kg), 8.5% of the honeys contained more than 0.05 mg/kg. Maximal values of 0.2-0.5 mg/kg were stated. 54% of the rape-honeys contained more than 0.01 mg/kg, 19% more than 0.05 mg/kg.
Bajunid, Ibrahim Ahmad
This paper addresses the contemporary development and reform challenges in tertiary education in Malaysia in both national and global contexts. The critical role exercised by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency in driving strategic change in higher education cultures, both in public and private universities is described and analysed. The paper…
Wong, Yin How; Kadir, Habsah A; Tayyab, Saad
Urea and thermal denaturations of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied in the absence and the presence of honey or simulated honey sugar cocktail (SHSC) using far-UV CD and ANS fluorescence spectroscopy. Presence of 20% (w/v) honey or SHSC in the incubation mixture shifted the urea transition curve towards higher urea concentrations, being higher in the presence of honey and transformed the two-step, three-state transition into a single-step, two-state transition. A comparison of the far-UV CD and the ANS fluorescence spectra of 4.6 M urea-denatured BSA (U-BSA) in the absence and the presence of 20% (w/v) honey or SHSC suggested greater stabilizing potential of honey than SHSC, as U-BSA maintained native like conformation in the presence of 20% (w/v) honey. Furthermore, thermal transition curves of BSA were also shifted towards higher temperature range in the presence of 20% (w/v) SHSC and honey, showing greater shift in the presence of honey. The far-UV CD spectra of the heat-denatured BSA also showed greater stabilization in the presence of honey. Taken together all these results suggested greater protein stabilizing potential of honey than SHSC against chemical and thermal denaturations of BSA.
Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke
Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.
Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke
Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462
Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J
An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally.
... TRADE COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports from Argentina and China of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90.00, and 2106.90... Commerce by the American Honey Producers Association, Bruce, South Dakota, and the Sioux Honey...
... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and... Publication 3929 (June 2007), entitled Honey From Argentina and China: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and...
Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers...
Recent research shows substantial genomic diversity among the parasites and pathogens honey bees encounter, a robust microbiota living within bees, and a genome-level view of relationships across global honey bee races. Different combinations of these genomic complexes may explain regional variatio...
Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized symptoms of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new o...
Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Honey From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of five... termination of the suspended ] antidumping duty investigation on honey from China would be likely to lead...
... COMMISSION Honey From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the suspended investigation on honey from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether termination of the suspended investigation on...
Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...
... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.9 Honey. “Honey” means the nectar...
Recently, it was discovered by Olofsson and Vasquez (2008) that a novel flora composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, exists in the honey stomach of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The twelve different flora members varied numerically with the sources o...
Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T
Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods.
Saikaly, Sami K; Khachemoune, Amor
For centuries, honey has been utilized for wound healing purposes. In recent times, this specific topic has become a field of interest, possibly due to the advent of antibiotic resistance in microbial pathogens. With constant technological advancement, the information regarding honey's mechanisms of action on wound healing has accumulated at a rapid pace. Similarly, clinical studies comparing honey with traditional wound care therapies are steadily emerging. As a follow-up to a previous review published in the journal in 2011, the current review article outlines publications regarding honey and wound healing that have been published between June 2010 and August 2016. Here we describe the most recent evidence regarding multiple types of honey and their mechanisms of action as antimicrobial agents, immunologic modulators, and physiologic mediators. In addition, outcomes of clinical studies involving a multitude of cutaneous wounds are also examined.
Lee, David S; Sinno, Sammy; Khachemoune, Amor
Honey has been used to treat wounds throughout the ages. This practice was rooted primarily in tradition and folklore until the late 19th century, when investigators began to characterize its biologic and clinical effects. This overview explores both historic and current insights into honey in its role in wound care. We describe the proposed antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and physiologic mechanisms of action, and review the clinical evidence of the efficacy of honey in a variety of acute and chronic wound types. We also address additional considerations of safety, quality, and the cost effectiveness of medical-grade honeys. In summary, there is biologic evidence to support the use of honey in modern wound care, and the clinical evidence to date also suggests a benefit. However, further large, well designed, clinical trials are needed to confirm its therapeutic effects.
Basson, N J; du Toit, I J; Grobler, S R
The antibacterial properties of honey against medically important bacteria have been well documented but this information is not available for the oral bacteria and specifically for the oral streptococci. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of honey for oral streptococci. Honey had a MIC of 25 per cent (vol/vol) for the bacteria tested with the exception of Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus oralis which were inhibited by 17 per cent (vol/vol) and 12 per cent (vol/vol) honey respectively. The hypertonic sugar control had a MIC of 25 per cent (vol/vol) for all the bacteria tested. Although the results of this study indicate that there could be other antibacterial agents present in the honey, it may be assumed that the hypertonic sugar concentration played an important role in this activity.
Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim
Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.
Song, Jason J; Salcido, Richard
The therapeutic use of honey in wound care has been used since ancient times. Honey has been shown to have antibacterial properties in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated accelerated wound healing with the use of honey. In human trials, there is currently not enough strong evidence to fully support the use of honey in wound care; however, use in minor burns and prevention of radiation mucositis appear to be 2 areas where honey shows therapeutic promise.
Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan
The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487
Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che
The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.
Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che
The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.
... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., 2009). On December 31, 2009, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended..., 2008, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey Association (petitioners)...
Roshan, Niloufar; Rippers, Thomas; Locher, Cornelia; Hammer, Katherine A
The physicochemical parameters and antibacterial activity of 10 Western Australian (WA) and two comparator honeys were determined. Honeys showed a pH range of 4.0-4.7, colour range of 41.3-470.7 mAU, methylglyoxal levels ranging from 82.2 to 325.9 mg kg(-1) and hydrogen peroxide levels after 2 h of 22.7-295.5 µM. Antibacterial activity was assessed by the disc diffusion assay, phenol equivalence assay, determination of minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations and a time-kill assay. Activity was shown for all honeys by one or more method, however, activity varied according to which assay was used. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for WA honeys against 10 organisms ranged from 4.0 to >32.0% (w/v). Removal of hydrogen peroxide activity by catalase resulted in decreased activity for several honeys. Overall, the data showed that honeys in addition to those derived from Leptospermum spp. have antimicrobial activity and should not be overlooked as potential sources of clinically useful honey.
Wheeler, Marsha M.; Robinson, Gene E.
Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture. PMID:25034029
Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E
Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.
Ahmadi – Motamayel, Fatemeh; Hendi, Seyedeh Sare; Alikhani, Mohammad Yusof; Khamverdi, Zahra
Objective: Honey has antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of honey on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, solutions containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 50% and 100%(w/v) of natural Hamadan honey were prepared. Each blood (nutrient) agar plate was then filled with dilutions of the honey. The strains of bacteria were inoculated in blood agar for 24 hours at 37°C and were adjusted according to the McFarland scale (10×10 cfumcl−1). All assays were repeated 10 times for each of the honey concentrations. Data were analyzed by non parametric Chi-Square test. Statistical significance was set at α=0.05. Results: Significant antibacterial activity was detected for honey on Streptococcus mutans in concentrations more than 20% and on Lactobacillus in 100% concentration (P<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that antibacterial activity of honey could be used for prevention and reduction of dental caries. PMID:23724198
Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.
Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743
Samarghandian, Saeed; Afshari, Jalil Tavakkol; Davoodi, Saiedeh
Background: The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurologic degeneration, aging, and cancer, has led to the search for food rich in antioxidants. Honey has been used as a traditional food and medical source since ancient times. However, recently many scientists have been concentrating on the antioxidant property of honey. By use of human renal cancer cell lines (ACHN), we investigated the antiproliferative activity, apoptosis, and the antitumor activity of honey. Materials and Methods: The cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium with 10% fetal bovine serum treated with different concentrations of honey for 3 consecutive days. Cell viability was quantitated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using Annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) by flow cytometry. Results: Honey decreased the cell viability in the malignant cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The IC 50 values against the ACHN cell lines were determined as 1.7 ± 0.04% and 2.1 ± 0.03% μg/mL after 48 and 72 h, respectively. Honey induced apoptosis of the ACHN cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as determined by flow cytometry histogram of treated cells. Conclusion: It might be concluded that honey may cause cell death in the ACHN cells, in which apoptosis plays an important role. Most of the drugs used in the cancer treatment are apoptotic inducers, hence apoptotic nature of honey is considered vital. Therefore, it prompted us to investigate honey as a potential candidate for renal cancer treatment. PMID:21472079
Wong, Rebecca S. K.; Thung, Jin Seng; Pieter, Willy
In an attempt to test the conceptual model by Lane and Terry, the purposes of this study were 1) to assess mood states in non-depressed and depressed young karate athletes; 2) to assess mood states in relation to performance in young karate athletes. The participants were recruited from the 2004 Malaysian Games (72 males, 19.20 ± 1.16 years; 37 females, 18.78 ± 0.88 years). The athletes were divided into winners (medalists) and losers. The Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) was administered prior to the start of competition. MANOVA was employed to treat the data, while Pearson correlations were calculated for mood states in each depressed mood group and by gender. In terms of non-depressed and depressed mood, tension in the females was higher in the depressed group (5.61 ± 3.02 vs. 3.11 ± 1.90, p = 0.026, eta2 = 0.133), as was fatigue (3.64 ± 2.61 vs. 0.89 ± 1.69, p = 0.006, eta2 = 0.199). Tension in the males was higher in the depressed group (4.41 ± 2.52 vs. 1.50 ± 1.55, p < 0.001, eta2 = 0.215), as was anger (1.43 ± 1.88 vs. 0.25 ± 1.00, p = 0.019, eta2 = 0.076). The highest associations among mood subscales were between anger and depression (r = 0.57), and between depression and fatigue ( r = 0.55) in depressed males. The female winning karateka scored higher on anger (3.08 ± 2.96 vs. 1.29 ± 2.24, p = 0.046, eta2 = 0.109). The highest correlations between mood dimensions in depressed females were between depression and anger (r = 0.85) and between depression and confusion (r = 0.85). Contrary to previous research on the influence of depression on anger, only the female winners scored higher on anger. Several negative mood dimensions were higher in both male and female depressed groups, lending some support to the conceptual model advanced by Lane and Terry. Key Points To date, there is no information about the relationship between mood and martial arts performance in Malaysian athletes. There might be cultural differences in the way Malaysian athletes
Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; Sacchi, Raffaele; De Micco, Veronica
Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar) and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust), selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey. PMID:25478595
Ranzato, Elia; Martinotti, Simona; Burlando, Bruno
Honey has been used since ancient times for wound repair, but the subjacent mechanisms are almost unknown. We have tried to elucidate the modulatory role of honey in an in vitro model of HaCaT keratinocyte re-epithelialization by using acacia, buckwheat, and manuka honeys. Scratch wound and migration assays showed similar increases of re-epithelialization rates and chemoattractant effects in the presence of different types of honey (0.1%, v/v). However, the use of kinase and calcium inhibitors suggested the occurrence of different mechanisms. All honeys activated cyclin-dependent kinase 2, focal adhesion kinase, and rasGAP SH3 binding protein 1. However, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, integrin-β3, cdc25C, and p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinase showed variable activation pattern. Re-epithelialization recapitulates traits of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the induction of this process was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction array, revealing marked differences among honeys. Manuka induced few significant changes in the expression of EMT-regulatory genes, while the other two honeys acted on a wider number of genes and partially showed a common profile of up- and down-regulation. In conclusion, our findings have shown that honey-driven wound repair goes through the activation of keratinocyte re-epithelialization, but the ability of inducing EMT varies sensibly among honeys, according to their botanical origin.
Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.
During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851
Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul
Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.
Anthimidou, Eleni; Mossialos, Dimitris
The antibacterial activity of 31 Greek and Cypriot honeys against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was initially screened using an agar-well diffusion assay in comparison with manuka honey. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in broth using a spectrophotometric-based assay. The MIC of treated honeys with catalase or proteinase K was determined and compared with those of untreated honeys. All tested honeys demonstrated antibacterial activity against S. aureus on agar-well diffusion assay. MICs of tested honeys were determined as 3.125-25% (v/v), compared with manuka honey at 6.25% (v/v). Similarly, 21 of 31 tested honeys demonstrated antibacterial activity on agar-well diffusion assay against P. aeruginosa. Their MICs ranged from 6.25% to 25% (v/v) compared with 12.5% (v/v) for manuka honey. Antibacterial activity of tested honeys could be largely attributed to hydrogen peroxide formation and in some cases to unidentified proteinaceous compounds. In conclusion, Greek and Cypriot honeys demonstrated significant but variable antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and especially S. aureus. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that has thoroughly examined the antibacterial activity of Greek and Cypriot honeys compared with manuka honey. The high antibacterial activity exerted by some tested honeys warrants further investigation.
Grabowski, N T; Klein, G
Honey has been considered a relatively safe foodstuff due to its compositional properties, with infant botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum being the most prominent health risk associated with it. Our review is focused on the honey microflora along the food chain and evaluates the pathogenic potential of those microorganisms found in honey. This product may contain a great variety of bacteria and, particularly, fungi that eventually entered the food chain at an early stage (e.g., via pollen). For many of these microorganisms, opportunistic infections in humans have been recorded (e.g., infections by Staphylococcus spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Chaetomium spp.), although direct infections via honey were not registered.
Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.
Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564
Lewis, Philip E. T.; Pratt, Graham R.
Increasing Malaysian demand for business education is examined from the perspective of Australia, one of the largest suppliers to the region. Topics discussed include: origins and nature of the demand; Malaysian enrollment patterns in Australia; "twinning programs," in which a Malaysian college and a foreign university collaborate to…
Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y.; Mazzoni, Luca; Giampieri, Francesca
Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important biological effects.
The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...
Kathiresan, K; Srinivasan, K
The salivary glands of a honey bee, Apis cerana and the yeast cells isolated from these glands were studied for their effects on sucrose solution. This solution exhibited lowered pH and increased levels of fructose and total amino acids as the time of incubation proceeded. The solution thus made was similar to the natural honey.
Escriche, Isabel; Sobrino-Gregorio, Lara; Conchado, Andrea; Juan-Borrás, Marisol
The proliferation of hybrid plant varieties without pollen, such as lavender, has complicated the classification of specific types of honey. This study evaluated the correlation between the proclaimed type of monofloral honey (lavender or thyme) as appears on the label with the actual percentage of pollen. In addition, physicochemical parameters, colour, olfacto-gustatory profile, and volatile compounds were tested. All of the samples labelled as lavender were wrongly classified according to the usual commercial criteria (minimum 10% of pollen Lavandula spp.). In the case of lavender honey, there was significant agreement between commercial labelling and classification through organoleptic perception (81.8%), and above all between the commercial labelling and the volatile compounds (90.9%). For thyme honey, agreement for both parameters was 90.0%. These results offer compelling evidence that the volatile compounds are useful for the classification of lavender honey with low levels of pollen since this technique agrees well with the organoleptic analysis.
Aronstein, K A; Murray, K D
Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of honey bee brood caused by Ascosphaera apis. This disease is now found throughout the world, and there are indications that chalkbrood incidence may be on the rise. In this review we consolidate both historic knowledge and recent scientific findings. We document the worldwide spread of the fungus, which is aided by increased global travel and the migratory nature of many beekeeping operations. We discuss the current taxonomic classification in light of the recent complete reworking of fungal systematics brought on by application of molecular methods. In addition, we discuss epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease, as well as pathogen biology, morphology and reproduction. New attempts at disease control methods and management tactics are reviewed. We report on research tools developed for identification and monitoring, and also include recent findings on genomic and molecular studies not covered by previous reviews, including sequencing of the A. apis genome and identification of the mating type locus.
Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...
Honey was commonly used to treat wounds until the introduction of antibiotics. However, increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria mean that alternative treatment options, such as honey, are receiving renewed interest. This article provides an overview of the use of honey in wound management and reviews the evidence to support its effectiveness.
Jeddar, A; Kharsany, A; Ramsaroop, U G; Bhamjee, A; Haffejee, I E; Moosa, A
The reported antibacterial effect of pure honey was evaluated by an in vitro study testing the growth of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in media containing varying concentrations of honey. It was found that most pathogenic bacteria failed to grow in honey at a concentration of 40% and above. The possible mechanisms of this effect are briefly outlined.
... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of expedited five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission...
... Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1434 RIN 0560-AD73 General Price Support Regulations for Honey AGENCY... rule amends the regulations with respect to the Honey Price Support Loan Program which is conducted by... producer may receive; revise the provisions of the honey marketing assessment; lessen the...
... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina and the antidumping duty orders on honey from Argentina and China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standard of Identity for Honey AGENCY... Department of Agriculture (USDA) is soliciting comments on how a Federal standard of identity for honey would be in the interest of consumers, the honey industry, and U.S. agriculture. DATES: Comments must...
... Service 7 CFR Part 52 RIN 0581-AC89 Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey AGENCY: Agricultural... rule would establish a new regulation addressing country of origin labeling for packed honey bearing... certification service for honey. The rule is necessary because section 10402 of the Food, Conservation...
... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90, and 2106.90.99 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... by reason of imports from Argentina of honey, provided for in subheadings 0409.00.00, 1702.90,...
... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1434 RIN 0560-AD73 General Price Support Regulations for Honey... change, the interim rule amending the Honey Price Support Loan Program published in the Federal Register at 59 FR 23789-23792 on May 9, 1994. The interim rule made certain changes to the Honey Price...
... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina and China of honey... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Argentina of honey that are alleged to...
... COMMISSION Honey from the People's Republic of China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the suspension of its antidumping investigation on honey from the People's Republic of China (China... purpose of encouraging free and fair trade in honey, establishing more normal market relations,...
... Commodity Credit Corporation 7 CFR Part 1434 RIN 0560-AF62 Recourse Loan Regulations for Honey AGENCY... loans to producers of 1998 crop honey. This rule sets forth the regulations for the administration of the honey recourse loan program. DATES: Effective March 3, 1999. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Bakar, Nur Azzah Abu; ChePa, Noraziah
Focusing on measuring the engagement towards digital Malaysian traditional games, this paper discusses engagement of digital traditional games from usability aspect. Three digital versions of Malaysian traditional games were evaluated. They are Dam Haji, Congkak and Gasing-X. Usability is one of the significant contributing factors towards engagement of digital games. Usability helps in verifying the requirements, successes and functionality of the games which are missing. The study adopted the heuristic instruments developed by Jakob Nielson in 1990 which consists of 17 heuristic component protocols based on interface design. Evaluation involved 50 respondents who are IT and domain experts. Result analysis is discussed and presented for each game. Results suggested features and aspects to be improved in the development of future digital Malaysian traditional games towards better engagement of the games.
... directly to the skin for wound healing, burns, diabetic foot ulcers, gangrene, and treating cataracts or clouding of ... cholesterol levels in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic foot ulcers. Unreliable reports and some early research suggests ...
Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.
Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.
Sinniah, M; Ooi, B G
We studied the presence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in a defined Malaysian population and examined the association, if any, between HCV and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), using sensitive recombinant DNA second generation Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) test kits. This sero-prevalence study comprised 1,434 sera from eleven distinct groups comprising intravenous drug users (IVDU), haemophiliacs, male homosexuals, female prostitutes, healthy blood donors, staff of dialysis unit and laboratory personnel, chronic renal failure patients undergoing dialysis (CRFD), patients with liver cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis and primary liver cancer. Except in laboratory personnel and dialysis staff, HCV antibodies were detected in each group of patients ranging from 3% in blood donors to 85% in IVDU. The main modes of HCV transmission identified were parenteral drug use, transfusion and/or dialysis related. The HBV was found to be the major viral etiological agent in 75% of chronic liver disease (CLD); while in 10% of cases both HCV and HBV were detected. HCV was implicated as the sole viral agent in only a small proportion (1.5%) of patients with chronic liver disease.
Cheah, P L
The surge of information on the aetiological association of the human papillomavirus (HPV) with some epithelial tumours emanating from various centres has prompted the initiation of a large-scale retrospective study at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital Kuala Lumpur to determine the prevalence and importance of this virus in some epithelial tumours of Malaysian patients. A retrospective analysis of 100 cases of large cell non-keratinising carcinoma of the uterine cervix by in-situ hybridisation on archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue has revealed the presence of HPV type 16 in 47% and type 18 in 41% of cases. This gives an overall detection rate of 88% of the two HPV types most commonly encountered in cervical carcinomas. Except for the unusually high frequency of HPV 18 detected in the cases, the overall prevalence is comparable to that reported in studies from most other centres. Although this higher frequency of HPV 18 may be due to geographical variation, the selection of the large cell non-keratinising type of squamous cell cervical carcinoma for study remains a possible reason for this phenomenon. In comparison to cervical carcinomas, HPV appears to be uncommon in penile carcinomas and HPV 6 was detected in only 1 of 23 cases studied.
This paper aims to provide a profile of migration trends in Malaysia since 1970 and to analyze public policy on migration in the context of economic growth and the labor market. The discussion centers on the impact of the Asian financial crisis. There is long history of immigration to Malaysia. The development strategy of the 1970s and 1980s was to create more jobs and restructure employment to meet equity goals. Labor shortages on plantations and construction booms led to a more organized, sustained effort to import labor. Recession in the mid-1980s led to unemployment, but many Malaysians were unwilling to work on plantations, in construction, or in low paying jobs. Economic growth during 1987-96 was very high, and labor shortages spread to service and manufacturing sectors. Migration policy has shifted over the decades. Both the market and the government's promotion of export-based industrialization require access to low cost migrant labor. Public and official recognition of the large number of migrants was not made until 1995. The financial crisis in 1998 led to enforcement of a new migration policy on illegal migrants and greater outflow of migrants. The economic crisis has increased job and income inequities in the region; this encourages continued migration. It is argued that it would be best for Malaysia to maximize short-term gains while minimizing long-term economic, social, and political costs.
González, M M; de Lorenzo, C; Pérez, R A
In this work a methodology to evaluate the sensory properties of honeys has been developed. The sensory analysis was carried out by means of a quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method, based on several reference scales, for the coverage of the designed range for each descriptor. The peculiarity of this sensory analysis is that the reference scales have been constituted by common foodstuffs agreed upon by consensus of the panel. The main sensory attributes evaluated in the analyses were: adhesiveness, viscosity, bitterness, aroma, sweetness, acidity, color and granularity. Both the intensity and persistence of honey aromas have also been estimated, together with the classification of the identified aromatic attributes into different groups. The method was applied to 55 artisanal honeys from Madrid (Spain) with the following results: (i) the developed sensory profile sheet allowed a satisfactory description of Madrid honeys; (ii) correlations between sensory attributes of three broad groups of Madrid honeys were obtained and (iii) aroma persistence, sweetness, bitterness, color and granularity appeared as the main sensorial characteristics of honey with discrimination power between floral and honeydew honeys.
Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Subramaniam, Tanabalan
In effort to attract higher tourist expenditure along with higher tourist arrivals, this paper proposes a travel application called the SmartG, acronym for Spontaneous Malaysian Augmented Reality Tourist Guide, which operates by making recommendations to user based on the travel objective and individual budget constraints. The applications relies on augmented reality technology, whereby a three dimensional model is presented to the user based on input from real world environment. User testing returned a favorable feedback on the concept of using augmented reality in promoting Malaysian tourism.
Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M.; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L.
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586
Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L
Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... 2008-2009 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey From...., Patagonik S.A., and TransHoney S.A.; all three exporters of honey from Argentina to the United States...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina produced and/or exported by Asociacion de Cooperativas Argentinas (``ACA''), HoneyMax S.A. (``HoneyMax''), Nexco S.A. (``Nexco''), Seylinco S.A. (``Seylinco''), and TransHoney...
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order...: This document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of honey and importers of honey or honey products to determine whether they favor continuance of the Honey Research,...
... International Trade Administration Notice of Antidumping Duty Order; Honey From Argentina AGENCY: Import...). Scope of the Order For purposes of this order, the products covered are natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honey by weight, preparations of natural honey containing more...
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and... producers of honey and importers of honey or honey products to determine whether they favor continuance of the Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order (Order). DATES: The referendum will...
Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Guthami, Faiz M. Al; Gethami, Ahmed F. M. Al; Allah, Fyrouz M. Abd; Saleh, Ashraf A.; Fouad, Ehab A.
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28344408
Yusof, Norimah; Ainul Hafiza, A. H.; Zohdi, Rozaini M.; Bakar, Md Zuki A.
Radiation at 25 and 50 kGy showed no effect on the acidic pH of the local honey, Gelam, and its antimicrobial property against Staphylococcus aureus but significantly reduced the viscosity. Honey stored up to 2 years at room temperature retained all the properties studied. Radiation sterilized Gelam honey significantly stimulated the rate of burn wound healing in Sprague-Dawley rats as demonstrated by the increased rate of wound contraction and gross appearance. Gelam honey attenuates wound inflammation; and re-epithelialization was well advanced compared to the treatment using silver sulphadiazine (SSD) cream. To enhance further the use of honey in wound treatment and for easy handling, Gelam honey was incorporated into our hydrogel dressing formulation, which was then cross-linked and sterilized using electron beam at 25 kGy. Hydrogel with 6% of honey was selected based on the physical appearance.
Tan, Mui Koon; Hasan Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah; Tumiran, Mohd Amzari; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd
Honey is one of the oldest substances used in wound management. Efficacy of Gelam honey in wound healing was evaluated in this paper. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups of 24 rats each (untreated group, saline group, Intrasite Gel group, and Gelam honey group) with 2 cm by 2 cm full thickness, excisional wound created on neck area. Wounds were dressed topically according to groups. Rats were sacrificed on days 1, 5, 10, and 15 of treatments. Wounds were then processed for macroscopic and histological observations. Gelam-honey-dressed wounds healed earlier (day 13) than untreated and saline treated groups, as did wounds treated with Intrasite Gel. Honey-treated wounds exhibited less scab and only thin scar formations. Histological features demonstrated positive effects of Gelam honey on the wounds. This paper showed that Gelam honey dressing on excisional wound accelerated the process of wound healing.
Czech, B.; Dzida, M.; Cembala, T.; Marczak, W.
A physicochemical method of identification of bee honeys has not been worked out yet. Instead, rather subjective tasting is a common practice in honey processing plants. This work was aimed on identification of honeys on the basis of differences in the speed of ultrasound. 20 samples of honey belonging to four types were investigated. Correlations between the speed of sound in aqueous solutions of honeys and the sugar content were found for three out of the four types. Although interesting and explicable in terms of the honey composition, the results seem to have rather limited practical use. Correlation of speeds of sound with concentration of main components of honey would probably give more promising results, but practical application of such approach seems difficult to foresee.
Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich
In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples.
Rapid and marked socioeconomic advancements in Malaysia for the past two decades have brought about significant changes in the lifestyles of communities. These include significant changes in the dietary patterns of Malaysians, eg the increase in consumption of fats and oils and refined carbohydrates and a decreased intake of complex carbohydrates. This resulted in a decline in the proportion of energy from carbohydrates, while an increase in the percentage contribution of fat has been observed. Changes in meal patterns are also evident: more families eat out, busy executives skip meals, the younger generation miss breakfasts and rely too much on fast foods. Many Malaysians have the mistaken belief that the taking of vitamin and mineral supplements can make up for the lack of these nutrients in their daily diets. In addition, communities have become generally more sedentary. All these changes have brought about undesirable effects with significant proportions of the affluent segments of the population being afflicted with various non-communicable diseases associated with overnutrition, namely obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease and cancers. Nutrition activities and programmes are now being directed to tackle this increasing trend, whilst still attempting to eliminate the undernutrition problems. The ultimate strategy towards achieving a healthy nation is the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, including inculcating a culture of healthy eating. Comprehensive long term programmes, including a series of Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) Programmes have been carried out by the government. Launched in 1991 for six consecutive years, the first phase of the Programme comprised one thematic campaign each year, commencing with coronary heart disease and ending with diabetes mellitus. To further strengthen this long-term strategy, another series of activities to be carried out under the second phase of the HLS programme from 1997 to 2002 was launched within the framework of the
Sajid, Muhammad; Azim, M Kamran
Antimicrobial activities of honey against bacteria and fungi are extensively reported in the scientific literature. However, its nematicidal potential has not been characterized so far. This study examined the effect of natural honey on model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and analyzed the honey component(s) responsible for nematicidal activity. Characterization of honey-treated C. elegans was done using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Egg-laying and egg-hatching defects of honey-treated C. elegans were studied. For identification of nematicidal component(s), bioactivity-directed fractionation of honey samples was carried out using dialysis, ultrafiltration, chromatographic, and spectroscopic techniques. Natural honeys of different floral sources showed nematicidal activity against different developmental stages of C. elegans. The nematicidal components of honey induced cell death in intestinal lumen and gonads of C. elegans as revealed by microscopy. The nematicidal action of honey was found to be due to reproductive anomaly as manifested by defects in egg-laying and -hatching by C. elegans. Honey with concentration as low as 0.03% exerted profound egg-laying defects, whereas 6% honey showed defects in egg hatching. The major sugar components of honey were not involved in observed nematicidal activity. The bioactive components responsible for anti-C. elegans activity were found in the 2-10 kDa fraction of honey, which was resolved into ∼25 peaks by reverse phase HPLC. LC-MS followed by further spectroscopic characterization revealed a glycoconjugate with the molecular mass of 5511 as the major nematicidal component of honey.
Nzeako, Basil C; Al-Namaani, Faiza
Objective: This project aimed to assess the antibacterial potential of various brands of honey sold in Muscat area on some isolates of H. pylori and to determine if there is any synergy between honey and amoxycillin or clarithromycin used in the treatment of H. pylori gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Eight samples of commercial honey were used in the experiment after they were checked for purity by sub-culturing on blood agar and incubating for 48 hours at 37°c. Honey samples showing gross contamination were discarded. Purified culture isolates of H. pylori from our laboratory stock cultures were swabbed on chocolate plate using 1x 104 cfu/ml. One hundred microlitres (100μl) of various honey samples were placed on each plate which was subsequently incubated microaerophilically at 37ºc for 3 days. The presence or absence of growth inhibition zones on each plate was noted and an average zone size of each honey was taken. Honey samples with high zone sizes were further diluted from 1:2–1:8 to find the end-points of their growth inhibition concentrations and the experiment was repeated in triplicates. The synergistic effect between honey, amoxycillin and clarithromycin was done in triplicates by placing honey at various distances between each antibiotic after swabbing chocolate agar with 1x 104 cfu/ml of H. pylori. The plates were incubated as before. Results: All honey samples produced growth inhibition zones with H. pylori no at dilution of honey but had different zone sizes at 1:2–1:8 dilutions. Black Forest honey had the highest antibacterial activity followed by Langnese honey. None of the honeys had a synergistic effect with either clarithromycin or amoxycillin. Conclusion: We conclude that, in vitro, some honey brands possess antibacterial activity against H. pylori and that no synergy or antagonism was observed between honey and clarithromycin or honey and amoxicillin using H. pylori as a test organism. Though no synergy or antagonism was observed
Noordin, M. Hazim M.; Ahmad, Hartini; Baharin, Shamsuddin
Malaysia is ranked as a country with the most obese population in the Southeast Asia region, and placed sixth in the Asia Pacific. Obesity does not only influence the persons' mobility and quality of health, but could also link to medical leaves and absenteeism affecting the overall workforce productivity and efficiency. Routine physical activity is essential for good health and it is particularly important for those who are trying to lose weight or to maintain a healthy weight. However, it is disheartening to note that only 32.6 percent Malaysians above the age of 15 are involved in physical exercise or vigorous sports. There is an emergence of many types of hydrotherapy system, which are either active or passive and these can be at hospital settings, public places or in individual homes. Such hydrotherapy, if properly programmed can promote the physical activity amongst the obese in Malaysia. Current research on the use of active and passive hydrotherapy for obesity treatment was carried out. Subjects of both sexes and diverse age ranges, immersed themselves in a heated pool within hospital setting and in a bath tubs with high energy turbulent movement of medium temperature water. These hydrotherapy sessions provide a form of physical exercise in water as compared to on the land exercise. The findings of the hydrotherapy sessions have shown encouraging results. Quantitative data was analysed, with the help of descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Qualitative data was analysed manually with help of thematic analysis and specialised qualitative assessment software. This study reveals that hydrotherapy has improved patient's mobility, flexibility and exercise capability. Results reveal the reduction in the weight of subjects, with both quantitative and qualitative data results show that Hydrotherapy improved the quality of life in term of body pain reduction and general health improvement. Therefore, it can be concluded that the hydrotherapy can be seen
Cheng, Karen Kow Yip
This paper discusses the use of storytelling as a pedagogic tool in Malaysian kindergartens. By listening to stories, the children learn to tell stories that involve communicating meaning. This is an effective learning technique, because stories and storytelling feed the children's imaginations, hone their listening skills, extend their…
Yahaya, Nurizan; Abdullah, Siti Suhailah; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan
According to the 2000 census report, about 7% of the 1.4 million people 60 years and over in Malaysia live alone. This study investigated socioeconomic factors affecting the quality of life of this vulnerable population. Data from a subsample of the study on Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians were used in this paper. About 10%…
Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul
This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…
Ibrahim, Mohd Zuhdi; Ab Rahman, Mohd Nizam; Yasin, Ruhizan M.
The purpose of this study is to examine students' perception of quality of service offered in Malaysian skills training institutes and how it influences overall satisfaction. This study employed a questionnaire survey involving seven skills training institutes in Klang Valley, Malaysia. From 600 questionnaires distributed, 419 were returned (69.8…
Explores the management of CD-ROM service in Malaysian academic libraries and marketing strategies used to popularize it. Findings revealed that these libraries use a variety of marketing and promotional channels, some of which need improvement; the libraries need to strengthen their end-user education programs to suit users with different levels…
Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik
This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…
Arokiasamy, Lawrence; Ismail, Maimunah; Ahmad, Aminah; Othman, Jamilah
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of individual and organizational variables on the career advancement of academics in Malaysian private universities. Design/methodology/approach: A correlation study was conducted in six private universities. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The dependent…
Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini
Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…
Sharif, Ahmad Mohamad; San, Kong Meow
This monograph describes a Malaysian innovation, the Invention Curriculum, or "Reka Cipta." This technology-based subject, which is multidisciplinary in approach, was introduced as an elective subject in 14 upper secondary schools in Malaysia in 1995 and has now been implemented in over 200 schools across the country. The objective of…
Hossain, Md. Anowar; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Ayud, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd
Collaborative and cooperative learning studies are well recognized in Malaysian mathematics education research. Cooperative learning is used to serve various ability students taking into consideration of their level of understanding, learning styles, sociological backgrounds that develop students' academic achievement and skills, and breeze the…
Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han
The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…
Boyd, Alan W., Ed.; Noss, Elaine M., Ed.
This publication is a response to the need for better understanding of the Malaysian student population studying U.S. institutions of higher education. Part 1 is an introduction to Malaysia, with two articles giving background information. The first is a history of Malaysia and the development of its education system, by Fatimah Hamid-Don of Ohio…
Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul
This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…
Tek, Ong Eng; Ruthven, Kenneth
1999 marks an important milestone when the Malaysian Ministry of Education launched its 3-year pilot Smart Schools Initiative in 87 schools across the country. This study aims to compare the differential perceptions on science learning experience between a group of 383 Form 3 (Year 9 equivalent in the UK) students in two Smart schools and a group…
Ali, Hairuddin Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the quality culture and workforce performance in the Malaysian higher education sector. The study also aims to test and validate the psychometric properties of the quality culture and workforce performance instruments used in the study. Design/methodology/approach: A total…
Othman, Norasmah; Hashim, Norashidah; Wahid, Hariyaty Ab
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: The authors employed a quantitative approach and the main instrument used to gauge the entrepreneurship readiness among students…
Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Hamzah, Ramlah; Ismail, Habsah; Husain, Sharifah Kartini Said; Ismail, Mat Rofa
This study focuses on the confidence level of mathematics education students in teaching school mathematics. Respondents were 165 final year students from four Malaysian universities. It was found that the respondents showed a strong foundation in mathematics upon entrance to the university. In spite of their strong background in school…
Rajendra, Thusha Rani
This paper aims at exploring the benefits of including graphic novels as a wholesome supplement in Malaysian schools. Research has indicated that the mono-modality of traditional linear texts may impede comprehension. The emphasis on multi-literacies clearly scaffold the need to employ multimodality in the classrooms; hence the suggestion of…
Shamuganathan, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary
In this study attempt was made to model the environmental literacy of Malaysian pre-university students enrolled in a matriculation college. Students enrolled in the matriculation colleges in Malaysia are the top notch students in the country. Environmental literacy of this group is perceived important because in the future these students will be…
This Study evaluated the effectiveness of the Arabic language multimedia products existing in Malaysian markets. For the purpose of careful investigation, this research has applied blended models of the most trusted instructional design based on the field-tested theories of the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Mayer (2002), Keller…
This paper analyses Malaysia's English language policies, especially since the mid 1990s, in the light of more recent claims for a united Malaysian nation (under the banner of "bangsa Malaysia") and in the context of English language and its potential for Malaysia to forge more of an externalised identity. It examines the impact of…
Vaz, Anthony; Mansori, Shaheen
Intense competition among existing private education providers and the Malaysian government's relaxation of regulations for allowing international universities to open off shore campuses in Malaysia, have forced companies in the education industry to develop strategies which can help them to make their existing students satisfied and keep them…
Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed
This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…
Sanders, Eleonora, Ed.; And Others
Intended for use by adult education teachers of all kinds, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parents, this publication contains 16 short papers concerning the well-being of Malaysian children in particular and of all children in general. Covered by the papers are issues such as responsible parenthood; the nutritional need and status of…
Ishak, Noriah Mohd; Bakar, Abu Yazid Abu
This is a preliminary study that was conducted in regard to 180 gifted students who attended the "Malaysian Gifted Centre's School Holiday Camp" in 2011. Data indicated that only about 7% of the respondents had a tendency to seek a counsellor's help to solve their problems, and the need for counselling services was higher among female…
Horton, Melissa A.; Oliver, Randy
One of the best indicators of colony health for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is its performance in the production of honey. Recent research into the microbial communities naturally populating the bee gut raise the question as to whether there is a correlation between microbial community structure and colony productivity. In this work, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to explore the microbial composition associated with forager bees from honey bee colonies producing large amounts of surplus honey (productive) and compared them to colonies producing less (unproductive). As supported by previous work, the honey bee microbiome was found to be dominated by three major phyla: the Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria, within which we found a total of 23 different bacterial genera, including known “core” honey bee microbiome members. Using discriminant function analysis and correlation-based network analysis, we identified highly abundant members (such as Frischella and Gilliamella) as important in shaping the bacterial community; libraries from colonies with high quantities of these Orbaceae members were also likely to contain fewer Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species (such as Firm-4). However, co-culture assays, using isolates from these major clades, were unable to confirm any antagonistic interaction between Gilliamella and honey bee gut bacteria. Our results suggest that honey bee colony productivity is associated with increased bacterial diversity, although this mechanism behind this correlation has yet to be determined. Our results also suggest researchers should not base inferences of bacterial interactions solely on correlations found using sequencing. Instead, we suggest that depth of sequencing and library size can dramatically influence statistically significant results from sequence analysis of amplicons and should be cautiously interpreted. PMID:26623177
Adgaba, Nuru; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Awad, Awad M; Ansari, Mohammad J; Owayss, Ayman A; Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S
The contribution of a bee plant species to honey production depends on the plant's nectar secretion quality and quantity, which is mainly governed by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the current study, was to investigate the nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potential of 14 major bee plant species of the target area. We examined the quantity and dynamics of nectar sugar per flower five times a day using a nectar sugar washing technique and direct measuring of nectar with calibrated capillary tubes. The average nectar sugar amount of the species varied from 0.41 mg/flower to 7.7 mg/flower (P < 0.0001). The honey sugar per flower was used to extrapolate the honey production potential per plant and per hectare of land. Accordingly the honey production potential of the species observed to vary from 14 kg/hectare in Otostegia fruticosa to 829 kg/hectare in Ziziphus spina-christi. The nectar secretion dynamics of the species generally showed an increasing trend early in the morning, peaking toward midday, followed by a decline but different species observed to have different peak nectar secretion times. Generally, the tree species secreted more nectar sugar/flower than the herbs. The nectar secretion amount of the species was positively correlated with the ambient temperature, indicating the adaptation of the species to hot climatic conditions. However, different species were observed to have a different optimum temperature for peak nectar secretion. Despite the limited rainfall and high temperature of the area, many plants were found to have good potential for honey production. The monetary value of honey per hectare of the studied honeybee plant species can be of equal or greater than the per-hectare monetary value of some cultivated crops that require numerous inputs. In addition, the information generated is believed to be useful in apiary site selection and to estimate the honey bee colony carrying capacity of an area.
Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879
Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent
Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved. PMID:27560969
Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent
Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.
... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2003. Honey from Argentina:...
Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania
Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers.
Baggio, A; Gallina, A; Benetti, C; Mutinelli, F
Antibacterial drugs are used worldwide for the control of American and, less often, European foulbrood. Their administration is mostly uncontrolled and applied without approved protocols and instructions for use as well as precautionary recommendations. Consequently, this practice is responsible for the contamination of beehive products and contributes to the problem of food safety. According to this situation, 4672 analyses were carried out on 5303 honeys collected from 2001 to 2007. These samples were investigated for antibacterial residues of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tylosin. Honeys were classified according to their origin: imported honey and honey from the Italian market. In the last group (only for samples collected from 2001 to 2004), another type of honey was distinguished: that of local honey. A total of 6.3% of all samples were positive for the antibacterial drugs analysed; in particular, 6.8% of imported honeys and 6.1% of honeys on the Italian market. Only 1.7% of local honey had antibacterial residues. These results are indicative of a rather frequent presence of antibacterial drug residues in both Italian and imported honeys. Furthermore, the data showed that among the active substances analysed, sulphonamides are the most used antibacterial substance followed by tetracyclines, streptomycin, tylosin, and chloramphenicol. Finally, a continuous monitoring programme is needed, accompanied by an education programme to beekeepers on proper hive management.
Saxena, Sudhanshu; Panicker, Lata; Gautam, Satyendra
Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5-40°C) and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5-15 kGy) on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures (T g ) of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from -44.1 to -54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties.
The results of several recent "in vitro" studies using honey in oral rehydration solutions (ORS) givien to infants and children with gastroenteritis showed that the use of honey had caused a reduction in the duration of bacterial diarrhea, and it had worked well as a substitute for glucose in an oral rehydration solution containing electrolytes. Studies have confirmed that honey shortens the duration of diarrhea in patients with bacterial gastroenteritis through its antibacterial properties. In nonbacterial gastroenteritis, honey had the same effect as glucose on the duration of the diarrhea. In a recent study, the antibacterial effect of pure honey was evaluated through testing the growth of an array of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in media containing varying concentrations of honey. It was found that most pathogenic bacteria failed to grow in honey at a concentration of 40% and above. Similar studies have shown that organisms such as Staphylococcus aureua, Proteus mirabilis, and Candida albicans failed to grow in the presence of undiluted honey in in vitro experiments. In experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of honey in inhibiting the growth of various bacteria, it was found that all bacteria grew well on their respective control plates having different growth media, while in honey-agar all intestinal bacterial pathogens failed to grow at a concentration of 40% and above of pure honey. Since honey has a high sugar content it could be used to promote sodium and water absorption from the bowel in a manner similar to the use of oral rice water and sucrose. Findings from studies on honey have thus shown that when given with an ORS it shortens the duration of bacterial diarrhea and may safely be used as a substitute for glucose, provided that the solution contains electrolytes.
Bentabol Manzanares, Antonio; Hernández García, Zoa; Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos
Physicochemical parameters, sugar composition and botanical origin were determined in four monofloral honeys, chestnut, fennel, tajinaste, and Teide broom honeys, abundantly produced in Tenerife Island. All the parameters were within the established intervals in Europe for each type of honey. Large differences between the four monofloral honeys were observed, being the chestnut honeys with most of differential characteristics. Linear discriminant analysis on the physicochemical parameters and sugar composition allows to distinguishing the four types of honeys analysed.
Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben
Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…
Ten self-fertile commercial sunflowers cultivars were evaluated for seed set with and without exposure to bees. In the first planting, the number of foraging honey bees was smaller than in the second, and seed set for most cultivars did not differ between those excluding bees and ones that were ope...
A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. A total of 11 microsatellite and 5 SNP loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group an...
The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…
Honey is an ancient wound treatment that was re-introduced into modern medical practice in Australasia and Europe following the development of regulated wound care products. Its therapeutic properties are attributed to its antimicrobial activity and its ability to stimulate rapid wound healing. This review will briefly describe the evidence that demonstrates its antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20204083
Honey is an ancient wound treatment that was re-introduced into modern medical practice in Australasia and Europe following the development of regulated wound care products. Its therapeutic properties are attributed to its antimicrobial activity and its ability to stimulate rapid wound healing. This review will briefly describe the evidence that demonstrates its antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo.
Bio-directed synthesis of nanoparticles is of interest to biologists, chemists and materials scientists alike, especially in light of efforts to find greener methods of inorganic material synthesis. Though the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles has been carried out by several groups of scientists using plants, fungi and bacteria, so far there is no report on the use of natural honey - mankind's only sweetener for centuries - for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Here, it is a report on a greener synthesis of Au nanoparticles using honey as reducing and capping agents. By adjusting the concentrations of HAuCl 4 and honey in aqueous solutions, colloids having a larger propensity of either anisotropic or spherical nanocrystals could be obtained at room temperature. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectra, high-resolution TEM and XRD. The spherical particles obtained have a size ˜15 nm as shown by XRD pattern and TEM image. The high crystallinity with fcc phase is evidenced by bright circular spots in SAED pattern and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the Au nanoparticles synthesized using honey. The carboxylic acid group vibrations and amide I and II bands indicate the binding of protein with Au surface through the amine group rather than the carboxyl group.
Managed honey bee colonies are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Pathogens are considered as principal actors, contributing to weaken colony health and leaving room for secondary infections. In parti...
Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...
Marringa, William J.; Krueger, Michael J.; Burritt, Nancy L.; Burritt, James B.
Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure. PMID:25285798
Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...
Al-Waili, Noori S
Honey has antibacterial activity, promotes healing, and enhances immunity. Its acidity, osmotic effects of its high content of sugar, and hydrogen peroxide are assumed to be responsible for its effects. In this study, various honeys were investigated for the presence of nitrite/nitrate, the stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, and the effects of intravenous infusion of honey on urinary and plasma NO end products were studied in healthy sheep. Seven kinds of honey, different in their origin (three from Yemen, two from the United Arab Emirates, one from Germany, and one from India), color, and duration of storage, were investigated for the presence of NO metabolites. The assessment of NO metabolites was performed before and after exposure of the honey samples to heating (80 degrees C for 1 hour) or ultraviolet light (for 24 hours). Seven healthy male sheep were used for the study. Fresh unprocessed yellow honey (2 g/kg of body weight) was infused over a period of 45 minutes to each fasting sheep. Plasma and urinary NO metabolites were measured before and after the infusion. All the honey samples examined had various concentrations of NO metabolites; the highest concentration was in the fresh dark honey collected from Yemen, and the lowest in 1-year-stored dark honey collected from India. Darker or fresh honeys contained more NO metabolites than light or stored honey. After heating, NO metabolites decreased in all the kinds of honey. After ultraviolet exposure, NO metabolites were decreased in four kinds of honey, increased in one kind, and unchanged in two kinds. The darker stored honey had more resistance to heating and ultraviolet exposure. Intravenous infusion of honey elevated urinary NO metabolites from 8.4 +/- 7.4 micromol/L to 14.9 +/- 10 micromol/L during the first 60-90 min after infusion and to 35.2 +/- 34 micromol/L during the next 150-180 min. Plasma NO metabolites were increased during 1, 2, and 3 hours after infusion by 3%, 3.6%, and 17%, respectively
Gallez, L M; Fernández, L A
One stage of honey production is extraction. Honey is a product with minimal types and levels of microorganisms; however it could be contaminated during its manipulation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the microbiological contamination of honey at different processing points. Mould and yeast, total coliform number as well as the presence of Salmonella spp. were determined in 50 samples. All comb and centrifugal honey-extractor samples showed low levels of mould and yeast (< or = 10 CFU/g of honey) and an absence of total coliforms. Contamination problems were observed at the uncapping stage of beeswax-capped honey separation, showing that the "unheated" honey process would imply more risks. Ten to fifty CFU/g of honey of mould and yeast were observed in four out of 30 samples from the honey pump and drums. The present work shows the importance of preventing contamination at the beeswax-honey separation stage, and also highlights the need to perform microbiological studies in the honeyhouse, which would contribute to determine critical points in control quality systems.
Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E
A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.
Gomes, Teresa; Feás, Xesús; Iglesias, Antonio; Estevinho, Leticia M
Concerns about traces of numerous toxic substances and authenticity have prompted consumer demand for honey that is certified as organic, based on strict ecological, natural principles and traceability. The present study aims to characterize organic honey samples (n = 73) from Northeast Portugal, with respect to floral nectar origin, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety. The phenols and flavonoids contents, often referred to as responsible for honey's bioactive properties, were also assessed. All organic honey samples were classified as monofloral lavender (Lavandula sp.), exceeded in quality the international physicochemical standards and showed low microbiological counts (yeast, moulds and aerobic mesophiles), with negative results in respect to fecal coliforms, Salmonella and sulphite-reducing Clostridium spp. Correlation of the palynological, physicochemical and microbiological results is necessary to check the authenticity, quality and sanitation of honey. Although not required by international legislation, results of those assessments provide a complete outlook and elucidation of the organic honey's properties, which could promote its valorisation.
Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E
Honey nanofibers represent an attractive formulation with unique medicinal and wound healing advantages. Nanofibers with honey concentrations of <10% were prepared, however, there is a need to prepare nanofibers with higher honey concentrations to increase the antibacterial and wound healing effects. In this work, chitosan and honey (H) were cospun with polyvinyl alcohol (P) allowing the fabrication of nanofibers with high honey concentrations up to 40% and high chitosan concentrations up to 5.5% of the total weight of the fibers using biocompatible solvents (1% acetic acid). The fabricated nanofibers were further chemically crosslinked, by exposure to glutaraldehyde vapor, and physically crosslinked by heating and freezing/thawing. The new HP-chitosan nanofibers showed pronounced antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus but weak antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The developed HP-chitosan nanofibers revealed no cytotoxicity effects on cultured fibroblasts. In conclusion, biocompatible, antimicrobial crosslinked honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers were developed which hold potential as effective wound dressing.
Ciemniak, Artur; Witczak, Agata; Mocek, Kamila
The aim of this study was to assess honey contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Six species of honey were examined, as well as rape blossom and soil from villages Pęczerzyno and Przybysław in West Pomerania, Poland. The instrumental analysis was performed using a HP 6890 gas chromatograph coupled to a HP 5973 mass spectrometer with selected ion monitoring (SIM). Quantification was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using perdeuterated internal standards. Both soil samples showed high levels of all 23 PAHs, whereas honey contained mostly non-carcinogenic PAHs of low molecular weight. The most contaminated honey from Pęczerzyno contained 0.24 μg kg-1 benzo[a]pyrene. Moreover, despite low contamination of honey, a positive correlation was found between PAH content in honey, blossom and soil.
McLoone, Pauline; Warnock, Mary; Fyfe, Lorna
Resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics is a serious global health concern. In this review, research investigating the antimicrobial properties of honeys from around the world against skin relevant microbes is evaluated. A plethora of in vitro studies have revealed that honeys from all over the world have potent microbicidal activity against dermatologically important microbes. Moreover, in vitro studies have shown that honey can reduce microbial pathogenicity as well as reverse antimicrobial resistance. Studies investigating the antimicrobial properties of honey in vivo have been more controversial. It is evident that innovative research is required to exploit the antimicrobial properties of honey for clinical use and to determine the efficacy of honey in the treatment of a range of skin disorders with a microbiological etiology.
Akinci, Sinan; Arslan, Uğur; Karakurt, Kamber; Cengel, Atiye
An unusual type of food poisoning is commonly seen in the Black Sea coast of Turkey due to grayanotoxin containing toxic honey so called "mad honey" ingestion. In cases of toxication bradycardia and rhythm disturbances are commonly observed. Herein, we present a case of a patient who was admitted to the hospital because of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries after "mad honey" ingestion.
Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment.
Grainger, Megan N C; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Lane, Joseph R; Field, Richard J
The kinetics of conversion of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) were investigated in mānuka honeys and DHA-doped clover honeys stored between 4 and 37°C. Both the disappearance of DHA and appearance of MGO were confirmed as overall, first order reactions, albeit probably composites of multiple reactions. Increasing the storage temperature accelerated the rate of DHA loss and the initial rate of formation of MGO, but better conversion efficiency was observed at lower temperature. At 37°C, more MGO was lost at later times in mānuka honey compared to DHA-doped-clover honey. Thirty-seven New Zealand mānuka honeys and four clover honeys were analysed for various chemical and physical properties; comparison of rate constants and these parameters identified some positive correlations.
Cheng, Ni; Gao, Hui; Deng, Jianjun; Wang, Bini; Xu, Ruihan; Cao, Wei
The effects of different steps in honey production on chloramphenicol (CAP) levels and CAP removal from honey using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were investigated in this study. CAP residues in honey were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after each processing step including preheating, filtration, vacuum concentration and pasteurization. Vacuum concentration contributes the most reduction of CAP level (9.9%). Meanwhile, 5 types of MARs (including LSI-1, LSI-2, LSI-3, LS-803, and LS-903) were used in CAP adsorption. The results showed that LS-803 resin had higher adsorption rate of 86% than other resins in removing CAP from honey, and its optimal adsorption time and temperature were 40 min and 55 °C, respectively. The treated honey could be used as feed additive or biomass energy. Therefore, it would be a novel approach to reutilization of antibiotics contaminated honey.
Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed
Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637
Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane
The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys.
Boroumand, Peyman; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Saeedi, Masoumeh; Rouhbakhshfar, Omid; Hosseini Motlagh, Seyed Reza; Aarabi Moghaddam, Fatemeh
Background Tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures performed worldwide, especially for children. Oral honey administration following tonsillectomy in pediatric cases may reduce the need for analgesics via relieving postoperative pain. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of honey on the incidence and severity of postoperative pain in patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Patients and Methods A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study was performed. One hundred and four patients, who were older than eight, and were scheduled for tonsillectomy, were divided into two equal groups, honey and placebo. Standardized general anesthesia, and postoperative usual analgesic, and antibiotic regimen were administrated for all patients. Acetaminophen plus honey for the honey group, and acetaminophen plus placebo for the placebo group were given daily. They began to receive honey or placebo when the patients established oral intake. Results The difference between acetaminophen and acetaminophen plus honey groups was statistically significant both for visual analogue scale (VAS), and number of painkillers taken within the first three postoperative days. The consumption of painkillers differed significantly in every five postoperative days. No significant difference was found between groups regarding the number of awaking at night. Conclusions Postoperative honey administration reduces postoperative pain and analgesic requirements in patients after tonsillectomy. As the side effects of honey appear to be negligible, consideration of its routine usage seems to be beneficial along with routine analgesics. PMID:24223362
Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed
Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.
Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A.
Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4°C than at 25°C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25°C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted. PMID:21464891
Temaru, Emi; Shimura, Satoshi; Amano, Kazuhiro; Karasawa, Tadahiro
The aim of the study was to examine antibacterial activity of the honey of stingless honeybees (Meliponinae). An agar well diffusion assay demonstrated that many honey samples of stingless honeybees inhibited the growth of test strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; moreover, they exhibited non-peroxide antibacterial activity against those strains. This is the first time that non-peroxide antimicrobial activity of honey from a number of species of stingless honeybees has been demonstrated. These antibacterial activities appear to be powerful, even when compared to those of"manuka honey" from Apinae honeybees.
Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A
Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4 °C than at 25 °C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25 °C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted.
Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem
Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (P<0.001). At the ischemia, honey (1%) significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Honey (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (P<0.05). During reperfusion, honey produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.
Boukraa, Laid; Niar, Abdellatif
Six varieties of honey from different regions in Algeria were used to determine their potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Four varieties originated from northern Algeria, and two from the Sahara. Three types of media were used. On nutrient agar the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the four northern varieties ranged between 30% (vol/vol) and 31% (vol/vol), while the MIC of the Sahara varieties was 11% (vol/vol) and 14% (vol/vol). On King A agar the MIC of the four northern varieties ranged from 25% (vol/vol) to 31% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 12% (vol/vol) and 15% (vol/vol). On nutrient broth the MIC of the northern varieties ranged from 10% (vol/vol) to 21% (vol/vol), whereas the MIC of the two varieties of Sahara honey was 9% (vol/vol). The botanic flora of Sahara is known in Algeria for its medicinal uses, and thus the higher potency of the Sahara honey is most probably due to antibacterial substances in its plant derivates. These findings suggest that Sahara honey could be used for managing wounds and burns, which are mostly infected by P. aeruginosa.
Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R
As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.
Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam
The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments.
Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd; Shahabuddin, Faridatulazna; Mustafa, Zainol; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira
Innovation is among the most frequently used word in the business world today. While many businessman and executives agree that innovation is needed to sustain their long term business success, many struggle to understand the concept of innovation. This study aims to measure the understanding level of innovation among the Malaysian executives using a survey questionnaire. Questions regarding innovation were posted to the respondents and they were requested to answer either it was True or False. Each respondent was given scores for their correct answers. The score of the right answers were then categorized into low, moderate and high understanding level. Results of the survey revealed that the understanding level of innovation among the Malaysian Executives is still at moderate level thus leading to the failure of many initiatives introduced by the organization or the government.
Tan, Chrystalle B Y; Stephen, Ian D; Whitehead, Ross; Sheppard, Elizabeth
East Asian and white Western observers employ different eye movement strategies for a variety of visual processing tasks, including face processing. Recent eye tracking studies on face recognition found that East Asians tend to integrate information holistically by focusing on the nose while white Westerners perceive faces featurally by moving between the eyes and mouth. The current study examines the eye movement strategy that Malaysian Chinese participants employ when recognizing East Asian, white Western, and African faces. Rather than adopting the Eastern or Western fixation pattern, Malaysian Chinese participants use a mixed strategy by focusing on the eyes and nose more than the mouth. The combination of Eastern and Western strategies proved advantageous in participants' ability to recognize East Asian and white Western faces, suggesting that individuals learn to use fixation patterns that are optimized for recognizing the faces with which they are more familiar.
Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe
The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).
Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent
Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances.
Goldman, Ran D.
Abstract Question Cough is a very common presentation among sick children in my clinic. There is almost no day without a child being examined for upper respiratory tract infection and cough. While I understand that no medications are recommended for relief of cough—prescribed or over the counter—is it true that honey might help relieve cough symptoms in children? Answer Most prescribed and over-the-counter preparations for cough in children are not effective and might carry the risk of adverse events. A single dose of honey before bedtime was shown in recent studies to diminish cough and the discomfort experienced by children and their parents. Recent evidence also supports administering a few daily doses, but this practice will need further study to assess its effectiveness and safety. PMID:25642485
Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent
Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072
Smith, Jennifer K; Burns, Sarah; Cunningham, Steve; Freeman, Julie; McLellan, Ailsa; McWilliam, Kenneth
Infantile botulism is a rare cause of neuromuscular weakness resulting from ingestion of Clostridium botulinum-an anaerobic Gram-positive bacillus found universally in soil. The only definite food source known to cause infantile botulism is honey; previously, links to formula milk have been postulated but not definitely sourced. We present an interesting case report of a 2-month-old infant with this rare condition, including the diagnostic difficulties that ensued. A brief overview of the condition follows. This is the first case in the UK in which C botulinum was successfully isolated from both the patient and the suspected source-a jar of honey. The importance of food labelling as a public health message is highlighted.
Moran, Nancy A.
The guts of honey bee workers contain a distinctive community of bacterial species. They are microaerophilic or anaerobic, and were not clearly deliniated by earlier studies relying on laboratory culture of isolates under atmospheric oxygen levels. Recently, a more complete picture of the potential metabolism and functions of these bacteria has been possible, using genomic approaches based on metagenomic samples, as well as cultured isolates. Of these, most are host-restricted and are generally absent outside adult guts. These species include both Gram negative groups, such as Gilliamella apicola and Snodgrassella alvi, and Gram positive groups such as certain Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. These gut bacterial species appear to have undergone long term coevolution with honey bee and, in some cases, bumble bee hosts. Prediction of gene functions from genome sequences suggests roles in nutrition, digestion, and potentially in defense against pathogens. In particular, genes for sugar utilization and carbohydrate breakdown are enriched in G. apicola and the Lactobacillus species. PMID:26140264
Background Manuka honey originates from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) and its antimicrobial effect has been attributed to a property referred to as Unique Manuka Factor that is absent in other types of honey. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen. In this study we investigated susceptibility of C. difficile to Manuka honey and whether the activity is bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Methods Three C. difficile strains were subjected to the broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for Manuka honey. The agar well diffusion method was also used to investigate sensitivity of the C. difficile strains to Manuka honey. Results The MIC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). Similarly, MBC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). The activity of Manuka honey against all three C. difficile strains was bactericidal. A dose–response relationship was observed between the concentrations of Manuka honey and zones of inhibition formed by the C. difficile strains, in which increasing concentrations of Manuka honey resulted in increasing size of zone of inhibition formed. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 50% (v/v) Manuka honey and the growth inhibition persisted over 7 days. Conclusion C. difficile is appreciably susceptible to Manuka honey and this may offer an effective way of treating infections caused by the organism. PMID:23651562
Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos
Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.
Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio
Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.
Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.
Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991
Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D
Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.
Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo
Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification. PMID:23145107
Mohd Yusof, Anuar; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Low, Wah Yun; Ab. Aziz, Kamarulzaman
Study of Malaysian adoption of mobile learning (m-learning) is still in the early stages. However, there are numerous researchers in the country exploring the potential and application of m-learning in the Malaysian education system, including special education. A key question is whether teachers are prepared to incorporate mobile technology as…
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Kuppusamy, Mudiarasan
In order to compete in a global environment, Malaysian business firms need to improve their products and services through best practices. This paper aims to investigate the critical success factors to adopt Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) with knowledge management (KM) strategies among Malaysian business firms. In order to achieve the research…
Zakaria, Norzila; Reupert, Andrea; Sharma, Umesh
The purpose of this paper was to investigate Malaysian primary pre-service teachers' perceptions of students' disruptive behaviour and their self-reported strategies to prevent and to manage such behaviours. Results indicate that Malaysian pre-service teachers understand disruptive behaviours to be those that disrupt the learning and teaching…
Chong, Chin Wei; Yuen, Yee Yen; Tan, Booi Chen; Zarim, Zainal Abu; Hamid, Norhasniza Abdul
Purpose: This paper aims to identify the key competencies managerial coaches have and examine the significant competencies that affect coaching effectiveness in the Malaysian telecommunications industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: The unit of analysis was individual managerial coaches who were working in the Malaysian telecommunications…
Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim
The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…
This analysis discusses the constructivist paradigm of teaching Arabic as a foreign language in Malaysian settings. This review examines the role of interactive multimedia in enhancing the chalk and talk methods of teaching Arabic in Malaysian schools. This paper also investigates the importance of Arabic Language in Malaysia. Furthermore, the…
Khojasteh, Laleh; Kafipour, Reza
Based on the discrepancies found in many Malaysian English language textbooks, a detailed analysis on the way modal auxiliary verb forms and their semantic functions were introduced and presented in texts and exercises in five Malaysian textbooks was done. For that to be achieved, a qualitative page-by-page content analysis was applied. From the…
Wilhelm, Kim Hughes
A study investigated the application of Geert Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions in management to the situation of Malaysian (n=8) and American (n=4) instructors in implementing a new English-as-a-Second-Language curriculum in Malaysia. American and Malaysian cultures are compared on four dimensions: social differentiation by gender; desire…
Pawanteh, Latiffah; Rahim, Samsudin A.
Examines the Internet usage pattern of Malaysian adolescents based on a survey of 1,404 adolescents between the ages of 13-16 and focus group discussions. Finds the daily realities of media savvy Malaysian youths are an integration of on-line and off-line relationships, events, information, memberships, chats and online shopping. (RS)
Dorall, R F
This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between
Page, Paul; Lin, Zheguang; Buawangpong, Ninat; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Dietemann, Vincent
Eusocial insect colonies form superorganisms, in which nestmates cooperate and use social immunity to combat parasites. However, social immunity may fail in case of emerging diseases. This is the case for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which switched hosts from the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana, to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and currently is the greatest threat to A. mellifera apiculture globally. Here, we show that immature workers of the mite’s original host, A. cerana, are more susceptible to V. destructor infestations than those of its new host, thereby enabling more efficient social immunity and contributing to colony survival. This counterintuitive result shows that susceptible individuals can foster superorganism survival, offering empirical support to theoretical arguments about the adaptive value of worker suicide in social insects. Altruistic suicide of immature bees constitutes a social analogue of apoptosis, as it prevents the spread of infections by sacrificing parts of the whole organism, and unveils a novel form of transgenerational social immunity in honey bees. Taking into account the key role of susceptible immature bees in social immunity will improve breeding efforts to mitigate the unsustainably high colony losses of Western honey bees due to V. destructor infestations worldwide. PMID:27264643
Mohapatra, D P; Thakur, V; Brar, S K
In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria.
Mohapatra, D. P.; Thakur, V.; Brar, S. K.
In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria. PMID:21350671
Raffiudin, Rika; Crozier, Ross H
DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnL, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (Apis), a 10th possible species, Apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (Bombus terrestris, Melipona bicolor and Trigona fimbriata) were used to infer Apis phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian analysis. The dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. All nodes were strongly supported except that grouping Apis cerana with A. nigrocincta. Two thousand post-burnin trees from the phylogenetic analysis were used in a Bayesian comparative analysis to explore the evolution of dance type, nest structure, comb structure and dance sound within Apis. The ancestral honey bee species was inferred with high support to have nested in the open, and to have more likely than not had a silent vertical waggle dance and a single comb. The common ancestor of the giant and cavity-dwelling bees is strongly inferred to have had a buzzing vertical directional dance. All pairwise combinations of characters showed strong association, but the multiple comparisons problem reduces the ability to infer associations between states between characters. Nevertheless, a buzzing dance is significantly associated with cavity-nesting, several vertical combs, and dancing vertically, a horizontal dance is significantly associated with a nest with a single comb wrapped around the support, and open nesting with a single pendant comb and a silent waggle dance.
... determined that blends of honey and rice syrup are subject to the antidumping duty Order on honey from the... subject to the anticircumvention inquiry are blends of honey and rice syrup, regardless of the percentage... Commission (``ITC'') of the proposed inclusion of blends of honey and rice syrup in the antidumping...
... anticircumvention inquiry to determine whether honey-rice syrup blends are circumventing the antidumping duty order... Order''). In their request, Petitioners allege that honey blended with rice syrup (``honey-rice syrup...-rice syrup blend represents a minor alteration from in-scope honey blends, because rice syrup...
... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... countervailing duty order on honey ] from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... ] antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. The review covers... determine that sales of honey from Argentina have not been made below normal value (NV) by TransHoney...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...
... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a...
... International Trade Administration C-357-813 Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2003. If... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From...
... International Trade Administration Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina AGENCY: Import... CFR part 351 (2000). Scope of Order The merchandise subject to this investigation is natural honey, artificial honey containing more than 50 percent natural honeys by weight, preparations of natural...
Islam, Md. Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim
Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims. PMID:25386217
The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...
In response to successive years of high honey bee mortality, the United States Congress mandated the U.S. Department of Agriculture to increase funding for research and education directed at reducing honey bee decline. The funding followed two administrative streams within USDA – one through the USD...
The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...
This is the first time that non-food items from honey bee colonies were assessed for antioxidant activity as it related to Varroa-infestation. Antioxidant activity may be an indication of bee health and while antioxidants are present in honey, propolis, pollen and royal jelly, little work has been...
Tette, Patrícia A S; Guidi, Letícia R; Bastos, Esther M A F; Fernandes, Christian; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A
A LC-MS/MS method for synephrine as a biomarker for orange honey authenticity was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with 5% TCA and cleaned up with Florisil providing 83.7% recoveries. Ions transitions for quantification and identification were 168→135.0 and 168→107.0, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.66 and 1.0ng/g, respectively. Synephrine was detected in orange honey at levels from 79.2 to 432.2ng/g, but not in other monofloral honeys. It was also present in some wildflower honeys (9.4-236.5ng/g), showing contribution of citrus to this polyfloral honey. Results were confirmed by qualitative pollen analysis. No citrus pollen was detected in honey containing synephrine levels ≤43.8ng/g, suggesting that synephrine in honey is more sensitive compared to pollen analysis. Synephrine was found in citrus but not in other apiculture flowers. Therefore, synephrine is a botanical marker to differentiate and attest authenticity of orange honey.
The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...
Mijanur Rahman, Mohammad; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim
Honey is the only insect-derived natural product with therapeutic, traditional, spiritual, nutritional, cosmetic, and industrial value. In addition to having excellent nutritional value, honey is a good source of physiologically active natural compounds, such as polyphenols. Unfortunately, there are very few current research projects investigating the nootropic and neuropharmacological effects of honey, and these are still in their early stages. Raw honey possesses nootropic effects, such as memory-enhancing effects, as well as neuropharmacological activities, such as anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant, and antidepressant activities. Research suggests that the polyphenol constituents of honey can quench biological reactive oxygen species and counter oxidative stress while restoring the cellular antioxidant defense system. Honey polyphenols are also directly involved in apoptotic activities while attenuating microglia-induced neuroinflammation. Honey polyphenols are useful in improving memory deficits and can act at the molecular level. Therefore, the ultimate biochemical impact of honey on specific neurodegenerative diseases, apoptosis, necrosis, neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity, and behavior-modulating neural circuitry should be evaluated with appropriate mechanistic approaches using biochemical and molecular tools. PMID:24876885
Lage, Lorena G A; Coelho, Lívia L; Resende, Helder C; Tavares, Mara G; Campos, Lucio A O; Fernandes-Salomão, Tânia M
Physicochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate 27 samples of honeys from three species of the Brazilian genus Melipona (M. capixaba, M. rufiventris and M. mondury) from Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais States. The parameters water activity (Aw), percentage of soluble solids (Brix %), pH, acidity (meq/Kg) and moisture (%) were evaluated. The honey characteristics obtained from these samples were very similar to the ones from other Melipona species. However, regarding the honey from Apis (honey bee), only the pH values were similar. The low pH value and the high acidity detected in Melipona honey are potential factors for increasing the honey shelf life because they do not provide favorable conditions for the microbial development. On the other hand, the high level of water activity favors the growth of microorganisms, especially yeast, which demands a more careful handled and storage. The observed differences between Melipona and Apis honey reinforce the need for specific quality settings for stingless bee honey.
Honey bees are attacked by numerous parasites and pathogens toward which they present defenses. In this review, we will briefly introduce the many pathogens and parasites afflicting honey bees, highlighting the biologies of specific taxonomic groups mainly as they relate to virulence and possible de...
Kacániová, Miroslava; Pavlicová, Simona; Hascík, P; Kociubinski, G; Kńazovická, Vladimíra; Sudzina, M; Sudzinová, Janka; Fikselová, Martina
As the honey-bee gastrointestinal tract microflora and pollen are the primary sources for the honey microbial community, the aim of this work was to study and characterize the microbial transit among them. Therefore, an exhaustive microbial analysis of honey, adult honey-bee gastrointestinal tract, and pollen from different Slovakian regions and different seasons, was conducted. Microbial screening revealed that the primary sources of microbial community present in Slovakian honey are pollen and the honey-bees' digestive tract microflora, containing microorganisms normally present in dust, air and flowers. We found that the digestive tract of Slovakian adult honey-bees is highly populated by anaerobic, rather than aerobic bacteria, where coliforms, enterococci, staphylococci, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., microscopic fungi and yeast were found. Interestingly, statistical differences were found between the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of summer and winter bees. Pollen revealed the presence of mesophil anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms, coliforms and microscopic fungi. Among these, the most representative genera were Alternaria, Cladosporium and Penicillium . In honey the counts of total anaerobic and total aerobic bacteria, that of coliforms, enterococci, bacilli, microscopic fungi and yeasts were monitored. Most frequently microscopic fungi belonging to genera Penicillium, Cladosporium and Alternaria were found.
This review is written in memory of Professor Peter Molan, who published a paper in the Journal of Wound Care in 1999 describing the therapeutic properties of honey in relation to wound care. It provides an update to show how our understanding of the mode of action of honey has changed within the past 17 years.
Henriques, A F; Jenkins, R E; Burton, N F; Cooper, R A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of manuka honey on Staphylococcus aureus in order to identify the intracellular target site. The mode of inhibition of manuka honey against S. aureus NCTC 10017 was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the effect of time on viability. Structural changes were observed by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of cells suspended for 4 h at 37 degrees C in 0.05 mM Tris buffer containing 10% (w/v) manuka honey and were compared to cells in buffer alone or buffer containing 10% (w/v) artificial honey (to assess osmotic damage). A bactericidal mode of inhibition for manuka honey on S. aureus was established. Marked structural changes in honey-treated cells were seen only with TEM, where a statistically significant increase in the number of whole cells with completed septa compared to untreated cells were observed (P < 0.05). Structural changes found with TEM suggest that honey-treated cells had failed to progress normally through the cell cycle and accumulated with fully formed septa at the point of cell division without separating. Sugars were not implicated in this effect. The staphylococcal target site of manuka honey involves the cell division machinery.
Honey bees can be infected with viruses that can spread rapidly in colonies. Here we discuss how honey bees decrease the risk of disease outbreaks by a combination of behaviors (social immunity) and individual immunity. The effectiveness of both social and individual immunity relies on nutrition. Ho...
Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that...
Honey is a sweet, flavourful liquid substance with several beneficial constituents. Extensive research has shown the therapeutic promise of the use of honey in enhancing health values and improving body systems. This manuscript documents the ancient medicinal uses of honey and provides evidence-based data demonstrating its benefits in animal models, patients, and healthy individuals. Several reports by various researchers are discussed regarding health indices and biomarkers used following apitherapy. These include physiological processes in virtually all animal and human organs. The responses of body systems after oral and systemic administration of honey are also mentioned. Honey is also evaluated for its wide acceptability as a complementary and alternative medicine for most ailments. All types of honey exhibit different biochemical activities and show greater variability in their potency as apitherapeutic agents than conventional medicines. The mechanisms of action conferring honey’s protective effects, as suggested by various authors, are documented. These entail synergistic interaction of the bioactive physical and chemical constituents of honey to produce the desired beneficial effects. The use of apitherapy in synergy with chemotherapy to manage microbial and cancer ailments is also helpful in reducing drug-induced cytotoxicity. The mechanistic insights into the overall protective, preventive, and therapeutic effects of honey portend the presence of a unique factor, a ‘synergistic multiple ingredients factor’, designated SMIF. PMID:28239264
Rortais, Agnès; Tentcheva, Diana; Papachristoforou, Alexandros; Gauthier, Laurent; Arnold, Gérard; Colin, Marc Edouard; Bergoin, Max
Guards of Cyprian honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera cypria, display a great defensive behaviour against hornets' attacks. The deformed wing virus (DWV) and the kakugo virus (KV) genomes are very similar, but unlike KV, the presence of DWV is not related to honey bees' aggressiveness. This discrepancy is further discussed.
We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...
Yuan, Zhimin; Yao, Jun; Liu, Haijun; Han, Jun; Trebše, Polonca
Honey can be polluted due to environmental pollution and misuse of beekeeping practices. In the present study, photodegradation experiments of organophosphorus pesticides (coumaphos, methyl parathion and fenitrothion) in honey medium were conducted using Atlas Suntest simulator CPS+ as a sunlight producer. Photodegradation experiments were conducted under three different intensities as 250W/m(2), 500W/m(2) and 750W/m(2) to evaluate the impact of sunlight intensity on removal of OPs in honey medium. Significant decreases of three OPs' concentrations were observed. Coumaphos showed the highest degradability, reaching a degradation percentage of 90 percent within 15min. After 1h irradiation, residual percentages of coumaphos were 6.62 percent for 250W/m(2), 3.48 percent for 500W/m(2) and 2.98 percent for 750W/m(2), respectively. Methyl parathion and fenitrothion also could be removed through photodegradation efficiently. After 1h irradiation, the residual percentages of methyl parathion and fenitrothion under 750W/m(2) sunlight irradiation were 26.89 percent and 16.70 percent, respectively. Intensity of sunlight showed a positive impact on removal of OPs in honey medium. The higher intensity, the lower residual percentage. Photodegradation of three OPs fitted well with pseudo-first order kinetics. Half-lives calculated from pseudo-first order kinetics were 17.61min (250W/m(2)), 16.67min (500W/m(2)) and 17.58min (750W/m(2)) for coumaphos, 57.62min (250W/m(2)), 34.13min (500W/m(2)) and 31.69min (750W/m(2)) for methyl parathion and 144.70min (250W/m(2)), 95.47min (500W/m(2)) and 22.57min (750W/m(2)) for fenitrothion, respectively. Most of the three OPs could dissipate in a short time under sunlight irradiation. Photodegradation could be accepted as an appropriate method for the removal of OPs in honey medium.
Dezmirean, Graţia I; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Bobiş, Otilia; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Bonta, Victoriţa; Erler, Silvio
Honey as rich source of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants serves as health-promoting nutrient in the human body. Here, we present the first time a comparative study of nutritional profiles (e.g., acidities, sugar, organic acid profile, total polyphenolic, flavonoid content) for different unifloral, multifloral honeys and their fermented products, in correlation with their antioxidant activity. Additionally, an optimized method for HPLC separation of organic acids from honey was established. The total phenolic content of honey samples varied widely among the honey types compared to fermented products. High amounts of total flavonoids were quantified in heather honey, followed by raspberry, multifloral, black locust, and linden honey. A positive correlation between the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity was observed in honey samples. After fermentation, the flavonoid content of dark honey fermented products decreased significantly. Black locust and linden honeys are more suitable for fermentation because the decrease in antioxidant substances is less pronounced.
Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-
Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples.
Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Guerra-Rodríguez, María Esther; Vázquez, Manuel
Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by bees (Apis mellifera). In this work, the main parameters used in routine quality control of honey and the most commonly used analytical methods for their determination are reviewed. Honey can be adulterated with cheaper sweeteners or, indirectly, by feeding the bees with sugars. Therefore, methods for detecting and quantifying adulteration are necessary. Chromatographic techniques are widely used in honey analysis. More recently, techniques such as Raman, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with chemometric data processing have been proposed. However, spectroscopy does not allow the determination of enzyme activities, one criteria of great importance for the honey trade. Methylglyoxal is an interesting compound for its antibacterial properties. Methods for its determination are also reviewed.
Bittmann, Stefan; Luchter, Elisabeth; Thiel, Michael; Kameda, Genn; Hanano, Ralph; Längler, Alfred
Topical honey treatment has been shown to possess antimicrobial properties, promote autolytic debridement, stimulate growth of wound tissues to hasten healing, and to start the healing process in dormant wounds, stimulating anti-inflammatory activity that rapidly reduces pain, oedema and exudate production. This article provides an overview of the use of honey as a medicinal substance, particularly its use in wound treatment, and reviews the published data concerning honey as a form of complementary and alternative medicine in paediatric wound management. The literature reviewed was found by searching the PubMed, BIOSIS, and ISI Web of Science databases for the term honey. Exclusion criteria were articles where honey was used in a mixture with other therapeutic substances.
Stewart, James Austin; McGrane, Owen Lane; Wedmore, Ian S
Honey is one of the most ancient remedies for wound care. Current research has shown promising results for its use in wound care. This review is intended to inform readers of the physiological properties of honey and the evidence that exists to support its clinical use. When compared with evidence for current wound treatment, honey has proven to be a safe, effective, and sometimes superior treatment for various wounds. There are currently US Food and Drug Administration-approved medical-grade honey products available in the United States. Although there have been no clinical trials exploring the use of honey in wilderness environments, it may be a safe, improvisational wound treatment. More robust studies are needed for definitive conclusions of its efficacy and safety.
Al-Jabri, A A; Nzeako, B; Al Mahrooqi, Z; Al Naqdy, A; Nsanze, H
The study aims to investigate the antibacterial activity of honey obtained from different parts of Oman and compare it with that of honey obtained from elsewhere in Africa. A total of 24 honey samples (16 from different parts of Oman and eight from elsewhere in Africa) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571), Escherichia coli (NCTC 10418) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) using standard antimicrobial assays. Marked variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Fourteen of the 16 Omani samples and five of the eight African samples showed antibacterial activity ranked as either fair, good or excellent to at least one of the three bacterial strains tested. Both Omani and African honeys possess in vitro antibacterial activity against the three bacterial strains tested, with 25% of the samples showing excellent antibacterial activity.
Boukraâ, Laïd; Amara, Karim
The role of amylase present in honey in enhancing its antibacterial activity was evaluated in the presence and absence of starch. Two strains of pathogenic bacteria have been used: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For S. aureus, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the three varieties of honey tested without starch was 11%, 24%, and 29% (vol/vol), respectively. When starch was added with honey to the media the MIC obtained was 5%, 19%, and 25% (vol/vol), respectively. For E. coli, the MIC for the three varieties without starch was 23%, 28%, and 25% (vol/vol), respectively. When starch was added with honey to media, the MIC was 19%, 26%, and 23% (vol/vol), respectively. It is speculated that the amylase present in honey hydrolyzed the starch chains to randomly produce dextrin and maltose and that this increased the osmotic effect of the media, which consequently increased the antibacterial activity.
Liang, Chao-Hung; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Jiang, Joe-Air; Yang, En-Cheng
Honey bees have the ability to detect the Earth’s magnetic field, and the suspected magnetoreceptors are the iron granules in the abdomens of the bees. To identify the sensing route of honey bee magnetoreception, we conducted a classical conditioning experiment in which the responses of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) were monitored. Honey bees were successfully trained to associate the magnetic stimulus with a sucrose reward after two days of training. When the neural connection of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the abdomen and the thorax was cut, the honey bees no longer associated the magnetic stimulus with the sucrose reward but still responded to an olfactory PER task. The neural responses elicited in response to the change of magnetic field were also recorded at the VNC. Our results suggest that the honey bee is a new model animal for the investigation of magnetite-based magnetoreception. PMID:27005398
Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) are now an invasive pest of honey bee colonies in Australia and North America. Knowledge on the introduction(s) from Africa into and between the current ranges will shed light on pest populations, invasion pathways and contribute to ...
Spiteri, Marc; Rogers, Karyne M; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Guyader, Sophie; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas N
Manuka honey is a product produced essentially in New Zealand, and has been widely recognised for its antibacterial properties and specific taste. In this study, 264 honeys from New Zealand and Australia were analysed using proton NMR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. Known manuka markers, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone, have been characterised and quantified, together with a new NMR marker, identified as being leptosperin. Manuka honey profiling using 1H NMR is shown to be a possible alternative to chromatography with the added advantage that it can measure methylglyoxal (MGO), dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and leptosperin simultaneously. By combining the information from these three markers, we established a model to estimate the proportion of manuka in a given honey. Markers of other botanical origins were also identified, which makes 1H NMR a convenient and efficient tool, complementary to pollen analysis, to control the botanical origin of Oceania honeys.
Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Morimoto, Tomomi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko
Invasion of alien species has been shown to cause detrimental effects on habitats of native species. Insect pollinators represent such examples; the introduction of commercial bumble bee species for crop pollination has resulted in competition for an ecological niche with native species, genetic disturbance caused by mating with native species, and pathogen spillover to native species. The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, was first introduced into Japan for apiculture in 1877, and queen bees have been imported from several countries for many years. However, its effects on Japanese native honey bee, Apis cerana japonica, have never been addressed. We thus conducted the survey of honey bee viruses and Acarapis mites using both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies to examine their infestation in native and non-native honey bee species in Japan. Honey bee viruses, Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and Sacbrood virus (SBV), were found in both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies; however, the infection frequency of viruses in A. c. japonica was lower than that in A. mellifera colonies. Based on the phylogenies of DWV, BQCV, and SBV isolates from A. mellifera and A. c. japonica, DWV and BQCV may infect both honey bee species; meanwhile, SBV has a clear species barrier. For the first time in Japan, tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) was specifically found in the dead honey bees from collapsing A. c. japonica colonies. This paper thus provides further evidence that tracheal-mite-infested honey bee colonies can die during cool winters with no other disease present. These results demonstrate the infestation of native honey bees by parasite and pathogens of non-native honey bees that are traded globally.
Beneficial bacteria have been found in honey stomachs of the honey bee, Apis mellifera; a unique flora that appears to have coevolved with the honey bees. The health of our most important pollinators has come into focus during the last few years, because of yet unexplained conditions and diseases t...
Brutscher, Laura M; Flenniken, Michelle L
Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.
Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A
Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.
Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.
Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663
Molzahn, D; Assmann-Werthmüller, U
In the years following the accident to the nuclear power plant at Chernobyl, investigations on several selected species of honey were done to determine their 134,137Cs contamination. Very low caesium activities were found in flower honeys, especially rape honeys. The transfer factor of caesium from the soil to the rape plant (Brassica napus var. oleifera) was found to be fCs = 0.116 +/- 0.080 in 1987, but only fCs = 0.017 +/- 0.017 in 1988, due to the lower availability of the caesium by gradual formation of water-insoluble chemical species. Honeydew honeys show a slightly higher 134,137Cs contamination. Honeydew is often produced by lice setting on spruces. Therefore, needles and twigs of spruces (Picea abies) were investigated and relatively high caesium contamination was found in fresh needles. A transfer factor for caesium from spruce needles to honeydew honey of about 0.1 was estimated. Finally, the caesium contamination in heather honeys and heather plants (Calluna vulgaris) was determined. Surprisingly higher factors between 2 and 40 were obtained for the caesium transfer from soil to Calluna vulgaris. These factors give a good explanation for the relatively high caesium contamination of heather honeys.
Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria
Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition.
Sahin, Huseyin; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi
The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/g body weight/day via oral gavage for 8 days. According to results, the quantity of GTX-III found in the honey sample as 39.949 ± 0.020 μg GTX-III/g honey, and the biochemical analysis of the tested parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain) showed a significant elevation with increasing concentration of honey. In conclusion, the use of increasing concentrations of Rhododendron honey was seen as a source of enzymatic symptoms.
Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite
Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun
The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.
Vit, Patricia; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Rondón, Carlos; González, Isbelia; Luisa Di Bernardo, María; Ysabel García, María
Honey is the most popular bee product used by man, with nutritional and medicinal purposes. Its great diversity is attributed to numerous factors (bee type, visited flora, environment, and management). The quality of honey is controlled with routine parameters (free acidity, diastase activity, reducing sugars, ash, water, hydroxymethyfurfural, and sucrose contents). Besides the biochemical quality control, a functional profile is also important for pharmacological applications. In this work, bioactive indicators such as the antioxidant activity, flavonoid and polyphenol contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and correlated to the content of six bioelements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, tandem FI-FAAS, in 14 unifloral Czech honeys. The antioxidant activity was 43.13 +/- 53.72 micromoles TEAC/100 g honey. The flavonoid content was 5.18 +/- 4.19 mg QE/100 g, and the polyphenol content was 45.38 +/- 27.20 mg GAE/100 g. Buckwheat honey showed the highest values for these indicators of bioactivity, the acacia honeys the lowest, and the rest of the honeys were comprised between both of them. Honey content of bioelements was 138.19 +/- 55.57 ppm Ca (min 77.11-max 261.65), 0.33 +/- 0.41 ppm Cu (min 0.00-max 1.37), 2.95 +/- 1.10 ppm Fe (min 1.34-max 5.36), 35.08 +/- 29.59 ppm Mg (min 8.76-128.06), 4.93 +/- 3.99 ppm Mn (min 0.34-max 11.31), 1.07 +/- 0.56 ppm Zn (min 0.49-max 2.52). The antioxidant activity of honey was significantly correlated to its content of cupper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc, but was not correlated to calcium.
Ćetković, Gordana; Čanadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Vulić, Jelena; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas Šaponjac, Vesna
The total phenol (TPh) and flavonoid contents (TFd), and antioxidant and sensorial properties of linden honey (LH) with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40%) were evaluated. TPh increased 4.3 times for LH40 (from 23.96 to 102.87 mg gallic acid equiv./100 g honey), while increase of TFd was slightly lower, ca. 2.9-fold for LH40 (from 18.11 to 51.72 mg rutin equiv./100 g honey). Based on HPLC analysis, the most dominant phenolic compound was gallic acid (11.14 mg/100 g honey in LH and 42.65 mg/100 g honey in LH40). In three different assays, the antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. The values varied from 13.36 for LH to 7.06 mg/ml for LH40; the values ranged from 189.83 for LH to 11.23 mg/ml for LH40; the RP0.5 (reducing power) values ranged from 169.00 for LH to 27.60 mg/ml for LH40. Based on the correlation analysis, it is obvious that TPh and TFd were associated with the antioxidant activities of honey samples. A high degree of correlation existed between antioxidant activities of honey samples and TPh (R from 0.945 to 0.996) and TFd (R from 0.805 to 0.934). Obtained scores for individual sensory properties indicated very good quality of honey with dried apricots.
Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria
In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.
Truchado, Pilar; Tourn, Elian; Gallez, Lilliana M; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A
To select and establish floral biomarkers of the botanical origin of Diplotaxis tenuifolia honeys, the flavonoids and glucosinolates present in bee-deposited nectar collected from hive combs (unripe honey) and mature honey from the same hives fron which the unripe honey samples were collected were analyzed by LC-UV-PAD-ESI-MS(n). Glycosidic conjugates of the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were detected and characterized in unripe honey. D. tenuifolia mature honeys contained the aglycones kaempferol, quercetin, and isorhamnetin. The differences between the phenolic profiles of mature honey and freshly deposited honey could be due to hydrolytic enzymatic activities. Aliphatic and indole glucososinolates were analyzed in unripe and mature honeys, this being the first report of the detection and characterization of glucosinolates as honey constituents. Moreover, these honey samples contained different amounts of propolis-derived flavonoid aglycones (1765-3171 μg/100 g) and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (29-1514 μg/100 g). Propolis flavonoids were already present in the freshly deposited nectar, showing that the incorporation of these compounds to honey occurs at the early steps of honey production. The flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin and the glucosinolates detected in the samples could be used as complementary biomarkers for the determination of the floral origin of Argentinean Diplotaxis honeys.
Bilikova, Katarina; Kristof Krakova, Tatiana; Yamaguchi, Kikuji; Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa
Until now, the properties of honey have been defined based exclusively on the content of plant components in the nectar of given plant. We showed that apalbumin1, the major royal jelly (RJ) protein, is an authentic and regular component of honey. Apalbumin1 and other RJ proteins and peptides are responsible for the immunostimulatory properties and antibiotic activity of honey. For the quantification of apalbumin1, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal anti-apalbumin1 antibody. The method is suitable for honey authenticity determination; moreover it is useful for detection of the honey, honeybee pollen and RJ in products of medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, and food industry, where presences of these honeybee products are declared. Results from the analysis for presence and amount of apalbumin1 in honeys will be used for high-throughput screening of honey samples over the world. On the basis of our experiments which show that royal jelly proteins are regular and physiologically active components of honey we propose to change the definition of honey (according to the EU Honey Directive 2001/110/EC) as follows: Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by honey bees from nectar of plants or from secretions of plants, or excretions of plant sucking insects, which honey bees collect, transform by combining with major royal jelly proteins and other specific substances of their own, deposit, dehydrate, store and leave in the honey comb to ripen and mature.
Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C
Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens.
Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Bifulco, Ersilia; Marijanovic, Zvonimir; Congiu, Francesca; Bubalo, Dragan
Riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) and its metabolite lumichrome were quantified in 117 samples from 11 unifloral honeys types (Arbutus unedo L., Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm. et Viv., Citrus spp., Eucalyptus spp., Hedysarum coronarium L., Castanea sativa L. honeydew, Mentha spp., Paliurus spina-christi., Salix spp., Salvia officinalis L., Satureja spp.). The quantification of these two compounds was performed by LC-DAD method which does not require sample purification. The proposed method in our study has low limits of detection and quantification, very good linearity in a large concentration range and very good precision. It allows simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and known chemical biomarkers of unifloral honeys such as abscisic acid diastereomers, homogentisic acid, methyl syringate and kynurenic acid. No statistical correlation was observed between riboflavin and lumichrome content. Although, the concentration of vitamin B(2) in honey may be too low (<6.1mg/kg) to generate interest in the field of nutrition, the presence of its main metabolite lumichrome may be useful to determine the botanical origin of certain unifloral honeys. In fact, the analysis of 11 unifloral honey types showed that Dalmatian sage (S. officinalis L.) honey is characterised by unusual high levels of lumichrome (20.2±2.6mg/kg). The botanical origin of lumichrome from sage flower was assessed by analysing bee-stomach extracts. Other analytical parameters, such as total phenols, antioxidant and antiradical activities, HMF and diastase activity were studied in Dalmatian sage honey.
Bíliková, Katarína; Simúth, Jozef
The 55 kDa major protein of royal jelly, named apalbumin 1, is an authentic protein of honey and pollen pellet, and for its quantification an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using specific polyclonal anti-apalbumin 1 antibody. The limit of detection for apalbumin 1 was 2 ng mL(-1). The floral honeys contained apalbumin 1 as follows: acacia, 0.011%; linden, 0.010%; chestnut, 0.029%; rape, 0.010%; and dandelion, 0.014%. The saccharose syrup honey contained only 0.001% of apalbumin 1. The average amount of apalbumin 1 relating to the total protein content of analyzed honey samples was 23.39%, whereas in SCCH apalbumin 1 presented only 4.81% of total proteins of honey. Apalbumin 1 is thermostabile in honey at 80 degrees C incubated for 40 min. ELISA results show good precision in the evaluation of apalbumin 1 quantity in honey (CV ranged from 0.69 to 4.25%).
Merckoll, Patricia; Jonassen, Tom Øystein; Vad, Marie Elisabeth; Jeansson, Stig L; Melby, Kjetil K
Chronically infected wounds are a costly source of suffering. An important factor in the failure of a sore to heal is the presence of multiple species of bacteria, living cooperatively in highly organized biofilms. The biofilm protects the bacteria from antibiotic therapy and the patient's immune response. Honey has been used as a wound treatment for millennia. The components responsible for its antibacterial properties are now being elucidated. The study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of 'Medihoney' therapeutic honey and Norwegian Forest Honey 1) on the real-time growth of typical chronic wound bacteria; 2) on biofilm formation; and 3) on the same bacteria already embedded in biofilm. Reference strains of MRSE, MRSA, ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated with dilution series of the honeys in microtitre plates for 20 h. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring optical density every 10 min. Growth curves, biofilm formation and minimum bactericidal concentrations are presented. Both honeys were bactericidal against all the strains of bacteria. Biofilm was penetrated by biocidal substances in honey. Reintroduction of honey as a conventional wound treatment may help improve individual wound care, prevent invasive infections, eliminate colonization, interrupt outbreaks and thereby preserve current antibiotic stocks.
Baroni, María V; Podio, Natalia S; Badini, Raúl G; Inga, Marcela; Ostera, Héctor A; Cagnoni, Mariana; Gautier, Eduardo A; García, Pilar Peral; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Wunderlin, Daniel A
The objective of this research was to investigate the development of a reliable fingerprint from elemental and isotopic signatures of Argentinean honey to assess its geographical provenance. Honey, soil, and water from three regions (Córdoba, Buenos Aires, and Entre Rı́os) were collected. The multielemental composition was determined by ICP-MS. δ(13)C was measured by isotopic ratio mass spectrometry, whereas the (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by chemometrics looking for the association between the elements, stable isotopes, and honey samples from the three studied areas. Honey samples were differentiated by classification trees and discriminant analysis using a combination of eight key variables (Rb, K/Rb, B, U, (87)Sr/(86)Sr, Na, La, and Zn) presenting differences among the studied regions. The application of canonical correlation analysis and generalized procrustes analysis showed 91.5% consensus between soil, water, and honey samples, in addition to clear differences between studied areas. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the correspondence between soil, water, and honey samples using different statistical methods, showing that elemental and isotopic honey compositions are related to soil and water characteristics of the site of origin.
Arslan, Aysu; Simşek, Murat; Aldemir, Sevcan Dalkıranoğlu; Kazaroğlu, Nur Merve; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe
In this study, fibrous mats were fabricated via electrospinning from solutions of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET/chitosan, and PET/honey at different concentrations. The effect of honey and chitosan on electrospinning process was investigated and compared. Fibers containing chitosan had a beaded or ribbon-like/branched morphology, but this morphology improved in the presence of honey. The diameter of electrospun fibers decreased with an increased ratio of honey in PET solution. In addition, fiber deposition area in the collector increased by increasing the honey content. PET/chitosan and PET/honey fibrous mats reached an equilibrium water content in 15 min and their water uptake capacities, which are important for exudating wounds, were found in the range of 280-430% on dry basis. Cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that fibers exhibited no cytotoxic activity. This study discloses that PET fibrous mats especially electrospun in the presence of honey could be proposed as potential wound dressing materials owing to their improved processing abilities besides their suitable structural properties.
International students' medical training often includes an elective placement in their home country to prepare them for practice on graduation. Seven Malaysian students in their final year of medicine were interviewed pre- and post-graduation and asked to reflect on whether they felt adequately prepared for working in Malaysia. These seven international students, who studied medicine in Australia, all returned to Malaysia for six weeks for their elective, and the interviews canvassed their perceptions of this experience, along with their thoughts on how well their training in Australia had prepared them for working in their country of origin. The interview data were qualitatively analysed, and case studies were constructed. Main themes were identified and tabulated. Students voiced similar concerns about how ready they were for working at home. These included a lack of practical skills relative to their Malaysian-trained counterparts, language difficulties, medical communication skill incompatibilities across cultures, expectations to perform complex or unfamiliar tasks with minimal supervision and substantial burdens of responsibility with long working hours. These students did not feel greatly prepared for their return home to practise medicine. The elective placement was not well utilized by the majority of students in this study.
During 2006 the CDM market in Malaysia became established and by December 2007 a total of 20 Malaysian projects had registered with the CDM Executive Board. The Kyoto Protocol defines the Annex 1 countries, as countries that are obliged to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the clean development mechanism (CDM) allows Annex 1 countries to develop projects, which contribute to emission reduction, in non-Annex 1 (developing) countries. Currently, two projects have been corrected due to request for review and there is one project for which review is requested. Two projects have been rejected by the Executive Board. The broad knowledge of CDM in Malaysia and the number of successful projects are partly due to the well-functioning CDM institutional framework in Malaysia. As an illustration this article focuses on a Malaysian-Danish project and describes the implementation of CDM in Malaysia and refers to this specific project. The project was registered with the CDM Executive Board in May 2007 and is a methane avoidance project in which methane is captured from a landfill and used to generate electricity.
Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli
Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.
Ling, Lai Teng; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Palanisamy, Uma D
Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 microg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation.
Liew, C. L.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Jacobs, R. L.
The Malaysian aviation industry has continued to march forward. With a turnover of RM23.7 billion in 2013, it is expected to grow higher especially after the Malaysian national aerospace blueprint was launched in 2015. The aviation related organizations currently have a workforce of approximately 13500. These organizations need to be managed by competent managers who have a strong background of technologist. Aviation technologist is one of the key components in the aviation maintenance industry as they are the future managers charged with the responsibility to ensure continuation of the organization's objectives and culture. The technologist role and manager's role are somehow different. The promotion of technologist to managerial roles is quite common but whether the technologist is able to take up managerial role effectively is yet to be fully understood. It is quite common that there was insufficient training for the technologist before being promoted to take up management roles. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of technologists and managers in professional services industries such as MRO and to understand that there is a need within the industry to re-look into the perspective of a proper training to prepare them to take up management roles effectively.
Hasan, Syed S.; Ooi, Yong J.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Wong, Pei S.; Ahmad, Siti F.; MNM-Rosdy, Nik M.; Malik, Normaliza A.
Objectives The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. Results A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. Conclusion The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students. PMID:25935506
Joanne, Sylvia; Vythilingam, Indra; Yugavathy, Nava; Leong, Cherng-Shii; Wong, Meng-Li; AbuBakar, Sazaly
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted bacteria found in most arthropods and nematodes, but little is known about their distribution and reproductive dynamics in the Malaysian dengue vector Aedes albopictus. In this study, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to determine the presence of Wolbachia from field collected Ae. albopictus from various parts of the country using wsp specific primers. Ae. albopictus had Wolbachia infection ranging from 60 to 100%. No sequence diversity of wsp gene was found within all wAlbA and wAlbB sequences. Our findings suggest that Wolbachia infection amongst the Malaysian Ae. albopictus were not homogenously distributed in all districts in Malaysia. The presence of Wolbachia in different organs of Ae. albopictus was also determined. Wolbachia were only found in the ovaries and midguts of the mosquitoes, while absent in the salivary glands. The effects of Wolbachia on Ae. albopictus fecundity, longevity and egg viability were studied using infected and uninfected colonies. The removal of Wolbachia from Ae. albopictus resulted in reduced fecundity, longevity and egg viability, thus. Wolbachia seem to play a vital role in Ae. albopictus reproductive system.
Khan, Tahir M; Sulaiman, Syed A; Hassali, Mohamed A; Tahir, Humera
Objectives To identify the aetiology and clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatry Clinic, Public Hospital, Pulau Penang, Malaysia. Retrospective evaluations of records were conducted between January 2002 and December 2007. The data were analysed using the statistical software, SPSS v. 131®.Results Ninety-six (56.8%) of the patients were Chinese, the mean (± SD) age of the patients was 45 ± 17.8 years, with a majority (72; 42.6%) aged over 50 years. The incidence of depression with comorbid hypertension and comorbid diabetes mellitus was significant among women aged over 50 (P < 0.001 (hypertension) P < 0.015 (diabetes mellitus)). Marital and relationship problems were found to significantly affect Chinese women aged 15-30 years (P = 0.019). In terms of the clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women, suicidal ideation and somatic symptoms like reduced energy/being easily fatigued were more frequent among Chinese.Conclusion Symptoms of being short-tempered, crying, restless and doubtful/distracted should not be neglected in primary care because of the possibility of mental health disorders. The timely evaluation of diabetic and hypertensive patients is an ideal strategy to prevent mental health disorders.
Tan, Sok Khim
Implicit in teaching science has been the teaching of a set of values. However, its presence has remained unacknowledged because of assumptions made that its products are value-free and that work of science involves positive values. Malaysian schools have introduced a set of noble values to be taught as a subject called moral education while at the same time expecting all subjects, including the sciences to actively inculcate these noble values in their lessons. A search for values related to science included studies from science education curriculums, studies by scientists and philosophers of science, feminist and Indian critics of science. These values could be categorized into four categories representing epistemological values, supporting values, societal and moral values and power-oriented values. While some categories compliment each other, others are in contention. This paper argues for the inclusion of societal and moral values in the science classrooms. A compassionate scientist should be a reality. The task for Malaysian science educators is to find a way to raise awareness of these values.
Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B
Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.
Barron, Andrew B; Maleszka, Ryszard; Vander Meer, Robert K; Robinson, Gene E
Honey bees communicate the location and desirability of valuable forage sites to their nestmates through an elaborate, symbolic "dance language." The dance language is a uniquely complex communication system in invertebrates, and the neural mechanisms that generate dances are largely unknown. Here we show that treatments with controlled doses of the biogenic amine neuromodulator octopamine selectively increased the reporting of resource value in dances by forager bees. Oral and topical octopamine treatments modulated aspects of dances related to resource profitability in a dose-dependent manner. Dances for pollen and sucrose responded similarly to octopamine treatment, and these effects were eliminated by treatment with the octopamine antagonist mianserin. We propose that octopamine modulates the representation of floral rewards in dances by changing the processing of reward in the honey bee brain. Octopamine is known to modulate appetitive behavior in a range of solitary insects; the role of octopamine in dance provides an example of how neural substrates can be adapted for new behavioral innovations in the process of social evolution.
Tan, H. X.; Ujum, E. A.; Ratnavelu, K.
This conference proceeding presents an empirical assessment on the domestic publication output and structure of scientific collaboration of Malaysian authors for the field of physics. Journal articles with Malaysian addresses for the subject area "Physics" and other sub-discipline of physics were retrieved from the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge database spanning the years 1980 to 2011. A scientometrics and social network analysis of the Malaysian physics field was conducted to examine the publication growth and distribution of domestic collaborative publications; the giant component analysis; and the degree, closeness, and betweenness centralisation scores for the domestic co-authorship networks. Using these methods, we are able to gain insights on the evolution of collaboration and scientometric dimensions of Malaysian research in physics over time.
McDaniel, Kirk C.; Brock, John H.; Haas, Robert H.
Honey mesquite kill and suppression, vegetation response, and changes in grazing use and capacity were evaluated following brush control in north-central Texas. Tree grubbing was most effective for eliminating honey mesquite, but because of soil and plant damage the treatment did not increase grazing capacity or improve range condition compared to nontreated rangeland. Aerial application of 2,4,5-T + picloram was more effective in klllmg and defoliating honey mesquite than 2,4,5-T alone, but both treatments significantly increased forage production. The 2,4,5-T + picloram and 2,4,5-T sprays provided a 7 to 16% increase in grazing capacity over a 4-year period on light and heavy honey mesquite infested pastures, respectively.
Túri, M S; Mátray, E S
The Asian bee mite (Varroa jacobsoni Oud.) causes variable damage in Hungarian apiaries due to the different and changing conditions. Plastic and wooden strips impregnated with synthetic pyrethroid-type active ingredients show a high efficacy against the mites. These treatments, however, may leave residues in bee products (honey, propolis, wax). After experimental treatment with Gabon PA 92, the levels of active ingredient (acrinathrin) residues were determined in honey and beeswax samples. The analytical results proved that the average concentration of acrinathrin residues was less than 0.01 mg/kg in honey and less than 0.10 mg/kg in beeswax. From the food-hygienic point of view it is favourable that the honey did not become 'contaminated' with acrinathrin during the experimental treatment. The analytical results serve as a basis for the registration of this veterinary product in Hungary.
400 samples of natural winter debris collected from bee hives, 150 samples of stored honey and 100 samples of pollen collected by bees were examined; full of food and empty honey combs, brood and adult bees were also observed. 100% of samples of debris, 90% of pollen and almost 24% of honey samples contained mites; they were found also on honey combs and on died and living bees (brood, imagines). 33 mite species were found. Besides of parasite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. numerous mites belonging to Acaridae, Ameroseiidae, Tarsonemidae and Tydeidae were frequent. They are often accompanied by predatory mites from families Cheyletidae, Aceosejidae, Laelapidae, Bdellidae and Cunaxidae. 3 stated species--Acotyledon paradoxa Oud., Lasioacarus nidicolus Kadz. et Sev. and Thyreophagus odyneri Fain are new for Poland.
Elbagoury, E F; Rasmy, S
Two samples of natural Honey were tested for their antibacterial effect on Bacteroides, mainly the pathogenic black pigmented B. melaninogenicus isolated from ten cases of dental infections (dental abscesses and chronic osteomyelitis). These organisms were subjected to the effect of natural and diluted honey (50%), in broth and solid cultures. The results were compared with those of the same organisms incubated with saturated glucose solution, which showed less inhibition, indicating that the inhibitory effect of honey was not due to its high sugar content nor to its acidic PH, when using Schaedler's broth adjusted to the same PH as control. The local therapeutic value of natural honey was illustrated with an attempt to correlate between the microbial findings and the clinical implications.
Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena
This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro.
Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite described from the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. The parasite is cross-infective with the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. It is not known when or where N. ceranae first infected European bees, but N. ceranae has probably been infecting European bees for at least two decades. N. ceranae appears to be replacing Nosema apis, at least in some populations of European honey bees. This replacement is an enigma because the spores of the new parasite are less durable than those of N. apis. Virulence data at both the individual bee and at the colony level are conflicting possibly because the impact of this parasite differs in different environments. The recent advancements in N. ceranae genetics, with a draft assembly of the N. ceranae genome available, are discussed and the need for increased research on the impacts of this parasite on European honey bees is emphasized.
Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mandal, Mahitosh
Honey has been used since long time both in medical and domestic needs, but only recently the antioxidant property of it came to limelight. The fact that antioxidants have several preventative effects against different diseases, such as cancer, coronary diseases, inflammatory disorders, neurological degeneration, and aging, led to search for food rich in antioxidants. Chemoprevention uses various dietary agents rich in phytochemicals which serve as antioxidants. With increasing demand for antioxidant supply in the food, honey had gained vitality since it is rich in phenolic compounds and other antioxidants like ascorbic acid, amino acids, and proteins. Some simple and polyphenols found in honey, namely, caffeic acid (CA), caffeic acid phenyl esters (CAPE), Chrysin (CR), Galangin (GA), Quercetin (QU), Kaempferol (KP), Acacetin (AC), Pinocembrin (PC), Pinobanksin (PB), and Apigenin (AP), have evolved as promising pharmacological agents in treatment of cancer. In this review, we reviewed the antiproliferative and molecular mechanisms of honey and above-mentioned polyphenols in various cancer cell lines. PMID:19636435
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject investigations. EFFECTIVE DATE: August 13, 2001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...
Betten, David P; Richardson, William H; Tong, Tri C; Clark, Richard F
Massive envenomations by honey bees are capable of causing multiorgan dysfunction as a result of the direct toxic effects of the large venom load received. Although all varieties of honey bee have the potential for these attacks, the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is the most commonly implicated subspecies. In the United States, the Africanized strain is found primarily in the southwestern states and is known for its highly defensive behavior if disturbed. Mechanisms behind the multiorgan dysfunction produced by these mass envenomations are not clearly understood. We present a case of a 13-year-old male who was stung by approximately 700 honey bees and developed progressive upper-body swelling and systemic manifestations of mass envenomation including rhabdomyolysis, renal insufficiency, and a transient transaminase elevation.
Evans, Jay D; Schwarz, Ryan S
The biology and health of the honey bee Apis mellifera has been of interest to human societies for centuries. Research on honey bee health is surging, in part due to new tools and the arrival of colony-collapse disorder (CCD), an unsolved decline in bees from parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia. Although a clear understanding of what causes CCD has yet to emerge, these efforts have led to new microbial discoveries and avenues to improve our understanding of bees and the challenges they face. Here we review the known honey bee microbes and highlight areas of both active and lagging research. Detailed studies of honey bee-pathogen dynamics will help efforts to keep this important pollinator healthy and will give general insights into both beneficial and harmful microbes confronting insect colonies.
Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja
Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1)) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg(-)(1) were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg(-)(1) respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg(-)(1) respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg(-)(1)) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg(-)(1) respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole
Bromenshenk, J.J.; Carlson, S.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Thomas, J.M.
To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were generated. Results, based on actual concentrations of contaminants in bee tissues, show that the greatest concentrations of contaminants occur close to Commencement Bay and that honey bees are effective as large-scale monitors. 27 references, 2 figures.
Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo
Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.
Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Chardon, S; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F
Gas chromatography and liquid chromatography have been used simultaneously to analyze sugars in honey. After statistical processing by principal components analysis, additions of exogenous sugars could be detected by the appropriate fingerprints of adulteration. Application to acacia, chestnut and lavender honeys enabled the detection of fraud resulting from 5 to 10% addition of sugar syrups. This method may be considered as a replacement of isotopic analysis, that has some limitations.
Andraca, Adriana; Goldstein, Patricia; del Castillo, Luis Felipe
For several honeys from different countries, we study the dependence of the Logarithmic Shift Factor (LSF) with temperature that obeys the Williams-Landel-Ferry equation. We find that the LSF may be expressed in terms of a linear equation. On the other hand, the viscosities of different honeys present a corresponding state behavior through a master plot in terms of an adimensional temperature. This kind of behavior has been reported for other glass formers.
Burlando, Bruno; Cornara, Laura
Honey is a bee-derived, supersaturated solution composed mainly of fructose and glucose, and containing proteins and amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, and other minor components. Historical records of honey skin uses date back to the earliest civilizations, showing that honey has been frequently used as a binder or vehicle, but also for its therapeutic virtues. Antimicrobial properties are pivotal in dermatological applications, owing to enzymatic H2 O2 release or the presence of active components, like methylglyoxal in manuka, while medical-grade honey is also available. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure. In cosmetic formulations, it exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin juvenile and retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH and prevents pathogen infections. Honey-based cosmetic products include lip ointments, cleansing milks, hydrating creams, after sun, tonic lotions, shampoos, and conditioners. The used amounts range between 1 and 10%, but concentrations up to 70% can be reached by mixing with oils, gel, and emulsifiers, or polymer entrapment. Intermediate-moisture, dried, and chemically modified honeys are also used. Mechanisms of action on skin cells are deeply conditioned by the botanical sources and include antioxidant activity, the induction of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase expression, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition in wounded epidermis. Future achievements, throwing light on honey chemistry and pharmacological traits, will open the way to new therapeutic approaches and add considerable market value to the product.
Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E
Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.
Fernández, Leticia A; Ghilardi, Carolina; Hoffmann, Betiana; Busso, Carlos; Gallez, Liliana M
The microbiological quality of honey obtained from different processing points and the environmental quality within honey houses were assessed in the Pampas Region (Argentina). Mold and yeast (MY), culturable heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria (CHMB), the number of spore-forming bacteria as well as the presence of Shigella spp., Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were evaluated in 163 samples. These samples were taken from eight honey houses. Results showed that 89 samples had ≤10CFU of MY/g honey, 69 ranged from 10 to 50CFU/g and two reached 65.5CFU/g. Eighty one percent of the samples showed ≤30CFU of CHMB/g honey and only seven samples had between 50 and 54.25CFU/g. Thirty six honey samples were obtained from drums: in 25 samples (69.4%) CHMB counts were less than ≤30CFU/g of honey; in 20 samples (55.5%) the values of MY were between 10 and 50CFU/g honey and total coliforms were only detected in 20 samples. Fecal coliforms, spores of clostridia as well as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp were not detected and less than 50 spores of Bacillus spp. per g were observed in the honey from drums. Therefore, the microbiological honey quality within the honey houses did not show any sanitary risks. Our results were reported to honey house owners to help them understand the need to reinforce proper honey handling and sanitation practices.
Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata
Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.
Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav
Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey.
The use of honey in wound management has enjoyed a resurgence. This is largely due to the growing clinical problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the combined difficulties for the practitioner in managing chronic wound types, such as burns, leg ulcers or surgical wounds, that may become infected, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas. The associated costs of treating such wounds are escalating as a result. While the use of honey as a wound dressing has been recognized, at least since Egyptian times circa 2000 BC, it is only more recently, due to the development and licensing of modern honey wound dressings, that such dressings have become more widely available and used in wound management. This article focuses on the use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds and burns. It will examine the effects of honey at the wound bed and its clinical applications, along with the current dressings available. Also discussed are the practical considerations, if, like any wound dressing, honey is to be used safely, appropriately and for the benefit of the patient.
Vandamme, L; Heyneman, A; Hoeksema, H; Verbelen, J; Monstrey, S
Honey, known for centuries as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds, has recently known a revival in modern wound care. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence and the role of honey in contemporary wound care. The search strategy was developed in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Fifty-five studies of any design, evaluating the use of honey in human burns, ulcers and other wounds, written in English, French, German or Dutch were eligible for inclusion. In all three wound categories honey seems to be a dressing with wound healing stimulating properties. In burns there is also evidence for its antibacterial capacity. In general, honey is also been mentioned to have deodorizing, debridement, anti-inflammatory and wound pain reducing properties, although the evidence for these properties is rather limited. Many of the included studies have methodological problems, and the quality of certain studies is low, making it difficult to formulate conclusive guidelines. This review reveals several gaps in the research of honey in modern wound care, and recommendations are suggested for future research.
Dearden, Peter K; Wilson, Megan J; Sablan, Lisha; Osborne, Peter W; Havler, Melanie; McNaughton, Euan; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Milshina, Natalia V; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Brown, Susan J; Elsik, Christine G; Holland, Peter W H; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Beye, Martin
The current insect genome sequencing projects provide an opportunity to extend studies of the evolution of developmental genes and pathways in insects. In this paper we examine the conservation and divergence of genes and developmental processes between Drosophila and the honey bee; two holometabolous insects whose lineages separated approximately 300 million years ago, by comparing the presence or absence of 308 Drosophila developmental genes in the honey bee. Through examination of the presence or absence of genes involved in conserved pathways (cell signaling, axis formation, segmentation and homeobox transcription factors), we find that the vast majority of genes are conserved. Some genes involved in these processes are, however, missing in the honey bee. We have also examined the orthology of Drosophila genes involved in processes that differ between the honey bee and Drosophila. Many of these genes are preserved in the honey bee despite the process in which they act in Drosophila being different or absent in the honey bee. Many of the missing genes in both situations appear to have arisen recently in the Drosophila lineage, have single known functions in Drosophila, and act early in developmental pathways, while those that are preserved have pleiotropic functions. An evolutionary interpretation of these data is that either genes with multiple functions in a common ancestor are more likely to be preserved in both insect lineages, or genes that are preserved throughout evolution are more likely to co-opt additional functions.
Münstedt, Karsten; Hoffmann, Sven; Hauenschild, Annette; Bülte, Michael; von Georgi, Richard; Hackethal, Andreas
Small studies have suggested that honey benefits patients with high cholesterol concentrations. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a larger group of subjects. Sixty volunteers with high cholesterol, stratified according to gender and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) treatment (yes/no), were randomized to receive 75 g of honey solution or a honey-comparable sugar solution once daily over a period of 14 days. Baseline measurements, including body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile, were obtained, and subjects also completed dietary questionnaires and the Inventory for the Assessment of Negative Bodily Affect-Trait form (INKA-h) questionnaire. Measurements were repeated 2 weeks later. BMI and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol values were significantly correlated (r = -0.487; P < .001) as were BMI and a lower ratio of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (r = 0.420; P < .001), meaning that subjects with a high BMI had a lower HDL cholesterol value. INKA-h scores and LDL cholesterol values were also significantly correlated (r = 0.273, P = .042). Neither solution influenced significantly cholesterol or triglyceride values in the total group; in women, however, the LDL cholesterol value increased in the sugar solution subgroup but not in the women taking honey. Although ingesting honey did not reduce LDL cholesterol values in general, women may benefit from substituting honey for sugar in their diet. Reducing the BMI lowers the LDL cholesterol value, and psychological interventions also seem important and merit further investigation.
Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de
Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.
Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420
Fries, Ingemar; Raina, Suresh
We have taken samples of honey from individual beekeepers (N = 64), and of domestic (N = 35) and imported honey (N = 15) retailed in supermarkets in several sub-Saharan countries and cultivated these samples for Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae Heyndrickx et al. causing American foulbrood in honey bee colonies. The results are compared with samples of similar backgrounds and treated the same way but collected in Sweden (N = 35). No P. larvae subsp. larvae spores were found in any honey produced in Africa south of the Sahara although honey imported into this region frequently contains the pathogen. Swedish honey frequently contains P. larvae subsp. larvae spores although the general level of visibly infected bee colonies is low (roughly 0.5%). The results suggest that large parts of Africa may be free from American foulbrood. Behavioral studies (hygienic behavior) on Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata Lepeletier in Zimbabwe suggest that hygienic behavior of African bees could influence the apparent low level, or even absence of American foulbrood in large parts of Africa.
Kassim, Mustafa; Mansor, Marzida; Suhaimi, Anwar; Ong, Gracie; Yusoff, Kamaruddin Mohd
Monocytes and macrophages are part of the first-line defense against bacterial, fungal, and viral infections during host immune responses; they express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and their reaction product peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is a short-lived oxidant and a potent inducer of cell death. Honey, in addition to its well-known sweetening properties, is a natural antioxidant that has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine. We examined the ability of Gelam honey, derived from the Gelam tree (Melaleuca spp.), to scavenge peroxynitrite during immune responses mounted in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ (LPS/IFN-γ) and in LPS-treated rats. Gelam honey significantly improved the viability of LPS/IFN-γ-treated RAW 264.7 cells and inhibited nitric oxide production-similar to the effects observed with an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (1400W). Furthermore, honey, but not 1400W, inhibited peroxynitrite production from the synthetic substrate 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) and prevented the peroxynitrite-mediated conversion of dihydrorhodamine 123 to its fluorescent oxidation product rhodamine 123. Honey inhibited peroxynitrite synthesis in LPS-treated rats. Thus, honey may attenuate inflammatory responses that lead to cell damage and death, suggesting its therapeutic uses for several inflammatory disorders.
Calatayud-Vernich, Pau; Calatayud, Fernando; Simó, Enrique; Picó, Yolanda
A comparison between QuEChERS and other pesticide extraction procedures for honey and honey bee matrices is discussed. Honey bee matrix was extracted by solvent based procedure whereas solid phase extraction was the protocol for the honey matrix. The citrate buffered QuEChERS method was used for both matrices. The methods were evaluated regarding cost (equipment and reagents), time, accuracy, precision, sensitivity and versatility. The results proved that the QuEChERS protocol was the most efficient method for the extraction of the selected pesticides in both matrices. •QuEChERS is the most economical and less time-consuming procedure.•SPE and solvent-based extraction procedures show equivalent recoveries to QuEChERS.•QuEChERS can be used to extract pesticide residues from both matrices.
Kamaluddin, Mohammad Rahim; Shariff, Nadiah Syariani; Nurfarliza, Siti; Othman, Azizah; Ismail, Khaidzir H; Mat Saat, Geshina Ayu
Murder is the most notorious crime that violates religious, social and cultural norms. Examining the types and number of different killing methods that used are pivotal in a murder case. However, the psychological traits underlying specific and multiple killing methods are still understudied. The present study attempts to fill this gap in knowledge by identifying the underlying psychological traits of different killing methods among Malaysian murderers. The study adapted an observational cross-sectional methodology using a guided self-administered questionnaire for data collection. The sampling frame consisted of 71 Malaysian male murderers from 11 Malaysian prisons who were selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were also asked to provide the types and number of different killing methods used to kill their respective victims. An independent sample t-test was performed to establish the mean score difference of psychological traits between the murderers who used single and multiple types of killing methods. Kruskal-Wallis tests were carried out to ascertain the psychological trait differences between specific types of killing methods. The results suggest that specific psychological traits underlie the type and number of different killing methods used during murder. The majority (88.7%) of murderers used a single method of killing. Multiple methods of killing was evident in 'premeditated' murder compared to 'passion' murder, and revenge was a common motive. Examples of multiple methods are combinations of stabbing and strangulation or slashing and physical force. An exception was premeditated murder committed with shooting, when it was usually a single method, attributed to the high lethality of firearms. Shooting was also notable when the motive was financial gain or related to drug dealing. Murderers who used multiple killing methods were more aggressive and sadistic than those who used a single killing method. Those who used multiple methods or
Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley
Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22–45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly
Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley
Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly
Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B
Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.
Santos, A; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B
Free proline was significantly (p<0.05) lower compared to that of other honeys from the atlantic forest, caatinga and cerrado biomes. Honeys from the atlantic forest and cerrado had a significantly (p<0.05) lower HMF than angico. Fructose and glucose in angico honeys were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those from caatinga. Mean values for turanose, nigerose, sucrose, isomaltose, maltotriose, panose and raffinose in angico were significantly (p<0.05) different from honeys from the atlantic forest and caatinga. Use of cluster analysis permitted the three kinds of honey to be grouped independently. Angico was closest to caatinga honey, but both were significantly (p<0.05) different from other atlantic forest honey. GC/SNIFFING showed that linalool oxide, 2-ethyl hexanol, phenylethanol, and phenylacetic acid may be important contributors to the flavour of angico honey.
Obi, C L; Ugoji, E O; Edun, S A; Lawal, S F; Anyiwo, C E
The antibacterial effect of local honey on local isolates of bacterial agents of diarrhoea was determined by an in vitro method involving the impregnation of filter paper discs in undiluted honey and different honey concentrations ranging from 10%-50%. The discs were later placed on plates that have been seeded with the different bacteria and zones of inhibition of growth were measured after a 48 hr. period of incubation. Results presented show that undiluted honey and honey at concentrations of 40% and above were inhibitory to all enteropathogens tested. Zones of inhibition of growth around the disc margin of the various enteropathogens tested ranged from 16-18mm in diameter for the local undiluted honey and 7-12mm in diameter for concentrations of honey at 40% and 50%. The possible mechanisms of this inhibitory effect of local honey are discussed.
Kato, Yoji; Umeda, Natsuki; Maeda, Asuna; Matsumoto, Daiki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe
As a preliminary study, we have found that honey from manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) in New Zealand inhibits myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In this study, using a chromatographic technique, we isolated two active compounds for MPO-inhibition from manuka honey. One is methyl syringate (MSYR), and the other was identified as a novel glycoside of MSYR, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, which has been named "leptosin" after the genus Leptospermum . The amount of the glycoside ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 μmol/g honey. Leptosin was only found in honeys from the Oceania region, and abundantly in manuka honey including jelly bush honey from Leptospermum polygalifolium in Australia. Therefore, leptosin may be a good chemical marker for manuka honey. Interestingly, the concentration of leptosin in manuka honey was positively correlated with the unique manuka factor (UMF) value, which is expressed as phenol equivalents of its bactericidal activity.
Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Echazarreta-González, C.; Roubik, D. W.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.
Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011–2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936
Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J
Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were
Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej
The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey.
Dyer, Fred; Gill, Micah; Sharbowski, Jennifer
Animals that forage from a central place can keep track of their displacement relative to home through a process called "path integration." During a study of the stability of homing information over time, we noticed that honey bees held at a feeding place for several hours sometimes headed not in the homeward compass direction on their release, but in the reverse compass direction. This behavior suggested that the path integration system had been reset to a state corresponding to an outward flight to the food. Most models of insect navigation assume that it is the experience of reaching home that resets the path integration system, enabling the activation of vectors appropriate for subsequent outbound foraging trips. Here we provide evidence that this resetting can be influenced by motivational cues associated with food deprivation. The effect of food deprivation is independent of any positional cues provided by familiar landmarks or by experience in traveling toward a goal.
In these lectures, selected topics in nuclear collisions in the energy range 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 3/ GeV per nucleon are discussed. The evidence for anomalous projectile fragments with short mean free paths is presented. Theoretical speculations on novel topological nuclear excitation and on quark-nuclear complexes in connection with anomalons are discussed. Recent tests for pion field instabilities are presented. Then evidence for collective nuclear flow phenomena are reviewed. Global event analysis and cascade simulations are presented. We address the question of whether nuclear flow is like viscous honey. Finally, the criteria for the production of a quark-gluon plasma are discussed. Nuclear stopping power and longitudinal growth at high energies are considered. Results from cosmic ray data show that nuclear collision at TeV per nucleon energies are likely to product a plasma.
Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter
Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.
Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D.; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter
Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies. PMID:22384162
Amiry, Saber; Esmaiili, Mohsen; Alizadeh, Mohammad
In this research, honey samples were adulterated with date syrup (DS) and invert sugar syrup (IS) at three concentrations (7%, 15% and 30%). 102 adulterated samples were prepared in six batches with 17 replications for each batch. For each sample, 32 parameters including color indices, rheological, physical, and chemical parameters were determined. To classify the samples, based on type and concentrations of adulterant, a multivariate analysis was applied using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Then, 21 principal components (PCs) were selected in five sets. Approximately two-thirds were identified correctly using color indices (62.75%) or rheological properties (67.65%). A power discrimination was obtained using physical properties (97.06%), and the best separations were achieved using two sets of chemical properties (set 1: lactone, diastase activity, sucrose - 100%) (set 2: free acidity, HMF, ash - 95%).
Teixeira, Erica Weinstein; Chen, Yanping; Message, Dejair; Pettis, Jeff; Evans, Jay D
This work describes the first molecular-genetic evidence for viruses in Brazilian honey bee samples. Three different bee viruses, Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Deformed wing virus (DWV) were identified during a screening of RNAs from 1920 individual adult bees collected in a region of southeastern Brazil that has recently shown unusual bee declines. ABPV was detected in 27.1% of colony samples, while BQCV and DWV were found in 37% and 20.3%, respectively. These levels are substantially lower than the frequencies found for these viruses in surveys from other parts of the world. We also developed and validated a multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV in Brazil.
Elbanna, Khaled; Attalla, Khaled; Elbadry, Medhat; Abdeltawab, Awad; Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy
Objective To study in vitro antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties of three unifloral honeys (citrus, clover and cotton honeys), and to study the impacts of storage, dilution with water (33%, w/v) and autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min) on honeys characteristics. Methods Honey samples from monofloral sources including citrus (Citrus spp.), Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrium) and cotton (Gossypium vitifolium) were obtained during three successive seasons (2010-2012). Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of different honey samples were studies. Results In honey samples stored for 12 or 24 month, colour, hydroxymethyl furfural and acidity increased, while refractive index, water activity, total soluble solids, electrical conductivity and pH remained relatively unaffected, but H2O2 values decreased. Types of honey exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against different indicator bacteria, wherein the highest antibacterial activity was recorded for clover honey followed by citrus and cotton honeys, respectively. Different species of bacteria were differed in their sensitivity to honey, wherein Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, respectively. Storage up to 24 months at room temperature slightly reduced the antibacterial activity. The reduction levels were about 2.6% and 4.6% after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Diluting honeys with water increased the antibacterial activity by ca. 8.3%, while autoclaving decreased the antibacterial activity by ca. 13.5%. The relative contribution of the peroxide and non-peroxide components in the total antibacterial activity of fresh honeys was investigated. The antibacterial activity of honeys was mainly attributed to non-peroxide antibacterial agents, wherein their contribution was ca. 88%, while the contribution of H2O2 was only 12%. The contribution of the thermostable antibacterial components
Nor, Faridah Mohd; Pastor, Robert F; Schutkowski, Holger
Estimation of age from microscopic examination of human bone utilizes bone remodeling. This allows 2 regression equation to be determined in a specific population based on the variation in osteon turnover in different populations. The aim of this study was to provide age estimation for Malaysian males. Ground undecalcified cross sections were prepared from long limb bones of 50 deceased males aged between 21 and 78 years. Ten microstructural parameters were measured and subjected to multivariate regression analysis. Results showed that osteon count had the highest correlation with age (R = 0.43), and age was estimated to be within 10.94 years of the true value in 98% of males. Cross validation of the equation on 50 individuals showed close correspondence of true ages with estimated ages. Further studies are needed to validate and expand these results.
Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik
Sustainability assessment is recognized as a powerful and important tool to measure the performance of sustainability in a company or industry. There are various initiatives exists on tools for sustainable development. However, most of the sustainability measurement tools emphasize on environmental, economy and governance aspects. Some of the companies also implement different of sustainability indicators to evaluate the performance of economy, social and environmental separately. In this research, a new methodology for assessing sustainability in the context of Malaysian industry has been developed using integration of Green Project Management (GPM) P5 Integration Matrix, new scale of “Weighting criteria” and Rough-Grey Analysis. This systematic assessment will help the engineers or project managers measure the critical element of sustainability compliance.
Muniandy, S. V.; Lim, S. C.; Murugan, R.
In this paper, we investigate the fractal scaling behaviors of foreign currency exchange rates with respect to Malaysian currency, Ringgit Malaysia. These time series are examined piecewise before and after the currency control imposed in 1st September 1998 using the monofractal model based on fractional Brownian motion. The global Hurst exponents are determined using the R/ S analysis, the detrended fluctuation analysis and the method of second moment using the correlation coefficients. The limitation of these monofractal analyses is discussed. The usual multifractal analysis reveals that there exists a wide range of Hurst exponents in each of the time series. A new method of modelling the multifractal time series based on multifractional Brownian motion with time-varying Hurst exponents is studied.
The works of Malaysian poet, Wong Phui Nam's Against the Wilderness (vii) China bride and Variations on a Birthday Theme (iv) Kali, illustrate a bride and a mother in terrifying images. Wong's stylistic form of representing the female body through startling images of inversion and degradation evoke feelings of unease. The suspension between the known and the unknown causes a bewildering reality verging on madness. Interpreted through the lens of the carnivalesque, specifically, the grotesque body, festive language and parody, I attempt to reconstruct the psyche of the Chinese migrant which underpins these poems. The migrant who arrived in Malaya during the colonial era in the early nineteenth century faced political and social struggles in adapting to a new land. In the poems, the migrant juxtaposes his position to a female and uses the female body as a site of contention to intensify the torment of the psyche and to reflect the despair of the Chinese in Malaysia.
Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng
This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.
Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian; Priya, E Rethna; Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Leng, Alex Goh Kwang
To identify the isopod parasite, which has been recorded from Miri, East Malaysian marine fishes. During the present study, four cymothoid isopods are reported three genera, including Cymothoa eremita, Lobothorax typus, Nerocila longispina and Nerocila loveni. Nerocila longispina and N. loveni are also previously reported from Malaysia and two additional cymothoids C. eremita and L. typus are reported for the first record of Miri coast, East Malaysia. New hosts were identified for N. loveni on Chirocentrus dorab for the first time in the world fauna. The Parasitological indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. These parasites can cause the damage in gill, eye and internal organ including swim bladder. Marine fish parasitology is a rapidly developing field of aquatic science.
Manshor, Amat Taap; Abdullah, Adilah
This study identified job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees in several telecommunication companies. Responses were obtained from 1,179 employees at all levels up to senior managers and six different functional divisions, sales and marketing, human resources, finance, technical, information, technology, and support division. All employees were asked to rate the importance of Kovach's 10 job-motivational factors. These factors were good wages, job security, opportunity for career growth in the organization, good working conditions, interesting work, company loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, full appreciation of work done, sympathetic help with personal problems, and feeling of being involved in the organization. The top five factors employees identified as motivating them in their jobs were good wages, job security, company loyalty to employees, good working conditions, and full appreciation for work done. Findings were in accordance with Kovach for U.S. employees, in which the top motivational factors were good wages and job security.
Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L
Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'.
Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania
Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556
Boo, N Y; Gan, C Y; Gian, Y W; Lim, K S L; Lim, M W; Krishna-Kumar, H
This study aimed to determine the gaps of knowledge and practices of care of neonatal jaundice among Malaysian mothers. It was a cross sectional study of 400 mothers who attended the obstetric clinics or were admitted to the obstetric wards of a general hospital. They were surveyed with a structured set of questionnaire. The results showed that a majority (93.8%) of them knew about neonatal jaundice, and 71.7% knew that jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks was abnormal. However, only 34.3% of them were aware that jaundice appearing during the first 36 hours of life was abnormal. Less than 20% knew about glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and that fetal-maternal blood group differences could cause jaundice. Although 71.7% and 69.7%, respectively, of the mothers knew that severe jaundice could cause death and brain damage, only 38.4% of them were aware that severe jaundice could result in hearing impairment. A very low proportion (27.1%) of them was aware that putting jaundiced infants under the direct sun could result in dehydration and worsening of jaundice. Out of a maximum score of 15, the mean maternal knowledge score was 7.4 (95% confidence intervals: 7.1, 7.7). Majority (83.1%) of the multiparous mothers with a past history of having children developing neonatal jaundice (n = 154) practiced placing their infants under the direct sun. This study revealed that there was a wide knowledge gap among Malaysian mothers on care of neonatal jaundice. Placing infants under the direct sun was still a common practice.
Carnwath, R; Graham, E M; Reynolds, K; Pollock, P J
Delayed healing associated with distal limb wounds is a particular problem in equine clinical practice. Recent studies in human beings and other species have demonstrated the beneficial wound healing properties of honey, and medical grade honey dressings are available commercially in equine practice. Equine clinicians are reported to source other non-medical grade honeys for the same purpose. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of a number of honey types against common equine wound bacterial pathogens. Twenty-nine honey products were sourced, including gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys, and honeys from local beekeepers. To exclude contaminated honeys from the project, all honeys were cultured aerobically for evidence of bacterial contamination. Aerobic bacteria or fungi were recovered from 18 products. The antimicrobial activity of the remaining 11 products was assessed against 10 wound bacteria, recovered from the wounds of horses, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eight products were effective against all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from <2% to 16% (v/v). Overall, the Scottish Heather Honey was the best performing product, and inhibited the growth of all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from <2% to 6% (v/v). Although Manuka has been the most studied honey to date, other sources may have valuable antimicrobial properties. Since some honeys were found to be contaminated with aerobic bacteria or fungi, non-sterile honeys may not be suitable for wound treatment. Further assessment of gamma-irradiated honeys from the best performing honeys would be useful.
... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping... period December 1, 2009, through November 30, 2010, of the antidumping duty order on honey from the... rescission of this review. \\1\\ See Honey from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010 based on a... published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... 2009-2010 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina.\\1\\ The review... in the ``Final Results of Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Honey From Argentina:...
... International Trade Administration Honey From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People... sunset review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the PRC, pursuant to section 751(c) of...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing... (202) 482-3019, respectively. SUMMARY: In response to a request by the American Honey Producers Association (AHPA) and the Sioux Honey Association (SHA), the petitioning parties in the original...
Molan, P C; Allen, K L
There is increasing usage of honey as a dressing on infected wounds, burns and ulcers, but there is some concern that there may be a risk of wound botulism from the clostridial spores sometimes found in honey. It is well-established that the antibacterial activity is heat-labile so would be destroyed if honey were sterilized by autoclaving, but the effect of gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial activity of honey is not known. Therefore an investigation was carried out to assess the effect on the antibacterial activity of honey when the honey was subjected to a commercial sterilization procedure using gamma-irradiation (25 kGy). Two honeys with antibacterial activity due to enzymically-generated hydrogen peroxide and three manuka honeys with non-peroxide antibacterial activity were investigated. The honeys were tested against Staphylococcus aureus in an agar well diffusion assay. There was no significant change found in either type of antibacterial activity resulting from this form of sterilization of honey, even when the radiation was doubled (to 50 kGy). Testing of honey seeded with spores of Clostridium perfringens and C. tetani (10000 and 1000 spores g-1 of honey, respectively) showed that 25 kGy of gamma-irradiation was sufficient to achieve sterility.
Honey produced by bees foraging on Echium plantagineum is known to contain dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids characteristic of the plant. Following a prolific growth of E. plantagineum in the wake of Australian bushfires, two samples of mead, a fermented drink made from honey, and the honey used to pre...
Safii, Syarida H.; Tompkins, Geoffrey R.
Background. Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods. The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results. Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion. Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:28392803
The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina in response to a request from Villamora S.A. (Villamora), an... Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina on December 10, 2001. See Notice...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. The review covers imports of subject merchandise from nine... determine that sales of honey from Argentina have not been made below normal value (NV) by...
... Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information... 0581-AB84 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order; Amendments AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule amends the honey research and...
... Forest Service Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin; Honey Creek-Padus Project AGENCY: Forest... environmental impacts of proposed land management activities and corresponding alternatives within the Honey Creek-Padus Project. The purpose of the Honey Creek-Padus Project is to implement land...
... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative... its preliminary results of administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from... requests for an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on honey from Argentina...
...] [FR Doc No: 04-28220] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From... antidumping order of honey from Argentina. The review covers seven firms. The period of review (POR) is December 1, 2002 through November 30, 2003. We preliminarily determine that sales of honey from...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2002. If... Department published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina....
... Honey Wines (2001R-136P) AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Treasury... its regulations in response to two petitions submitted by producers of raisin and honey wines. One... production of honey wines. In addition, TTB corrects a technical error in the wine labeling regulations...
... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Initiation of New Shipper Antidumping Duty....214 (c), for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey from Argentina, 66 FR 63672 (December 10, 2001). El Mana ] identified itself...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... announcing the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina... sales of honey from Argentina have been made below the normal value (NV) in the cases of Nexco S.A....
... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR PART 1240 Honey Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order... document gives notice that a referendum will be conducted to determine whether the continuance of the Honey... period from January 1, 1994, through December 31, 1995. ADDRESSES: Copies of the Honey...
... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Final Results of New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import... Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review, 71 FR 67850 (November 24, 2006... review (POR) is December 1, 2004, to December 31, 2005. The petitioners are the Sioux Honey...
... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review AGENCY...) is conducting a new shipper review of the antidumping order of honey from Argentina. The period of... the case of sales of honey from Argentina from Patagonik. If these preliminary results are adopted...
Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G
In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited.
Alam, Md Shafiq; Sharma, D K; Sehgal, V K; Arora, M; Bhatia, S
A fully mechanized honey heating-cum-filtration system was designed, developed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance. The system comprised of two sections; the top heating section and the lower filtering section. The developed system was evaluated for its performance at different process conditions (25 kg and 50 kg capacity using processing condition: 50 °C heating temperature and 60 °C heating temperature with 20 and 40 min holding time, respectively) and it was found that the total time required for heating, holding and filtration of honey was 108 and 142 min for 25 kg and 50 kg capacity of machine, respectively, irrespective of the processing conditions. The optimum capacity of the system was found to be 50 kg and it involved an investment of Rs 40,000 for its fabrication. The honey filtered through the developed filtration system was compared with the honey filtered in a high cost honey processing plant and raw honey for its microbial and biochemical (reducing sugars (%), moisture, acidity and pH) quality attributes. It was observed that the process of filtering through the developed unit resulted in reduction of microbes. The microbiological quality of honey filtered through the developed filtration system was better than that of raw honey and commercially processed honey. The treatment conditions found best in context of microbiological counts were 60 °C temperature for 20 min. There was 1.97 fold reductions in the plate count and 2.14 reductions in the fungal count of honey processed through the developed filtration system as compared to the raw honey. No coliforms were found in the processed honey. Honey processed through developed unit witnessed less moisture content, acidity and more reducing sugars as compared to raw honey, whereas its quality was comparable to the commercially processed honey.
Basualdo, Claudia; Sgroy, Verónica; Finola, Mónica S; Marioli, Juan M
The antibacterial activity of honey samples provided by apiarists and honey packers was tested against microorganisms usually isolated from skin wounds. The antibacterial activity was tested using the well-agar diffusion assay. The honey samples were tested without dilution, and at 75, 50, 30, and 10% (w/v) dilution. Most of the undiluted honey samples inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Some honey samples provided by apiarists also inhibited the growth of S. aureus even at 50% dilution. Undiluted honey samples also inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus uberis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, although to a lesser extent. No inhibition of Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis growth was detected. The diameters of the inhibition zones generated by honey samples provided by apiarists were larger than those generated by honey samples provided by honey packers. This observation may be explained by considering the provenance of the honey samples.
Zhou, Jinhui; Yao, Lihu; Li, Yi; Chen, Lanzhen; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Jing
A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) method for the floral origin traceability of chaste honey and rape honey samples was firstly presented in this study. Kaempferol, morin and ferulic acid were used as floral markers to distinguish chaste honey from rape honey. Chromatographic fingerprinting at 270 nm and 360 nm could be used to characterise chaste honey and rape honey according to the analytical profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were applied to classify the honey samples according to their floral origins. The results showed that chaste honey and rape honey could be successfully classified by their floral sources with the analytical methods developed through this study and could be considered encouraging and promising for the honey traceability from unifloral or multifloral nectariferous sources.
The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.
Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar
Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not.
Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D
Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.
Tette, Patrícia Amaral Souza; Rocha Guidi, Letícia; Glória, Maria Beatriz de Abreu; Fernandes, Christian
Honey is a product of high consumption due to its nutritional and antimicrobial properties. However, residues of pesticides, used in plagues' treatment in the hive or in crop fields in the neighborhoods, can compromise its quality. Therefore, determination of these contaminants in honey is essential, since the use of pesticides has increased significantly in recent decades because of the growing demand for food production. Furthermore, pesticides in honey can be an indicator of environmental contamination. As the concentration of these compounds in honey is usually at trace levels and several pesticides can be found simultaneously, the use of highly sensitive and selective techniques is required. In this context, miniaturized sample preparation approaches and liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry became the most important analytical techniques. In this review we present and discuss recent studies dealing with pesticide determination in honey, focusing on sample preparation and separation/detection methods as well as application of the developed methods worldwide. Furthermore, trends and future perspectives are presented.
Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice.
Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.
Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047
Gomes, Susana; Dias, Luis G; Moreira, Leandro L; Rodrigues, Paula; Estevinho, Leticia
The present study aimed to characterize five commercial honeys available in the Portuguese market in respect to their floral origins, physicochemical parameters and microbial safety and commercial quality assessment. Pollen profile, colour, moisture content, ash, acidity, electrical conductivity, pH, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose and HMF were the parameters analysed in each honey sample. Aerobic mesophiles, moulds and yeasts, fecal coliforms and sulphite-reducing clostridia were the microbial contaminants of interest studied. The antimicrobial effect against four fermentative yeasts was determined. Concerning the physicochemical parameters, all honey samples were found to meet European Legislation (EC Directive 2001/110) for all parameters, except for HMF and apparent sucrose. Microbiologically, the commercial quality was considered good and all samples showed to be negative in respect to safety parameters. We also verified that the presence of honey differentially affected the growth of fermentative yeasts under study, depending on the type of yeast, but this growth was not significantly influenced by the type of honey used.
López-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.
Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators. PMID:26536606
Eady, C; Twell, D; Lindsey, K
Transgenic plants of tobacco and Arabidopsis that produce genetically marked pollen, expressing the reporter gene uidA (gusA), were generated to determine whether pollen proteins can be expressed and stable in honey, a potential route by which foreign proteins might enter the wider environment. Hydrated tobacco pollen was found to lose viability rapidly in honey, while pollen in the natural dehydrated form remained viable for at least several days and in some cases several weeks, as determined by FDA staining activity and germinability. Dehydrated pollen was found to be capable of transient foreign gene expression, following microprojectile bombardment, after incubation in honey for at least 120 h. PCR amplification of transgene sequences in pollen of transgenic plants revealed that pollen DNA can remain relatively intact after 7 weeks in honey. GUS enzyme activity analysis and SDS-PAGE of pollen proteins revealed that foreign and native pollen proteins are stable in pollen incubated in honey for at least 6 weeks. We conclude that pollen may represent an ecologically important vector for transgenic protein products.
Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R
Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.
Summary Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice. PMID:25249844
Cotte, J F; Casabianca, H; Chardon, S; Lheritier, J; Grenier-Loustalot, M F
The control of the floral quality of honey has become a priority issue as a result of the number of abuses observed and the relative ease of getting around existing control methods. We conducted chromatographic analyses of honey sugars to determine new criteria for authenticating an origin. The work involved creating databases by analysing a large number of authentic honeys from seven monofloral varieties, followed by statistical processing of the results by a principal components analysis. Differences in composition could thus be demonstrated, such as the presence of trisaccharides in fir honey, that provide an additional tool for authenticating unknown commercial honeys.
Chin, Fee Wai; Chan, Soon Choy; Abdul Rahman, Sabariah; Noor Akmal, Sharifah; Rosli, Rozita
The cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that is predominantly involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 gene may contribute to inter-individual variability in tamoxifen metabolism, which leads to the differences in clinical response to tamoxifen among breast cancer patients. In Malaysia, the knowledge on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms as well as metabolizer status in Malaysian breast cancer patients remains unknown. Hence, this study aimed to comprehensively identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms among 80 Malaysian breast cancer patients. The genetic polymorphisms of all the 9 exons of CYP2D6 gene were identified using high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Seven CYP2D6 alleles consisting of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*39, CYP2D6*49, and CYP2D6*75 were identified in this study. Among these alleles, CYP2D6*10 is the most common allele in both Malaysian Malay (54.8%) and Chinese (71.4%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4 in Malaysian Indian (28.6%) breast cancer patients. In relation to CYP2D6 genotype, CYP2D6*10/*10 is more frequently observed in both Malaysian Malay (28.9%) and Chinese (57.1%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4/*10 is more frequently observed in Malaysian Indian (42.8%) breast cancer patients. In terms of CYP2D6 phenotype, 61.5% of Malaysian Malay breast cancer patients are predicted as extensive metabolizers in which they are most likely to respond well to tamoxifen therapy. However, 57.1% of Chinese as well as Indian breast cancer patients are predicted as intermediate metabolizers and they are less likely to gain optimal benefit from the tamoxifen therapy. This is the first report of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and phenotypes in Malaysian breast cancer patients for different ethnicities. These data may aid clinicians in selecting an optimal drug therapy for Malaysian breast cancer patients, hence improve the
Yasuda, Mika; Sakamoto, Yoshiko; Goka, Koichi; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo
To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap. In this study, we determined the acute contact toxicity in A. cerana to various pesticides, including neonicotinoids, fipronil, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamate, and anthranilic diamide. Based on the test duration of 48 h of contact LD50 tests, A. cerana was most sensitive to dinotefuran (0.0014 μg/bee), followed by thiamethoxam (0.0024 μg/bee) and fipronil (0.0025 μg/bee). Dinotefuran is used extensively in Asia, thereby potentially creating a substantial hazard. More generally, A. cerana was approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than was A. mellifera to most of the pesticides evaluated. The results of our study suggest that neonicotinoid pesticides should not be considered as a single group that acts uniformly on all honey bees, and that more careful management strategies are required to conserve A. cerana populations than A. mellifera.
Jan, J.; Cerne, K.
Organochlorines are ranked among the class of prevalent and environmentally persistent synthetic chemicals. Honey bees, beeswax, and honey could be indicators for monitoring environmental pollution by organochlorines such as polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and organochloro pesticides. Scarcely any data were reported on the distribution of organochloro compounds between beeswax and honey. Physicochemical factors such as adsorption, volatilization, lipophilicity (octanol-water partition coefficient) and metabolic stability can influence the level of individual organochlorine compounds in beeswax and honey. During wax and honey formation metabolic attack by different enzymes can degrade pollutants. In the PCB and chlorobenzene (CBz) series, biodegradation decreases and bioconcentration increases with increasing degree of chlorine substitution. Regarding the composition of honey (sugars, water, and some organic material and particles such as pollen, organic acid and essential oils in traces), and of beeswax (esters, hydrocarbons, acids and some natural wax from plants as minor components), it is expected that beeswax is more lipophilic and organochlorines could be more enriched in beeswax. However, the presence of particulate matters (e.g., pollen) in honey can increase the level of nonpolar compounds in honey due to sorption processes. This effect has been demonstrated in a similar system where suspended particles can influence the partition coefficient. In this contribution (i) the partition between beeswax and honey of some organochlorine compounds (PCB and CBz isomers, DDE) and (ii) bioconcentration in beeswax and honey from a feeding experiment by administration to honey bees of feed fortified with these compounds is presented and discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria
Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.
Cooper, R A; Molan, P C; Harding, K G
The antibacterial action of honey in infected wounds does not depend wholly on its high osmolarity. We tested the sensitivity of 58 strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from infected wounds, to a pasture honey and a manuka honey. There was little variation between the isolates in their sensitivity to honey: minimum inhibitory concentrations were all between 2 and 3% (v/v) for the manuka honey and between 3 and 4% for the pasture honey. Thus, these honeys would prevent growth of S. aureus if diluted by body fluids a further seven-fold to fourteen-fold beyond the point where their osmolarity ceased to be completely inhibitory. The antibacterial action of the pasture honey relied on release of hydrogen peroxide, which in vivo might be reduced by catalase activity in tissues or blood. The action of manuka honey stems partly from a phytochemical component, so this type of honey might be more effective in vivo. Comparative clinical trials with standardized honeys are needed.
Schmidlin, PatrickSchmidlin R; English, Helen; Duncan, Warwick; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Thurnheer, Thomas
Honey is an ancient natural remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. It has regained attention in the medical profession, as it has recently been reported to have a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect against bacteria. Data concerning Manuka honey of New Zealand origin, which is claimed to provide additional non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (so-called standard NPA) against oral pathogens, is still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to screen for the antibacterial efficacy of different Manuka honey products against S. mutans (OMZ 918), P. gingivalis (OMZ 925) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (OMZ 299). Chlorhexidine and saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively, whereas a Swiss multifloral honey served as control honey without intrinsic non-peroxide activity. Chlorhexidine showed the highest inhibiting potential against all specimens tested. Manuka honey below an NPA value of 15 showed the least bacterial growth-inhibiting potential, even less although not significantly so than multifloral Swiss honey. Manuka honey above an NPA value of 15 showed a significantly higher antibacterial effect compared to the other honeys tested. All Manuka honey preparations were more effective in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, rather than S. mutans. In conclusion, the study showed an NPA dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy of Manuka honey. Further investigations of this natural product are now open for scrutiny.
Higo, Heather A; Rice, Nathan D; Winston, Mark L; Lewis, Bob
This study examined the use of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., to supplement bumble bee, Bombus spp., pollination in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller, greenhouses in Western Canada. Honey bee colonies were brought into greenhouses already containing bumble bees and left for 1 wk to acclimatize. The following week, counts of honey and bumble bees foraging and flying throughout the greenhouse were conducted three times per day, and tomato flowers open during honey bee pollination were marked for later fruit harvest. The same counts and flower-marking also were done before and after the presence of honey bees to determine the background level of bumble bee pollination. Overall, tomato size was not affected by the addition of honey bees, but in one greenhouse significantly larger tomatoes were produced with honey bees present compared with bumble bees alone. In that greenhouse, honey bee foraging was greater than in the other greenhouses. Honey bees generally foraged within 100 m of their colony in all greenhouses. Our study invites further research to examine the use of honey bees with reduced levels of bumble bees, or as sole pollinators of greenhouse tomatoes. We also make specific recommendations for how honey bees can best be managed in greenhouses.
Afik, O; Dag, A; Kerem, Z; Shafir, S
Honey bees are important avocado pollinators. However, due to the low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Previous work has revealed that avocado honey is relatively unattractive to honey bees when compared with honey from competing flowers. We characterized avocado honey and nectar with respect to their odor, color, and composition of sugars, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Furthermore, we tested how honey bees perceive these parameters, using the proboscis extension response bioassay and preference experiments with free-flying bees. Naïve bees were indifferent to odors of avocado and citrus flowers and honey. Experienced bees, which were collected in the field during the blooming season, responded preferentially to odor of citrus flowers. The unique sugar composition of avocado nectar, which contains almost exclusively sucrose and a low concentration of the rare carbohydrate perseitol, and the dark brown color of avocado honey, had no negative effects on its attractiveness to the bees. Phenolic compounds extracted from avocado honey were attractive to bees and adding them to a solution of sucrose increased its attractiveness. Compared with citrus nectar and nonavocado honey, avocado nectar and honey were rich in a wide range of minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iron, and copper. Potassium and phosphorus, the two major minerals, both had a repellent effect on the bees. Possible explanations for the presence of repellent components in avocado nectar are discussed.
Kast, Christina; Roetschi, Alexandra
Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers. The concentrations of S. cerevisiae were highest in honey of the brood frames immediately after the feeding and decreased over time to low concentrations at the end of the year. A high content of S. cerevisiae cells were also found in the honey from supers of the spring harvest. Observed S. cerevisiae cells were not able to multiply in a high-sugar environment, such as honey, and their viability decreased rapidly after addition to the honey. The screening of 200 Swiss honeys revealed the presence of S. cerevisiae in 4.5% of the samples, as determined by microscopy and qPCR. Finally, the method described here may indicate an unwanted sucrose addition to honey through bee-feeding.
Cooper, R A; Molan, P C; Harding, K G
The antibacterial action of honey in infected wounds does not depend wholly on its high osmolarity. We tested the sensitivity of 58 strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from infected wounds, to a pasture honey and a manuka honey. There was little variation between the isolates in their sensitivity to honey: minimum inhibitory concentrations were all between 2 and 3% (v/v) for the manuka honey and between 3 and 4% for the pasture honey. Thus, these honeys would prevent growth of S. aureus if diluted by body fluids a further seven-fold to fourteen-fold beyond the point where their osmolarity ceased to be completely inhibitory. The antibacterial action of the pasture honey relied on release of hydrogen peroxide, which in vivo might be reduced by catalase activity in tissues or blood. The action of manuka honey stems partly from a phytochemical component, so this type of honey might be more effective in vivo. Comparative clinical trials with standardized honeys are needed. PMID:10472280
Gollu, Avni; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Gonultas, Mehmet Alpaslan; Sunay, Asli Elif; Akkus, Mehmet Ali
In the present study, attempts have been made to determine the effects of honey on intestinal morphology, postoperative adhesions, and the healing of colonic anastomoses in the rats after colonic resection and anastomosis. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 12 animals. Colonic resection and anastomosis were performed on all animals. Rats were fed with standard rat chow in group I, standard rat chow plus 10 g/kg/day honey in group II and artificial honey including the same caloric amount with honey in group III. Adhesion scores, bursting pressures and histopathological examinations were evaluated. Colonic bursting pressures of honey group were significantly better than control and artificial honey groups. Histological analysis of anastomotic site showed that submucosa and muscularis propria were nearly filled with granulation tissue and regular fibrin matrix in honey group. There was statistically significant difference between the adhesion scores of honey vs artificial honey and control groups. The scores of histological changes of ileum in honey group were significantly different from other groups. These results indicate a protective role of honey against intraabdominal adhesions and anastomotic dehiscence.
Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira
In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (p<0.05). Nutritional contents (total carbohydrates, total lipids, total proteins, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid) and minerals (K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Li, Zn) were also higher in pressed honey. The quantity of pollen in pressed honey samples was 5.6-fold higher than in centrifuged samples. Pressed honey, can be marked as a differentiated product with a higher mineral content and several nutritional properties.
Ruiz-Matute, A I; Soria, A C; Martínez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L
Honey adulterations can be carried out by addition of inexpensive sugar syrups, such as high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and inverted syrup (IS). Carbohydrate composition of 20 honey samples (16 nectar and 4 honeydew honeys) and 6 syrups has been studied by GC and GC-MS in order to detect differences between both sample groups. The presence of difructose anhydrides (DFAs) in these syrups is described for the first time in this paper; their proportions were dependent on the syrup type considered. As these compounds were not detected in any of the 20 honey samples analyzed, their presence in honey is proposed as a marker of adulteration. Detection of honey adulteration with HFCS and IS requires a previous enrichment step to remove major sugars (monosaccharides) and to preconcentrate DFAs. A new methodology based on yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) treatment has been developed to allow the detection of DFAs in adulterated honeys in concentrations as low as 5% (w/w).
Kateel, Ramya; Adhikari, Prabha; Augustine, Alfred J; Ullal, Sheetal
Topical honey has been used for the treatment of wound since ancient time. But the medical evidence proving it is limited. Hence a systematic review was planned. An exhaustive literature search was done in PUBMED, COCHRANE, GOOGLE using 'topical honey', 'diabetic foot ulcer', 'chronic wounds' as key words. Literature search showed total of five clinical trials and about ten observational studies in various part of world. Out of five clinical trials three concluded that honey dressing is better than conventional dressing, all the clinical trials proved safety of honey for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Observational studies included total of 320 patients which also showed safety of honey but efficacy cannot be considered from observational studies. This review showed that honey dressing is safer for treatment of diabetic foot ulcer but there is insufficient good quality data to realistically conclude on the efficacy of honey on diabetic foot ulcers.
Lin, S M; Molan, P C; Cursons, R T
We report the antimicrobial effect of manuka honey against Campylobacter spp. isolated by a diagnostic laboratory from specimens from a community in New Zealand. The isolates were differentiated according to species level using multiplex PCR. C. jejuni (20 strains) and C. coli (7 strains) were identified. The clinical isolates identified and type culture collection strains of these species were subjected to testing to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of manuka honey using a microdilution technique. The MIC of the manuka honey against all of the Campylobacter tested was found to be around 1% (v/v) honey. The low MIC values suggest that honey might still inhibit the growth of campylobacteria after dilution by fluid in the gut, but the actual concentration of honey that can be achieved in the intestine is unknown. Therefore, clinical investigation is required to establish the efficacy of honey against Campylobacter spp. in the gut environment.