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Sample records for malaysian tualang honey

  1. Analysis of volatile compounds of Malaysian Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey using gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nurul Syazana, M S; Gan, S H; Halim, A S; Shah, Nurul Syazana Mohamad; Gan, Siew Hua; Sukari, Halim Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The constituents of honey's volatile compounds depend on the nectar source and differ depending on the place of origin. To date, the volatile constituents of Tualang honey have never been investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in local Malaysian Tualang honey. A continuous extraction of Tualang honey using five organic solvents was carried out starting from non-polar to polar solvents and the extracted samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 35 volatile compounds were detected. Hydrocarbons constitute 58.5% of the composition of Tualang honey. Other classes of chemical compounds detected included acids, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, terpenes, furans and a miscellaneous group. Methanol yielded the highest number of extracted compounds such as acids and 5-(Hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). This is the first study to describe the volatile compounds in Tualang honey. The use of a simple one tube, stepwise, non-thermal liquid-liquid extraction of honey is a advantageous as it prevents sample loss. Further research to test the clinical benefits of these volatile compounds is recommended.

  2. The antibacterial properties of Malaysian tualang honey against wound and enteric microorganisms in comparison to manuka honey

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hern Tze; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Gan, Siew Hua; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Hassan, Siti Asma'; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; BS, Kirnpal-Kaur

    2009-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance of bacteria is on the rise, thus the discovery of alternative therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Honey possesses therapeutic potential, including wound healing properties and antimicrobial activity. Although the antimicrobial activity of honey has been effectively established against an extensive spectrum of microorganisms, it differs depending on the type of honey. To date, no extensive studies of the antibacterial properties of tualang (Koompassia excelsa) honey on wound and enteric microorganisms have been conducted. The objectives of this study were to conduct such studies and to compare the antibacterial activity of tualang honey with that of manuka honey. Methods Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity of tualang honey against 13 wound and enteric microorganisms was determined; manuka honey was used as the control. Different concentrations of honey [6.25-25% (w/v)] were tested against each type of microorganism. Briefly, two-fold dilutions of honey solutions were tested to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against each type of microorganism, followed by more assays within a narrower dilution range to obtain more precise MIC values. MICs were determined by both visual inspection and spectrophotometric assay at 620 nm. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) also was determined by culturing on blood agar plates. Results By visual inspection, the MICs of tualang honey ranged from 8.75% to 25% compared to manuka honey (8.75-20%). Spectrophotometric readings of at least 95% inhibition yielded MIC values ranging between 10% and 25% for both types of honey. The lowest MBC for tualang honey was 20%, whereas that for manuka honey was 11.25% for the microorganisms tested. The lowest MIC value (8.75%) for both types of honey was against Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Tualang honey had a lower MIC (11.25%) against Acinetobacter baumannii compared to manuka honey (12.5%). Conclusion Tualang honey

  3. Review of the medicinal effects of tualang honey and a comparison with manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sarfarz; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2013-05-01

    Tualang honey (TH) is a Malaysian multifloral jungle honey. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in medical databases regarding its potential health benefits. The honey is produced by the rock bee (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on branches of tall Tualang trees located mainly in the north-western region of Peninsular Malaysia. This review collates the results of the various studies of TH that range from research on tissue culture to randomised control clinical trials. Findings thus far show that, TH has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antitumor, and antidiabetic properties, in addition to wound-healing attributes. Some of its properties are similar to the well-researched Manuka honey (New Zealand and/or Australian monofloral honey). Distinct differences include higher phenolics, flavonoids, and 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). Compared with Manuka honey, TH is also more effective against some gram-negative bacterial strains in burn wounds.

  4. Review of the Medicinal Effects of Tualang Honey and a Comparison with Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarfarz; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2013-01-01

    Tualang honey (TH) is a Malaysian multifloral jungle honey. In recent years, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies published in medical databases regarding its potential health benefits. The honey is produced by the rock bee (Apis dorsata), which builds hives on branches of tall Tualang trees located mainly in the north-western region of Peninsular Malaysia. This review collates the results of the various studies of TH that range from research on tissue culture to randomised control clinical trials. Findings thus far show that, TH has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimutagenic, antitumor, and antidiabetic properties, in addition to wound-healing attributes. Some of its properties are similar to the well-researched Manuka honey (New Zealand and/or Australian monofloral honey). Distinct differences include higher phenolics, flavonoids, and 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (HMF). Compared with Manuka honey, TH is also more effective against some gram-negative bacterial strains in burn wounds. PMID:23966819

  5. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Tanvir, E M; Afroz, Rizwana; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day) for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO) products (TBARS) and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST). Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  6. The effectiveness of Tualang honey in reducing post-tonsillectomy pain.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Baharudin; Lazim, Norhafiza Mat; Salim, Rosdan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey in reducing post-tonsillectomy pain. The study included 63 patients (31 males, 32 females; mean age 10±4.16 years; range 3 to 18 years) who were planned to undergo tonsillectomy. Patients were randomized into two groups. Treatment group received topical Tualang honey intraoperatively followed by oral consumption of Tualang honey three times daily for seven days with intravenous sultamicillin three times daily for first and second day followed by oral sultamicillin twice daily for five days. Control group received intravenous sultamicillin for two days followed by oral sultamicillin twice daily for five days. Patients' pain was assessed according to visual analog scale, frequency of waking up at night due to pain, and additional use of analgesic from postoperative first to seventh day. Results from each group were statistically compared. Early postoperative pain was relieved slightly faster in Tualang honey + antibiotic group; however, the difference between groups was not statistically significant. On postoperative seventh day, all of patients (100%) in Tualang honey + antibiotic group experienced no pain compared to the antibiotic only group. Frequencies of waking up at night and use of analgesic were lower in the Tualang honey + antibiotic group compared to antibiotic only group. Early postoperative pain was relieved slightly faster in Tualang honey + antibiotic group, which may be attributed to the soothing effect of honey.

  7. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey.

    PubMed

    Zainol, Mohd Izwan; Mohd Yusoff, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim

    2013-06-10

    Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other constituents are mutually important as contributing factors

  8. Antibacterial activity of selected Malaysian honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antibacterial activity of honey is mainly dependent on a combination of its peroxide activity and non-peroxide components. This study aims to investigate antibacterial activity of five varieties of Malaysian honey (three monofloral; acacia, gelam and pineapple, and two polyfloral; kelulut and tualang) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were performed for semi-quantitative evaluation. Agar well diffusion assay was used to investigate peroxide and non-peroxide activities of honey. Results The results showed that gelam honey possessed lowest MIC value against S. aureus with 5% (w/v) MIC and MBC of 6.25% (w/v). Highest MIC values were shown by pineapple honey against E. coli and P. aeruginosa as well as acacia honey against E. coli with 25% (w/v) MIC and 50% (w/v) MBC values. Agar inhibition assay showed kelulut honey to possess highest total antibacterial activity against S. aureus with 26.49 equivalent phenol concentrations (EPC) and non-peroxide activity of 25.74 EPC. Lowest antibacterial activity was observed in acacia honey against E. coli with total activity of 7.85 EPC and non-peroxide activity of 7.59 EPC. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the total antibacterial activities and non-peroxide activities of Malaysian honey. The intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC of E. coli (r = -0.8559) was high while that between MIC and EPC of P. aeruginosa was observed to be moderate (r = -0.6469). S. aureus recorded a smaller correlation towards the opposite direction (r = 0.5045). In contrast, B.cereus showed a very low intraspecific correlation between MIC and EPC (r = -0.1482). Conclusions Malaysian honey, namely gelam, kelulut and tualang, have high antibacterial potency derived from total and non-peroxide activities, which implies that both peroxide and other

  9. Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Malaysian monofloral honey samples—acacia, pineapple and borneo honey—and compare them with tualang honey. Acacia and pineapple honey are produced by Apis mellifera bees while borneo and tualang honey are produced by Apis cerana and Apis dorsata bees, respectively. Methods The physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and apparent sucrose content, were measured. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and a number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Results Acacia honey was the most acidic (pH 3.53), whereas pineapple honey had the lowest moisture content (14.86%), indicating that both types of honey can resist microbial spoilage more effectively when compared to tualang honey (pH 3.80 and 17.53% moisture content). Acacia honey contained the highest EC (0.76 mS/cm), whereas borneo honey had the highest (377 ppm) TDS. The mean HMF content in Malaysian honey was 35.98 mg/kg. Tualang honey, which is amber color, had the highest color intensity (544.33 mAU). Acacia honey is the sweetest, and contained the highest concentration of total sugar, reducing sugar and apparent sucrose. Tualang honey had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (352.73 ± 0.81 mg galic acid/kg), flavonoids (65.65 ± 0.74 mg catechin/kg), DPPH (59.89%), FRAP values (576.91 ± 0.64 μM Fe (II)/100 g) and protein content (4.83 ± 0.02 g/kg) as well as the lowest AEAC values (244.10 ± 5.24 mg/kg), indicating its strong antioxidant properties. Proline, an important amino acid that is present in honey was also measured in the present study and it was found at the highest concentration in pineapple honey. Several strong correlations were found among the

  10. The anti-cancer effects of Tualang honey in modulating breast carcinogenesis: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sarfraz; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2017-04-11

    Honey has been shown to have anti-cancer effects, but the mechanism behind these effects is not fully understood. We investigated the role of Malaysian jungle Tualang honey (TH) in modulating the hematological parameters, estrogen, estrogen receptors (ER1) and pro and anti-apoptotic proteins expression in induced breast cancer in rats. Fifty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and grouped as follows: Group 0 (healthy normal rats control), Group 1 (negative control; untreated rats), Groups 2, 3 and 4 received daily doses of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg body weight of TH, respectively. The rats in groups 1, 2, 3, 4 were induced with 80 mg/kg of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU). TH treatment in groups 2, 3 and 4 was started one week prior to tumor induction and continued for 120 days. The TH-treated rats had tumors of different physical attributes compared to untreated negative control rats; the tumor progression (mean 75.3 days versus 51.5 days); the incidence (mean 76.6% versus 100%); the multiplicity (mean 2.5 versus 4 tumor masses per rat); the size of tumor mass (mean 0.41 cm versus 1.47 cm [p < 0.05]) and the weight of the tumor mass (mean 1.22 g versus 3.23 g; [p < 0.05]). Histological examinations revealed that cancers treated with TH were mainly of grades I and II compared with the non-treated control, in which the majority were of grade III (p < 0.05). TH treatment was found to modulate hematological parameters such as Hb, RBCs, PCV, MCV, RDW, MCHC, polymorphs and lymphocytes values. TH treatment groups were found to have a lower anti-apoptotic proteins (E2, ESR1 and Bcl-xL) expression and a higher pro-apoptotic proteins (Apaf-1 and Caspase-9) expression at serum and on cancer tissue level (p < 0.05). Tualang Honey alleviates breast carcinogenesis through modulation of hematologic, estrogenic and apoptotic activities in this experimental breast cancer animal model. Tualang Honey may be used as a natural 'cancer-alleviating' agent or as a

  11. Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure.

    PubMed

    Tang, Suk Peng; Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam, Sirajudeen; Jaafar, Hasnan; Gan, Siew Hua; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day), Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day), or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day) throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week) or PQ (10 mg/kg/week) once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ ( p < 0.05). The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.

  12. Tualang Honey Attenuates Noise Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system. PMID:27119005

  13. Tualang Honey Attenuates Noise Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system.

  14. Oral Administration of Tualang and Manuka Honeys Modulates Breast Cancer Progression in Sprague-Dawley Rats Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sarfraz; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has been recognized as the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Research has shown the importance of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumoural therapeutic effects of Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) and Australian/New Zealand Manuka honey (MH) against breast cancer in rats. Thirty syngeneic virgin female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by the carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) 80 mg/kg. The treatment started when first palpable tumour reached 10–12 mm in size by dividing rats into following groups: Group 0 (negative control); Group 1 (positive control); and Groups 2 and 3 which received 1.0 g/kg body weight/day of TH and MH, respectively, for 120 days. The data demonstrate that cancer masses in TH and MH treated groups showed a lower median tumour size, weight, and multiplicity compared with the nontreated positive control (p < 0.05). Treatment also showed a dramatic slower growth rate (up to 70.82%) compared with the nontreated control (0%) (p < 0.05). The antitumoural effect was mediated through modulation of tumour growth, tumour grading, estrogenic activity, and haematological parameters. Our findings demonstrate that systemic administration of TH and MH increases the susceptibility of expression of proapoptotic proteins (Apaf-1, Caspase-9, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53) and decreases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (TNF-α, COX-2, and Bcl-xL 1) in its mechanism of action. This highlights a potential novel role for TH and MH in alleviating breast cancer. PMID:28479926

  15. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects. PMID:25774610

  16. Tualang honey improves memory performance and decreases depressive-like behavior in rats exposed to loud noise stress.

    PubMed

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; AbdAziz, CheBadariah; Othman, Zahiruddin; Al-Rahbi, Badriya

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has exhibited dietary influence on the manifestation of different types of behavior induced by stressor tasks. The present study examined the effects of Tualang honey supplement administered with the goal of preventing or attenuating the occurrence of stress-related behaviors in male rats subjected to noise stress. Forty-eight adult male rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: i) nonstressed with vehicle, ii) nonstressed with Tualang honey, iii) stressed with vehicle, and iv) stressed with honey. The supplement was given once daily via oral gavage at 0.2 g/kg body weight. Two types of behavioral tests were performed, namely, the novel object recognition test to evaluate working memory and the forced swimming test to evaluate depressive-like behavior. Data were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using IBM SPSS 18.0. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress expressed higher levels of depressive-like behavior and lower memory functions compared to the unexposed control rats. In addition, our results indicated that the supplementation regimen successfully counteracted the effects of noise stress. The forced swimming test indicated that climbing and swimming times were significantly increased and immobility times significantly decreased in honey-supplemented rats, thereby demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. Furthermore, cognitive function was shown to be intensely affected by noise stress, but the effects were counteracted by the honey supplement. These findings suggest that subchronic exposure to noise stress induces depressive-like behavior and reduces cognitive functions, and that these effects can be attenuated by Tualang honey supplementation. This warrants further studies to examine the role of Tulang honey in mediating such effects.

  17. Effect of tualang honey against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; K N S, Sirajudeen; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Mummedy, Swamy; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2017-01-09

    Administration of KA on rodents has resulted in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, and neuronal degeneration on selective population of neurons in the brain. The present study was undertaken to investigate the extent of neuroprotective effect conferred by Malaysian Tualang Honey (TH), an antioxidant agent, in the cerebral cortex of rats against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in an animal model of KA-induced excitotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, KA-treated group, TH + KA-treated group, aspirin (ASP; anti-inflammatory agent) + KA-treated group and topiramate (TPM; antiepileptic agent) + KA-treated group. The animals were pretreated orally with drinking water, TH (1.0g/kg BW), ASP (7.5mg/kg BW) or TPM (40mg/kg BW), respectively, five times at 12 h intervals. KA (15mg/kg BW) was injected subcutaneously 30 min after last treatment to all groups except the control group (normal saline). Behavioral change was observed using an open field test (OFT) to assess the locomotor activity of the animals. Animals were sacrificed after 2 h, 24 h and 48 h of KA administration. KA significantly inflicted more neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex and heightened the predilection to seizures as compared with the control animals. Pretreatment with TH reduced the KA-induced neuronal degeneration in the piriform cortex but failed to prevent the occurrence of KA-induced seizures. In the OFT, KA-induced animals showed an increased in locomotor activity and hyperactivity and these were attenuated by TH pretreatment. Furthermore, TH pretreatment significantly attenuated an increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level and a decrease of total antioxidant status level enhanced by KA in the cerebral cortex. These results suggest that pretreatment with TH has a therapeutic potential against KA-induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration through its antioxidant effect.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits: Experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alkali injury is one of the most devastating injuries to the eye. It results in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Chemical eye injury is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents play a major role in the treatment of chemical eye injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory (clinical and histopathological) and antioxidant effects of Tualang honey versus conventional treatment in alkali injury on the eyes of rabbits. Methods A preliminary study was carried out prior to the actual study to establish the alkali chemical injury on rabbit's cornea and we found that alkali chemical injury with 2 N NaOH showed severe clinical inflammatory features. In actual study, alkali injury with 2 N NaOH was induced in the right eye of 10 New Zealand White rabbits' cornea. The rabbits were divided into two groups, Group A was given conventional treatment and Group B was treated with both topical and oral Tualang honey. Clinical inflammatory features of the right eye were recorded at 12 hours, 24 hours, 72 hours, 5th day and 7th day post induction of alkali burn on the cornea. The histopathological inflammatory features of the right corneas of all rabbits were also evaluated on day-7. The level of total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation products in the aqueous humour, vitreous humour and serum at day-7 were estimated biochemically. Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyse the data. Results There was no statistically significant difference in clinical inflammatory features (p > 0.05) between honey treated and the conventional treated group at different times of examination. Histopathological examination of the cornea showed the number of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was below 50 for both groups (mild grade). There was also no significant difference in the level of total antioxidant status as well as lipid peroxidation products in aqueous

  19. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M.; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties. PMID:26788107

  20. Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nur Syamsina; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Kong, Kin Weng; Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Cheong, Jadeera Phaik Geok; Hamzah, Sareena Hanim

    2017-12-01

    Tualang honey (TH) contains antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids that may be protective against oxidative stress of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial antioxidant activity and oxidative stress after ingestion of high and low dosages of TH in female athletes. Twenty female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) were randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10). Blood sample was collected at fasting and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h after TH consumption. Plasma was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]), and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and reactive oxygen species [ROS]). The 3-h area under the curve (AUC) for MDA was significantly lower in the LH group compared with HH group, suggesting less oxidative stress in the LH group. However, the AUCs for TPC, FRAP, and ROS were not affected by the dosages. The concentrations of TPC and FRAP increased from baseline to 2 and 1 h after TH consumption, respectively, and concentrations returned toward baseline at 3 h in both LH and HH groups. MDA concentration significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from baseline to 2 h and significantly increased from 2 to 3 h in the HH group. Meanwhile, ROS levels increased significantly from 0.5 to 3 h in the HH group. The LH group showed similar trends as the HH group for MDA and ROS; however, this was not significant. The consumption of high and low doses of TH demonstrated a comparable response in increasing antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes. The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption.

  1. Tualang Honey Improves Human Corneal Epithelial Progenitor Cell Migration and Cellular Resistance to Oxidative Stress In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jun Jie; Azmi, Siti Maisura; Yong, Yoke Keong; Cheah, Hong Leong; Lim, Vuanghao; Sandai, Doblin; Shaharuddin, Bakiah

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells with enhanced resistance to oxidative stress after in vitro expansion have been shown to have improved engraftment and regenerative capacities. Such cells can be generated by preconditioning them with exposure to an antioxidant. In this study we evaluated the effects of Tualang honey (TH), an antioxidant-containing honey, on human corneal epithelial progenitor (HCEP) cells in culture. Cytotoxicity, gene expression, migration, and cellular resistance to oxidative stress were evaluated. Immunofluorescence staining revealed that HCEP cells were holoclonal and expressed epithelial stem cell marker p63 without corneal cytokeratin 3. Cell viability remained unchanged after cells were cultured with 0.004, 0.04, and 0.4% TH in the medium, but it was significantly reduced when the concentration was increased to 3.33%. Cell migration, tested using scratch migration assay, was significantly enhanced when cells were cultured with TH at 0.04% and 0.4%. We also found that TH has hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging ability, although a trace level of H2O2 was detected in the honey in its native form. Preconditioning HCEP cells with 0.4% TH for 48 h showed better survival following H2O2-induced oxidative stress at 50 µM than untreated group, with a significantly lower number of dead cells (15.3±0.4%) were observed compared to the untreated population (20.5±0.9%, p<0.01). Both TH and ascorbic acid improved HCEP viability following induction of 100 µM H2O2, but the benefit was greater with TH treatment than with ascorbic acid. However, no significant advantage was demonstrated using 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, a compound that was found abundant in TH using GC/MS analysis. This suggests that the cellular anti-oxidative capacity in HCEP cells was augmented by native TH and was attributed to its antioxidant properties. In conclusion, TH possesses antioxidant properties and can improve cell migration and cellular resistance to oxidative stress in HCEP cells in

  2. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sourwood and other Malaysian honeys: a comparison with manuka honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of four Malaysian monofloral types of honey (gelam, longan, rubber tree and sourwood honeys) compared to manuka honey. Several physical parameters of honey, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content, were measured. A number of biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Results The mean pH, moisture content, EC and TDS of Malaysian honey were 3.90 ± 0.12, 17.01 ± 3.07%, 0.59 ± 0.17 mS/cm and 294.87 ± 81.96 ppm, respectively. The mean color and HMF level was 102.07 ± 41.77 mm Pfund and 49.51 ± 0.12 mg/kg, respectively. Sourwood honey contained the highest contents of phenolics (580.03 ± 0.38 mggalic acid/kg) and flavonoids (156.82 ± 0.47 mgcatechin/kg) with high DPPH radical scavenging activity (59.26 ± 3.77%) as well as ferric reducing power [648.25 ± 0.90 μM Fe (II)/100 g]. Sourwood honey also exhibited the highest color intensity. Several strong positive correlations were observed amongst the different antioxidant parameters and the various antioxidant tests. Conclusion This is the first time that the antioxidant potential of both sourwood and rubber tree honeys have been reported. Our results indicated that Malaysian honey (specifically sourwood honey and longan honey) is a good source of antioxidants compared to Manuka honey. PMID:23938192

  3. Classification of the botanical origin for Malaysian honey using UV-Vis spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaleeh, Abd Alazeez; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Fathinul-Syahir, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to perform the classification of three brands of Malaysian honeys according to their botanical origin using UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The ability to classify honey according to their botanical origin is important to ensure the quality of the product. A total of nine samples from three commercial brands of honey produces were measured by a Lambda 35 UV-Vis Spectrometer. The wavelength range recorded was from 200 nm to 400 nm and used for model calibration. The (PCs) were extracted from principal components analysis (PCA), the first three (PCs) which accounted 98.03% of disparity of the spectra were combined separately with support vector machine (SVM) for the development of (PC-SVM) model, and achieved 100% discrimination accuracy. The results can be utilized in the development of device for the classification of honey accurately and rapid as well as safe guarantee to ordinary consumers.

  4. Antifungal activity of Malaysian honey and propolis extracts against pathogens implicated in denture stomatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nik Yusliyana Nik; Mohamad, Suharni; Abdullah, Haswati@Nurhayati; Rahman, Nurhayu Ab

    2016-12-01

    Malaysian honey and propolis extracts were investigated for their antifungal properties against pathogens implicated in denture stomatitis. Each of the honey and aqueous extracts propolis at net preparation, 1:1 and 1:2 dilutions was evaluated by using agar well diffusion assay and further investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range of 500 mg/mL to 62.5 mg/mL against oral fungi. The findings indicated that there was no effect of propolis on Candida spp for both types of propolis based on no inhibition zones was recorded. Meanwhile, for antifungal activity of honey, only honey from Trigona spp has shown activity at net preparation against C. albicans (10.47 ± 0.23 mm), C. tropicalis (12.29 ± 0.23 mm) and C. glabrata (8.69 ± 0.53 mm). For minimum inhibitory concentration, the data indicates that both propolis have shown inhibitory effect at 500 mg/mL. As for honey, Trigona spp was the effective honey that give MIC value at 250 mg/mL against Candida spp. Apis dorsata honey has shown MIC value at 500 mg/mL while Apis mellifera honey had inhibited C.albicans and C.glabrata at 500 mg/mL except for C.tropicalis at 250 mg/mL. It can be concluded that both propolis has shown weaker antifungal activity against oral fungi while only honey produced from Trigona spp had strong antifungal activity compare to other honey against oral fungi implicated in denture stomatitis.

  5. Effects of honey supplementation on inflammatory markers among chronic smokers: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Wan Syaheedah Wan; Romli, Aminah Che; Mohamed, Mahaneem

    2017-03-28

    Honey has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory property. This is a randomized, controlled, open-label trial to determine the effects of 12-week honey oral supplementation on plasma inflammatory markers such as high sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α among chronic smokers. A total of 32 non-smokers and 64 chronic smokers from Quit Smoking Clinic and Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia participated in the study. Smokers were then randomized into 2 groups: smokers with honey group that received Malaysian Tualang honey (20 g/day daily for 12 weeks) and smokers without honey group. Blood was obtained from non-smokers and smokers at pre-intervention, and from smokers at post-intervention for measurement of the inflammatory markers. At pre-intervention, smokers had significantly higher high sensitive C-reactive protein than non-smokers. In smokers with honey group, tumor necrosis factor-α was significantly increased while high sensitive C-reactive protein was significantly reduced at post-intervention than at pre-intervention. This study suggests that honey supplementation has opposite effects on tumor necrosis factor-α and high sensitive C-reactive protein indicating the inconclusive effect of honey on inflammation among chronic smokers which needs further study on other inflammatory markers. The Trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12615001236583 . Registered 11 November 2015 (Retrospectively Registered).

  6. Antioxidant protective effect of glibenclamide and metformin in combination with honey in pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo Owomofoyon; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi Abdul; Salam, Sirajudeen Kuttulebbai Nainamohammed; Salleh, Md Salzihan Md; Gurtu, Sunil

    2010-05-05

    Hyperglycemia exerts toxic effects on the pancreatic beta-cells. This study investigated the hypothesis that the common antidiabetic drugs glibenclamide and metformin, in combination with tualang honey, offer additional protection for the pancreas of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats against oxidative stress and damage. Diabetes was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg; ip). Diabetic rats had significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), up-regulated activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) while catalase (CAT) activity was significantly reduced. Glibenclamide and metformin produced no significant effects on TBARS and antioxidant enzymes except GPx in diabetic rats. In contrast, the combination of glibenclamide, metformin and honey significantly up-regulated CAT activity and down-regulated GPx activity while TBARS levels were significantly reduced. These findings suggest that tualang honey potentiates the effect of glibenclamide and metformin to protect diabetic rat pancreas against oxidative stress and damage.

  7. Effect of honey in diabetes mellitus: matters arising.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O

    2014-01-29

    Diabetes mellitus remains an incurable disorder in spite of intense research. As result of limitations and unmet goals associated with the use of anti-diabetic drugs, an increased number of diabetic populations globally now resort to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) such as herbs and other natural products. There has been a renewed interest in the use of honey in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, partly due to an increase in the availability of evidence-based data demonstrating its benefits in diabetic rodents and patients. This commentary aims to underscore some of the research implications, issues and questions raised from these studies which show the beneficial effects of honey in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some of the issues highlighted in this article include: considering honey is sweet and rich in sugars, how could it be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus? Are the observed effects of honey or combined with anti-diabetic drugs exclusive to certain honey such as tualang honey? Could these beneficial effects be reproduced with other honey samples? Anti-diabetic drugs in combination with honey improve glycemic control, enhance antioxidant defenses and reduce oxidative damage. These effects are believed to be mediated partly via antioxidant mechanism of honey. This raises another question. Could similar data be obtained if anti-diabetic drugs are co-administered with other potent antioxidants such as vitamin C or E? As the evidence has revealed, the prospect of managing diabetes mellitus with honey or antioxidants (such as vitamin C or E) as an adjunct to conventional diabetes therapy is vast. However, more well-designed, rigorously conducted randomized controlled studies are necessary to further validate these findings.

  8. Two varieties of honey that are available in Malaysia gave intermediate glycemic index values when tested among healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Robert, Sathyasurya Daniel; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi

    2009-06-01

    To determine the glycemic index (GI) of Malaysian wild honey and Australian honey. Eight healthy volunteers (5 men and 3 women, aged 24-44 y, with normal BMI) were served 50 g carbohydrate portions of two varieties of honey or the reference food (glucose, tested 3 times), on separate occasions. Capillary blood glucose was measured fasting and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the test meals. The GI was calculated by expressing each subject's incremental area under the blood glucose curve (AUC) after honey as a percentage of his or her mean AUC after glucose. The results showed that the mean AUC of the Malaysian and Australian honeys, 174+/-19 and 158+/-16 mmolxmin/l, respectively, did not differ from each other but were significantly less than that after glucose, 259+/-15 mmolxmin/l (P<0.001). The mean GI of Malaysian wild honey, 65+/-7, did not differ from that of Australian honey, 59+/-5, but both were significantly less than the GI of glucose, 100 (P<0.001). We conclude that both Malaysian wild honey (GI=65+/-7) and Australian honey (GI=59+/-5) are intermediate GI foods.

  9. Honey Ants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, John R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information on honey ants. These ants are found in dry or desert regions of North America, Africa, and Australia. Also provides a list of activities using local species of ants. (JN)

  10. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against PathogenicCandidaSpecies.

    PubMed

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Hassan, Zaiton; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G

    2016-12-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly ( p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly ( p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei , C. glabrata , and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species.

  11. Two-year variations of phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant contents in acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Azlan, Siti Amirah Mohd; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-11-27

    Honey is a good source of several important chemical compounds and antioxidants and is harvested throughout the year. However, no study has determined how their contents change over the years. The aim of the present research was to investigate the changes in the phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant properties, as well as other physicochemical properties, of Malaysian acacia honey collected during different months during a two year period. The DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods were used to determine the total antioxidant activity of the honey samples. Generally, honey samples collected in the beginning and the middle of the year tended to have higher sugar content, which may be attributed to its high acidic nature and low moisture content. There was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of the acacia honey samples collected between September 2010 and December 2010. The honey sample collected at the beginning of the year (January) showed the highest color intensity and was dark amber in color. It also contained the highest concentration of phenolic compounds (341.67 ± 2.94 mg(gallic acid)/kg), the highest flavonoid content (113.06 ± 6.18 mg(catechin)/kg) and the highest percentage of DPPH inhibition and the highest FRAP value, confirming its high antioxidant potential. There was a positive correlation between DPPH and total phenolic content, suggesting that phenolic compounds are the strongest contributing factor to the radical scavenging activity of Malaysian acacia honeys. Overall, our results indicated that there were significant seasonal variations in the antioxidant potentials of honey over the two year period and the time of honey collection affects its physicochemical properties. Therefore, acacia honey from Malaysia should ideally be collected during the dry season, particularly in the months of January, May and June.

  12. Determination of Mineral, Trace Element, and Pesticide Levels in Honey Samples Originating from Different Regions of Malaysia Compared to Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Rahman, Mohammad Abdur; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the content of six minerals, five trace elements, and ten pesticide residues in honeys originating from different regions of Malaysia. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), while sodium (Na) and potassium (K) were analyzed by flame emission spectrometry (FAES). Trace elements such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and cobalt (Co) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) following the microwave digestion of honey. High mineral contents were observed in the investigated honeys with K, Na, Ca, and Fe being the most abundant elements (mean concentrations of 1349.34, 236.80, 183.67, and 162.31 mg/kg, resp.). The concentrations of the trace elements were within the recommended limits, indicating that the honeys were of good quality. Principal component analysis reveals good discrimination between the different honey samples. The pesticide analysis for the presence of organophosphorus and carbamates was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). No pesticide residues were detected in any of the investigated honey samples, indicating that the honeys were pure. Our study reveals that Malaysian honeys are rich sources of minerals with trace elements present within permissible limits and that they are free from pesticide contamination. PMID:24982869

  13. How honey is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month's column follows the "How Is It Processed?" theme. Honey has been called "the nectar of the gods" because of its rich histor and contribution to foods. This column will explore the properties of honey as well as how honey is processed - from flower to food....

  14. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Malaysian Twin Registry.

    PubMed

    Jahanfar, Shayesteh; Jaffar, Sharifah Halimah

    2013-02-01

    The National Malaysian Twin Registry was established in Royal College of Medicine, Perak, University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) in June 2008 through a grant provided by UniKL. The general objective is to facilitate scientific research involving participation of twins and their family members in order to answer questions of health and wellbeing relevant to Malaysians. Recruitment is done via mass media, poster, and pamphlets. We now have 266 adult and 204 children twins registered. Several research projects including reproductive health study of twins and the role of co-bedding on growth and development of children are carried out. Registry holds annual activities for twins and seeks to provide health-related information for twins. We seek international collaboration.

  16. Malaysian mental health law

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nusrat N.; Yahya, Badi’ah; Abu Bakar, Abd Kadir; Ho, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Mental Health Act 2001 did not come into effect until the Mental Health Regulations 2010 came into force. The Act provides a framework for the delivery of comprehensive care, treatment, control, protection and rehabilitation of those with mental disorders. The Act governs the establishment of private and government psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric nursing homes and community mental health centres. This paper outlines the provisions of the Act and the Regulations. PMID:29093848

  17. Enhancing Malaysian Teachers' Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam; Meng, Chew Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, in order to reform the Malaysian education system, there have been a number of education policy initiatives launched by the Malaysian Ministry of Education (MOE). All these initiatives have encouraged and inculcated teaching and learning for creativity, critical, innovative and higher-order thinking skills rather than conceptual…

  18. Insights into Putative Health Implications of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) Honey: Evidence from In-Vivo and In-Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Boon Keng; Haron, Hasnah

    2016-01-01

    Honey has been used as a therapeutic agent since ancient times for health maintenance and the treatment of various ailments. In modern days, researchers reappraised the therapeutic values of honey, such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor, and wound healing properties. These findings supported its applications in the modern healthcare system as complementary medicine. Gelam honey (GH) is a monofloral Malaysian honey which has been proven to have considerable health benefits. This paper presents a state of the art review on the therapeutic values of GH. A descriptive elucidation is performed to elaborate a wide spectrum of biological activities of GH using evidence from a considerable body of literature. The compositional and physiochemical characteristics of GH have contributed substantially to its putative biological properties. A brief explanation will be presented on GH attributes to familiarize readers with this novel natural health product. PMID:29083367

  19. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    PubMed

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey.

  20. Honey: An Effective Cough Remedy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cough remedy? Is it true that honey calms coughs better than cough medicine does? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... throat. But honey alone may be an effective cough suppressant, too. In one study, children age 2 ...

  1. The Chemical Composition of Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Honey is a supersaturated sugar solution, created by bees, and used by human beings as a sweetener. However, honey is more than just a supersaturated sugar solution; it also contains acids, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids in varying quantities. In this article, we will briefly explore the chemical composition of honey. (Contains 2 figures and…

  2. Honey: a novel antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O; Sulaiman, Siti A; Ab Wahab, Mohd S

    2012-04-12

    The global prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer and Alzheimer's disease is on the rise. These diseases, which constitute the major causes of death globally, are associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is defined as an "imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the oxidants, potentially leading to damage". Individuals with chronic diseases are more susceptible to oxidative stress and damage because they have elevated levels of oxidants and/or reduced antioxidants. This, therefore, necessitates supplementation with antioxidants so as to delay, prevent or remove oxidative damage. Honey is a natural substance with many medicinal effects such as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, reproductive, antihypertensive and antioxidant effects. This review presents findings that indicate honey may ameliorate oxidative stress in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), liver, pancreas, kidney, reproductive organs and plasma/serum. Besides, the review highlights data that demonstrate the synergistic antioxidant effect of honey and antidiabetic drugs in the pancreas, kidney and serum of diabetic rats. These data suggest that honey, administered alone or in combination with conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant in the management of chronic diseases commonly associated with oxidative stress. In view of the fact that the majority of these data emanate from animal studies, there is an urgent need to investigate this antioxidant effect of honey in human subjects with chronic or degenerative diseases.

  3. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    PubMed

    Torres, David J; Ricoy, Ulises M; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  4. Modeling Honey Bee Populations

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David J.; Ricoy, Ulises M.; Roybal, Shanae

    2015-01-01

    Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera) employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population. PMID:26148010

  5. Honey: A Biologic Wound Dressing.

    PubMed

    Molan, Peter; Rhodes, Tanya

    2015-06-01

    Honey has been used as a wound dressing for thousands of years, but only in more recent times has a scientific explanation become available for its effectiveness. It is now realized that honey is a biologic wound dressing with multiple bioactivities that work in concert to expedite the healing process. The physical properties of honey also expedite the healing process: its acidity increases the release of oxygen from hemoglobin thereby making the wound environment less favorable for the activity of destructive proteases, and the high osmolarity of honey draws fluid out of the wound bed to create an outflow of lymph as occurs with negative pressure wound therapy. Honey has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, but there is much variation in potency between different honeys. There are 2 types of antibacterial activity. In most honeys the activity is due to hydrogen peroxide, but much of this is inactivated by the enzyme catalase that is present in blood, serum, and wound tissues. In manuka honey, the activity is due to methylglyoxal which is not inactivated. The manuka honey used in wound-care products can withstand dilution with substantial amounts of wound exudate and still maintain enough activity to inhibit the growth of bacteria. There is good evidence for honey also having bioactivities that stimulate the immune response (thus promoting the growth of tissues for wound repair), suppress inflammation, and bring about rapid autolytic debridement. There is clinical evidence for these actions, and research is providing scientific explanations for them.

  6. Honey Lake Project

    SciTech Connect

    Boren, K.L.; Johnson, K.R.

    1978-11-01

    Thirty units of a planned 205 geothermally heated hydroponic greenhouses are producing European cucumbers and tropic tomatoes near Wendel, California. The planned utilization of the geothermal resource in this project, hydroponics, in general, and the Honey Lake system is described. (MHR)

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughoutmore » Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.« less

  8. Inclusion in Malaysian Integrated Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukumaran, Sailajah; Loveridge, Judith; Green, Vanessa A.

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education has been introduced through a number of policy developments in Malaysia over the last 10 years but there is little research investigating the extent and nature of inclusive education for preschoolers with special educational needs (SEN). This study surveyed both regular and special education teachers in Malaysian integrated…

  9. Honey bee toxicology.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-07

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  10. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced by an eligible producer; (b) Have been produced in the United States during the calendar year for... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced by an eligible producer; (b) Have been produced in the United States during the calendar year for... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced by an eligible producer; (b) Have been produced in the United States during the calendar year for... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced by an eligible producer; (b) Have been produced in the United States during the calendar year for... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.5 - Eligible honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FOR HONEY § 1434.5 Eligible honey. To be eligible for a loan, the honey must: (a) Have been produced by an eligible producer; (b) Have been produced in the United States during the calendar year for... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible honey. 1434.5 Section 1434.5 Agriculture...

  15. Honey as a Complementary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, MG; Antunes, MD; Faleiro, ML

    2017-01-01

    The beneficial effects of honey on human health have long been recognized. Today, many of those positive effects have been studied to elucidate its mode of action. This review briefly summarizes the best studied features of honey, highlighting it as an appealing alternative medicine. In these reports, the health benefits of honey range from antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory activity to anticancer action, metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, prebiotic properties, human pathogen control, and antiviral activity. These studies also support that the honey’s biological activity is mainly dependent on its floral or geographic origin. In addition, some promising synergies between honey and antibiotics have been found, as well as some antiviral properties that require further investigation. Altogether, these studies show that honey is effectively a nutraceutical foodstuff. PMID:28469409

  16. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  17. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  18. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals.

    PubMed

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation.

  19. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

  20. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    PubMed

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  1. Honey: Single food stuff comprises many drugs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahid Ullah; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Rahman, Khaista; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Khan, Wasim Ullah; Kamal, Sajid; Khattak, Baharullah; Muhammad, Ali; Khan, Hikmat Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.

  2. Malaysian Defence and E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati binti

    2005-01-01

    This paper begins with an analysis of the changing security scenario in the Asian region, with special focus on Malaysian defence strategies and foreign policies. Beginning in the mid 1990s, the Malaysian government shifted its attention away from the counter insurgency strategies of the early decades of independence to focus on wider questions of…

  3. Otologic safety of manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Aron, Margaret; Victoria Akinpelu, Olubunmi; Dorion, Dominique; Daniel, Sam

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the possible ototoxic effects of a 50% concentration of manuka honey in a chinchilla animal model. A prospective, controlled animal study. The Research Institute of the Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre. Eight animals had myringotomy incisions in both ears. One ear was randomly assigned to receive the 50% manuka honey solution. The contralateral ear received saline and served as the control ear. Auditory brainstem evoked responses (ABRs) were measured bilaterally for a wide range of frequencies (between 8 and 25 kHz) before and 2 weeks after transtympanic manuka honey and saline application. The animals were sacrificed, and all cochleae were dissected out and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The measured ABR thresholds after the application of 50% concentration of manuka honey revealed severe ototoxicity in all honey-exposed ears. This was accompanied by gross physical changes and histologic evidence of hair cell toxicity on SEM and light microscopy. The control ears remained unchanged during the period of the experiment. Although 50% concentration of manuka honey is the proven concentration to have bactericidal properties against biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, this concentration appeared to have caused severe or intense inflammatory changes that produced facial paralysis, vestibulotoxicity, and hearing loss.

  4. Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honey Do Franchising Group, Inc., a/k/a The Honey Do Service, Inc. (the Company) is located in Bristol, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Bristol, Virginia.

  5. Grayanotoxin (mad honey) - ongoing consumption after poisoning.

    PubMed

    Eroğlu, Serkan Emre; Urgan, Oğuz; Onur, Ozge Ecmel; Denizbaşı, Arzu; Akoğlu, Haldun

    2013-09-01

    Some honey types in certain geographical regions may cause toxic effects on people. This type of honey is known as "mad honey" in Turkey. The toxic ingredient of this honey is called Grayanotoxin I. The consumption of mad honey can cause severe bradycardia, hypotension, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Our study is aimed at analysing patients diagnosed with mad honey poisoning and their behaviour towards the consumption of this honey after diagnosis. Cross sectional study. This cross-sectional study was based on complaints and findings of mad honey poisoning. Patient information and findings at the time of admission were compared with those at one month after discharge through telephone interviews. They were asked if either they or their relatives had continued consuming the same honey. Frequency data such as gender, purpose of honey consumption, first complaints and continuance of honey consumption are shown as number (n) and percentage (%). A Chi Square test was conducted to determine the difference between groups. 38 patients were participated in this study; 18 of the patients had to be followed up in a coronary intensive care unit. We were able to reach 34 patients by phone after discharge. It was found that 12 of 16 patients discharged after emergency unit observation or their close relatives were continuing to consume mad honey, whereas 16 (88.9%) of the 18 patients under coronary intensive care had discontinued consuming mad honey. The difference in the continuation of mad honey consumption between patient groups followed-up in the intensive care unit and those discharged after emergency observation was statistically significant. Hazards associated with and serious consequences following the consumption of mad honey must be clearly explained to patients who are found to be consuming mad honey.

  6. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  8. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  9. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  10. 77 FR 72385 - Honey From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-893 (Second Review)] Honey From China... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on honey from China would be likely... (November 2012), entitled Honey from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-893 (Second Review). By order of the...

  11. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  15. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  16. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.9 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey. 1212.9 Section 1212.9 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  18. 7 CFR 1212.10 - Honey products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey products. 1212.10 Section 1212.10 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HONEY PACKERS AND IMPORTERS RESEARCH, PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  19. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following: (1...

  20. Suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. © 2014 APJPH.

  1. Biochemical properties, antibacterial and cellular antioxidant activities of buckwheat honey in comparison to manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianling; Liu, Rui; Lu, Qun; Hao, Peiyan; Xu, Anqi; Zhang, Jiuliang; Tan, Jun

    2018-06-30

    The biochemical properties of buckwheat honey, including contents of sugars, proteins, total phenols, methylglyoxal (MGO), minerals and phenolic compounds, were determined in comparison with those of manuka honey. Buckwheat honey has higher contents of sugars, proteins and total phenols but a lower content of MGO than manuka honey. Buckwheat honey contains abundant minerals involved in a number of vital functions of the human body as does manuka honey, and has even higher contents of Fe, Mn and Zn. In buckwheat honey, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid are the dominant phenolic compounds. Moreover, the antibacterial and cellular antioxidant activities of buckwheat honey were compared with those of manuka honey. Buckwheat honey exhibits antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, comparable with manuka honey, and the cellular antioxidant activity of buckwheat honey is higher than that of manuka honey. Our results suggest that buckwheat honey has great nutritional and commercial potentials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Manisha Deb; Mandal, Shyamapada

    2011-01-01

    Indeed, medicinal importance of honey has been documented in the world's oldest medical literatures, and since the ancient times, it has been known to possess antimicrobial property as well as wound-healing activity. The healing property of honey is due to the fact that it offers antibacterial activity, maintains a moist wound condition, and its high viscosity helps to provide a protective barrier to prevent infection. Its immunomodulatory property is relevant to wound repair too. The antimicrobial activity in most honeys is due to the enzymatic production of hydrogen peroxide. However, another kind of honey, called non-peroxide honey (viz., manuka honey), displays significant antibacterial effects even when the hydrogen peroxide activity is blocked. Its mechanism may be related to the low pH level of honey and its high sugar content (high osmolarity) that is enough to hinder the growth of microbes. The medical grade honeys have potent in vitro bactericidal activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing several life-threatening infections to humans. But, there is a large variation in the antimicrobial activity of some natural honeys, which is due to spatial and temporal variation in sources of nectar. Thus, identification and characterization of the active principle(s) may provide valuable information on the quality and possible therapeutic potential of honeys (against several health disorders of humans), and hence we discussed the medicinal property of honeys with emphasis on their antibacterial activities. PMID:23569748

  3. Swimming of the Honey Bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  4. Honey: an immunomodulator in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Honey is a popular natural product that is used in the treatment of burns and a broad spectrum of injuries, in particular chronic wounds. The antibacterial potential of honey has been considered the exclusive criterion for its wound healing properties. The antibacterial activity of honey has recently been fully characterized in medical-grade honeys. Recently, the multifunctional immunomodulatory properties of honey have attracted much attention. The aim of this review is to provide closer insight into the potential immunomodulatory effects of honey in wound healing. Honey and its components are able to either stimulate or inhibit the release of certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6) from human monocytes and macrophages, depending on wound condition. Similarly, honey seems to either reduce or activate the production of reactive oxygen species from neutrophils, also depending on the wound microenvironment. The honey-induced activation of both types of immune cells could promote debridement of a wound and speed up the repair process. Similarly, human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cell responses (e.g., cell migration and proliferation, collagen matrix production, chemotaxis) are positively affected in the presence of honey; thus, honey may accelerate reepithelization and wound closure. The immunomodulatory activity of honey is highly complex because of the involvement of multiple quantitatively variable compounds among honeys of different origins. The identification of these individual compounds and their contributions to wound healing is crucial for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind honey-mediated healing of chronic wounds. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  5. How honey bees carry pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  6. The Malaysian Qualifications Framework. An Institutional Response to Intrinsic Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Jack

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the Malaysian Qualifications Framework (MQF). An observation about the MQF is that in the particular context of developments in Malaysian education and training and its economic and social context, all roads have led to standards and quality assurance. This is the view expressed by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency (MQA)…

  7. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246

  8. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative.

    PubMed

    Carter, Dee A; Blair, Shona E; Cokcetin, Nural N; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as "alternative", we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer "alternative" alternative.

  9. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-26

    also rely on honey bee pollination, but to a lesser degree. These crops include apricot, citrus (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit , tangerines, etc...Imidacloprid, Fact Sheet,” Journal of Pesticide Reform, Spring 2001, at [http://www.moraybeekeepers.co.uk/imiacloprid]; Apiculteurs de France, “ Composite

  10. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-20

    specialty crops also rely on honey bee pollination, but to a lesser degree. These crops include apricot, citrus (oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruit ...2001, at [http://www.moraybeekeepers.co.uk/imiacloprid]; Apiculteurs de France, “ Composite Document of Present Position Relating to Gaucho, Sunflower

  11. Q&A: Michael Honey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helicher, Karl

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1960s saw civil rights victories in Congress during Lyndon B. Johnson's presidency. In "Going Down Jericho Road," Michael Honey wrote how Martin Luther King Jr.'s final focus showed that the struggle for black and working class parity continued. The 1968 Memphis sanitation workers strike was a gritty struggle won in the streets by a host…

  12. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  13. Chalkbrood disease in honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chalkbrood is an invasive mycosis in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) produced by Ascosphaera apis (Maassen ex Claussen) Olive and Spiltoir (Spiltoir, 1955) that exclusively affects bee brood. Although fatal to individual larvae, the disease does not usually destroy an entire bee colony. However, it c...

  14. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  15. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  16. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.

  18. Transporting GOLDEN RICE to Malaysian Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidu, Shashi

    2007-01-01

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of using a simulation in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) class at a university in the United States and discusses the integration of simulations into the Malaysian curriculum. A new approach is needed in Malaysia wherein language learners are given maximum exposure to the language. The article…

  19. Ethical Issues in the Malaysian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenayathulla, Husaina Banu

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is a multi-ethnic country in which the government gives preferential treatment in education, employment, and ownership to its majority ethnic group: Bumiputera. However, affirmative action policies in the current Malaysian context should work according to John Rawls' Theory of Justice by being based on income rather than ethnicity.…

  20. Malaysian Children's Attitudes towards Learning Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazali, Ghaziah Mohd.; McPherson, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 1060 Malaysian children were surveyed in order to examine differences in their motivation to study music in school and to learn a musical instrument outside of school. Adopting the expectancy-value motivation theory, the children were asked questions concerning their perception of music as being important, useful, interesting,…

  1. Eclectic Model in the Malaysian Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Nooraini; Mohamad, Khairul Azmi; Ilmuwan, Yayasan

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at analysing the adoption of eclectic model in the Malaysian education system. The analysis is specifically looked from the angle of Islam and the Muslims. Malaysia has a long history of education system developments, from pre to post independence of the country. From what was initially traditional, modernity later came to…

  2. Entrepreneurship Education Programs in Malaysian Polytechnics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Norasmah; Nasrudin, Norfadhilah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate students' views on the on-the-campus entrepreneurship programs in Malaysian polytechnics. Participation in the entrepreneurship programs is able to stimulate an interest in entrepreneurship, and improve the knowledge, skills, and entrepreneurial experience of its students.…

  3. Reflecting on Malaysian Teacher Trainees' Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaacob, Aizan; Walters, Lynne Masel; Ali, Ruzlan Md; Abdullah, Sarimah Shaik; Walters, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, 37 English Language Teaching (ELT) teacher trainees from a Malaysian university conducted an action-research project to determine whether journals kept during their fieldwork in primary schools located in an area close to the university allowed them to reflect on their beliefs and behaviors in the classroom. Methodology:…

  4. Educational Transition of East Malaysian Distance Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saw, K. G.; Awang, M. N.; Idrus, R. M.; Atan, H.; Azli, N. A.; Jaafar, I.; Rahman, Z. A.; Latiff, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of a study of the changing perceptions of East Malaysian distance learners studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include students' perceptions of their study skills; and the impact of their studies on other areas of their life, including social obligations, recreation, families, health, finances, work, and…

  5. Malaysian Students' Motivation towards Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Salmiza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to examine the level of Malaysian students' motivation with regards to the learning of Physics at the secondary school level, and its influencing factors. The study was carried out on 337 Form Four students who took Physics as a subject, from six schools in a northern state of Malaysia--three from urban areas,…

  6. Infant botulism following honey ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, C O; Ayubi, A; Zulfiquer, F; Santhanam, G; Ahmed, M A S; Deeb, J

    2012-01-01

    An apparently well baby girl born at term was presented with signs and symptoms suggestive of acute onset of generalised floppiness at the age of 3 months. Clinically, the baby had lower motor neuron type of muscle weakness; detailed investigation lead to the diagnosis of neuromuscular junction disorder secondary to botulism toxicity. Further tests confirmed the botulism toxicity secondary to honey ingestion. The baby was treated with specific anticlostridium antibodies; she recovered remarkably, now growing and developing normally. PMID:22962382

  7. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil® source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey killed Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 2 hours, whereas manuka honey had such rapid activity only against B. subtilis. After 24 hours of incubation, both honeys killed all tested bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, but manuka honey retained activity up to higher dilutions than RS honey. Bee defensin-1 and H2O2 were the major factors involved in rapid bactericidal activity of RS honey. These factors were absent in manuka honey, but this honey contained 44-fold higher concentrations of methylglyoxal than RS honey. Methylglyoxal was a major bactericidal factor in manuka honey, but after neutralization of this compound manuka honey retained bactericidal activity due to several unknown factors. RS and manuka honey have highly distinct compositions of bactericidal factors, resulting in large differences in bactericidal activity. PMID:21394213

  8. Amino acids profile of Serbian unifloral honeys.

    PubMed

    Kečkeš, Jelena; Trifković, Jelena; Andrić, Filip; Jovetić, Milica; Tešić, Zivoslav; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2013-10-01

    The free amino acids profile of 192 samples of seven different floral types of Serbian honey (acacia, linden, sunflower, rape, basil, giant goldenrod, and buckwheat) from six different regions was analysed in order to distinguish honeys by their botanical origin. The most abundant amino acids were proline, alanine, phenylalanine, threonine and arginine. Based on the established amino acids profiles, some important differences have been identified among studied honey samples relying on the basic descriptive statistics data, and confirmed by multivariate chemometric methods. Principal component analysis revealed that basil honey samples form a well-defined cluster imposed with phenylalanine content. The model obtained by linear discriminant analysis might be used to distinguish basil honey from the rest of the samples, and has moderate predictive power to separate genuine acacia, linden, sunflower and rape honeys. New data for the amino acids profile of giant goldenrod and buckwheat honey samples are presented. The floral origin of honey could be successfully evaluated by its amino acids profile coupled with chemometric analysis. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a producer's... produced from the unit; (3) The number of all colonies of bees belonging to the unit; (4) The names of... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture...

  10. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a producer's... produced from the unit; (3) The number of all colonies of bees belonging to the unit; (4) The names of... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture...

  11. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a producer's... produced from the unit; (3) The number of all colonies of bees belonging to the unit; (4) The names of... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture...

  12. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a producer's... produced from the unit; (3) The number of all colonies of bees belonging to the unit; (4) The names of... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture...

  13. 7 CFR 1437.106 - Honey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits under this part includes table and non-table honey produced commercially. (b) All of a producer's... produced from the unit; (3) The number of all colonies of bees belonging to the unit; (4) The names of... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Honey. 1437.106 Section 1437.106 Agriculture...

  14. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized symptoms of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new o...

  15. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers...

  16. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Water to facilitate fermentation, provided the density of the honey and water mixture is not reduced...; and (3) Pure, dry sugar or honey for sweetening. Sugar may be added only after fermentation is completed. (b) After complete fermentation or complete fermentation and sweetening, the wine may not have an...

  17. Cell culture techniques in honey bee research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cell culture techniques are indispensable in most if not all life science disciplines to date. Wherever cell culture models are lacking scientific development is hampered. Unfortunately this has been and still is the case in honey bee research because permanent honey bee cell lines have not yet been...

  18. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  19. Swedish Scientists have Solved Honey's Enigma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, it was discovered by Olofsson and Vasquez (2008) that a novel flora composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, exists in the honey stomach of the honey bee Apis mellifera. The twelve different flora members varied numerically with the sources o...

  20. Hologenome theory and the honey bee pathosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research shows substantial genomic diversity among the parasites and pathogens honey bees encounter, a robust microbiota living within bees, and a genome-level view of relationships across global honey bee races. Different combinations of these genomic complexes may explain regional variatio...

  1. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    PubMed

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of Quality Criteria that Allow Differentiation Between Honey Adulterated with Sugar and Pure Honey.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Cevat; Kazak, Filiz; Ardalı, Yuksel

    2018-03-23

    This study used various parameters of honey to develop a potentially more robust approach to the detection of adulterated honey. For this purpose, 25 multifloral, natural honey samples and 20 samples of adulterated honey produced by bees that had been fed supplementary sucrose syrup were analysed. The mean total phenolic content of the natural honeys was considerably higher than in the adulterated honeys at 157 ± 13 and 35.2 ± 7.3 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. Similarly, considerable variation was determined between natural and adulterated honeys in terms of total flavonoids (3.3 ± 0.3 and 2.1 ± 0.4 mg QE/100 g, respectively), antiradical activity (87.9 ± 12 and 163 ± 11 mg/mL, respectively) and proline content (202 ± 26 and 71.1 ± 21.6 mg/kg, respectively.) The potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium contents of natural honeys were also higher than in adulterated honeys (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the determination of the proline level, phenolic content, antioxidant activity and mineral profile may collectively provide a more holistic method approach to the differentiation of natural and adulterated honey, and also for comparing their food values.

  3. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species

    PubMed Central

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487

  4. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species.

    PubMed

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species.

  5. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

    2014-07-17

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture.

  6. Malaysian youth and their sexual health concerns.

    PubMed

    Pau, V

    1995-01-01

    Malaysian youth have an urgent unmet need for sex education programs to increase their access to accurate information. Such programs must be designed by young people themselves and exciting enough to sustain interest. Conservatism on the part of the older generation, as well as misconceptions that sex education programs encourage sexual activity, are major obstacles. Although topics on reproduction and contraception may be a part of a school-based life skills curriculum, many teachers are unable or unwilling to present this material. The Government of Malaysia is urged to incorporate sex education into the formal educational curriculum as a subject in its own right and to train teachers to present this material. Also necessary is development of youth-oriented educational materials such as comics, cartoons, tapes, and videos. Finally, establishment in every Malaysian state of multi-service youth centers offering reproductive health services, recreation, education, and career guidance is recommended.

  7. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.

  8. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    PubMed Central

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  9. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigerian honey in mice.

    PubMed

    Akanmu, Moses Atanda; Olowookere, Temitope Adunni; Atunwa, Soliu Abiola; Ibrahim, Basirat Olufunmilola; Lamidi, Oluwafunmilayo Fatima; Adams, Philomena Arekekhuegbe; Ajimuda, Bolanle Olubunmi; Adeyemo, Lilian Edelauvo

    2011-01-01

    Honey is a natural sweet substance that bees produce by transforming flower nectar or other sweet secretions of plants. It has widespread use in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. It has been reported to assist in building the entire central nervous system. The beneficial effects of honey have been attributed to the possible polyphenolic contents and some other constituents. The geographical locations and the sources of plant nectars may contribute to the effects of honey samples. Thus, we evaluated the neuropharmacological effects of six samples of honey (10%, 20% and 40%(V)/v, p.o.) from three geographical locations of Nigeria using the following behavioral models: Novelty-induced behaviors (NIB), learning and memory, pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antidepressant models in mice. The results showed that honey significantly (p< 0.05) decreased locomotion and rearing behaviors in NIB and amphetamine-induced locomotor activity when compared to the control group. Exploratory behavior was significantly increased in both holeboard and elevated plus maze but had no significant effect on spatial working memory. Honey sample from Umudike has significant hypnotic and anticonvulsant effects. The antinociceptive models (hot plate and tail flick tests) showed that the honey samples significantly increased the pain reaction time and naloxone blocked these central antinociceptive effects. The force swimming test showed that only the Idanre (ID) honey sample had antidepressant effect. In conclusion, some of these honey samples have central inhibitory property, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects, thus may be used as nutraceutic. It can also be inferred that some of these effects are probably mediated through dopaminergic and opioidergic systems.

  10. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  11. From flower to honey bouquet: possible markers for the botanical origin of Robinia honey.

    PubMed

    Aronne, Giovanna; Giovanetti, Manuela; Sacchi, Raffaele; De Micco, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Flowers are complex structures devoted to pollinator attraction, through visual as well as chemical signals. As bees collect nectar on flowers to produce honey, some aspects of floral chemistry are transferred to honey, making chemical markers an important technique to identify the botanical and geographical origins of honey. We applied a new approach that considers the simultaneous analysis of different floral parts (petals, stamens + pistils, calyxes + nectarines, and nectar) and the corresponding unifloral honey. We collected fresh flowers of Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust), selected five samples of Robinia honey from different geographical origins, applied SPME-GC/MS for volatile analyses, and defined the chemical contribution added by different floral parts to the honey final bouquet. Our results show that honey blends products from nectar as well as other flower parts. Comparing honey and flower profiles, we detected compounds coming directly from flower parts but not present in the nectar, such as hotrienol and β-pinene. These may turn out to be of special interest when selecting floral markers for the botanical origin of honey.

  12. Seroepidemiology of amebiasis in the Orang Asli (Western Malaysian aborigine) and other Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Gilman, R H; Davis, C; Gan, E; Bolton, M

    1976-09-01

    The indirect hemagglutination test was used to study antibody titers to Entamoeba histolytica in different Malaysian populations. Eighty-seven percent of Orang Asli (western Malaysian aborigines) adults and 79% of Orang Asli children with acute amebic dysentery were seropositive. However, significantly fewer children (39%) with amebic dysentery had high titer responses (titer greater than or equal to 1:1,280) than did adults with amebic dysentery (76%). No correlation between proctoscopic severity and amebic titer was found. Forty-four percent of asymptomatic family members were seroresponders. Satak, an Orang Asli village located near towns, had significantly more seroresponders (32%) than did the isolated, deep jungle village, Belatim (4%).

  13. Honey for acute cough in children.

    PubMed

    Oduwole, Olabisi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Oyo-Ita, Angela; Udoh, Ekong E

    2014-12-23

    Cough causes concern for parents and is a major cause of outpatient visits. It can impact on quality of life, cause anxiety and affect sleep in parents and children. Several remedies, including honey, have been used to alleviate cough symptoms. To evaluate the effectiveness of honey for acute cough in children in ambulatory settings. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1950 to October week 4, 2014), EMBASE (1990 to November 2014), CINAHL (1981 to November 2014), Web of Science (2000 to November 2014), AMED (1985 to November 2014), LILACS (1982 to November 2014) and CAB abstracts (2009 to January 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing honey given alone, or in combination with antibiotics, versus nothing, placebo or other over-the-counter (OTC) cough medications to participants aged from one to 18 years for acute cough in ambulatory settings. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligible studies and extracted data on reported outcomes. We included three RCTs, two at high risk of bias and one at low risk of bias, involving 568 children. The studies compared honey with dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, 'no treatment' and placebo for the effect on symptomatic relief of cough using a seven-point Likert scale. The lower the score, the better the cough symptom being assessed.Moderate quality evidence showed that honey may be better than 'no treatment' in reducing the frequency of cough (mean difference (MD) -1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.48 to -0.62; I(2) statistic 23%; two studies, 154 participants). High quality evidence also suggests that honey may be better than placebo for reduction of cough frequency (MD -1.85; 95% Cl -3.36 to -0.33; one study, 300 participants). Moderate quality evidence suggests that honey does not differ significantly from dextromethorphan in reducing cough frequency (MD -0.07; 95% CI -1.07 to 0.94; two studies, 149 participants). Low quality evidence suggests that honey may be slightly

  14. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  15. Lexical Borrowing from Chinese Languages in Malaysian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Tan Siew

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how contact between English and Chinese has resulted in the incorporation of Chinese borrowings into the lexicon of Malaysian English (ME). Using a corpus-based approach, this study analyses a comprehensive range of borrowed features extracted from the Malaysian English Newspaper Corpus (MEN Corpus). Based on the contexts of…

  16. Malaysian and American Students' Perceptions of Research Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Laura L.; Anthonysamy, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Differences in perceptions of research ethics between Malaysian and American students were assessed using a questionnaire that measured perceptions of voluntary informed consent for adults and children, assessment of the risk/benefit ratio, issues of deception, and issues of privacy and confidentiality. As predicted, Malaysian students had less…

  17. The Quest for Strategic Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Hairuddin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nine-point strategic leadership characteristics of Malaysian Quality National Primary School Leaders (QNPSL) and to indicate the implications of these findings for the current educational management and leadership practices in their quest for Malaysian quality education.…

  18. The Use of Progressives among Malaysian ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narinasamy, Ilhamanggai; Mukundan, Jayakaran; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Studies on ESL/EFL learners' use of the progressives reveal that it is one of the grammatical aspects most problematic to them. This paper presents the results of a study on the use of progressives among Year 5, Form 1 and Form 4 Malaysian ESL learners' compositions using the English of Malaysian School Students (EMAS) corpus. The purpose of this…

  19. Acoustic characteristics of vowels by normal Malaysian Malay young adults.

    PubMed

    Ting, Hua Nong; Chia, See Yan; Abdul Hamid, Badrulzaman; Mukari, Siti Zamratol-Mai Sarah

    2011-11-01

    The acoustic characteristics of sustained vowel have been widely investigated across various languages and ethnic groups. These acoustic measures, including fundamental frequency (F(0)), jitter (Jitt), relative average perturbation (RAP), five-point period perturbation quotient (PPQ5), shimmer (Shim), and 11-point amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ11) are not well established for Malaysian Malay young adults. This article studies the acoustic measures of Malaysian Malay adults using acoustical analysis. The study analyzed six sustained Malay vowels of 60 normal native Malaysian Malay adults with a mean of 21.19 years. The F(0) values of Malaysian Malay males and females were reported as 134.85±18.54 and 238.27±24.06Hz, respectively. Malaysian Malay females had significantly higher F(0) than that of males for all the vowels. However, no significant differences were observed between the genders for the perturbation measures in all the vowels, except RAP in /e/. No significant F(0) differences between the vowels were observed. Significant differences between the vowels were reported for all perturbation measures in Malaysian Malay males. As for Malaysian Malay females, significant differences between the vowels were reported for Shim and APQ11. Multiethnic comparisons indicate that F(0) varies between Malaysian Malay and other ethnic groups. However, the perturbation measures cannot be directly compared, where the measures vary significantly across different speech analysis softwares. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  20. A Career Success Model for Academics at Malaysian Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Said, Al-Mansor; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Silong, Abu Daud; Sulaiman, Suzaimah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a career success model for academics at the Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Self-administered and online surveys were used for data collection among 325 academics from Malaysian research universities. Findings: Based on the analysis of structural equation modeling, the…

  1. Malaysian Editorials on the "Allah" Issue: A Critical Discourse Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Lokasundari Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the coverage in three Malaysian newspapers on an issue popularly known as the "Allah" issue. In 2009, the Catholic Church took the Malaysian government to court over the right to use the word "Allah". In a landmark court decision, the Church was given the right to use the word "Allah" in the…

  2. Self-Access Language Learning for Malaysian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tse, Andrew Yau Hau

    2012-01-01

    Just a few Malaysian universities offer self-access language learning activities to students. The objective of this study is to investigate if self-access learning can promote self-directed or autonomous learning in a public Malaysian technical university. Data collection is by means of interviewing the Director, lecturers, and students in a…

  3. Malaysian English: An Instrumental Analysis of Vowel Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Stefanie; Don, Zuraidah Mohd.; Knowles, Gerald; Tang, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an instrumental analysis of English vowel monophthongs produced by 47 female Malaysian speakers. The focus is on the distribution of Malaysian English vowels in the vowel space, and the extent to which there is phonetic contrast between traditionally paired vowels. The results indicate that, like neighbouring varieties of English,…

  4. Practices of Management Development: A Malaysian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Kian Aun

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a case study of Management Development (MD) practices at Malaysian Assurance Alliance (MAA). The aim of this research is to investigate how a large Malaysian insurance corporation developed and integrated MD initiatives with current organizational needs and tasks. Attempts were made to map and categorize the MD initiatives…

  5. Young Adult Literature in the Malaysian Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…

  6. Language Learning Motivation among Malaysian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muftah, Muneera; Rafik-Galea, Shameem

    2013-01-01

    The study describes and examines Malaysian pre-university students' integrative and instrumental motivation toward learning English language. In this study, 182 non-English major students in one of the Malaysian public universities are selected to fill out a questionnaire reflecting their attitudes and motivation towards learning English. The…

  7. Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps.

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, R S; Visscher, P K; Camazine, S

    1999-01-01

    Stinging events involving honey bees and wasps are rare; most deaths or clinically important incidents involve very few stings (< 10) and anaphylactic shock. However, mass stinging events can prove life-threatening via the toxic action of the venom when injected in large amounts. With the advent of the Africanized honey bee in the southwestern United States and its potential for further spread, mass envenomation incidents will increase. Here we review the literature on mass stinging events involving honey bees and wasps (i.e., yellowjackets, wasps, and hornets). Despite different venom composition in the two insect groups, both may cause systemic damage and involve hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Victim death may occur due to renal failure or cardiac complications. With supportive care, however, most victims should be able to survive attacks from hundreds of wasps or approximately 1000 honey bees. PMID:10344177

  8. Mad honey poisoning‐related asystole

    PubMed Central

    Gunduz, Abdulkadir; Durmus, Ismet; Turedi, Suleyman; Nuhoglu, Irfan; Ozturk, Serkan

    2007-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning is well known in the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The cause of the poisoning is the toxin grayanotoxin, found in honey obtained from the nectar of Rhododendron species on the mountains in the region. A 60‐year‐old man was brought to the emergency department with dizziness and syncope after eating a few spoonfuls of honey. While the patient was being treated, bradycardia and asystole developed. The patient was given 0.5 mg of atropine, and asystole began and ended. The patient was transferred to the catheter laboratory and a temporary pacemaker was implanted. Mad honey poisoning related asystole has not been previously reported, and the rapid response to atropine is significant. PMID:17652692

  9. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation. PMID:26273564

  10. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section 24.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the...

  11. Leadership in the Reform of Malaysian Universities: Analysing the Strategic Role of the Malaysian Qualifications Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajunid, Ibrahim Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the contemporary development and reform challenges in tertiary education in Malaysia in both national and global contexts. The critical role exercised by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency in driving strategic change in higher education cultures, both in public and private universities is described and analysed. The paper…

  12. Conditions of honey consumption in selected regions of Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuk, Iwona; Jeżewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Trafiałek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional value of honey is a factor that encourages the increase of its consumption. The aim of the study was to identify consumers' behaviours and preferences towards honey and their determinants. Quantitative (PAPI method) survey was carried out in 2015 on a sample of 690 respondents from Mazowieckie, Podkarpackie and Zachodniopomorskie voivodeships. The data analyzed were: the frequency of and reasons for honey consumption, preferred buying locations, preferred types of honey, factors considered during purchase and different uses of honey. The study showed that Poles consume honey several times per month. The main incentives for honey consumption were: health benefits, a wide range of culinary uses, flavour and habits. It was established that Polish consumers buy honey mainly in apiaries and open-air markets. Primary factors considered during purchase were the type of honey (preferred types being lime, polyfloral and acacia), price and colour. Honey was chiefly used for consumption, most commonly as a sandwich spread and sweetener. Less popular ap- plications included medical and cosmetic purposes. Some socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, place of residence, income), self-assessment of nutritional knowledge and, to a lesser extent, education sig- nificantly differentiated consumer behaviours in the honey market. The study has shown that Poles consume honey relatively seldom. For the increase of honey consumption nutritional education is needed. Further studies will allow a more detailed diagnosis, which is required for the development of effective information and marketing strategies.

  13. Viper's bugloss (Echium spp.) honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey.

    PubMed

    Martín Arroyo, Tomás; González-Porto, Amelia V; Bartolomé Esteban, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper's bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015). By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper's bugloss honey lies at 70%.

  14. Active macromolecules of honey form colloidal particles essential for honey antibacterial activity and hydrogen peroxide production.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Miotto, Danielle; Kim, Linda; Sjaarda, Calvin; Maldonado-Alvarez, Liset; Fukś, Henryk

    2017-08-09

    Little is known about the global structure of honey and the arrangement of its main macromolecules. We hypothesized that the conditions in ripened honeys resemble macromolecular crowding in the cell and affect the concentration, reactivity, and conformation of honey macromolecules. Combined results from UV spectroscopy, DLS and SEM showed that the concentration of macromolecules was a determining factor in honey structure. The UV spectral scans in 200-400 nm visualized and allowed quantification of UV-absorbing compounds in the following order: dark > medium > light honeys (p < 0.0001). The high concentration of macromolecules promoted their self-assembly to micron-size superstructures, visible in SEM as two-phase system consisting of dense globules distributed in sugar solution. These particles showed increased conformational stability upon dilution. At the threshold concentration, the system underwent phase transition with concomitant fragmentation of large micron-size particles to nanoparticles in hierarchical order. Honey two-phase conformation was an essential requirement for antibacterial activity and hydrogen peroxide production. These activities disappeared beyond the phase transition point. The realization that active macromolecules of honey are arranged into compact, stable multicomponent assemblies with colloidal properties reframes our view on global structure of honey and emerges as a key property to be considered in investigating its biological activity.

  15. Viper’s bugloss (Echium spp.) honey typing and establishing the pollen threshold for monofloral honey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Honey samples (n = 126) from Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain) were characterized based on their physicochemical properties and a melissopalynological analysis. The latter showed that Echium pollen type was the dominant palynomorph in most samples, representing at least 30% of the pollen in each sample. As anticipated, a relationship was observed between the proportion of this pollen and the properties of the honey. One goal of this study was to set a threshold that defines the percentage of pollen necessary for Viper’s bugloss honey to be considered monofloral or multifloral. This is a mandatory requirement in light of the publication of the European Directive 2014/63/EU establishing the regulations governing the labelling and control of honey to eradicate fraud (BOE n° 147, June 2015). By analyzing how the proportions of Echium pollen type affected the physicochemical and sensory parameters of the honey, the honeys analyzed could be segregated into multifloral and monofloral honeys. The data indicates that the proportion of pollen necessary to discriminate monofloral Viper’s bugloss honey lies at 70%. PMID:28976990

  16. Anti-influenza viral effects of honey in vitro: potent high activity of manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Rahmasari, Ratika; Matsunaga, Ayaka; Haruyama, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki

    2014-07-01

    Influenza viruses are a serious threat to human health and cause thousands of deaths annually. Thus, there is an urgent requirement for the development of novel anti-influenza virus drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-influenza viral activity of honey from various sources. Antiviral activities of honey samples were evaluated using MDCK cells. To elucidate the possible mechanism of action of honey, plaque inhibition assays were used. Synergistic effects of honey with known anti-influenza virus drugs such as zanamivir or oseltamivir were tested. Manuka honey efficiently inhibited influenza virus replication (IC50 = 3.6 ± 1.2 mg/mL; CC50 = 82.3 ± 2.2 mg/mL; selective index = 22.9), which is related to its virucidal effects. In the presence of 3.13 mg/mL manuka honey, the IC50 of zanamivir or oseltamivir was reduced to nearly 1/1000th of their single use. Our results showed that honey, in general, and particularly manuka honey, has potent inhibitory activity against the influenza virus, demonstrating a potential medicinal value. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on Manuka Honey

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y.; Mazzoni, Luca; Giampieri, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important biological effects. PMID:28234328

  18. The Composition and Biological Activity of Honey: A Focus on Manuka Honey.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Giampieri, Francesca

    2014-07-21

    Honey has been used as a food and medical product since the earliest times. It has been used in many cultures for its medicinal properties, as a remedy for burns, cataracts, ulcers and wound healing, because it exerts a soothing effect when initially applied to open wounds. Depending on its origin, honey can be classified in different categories among which, monofloral honey seems to be the most promising and interesting as a natural remedy. Manuka honey, a monofloral honey derived from the manuka tree ( Leptospermum scoparium ), has greatly attracted the attention of researchers for its biological properties, especially its antimicrobial and antioxidant capacities. Our manuscript reviews the chemical composition and the variety of beneficial nutritional and health effects of manuka honey. Firstly, the chemical composition of manuka honey is described, with special attention given to its polyphenolic composition and other bioactive compounds, such as glyoxal and methylglyoxal. Then, the effect of manuka honey in wound treatment is described, as well as its antioxidant activity and other important biological effects.

  19. Functional morphology of the honey stomach wall of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The honey bee crop, or honey stomach, is designed with cords of muscles that are numerous enough in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to fully enclose and confine the underlying, cuticle-lines epithelium. Although appressed against the inner wall of this enclosure by the crop's contents,...

  20. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew B; Walker, Natalie; Deshpande, Sohan

    2013-02-28

    Honey is a viscous, supersaturated sugar solution derived from nectar gathered and modified by the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound care. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective was to determine whether honey increases the rate of healing in acute wounds (e.g. burns, lacerations) and chronic wounds (e.g. skin ulcers, infected surgical wounds). For this first update of the review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 13 June 2012); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5); Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to May Week 5 2012); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 12 June 2012); Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2012 Week 23); and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 8 June 2012). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated honey as a treatment for any sort of acute or chronic wound were sought. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. Wound healing was the primary endpoint. Data from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one review author, using a data extraction sheet, and independently verified by a second review author. We identified 25 trials (with a total of 2987 participants) that met the inclusion criteria, including six new trials that were added to this update. In acute wounds, three trials evaluated the effect of honey in acute lacerations, abrasions or minor surgical wounds and 12 trials evaluated the effect of honey in burns. In chronic wounds, two trials evaluated the effect of honey in venous leg ulcers, and single trials investigated its effect in infected post-operative wounds, pressure injuries, cutaneous Lieshmaniasis, diabetic foot ulcers and Fournier's gangrene. Three trials recruited people into mixed groups of chronic or acute wounds. Most trials were at high or unclear risk of bias. In acute wounds

  1. Chalkbrood disease in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Aronstein, K A; Murray, K D

    2010-01-01

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of honey bee brood caused by Ascosphaera apis. This disease is now found throughout the world, and there are indications that chalkbrood incidence may be on the rise. In this review we consolidate both historic knowledge and recent scientific findings. We document the worldwide spread of the fungus, which is aided by increased global travel and the migratory nature of many beekeeping operations. We discuss the current taxonomic classification in light of the recent complete reworking of fungal systematics brought on by application of molecular methods. In addition, we discuss epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease, as well as pathogen biology, morphology and reproduction. New attempts at disease control methods and management tactics are reviewed. We report on research tools developed for identification and monitoring, and also include recent findings on genomic and molecular studies not covered by previous reviews, including sequencing of the A. apis genome and identification of the mating type locus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cyanide residue levels in extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M; Nelson, D L

    1979-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) residue levels were determined in samples of extracted honey, comb honey and was cappings at 1 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr intervals after destroying the bees in honey bee colonies with normal (ca. 8.5 g) and twice normal (ca. 17 g) doses of CyanogasR A-dust. Applications of CyanogasR A-dust, administered by means of a dust pump at normal and twice normal doses, gave an average residue of 0.01 and 0.04 microgram CN/g of extracted honey, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g of comb honey and 0.04 and 0.06 microgram CN/g of wax cappings, respectively. When the CyanogasR A-dust (ca. 17 g) was placed on a tray and placed on the bottom board of the hive, the average residue levels for extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings were less than 0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g, respectively. Random honey samples from beekeepers, who used CyanogasR to destroy bees, had a median level of 0.031 microgram CN/g, whereas honey from a packing plant and other commercial samples contained less than 0.004--0.026, median less than 0.004 microgram CN/g. Based on residue data from this study, the temporary registration for CyanogasR, to kill honey bees after crop removal, was revised to a full registration in May 1977.

  3. Prevalence of chlamydial antibody in Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Ngeow, Y F; Rachagan, S P; Ramachandran, S

    1990-05-01

    A single antigen indirect immunofluorescence test was used to screen for chlamydial antibody among Malaysian infants, children, sexually active adults and prostitutes. Of 794 serum samples tested, 361 (45.5%) were positive. Seropositivity increased with age and sexual activity and ranged from 10 to 16% among children under 10 years old to 94.4% among prostitutes. Pregnant women and female adolescents showed a higher antibody prevalence than nonpregnant and older women. Six (13%) infants under 6 months of age were positive for chlamydial IgM.

  4. Divergence of iron metabolism in wild Malaysian yeast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hana N; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y; Chang, Amanda H; Brem, Rachel B

    2013-12-09

    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics.

  5. Divergence of Iron Metabolism in Wild Malaysian Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hana N.; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y.; Chang, Amanda H.; Brem, Rachel B.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative genomic studies have reported widespread variation in levels of gene expression within and between species. Using these data to infer organism-level trait divergence has proven to be a key challenge in the field. We have used a wild Malaysian population of S. cerevisiae as a test bed in the search to predict and validate trait differences based on observations of regulatory variation. Malaysian yeast, when cultured in standard medium, activated regulatory programs that protect cells from the toxic effects of high iron. Malaysian yeast also showed a hyperactive regulatory response during culture in the presence of excess iron and had a unique growth defect in conditions of high iron. Molecular validation experiments pinpointed the iron metabolism factors AFT1, CCC1, and YAP5 as contributors to these molecular and cellular phenotypes; in genome-scale sequence analyses, a suite of iron toxicity response genes showed evidence for rapid protein evolution in Malaysian yeast. Our findings support a model in which iron metabolism has diverged in Malaysian yeast as a consequence of a change in selective pressure, with Malaysian alleles shifting the dynamic range of iron response to low-iron concentrations and weakening resistance to extreme iron toxicity. By dissecting the iron scarcity specialist behavior of Malaysian yeast, our work highlights the power of expression divergence as a signpost for biologically and evolutionarily relevant variation at the organismal level. Interpreting the phenotypic relevance of gene expression variation is one of the primary challenges of modern genomics. PMID:24142925

  6. 76 FR 251 - Country of Origin Labeling of Packed Honey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... about 50 percent of bee colonies and about 40 percent of honey produced. Commercial beekeepers are those.... bee colonies producing honey in 2009 was 2.4 million (based on beekeepers who manage five or more... United States, which produce about 60 percent of the nation's honey. AMS believes that there are...

  7. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  8. A POLLEN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SOME HONEYS FROM KARWAR, KARNATAKA

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, D. M.; Parikh, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    Pollen analysis of some medicinaly used honey sample from Karwar has been done. Sapindus, Mangifera and Syzygium have been noted as the principal honey yielding plants in the region. It has also been observed that the names given to various honeys after those of respective plants do not corroborate with their pollen composition. PMID:22556974

  9. Effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were sp...

  10. Honey

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers. But it does seem to reduce pain. Fournier's gangrene. Early research has shown unclear results about the ... when used with antibiotics, as a treatment for Fournier's gangrene. Gingivitis. Early research suggests that chewing "leather" made ...

  11. Methylglyoxal-infused honey mimics the anti-Staphylococcus aureus biofilm activity of manuka honey: potential implication in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Jervis-Bardy, Joshua; Foreman, Andrew; Bray, Sarah; Tan, Lorwai; Wormald, Peter-John

    2011-05-01

    Low pH, hydrogen peroxide generation, and the hyperosmolarity mechanisms of antimicrobial action are ubiquitous for all honeys. In addition, manuka honey has been shown to contain high concentrations of methylglyoxal (MGO), contributing the relatively superior antimicrobial activity of manuka honey compared to non-MGO honeys. In high concentrations, manuka honey is effective in killing Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in vitro. Lower concentrations of honey, however, are desirable for clinical use as a topical rinse in chronic rhinosinusitis in order to maximize the tolerability and practicality of the delivery technique. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the contribution of MGO to the biofilm-cidal activity of manuka honey, and furthermore determine whether the antibiofilm activity of low-dose honey can be augmented by the addition of exogenous MGO. In vitro microbiology experiment. Five S. aureus strains (four clinical isolates and one reference strain) were incubated to form biofilms using a previously established in vitro dynamic peg model. First, the biofilm-cidal activities of 1) manuka honey (790 mg/kg MGO), 2) non-MGO honey supplemented with 790 mg/kg MGO, and 3) MGO-only solutions were assessed. Second, the experiment was repeated using honey solutions supplemented with sufficient MGO to achieve concentrations exceeding those seen in commercially available manuka honey preparations. All honey solutions containing a MGO concentration of 0.53 mg/mL or greater demonstrated biofilm-cidal activity; equivalent activity was achieved with ≥1.05 mg/mL MGO solution. MGO is only partially responsible for the antibiofilm activity of manuka honey. Infusion of MGO-negative honey with MGO, however, achieves similar cidality to the equivalent MGO-rich manuka honey. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Hock Lye, E-mail: kohhl@ucsiuniversity.edu.my; Teh, Su Yean, E-mail: syteh@usm.my; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre formore » Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.« less

  13. Unmet needs among disabled elderly Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2012-09-01

    Unmet need as a significant factor affecting quality of life in later life has recently received considerable attention in gerontological research. The main aim of this study was to identify the prevalence, predicting factors, and negative consequence of unmet need among older Malaysians. The findings may be useful to reduce unmet need and the burden of its adverse consequence. The sample for this study consists of 400 functionally disabled elderly people aged 60 and over was obtained from a large national survey. Unmet need was operationally defined based on Manton's (1989) criteria. The findings from the present study showed about 18.0% of functionally disabled older Malaysians suffer from unmet need. Logistic regression revealed that gender (being male) and chronic health conditions are statistically associated with increased odds of unmet need after adjusting for other possible risk factors. Further results indicated that unmet need statistically increases odds of fall as a negative consequence of unmet need. The high prevalence rates of unmet need among disabled elderly men and chronically ill older persons suggest that policy makers should pay more attention to this vulnerable group to achieve good quality of life. The implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M.; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  15. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    PubMed

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  16. A rare cause of atrial fibrillation: mad honey intoxication.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Nihal Akar; Keles, Telat; Durmaz, Tahir; Dogan, Sıtkı; Bozkurt, Engin

    2012-12-01

    Mad honey intoxication occurs after ingestion of honey containing grayanotoxin. We report the case of a 36-year-old man who ingested mad honey and developed atrial fibrillation. Mad honey intoxication is often characterized by symptoms such as hypotension, bradycardia, and syncope. Patients may also experience gastrointestinal, neurologic, and cardiovascular symptoms due to intoxication. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities, including sinus bradycardia, atrioventricular blocks, and nodal rhythms, also may be observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a 36-year old man developing atrial fibrillation with a slow ventricular response after mad honey ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Meal patterns of malaysian adults: findings from the Malaysian adults nutrition survey (MANS).

    PubMed

    Wan Abdul Manan, W M; Nur Firdaus, I; Safiah, M Y; Siti Haslinda, M D; Poh, B K; Norimah, A K; Azmi, M Y; Tahir, A; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Fatimah, S; Siti Norazlin, M M; Fasiah, W

    2012-08-01

    Meal patterns have received little attention in nutrition studies. The aim of this study is to present the findings on general meal patterns of Malaysian adults. The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS), carried out in 2002 and 2003, involved 6,928 adults selected by stratified random sampling from all households by zone in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. In general, the results showed that most respondents (74.16%) ate three meals per day; 89.20% of the respondents consumed breakfast, while 88.57% consumed lunch and 91.97% consumed dinner with no significant difference in terms of sex. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Northern Zone had the highest number of people consuming breakfast compared to other zones. Meanwhile, the population in Sarawak had the largest proportion of people consuming lunch and dinner, but the smallest proportion of people consuming breakfast. A significantly higher number of the rural population consumed breakfast and lunch than urbanites; however there was no significant difference in dinner consumption. Generally, breakfast consumption increased with age whereby significant difference existed between the 18 to 19 years age group and the age group of 30 years and older. Lunch intake among the age groups showed no significant difference. In contrast, dinner consumption was significantly lower among the 18 to 19 years age group compared to all other age groups. Comparison among the ethnic groups showed that the Indian population had the lowest percentage of having breakfast and lunch while the Orang Asli had the lowest percentage of consuming dinner. However, the Orang Asli recorded the highest percentage for taking breakfast and lunch while the Chinese had the highest percentage of taking dinner. Considering that Malaysian adults consumed their conventional breakfast, lunch and dinner, these findings indicatethat Malaysians are maintaining their traditional meal patterns.

  18. 75 FR 18396 - U.S. Honey Producer Research, Promotion, and Consumer Information Order; Referendum Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... the ownership of the U.S. honey produced; (2) Rents honey bee colonies or beekeeping equipment resulting in the ownership of all or a portion of the U.S. honey produced; (3) Owns honey bee colonies or... majority of the volume of U.S. honey produced. These procedures will also be used for any subsequent...

  19. Video Tracking Protocol to Screen Deterrent Chemistries for Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Larson, Nicholas R; Anderson, Troy D

    2017-06-12

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is an economically and agriculturally important pollinator that generates billions of dollars annually. Honey bee colony numbers have been declining in the United States and many European countries since 1947. A number of factors play a role in this decline, including the unintentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides. The development of new methods and regulations are warranted to reduce pesticide exposures to these pollinators. One approach is the use of repellent chemistries that deter honey bees from a recently pesticide-treated crop. Here, we describe a protocol to discern the deterrence of honey bees exposed to select repellent chemistries. Honey bee foragers are collected and starved overnight in an incubator 15 h prior to testing. Individual honey bees are placed into Petri dishes that have either a sugar-agarose cube (control treatment) or sugar-agarose-compound cube (repellent treatment) placed into the middle of the dish. The Petri dish serves as the arena that is placed under a camera in a light box to record the honey bee locomotor activities using video tracking software. A total of 8 control and 8 repellent treatments were analyzed for a 10 min period with each treatment was duplicated with new honey bees. Here, we demonstrate that honey bees are deterred from the sugar-agarose cubes with a compound treatment whereas honey bees are attracted to the sugar-agarose cubes without an added compound.

  20. Antibacterial effect of Manuka honey on Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Eric N; Donkor, Eric S

    2013-05-07

    Manuka honey originates from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) and its antimicrobial effect has been attributed to a property referred to as Unique Manuka Factor that is absent in other types of honey. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen. In this study we investigated susceptibility of C. difficile to Manuka honey and whether the activity is bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Three C. difficile strains were subjected to the broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for Manuka honey. The agar well diffusion method was also used to investigate sensitivity of the C. difficile strains to Manuka honey. The MIC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). Similarly, MBC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). The activity of Manuka honey against all three C. difficile strains was bactericidal. A dose-response relationship was observed between the concentrations of Manuka honey and zones of inhibition formed by the C. difficile strains, in which increasing concentrations of Manuka honey resulted in increasing size of zone of inhibition formed. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 50% (v/v) Manuka honey and the growth inhibition persisted over 7 days. C. difficile is appreciably susceptible to Manuka honey and this may offer an effective way of treating infections caused by the organism.

  1. Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Priscila Missio; Gauche, Cony; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the chemical characteristics of compounds present in honey, their stability when heated or stored for long periods of time and the parameters of identity and quality. Therefore, the chemical characteristics of these compounds were examined, such as sugars, proteins, amino acids, enzymes, organic acids, vitamins, minerals, phenolic and volatile compounds present in honey. The stability of these compounds in relation to the chemical reactions that occur by heating or prolonged storage were also discussed, with increased understanding of the behavior regarding the common processing of honey that may compromise its quality. In addition, the identity and quality standards were described, such as sugars, moisture, acidity, ash and electrical conductivity, color, 5-HMF and diastase activity, along with the minimum and maximum limits established by the Codex Alimentarius. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated DNA extraction from pollen in honey.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Patrick; Eicheldinger, Adelina; Muschler, Paul; Goerlich, Ottmar; Busch, Ulrich

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, honey has become subject of DNA analysis due to potential risks evoked by microorganisms, allergens or genetically modified organisms. However, so far, only a few DNA extraction procedures are available, mostly time-consuming and laborious. Therefore, we developed an automated DNA extraction method from pollen in honey based on a CTAB buffer-based DNA extraction using the Maxwell 16 instrument and the Maxwell 16 FFS Nucleic Acid Extraction System, Custom-Kit. We altered several components and extraction parameters and compared the optimised method with a manual CTAB buffer-based DNA isolation method. The automated DNA extraction was faster and resulted in higher DNA yield and sufficient DNA purity. Real-time PCR results obtained after automated DNA extraction are comparable to results after manual DNA extraction. No PCR inhibition was observed. The applicability of this method was further successfully confirmed by analysis of different routine honey samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Guthami, Faiz M. Al; Gethami, Ahmed F. M. Al; Allah, Fyrouz M. Abd; Saleh, Ashraf A.; Fouad, Ehab A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28344408

  4. Cocaine Tolerance in Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Cornish, Jennifer L.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor effects of a higher cocaine dose, indicating the development of physiological tolerance to cocaine in bees. Cocaine inhibits biogenic amine reuptake transporters, but neither acute nor repeated cocaine treatments caused measurable changes in levels of biogenic amines measured in whole bee brains. Our data show clear short and long-term behavioural responses of bees to cocaine administration, but caution that, despite the small size of the bee brain, measures of biogenic amines conducted at the whole-brain level may not reveal neurochemical effects of the drug. PMID:23741423

  5. Management of diabetic foot by natural honey.

    PubMed

    Makhdoom, Asadullah; Khan, Muhammad Shoaib; Lagahari, Muhammad Ayub; Rahopoto, Muhammad Qasim; Tahir, Syed Muhammad; Siddiqui, Khaleeque Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that honey has antibacterial activity in vitro, and a small number of clinical case studies have shown that application of honey to severely infected cutaneous wounds is capable of clearing infection from the wound and improving tissue healing. Research has also indicated that honey may possess anti-inflammatory activity and stimulate immune responses within a wound. The overall effect is to reduce infection and to enhance wound healing in burns, ulcers, and other cutaneous wounds. The objective of the study was to find out the results of topical wound dressings in diabetic wounds with natural honey. The study was conducted at department of Orthopaedics, Unit-1, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro from July 2006 to June 2007. Study design was experimental. The inclusion criteria were patients of either gender with any age group having diabetic foot Wagner type I, II, III and II. The exclusion criteria were patients not willing for studies and who needed urgent amputation due to deteriorating illness. Initially all wounds were washed thoroughly and necrotic tissues removed and dressings with honey were applied and continued up to healing of wounds. Total number of patients was 12 (14 feet). There were 8 males (66.67%) and 4 females (33.33%), 2 cases (16.67%) were presented with bilateral diabetic feet. The age range was 35 to 65 years (46 +/- 9.07 years). Amputations of big toe in 3 patients (25%), second and third toe ray in 2 patients (16.67%) and of fourth and fifth toes at the level of metatarsophalengeal joints were done in 3 patients (25%). One patient (8.33%) had below knee amputation. In our study we observed excellent results in treating diabetic wounds with dressings soaked with natural honey. The disability of diabetic foot patients was minimized by decreasing the rate of leg or foot amputations and thus enhancing the quality and productivity of individual life.

  6. Honey, Hadza, hunter-gatherers, and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J Colette; Wood, Brian; Crittenden, Alyssa; Porter, Claire; Mabulla, Audax

    2014-06-01

    Honey is the most energy dense food in nature. It is therefore not surprising that, where it exists, honey is an important food for almost all hunter-gatherers. Here we describe and analyze widespread honey collecting among foragers and show that where it is absent, in arctic and subarctic habitats, honey bees are also rare to absent. Second, we focus on one hunter-gatherer society, the Hadza of Tanzania. Hadza men and women both rank honey as their favorite food. Hadza acquire seven types of honey. Hadza women usually acquire honey that is close to the ground while men often climb tall baobab trees to raid the largest bee hives with stinging bees. Honey accounts for a substantial proportion of the kilocalories in the Hadza diet, especially that of Hadza men. Cross-cultural forager data reveal that in most hunter-gatherers, men acquire more honey than women but often, as with the Hadza, women do acquire some. Virtually all warm-climate foragers consume honey. Our closest living relatives, the great apes, take honey when they can. We suggest that honey has been part of the diet of our ancestors dating back to at least the earliest hominins. The earliest hominins, however, would have surely been less capable of acquiring as much honey as more recent, fully modern human hunter-gatherers. We discuss reasons for thinking our early ancestors would have acquired less honey than foragers ethnographically described, yet still significantly more than our great ape relatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Honey as a topical treatment for wounds.

    PubMed

    Jull, Andrew B; Cullum, Nicky; Dumville, Jo C; Westby, Maggie J; Deshpande, Sohan; Walker, Natalie

    2015-03-06

    Honey is a viscous, supersaturated sugar solution derived from nectar gathered and modified by the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Honey has been used since ancient times as a remedy in wound care. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of honey compared with alternative wound dressings and topical treatments on the of healing of acute (e.g. burns, lacerations) and/or chronic (e.g. venous ulcers) wounds. For this update of the review we searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 October 2014); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 9); Ovid MEDLINE (1946 to October Week 1 2014); Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations 13 October 2014); Ovid EMBASE (1974 to 13 October 2014); and EBSCO CINAHL (1982 to 15 October 2014). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials that evaluated honey as a treatment for any sort of acute or chronic wound were sought. There was no restriction in terms of source, date of publication or language. Wound healing was the primary endpoint. Data from eligible trials were extracted and summarised by one review author, using a data extraction sheet, and independently verified by a second review author. All data have been subsequently checked by two more authors. We identified 26 eligible trials (total of 3011 participants). Three trials evaluated the effects of honey in minor acute wounds, 11 trials evaluated honey in burns, 10 trials recruited people with different chronic wounds including two in people with venous leg ulcers, two trials in people with diabetic foot ulcers and single trials in infected post-operative wounds, pressure injuries, cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Fournier's gangrene. Two trials recruited a mixed population of people with acute and chronic wounds. The quality of the evidence varied between different comparisons and

  8. Composition and antioxidant activity of Trigona carbonaria honey from Australia.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Livia Persano; Heard, Tim A; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Pérez, Rosa Ana; Fernández-Muiño, Miguel; Sancho, María Teresa; Sesta, Giulio; Lusco, Lorenzo; Vit, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Stingless bees (Tribe Meliponini) are a diverse group of highly eusocial bees distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics. Trigona carbonaria honey, from Australia, was characterized by traditional physicochemical parameters (acidity, sugars, diastase, electrical conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural, invertase, nitrogen, and water content) and other compositional factors (flavonoids, polyphenols, organic acids, and water activity), as well as total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activity. For the Australian T. carbonaria, the traditional analytical parameters were similar to those previously reported for neotropical stingless bee honey and confirm that honeys produced by Meliponini bees possess several physicochemical properties that are distinctly different from Apis mellifera honey, with higher values of moisture (26.5 +/- 0.8 g of water/100 g of honey), water activity (0.74 +/- 0.01), electrical conductivity (1.64 +/- 0.12 mS/cm), and free acidity (124.2 +/- 22.9 mEq/kg of honey) and a very low diastase activity (0.4 +/- 0.5 diastase number) and invertase activity (5.7 +/- 1.5 invertase number). The sugar spectrum was quite different from that of A. mellifera honey, with 20.3 +/- 2.9 g of maltose/100 g of honey. The values of pH (4.0 +/- 0.1), lactonic acidity (4.7 +/- 0.8 mEq/kg of honey), sucrose (1.8 +/- 0.4 g/100 g of honey), and fructose/glucose ratio (1.42 +/- 0.13) fell in the same ranges as those of A. mellifera honey. Citric (0.23 +/- 0.09) and malic (0.12 +/- 0.03) acid concentrations (in g/kg of honey) of T. carbonaria honeys were in the range described for A. mellifera honey. D-Gluconic was more concentrated (9.9 +/- 1.3 g/kg of honey), in the range of Italian Castanea, Thymus, Arbutus, and honeydew honeys. Flavonoid content was 10.02 +/- 1.59 mg of quercetin equivalents/100 g of honey, and polyphenol contents were 55.74 +/- 6.11 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of honey. The antioxidant activity, expressed as percentage of 2

  9. Study of acaricide stability in honey. Characterization of amitraz degradation products in honey and beeswax.

    PubMed

    Korta, E; Bakkali, A; Berrueta, L A; Gallo, B; Vicente, F; Kilchenmann, V; Bogdanov, S

    2001-12-01

    A study on the possible degradation of amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos, chlordimeform, cymiazole, flumethrin, and tau-fluvalinate during the storage of honey was carried out by HPLC. Except amitraz, the other acaricides are stable in this medium for at least 9 months. Degradation studies of amitraz in honey and beeswax were carried out; the degradation products detected in both matrices were 2,4-dimethylphenylformamide (DMF) and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N'-methylformamidine (DPMF). The reaction rate constants and the half-lives of the amitraz degradation in honey and wax were calculated. Amitraz was nearly completely degraded within 1 day in beeswax and within 10 days in honey. When amitraz-spiked combs are recycled into new beeswax, DMF was found to be the principal degradation product left in pure wax.

  10. No apparent correlation between honey bee forager gut microbiota and honey production.

    PubMed

    Horton, Melissa A; Oliver, Randy; Newton, Irene L

    2015-01-01

    One of the best indicators of colony health for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is its performance in the production of honey. Recent research into the microbial communities naturally populating the bee gut raise the question as to whether there is a correlation between microbial community structure and colony productivity. In this work, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to explore the microbial composition associated with forager bees from honey bee colonies producing large amounts of surplus honey (productive) and compared them to colonies producing less (unproductive). As supported by previous work, the honey bee microbiome was found to be dominated by three major phyla: the Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria, within which we found a total of 23 different bacterial genera, including known "core" honey bee microbiome members. Using discriminant function analysis and correlation-based network analysis, we identified highly abundant members (such as Frischella and Gilliamella) as important in shaping the bacterial community; libraries from colonies with high quantities of these Orbaceae members were also likely to contain fewer Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species (such as Firm-4). However, co-culture assays, using isolates from these major clades, were unable to confirm any antagonistic interaction between Gilliamella and honey bee gut bacteria. Our results suggest that honey bee colony productivity is associated with increased bacterial diversity, although this mechanism behind this correlation has yet to be determined. Our results also suggest researchers should not base inferences of bacterial interactions solely on correlations found using sequencing. Instead, we suggest that depth of sequencing and library size can dramatically influence statistically significant results from sequence analysis of amplicons and should be cautiously interpreted.

  11. Differentiation of manuka honey from kanuka honey and from jelly bush honey using HS-SPME-GC/MS and UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Beitlich, Nicole; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; Oelschlaegel, Stefanie; Speer, Karl

    2014-07-09

    In the present study, pollen-identical pure manuka and kanuka honeys and an Australian jelly bush honey were analyzed for the nonvolatiles by UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS and for the volatiles by HS-SPME-GC/MS. A chromatographic profile matchup by means of characteristic marker compounds achieved a clear discrimination between manuka, kanuka, and jelly bush honey. UHPLC-PDA profiles of manuka honey show leptosin, acetyl-2-hydroxy-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-4-oxobutanate, 3-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-penta-1,4-dione, kojic acid, 5-methyl-3-furancarboxylic acid, and two unknown compounds as prominent, kanuka honey was characterized by 4-methoxyphenyllactic acid, methyl syringate, p-anisic acid, and lumichrome. 2-Methylbenzofuran, 2'-hydroxyacetophenone, and 2'-methoxyacetophenone were markant volatiles for manuka honey, whereas kanuka honey was characterized by 2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1,4-dione, phenethyl alcohol, p-anisaldehyde, and an unknown compound in HS-SPME-GC/MS. The jelly bush honey differed from the manuka honey by higher contents of 2-methoxybenzoic acid and an individual unknown substance in the PDA profile and by lower intensities of 2'-methoxyacetophenone, higher concentrations of cis-linalool oxide, and 3,4,5-trimethylphenol in the HS-SPME-GC/MS profile.

  12. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  13. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Renah Boanerges de Queiroz; da Costa, Cristovão Alves; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna; Junior, Sergio Duvoisin

    2013-07-01

    Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth.

  14. Antimicrobial activity and rutin identification of honey produced by the stingless bee Melipona compressipes manaosensis and commercial honey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Honey has been identified as a potential alternative to the widespread use of antibiotics, which are of significant concern considering the emergence of resistant bacteria. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of honey samples produced by a stingless bee species and by Apis sp. against pathogenic bacteria, as well as to identify the presence of phenolic compounds. Methods Honey samples from the stingless bee M. compressipes manaosensis were collected twice, during the dry and rainy seasons. Three commercial honey samples from Apis sp. were also included in this study. Two different assays were performed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of the honey samples: agar-well diffusion and broth macrodilution. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to assess phenolic compounds from honey. HPLC analysis was performed in order to identify rutin and apigenin on honey samples. Chromatograms were recorded at 340 and 290 nm. Results Two honey samples were identified as having the highest antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Honey produced by Melipona compressipes manaosensis inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (0157: H7), Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei and Klebsiella sp. A sample of honey produced by Apis sp. also inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi. The macrodilution technique presented greater sensitivity for the antibacterial testing, since all honey samples showed activity. Flavonoid rutin was identified in the honey sample produced by the stingless bee. Conclusions Honey samples tested in this work showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The results reported herein highlight the potential of using honey to control bacterial growth. PMID:23815879

  15. "More than Honey": Investigation on Volatiles from Monovarietal Honeys Using New Analytical and Sensory Approaches.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Barbara; Urdl, Katharina; Jurek, Andrea; Leitner, Erich

    2018-03-14

    Eight monovarietal honeys from dandelion, fir tree, linden tree, chestnut tree, robinia, orange, lavender, and rape were investigated with respect to their volatile compounds and sensory properties. Analysis of the volatile compounds was performed by gas chromatographic techniques (one-dimensional GC-MS as well as comprehensive GC×GC-MS). For sensory evaluation Napping in combination with ultraflash profiling was applied using sensory experts. For dandelion honey, 34 volatile compounds are described for the first time to be present in dandelion honey. PCA and cluster analysis of the volatile compounds, respectively, show high correlation with the PCA obtained from sensory evaluation. Lavender and linden honey showed sensory characteristics that were not expected from these honey types. Analysis of the volatile compounds resulted in the identification of odor-active compounds that are very likely derived from sources other than the respective honeyflow. Contamination with essential oils used in apiculture is very likely to be the reason for the occurrence of these compounds in the investigated honeys.

  16. A Look into the Cell: Honey Storage in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Michael; Neumann, Peter; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees, Apis species, obtain carbohydrates from nectar and honeydew. These resources are ripened into honey in wax cells that are capped for long-term storage. These stores are used to overcome dearth periods when foraging is not possible. Despite the economic and ecological importance of honey, little is known about the processes of its production by workers. Here, we monitored the usage of storage cells and the ripening process of honey in free-flying A. mellifera colonies. We provided the colonies with solutions of different sugar concentrations to reflect the natural influx of nectar with varying quality. Since the amount of carbohydrates in a solution affects its density, we used computer tomography to measure the sugar concentration of cell content over time. The data show the occurrence of two cohorts of cells with different provisioning and ripening dynamics. The relocation of the content of many cells before final storage was part of the ripening process, because sugar concentration of the content removed was lower than that of content deposited. The results confirm the mixing of solutions of different concentrations in cells and show that honey is an inhomogeneous matrix. The last stage of ripening occurred when cell capping had already started, indicating a race against water absorption. The storage and ripening processes as well as resource use were context dependent because their dynamics changed with sugar concentration of the food. Our results support hypotheses regarding honey production proposed in earlier studies and provide new insights into the mechanisms involved.

  17. VIS/NIR imaging application for honey floral origin determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaei, Saeid; Shafiee, Sahameh; Polder, Gerrit; Moghadam-Charkari, Nasrolah; van Ruth, Saskia; Barzegar, Mohsen; Zahiri, Javad; Alewijn, Martin; Kuś, Piotr M.

    2017-11-01

    Nondestructive methods are of utmost importance for honey characterization. This study investigates the potential application of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging for detection of honey flower origin using machine learning techniques. Hyperspectral images of 52 honey samples were taken in transmittance mode in the visible/near infrared (VIS-NIR) range (400-1000 nm). Three different machine learning algorithms were implemented to predict honey floral origin using honey spectral images. These methods, included radial basis function (RBF) network, support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF). Principal component analysis (PCA) was also exploited for dimensionality reduction. According to the obtained results, the best classifier (RBF) achieved a precision of 94% in a fivefold cross validation experiment using only the first two PCs. Mapping of the classifier results to the test set images showed 90% accuracy for honey images. Three types of honey including buckwheat, rapeseed and heather were classified with 100% accuracy. The proposed approach has great potential for honey floral origin detection. As some other honey properties can also be predicted using image features, in addition to floral origin detection, this method may be applied to predict other honey characteristics.

  18. Honey: A Therapeutic Agent for Disorders of the Skin

    PubMed Central

    McLoone, Pauline; Oluwadun, Afolabi; Warnock, Mary; Fyfe, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Problems with conventional treatments for a range of dermatological disorders have led scientists to search for new compounds of therapeutic value. Efforts have included the evaluation of natural products such as honey. Manuka honey, for example, has been scientifically recognised for its anti-microbial and wound healing properties and is now used clinically as a topical treatment for wound infections. In this review, scientific evidence for the effectiveness of honey in the treatment of wounds and other skin conditions is evaluated. A plethora of in vitro studies have revealed that honeys from all over the world have potent antimicrobial activity against skin relevant microbes. Moreover, a number of in vitro studies suggest that honey is able to modulate the skin immune system. Clinical research has shown honey to be efficacious in promoting the healing of partial thickness burn wounds while its effectiveness in the treatment of non-burn acute wounds and chronic wounds is conflicted. Published research investigating the efficacy of honey in the treatment of other types of skin disorders is limited. Nevertheless, positive effects have been reported, for example, kanuka honey from New Zealand was shown to have therapeutic value in the treatment of rosacea. Anti-carcinogenic effects of honey have also been observed in vitro and in a murine model of melanoma. It can be concluded that honey is a biologically active and clinically interesting substance but more research is necessary for a comprehensive understanding of its medicinal value in dermatology. PMID:29138732

  19. Attitudes towards honey among Italian consumers: A choice experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residues of antibacterial drugs in honey from the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Baggio, A; Gallina, A; Benetti, C; Mutinelli, F

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs are used worldwide for the control of American and, less often, European foulbrood. Their administration is mostly uncontrolled and applied without approved protocols and instructions for use as well as precautionary recommendations. Consequently, this practice is responsible for the contamination of beehive products and contributes to the problem of food safety. According to this situation, 4672 analyses were carried out on 5303 honeys collected from 2001 to 2007. These samples were investigated for antibacterial residues of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tylosin. Honeys were classified according to their origin: imported honey and honey from the Italian market. In the last group (only for samples collected from 2001 to 2004), another type of honey was distinguished: that of local honey. A total of 6.3% of all samples were positive for the antibacterial drugs analysed; in particular, 6.8% of imported honeys and 6.1% of honeys on the Italian market. Only 1.7% of local honey had antibacterial residues. These results are indicative of a rather frequent presence of antibacterial drug residues in both Italian and imported honeys. Furthermore, the data showed that among the active substances analysed, sulphonamides are the most used antibacterial substance followed by tetracyclines, streptomycin, tylosin, and chloramphenicol. Finally, a continuous monitoring programme is needed, accompanied by an education programme to beekeepers on proper hive management.

  1. Stingless Bee Honey, the Natural Wound Healer: A Review.

    PubMed

    Abd Jalil, Mohd Azri; Kasmuri, Abdul Razak; Hadi, Hazrina

    2017-01-01

    The stingless bee is a natural type of bee that exists in almost every continent. The honey produced by this bee has been widely used across time and space. The distinctive feature of this honey is that it is stored naturally in the pot (cerumen), thus contributing to its beneficial properties, especially in the wound healing process. In this article, several studies on stingless bee honey that pointed out the numerous therapeutic profiles of this honey in terms of its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, as well as moisturizing properties are reviewed. All of these therapeutic properties are related to wound healing properties. Antioxidant in stingless bee honey could break the chain of free radicals that cause a detrimental effect to the wounded area. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties of stingless bee honey could overcome the bacterial contamination and thus improve the healing rate. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory attribute in this honey could protect the tissue from highly toxic inflammatory mediators. The moisturizing properties of the honey could improve wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and oxygen circulation. The application of honey to the wound has been widely used since ancient times. As a result, it is essential to understand the pharmacological mechanism of the honey towards the physiology of the wounded skin in order to optimize the healing rate in the future. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Honey in wound care: antibacterial properties

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Honey is an ancient wound treatment that was re-introduced into modern medical practice in Australasia and Europe following the development of regulated wound care products. Its therapeutic properties are attributed to its antimicrobial activity and its ability to stimulate rapid wound healing. This review will briefly describe the evidence that demonstrates its antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20204083

  3. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  4. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-07-27

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were also observed in the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics suggesting different production technologies. A first list of sensory attributes was obtained for this beverage. Therefore, further research must be done in order to characterize this spirit drink, which has gained market value.

  5. New allozyme variability in Italian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, W S; Berlocher, S H

    1985-01-01

    Adult workers of the honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, from Italy were assayed for enzyme polymorphism using a variety of electrophoretic conditions. Three polymorphic enzyme systems are described, two of which, malic enzyme and an esterase, were previously unknown in indigenous A. m. ligustica. In addition, a new allozyme for the Mdh locus is reported.

  6. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed in the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics suggesting different production technologies. A first list of sensory attributes was obtained for this beverage. Therefore, further research must be done in order to characterize this spirit drink, which has gained market value. PMID:28749420

  7. Honey Bee Hemocyte Profiling by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Marringa, William J.; Krueger, Michael J.; Burritt, Nancy L.; Burritt, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure. PMID:25285798

  8. Honey bee hemocyte profiling by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Marringa, William J; Krueger, Michael J; Burritt, Nancy L; Burritt, James B

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure.

  9. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  10. Functionality of Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) When Used for Western U.S. Honey Production and Almond Pollination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two types of honey bees, Apis mellifera L., bred for resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman, were evaluated for performance when used for honey production in Montana, USA, and for almond pollination the following winter. Colonies of Russian honey bees (RHB) and outcrossed honey bees with...

  11. Three-dimensional facial analyses of Indian and Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Kusugal, Preethi; Ruttonji, Zarir; Gowda, Roopa; Rajpurohit, Ladusingh; Lad, Pritam; Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Facial measurements serve as a valuable tool in the treatment planning of maxillofacial rehabilitation, orthodontic treatment, and orthognathic surgeries. The esthetic guidelines of face are still based on neoclassical canons, which were used in the ancient art. These canons are considered to be highly subjective, and there is ample evidence in the literature, which raises such questions as whether or not these canons can be applied for the modern population. This study was carried out to analyze the facial features of Indian and Malaysian women by using three-dimensional (3D) scanner and thus determine the prevalence of neoclassical facial esthetic canons in both the groups. The study was carried out on 60 women in the age range of 18-25 years, out of whom 30 were Indian and 30 Malaysian. As many as 16 facial measurements were taken by using a noncontact 3D scanner. Unpaired t-test was used for comparison of facial measurements between Indian and Malaysian females. Two-tailed Fisher exact test was used to determine the prevalence of neoclassical canons. Orbital Canon was prevalent in 80% of Malaysian women; the same was found only in 16% of Indian women (P = 0.00013). About 43% of Malaysian women exhibited orbitonasal canon (P = 0.0470) whereas nasoaural canon was prevalent in 73% of Malaysian and 33% of Indian women (P = 0.0068). Orbital, orbitonasal, and nasoaural canon were more prevalent in Malaysian women. Facial profile canon, nasooral, and nasofacial canons were not seen in either group. Though some canons provide guidelines in esthetic analyses of face, complete reliance on these canons is not justifiable.

  12. Genetic stock identification of Russian honey bees.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Lelania; Sheppard, Walter S; Sylvester, H Allen; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2010-06-01

    A genetic stock certification assay was developed to distinguish Russian honey bees from other European (Apis mellifera L.) stocks that are commercially produced in the United States. In total, 11 microsatellite and five single-nucleotide polymorphism loci were used. Loci were selected for relatively high levels of homogeneity within each group and for differences in allele frequencies between groups. A baseline sample consisted of the 18 lines of Russian honey bees released to the Russian Bee Breeders Association and bees from 34 queen breeders representing commercially produced European honey bee stocks. Suitability tests of the baseline sample pool showed high levels of accuracy. The probability of correct assignment was 94.2% for non-Russian bees and 93.3% for Russian bees. A neighbor-joining phenogram representing genetic distance data showed clear distinction of Russian and non-Russian honey bee stocks. Furthermore, a test of appropriate sample size showed a sample of eight bees per colony maximizes accuracy and consistency of the results. An additional 34 samples were tested as blind samples (origin unknown to those collecting data) to determine accuracy of individual assignment tests. Only one of these samples was incorrectly assigned. The 18 current breeding lines were represented among the 2009 blind sampling, demonstrating temporal stability of the genetic stock identification assay. The certification assay will be used through services provided by a service laboratory, by the Russian Bee Breeders Association to genetically certify their stock. The genetic certification will be used in conjunction with continued selection for favorable traits, such as honey production and varroa and tracheal mite resistance.

  13. Bioactivity of arid region honey: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Hilary, Serene; Habib, Hosam; Souka, Usama; Ibrahim, Wissam; Platat, Carine

    2017-03-29

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of honey have been largely recognized by various studies. Almost all of the potential benefits are associated with polyphenol content. Honey varieties from the arid region are reported to be rich in polyphenols, but data related to its bioactivity in vitro is greatly lacking. This study aimed at establishing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of arid region honey. Four honey varieties from arid region (H1, H2, H3, and H4) and two popular non-arid region honey (H5 and H6) were tested in vitro in this study. The erythrocyte membrane protection effect of honey varieties were measured by hemolysis assay after exposing erythrocytes to a peroxide generator. The subsequent production of MDA (malondialdehyde) content in erythrocytes was measured. Immunomodulatory effect of the honey varieties was tested in prostate cancer cells PC-3 and PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) by measuring the IL-6 (interleukin 6) and NO (nitric oxide) levels in cell culture supernatant after incubation with the honey varieties. PC-3 cell viability was assessed after incubation with honey varieties for 24 h. Arid region honey exhibited superior erythrocyte membrane protection effect with H4 measuring 1.3 ± 0.042mMTE/g and H2 measuring 1.122 ± 0.018mMTE/g. MDA levels were significantly reduced by honey samples, especially H4 (20.819 ± 0.63 nmol/mg protein). We observed a significant decrease in cell population in PC-3 after 24 h in culture on treatment with honey. A moderate increase in NO levels was observed in both cultures after 24 h at the same time levels of IL-6 were remarkably reduced by honey varieties. The results demonstrate the antioxidant effect of arid region honey due to its erythrocyte membrane protection effect and subsequent lowering of oxidative damage as evident from lower levels of lipid peroxidation byproduct MDA. Arid region honey varieties were as good as non-arid region types at decreasing

  14. Functional properties of honey supplemented with bee bread and propolis.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, S; Makarewicz, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work was characterisation of functional properties of honey enriched with propolis and beebread. In first step of experiment, soft propolis extract (SPEx) was obtained by extraction of propolis with ethanol. SPEx (0.25 to 1.0% w/w) as well as beebread (5 to 15% w/w) were implemented into natural honey. Fortified honeys were investigated in terms of total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, also their effects on the micro-organisms growth was examined. It was found that beebread had the most significant influence on antioxidant properties. On the other hand, all tested honeys showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli but not against Micrococcus luteus. Honeys with 1% of propolis addition were the most effective in this case. Research has indicated that for antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of honey, it is beneficial to enrich it in both beebread and propolis.

  15. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Kinetics of conversion of dihydroxyacetone to methylglyoxal in New Zealand mānuka honey: Part I--Honey systems.

    PubMed

    Grainger, Megan N C; Manley-Harris, Merilyn; Lane, Joseph R; Field, Richard J

    2016-07-01

    The kinetics of conversion of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) to methylglyoxal (MGO) were investigated in mānuka honeys and DHA-doped clover honeys stored between 4 and 37°C. Both the disappearance of DHA and appearance of MGO were confirmed as overall, first order reactions, albeit probably composites of multiple reactions. Increasing the storage temperature accelerated the rate of DHA loss and the initial rate of formation of MGO, but better conversion efficiency was observed at lower temperature. At 37°C, more MGO was lost at later times in mānuka honey compared to DHA-doped-clover honey. Thirty-seven New Zealand mānuka honeys and four clover honeys were analysed for various chemical and physical properties; comparison of rate constants and these parameters identified some positive correlations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial properties and isotope investigations of South African honey.

    PubMed

    Khan, F; Hill, J; Kaehler, S; Allsopp, M; van Vuuren, S

    2014-08-01

    The therapeutic potential of honey for the treatment of wound infections is well documented. However, South African (SA) honey has been poorly explored as an antimicrobial agent and given the well-established antimicrobial properties of the indigenous plant species from SA, there is the potential that honey from this geographical region may exhibit noteworthy anti-infective properties. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of 42 SA honey samples were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) agar dilution method was used to determine antimicrobial activity. The MICs of the honeys ranged from 6·25 to 50·00%. Samples 4-(CITYMIX/WC), 12-(BUSHVELD/KZN), 15-(ONION/WC), 16-(FYNBOS/WC), 17-(AKMS/FS), 19-(CITYMIX/FS), 41-(INDIGENOUS/WC) and 52-(SURBURBANGARDEN/WC) displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The physicochemical properties including pH, water content and stable isotope analysis (SIA) was analysed. The pH of the honeys ranged between 3·89 and 5·09. The SIA revealed strong overall trends between protein concentration and MIC suggesting close links with antimicrobial activity. A number of SA honey samples tested have potential as an effective antimicrobial agent in wound healing. The future of South Africa's market for medical grade and therapeutic honeys looks promising as the antimicrobial properties of the honeys have some superior activity. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The Antibacterial Activity of Honey Derived from Australian Flora

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Julie; Blair, Shona; Carter, Dee A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic wound infections and antibiotic resistance are driving interest in antimicrobial treatments that have generally been considered complementary, including antimicrobially active honey. Australia has unique native flora and produces honey with a wide range of different physicochemical properties. In this study we surveyed 477 honey samples, derived from native and exotic plants from various regions of Australia, for their antibacterial activity using an established screening protocol. A level of activity considered potentially therapeutically useful was found in 274 (57%) of the honey samples, with exceptional activity seen in samples derived from marri (Corymbia calophylla), jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) and jellybush (Leptospermum polygalifolium). In most cases the antibacterial activity was attributable to hydrogen peroxide produced by the bee-derived enzyme glucose oxidase. Non-hydrogen peroxide activity was detected in 80 (16.8%) samples, and was most consistently seen in honey produced from Leptospermum spp. Testing over time found the hydrogen peroxide-dependent activity in honey decreased, in some cases by 100%, and this activity was more stable at 4°C than at 25°C. In contrast, the non-hydrogen peroxide activity of Leptospermum honey samples increased, and this was greatest in samples stored at 25°C. The stability of non-peroxide activity from other honeys was more variable, suggesting this activity may have a different cause. We conclude that many Australian honeys have clinical potential, and that further studies into the composition and stability of their active constituents are warranted. PMID:21464891

  19. Absence of bacterial resistance to medical-grade manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Jenkins, L; Henriques, A F M; Duggan, R S; Burton, N F

    2010-10-01

    Clinical use of honey in the topical treatment of wounds has increased in Europe and North America since licensed wound care products became available in 2004 and 2007, respectively. Honey-resistant bacteria have not been isolated from wounds, but there is a need to investigate whether honey has the potential to select for honey resistance. Two cultures of bacteria from reference collections (Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 10017 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and four cultures isolated from wounds (Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. epidermidis) were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of manuka honey in continuous and stepwise training experiments to determine whether the susceptibility to honey diminished. Reduced susceptibilities to manuka honey in the test organisms during long-term stepwise resistance training were found, but these changes were not permanent and honey-resistant mutants were not detected. The risk of bacteria acquiring resistance to honey will be low if high concentrations are maintained clinically.

  20. Prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction injuries.

    PubMed

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Shaseb, Elnaz; Ghaffary, Saba; Najafi, Moslem

    2013-07-01

    Potential protective effects of prolonged preconditioning with natural honey against myocardial infarction were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with honey (1%, 2% and 4%) for 45 days then their hearts were isolated and mounted on a Langendorff apparatus and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution during 30 min regional ischemia fallowed by 120 min reperfusion. Two important indexes of ischemia-induced damage (infarction size and arrhythmias) were determined by computerized planimetry and ECG analysis, respectively. Honey (1% and 2%) reduced infarct size from 23±3.1% (control) to 9.7±2.4 and 9.5±2.3%, respectively (P<0.001). At the ischemia, honey (1%) significantly reduced (P<0.05) the number and duration of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Honey (1% and 2%) also significantly decreased number of ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs). In addition, incidence and duration of reversible ventricular fibrillation (Rev VF) were lowered by honey 2% (P<0.05). During reperfusion, honey produced significant reduction in the incidences of VT, total and Rev VF, duration and number of VT. The results showed cardioprotective effects of prolonged pre-treatment of rats with honey following myocardial infarction. Maybe, the existence of antioxidants and energy sources (glucose and fructose) in honey composition and improvement of hemodynamic functions may involve in those protective effects.

  1. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

  2. Volatile profile in the accurate labelling of monofloral honey. The case of lavender and thyme honey.

    PubMed

    Escriche, Isabel; Sobrino-Gregorio, Lara; Conchado, Andrea; Juan-Borrás, Marisol

    2017-07-01

    The proliferation of hybrid plant varieties without pollen, such as lavender, has complicated the classification of specific types of honey. This study evaluated the correlation between the proclaimed type of monofloral honey (lavender or thyme) as appears on the label with the actual percentage of pollen. In addition, physicochemical parameters, colour, olfacto-gustatory profile, and volatile compounds were tested. All of the samples labelled as lavender were wrongly classified according to the usual commercial criteria (minimum 10% of pollen Lavandula spp.). In the case of lavender honey, there was significant agreement between commercial labelling and classification through organoleptic perception (81.8%), and above all between the commercial labelling and the volatile compounds (90.9%). For thyme honey, agreement for both parameters was 90.0%. These results offer compelling evidence that the volatile compounds are useful for the classification of lavender honey with low levels of pollen since this technique agrees well with the organoleptic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  4. Assessing Quality of Working Life Among Malaysian Workers.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Nur Suffia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Mat Yassim, Abdul Rahim; Van Laar, Darren; Chinna, Karuthan; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-11-01

    The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale-2 (WRQLS-2) has been used to measure quality of working life (QOWL) in the United Kingdom. In this study, the scale was translated and normalized into Malay. The scale was translated using the back-translation method, pretesting, and pilot testing. It was conducted among health care and office workers. It was tested in 3 stages; confirmatory factor analysis at stages 1 and 3 and exploratory factor analysis at stage 2. The Malaysian WRQLS-2 had 5 factors: "General Well-Being," "Job and Career Satisfaction," "Employee Engagement," "Home-Work Interface," and "Stress at Work." The scale showed good convergent and construct validity and also reliability. Perception of good QOWL may differ because of cultural influences and varying work environments. The validated Malaysian WRQLS-2 can be used to determine the QOWL of Malaysian office and health care workers. © 2015 APJPH.

  5. Traditional Postpartum Practices Among Malaysian Mothers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Fadzil, Fariza; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-07-01

    To briefly describe the postpartum practices among the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia and to identify commonalities in their traditional postpartum beliefs and practices. This narrative review collated information on traditional postpartum practices among Malaysian mothers through a literature search for published research papers on traditional postpartum practices in Malaysia. This review shows that Malaysian mothers have certain postpartum practices that they considered to be important for preventing future ill health. Despite the perceived differences in intra-ethnic postpartum practices, most Malaysian mothers, although from different ethnicities, share similarities in their postpartum regimens and practices in terms of beliefs and adherence to food taboos, use of traditional postpartum massage and traditional herbs, and acknowledgment of the role of older female family members in postpartum care. Health care providers should be aware of multiethnic traditional postpartum practices and use the commonalities in these practices as part of their postpartum care regimen.

  6. Malaysian nurses' evaluation of transnational higher education courses.

    PubMed

    Arunasalam, Nirmala

    The internationalisation of higher education has led some UK and Australian universities to deliver transnational higher education (TNHE) post-registration top-up nursing degree courses in Malaysia. These are bridging courses that allow registered nurses to upgrade their diploma qualifications to degree level. What is not sufficiently explored in the literature is nurses' evaluation of these courses and the impact of TNHE qualifications. A hermeneutic phenomenology approach was used to explore the views of 18 Malaysian nurses from one Australian and two UK TNHE universities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to enable the Malaysian nurses to evaluate the courses. Data were analysed by thematic analysis. Findings showed a gap between Malaysian and Western teaching and learning outlook, professional values and clinical practices. The data give important insights at a time when the aim of Malaysia's investment in TNHE courses is to attain a graduate workforce with changed mindsets and enhanced patient care.

  7. Prevention of renal failure: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Hooi, Lai Seong; Wong, Hin Seng; Morad, Zaki

    2005-04-01

    Renal replacement therapy in Malaysia has shown exponential growth since 1990. The dialysis acceptance rate for 2003 was 80 per million population, prevalence 391 per million population. There are now more than 10,000 patients on dialysis. This growth is proportional to the growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Improvement in nephrology and urology services with widespread availability of ultrasonography and renal pathology has improved care of renal patients. Proper management of renal stone disease, lupus nephritis, and acute renal failure has decreased these as causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in younger age groups. Older patients are being accepted for dialysis, and 51% of new patients on dialysis were diabetic in 2003. The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the country (presently 7%); glycemic control of such patients is suboptimal. Thirty-three percent of adult Malaysians are hypertensive and blood pressure control is poor (6%). There is a national coordinating committee to oversee the control of diabetes and hypertension in the country. Primary care clinics have been provided with kits to detect microalbuminuria, and ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Prevention of renal failure workshops targeted at primary care doctors have been launched, opportunistic screening at health clinics is being carried out, and public education targeting high-risk groups is ongoing. The challenge in Malaysia is to stem the rising tide of diabetic ESRD.

  8. Development and promotion of Malaysian Dietary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Tee, E-Siong

    2011-01-01

    Development and promotion of dietary guidelines is one of the key activities outlined in the National Plan of Action for Nutrition of Malaysia for the prevention of nutrition-related disorders. The first official Malaysian Dietary Guidelines (MDG) was published in 1999 and was thoroughly reviewed and launched on 25 March 2010. The new MDG 2010 is a compilation of science-based nutrition and physical activity recommendations. These guidelines form the basis of consistent and scientifically sound nutrition messages for the public. There are 14 key messages and 55 recommendations, covering the whole range of food and nutrition issues, from importance of consuming a variety of foods to guidance on specific food groups, messages to encourage physical activities, consuming safe food and beverages and making effective use of nutrition information on food labels. The MDG also has an updated food pyramid. Various efforts have been made to ensure that the revised MDG is disseminated to all stakeholders. The Ministry of Health has organised a series of workshops for nutritionists and other health care professionals, and the food industry. In collaboration with other professional bodies and the private sector, the Nutrition Society of Malaysia has been promoting the dissemination and usage of the MDG to the public through a variety of formats and channels. These include the publication of a series of leaflets, educational press articles, educational booklets, as well as through educational activities for children. It is imperative to monitor the usage and evaluation of these dietary messages.

  9. Inactivation kinetics of invertase in honey and honey-glucose syrup formulations: effects of temperature and water activity.

    PubMed

    Sramek, Martin; Woerz, Benjamin; Horn, Helmut; Weiss, Jochen; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-03-01

    The high viscosity and stickiness of honey in its natural state causes handling difficulties, therefore the demand for honey powder is continuously increasing. Powder preparation has to be performed gently because of the thermo- and oxidation- sensitive nature of honey. The aim of this study was to determine the degradation of invertase during drying as an indirect measure of the retention of valuable honey nutrients. The reaction kinetics were estimated in polyfloral honey and honey-glucose syrup (GS) formulation and the impact of temperature (40-70°C) and water activity (a w 0.23-0.81) was established. The honey-GS formulation (55:45 w/w) was intended for the preparation of high-grade honey powders using the vacuum-drying method. Invertase inactivation at temperatures below 60°C followed first-order kinetics. At 60°C high dilution (a w 0.81) and at 70°C, heterogeneous inactivation behaviour was observed. The best fit of invertase heterogeneous inactivation kinetic was achieved with the Cerf two-fraction model. The GS addition showed a stabilizing effect on invertase during thermal degradation. The data on invertase inactivation gathered here can be utilized to select optimal parameters for honey vacuum-drying and other thermal processes in order to achieve maximum invertase retention. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Physicochemical properties of honey from Marche, Central Italy: classification of unifloral and multifloral honeys by multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldia, Anna; Finale, Carolina; Rossetti, Monica; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was the physicochemical characterization and classification of Italian honey from Marche Region with a chemometric approach. A total of 135 honeys of different botanical origins [acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), chestnut (Castanea sativa), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), lime (Tilia spp.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Metcalfa honeydew and multifloral honey] were considered. The average results of electrical conductivity (0.14-1.45 mS cm(-1)), pH (3.89-5.42), free acidity (10.9-39.0 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), lactones (2.4-4.5 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), total acidity (14.5-40.9 meq(NaOH) kg(-1)), proline (229-665 mg kg(-1)) and 5-(hydroxy-methyl)-2-furaldehyde (0.6-3.9 mg kg(-1)) content show wide variability among the analysed honey types, with statistically significant differences between the different honey types. Pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis were performed in order to find a relationship between variables and types of honey and to classify honey on the basis of its physicochemical properties. The variables of electrical conductivity, acidity (free, lactones), pH and proline content exhibited higher discriminant power and provided enough information for the classification and distinction of unifloral honey types, but not for the classification of multifloral honey (100% and 85% of samples correctly classified, respectively).

  11. Pesticide Residues in Honey from the Major Honey Producing Forest Belts in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Addai Tabi, Jonah; Adjaloo, Michael Kodwo; Borquaye, Lawrence Sheringham

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides residues in honey sampled from the major honey producing forest belts in Ghana were determined. Samples were purposively collected and extracted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method and analysed for synthetic pyrethroids, organochlorine, and organophosphate pesticide residues. Aldrin, γ-HCH, β-HCH, ∑endosulfan, cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin methoxychlor, ∑DDT, chlorpyrifos, fenvalerate, malathion, dimethoate, and diazinon were all detected at the concentration of 0.01 mg/kg, while cyfluthrin and permethrin were detected at mean concentrations of 0.02 and 0.04 mg/kg, respectively. All the pesticide residues detected were very low and below their respective maximum residue limits set by the European Union. Hence, pesticide residues in honey samples analyzed do not pose any health risk to consumers. PMID:28951746

  12. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoffrey R.; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances. PMID:26459072

  13. Grayanotoxin poisoning: 'mad honey disease' and beyond.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Suze A; Kleerekooper, Iris; Hofman, Zonne L M; Kappen, Isabelle F P M; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    2012-09-01

    Many plants of the Ericaceae family, Rhododendron, Pieris, Agarista and Kalmia, contain diterpene grayanotoxins. Consumption of grayanotoxin containing leaves, flowers or secondary products as honey may result in intoxication specifically characterized by dizziness, hypotension and atrial-ventricular block. Symptoms are caused by an inability to inactivate neural sodium ion channels resulting in continuous increased vagal tone. Grayanotoxin containing products are currently sold online, which may pose an increasing risk. In humans, intoxication is rarely lethal, in contrast to cattle and pet poisoning cases. Scientific evidence for the medicinal properties of grayanotoxin containing preparations, such as honey or herbal preparation in use in folk medicine, is scarce, and such use may even be harmful.

  14. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-10-13

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances.

  15. SmartG: Spontaneous Malaysian Augmented Reality Tourist Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Vinothini; Mustapha, Aida; Subramaniam, Tanabalan

    2016-11-01

    In effort to attract higher tourist expenditure along with higher tourist arrivals, this paper proposes a travel application called the SmartG, acronym for Spontaneous Malaysian Augmented Reality Tourist Guide, which operates by making recommendations to user based on the travel objective and individual budget constraints. The applications relies on augmented reality technology, whereby a three dimensional model is presented to the user based on input from real world environment. User testing returned a favorable feedback on the concept of using augmented reality in promoting Malaysian tourism.

  16. Honey and Health: A Review of Recent Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samini, Fariborz

    2017-01-01

    Honey is one of the most appreciated and valued natural products introduced to humankind since ancient times. Honey is used not only as a nutritional product but also in health described in traditional medicine and as an alternative treatment for clinical conditions ranging from wound healing to cancer treatment. The aim of this review is to emphasize the ability of honey and its multitude in medicinal aspects. Traditionally, honey is used in the treatment of eye diseases, bronchial asthma, throat infections, tuberculosis, thirst, hiccups, fatigue, dizziness, hepatitis, constipation, worm infestation, piles, eczema, healing of ulcers, and wounds and used as a nutritious supplement. The ingredients of honey have been reported to exert antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anticancer, and antimetastatic effects. Many evidences suggest the use of honey in the control and treatment of wounds, diabetes mellitus, cancer, asthma, and also cardiovascular, neurological, and gastrointestinal diseases. Honey has a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of disease by phytochemical, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Flavonoids and polyphenols, which act as antioxidants, are two main bioactive molecules present in honey. According to modern scientific literature, honey may be useful and has protective effects for the treatment of various disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems, even it is useful in cancer treatment because many types of antioxidant are present in honey. In conclusion, honey could be considered as a natural therapeutic agent for various medicinal purposes. Sufficient evidence exists recommending the use of honey in the management of disease conditions. Based on these facts, the use of honey in clinical wards is highly recommended. SUMMARY There are several evidence that suggesting the usage of honey in the management of disease

  17. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial action of Melilotus albus honey.

    PubMed

    Sowa, P; Grabek-Lejko, D; Wesołowska, M; Swacha, S; Dżugan, M

    2017-07-01

    Honey originating from different floral sources exhibits the broad spectrum of antibacterial activity as a result of the presence of hydrogen peroxide as well as nonperoxide bioactive compounds. The mechanisms of antibacterial activity of Polish melilot honey were investigated for the first time. Polish melilot honey samples (Melilotus albus biennial = 3 and annual = 5, Melilotus officinalis = 1) were collected directly from beekeepers and analysed for pollen profile, basic physicochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents as well as antibacterial properties against pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. The physicochemical properties of melilot honey were specific for light-coloured unifloral honey samples and were not dependent on its botanical and geographical origin (P > 0·05). All tested honey samples exhibited inhibitory activity (above 90%) against Gram-positive bacteria at the concentration of 12·5-25%. Above 30-50% of antibacterial activity of melilot honey was connected with glucose oxidase enzyme action and was destroyed in the presence of catalase. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent antibacterial activity of honey was inversely correlated with its radical scavenging activity (r = -0·67) and phenolic compounds (r = -0·61). Antibacterial action of melilot honey depends not only on hydrogen peroxide produced by glucose oxidase, but also on other nonperoxide bioactive components of honey. Melilot honey is used in traditional medicine as an anticoagulant agent due to the possibility of the presence of the coumarin compounds which are specific for Melilotus plant. Melilotus albus is rarely used to produce honey, and antibacterial properties of this variety of honey had not been studied yet. Nine samples of melilot honey produced in different regions of Poland were analysed according to their antibacterial activity which was correlated

  18. Antibacterial effect of Manuka honey on Clostridium difficile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Manuka honey originates from the manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) and its antimicrobial effect has been attributed to a property referred to as Unique Manuka Factor that is absent in other types of honey. Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey has been documented for several bacterial pathogens, however there is no information on Clostridium difficile, an important nosocomial pathogen. In this study we investigated susceptibility of C. difficile to Manuka honey and whether the activity is bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Methods Three C. difficile strains were subjected to the broth dilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for Manuka honey. The agar well diffusion method was also used to investigate sensitivity of the C. difficile strains to Manuka honey. Results The MIC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). Similarly, MBC values of the three C. difficile strains were the same (6.25% v/v). The activity of Manuka honey against all three C. difficile strains was bactericidal. A dose–response relationship was observed between the concentrations of Manuka honey and zones of inhibition formed by the C. difficile strains, in which increasing concentrations of Manuka honey resulted in increasing size of zone of inhibition formed. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed at 50% (v/v) Manuka honey and the growth inhibition persisted over 7 days. Conclusion C. difficile is appreciably susceptible to Manuka honey and this may offer an effective way of treating infections caused by the organism. PMID:23651562

  19. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    PubMed

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  1. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  2. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Cornman, R. Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees. PMID:22927991

  3. Creating a honey bee consensus gene set.

    PubMed

    Elsik, Christine G; Mackey, Aaron J; Reese, Justin T; Milshina, Natalia V; Roos, David S; Weinstock, George M

    2007-01-01

    We wished to produce a single reference gene set for honey bee (Apis mellifera). Our motivation was twofold. First, we wished to obtain an improved set of gene models with increased coverage of known genes, while maintaining gene model quality. Second, we wished to provide a single official gene list that the research community could further utilize for consistent and comparable analyses and functional annotation. We created a consensus gene set for honey bee (Apis mellifera) using GLEAN, a new algorithm that uses latent class analysis to automatically combine disparate gene prediction evidence in the absence of known genes. The consensus gene models had increased representation of honey bee genes without sacrificing quality compared with any one of the input gene predictions. When compared with manually annotated gold standards, the consensus set of gene models was similar or superior in quality to each of the input sets. Most eukaryotic genome projects produce multiple gene sets because of the variety of gene prediction programs. Each of the gene prediction programs has strengths and weaknesses, and so the multiplicity of gene sets offers users a more comprehensive collection of genes to use than is available from a single program. On the other hand, the availability of multiple gene sets is also a cause for uncertainty among users as regards which set they should use. GLEAN proved to be an effective method to combine gene lists into a single reference set.

  4. Peak shift in honey bee olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Samuel C; Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B; Berthon, Katherine; Peralta, Veronica; Cheng, Ken

    2014-09-01

    If animals are trained with two similar stimuli such that one is rewarding (S+) and one punishing (S-), then following training animals show a greatest preference not for the S+, but for a novel stimulus that is slightly more different from the S- than the S+ is. This peak shift phenomenon has been widely reported for vertebrates and has recently been demonstrated for bumblebees and honey bees. To explore the nature of peak shift in invertebrates further, here we examined the properties of peak shift in honey bees trained in a free-flight olfactory learning assay. Hexanal and heptanol were mixed in different ratios to create a continuum of odour stimuli. Bees were trained to artificial flowers such that one odour mixture was rewarded with 2 molar sucrose (S+), and one punished with distasteful quinine (S-). After training, bees were given a non-rewarded preference test with five different mixtures of hexanal and heptanol. Following training bees' maximal preference was for an odour mixture slightly more distinct from the S- than the trained S+. This effect was not seen if bees were initially trained with two distinct odours, replicating the classic features of peak shift reported for vertebrates. We propose a conceptual model of how peak shift might occur in honey bees. We argue that peak shift does not require any higher level of processing than the known olfactory learning circuitry of the bee brain and suggest that peak shift is a very general feature of discrimination learning.

  5. What are the proteolytic enzymes of honey and what they do tell us? A fingerprint analysis by 2-D zymography of unifloral honeys.

    PubMed

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification.

  6. What Are the Proteolytic Enzymes of Honey and What They Do Tell Us? A Fingerprint Analysis by 2-D Zymography of Unifloral Honeys

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco; Larocca, Marilena; Polito, Teresa; Perna, Anna Maria; Padula, Maria Carmela; Martelli, Giuseppe; Riccio, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Honey is a sweet and healthy food produced by honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) from flower nectars. Using bidimensional zymography, we have detected the, until now unrevealed, proteolytic activities present in row honey samples. The resulting zymograms were specific for each type of the four unifloral honey under study, and enzymes were identified as serine proteases by the use of specific inhibitors. Further, using bidimensional electrophoresis, we have shown that honey proteases are able to degrade the major Royal Jelly proteins and in particular MRPJ-1, the protein that promotes queen differentiation in honeybees. Our findings open new perspectives for the better understanding of honeybee development, social behaviour and role in honey production. The now discovered honey proteases may influence honey properties and quality, and bidimensional zymograms might be useful to distinguish between different honey types, establish their age and floral origin, and allow honey certification. PMID:23145107

  7. Nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potentials of some major honey plants in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adgaba, Nuru; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Tadesse, Yilma; Getachew, Awraris; Awad, Awad M; Ansari, Mohammad J; Owayss, Ayman A; Mohammed, Seif Eldin A; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of a bee plant species to honey production depends on the plant's nectar secretion quality and quantity, which is mainly governed by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of the current study, was to investigate the nectar secretion dynamics and honey production potential of 14 major bee plant species of the target area. We examined the quantity and dynamics of nectar sugar per flower five times a day using a nectar sugar washing technique and direct measuring of nectar with calibrated capillary tubes. The average nectar sugar amount of the species varied from 0.41 mg/flower to 7.7 mg/flower ( P  < 0.0001). The honey sugar per flower was used to extrapolate the honey production potential per plant and per hectare of land. Accordingly the honey production potential of the species observed to vary from 14 kg/hectare in Otostegia fruticosa to 829 kg/hectare in Ziziphus spina-christi . The nectar secretion dynamics of the species generally showed an increasing trend early in the morning, peaking toward midday, followed by a decline but different species observed to have different peak nectar secretion times. Generally, the tree species secreted more nectar sugar/flower than the herbs. The nectar secretion amount of the species was positively correlated with the ambient temperature, indicating the adaptation of the species to hot climatic conditions. However, different species were observed to have a different optimum temperature for peak nectar secretion. Despite the limited rainfall and high temperature of the area, many plants were found to have good potential for honey production. The monetary value of honey per hectare of the studied honeybee plant species can be of equal or greater than the per-hectare monetary value of some cultivated crops that require numerous inputs. In addition, the information generated is believed to be useful in apiary site selection and to estimate the honey bee colony carrying capacity of an area.

  8. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  9. 76 FR 29192 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina: Final... honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... honey from Argentina to the United States during the period of review (POR) of December 1, 2008, to...

  10. 76 FR 16609 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-357-813] Honey From Argentina... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2010... order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66 FR...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.16 - Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan... MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.16 Release of the honey pledged as collateral for a loan. (a)(1) A producer shall not move or dispose of any honey pledged as collateral for a loan...

  15. Evaluation of physicochemical and antioxidant properties of two stingless bee honeys: a comparison with Apis mellifera honey from Nsukka, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nweze, Justus Amuche; Okafor, J I; Nweze, Emeka I; Nweze, Julius Eyiuche

    2017-11-06

    Several physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of two Nigerian stingless bee honey varieties (Melipona sp. and Hypotrigona sp.) were compared with Apis mellifera honey using standard analytical procedures. The mean pH of Apis mellifera, Hypotrigona sp. and Melipona sp. honeys were 4.24 ± 0.28, 3.75 ± 0.11 and 4.21 ± 0.37 respectively. The mean moisture contents of the honeys were 11.74 ± 0.47, 17.50 ± 0.80, and 13.86 ± 1.06%. Honey samples from Hypotrigona sp. when compared with other honey samples had the highest mean total dissolved solids (370.01 ± 22.51 ppm), hydroxymethylfurfural (16.58 ± 0.37 mg/kg), total acidity (35.57 ± 0.42 meq/kg), protein content (16.58 ± 0.37 g/kg), phenol content (527.41 ± 3.60 mg/kg), and ascorbic acid (161.69 ± 6.70 mg/kg), antioxidant equivalent-ascorbic acid assay value (342.33 ± 0.78 mg/kg) as well as ferric reducing power (666.88 ± 1.73 μM Fe(II)/100 g) (p < 0.05). Several strong correlations were observed among some of the parameters of the honeys. This is the first study to compare the properties of Nigerian honey bees. Our results suggested that these honeys (specifically Hypotrigona sp. honey) is a good source of antioxidants comparable to A. mellifera honey.

  16. Bees brought to their knees: Microbes affecting honey bee health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...

  17. Socialized Medicine: Individual and communal disease barriers in honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bees are attacked by numerous parasites and pathogens toward which they present defenses. In this review, we will briefly introduce the many pathogens and parasites afflicting honey bees, highlighting the biologies of specific taxonomic groups mainly as they relate to virulence and possible de...

  18. Synephrine - A potential biomarker for orange honey authenticity.

    PubMed

    Tette, Patrícia A S; Guidi, Letícia R; Bastos, Esther M A F; Fernandes, Christian; Gloria, Maria Beatriz A

    2017-08-15

    A LC-MS/MS method for synephrine as a biomarker for orange honey authenticity was developed and validated. The sample was extracted with 5% TCA and cleaned up with Florisil providing 83.7% recoveries. Ions transitions for quantification and identification were 168→135.0 and 168→107.0, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.66 and 1.0ng/g, respectively. Synephrine was detected in orange honey at levels from 79.2 to 432.2ng/g, but not in other monofloral honeys. It was also present in some wildflower honeys (9.4-236.5ng/g), showing contribution of citrus to this polyfloral honey. Results were confirmed by qualitative pollen analysis. No citrus pollen was detected in honey containing synephrine levels ≤43.8ng/g, suggesting that synephrine in honey is more sensitive compared to pollen analysis. Synephrine was found in citrus but not in other apiculture flowers. Therefore, synephrine is a botanical marker to differentiate and attest authenticity of orange honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coordinated responses to honey bee decline in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In response to successive years of high honey bee mortality, the United States Congress mandated the U.S. Department of Agriculture to increase funding for research and education directed at reducing honey bee decline. The funding followed two administrative streams within USDA – one through the USD...

  20. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  1. A honey bee can threat ear: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Düzenli, Ufuk; Bozan, Nazım; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Kıroğlu, Ahmet Faruk

    2017-11-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an otologic emergency. Many etiological factors can lead to this pathology. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sting may lead to local and systemic reactions due to sensitization of the patient. In this paper we described a sudden sensorineural hearing loss occurred after honey bee sting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Campeau, Michelle E M; Patel, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78-0.82, indicating an additive interaction. Scanning electron microscopy of S. aureus IDRL-4284 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms exposed to Manuka honey and artificial honey containing the same sugar composition as Manuka honey showed that the former had more pronounced effects than the latter on both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Visualized effects included distorted cell morphologies for both bacteria and a decrease in P. aeruginosa extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Manuka honey has a synergistic interaction with vancomycin against S. aureus biofilms and an additive interaction with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  3. Manuka honey inhibits siderophore production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kronda, J M; Cooper, R A; Maddocks, S E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether manuka honey affected siderophore production by three strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of manuka honey against each of the test bacteria was determined. The effect of manuka honey on siderophore production by three strains of Ps. aeruginosa was investigated using the Chrome azurol S assay (CAS) and CAS-agar plates. Manuka honey at ½ and ¼ of the MIC for each strain led to reduced production of siderophores (1·3-2·2-fold less) which was found to be statistically significant when compared to the untreated control. Manuka honey effectively inhibited siderophore production by all three strains of Ps. aeruginosa used in this study. This suggests that manuka honey may impact on bacterial iron homoeostasis and identified a new target for manuka honey in Ps. aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that can cause acute, life-threatening or persistent wound infections. Part of the virulence repertoire of this micro-organism includes the ability to sequester iron from the host during infection by the synthesis and secretion of siderophores. Manuka honey may limit wound infection by Ps. aeruginosa by limiting its ability to capture iron. This is the first time this mechanism has been investigated. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Antibiofilm Activity of Manuka Honey in Combination with Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Michelle E. M.; Patel, Robin

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the in vitro activity of Manuka honey against biofilm bacteria in combination with antibiotics and visualized the effect of Manuka honey on bacterial biofilms using scanning electron microscopy. The fractional biofilm eradication concentration (∑FBEC) index for vancomycin plus Manuka honey against S. aureus IDRL-4284 biofilms was 0.34, indicating a synergistic interaction. The ∑FBEC index for gentamicin plus Manuka honey against P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms was 0.78–0.82, indicating an additive interaction. Scanning electron microscopy of S. aureus IDRL-4284 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms exposed to Manuka honey and artificial honey containing the same sugar composition as Manuka honey showed that the former had more pronounced effects than the latter on both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. Visualized effects included distorted cell morphologies for both bacteria and a decrease in P. aeruginosa extracellular matrix. In conclusion, Manuka honey has a synergistic interaction with vancomycin against S. aureus biofilms and an additive interaction with gentamicin against P. aeruginosa biofilms. PMID:26904740

  5. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...

  6. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    PubMed

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  7. Antioxidants in wax cappings of honey bee brood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first time that non-food items from honey bee colonies were assessed for antioxidant activity as it related to Varroa-infestation. Antioxidant activity may be an indication of bee health and while antioxidants are present in honey, propolis, pollen and royal jelly, little work has been...

  8. Treatment of non-healing leg ulcers with honeydew honey.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Alexander; Slezak, Viliam; Takac, Peter; Olejnik, Juraj; Majtan, Juraj

    2014-08-01

    Honey is used as a traditional medicine for centuries by different cultures for the treatment of various disorders. However, not all honeys exhibit equal antimicrobial potency and only a few meet the criteria for clinical usage. The aim of the study was to determine clinical efficacy of sterilised honeydew honey in the treatment of the lower leg ulcers in 25 patients. Furthermore, we evaluated honey acceptability of patients in terms of pain and overall satisfaction. A total of 25 patients with chronic venous leg ulcers were recruited into this study. The 100% γ-irradiated sterile honeydew honey was applied onto the cleaned wounds and each wound was assessed at the least two times in for a period of 6 weeks. During the course of treatment, the average wound area of all patients decreased significantly from 51 (3-150) to 22 (0-91) cm(2). Eighteen patients (72%) experienced a decrease in reported pain levels while five patients (20%) experienced the same level of pain throughout the study. The overall satisfaction with honey treatment was positive in 80% of patients. Only two patients experienced poor tolerance due to problems at ulcer site related to pain. Based on these findings, honeydew honey has the potential to be one of the medical-grade honeys. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Insights into the Health Importance of Natural Honey

    PubMed Central

    Ajibola, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    Honey is a sweet, flavourful liquid substance with several beneficial constituents. Extensive research has shown the therapeutic promise of the use of honey in enhancing health values and improving body systems. This manuscript documents the ancient medicinal uses of honey and provides evidence-based data demonstrating its benefits in animal models, patients, and healthy individuals. Several reports by various researchers are discussed regarding health indices and biomarkers used following apitherapy. These include physiological processes in virtually all animal and human organs. The responses of body systems after oral and systemic administration of honey are also mentioned. Honey is also evaluated for its wide acceptability as a complementary and alternative medicine for most ailments. All types of honey exhibit different biochemical activities and show greater variability in their potency as apitherapeutic agents than conventional medicines. The mechanisms of action conferring honey’s protective effects, as suggested by various authors, are documented. These entail synergistic interaction of the bioactive physical and chemical constituents of honey to produce the desired beneficial effects. The use of apitherapy in synergy with chemotherapy to manage microbial and cancer ailments is also helpful in reducing drug-induced cytotoxicity. The mechanistic insights into the overall protective, preventive, and therapeutic effects of honey portend the presence of a unique factor, a ‘synergistic multiple ingredients factor’, designated SMIF. PMID:28239264

  10. Honey: A Potential Therapeutic Agent for Managing Diabetic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wounds are unlike typical wounds in that they are slower to heal, making treatment with conventional topical medications an uphill process. Among several different alternative therapies, honey is an effective choice because it provides comparatively rapid wound healing. Although honey has been used as an alternative medicine for wound healing since ancient times, the application of honey to diabetic wounds has only recently been revived. Because honey has some unique natural features as a wound healer, it works even more effectively on diabetic wounds than on normal wounds. In addition, honey is known as an “all in one” remedy for diabetic wound healing because it can combat many microorganisms that are involved in the wound process and because it possesses antioxidant activity and controls inflammation. In this review, the potential role of honey's antibacterial activity on diabetic wound-related microorganisms and honey's clinical effectiveness in treating diabetic wounds based on the most recent studies is described. Additionally, ways in which honey can be used as a safer, faster, and effective healing agent for diabetic wounds in comparison with other synthetic medications in terms of microbial resistance and treatment costs are also described to support its traditional claims. PMID:25386217

  11. Medical honey and its role in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Weissenstein, Anne; Luchter, Elisabeth; Bittmann, Stefan

    The use of complementary medical treatment in wound management has continued to grow throughout the world. There is a large body of evidence that supports the use of honey as a wound dressing for a wide range of wound types. The authors present an update of present knowledge about honey as a form of complementary medicine in paediatric wound management. The literature cited was found by searching the PubMed, BIOSIS and ISI Web of Science databases for the phrase 'honey and wound'. Papers where honey was used in a mixture with other therapeutic substances were excluded. Randomised controlled trials as well as case studies were taken into consideration. This paper reviews data on the effectiveness of honey in wound healing; 80 citations or references were found that matched the criteria. Furthermore, the wound-healing properties of honey are described and the mechanism of action discussed. The authors' data show that honey induced enhanced epithelialisation, minimised scar formations and had an anti-microbiotic effect. These results should encourage the use of medical honey in the field of paediatrics. It is a safe and natural substance that induces wound healing at a greater rate than conventional methods.

  12. Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

  13. Honey pacifier use among an indigent pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Laura J; Gourishankar, Anand; Yataco-Marquez, Vanessa; Cardona, Elizabeth Hernandez; de Ybarrondo, Lisa

    2013-06-01

    Use of honey pacifiers by infants presenting to a pediatric clinic at a county hospital in Houston, Texas, was observed by several of our staff members. Although we could not find any published studies linking the use of honey pacifiers to infant botulism, we also could not find any studies assessing the prevalence of honey pacifier use in general. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study using a novel survey that had 19 items. The survey was administered to the parents of children up to age 12 months presenting to a county hospital pediatric clinic for well-child care in Houston, Texas, from February 2010 to April 2011. There were 397 respondents. Approximately 11% of the respondents reported using honey pacifiers with their infant children. Reasons for use included tradition, infant preference, and perceived health benefits (eg, helps with constipation or colic). Approximately 20% of the honey pacifier users and 23% of the entire group reported knowledge of honey potentially causing an illness in children <12 months of age. Nearly 40% of all respondents also reported using herbal or folk remedies. Honey pacifier use was relatively common among this population, seen in ∼1 out of 10 respondents. A majority of the mothers surveyed (∼80%) were unaware of the potential dangers of giving honey to infants under age 12 months. Herbal medicine use was also common.

  14. Virus and viral diseases of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Viruses pose serious threat to the health and well-being of honey bees, Apis mellifera, the most economically valuable pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops worldwide. Lately, honey bee viruses have gotten a lot of international attention due to the significant disease status that vir...

  15. Honey bees preferentially consume freshly-stored pollen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bees collect and store pollen in cells in a preserved form known as stored pollen, or beebread. To preserve pollen, bees add nectar and honey to collected pollen to form stored pollen. Bees eat stored pollen from a wide selection of pollen cells that have been stored for different lengths of...

  16. Nutrition, immunity and viral infections in honey bees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey bees can be infected with viruses that can spread rapidly in colonies. Here we discuss how honey bees decrease the risk of disease outbreaks by a combination of behaviors (social immunity) and individual immunity. The effectiveness of both social and individual immunity relies on nutrition. Ho...

  17. Enzymatic basis of mannose toxicity in honey bees.

    PubMed

    SOLS, A; CADENAS, E; ALVARADO, F

    1960-01-29

    Honey bees have a negligible amount of phosphomannoseisomerase, together with a high content of a hexokinase which phosphorylates mannose more efficiently than fructose or glucose. Competition at the phosphorylation level plus accumulation of mannose-6-phosphate can fully account for the toxicity of mannose in honey bees.

  18. Photodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides in honey medium.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhimin; Yao, Jun; Liu, Haijun; Han, Jun; Trebše, Polonca

    2014-10-01

    Honey can be polluted due to environmental pollution and misuse of beekeeping practices. In the present study, photodegradation experiments of organophosphorus pesticides (coumaphos, methyl parathion and fenitrothion) in honey medium were conducted using Atlas Suntest simulator CPS+ as a sunlight producer. Photodegradation experiments were conducted under three different intensities as 250W/m(2), 500W/m(2) and 750W/m(2) to evaluate the impact of sunlight intensity on removal of OPs in honey medium. Significant decreases of three OPs' concentrations were observed. Coumaphos showed the highest degradability, reaching a degradation percentage of 90 percent within 15min. After 1h irradiation, residual percentages of coumaphos were 6.62 percent for 250W/m(2), 3.48 percent for 500W/m(2) and 2.98 percent for 750W/m(2), respectively. Methyl parathion and fenitrothion also could be removed through photodegradation efficiently. After 1h irradiation, the residual percentages of methyl parathion and fenitrothion under 750W/m(2) sunlight irradiation were 26.89 percent and 16.70 percent, respectively. Intensity of sunlight showed a positive impact on removal of OPs in honey medium. The higher intensity, the lower residual percentage. Photodegradation of three OPs fitted well with pseudo-first order kinetics. Half-lives calculated from pseudo-first order kinetics were 17.61min (250W/m(2)), 16.67min (500W/m(2)) and 17.58min (750W/m(2)) for coumaphos, 57.62min (250W/m(2)), 34.13min (500W/m(2)) and 31.69min (750W/m(2)) for methyl parathion and 144.70min (250W/m(2)), 95.47min (500W/m(2)) and 22.57min (750W/m(2)) for fenitrothion, respectively. Most of the three OPs could dissipate in a short time under sunlight irradiation. Photodegradation could be accepted as an appropriate method for the removal of OPs in honey medium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lifestyle Practices and Obesity in Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Pey Sze; Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Aziz, Mohd Ezane; Hills, Andrew P.; Foo, Leng Huat

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the influence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on obesity profiles of 454 Malaysian adolescents aged 12 to 19. Methods: Validated PA and SB questionnaires were used and body composition assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: Gender-specific multivariate analyses showed boys with high levels of total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exhibited significantly lower levels of total body fat, percent body fat and android fat mass compared with low PA and MVPA groups, after adjusting for potential confounders. Girls with high SB levels showed significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and DXA-derived body fat indices than those at lower SB level. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that boys with low levels of total PA and MVPA had significantly greater obesity risk, 3.0 (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1–8.1; p < 0.05) and 3.8-fold (OR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4–10.1; p < 0.01), respectively, than more active boys. Only in girls with high SB level was there a significantly increased risk of obesity, 2.9 times higher than girls at low SP levels (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 1.0–7.5; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present findings indicate that higher PA duration and intensity reduced body fat and obesity risk while high screen-based sedentary behaviors significantly adversely influenced body fat mass, particularly amongst girls when the PA level was low. PMID:24886753

  20. Hydrotherapy: An innovative treatment for obese Malaysians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordin, M. Hazim M.; Ahmad, Hartini; Baharin, Shamsuddin

    2015-12-01

    Malaysia is ranked as a country with the most obese population in the Southeast Asia region, and placed sixth in the Asia Pacific. Obesity does not only influence the persons' mobility and quality of health, but could also link to medical leaves and absenteeism affecting the overall workforce productivity and efficiency. Routine physical activity is essential for good health and it is particularly important for those who are trying to lose weight or to maintain a healthy weight. However, it is disheartening to note that only 32.6 percent Malaysians above the age of 15 are involved in physical exercise or vigorous sports. There is an emergence of many types of hydrotherapy system, which are either active or passive and these can be at hospital settings, public places or in individual homes. Such hydrotherapy, if properly programmed can promote the physical activity amongst the obese in Malaysia. Current research on the use of active and passive hydrotherapy for obesity treatment was carried out. Subjects of both sexes and diverse age ranges, immersed themselves in a heated pool within hospital setting and in a bath tubs with high energy turbulent movement of medium temperature water. These hydrotherapy sessions provide a form of physical exercise in water as compared to on the land exercise. The findings of the hydrotherapy sessions have shown encouraging results. Quantitative data was analysed, with the help of descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Qualitative data was analysed manually with help of thematic analysis and specialised qualitative assessment software. This study reveals that hydrotherapy has improved patient's mobility, flexibility and exercise capability. Results reveal the reduction in the weight of subjects, with both quantitative and qualitative data results show that Hydrotherapy improved the quality of life in term of body pain reduction and general health improvement. Therefore, it can be concluded that the hydrotherapy can be seen

  1. Influences on Malaysian Pharmacy Students' Career Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. Methods A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Conclusions Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location. PMID:21301600

  2. Influences on Malaysian pharmacy students' career preferences.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Kwai Chong, David Weng; Ahmadi, Keivan; Se, Wong Pei; Hassali, Mohammed Azmi; Hata, Ernieda Mohammed; Hadi, Muhammed Abdul; Sridhar, Sathvik Belagodu; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yean, Low Bee; Efendie, Benny

    2010-11-10

    To identify and evaluate factors affecting the career preferences of fourth-year bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students in Malaysia in the presence of a 4-year period of mandatory government service. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to collect data from final-year BPharm students enrolled at 3 government-funded universities and 1 private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Three hundred fourteen students responded (213 from public universities and 101 from the private university). Approximately 32% of public university students and 37% of private university students ranked their own interest in pharmacy as the reason for undertaking pharmacy degree studies; 40.4% of public and 19.8% of private university respondents stated that they would enter a nonpharmacy-related career upon graduation if given the choice. Public university students ranked hospital pharmacy as their choice of first career setting (4.39, p = 0.001), while private students ranked community pharmacy first (4.1, p = 0.002). On a scale of 1 to 5, salary received the highest mean score (3.9 and 4.0, p = 0.854) as the extrinsic factor most influencing their career choice. Final-year students at Malaysian public universities were most interested in hospital pharmacy practice as their first career step upon graduation, while private university students were most interested in community pharmacy. The top 3 extrinsic factors rated as significant in selecting a career destination were salary, benefits, and geographical location.

  3. Analytical Methods Used in the Quality Control of Honey.

    PubMed

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Guerra-Rodríguez, María Esther; Vázquez, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Honey is a natural sweet substance produced by bees (Apis mellifera). In this work, the main parameters used in routine quality control of honey and the most commonly used analytical methods for their determination are reviewed. Honey can be adulterated with cheaper sweeteners or, indirectly, by feeding the bees with sugars. Therefore, methods for detecting and quantifying adulteration are necessary. Chromatographic techniques are widely used in honey analysis. More recently, techniques such as Raman, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with chemometric data processing have been proposed. However, spectroscopy does not allow the determination of enzyme activities, one criteria of great importance for the honey trade. Methylglyoxal is an interesting compound for its antibacterial properties. Methods for its determination are also reviewed.

  4. Influence of the beehive type on the quality of honey.

    PubMed

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Periskić, Marin; Beslo, Drago; Tucak, Ivana

    2004-06-01

    Agricultural producers apply numerous technological procedures, and enlarging efforts to produce the high-quality products. This initiative is present in the beekeeping, too. The quality of the honey produced by the honey bee colonies depends of various factors, but prevailing are the ecological conditions and the floristic composition of the honeyfull plants. The aim of our research was to discover the influence of the beehive type on the quality of honey, which is produced at apiaries under the similar environmental conditions. The whole studied honey bee colonies belong to the European race, Apis mellifera carnica, and they used the same honeyfull plants pastures. The results indicate that different beehive type used at apiaries influenced on the quality of honey.

  5. Detection of adulterants in honey using a portable Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Kenneth Leigh

    Food adulteration is a growing problem worldwide. In the United States over half of honey consumed is provided with imported products as total domestic production of honey is unable to meet the demand. As pure, natural honey is a labor intensive, relatively expensive product it is a prime target for adulteration with less expensive sweeteners. Previously published work describes the detection of these adulterants in a strict laboratory environment with time consuming techniques and delicate instrumentation. Experiments confirm that adulterants such as high fructose corn syrup and rice malt syrup can be detected in honey using Raman Spectroscopy and portable equipment. When laser light is applied to the products, the result is a Raman signal of inelastically scattered photons representing the fingerprints of the various molecules. When this signal is detected and stored in a laptop computer it can be analyzed for characteristics peculiar to honey and to the adulterants.

  6. Application of analytical methods in authentication and adulteration of honey.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar; Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Rahman, Atta-Ur-

    2017-02-15

    Honey is synthesized from flower nectar and it is famous for its tremendous therapeutic potential since ancient times. Many factors influence the basic properties of honey including the nectar-providing plant species, bee species, geographic area, and harvesting conditions. Quality and composition of honey is also affected by many other factors, such as overfeeding of bees with sucrose, harvesting prior to maturity, and adulteration with sugar syrups. Due to the complex nature of honey, it is often challenging to authenticate the purity and quality by using common methods such as physicochemical parameters and more specialized procedures need to be developed. This article reviews the literature (between 2000 and 2016) on the use of analytical techniques, mainly NMR spectroscopy, for authentication of honey, its botanical and geographical origin, and adulteration by sugar syrups. NMR is a powerful technique and can be used as a fingerprinting technique to compare various samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wound care in the wilderness: is there evidence for honey?

    PubMed

    Stewart, James Austin; McGrane, Owen Lane; Wedmore, Ian S

    2014-03-01

    Honey is one of the most ancient remedies for wound care. Current research has shown promising results for its use in wound care. This review is intended to inform readers of the physiological properties of honey and the evidence that exists to support its clinical use. When compared with evidence for current wound treatment, honey has proven to be a safe, effective, and sometimes superior treatment for various wounds. There are currently US Food and Drug Administration-approved medical-grade honey products available in the United States. Although there have been no clinical trials exploring the use of honey in wilderness environments, it may be a safe, improvisational wound treatment. More robust studies are needed for definitive conclusions of its efficacy and safety. Published by Wilderness Medical Society on behalf of Wilderness Medical Society.

  8. Native bees provide insurance against ongoing honey bee losses.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Rachael; Williams, Neal M; Dushoff, Jonathan; Kremen, Claire

    2007-11-01

    One of the values of biodiversity is that it may provide 'biological insurance' for services currently rendered by domesticated species or technology. We used crop pollination as a model system, and investigated whether the loss of a domesticated pollinator (the honey bee) could be compensated for by native, wild bee species. We measured pollination provided to watermelon crops at 23 farms in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA, and used a simulation model to separate the pollen provided by honey bees and native bees. Simulation results predict that native bees alone provide sufficient pollination at > 90% of the farms studied. Furthermore, empirical total pollen deposition at flowers was strongly, significantly correlated with native bee visitation but not with honey bee visitation. The honey bee is currently undergoing extensive die-offs because of Colony Collapse Disorder. We predict that in our region native bees will buffer potential declines in agricultural production because of honey bee losses.

  9. Ecological and evolutionary approaches to managing honey bee disease

    PubMed Central

    Brosi, Berry J.; Delaplane, Keith S.; Boots, Michael; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee declines are a serious threat to global agricultural security and productivity. While multiple factors contribute to these declines, parasites are a key driver. Disease problems in honey bees have intensified in recent years, despite increasing attention to addressing them. Here we argue that we must focus on the principles of disease ecology and evolution to understand disease dynamics, assess the severity of disease threats, and manage these threats via honey bee management. We cover the ecological context of honey bee disease, including both host and parasite factors driving current transmission dynamics, and then discuss evolutionary dynamics including how beekeeping management practices may drive selection for more virulent parasites. We then outline how ecological and evolutionary principles can guide disease mitigation in honey bees, including several practical management suggestions for addressing short- and long-term disease dynamics and consequences. PMID:29046562

  10. Counseling Services for Malaysian Gifted Students: An Initial Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Noriah Mohd; Bakar, Abu Yazid Abu

    2014-01-01

    This is a preliminary study that was conducted in regard to 180 gifted students who attended the "Malaysian Gifted Centre's School Holiday Camp" in 2011. Data indicated that only about 7% of the respondents had a tendency to seek a counsellor's help to solve their problems, and the need for counselling services was higher among female…

  11. Quality of Life of Older Malaysians Living Alone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahaya, Nurizan; Abdullah, Siti Suhailah; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2010-01-01

    According to the 2000 census report, about 7% of the 1.4 million people 60 years and over in Malaysia live alone. This study investigated socioeconomic factors affecting the quality of life of this vulnerable population. Data from a subsample of the study on Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians were used in this paper. About 10%…

  12. Quality Malaysian English Language Teachers: Examining a Policy Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepol, Napisah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine and discuss one of the strategies in the latest Malaysian language education policy "Memartabatkan Bahasa Malaysia Memperkukuh Bahasa Inggeris" (MBMMBI) (To Uphold Bahasa Malaysia and to Strengthen the English Language). The strategy in focus is aimed at improving the quality of English…

  13. Modeling Environmental Literacy of Malaysian Pre-University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamuganathan, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary

    2015-01-01

    In this study attempt was made to model the environmental literacy of Malaysian pre-university students enrolled in a matriculation college. Students enrolled in the matriculation colleges in Malaysia are the top notch students in the country. Environmental literacy of this group is perceived important because in the future these students will be…

  14. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  15. Collaborative and Cooperative Learning in Malaysian Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hossain, Md. Anowar; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Ayud, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative and cooperative learning studies are well recognized in Malaysian mathematics education research. Cooperative learning is used to serve various ability students taking into consideration of their level of understanding, learning styles, sociological backgrounds that develop students' academic achievement and skills, and breeze the…

  16. Malaysian Students in U.S. Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Alan W., Ed.; Noss, Elaine M., Ed.

    This publication is a response to the need for better understanding of the Malaysian student population studying U.S. institutions of higher education. Part 1 is an introduction to Malaysia, with two articles giving background information. The first is a history of Malaysia and the development of its education system, by Fatimah Hamid-Don of Ohio…

  17. Dropout Prevention Initiatives for Malaysian Indigenous Orang Asli Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Sharifah Md; Roslan, Samsilah; Mohamed, Aminuddin; Hassan, Kamaruddin Hj. Abu; Ali, Mohamad Azhar Mat; Manaf, Jaimah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses dropout prevention initiatives by the Malaysian government for the disadvantaged indigenous Orang Asli people in the rural villages of Peninsular Malaysia. The roles of the Ministry of Education (MOE) as well as the Institutes of Teacher Education (ITEs) are highlighted pertaining to efforts at improving the quality of…

  18. Predictors of Academics' Career Advancement at Malaysian Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arokiasamy, Lawrence; Ismail, Maimunah; Ahmad, Aminah; Othman, Jamilah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the influence of individual and organizational variables on the career advancement of academics in Malaysian private universities. Design/methodology/approach: A correlation study was conducted in six private universities. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The dependent…

  19. Students' Entrepreneurial Inclination at a Malaysian Polytechnic: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasin, Ahmad Yasruddin Md; Mahmood, Nik Abdul Aziz Nik; Jaafar, Nik Azyyati Nik

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary results of an ongoing project to examine students' inclination towards entrepreneurship at a Malaysian polytechnic. The study used a self-administered questionnaire to explore the influence of entrepreneurial intent, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived support factors and…

  20. Distribution of Articles in Written Composition among Malaysian ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahim, Mia Emily Abdul; Rahim, Emma Marini Abdul; Ning, Chia Han

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the distribution patterns of the English grammar articles (a, an, and the) as well as the distributions of their colligation patterns in written compositions of English among Malaysian ESL learners. This paper reports the results of a corpus-based study on articles used by these learners. The method used in this…

  1. Readiness towards Entrepreneurship Education: Students and Malaysian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Norasmah; Hashim, Norashidah; Wahid, Hariyaty Ab

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to observe the readiness of students and the internal environment of Malaysian public universities in the implementation of entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach: The authors employed a quantitative approach and the main instrument used to gauge the entrepreneurship readiness among students…

  2. Moral Education in a Multicultural Context: The Malaysian Primary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Ellen C.

    In Malaysia, the national moral education curriculums are designed to develop the values that Malaysians of diverse cultures share or that the government wishes to develop as shared values to bring about religious and ethnic harmony. Moral education for Muslims is incorporated into in-school religious education, while a separate, essentially…

  3. Competencies Acquisition through Self-Directed Learning among Malaysian Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Junaidah

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how Malaysian managers acquire job competencies through self-directed learning activities at their workplace. Specifically it aims to investigate what types of job competencies are required for the managers, how they learn to acquire those competencies, and whether the managers have the…

  4. Bangsa Malaysia and Recent Malaysian English Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Brian

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses Malaysia's English language policies, especially since the mid 1990s, in the light of more recent claims for a united Malaysian nation (under the banner of "bangsa Malaysia") and in the context of English language and its potential for Malaysia to forge more of an externalised identity. It examines the impact of…

  5. The Use of Children's Literature in Malaysian Kindergartens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Karen Kow Yip

    This paper discusses the use of storytelling as a pedagogic tool in Malaysian kindergartens. By listening to stories, the children learn to tell stories that involve communicating meaning. This is an effective learning technique, because stories and storytelling feed the children's imaginations, hone their listening skills, extend their…

  6. Investigation of Malaysian Higher Education Quality Culture and Workforce Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Hairuddin Mohd; Musah, Mohammed Borhandden

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the quality culture and workforce performance in the Malaysian higher education sector. The study also aims to test and validate the psychometric properties of the quality culture and workforce performance instruments used in the study. Design/methodology/approach: A total…

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Arabic Language Multimedia Instruction: "Malaysian Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faryadi, Qais

    2008-01-01

    This Study evaluated the effectiveness of the Arabic language multimedia products existing in Malaysian markets. For the purpose of careful investigation, this research has applied blended models of the most trusted instructional design based on the field-tested theories of the most outspoken educational psychologists such as Mayer (2002), Keller…

  8. Environmental Comprehension and Participation of Malaysian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Aini Mat; Yahaya, Nurizan; Ahmadun, Fakhru'l-Razi

    2007-01-01

    Environmental education was first formally introduced to Malaysian schools in 1986. Its implementation since then has been limited owing to various constraints facing teachers, and its success in achieving stated environmental education objectives remains uncertain. In view of this, an empirical, exploratory, descriptive study was undertaken to…

  9. Malaysian Private Education Quality: Application of SERVQUAL Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz, Anthony; Mansori, Shaheen

    2013-01-01

    Intense competition among existing private education providers and the Malaysian government's relaxation of regulations for allowing international universities to open off shore campuses in Malaysia, have forced companies in the education industry to develop strategies which can help them to make their existing students satisfied and keep them…

  10. For the Well-Being of Malaysian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eleonora, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for use by adult education teachers of all kinds, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parents, this publication contains 16 short papers concerning the well-being of Malaysian children in particular and of all children in general. Covered by the papers are issues such as responsible parenthood; the nutritional need and status of…

  11. Teacher Evaluation Practices in Malaysian Primary Schools: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Vasudevan, Vasundhara

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a qualitative case study that investigated the underlying issues in implementing school-based teacher evaluation practices in four Malaysian primary schools. The participants of the study comprised eight school administrators and sixteen teachers. Data obtained through interviews, observations, and document reviews were…

  12. Multimodality in Malaysian Schools: The Case for the Graphic Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajendra, Thusha Rani

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the benefits of including graphic novels as a wholesome supplement in Malaysian schools. Research has indicated that the mono-modality of traditional linear texts may impede comprehension. The emphasis on multi-literacies clearly scaffold the need to employ multimodality in the classrooms; hence the suggestion of…

  13. Investigating Malaysian Distance Learners Perceptions of their English Proficiency Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thang, Siew Ming

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes a study that investigated Malaysian distance learners' perceptions of their English proficiency courses. The approach used in this study was primarily a quantitative approach based on questionnaires, with a qualitative component based on semi-structured interviews included to add depth and scope to the study. The questionnaires…

  14. Sociolinguistic Competence and Malaysian Students' English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniandy, Mohan K.; Nair, Gopala Krishnan Sekharan; Shanmugam, Shashi Kumar Krishnan; Ahmad, Irma; Noor, Norashikin Binte Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the importance of teaching sociolinguistic competence to ESL learners in Malaysian schools. Sociolinguistic competence is the knowledge of socio cultural rules of language and of discourse. This type of competence requires an understanding of the socio context in which language is used. It is proposed that carefully…

  15. Malaysian University Students' Attitudes to Academic Dishonesty and Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Zauwiyah; Simun, Maimun; Mohammad, Junaini

    2008-01-01

    Academic dishonesty is believed to have predictive ability for subsequent behaviours in the workplace. This study adds to the literature by investigating Malaysian business students' attitudes to academic dishonesty and their attitudes to ethics issues in business. This study also explores the association between these two constructs. The form of…

  16. Teachers' Perceptions of E-Learning in Malaysian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheok, Mei Lick; Wong, Su Luan; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi; Mahmud, Rosnaini

    2017-01-01

    Malaysian teachers are constantly challenged with many new technologies that are believed to enable them to perform their job better. In 2013, they have been given access to an online learning space known as the FROG VLE. However, initial evidence has shown poor adoption of the e-learning. As schools are becoming increasingly disconnected from…

  17. Knowledge and beliefs of Malaysian adolescents regarding cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Jillson, Irene Anne; Abu-Hamad, Samir; Mumford, William; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have explored the knowledge and attitudes of adolescents toward cancer prevention and treatment. This lack of research and its potential utility in the development of new educational initiatives and screening methods, or the reconstruction of existing ones, provided the impetus for this study. The primary research aim was to assess secondary school student knowledge of cancer and determine whether or not they possessed basic knowledge of cancer symptoms, risk factors, and treatments and to determine the relationship between cancer knowledge and key demographic factors. The Management and Science University conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing responses through cross-tabulation with the socio-demographic data collected. The findings of our quantitative analysis suggest that Malaysian youth generally possess a moderate knowledge about cancer. Quantitative analyses found that socioeconomic inequalities and bias in education present as important factors contributing to cancer awareness, prevention, and treatment among Malaysian adolescents. The findings indicate that Malaysian youth generally possess a moderate knowledge about cancer but the current deficiencies in initiatives directed to cancer awareness continue to hinder the improvement in prevention of cancer among Malaysian adolescents.

  18. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Challenges for Malaysian Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony; Raja Hussain, Raja Maznah; Bakar, Aishah Abu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the adoption of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) by 10 Malaysian university academics. SoTL was part of a pioneering sector-wide initiative for improving teaching and learning. The qualitative study showed that there had been no true learning phase for SoTL because academics had high expectations of rapid success…

  19. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  20. Transforming Sustainability Development Education in Malaysian Schools through Greening Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanifah, Mahat; Shaharudin, Idrus; Mohmadisa, Hashim; Nasir, Nayan; Yazid, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the practice of sustainability among Malaysian Secondary Schools involved in the Sustainable Schools Program Environmental Award (SLAAS). The research attempts to identify the SLAAS effects on teachers' and students' behaviors after direct involvement with the activities of the program. The cluster sampling technique…

  1. A Constructivist Approach for Digital Learning: Malaysian Schools Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Waleed H.; Woods, Peter Charles; Koo, Ah-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs) through the use of laptops supported within 1:1 e-learning education in Malaysian schools. The main objectives of this study were to investigate (a) different possible gaps between constructivist theory and classroom practices in Malaysian…

  2. Determining Factors of Students' Satisfaction with Malaysian Skills Training Institutes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Mohd Zuhdi; Ab Rahman, Mohd Nizam; Yasin, Ruhizan M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine students' perception of quality of service offered in Malaysian skills training institutes and how it influences overall satisfaction. This study employed a questionnaire survey involving seven skills training institutes in Klang Valley, Malaysia. From 600 questionnaires distributed, 419 were returned (69.8…

  3. Investigating C-4 sugar contamination of manuka honey and other New Zealand honey varieties using carbon isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; Sim, Mike; Stewart, Simon; Phillips, Andy; Cooper, Jannine; Douance, Cedric; Pyne, Rebecca; Rogers, Pam

    2014-03-26

    Carbon isotopes (δ(13)C honey and δ(13)C protein) and apparent C-4 sugar contents of 1023 New Zealand honeys from 15 different floral types were analyzed to investigate which New Zealand honey is prone to failing the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar test and evaluate the occurrence of false-positive results. Of the 333 honey samples that exceeded the 7% C-4 sugar threshold, 324 samples of these were New Zealand manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium, 97.2% of all fails found in the study). Three monofloral honeys (ling, kamahi, and tawari) had nine samples (2.8% of all fails found in the study) with apparent C-4 sugars exceeding 7%. All other floral types analyzed did not display C-4 sugar fails. False-positive results were found to occur for higher activity New Zealand manuka honey with a methylglyoxal content >250 mg/kg or a nonperoxide activity >10+, and for some ling, kamahi and tawari honeys. Recommendations for future interpretation of the AOAC 998.12 C-4 sugar method are proposed.

  4. Microwave processing of honey negatively affects honey antibacterial activity by inactivation of bee-derived glucose oxidase and defensin-1.

    PubMed

    Bucekova, Marcela; Juricova, Valeria; Monton, Enrique; Martinotti, Simona; Ranzato, Elia; Majtan, Juraj

    2018-02-01

    Microwave (MW) thermal heating has been proposed as an efficient method for honey liquefaction, while maintaining honey quality criteria. However, little is known about the effects of MW thermal heating on honey antibacterial activity. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of MW heating on the antibacterial activity of raw rapeseed honeys against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, with a particular focus on two major bee-derived antibacterial components, defensin-1 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Our results demonstrated that MW thermal heating completely abolished honey antibacterial activity whereas conventional thermal treatment at 45 and 55°C did not affect the antibacterial activity of honey samples. A significant decrease in both glucose oxidase activity and H 2 O 2 production as well as defensin-1 amount was observed in MW-treated samples. Given that defensin-1 and H 2 O 2 are regular antibacterial components of all honeys, MW heating may have similar negative effects on every type of crystallized/liquid honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chasing your honey: Worldwide diaspora of the small hive beetle, a parasite of honey bee colonies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) are now an invasive pest of honey bee colonies in Australia and North America. Knowledge on the introduction(s) from Africa into and between the current ranges will shed light on pest populations, invasion pathways and contribute to ...

  6. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  7. Combination of 1H NMR and chemometrics to discriminate manuka honey from other floral honey types from Oceania.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Marc; Rogers, Karyne M; Jamin, Eric; Thomas, Freddy; Guyader, Sophie; Lees, Michèle; Rutledge, Douglas N

    2017-02-15

    Manuka honey is a product produced essentially in New Zealand, and has been widely recognised for its antibacterial properties and specific taste. In this study, 264 honeys from New Zealand and Australia were analysed using proton NMR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. Known manuka markers, methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone, have been characterised and quantified, together with a new NMR marker, identified as being leptosperin. Manuka honey profiling using 1H NMR is shown to be a possible alternative to chromatography with the added advantage that it can measure methylglyoxal (MGO), dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and leptosperin simultaneously. By combining the information from these three markers, we established a model to estimate the proportion of manuka in a given honey. Markers of other botanical origins were also identified, which makes 1H NMR a convenient and efficient tool, complementary to pollen analysis, to control the botanical origin of Oceania honeys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Belongingness in the workplace: a study of Malaysian nurses' experiences.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Z; Newton, J M; McKenna, L

    2014-03-01

    The need to belong has been proposed as the most basic need for human psychological well-being. Lack of belongingness has been associated with stress, anxiety and lack of esteem. Social and psychological functioning in the workplace has been linked to nurses' interconnection with others and their perceptions of belongingness. To explore factors contributing to Malaysian nurses' sense of belonging in the workplace. A descriptive questionnaire survey of registered nurses (n = 437) working in two Malaysian hospitals was conducted in 2011. Previously validated questionnaires translated into the Malay language were used. Data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. Nurses enhanced their sense of belonging through acceptance, 'fitting in', respect and group harmony. There were no specific demographic factors contributing to the nurses' perceptions. The findings suggest that these priorities for belongingness were contextually influenced by factors such as elements of Malaysian culture, the nature of nurses' teamwork and stereotypical values on the nursing profession. Data were collected in only two hospitals. Experiences of nurses in other hospitals and areas of Malaysia may not be similar. The influence of Malaysian culture in this study raises issues about utilization of a measurement scale developed in Western cultures, which may not directly accord with cultural values of an Eastern ethnicity. Aspects of belongingness in Malaysian nurses reflect those of nurses elsewhere. However, there are specific cultural influences at play. Therefore, development of a measurement scale based on Eastern culture would help in increasing understanding of workplace practices among these groups. Workplaces that perpetuate an environment that is not conducive to generating a sense of belonging may have an untoward impact on care delivery. Healthcare policies need to ensure patient care has a focus on engaging practitioners within multidisciplinary teams. © 2013 International Council of

  9. Public acceptance of nuclear power among Malaysian students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad Pauzi, Anas; Saad, Juniza Md; Arif Abu Bakar, Asyraf; Hannan Damahuri, Abdul; Syukri, Nur Syamim Mohd

    2018-01-01

    Malaysian government’s aim to include nuclear energy for electricity generation has triggered various reactions from all especially the public. The objective of this study is to have a better understanding on the knowledge, sources of information of nuclear power and sources of energy chosen by Malaysian in 20 years’ time. Besides that, we want to examine the level of acceptance and perception of Malaysian towards nuclear energy and we want to identify the correlation between public perceptions with the acceptance towards nuclear power in Malaysia, and also to study the differences between perception and acceptance of nuclear power with gender and educational level. For this research methodology, the research questions are given orally or through paper-pencil and also social networking site such as Facebook or through electronic media application such as WhatsApp and Google docs. The data were analysed using a SPSS version 22.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Results showed that more than 50% of the respondents have the knowledge of nuclear energy. A part of from that, only 39 % are confident government can afford to build NPP in Malaysia and 41 % disagree nuclear energy is the best option for future energy. From analysis using SPSS 22 we estimate negative perception will give a negative acceptance in term of support towards the use of nuclear energy in power generation in Malaysia. There are also slight correlation that the higher the level of education of Malaysian, the more negative the perception of Malaysian in accepting nuclear energy as source of power in Malaysia. Therefore in shaping a positive acceptance of NPP in Malaysia, the authorities need to educate the people with the knowledge of nuclear in order to overcome the negative perception towards nuclear power.

  10. A Scientific Note on the Lactic Acid Bacterial Flora Discovered in the Honey Stomach of Swedish honey bees - a continuing study on honey bees in the U.S.A.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beneficial bacteria have been found in honey stomachs of the honey bee, Apis mellifera; a unique flora that appears to have coevolved with the honey bees. The health of our most important pollinators has come into focus during the last few years, because of yet unexplained conditions and diseases t...

  11. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite

  12. Effects of Mad Honey on Some Biochemical Parameters in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Huseyin; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aims of this study were to determine grayanotoxin (GTX-III) toxin level in mad honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and examine the dynamic changes of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of rats that consumed mad honey. For the experimental animal study, 20 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 5 groups of 4 rats each, with one group being the control group (Group 1) and the others being the experimental groups (Groups 2-5). Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were, respectively, given mad honey extract at doses of 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 mg/g body weight/day via oral gavage for 8 days. According to results, the quantity of GTX-III found in the honey sample as 39.949 ± 0.020 μg GTX-III/g honey, and the biochemical analysis of the tested parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, and creatine kinase muscle and brain) showed a significant elevation with increasing concentration of honey. In conclusion, the use of increasing concentrations of Rhododendron honey was seen as a source of enzymatic symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Antibacterial activity of different natural honeys from Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Vica, Mihaela Laura; Glevitzky, Mirel; Dumitrel, Gabriela-Alina; Junie, Lia Monica; Popa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Honey is used in food industry and medicine due to its nutritive, therapeutic and dietetic qualities. The microbiological characteristics of 10 unpasteurized honey samples of known origin, collected from Transylvania beekeepers (Romania) were determined. The antibacterial activity of these types of honey against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella choleraesuis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and Listeria monocytogenes strains was studied. The most sensitive to the antibacterial activity were the two staphylococus strains (the largest diameter of inhibition zone was 18 mm) and B. subtilis strains (13.5 mm). The strains of B. cereus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to present resistance to some of the honey samples. Manna, sunflower and polyfloral honeys presented high antibacterial activity while acacia and linden honeys had a lower activity in terms of the number of sensible strains. Statistical analysis shows that the type of strains and the type of honey have influence on the diameter of inhibition.

  14. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    PubMed Central

    Brutscher, Laura M.; Flenniken, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD-) affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans. PMID:26798663

  15. Climate change: impact on honey bee populations and diseases.

    PubMed

    Le Conte, Y; Navajas, M

    2008-08-01

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is the most economically valuable pollinator of agricultural crops worldwide. Bees are also crucial in maintaining biodiversity by pollinating numerous plant species whose fertilisation requires an obligatory pollinator. Apis mellifera is a species that has shown great adaptive potential, as it is found almost everywhere in the world and in highly diverse climates. In a context of climate change, the variability of the honey bee's life-history traits as regards temperature and the environment shows that the species possesses such plasticity and genetic variability that this could give rise to the selection of development cycles suited to new environmental conditions. Although we do not know the precise impact of potential environmental changes on honey bees as a result of climate change, there is a large body of data at our disposal indicating that environmental changes have a direct influence on honey bee development. In this article, the authors examine the potential impact of climate change on honey bee behaviour, physiology and distribution, as well as on the evolution of the honey bee's interaction with diseases. Conservation measures will be needed to prevent the loss of this rich genetic diversity of honey bees and to preserve ecotypes that are so valuable for world biodiversity.

  16. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  17. Bioactive indicators related to bioelements of eight unifloral honeys.

    PubMed

    Vit, Patricia; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio; Rondón, Carlos; González, Isbelia; Luisa Di Bernardo, María; Ysabel García, María

    2010-12-01

    Honey is the most popular bee product used by man, with nutritional and medicinal purposes. Its great diversity is attributed to numerous factors (bee type, visited flora, environment, and management). The quality of honey is controlled with routine parameters (free acidity, diastase activity, reducing sugars, ash, water, hydroxymethyfurfural, and sucrose contents). Besides the biochemical quality control, a functional profile is also important for pharmacological applications. In this work, bioactive indicators such as the antioxidant activity, flavonoid and polyphenol contents were evaluated by spectrophotometry, and correlated to the content of six bioelements (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn) measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, tandem FI-FAAS, in 14 unifloral Czech honeys. The antioxidant activity was 43.13 +/- 53.72 micromoles TEAC/100 g honey. The flavonoid content was 5.18 +/- 4.19 mg QE/100 g, and the polyphenol content was 45.38 +/- 27.20 mg GAE/100 g. Buckwheat honey showed the highest values for these indicators of bioactivity, the acacia honeys the lowest, and the rest of the honeys were comprised between both of them. Honey content of bioelements was 138.19 +/- 55.57 ppm Ca (min 77.11-max 261.65), 0.33 +/- 0.41 ppm Cu (min 0.00-max 1.37), 2.95 +/- 1.10 ppm Fe (min 1.34-max 5.36), 35.08 +/- 29.59 ppm Mg (min 8.76-128.06), 4.93 +/- 3.99 ppm Mn (min 0.34-max 11.31), 1.07 +/- 0.56 ppm Zn (min 0.49-max 2.52). The antioxidant activity of honey was significantly correlated to its content of cupper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc, but was not correlated to calcium.

  18. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  19. Preclinical development of MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion for blepharitis management.

    PubMed

    Craig, Jennifer P; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Seyfoddin, Ali; Cheung, Isabella M Y; Uy, Benedict; Wang, Michael T M; Watters, Grant A; Swift, Simon

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effects of cyclodextrin-complexed and uncomplexed Manuka honey on bacteria commonly associated with blepharitis, and in vivo rabbit eye tolerability of a cyclodextrin-complexed methylglyoxal (MGO) Manuka Honey microemulsion (MHME). In vitro phase: Bacterial growth inhibition was assessed by area under the growth curve (AUC) for Staphylococcus aureus , and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with cyclodextrin-complexed and uncomplexed Manuka honey were determined. In vivo phase: Six rabbits were administered 20 µL of MHME (at 1:10 dilution) to the right eye (treated) and 20 µL of saline to the left eye (control) daily, for 5 days. Tear evaporation, production, osmolarity, lipid layer, conjunctival hyperaemia and fluorescein staining were assessed daily, before and 15 min after instillation. In vitro phase: The relative AUC for cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey was lower than that of uncomplexed honey at both 250 and 550 mg/kg of MGO (both p <0.05). Cyclodextrin-complexed honey had lower MIC and MBC than uncomplexed honey for both S. aureus and S. epidermidis , but not P. aeruginosa . In vivo phase: No significant changes were observed in the parameters assessed in either treated or control eyes (all p >0.05). Overall, antimicrobial potency of cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey was greater than uncomplexed honey. No significant immediate or cumulative adverse effects were observed with MHME application on rabbit eyes, supporting future conduct of clinical safety and tolerability trials in human subjects.

  20. Preclinical development of MGO Manuka Honey microemulsion for blepharitis management

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Jennifer P; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Seyfoddin, Ali; Cheung, Isabella M Y; Uy, Benedict; Wang, Michael T M; Watters, Grant A; Swift, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effects of cyclodextrin-complexed and uncomplexed Manuka honey on bacteria commonly associated with blepharitis, and in vivo rabbit eye tolerability of a cyclodextrin-complexed methylglyoxal (MGO) Manuka Honey microemulsion (MHME). Methods and analysis In vitro phase: Bacterial growth inhibition was assessed by area under the growth curve (AUC) for Staphylococcus aureus, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with cyclodextrin-complexed and uncomplexed Manuka honey were determined. In vivo phase: Six rabbits were administered 20 µL of MHME (at 1:10 dilution) to the right eye (treated) and 20 µL of saline to the left eye (control) daily, for 5 days. Tear evaporation, production, osmolarity, lipid layer, conjunctival hyperaemia and fluorescein staining were assessed daily, before and 15 min after instillation. Results In vitro phase: The relative AUC for cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey was lower than that of uncomplexed honey at both 250 and 550 mg/kg of MGO (both p <0.05). Cyclodextrin-complexed honey had lower MIC and MBC than uncomplexed honey for both S. aureus and S. epidermidis, but not P. aeruginosa. In vivo phase: No significant changes were observed in the parameters assessed in either treated or control eyes (all p >0.05). Conclusion Overall, antimicrobial potency of cyclodextrin-complexed Manuka honey was greater than uncomplexed honey. No significant immediate or cumulative adverse effects were observed with MHME application on rabbit eyes, supporting future conduct of clinical safety and tolerability trials in human subjects. PMID:29354709

  1. Chemical Composition of Different Botanical Origin Honeys Produced by Sicilian Black Honeybees (Apis mellifera ssp. sicula).

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Vista, Silvia; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria

    2015-07-01

    In 2008 a Slow Food Presidium was launched in Sicily (Italy) for an early warning of the risk of extinction of the Sicilian native breed of black honeybee (Apis mellifera L. ssp sicula). Today, the honey produced by these honeybees is the only Sicilian honey produced entirely by the black honeybees. In view of few available data regarding the chemical composition of A. mellifera ssp. sicula honeys, in the present investigation the chemical compositions of sulla honey (Hedysarum coronarium L.) and dill honey (Anethum graveolens L.) were studied with a multimethodological approach, which consists of HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn and NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, three unifloral honeys (lemon honey (obtained from Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck), orange honey (Citrus arantium L.), and medlar honey (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl)), with known phenol and polyphenol compositions, were studied with NMR spectroscopy to deepen the knowledge about sugar and amino acid compositions.

  2. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    PubMed

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extreme QT interval prolongation caused by mad honey consumption.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Muhammet R; Dogan, Sait M; Aydin, Mustafa; Karabag, Turgut

    2011-01-01

    An unusual type of food poisoning, mad honey poisoning, is a well-known phenomenon in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Mad honey poisoning can result in severe cardiac complications including sinus bradycardia, nodal rhythm, various degrees of atrioventricular blocks, and even asystole. However, no cases of long QT interval have been reported so far. This paper reports the first case of extremely long QT interval to be associated with mad honey consumption. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Honey and a mixture of honey, beeswax, and olive oil-propolis extract in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abdulrhman, Mamdouh; Elbarbary, Nancy Samir; Ahmed Amin, Dina; Saeid Ebrahim, Rania

    2012-04-01

    In spite of being one of the most investigated subjects among supportive care in cancer, no therapy has been found effective in treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Based on the observations that honey bees products have anti-inflammatory and wound healing effects, the present study tried to evaluate the effect of topical application of honey and a mixture of honey, olive oil-propolis extract, and beeswax (HOPE) in treatment of oral mucositis. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 90 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and oral mucositis grades 2 and 3. The mean age of enrolled patients was 6.9 years. The patients were assigned into 3 equal treatment groups: Honey, HOPE, and control groups. Topical treatment for each patient consists of honey, HOPE, and benzocaine gel for honey, HOPE, and control groups, respectively. Recovery time in grade 2 mucositis was significantly reduced in the honey group as compared with either HOPE or controls (P < .05). In grade 3 mucositis, recovery time did not differ significantly between honey and HOPE (P = 0.61) but compared with controls, healing was faster with either honey or HOPE (P < .01). Generally, in both grades of mucositis, honey produced faster healing than either HOPE or controls (P < .05). Based on our results that showed that honey produced faster healing in patients with grade 2/3 chemotherapy-induced mucositis, we recommend using honey and possibly other bee products and olive oil in future therapeutic trials targeting chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  5. The effect of increasing honey concentration on the properties of the honey/polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan M E; El-Sherbiny, Ibrahim M

    2016-10-01

    The effect of increasing honey concentrations from 10% to 30% within the Honey (H)/polyvinyl alcohol (P)/chitosan (CS) nanofibers was investigated. Changes in the electrospun nanofiber diameters, crystallinity, thermal behavior, porosity and antibacterial activity have been assessed using SEM, XRD, DSC, TGA, mercury porosimeter and viable cell count technique. The HPCS nanofibers were cross-linked and tested for their swelling abilities and degradation behavior. The mean diameter of HPCS nanofibers increased from 284±97nm to 464±185nm upon increasing the honey concentration from 10% to 30%. Irrespective the honey concentrations, the nanofibers have demonstrated enhanced porosity. Increasing the honey concentration resulted in a reduction in the swelling of the 1h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers containing 10% and 30% H from 520% to 100%; respectively. Degradation after 30days was reduced in the 3h cross-linked HPCS nanofibers compared to the non-crosslinked HPCS nanofibers. Enhanced antibacterial activity was achieved against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli upon increasing the honey concentration. Changing the honey concentration and the extent of nanofiber crosslinking can be used to adjust different parameters of the HPCS nanofibers to suit their applications in wound healing and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Honey-based PET or PET/chitosan fibrous wound dressings: effect of honey on electrospinning process.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Aysu; Simşek, Murat; Aldemir, Sevcan Dalkıranoğlu; Kazaroğlu, Nur Merve; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe

    2014-07-01

    In this study, fibrous mats were fabricated via electrospinning from solutions of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), PET/chitosan, and PET/honey at different concentrations. The effect of honey and chitosan on electrospinning process was investigated and compared. Fibers containing chitosan had a beaded or ribbon-like/branched morphology, but this morphology improved in the presence of honey. The diameter of electrospun fibers decreased with an increased ratio of honey in PET solution. In addition, fiber deposition area in the collector increased by increasing the honey content. PET/chitosan and PET/honey fibrous mats reached an equilibrium water content in 15 min and their water uptake capacities, which are important for exudating wounds, were found in the range of 280-430% on dry basis. Cytotoxicity evaluation demonstrated that fibers exhibited no cytotoxic activity. This study discloses that PET fibrous mats especially electrospun in the presence of honey could be proposed as potential wound dressing materials owing to their improved processing abilities besides their suitable structural properties.

  7. Manuka honey treatment of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in the emergence of isolates with increased honey resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical grade manuka honeys are well known to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa being bactericidal and inhibiting the development of biofilms; moreover manuka honey effectively kills P. aeruginosa embedded within an established biofilm. Sustained honey resistance has not been previously documented for planktonic or biofilm P. aeruginosa. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations for manuka honey and antibiotics were determined using broth micro-dilution methods. Minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) and biofilm biomass were determined using the crystal violet method. Sub-culture used non-selective media and the grid-plate method. Results When honey treated biofilm biomass of two strains of P. aeruginosa (reference strain ATCC 9027 and the clinical isolate 867) were sub-cultured onto non-selective media isolates emerged that exhibited reduced susceptibility to manuka honey. Significantly, this characteristic was sustained with repeated sub-culture onto non-selective media resulting in increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of between 5-7% (w/v) and increased minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) of up to 15% (w/v). Interestingly the resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to antibiotic treatment with rifampicin and imipenem as well as being more prolific biofilm-formers than the progenitor strains. Conclusions P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with manuka honey equivalent to the MBEC harbour slow growing, viable persistor organisms that exhibit sustained, increased resistance to manuka honey and antibiotic treatment, suggesting a shared mechanism of resistance. This sheds new light on the propensity for biofilm embedded organisms to resist honey treatment and become persistor organisms that are tolerant to other antimicrobial therapies. PMID:24884949

  8. Manuka honey treatment of biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa results in the emergence of isolates with increased honey resistance.

    PubMed

    Camplin, Aimee L; Maddocks, Sarah E

    2014-05-12

    Medical grade manuka honeys are well known to be efficacious against Pseudomonas aeruginosa being bactericidal and inhibiting the development of biofilms; moreover manuka honey effectively kills P. aeruginosa embedded within an established biofilm. Sustained honey resistance has not been previously documented for planktonic or biofilm P. aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for manuka honey and antibiotics were determined using broth micro-dilution methods. Minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) and biofilm biomass were determined using the crystal violet method. Sub-culture used non-selective media and the grid-plate method. When honey treated biofilm biomass of two strains of P. aeruginosa (reference strain ATCC 9027 and the clinical isolate 867) were sub-cultured onto non-selective media isolates emerged that exhibited reduced susceptibility to manuka honey. Significantly, this characteristic was sustained with repeated sub-culture onto non-selective media resulting in increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of between 5-7% (w/v) and increased minimum biofilm eliminating concentrations (MBEC) of up to 15% (w/v). Interestingly the resistant isolates showed reduced susceptibility to antibiotic treatment with rifampicin and imipenem as well as being more prolific biofilm-formers than the progenitor strains. P. aeruginosa biofilms treated with manuka honey equivalent to the MBEC harbour slow growing, viable persistor organisms that exhibit sustained, increased resistance to manuka honey and antibiotic treatment, suggesting a shared mechanism of resistance. This sheds new light on the propensity for biofilm embedded organisms to resist honey treatment and become persistor organisms that are tolerant to other antimicrobial therapies.

  9. Biodemographic analysis of male honey bee mortality

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biodemographic studies of insects have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biology of aging. Eusocial insects have evolved to form different groups of colony members that are specialized for particular tasks and highly dependent on each other. These different groups (castes and sexes) also differ strongly in their life expectancy but relatively little is known about their mortality dynamics. In this study we present data on the age-specific flight activity and mortality of male honey bees from two different genetic lines that are exclusively dedicated to reproduction. We show that males initiating flight at a young age experience more flight events during their lifetime. No (negative) relation between the age at flight initiation and lifespan exists, as might be predicted on the basis of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. Furthermore, we fit our data to different aging models and conclude that overall a slight deceleration of the age-dependent mortality increase at advanced ages occurs. However, mortality risk increases according to the Gompertz–Makeham model when only days with flight activity (active days) are taken into account. Our interpretation of the latter is that two mortality components act on honey bee males during flight: increasing, age-dependent deaths (possibly from wear-and-tear), and age-independent deaths (possibly due to predation). The overall mortality curve is caused by the interaction of the distribution of age at foraging initiation and the mortality function during the active (flight) lifespan. PMID:15659209

  10. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  11. Level of understanding of innovation among the Malaysian executives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norkisme Zainal; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd; Shahabuddin, Faridatulazna; Mustafa, Zainol; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira

    2014-06-01

    Innovation is among the most frequently used word in the business world today. While many businessman and executives agree that innovation is needed to sustain their long term business success, many struggle to understand the concept of innovation. This study aims to measure the understanding level of innovation among the Malaysian executives using a survey questionnaire. Questions regarding innovation were posted to the respondents and they were requested to answer either it was True or False. Each respondent was given scores for their correct answers. The score of the right answers were then categorized into low, moderate and high understanding level. Results of the survey revealed that the understanding level of innovation among the Malaysian Executives is still at moderate level thus leading to the failure of many initiatives introduced by the organization or the government.

  12. The impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malim, M. R.; Halim, F. A.; Murad, A.; Maad, H. A.; Annuar, N. F. M.

    2017-09-01

    The essential of derivatives has been discovered by researchers over recent decade. However, the conclusions made regarding the impact of derivatives on stock market volatility remains debatable. The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of derivatives on Malaysian stock market volatility by exploring FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index Futures (BMD FKLI) using FBM KLCI as the underlying asset. Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) (1, 1) model was employed to realize the objective. The results have shown that the introduction of futures trading has decreased the volatility of Malaysian stock market. The volatility increased vigorously during the Asian financial crisis compared to the Global financial crisis. However, the role of futures as a risk transfer is agreed as it could improve the market by decreasing the volatility in the spot market.

  13. You Look Familiar: How Malaysian Chinese Recognize Faces

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chrystalle B. Y.; Stephen, Ian D.; Whitehead, Ross; Sheppard, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    East Asian and white Western observers employ different eye movement strategies for a variety of visual processing tasks, including face processing. Recent eye tracking studies on face recognition found that East Asians tend to integrate information holistically by focusing on the nose while white Westerners perceive faces featurally by moving between the eyes and mouth. The current study examines the eye movement strategy that Malaysian Chinese participants employ when recognizing East Asian, white Western, and African faces. Rather than adopting the Eastern or Western fixation pattern, Malaysian Chinese participants use a mixed strategy by focusing on the eyes and nose more than the mouth. The combination of Eastern and Western strategies proved advantageous in participants' ability to recognize East Asian and white Western faces, suggesting that individuals learn to use fixation patterns that are optimized for recognizing the faces with which they are more familiar. PMID:22253762

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Malaysian oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam

    2012-05-01

    The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in vegetation and grazing capacity following honey mesquite control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Brock, John H.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Honey mesquite kill and suppression, vegetation response, and changes in grazing use and capacity were evaluated following brush control in north-central Texas. Tree grubbing was most effective for eliminating honey mesquite, but because of soil and plant damage the treatment did not increase grazing capacity or improve range condition compared to nontreated rangeland. Aerial application of 2,4,5-T + picloram was more effective in klllmg and defoliating honey mesquite than 2,4,5-T alone, but both treatments significantly increased forage production. The 2,4,5-T + picloram and 2,4,5-T sprays provided a 7 to 16% increase in grazing capacity over a 4-year period on light and heavy honey mesquite infested pastures, respectively.

  16. Bees brought to their knees: microbes affecting honey bee health.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jay D; Schwarz, Ryan S

    2011-12-01

    The biology and health of the honey bee Apis mellifera has been of interest to human societies for centuries. Research on honey bee health is surging, in part due to new tools and the arrival of colony-collapse disorder (CCD), an unsolved decline in bees from parts of the United States, Europe, and Asia. Although a clear understanding of what causes CCD has yet to emerge, these efforts have led to new microbial discoveries and avenues to improve our understanding of bees and the challenges they face. Here we review the known honey bee microbes and highlight areas of both active and lagging research. Detailed studies of honey bee-pathogen dynamics will help efforts to keep this important pollinator healthy and will give general insights into both beneficial and harmful microbes confronting insect colonies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  18. Honey and Cancer: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Porcza, Laura M.; Simms, Claire; Chopra, Mridula

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and poses a challenge to treatment. With overwhelming evidence of the role played by diet and lifestyle in cancer risk and prevention, there is a growing interest into the search for chemopreventative or chemotherapeutic agents derived from natural products. Honey is an important source of bioactive compounds derived from plants and recent years have seen an increased interest in its anticancer properties. This review examines the role of honey in targeting key hallmarks of carcinogenesis, including uncontrolled proliferation, apoptosis evasion, angiogenesis, growth factor signalling, invasion, and inflammation. The evidence for honey as an adjunct to conventional cancer therapy is also presented. The review also highlights gaps in the current understanding and concludes that, before translation of evidence from cell culture and animal studies into the clinical setting, further studies are warranted to examine the effects of honey at a molecular level, as well as on cells in the tumour environment. PMID:28933410

  19. Reduction of tracheal mite parasitism of honey bees by swarming.

    PubMed

    Royce, L A; Rossignol, P A; Burgett, D M; Stringer, B A

    1991-02-28

    Based on population dynamics, tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) parasitism of colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera) appears to be, potentially at least, regulatory and stable. Empirical and theoretical considerations suggest, however, that intracolony population dynamics of mite-honey bee worker seem to be unstable in managed situations where honey bee worker population is allowed to grow unchecked. Experimental studies showed that tracheal mite population levels increased in a managed honey bee colony but were impaired in one in which brood rearing was interrupted by loss of the queen. Mite densities but not prevalence were lowered in experimental swarms kept from rearing brood. We propose that swarming reduces mite density within a colony, therefore implicating modern techniques of hive management in the sudden historical appearance of the mite on the Isle of Wight.

  20. Honey, bee pollen and vegetable oil unsaponifiables in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Ragno, Alessandro; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Marsili, Daniele; Apa, Michele; D'Erasmo, Laura; Martin, Luis Severino

    2016-08-01

    We would like to remark on the mechanisms and therapeutic properties of honey, bee pollen and unsaponifiable fractions of vegetable oils in wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Massive honey bee envenomation-induced rhabdomyolysis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Betten, David P; Richardson, William H; Tong, Tri C; Clark, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    Massive envenomations by honey bees are capable of causing multiorgan dysfunction as a result of the direct toxic effects of the large venom load received. Although all varieties of honey bee have the potential for these attacks, the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is the most commonly implicated subspecies. In the United States, the Africanized strain is found primarily in the southwestern states and is known for its highly defensive behavior if disturbed. Mechanisms behind the multiorgan dysfunction produced by these mass envenomations are not clearly understood. We present a case of a 13-year-old male who was stung by approximately 700 honey bees and developed progressive upper-body swelling and systemic manifestations of mass envenomation including rhabdomyolysis, renal insufficiency, and a transient transaminase elevation.

  2. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  3. Antropometric measurements and body composition of English and Malaysian footballers.

    PubMed

    Reeves, S; Poh, B; Brown, M; Tizzard, N; Ismail, M

    1999-12-01

    This comparative study was conducted to determine the anthropometric measurements and body composition of football teams in the UK and Malaysia. A total of 32 footballers from two teams were studied. The teams were the St Mary's University team (UK) and the Selangor Reserved League team. The height and body weight of the subjects were measured using SECA digital balance with height attachment. Skinfold thickness measurements were taken using Harpenden skinfold callipers at four sites (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac) and the VO2max of the subjects was estimated by participation in a multi-stage 20m shuttle-run test. The UK team were significantly heavier (p<0.05), taller (p<0.05) and had a higher body fat content (p<0.05) than their Malaysian counterpart. There was no significant difference in VO2 max between the two teams, with the Malaysians recording a slightly higher VO2 max. With regard to playing position, the defenders were found to be the most physically robust and yet had the highest VO2 max, whilst the midfielders had the lightest body weights. More data on the body composition and nutritional status of Malaysian footballers would allow adjustments to be made to dietary intakes and training levels in order to obtain maximum performance throughout the football season.

  4. Predictors and prevalence of successful aging among older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is an important and worldwide concept in gerontology. However, until recently, there has been very little known about successful aging in Malaysia. This study was designed to describe the prevalence and correlates of successful aging among older Malaysians. Data for this study were obtained from the national survey 'The Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians'. For this study, successful aging was defined based on a multidimensional model, encompassing the avoidance of chronic disease and physical functioning difficulty, and maintenance of good psychocognitive functioning. The prevalence of successful aging among older Malaysians was calculated at 13.8% (CI: 12.6-15.1). Results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, educational attainment, household income, and ethnicity were significantly associated with successful aging. Results of this study show that successful agers were more likely to be among the younger age, ethnic Chinese, and those with a higher education level and household income, after adjusting for all other variables in the model. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Sociodemographic risk factors and correlates of dementia in older Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Abdullah, Siti Suhailah; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi

    2010-01-01

    The rapid expansion of the aged population in Malaysia is expected to greatly increase the number of persons with dementia in the country. However, data on dementia prevalence at the national level is lacking, and little is known about the sociodemographic risk factors and correlates of dementia. This paper describes a nationwide study of dementia prevalence and its sociodemographic risk factors and health correlates among older Malaysians. In the nationwide study, the Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians, AGECAT-GMS was used to diagnose dementia in a nationally representative sample of 2,980 persons aged 60 and above. The prevalence rate of dementia was 14.3%. Higher dementia prevalences were found in oldest age (26.3%), women (19.7%), no formal education (24.1%), Bumiputeras (32.2%), unmarried (19.4%), unemployed (31.3%) and very poor on self-rated health (33.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that older age, female gender, no formal education, ethnicity and very poor self-rated health were independent risk factors and correlates of dementia. Relatively higher prevalence rates of dementia in older Malaysians were accounted for by greater proportions without education, Malay and Bumiputera ethnicity, and other unknown factors which should be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Transfer of nitroimidazoles from contaminated beeswax to honey.

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Antczak, Maja

    2017-04-01

    Nitroimidazoles are not authorised for the treatment of honey bees in the European Union. However, they can be found in honey largely because they are illegally used in apiculture for the treatment of Nosema. The aim of the study was to examine the possible transfer of nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and ipronidazole) from contaminated beeswax to honey. The wax foundations fortified with a mixture of four nitroimidazoles at three concentration levels (1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 ) were placed in beehives to let the honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) draw out the contaminated wax foundations to honeycombs. At 1 month from the start, the frames filled with capped honey were removed from the hives for a first sampling of honey. Next, the honeycombs were further incubated for 5 months in the laboratory at 35°C and sampled monthly. In the sampled honey, the concentrations of nitroimidazoles and their main metabolites (hydroxymetronidazole, 2-hydroxymethyl-1-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, hydroxyipronidazole) were determined by LC-MS/MS and compared with those determined in the nitroimidazole-containing wax foundations. Each of the tested nitroimidazoles could migrate from beeswax to honey kept in the contaminated combs at each tested concentration level. Higher maximum concentrations of residues in honey sampled from contaminated combs at 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 μg kg - 1 were observed for metronidazole (28.9, 368.5 and 2589.4 μg kg - 1 respectively) and ronidazole (27.4, 232.9 and 2351.2 μg kg - 1 respectively), while lower maximum concentrations were measured for dimetridazole (0.98, 8.4 and 67.7 μg kg - 1 ) and ipronidazole (0.9, 7.9 and 35.7 μg kg - 1 respectively). When we took into account that a frame completely filled with honey on both sides of the comb contained 110 g of beeswax and 2488 g of honey, and that this ratio was constant, then maximum amounts of initial metronidazole, ronidazole, dimetridazole and

  7. Role of Honey in Topical and Systemic Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Muhammad Barkaat

    2018-01-01

    The development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has made it more difficult and expensive to treat infections. Honey is getting worldwide attention as a topical therapeutic agent for wound infections and potential future candidate for systemic infections. The purpose of this review was to summarise different antibacterial bio-active compounds in honey, their synergistic interaction and their clinical implications in topical and systemic infections. In addition, contemporary testing methods for evaluating peroxide and non-peroxide antibacterial activity of honey were also critically appraised. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Pub Med, reference lists and databases were used to review the literature. Honey contains several unique antibacterial components. These components are believed to act on diverse bacterial targets, are broad spectrum, operate synergistically, prevent biofilm formation, and decrease production of virulence factors. Moreover, honey has the ability to block bacterial communication (quorum sensing), and therefore, it is unlikely that bacteria develop resistance against honey. Bacterial resistance against honey has not been documented so far. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey only targets pathogenic bacteria without disturbing the growth of normal gastrointestinal flora when taken orally. It also contains prebiotics, probiotics, and zinc and enhances the growth of beneficial gut flora. The presence of such plethora of antibacterial properties in one product makes it a promising candidate not only in wound infections but also in systemic and particularly for gastrointestinal infections. Agar diffusion assay, being used for evaluating antibacterial activity of honey, is not the most appropriate and sensitive assay as it only detects non-peroxide activity when present at a higher level. Therefore, there is a need to develop more sensitive techniques that may be capable of detecting and evaluating different important components in honey as

  8. Using Action, Reflection and Modelling (ARM) in Malaysian Primary Schools: Connecting "The ARM Theory" with Student Teachers' Reported Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Claire; Jarvis, Joy; Levy, Roger; Thomas, Kit

    2017-01-01

    This article presents Malaysian student teachers' reports of using an action, reflection and modelling (ARM) pedagogical approach during their placements in Malaysian primary schools. The ARM approach was designed to support the implementation of the Malaysian primary school mathematics curriculum, which involved changing classroom practice in…

  9. Honey in dermatology and skin care: a review.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Bruno; Cornara, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Honey is a bee-derived, supersaturated solution composed mainly of fructose and glucose, and containing proteins and amino acids, vitamins, enzymes, minerals, and other minor components. Historical records of honey skin uses date back to the earliest civilizations, showing that honey has been frequently used as a binder or vehicle, but also for its therapeutic virtues. Antimicrobial properties are pivotal in dermatological applications, owing to enzymatic H2 O2 release or the presence of active components, like methylglyoxal in manuka, while medical-grade honey is also available. Honey is particularly suitable as a dressing for wounds and burns and has also been included in treatments against pityriasis, tinea, seborrhea, dandruff, diaper dermatitis, psoriasis, hemorrhoids, and anal fissure. In cosmetic formulations, it exerts emollient, humectant, soothing, and hair conditioning effects, keeps the skin juvenile and retards wrinkle formation, regulates pH and prevents pathogen infections. Honey-based cosmetic products include lip ointments, cleansing milks, hydrating creams, after sun, tonic lotions, shampoos, and conditioners. The used amounts range between 1 and 10%, but concentrations up to 70% can be reached by mixing with oils, gel, and emulsifiers, or polymer entrapment. Intermediate-moisture, dried, and chemically modified honeys are also used. Mechanisms of action on skin cells are deeply conditioned by the botanical sources and include antioxidant activity, the induction of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase expression, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition in wounded epidermis. Future achievements, throwing light on honey chemistry and pharmacological traits, will open the way to new therapeutic approaches and add considerable market value to the product. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp.).

    PubMed

    Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.

  11. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  12. Pollution monitoring of Puget Sound with honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Carlson, S.R.; Simpson, J.C.

    1985-02-08

    To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were generated. Results, based on actual concentrations of contaminants in bee tissues, show that the greatest concentrations of contaminants occur close to Commencement Bay and that honey bees are effective as large-scale monitors. 27 references, 2 figures.

  13. Biofilm formation of Clostridium difficile and susceptibility to Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Eric N; Donkor, Eric S; Brown, Charles A

    2014-09-03

    Biofilm bacteria are relatively more resistant to antibiotics. The escalating trend of antibiotic resistance higlights the need for evaluating alternative potential therapeutic agents with antibacterial properties. The use of honey for treating microbial infections dates back to ancient times, though antimicrobial properties of Manuka honey was discovered recently. The aim of this study was to demonstrate biofilm formation of specific Clostridium difficile strains and evaluate susceptibility of the biofilm to Manuka honey. Three C. difficile strains were used in the study including the ATCC 9689 strain, a ribotype 027 strain and a ribotype 106 strain. Each test strain was grown in sterile microtitre plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 and 48 hours in an anaerobic cabinet to allow formation of adherent growth (biofilm) on the walls of the wells. The effect of Manuka honey on the biofilms formed was investigated at varying concentrations of 1-50% (w/v) of Manuka honey. The three C. difficile strains tested formed biofilms after 24 hours with the ribotype 027 strain producing the most extensive growth. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) found between the amount of biofilms formed after 24 and 48 hours of incubation for each of the three C. difficile strains. A dose-response relationship between concentration of Manuka honey and biofilm formation was observed for all the test strains, and the optimum Manuka honey activity occurred at 40-50% (v/v). Manuka honey has antibacterial properties capable of inhibiting in vitro biofilm formed by C. difficile.

  14. Medical-Grade Honey Dressing Use in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Winter, George Frederick

    2017-11-01

    Compared with other medical honeys, SurgihoneyRO (H&R Healthcare Ltd, Southmoor, Abingdon, United Kingdom), a bioengineered medical-grade honey, delivers low concentrations of reactive oxygen to wounds over a sustained period. This article describes how one provider, Dr Jill Brooks, has successfully used this new antimicrobial dressing in Africa and examines the potential positive impact this dressing could have on wound care in developing countries.

  15. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sari Dogan, Fatma; Ozaydin, Vehbi; Incealtin, Onur; Guneysel, Ozlem; Demireller, Merve

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto. In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter.

  16. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region. PMID:22923947

  17. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    PubMed

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  18. Unique fluorescence and high-molecular weight characteristics of protein isolates from manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium).

    PubMed

    Rückriemen, Jana; Hohmann, Christoph; Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the fluorescence properties (λ ex/em =350/450nm) and molecular size of proteins from manuka and non-manuka honey. The fluorescence characteristics of non-manuka and manuka proteins differ markedly, whereby manuka honey protein fluorescence increases with increasing methylglyoxal (MGO) content of the honey. It was concluded that manuka honey proteins are modified due to MGO-derived glycation and crosslinking reactions, thus resulting in fluorescent structures. The molecular size of honey proteins was studied using size exclusion chromatography. Manuka honey proteins contain a significantly higher amount of high molecular weight (HMW) fraction compared to non-manuka honey proteins. Moreover, HMW fraction of manuka honey proteins was stable against reducing agents such as dithiothreitol, whereas HMW fraction of non-manuka honey proteins was significantly decreased. Thus, the chemical nature of manuka honey HMW fraction is probably covalent MGO crosslinking, whereas non-manuka HMW fraction is caused by disulfide bonds. Storage of a non-manuka honey, which was artificially spiked with MGO and DHA, did not induce above mentioned fluorescence properties of proteins during 84days of storage. Hence, MGO-derived fluorescence and crosslinking of honey proteins can be useful parameters to characterize manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality parameters and antioxidant and antibacterial properties of some Mexican honeys.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Beatriz A; Mendoza, Sandra; Iturriga, Montserrat H; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A total of 14 Mexican honeys were screened for quality parameters including color, moisture, proline, and acidity. Antioxidant properties of complete honey and its methanolic extracts were evaluated by the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of complete honeys against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Sthapylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was determined. Most of honeys analyzed showed values within quality parameters established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2001. Eucalyptus flower honey and orange blossom honey showed the highest phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Bell flower, orange blossom, and eucalyptus flower honeys inhibited the growth of the 4 evaluated microorganisms. The remaining honeys affected at least 1 of the estimated growth parameters (increased lag phase, decreased growth rate, and/or maximum population density). Microorganism sensitivity to the antimicrobial activity of honeys followed the order B. cereus > L. monocytogenes > Salmonella Typhimurium > S. aureus. The monofloral honey samples from orange blossoms, and eucalyptus flowers demonstrated to be good sources of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds. All the Mexican honey samples examined proved to be good sources of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that might serve to maintain health and protect against several diseases. The results of the study showed that Mexican honeys display good quality parameters and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Mexican honey can be used as an additive in the food industry to increase the nutraceutical value of products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques.

    PubMed

    Estevinho, Leticia M; Chambó, Emerson Dechechi; Pereira, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Carvalho, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as "bioactive", which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects.

  1. Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Abdelmegid, F; Al-Agamy, M; Alwohaibi, A; Ka'abi, H; Salama, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans. A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated. The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 10(8)(2.622*10(8)), 5.64 *10(7)(1.03*10(8)), 1.17*10(9)(2.012*10(9)) and 2.59*10(8) (3.668*10(8)) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P=0.001) and green tea (P=0.001) groups was found. A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

  2. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  3. Honey in wound care: effects, clinical application and patient benefit.

    PubMed

    Lay-flurrie, Karen

    The use of honey in wound management has enjoyed a resurgence. This is largely due to the growing clinical problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the combined difficulties for the practitioner in managing chronic wound types, such as burns, leg ulcers or surgical wounds, that may become infected, for example, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas. The associated costs of treating such wounds are escalating as a result. While the use of honey as a wound dressing has been recognized, at least since Egyptian times circa 2000 BC, it is only more recently, due to the development and licensing of modern honey wound dressings, that such dressings have become more widely available and used in wound management. This article focuses on the use of honey in the treatment of infected wounds and burns. It will examine the effects of honey at the wound bed and its clinical applications, along with the current dressings available. Also discussed are the practical considerations, if, like any wound dressing, honey is to be used safely, appropriately and for the benefit of the patient.

  4. Honey in modern wound care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, L; Heyneman, A; Hoeksema, H; Verbelen, J; Monstrey, S

    2013-12-01

    Honey, known for centuries as a topical treatment for a wide range of wounds, has recently known a revival in modern wound care. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence and the role of honey in contemporary wound care. The search strategy was developed in the databases PubMed and ISI Web of Science. Fifty-five studies of any design, evaluating the use of honey in human burns, ulcers and other wounds, written in English, French, German or Dutch were eligible for inclusion. In all three wound categories honey seems to be a dressing with wound healing stimulating properties. In burns there is also evidence for its antibacterial capacity. In general, honey is also been mentioned to have deodorizing, debridement, anti-inflammatory and wound pain reducing properties, although the evidence for these properties is rather limited. Many of the included studies have methodological problems, and the quality of certain studies is low, making it difficult to formulate conclusive guidelines. This review reveals several gaps in the research of honey in modern wound care, and recommendations are suggested for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Properties of honey from ten species of Peruvian stingless bees.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Rasmussen, Claus; Gutiérrez, María G; Gil, Florimar; Nieves, Beatriz; Vit, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    Honey produced by ten stingless bee species (Melipona crinita, M. eburnea, M. grandis, M. illota, Nannotrigona melanocera, Partamona epiphytophila, Ptilotrigona lurida, Scaptotrigona polystica, Scaura latitarsis, and Tetragonisca angustula) from Peru has been characterized according to traditional physicochemical standards (color and moisture), biochemical components (flavonoids, polyphenols, nitrites, proteins), and bioactive properties (antibacterial activity, antioxidant capacity). Analytical data are also provided for a sample of Apis mellifera and an artificial honey control. For stingless bees, honey color varied between 26 and 150 mm Pfund. M. illota produced the lightest honey, while N. melanocera and T. angustula were the darkest. Moisture varied between 20.8 and 45.8 g water/100 g, confirming higher moisture for stingless bee honey than the A. mellifera honey standard of 20 g water/100 g. Flavonoids varied from 2.6 to 31.0 mg quercetin equivalents/100g, nitrites from 0.30 to 2.88 micromoles nitrites/100 g, polyphenols from 99.7 to 464.9 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, proteins from 0.75 to 2.86 g/100 g, and the antioxidant capacity from 93.8 to 569.6 micromoles Trolox equivalents/100 g. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was slightly lower against Staphylococcus aureus (12.5 -50 g/100 mL) than Escherichia coli (50 g/100 mL).

  6. Quality evaluation of different honey samples produced in Peshawar valley.

    PubMed

    Mairaj, Ghazal; Akhtar, Saeed; Khan, Arbab Riaz; Ullah, Zakir; Bibi, Saiqa; Ali, Sajid

    2008-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate different honey samples obtained from local market for their quality parameters for assessment of their feasibility for foreign export by comparing it with international standards. The study was conducted at PCSIR laboratories complex, Peshawar, during 2006. The tested samples were evaluated for moisture content, Ash percentage, acid content, HMF and reducing sugars percentage. The moisture content of locally produced honey was in the range of 14.5 to 18.23%. The ash content of locally produced honey samples ranged between 0.047-0.35 which is within the standard limits. The acid content of the honey samples ranged between 19.5 and 38.0 meq kg(-1). The HMF contents of locally produced honeys ranged from 5.3 to 23.20 mg kg(-1). The content of reducing sugar of the tested samples ranged between 43.14 and 81.40% for the tested samples of locally produced honey. All of the samples were found to be in acceptable range of international standards for all of the tested parameters except for only one sample with lower reducing sugars. These samples were marked to be according to the international standards and are healthy for human consumption.

  7. Honeybee apisimin and plant arabinogalactans in honey costimulate monocytes.

    PubMed

    Gannabathula, Swapna; Krissansen, Geoffrey W; Skinner, Margot; Steinhorn, Gregor; Schlothauer, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Here we determined whether immunostimulatory plant-derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and the honeybee-derived protein apisimin are present in varieties of New Zealand honey. Apisimin is a protein of unknown function secreted from the glands of honeybees into Royal Jelly, forming a complex with apalbumin1 capable of stimulating lymphocyte proliferation. AGPs were abundant in kanuka honey with lesser amounts in manuka, kowhai and clover honeys, but absent from Royal Jelly. Apisimin was present in all honeys, as well as Royal Jelly. We report that apisimin shares with honey AGPs the ability to stimulate the release of TNF-α from blood monocytes. Further, it synergizes with AGPs to enhance the release of TNF-α, via a mechanism not involving the formation of a complex with AGPs. In summary, this study provides evidence that AGPs and apisimin are commonly present in different floral varieties of honey, and hence contribute to their immunostimulatory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns of conservation and change in honey bee developmental genes

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, Peter K.; Wilson, Megan J.; Sablan, Lisha; Osborne, Peter W.; Havler, Melanie; McNaughton, Euan; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Milshina, Natalia V.; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Brown, Susan J.; Elsik, Christine G.; Holland, Peter W.H.; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Beye, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The current insect genome sequencing projects provide an opportunity to extend studies of the evolution of developmental genes and pathways in insects. In this paper we examine the conservation and divergence of genes and developmental processes between Drosophila and the honey bee; two holometabolous insects whose lineages separated ∼300 million years ago, by comparing the presence or absence of 308 Drosophila developmental genes in the honey bee. Through examination of the presence or absence of genes involved in conserved pathways (cell signaling, axis formation, segmentation and homeobox transcription factors), we find that the vast majority of genes are conserved. Some genes involved in these processes are, however, missing in the honey bee. We have also examined the orthology of Drosophila genes involved in processes that differ between the honey bee and Drosophila. Many of these genes are preserved in the honey bee despite the process in which they act in Drosophila being different or absent in the honey bee. Many of the missing genes in both situations appear to have arisen recently in the Drosophila lineage, have single known functions in Drosophila, and act early in developmental pathways, while those that are preserved have pleiotropic functions. An evolutionary interpretation of these data is that either genes with multiple functions in a common ancestor are more likely to be preserved in both insect lineages, or genes that are preserved throughout evolution are more likely to co-opt additional functions. PMID:17065607

  9. Radioactivity of honeys from Poland after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Borawska, Maria H; Kapała, Jacek; Puścion-Jakubik, Anna; Horembała, Justyna; Markiewicz-Żukowska, Renata

    2013-11-01

    Concentration of radioactive isotopes in honey constitutes an important bioindicator of environmental radiation. One hundred six honey samples were collected from hives and from bottled honey provided by beekeepers from north-eastern Poland in 2010, before the Fukushima accident, and during the two-year period directly following this catastrophe (2011-2012). Cesium-137 (Cs-137) and potassium-40 (K-40) were determined in lime, multifloral, buckwheat, honeydew and other kinds of honey samples. The obtained mean concentrations of Cs-137 and K-40 (Bq kg(-1)) in honey samples were: 1.19 and 32.92 in 2010, 0.90 and 31.13 in 2011, 1.31 and 36.06 in 2012, respectively. Significant differences were not observed. Therefore, the studied honey samples collected after the Fukushima accident are found to be safe for humans with levels of Cs-137 and K-40 not posing any threats. However, the total concentration of Cs-137 and K-40 in samples stopped decreasing in 2010-2011 and showed a slight increase in 2012. This relation may suggest the impact of pollution from Fukushima and requires further research in the coming years.

  10. [Progress in quality analysis of honey by infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhen-hua; Zhu, Da-zhou; Ji, Bao-ping; Meng, Chao-ying; Wang, Lin-ge; Qing, Zhao-shen

    2010-11-01

    The detection of the quality of honey and the differentiation of adulteration are very important for quality and safety assurance. Traditionally used chemical methods were expensive and complicated, therefore they are not suitable for the requirement of wide-scale detection. In the past decade, the detection technology of honey developed with a trend of fast and high throughput detection. Spectroscopy has the fast and non-contact characteristic, and was widely used in petrifaction. This technology also has the potential for application in honey analysis. In the present study, the progress in quantitative and qualitative analysis of honey by near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid infrared spectroscopy (MIR) is reviewed. The application of this two spectroscopy methods to honey detection refers to several aspects, such as quality control analysis, determination of botanical origin, determination of geographical origin and detection of adulteration. The detailed information of the detection of honey by NIR and MIR spectroscopy was analyzed, containing detection principle, technology path, accuracy, influence factors, and the development trend.

  11. Muslim refugees in Southeast Asia, the Malaysian response.

    PubMed

    Dorall, R F

    1988-01-01

    This article surveys the arrivals of Muslim refugees from countries in Southeast Asia who have not only come to Malaysia for political refuge, but who have also stayed on, in many instances integrating into the local Muslim community. The author concludes that Burmese, Thai, and Filipino Muslim refugee-cum-migrants, and the estimated 500,000 illegal Indonesian migrant workers in East and Peninsular Malaysia make the presence of economic migrants in Malaysia's towns and rural sectors a far more pressing concern to Malaysians than that posed by the arrival of genuine political refugees. Only the Indonesians present in Malaysia are consistently termed by all parties as illegal migrants and some of them have been subjected to well-publicized deportation by the Malaysian immigration authorities. Sympathy for fellow-Muslims in distress explains Malaysia's open-door policy to Muslim refugees. The Koran specifically enjoins Muslims to assist Muslim refugees who have been persecuted by others. However, the necessity to maintain regional political and military alliances, principally as a bulwark against Communism, and the Malay--Non-Malay, Muslim--Non-Muslim dichotomy in Malaysia which almost evenly divides Malaysia's 16 million population into mutually antagonistic halves, results in any overt public policy in favor of Malays and Muslims to be immediately denounced by the other half of the population as a move against the Non-Malays and Non-Muslims. Without political and media attention, the refugees live wherever they can find work, as do hundreds of thousands of mainly Indonesian illegal migrant workers. They surreptitiously get their children admitted to public schools, and through bribery, can even get Malaysian identification papers. Malaysia is a relatively tranquil haven for Malaysia's Muslim refugees compared to their homelands, but their continued stay remains dependent on the ever-present struggle for more equitable sharing of political and economic power between

  12. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R.; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J.; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22–45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  13. Using DNA Metabarcoding to Identify the Floral Composition of Honey: A New Tool for Investigating Honey Bee Foraging Preferences.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Jennifer; de Vere, Natasha; Griffith, Adelaide; Ford, Col R; Allainguillaume, Joel; Hegarty, Matthew J; Baillie, Les; Adams-Groom, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the floral composition of honey provides a method for investigating the plants that honey bees visit. We compared melissopalynology, where pollen grains retrieved from honey are identified morphologically, with a DNA metabarcoding approach using the rbcL DNA barcode marker and 454-pyrosequencing. We compared nine honeys supplied by beekeepers in the UK. DNA metabarcoding and melissopalynology were able to detect the most abundant floral components of honey. There was 92% correspondence for the plant taxa that had an abundance of over 20%. However, the level of similarity when all taxa were compared was lower, ranging from 22-45%, and there was little correspondence between the relative abundance of taxa found using the two techniques. DNA metabarcoding provided much greater repeatability, with a 64% taxa match compared to 28% with melissopalynology. DNA metabarcoding has the advantage over melissopalynology in that it does not require a high level of taxonomic expertise, a greater sample size can be screened and it provides greater resolution for some plant families. However, it does not provide a quantitative approach and pollen present in low levels are less likely to be detected. We investigated the plants that were frequently used by honey bees by examining the results obtained from both techniques. Plants with a broad taxonomic range were detected, covering 46 families and 25 orders, but a relatively small number of plants were consistently seen across multiple honey samples. Frequently found herbaceous species were Rubus fruticosus, Filipendula ulmaria, Taraxacum officinale, Trifolium spp., Brassica spp. and the non-native, invasive, Impatiens glandulifera. Tree pollen was frequently seen belonging to Castanea sativa, Crataegus monogyna and species of Malus, Salix and Quercus. We conclude that although honey bees are considered to be supergeneralists in their foraging choices, there are certain key species or plant groups that are particularly

  14. Barriers to Seeking School Counselling: Malaysian Chinese School Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kai Shen; Kok, Jin Kuan

    2017-01-01

    School counselling services have always been unpopular among Malaysian students. Many researchers have studied what prevents students from seeking mental health services. However, there is a lack of study on the barriers to seeking help in the context of Malaysian school counselling services. Using a sample of Chinese high school students (N =…

  15. Teachers' Perception of Mobile Edutainment for Special Needs Learners: The Malaysian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Yusof, Anuar; Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Low, Wah Yun; Ab. Aziz, Kamarulzaman

    2014-01-01

    Study of Malaysian adoption of mobile learning (m-learning) is still in the early stages. However, there are numerous researchers in the country exploring the potential and application of m-learning in the Malaysian education system, including special education. A key question is whether teachers are prepared to incorporate mobile technology as…

  16. Impact of Antecedent Factors on Collaborative Technologies Usage among Academic Researchers in Malaysian Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohd Daud, Norzaidi; Zakaria, Halimi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of antecedent factors on collaborative technologies usage among academic researchers in Malaysian research universities. Design/methodology/approach: Data analysis was conducted on data collected from 156 academic researchers from five Malaysian research universities. This study…

  17. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: The Case of the Family Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granhemat, Mehdi; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years…

  18. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  19. Managerial Coaches, Are They Ready? The Case of Malaysian Telecommunications Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Chin Wei; Yuen, Yee Yen; Tan, Booi Chen; Zarim, Zainal Abu; Hamid, Norhasniza Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the key competencies managerial coaches have and examine the significant competencies that affect coaching effectiveness in the Malaysian telecommunications industry. Design/Methodology/Approach: The unit of analysis was individual managerial coaches who were working in the Malaysian telecommunications…

  20. Sociolinguistic Context and Second-Language Acquisition: Acculturation and Creativity in Malaysian English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenberg, Peter H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a historical summary of the sociolinguistic context of Malaysian English and analyzes data demonstrating that transfer from Malay to standard Malaysian English does not result from interference leading to fossilization, but rather as English is acculturated in a sociolinguistic context unique to Malaysia. (Author/CB)

  1. "Who Me? A Cyberteen": Implications of Internet Usage on Realities and Identities of Malaysian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawanteh, Latiffah; Rahim, Samsudin A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the Internet usage pattern of Malaysian adolescents based on a survey of 1,404 adolescents between the ages of 13-16 and focus group discussions. Finds the daily realities of media savvy Malaysian youths are an integration of on-line and off-line relationships, events, information, memberships, chats and online shopping. (RS)

  2. ERP and Knowledge Management Integration: The Case of Malaysian Business Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Kuppusamy, Mudiarasan

    2010-01-01

    In order to compete in a global environment, Malaysian business firms need to improve their products and services through best practices. This paper aims to investigate the critical success factors to adopt Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) with knowledge management (KM) strategies among Malaysian business firms. In order to achieve the research…

  3. Adjusting an American Teacher Education Program to Meet the Needs of Malaysian Students: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quisenberry, Nancy L.

    Methods of working with foreign students, especially those from Malaysia, have been modified at Southern Illinois University. Problems have arisen in dealing with two different groups of Malaysian students: recent graduates from secondary schools, and graduates of Malaysian teacher training colleges. The first group comprises very young students,…

  4. Intercultural Communication and the Decision-Making Process: Americans and Malaysians in a Cooperative University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Kim Hughes

    A study investigated the application of Geert Hofstede's theory of cultural dimensions in management to the situation of Malaysian (n=8) and American (n=4) instructors in implementing a new English-as-a-Second-Language curriculum in Malaysia. American and Malaysian cultures are compared on four dimensions: social differentiation by gender; desire…

  5. "All Abroad": Malaysians' Reasons for Seeking an Overseas-Based Doctorate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tagg, Brendon

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the process by which nine junior Malaysian academics came to complete doctoral degrees in non-Malaysian universities. It expands the scope and refines the focus of an existing study that considered international students' experiences in New Zealand. Part of the motivation for the current study was the researcher's recognition…

  6. Comparison of the antimicrobial activity of Ulmo honey from Chile and Manuka honey against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a Chilean honey made by Apis mellifera (honeybee) originating from the Ulmo tree (Eucryphia cordifolia), against selected strains of bacteria. Methods Ulmo 90 honey was compared with manuka UMF® 25+ (Comvita®) honey and a laboratory synthesised (artificial) honey. An agar well diffusion assay and a 96 well minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) spectrophotometric-based assay were used to assess antimicrobial activity against five strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Initial screening with the agar diffusion assay demonstrated that Ulmo 90 honey had greater antibacterial activity against all MRSA isolates tested than manuka honey and similar activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The MIC assay, showed that a lower MIC was observed with Ulmo 90 honey (3.1% - 6.3% v/v) than with manuka honey (12.5% v/v) for all five MRSA isolates. For the E. coli and Pseudomonas strains equivalent MICs were observed (12.5% v/v). The MIC for artificial honey was 50% v/v. The minimum bactericidal concentration for all isolates tested for Ulmo 90 honey was identical to the MIC. Unlike manuka honey, Ulmo 90 honey activity is largely due to hydrogen peroxide production. Conclusions Due to its high antimicrobial activity, Ulmo 90 may warrant further investigation as a possible alternative therapy for wound healing. PMID:20813024

  7. Anomalons, honey, and glue in nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1982-12-01

    In these lectures, selected topics in nuclear collisions in the energy range 10/sup -1/ to 10/sup 3/ GeV per nucleon are discussed. The evidence for anomalous projectile fragments with short mean free paths is presented. Theoretical speculations on novel topological nuclear excitation and on quark-nuclear complexes in connection with anomalons are discussed. Recent tests for pion field instabilities are presented. Then evidence for collective nuclear flow phenomena are reviewed. Global event analysis and cascade simulations are presented. We address the question of whether nuclear flow is like viscous honey. Finally, the criteria for the production of a quark-gluon plasma aremore » discussed. Nuclear stopping power and longitudinal growth at high energies are considered. Results from cosmic ray data show that nuclear collision at TeV per nucleon energies are likely to product a plasma.« less

  8. Honey mesquite toxicosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kevin E; Breshears, Melanie A; Ritchey, Jerry W; Morgan, Sandra E; Streeter, Robert N

    2002-06-15

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) is distributed across a large portion of the southwestern United States. Ingestion of young leaves, pods, or beans can cause toxicosis in cattle and goats if they comprise a substantial portion of their diet. Goats, as browsers, are most likely to develolp mesquite toxicosis. Sheep appear to be more resistant to the plant's toxic effects. Consistent clinical signs include weight loss, ptyalism, mandibular tremors, tongue protrusion, and dysphagia. Diagnosis of mesquite toxicosis is largely made on the basis of history and clinical signs with exclusion of appropriate differentials. Laboratory findings are nonspecific but may reveal a mild anemia and hypoglycemia. Postmortem findings suggestive of mesquite toxicosis are limited to fine vacuolation of neurons in the trigeminal motor nucleus. Treatment consists of an alternative diet and supportive care. The disease is treatable in cattle and sheep but has a high case fatality rate in goats.

  9. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    PubMed

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  10. Predictive Markers of Honey Bee Colony Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D.; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies. PMID:22384162

  11. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-10-01

    The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.

  12. Concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in honey, pollen and honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in central Saskatchewan, Canada.

    PubMed

    Codling, Garry; Al Naggar, Yahya; Giesy, John P; Robertson, Albert J

    2016-02-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs) and their transformation products were detected in honey, pollen and honey bees, (Apis mellifera) from hives located within 30 km of the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were the most frequently detected NIs, found in 68 and 75% of honey samples at mean concentrations of 8.2 and 17.2 ng g(-1) wet mass, (wm), respectively. Clothianidin was also found in >50% of samples of bees and pollen. Concentrations of clothianidin in bees exceed the LD50 in 2 of 28 samples, while for other NIs concentrations were typically 10-100-fold less than the oral LD50. Imidaclorpid was detected in ∼30% of samples of honey, but only 5% of pollen and concentrations were honey and pollen by bees over winter, during which worker bees live longer than in summer, suggested that, in some hives, consumption of honey and pollen during over-wintering might have adverse effects on bees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and their metabolites in honey bee and honey by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbylik-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Sniegocki, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-05-15

    The original analytical method for the simultaneous determination and confirmation of neonicotinoids insecticides (imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiametoxam, thiacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran) and some of their metabolites (imidacloprid guanidine, imidacloprid olefin, imidacloprid urea, desnitro-imidacloprid hydrochloride, thiacloprid-amid and acetamiprid-N-desmethyl) in honey bee and honey was developed. Preparation of honey bee samples involves the extraction with mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate followed by cleaned up using the Sep-Pak Alumina N Plus Long cartridges. Honey samples were dissolved in 1% mixture of acetonitrile and ethyl acetate with addition of TEA, then extracts were cleaned up with Strata X-CW cartridges. The identity of analytes was confirmed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. All compounds were separated on a Luna C18 column with gradient elution. The whole procedure was validated according to the requirements of SANCO 12571/2013. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.3% to 112.0%, repeatabilities were in the range of 2.8-11.2%, within-laboratory reproducibility was in the range of 3.3-14.6%, the limits of quantitation were in the range of 0.1-0.5μgkg(-1), depending of analyte and matrices. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of clothianidin, imidacloprid and imidacloprid urea in real incurred honey bee samples and clothianidin in honey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The formulation makes the honey bee poison.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Christopher A; Chen, Jing; Fine, Julia D; Frazier, Maryann T; Frazier, James L

    2015-05-01

    Dr. Fumio Matsumura's legacy embraced a passion for exploring environmental impacts of agrochemicals on non-target species such as bees. Why most formulations are more toxic to bees than respective active ingredients and how pesticides interact to cause pollinator decline cannot be answered without understanding the prevailing environmental chemical background to which bees are exposed. Modern pesticide formulations and seed treatments, particularly when multiple active ingredients are blended, require proprietary adjuvants and inert ingredients to achieve high efficacy for targeted pests. Although we have found over 130 different pesticides and metabolites in beehive samples, no individual pesticide or amount correlates with recent bee declines. Recently we have shown that honey bees are sensitive to organosilicone surfactants, nonylphenol polyethoxylates and the solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), widespread co-formulants used in agrochemicals and frequent pollutants within the beehive. Effects include learning impairment for adult bees and chronic toxicity in larval feeding bioassays. Multi-billion pounds of formulation ingredients like NMP are used and released into US environments. These synthetic organic chemicals are generally recognized as safe, have no mandated tolerances, and residues remain largely unmonitored. In contrast to finding about 70% of the pesticide active ingredients searched for in our pesticide analysis of beehive samples, we have found 100% of the other formulation ingredients targeted for analysis. These 'inerts' overwhelm the chemical burden from active pesticide, drug and personal care ingredients with which they are formulated. Honey bees serve as an optimal terrestrial bioindicator to determine if 'the formulation and not just the dose makes the poison'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    PubMed

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal.

  16. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    PubMed Central

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  17. Identification of a novel glycoside, leptosin, as a chemical marker of manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Umeda, Natsuki; Maeda, Asuna; Matsumoto, Daiki; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2012-04-04

    As a preliminary study, we have found that honey from manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) in New Zealand inhibits myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In this study, using a chromatographic technique, we isolated two active compounds for MPO-inhibition from manuka honey. One is methyl syringate (MSYR), and the other was identified as a novel glycoside of MSYR, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, which has been named "leptosin" after the genus Leptospermum . The amount of the glycoside ranged from 0.2 to 1.2 μmol/g honey. Leptosin was only found in honeys from the Oceania region, and abundantly in manuka honey including jelly bush honey from Leptospermum polygalifolium in Australia. Therefore, leptosin may be a good chemical marker for manuka honey. Interestingly, the concentration of leptosin in manuka honey was positively correlated with the unique manuka factor (UMF) value, which is expressed as phenol equivalents of its bactericidal activity.

  18. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R.; Echazarreta-González, C.; Roubik, D. W.; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y. B.

    2014-01-01

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011–2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas. PMID:24503936

  19. Transgenic soybean pollen (Glycine max L.) in honey from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Gutiérrez, R; Echazarreta-González, C; Roubik, D W; Moguel-Ordóñez, Y B

    2014-02-07

    Using precise pollen species determination by conventional microscopic methods, accompanied by molecular genetic markers, we found bees collect GMO (genetically modified) soybean pollen and incorporate it in Yucatan honey. Honey comb samples from Las Flores, Campeche, Mexico, often contained soybean pollen. Pollen in honey was analyzed in nine samples; six contained substantial soy pollen and two tested positive for soybean GMO. Our analyses confirm field observations that honey bees, Apis mellifera, gather soybean pollen and nectar. The resultant risk for honey production in the Yucatán Peninsula and Mexico is evident in wholesale price reduction of 12% when GMO products are detected and honey consignments are rejected. Although this affects only 1% of current export honey (2011-2013) GMO soybean is an unacknowledged threat to apiculture and its economics in one of the world's foremost honey producing areas.

  20. Impact of floral sources and processing on the antimicrobial activities of different unifloral honeys

    PubMed Central

    Elbanna, Khaled; Attalla, Khaled; Elbadry, Medhat; Abdeltawab, Awad; Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study in vitro antibacterial activity and physicochemical properties of three unifloral honeys (citrus, clover and cotton honeys), and to study the impacts of storage, dilution with water (33%, w/v) and autoclaving (121 °C for 15 min) on honeys characteristics. Methods Honey samples from monofloral sources including citrus (Citrus spp.), Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrium) and cotton (Gossypium vitifolium) were obtained during three successive seasons (2010-2012). Physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of different honey samples were studies. Results In honey samples stored for 12 or 24 month, colour, hydroxymethyl furfural and acidity increased, while refractive index, water activity, total soluble solids, electrical conductivity and pH remained relatively unaffected, but H2O2 values decreased. Types of honey exhibited various degrees of antibacterial activity against different indicator bacteria, wherein the highest antibacterial activity was recorded for clover honey followed by citrus and cotton honeys, respectively. Different species of bacteria were differed in their sensitivity to honey, wherein Salmonella enteritidis was the most sensitive followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, respectively. Storage up to 24 months at room temperature slightly reduced the antibacterial activity. The reduction levels were about 2.6% and 4.6% after 12 and 24 months, respectively. Diluting honeys with water increased the antibacterial activity by ca. 8.3%, while autoclaving decreased the antibacterial activity by ca. 13.5%. The relative contribution of the peroxide and non-peroxide components in the total antibacterial activity of fresh honeys was investigated. The antibacterial activity of honeys was mainly attributed to non-peroxide antibacterial agents, wherein their contribution was ca. 88%, while the contribution of H2O2 was only 12%. The contribution of the thermostable antibacterial components

  1. Manuka honey inhibits cell division in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rowena; Burton, Neil; Cooper, Rose

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of manuka honey, artificial honey and an antibacterial component (methylglyoxal) on cell division in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Viability of epidemic MRSA-15 NCTC 13142 incubated with manuka honey, artificial honey and methylglyoxal was determined, and structural effects monitored by electron microscopy. Activity of murein hydrolase (a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme implicated in cell separation, encoded by atl) was estimated by cell wall hydrolysis and zymography; expression of atl was quantified by real-time PCR. Growth of MRSA was inhibited by 5%, 10% and 20% (w/v) manuka honey and 10% (w/v) artificial honey containing methylglyoxal, but not 10% (w/v) artificial honey. Statistically significantly increased numbers of cells containing septa and increased cell diameter (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) were found in MRSA exposed to 5%, 10% or 20% (w/v) manuka honey, but not 10% (w/v) artificial honey with and without methylglyoxal. Intracellular activity of murein hydrolase was elevated in MRSA grown in 10% (w/v) artificial honey and at undetectable levels in MRSA treated with 10% (w/v) manuka honey. Increased atl expression was found in MRSA treated with 10% (w/v) manuka honey and 10% artificial honey containing methylglyoxal. Enlarged cells containing septa were observed in MRSA exposed to inhibitory concentrations of manuka honey, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. These changes were not caused by either the sugars or methylglyoxal in honey and indicate the presence of additional antibacterial components in manuka honey.

  2. Mixture of honey, beeswax and olive oil inhibits growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori S

    2005-01-01

    Honey, beeswax and olive oil mixture (1:1:1, v/v) is useful in the treatment of diaper dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema. The study was designed to investigate effects of honey, olive oil, and beeswax and the mixture on growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans isolated from human specimens. The following experiments were performed: 1) honey mixture was poured on holes made on plates seeded with S. aureus or C. albicans, 2) the microorganisms were cultured onto media made of honey mixture alone, nutrient agar-honey mixture and Sabouraud glucose agar-honey mixture. The concentration of honey mixture in nutrient agar or Sabouraud glucose agar was 12.5, 25, 33, 50 and 66% (v/v), and 3) honey, olive oil or beeswax was added onto nutrient agar or Sabouraud glucose agar at a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and then were seeded with S. aureus or C. albicans. Clear zone of inhibition was observed around holes filled with honey mixture; 3.5 mm on media seeded with C. albicans and 4 mm on media seeded with S. aureus. No growth of either microorganism was obtained on media made of honey mixture alone. The minimum concentration of honey mixture in nutrient agar-honey mixture media required to inhibit S. aureus was 50% and 66% concentration was required to inhibit C. albicans growth onto Sabouraud glucose agar-honey mixture media. No growth of S. aureus or C. albicans was obtained on media containing honey whereas mild to moderate growth was obtained on media containing olive oil or beeswax. Honey and honey mixture apparently could inhibit growth of S. aureus or C. albicans.

  3. The antimicrobial activity of honey against common equine wound bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Carnwath, R; Graham, E M; Reynolds, K; Pollock, P J

    2014-01-01

    Delayed healing associated with distal limb wounds is a particular problem in equine clinical practice. Recent studies in human beings and other species have demonstrated the beneficial wound healing properties of honey, and medical grade honey dressings are available commercially in equine practice. Equine clinicians are reported to source other non-medical grade honeys for the same purpose. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of a number of honey types against common equine wound bacterial pathogens. Twenty-nine honey products were sourced, including gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated commercial medical grade honeys, supermarket honeys, and honeys from local beekeepers. To exclude contaminated honeys from the project, all honeys were cultured aerobically for evidence of bacterial contamination. Aerobic bacteria or fungi were recovered from 18 products. The antimicrobial activity of the remaining 11 products was assessed against 10 wound bacteria, recovered from the wounds of horses, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eight products were effective against all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations varying from <2% to 16% (v/v). Overall, the Scottish Heather Honey was the best performing product, and inhibited the growth of all 10 bacterial isolates at concentrations ranging from <2% to 6% (v/v). Although Manuka has been the most studied honey to date, other sources may have valuable antimicrobial properties. Since some honeys were found to be contaminated with aerobic bacteria or fungi, non-sterile honeys may not be suitable for wound treatment. Further assessment of gamma-irradiated honeys from the best performing honeys would be useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Manuka honey protects middle-aged rats from oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Jubri, Zakiah; Rahim, Noor Baitee Abdul; Aan, Goon Jo

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of manuka honey on the oxidative status of middle-aged rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and middle-aged (9 months) groups. They were further divided into two groups each, which were either fed with plain water (control) or supplemented with 2.5 g/kg body weight of manuka honey for 30 days. The DNA damage level was determined via the comet assay, the plasma malondialdehyde level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography, and the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were determined spectrophotometrically in the erythrocytes and liver. The antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, and the total phenolic content of the manuka was analyzed using UV spectrophotometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Supplementation with manuka honey reduced the level of DNA damage, the malondialdehyde level and the glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of both the young and middle-aged groups. However, the glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the erythrocytes of middle-aged rats given manuka honey supplementation. The catalase activity was reduced in the liver and erythrocytes of both young and middle-aged rats given supplementation. Manuka honey was found to have antioxidant activity and to have a high total phenolic content. These findings showed a strong correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Manuka honey reduces oxidative damage in young and middle-aged rats; this effect could be mediated through the modulation of its antioxidant enzyme activities and its high total phenolic content. Manuka honey can be used as an alternative supplement at an early age to improve the oxidative status.

  5. Manuka honey protects middle-aged rats from oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Jubri, Zakiah; Rahim, Noor Baitee Abdul; Aan, Goon Jo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of manuka honey on the oxidative status of middle-aged rats. METHOD: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and middle-aged (9 months) groups. They were further divided into two groups each, which were either fed with plain water (control) or supplemented with 2.5 g/kg body weight of manuka honey for 30 days. The DNA damage level was determined via the comet assay, the plasma malondialdehyde level was determined using high performance liquid chromatography, and the antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) were determined spectrophotometrically in the erythrocytes and liver. The antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing/antioxidant power assays, and the total phenolic content of the manuka was analyzed using UV spectrophotometry and the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. RESULTS: Supplementation with manuka honey reduced the level of DNA damage, the malondialdehyde level and the glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver of both the young and middle-aged groups. However, the glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in the erythrocytes of middle-aged rats given manuka honey supplementation. The catalase activity was reduced in the liver and erythrocytes of both young and middle-aged rats given supplementation. Manuka honey was found to have antioxidant activity and to have a high total phenolic content. These findings showed a strong correlation between the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS: Manuka honey reduces oxidative damage in young and middle-aged rats; this effect could be mediated through the modulation of its antioxidant enzyme activities and its high total phenolic content. Manuka honey can be used as an alternative supplement at an early age to improve the oxidative status. PMID:24270958

  6. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    PubMed

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. 77 FR 36253 - Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... 2009-2010 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina.\\1\\ The review... in the ``Final Results of Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary...

  8. 77 FR 74173 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would likely lead to... July 2, 2012, the Department initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the...

  9. 77 FR 50464 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination of Circumvention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... Determination \\1\\ of this anticircumvention inquiry, and determined that blends of honey and rice syrup are subject to the antidumping duty Order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\2\\ We gave...

  10. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-10-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycling of honey bee colonies. To understand the physiological states of honey bees used for long-term pollination in greenhouses, we characterized their gene expression profiles by microarray. We found that the greenhouse environment changes the gene expression profiles and induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees. In fact, the increase of the number of Nosema microsporidia and protein carbonyl content was observed in honey bees during pollination in greenhouses. Thus, honey bee colonies are likely to collapse during pollination in greenhouses when heavily infested with pathogens. Degradation of honey bee habitat by changing the outside environment of the colony, during pollination services for example, imposes negative impacts on honey bees. Thus, worldwide use of honey bees for crop pollination in general could be one of reasons for the decline of managed honey bee colonies.

  11. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  12. 76 FR 12940 - Honey from the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...; Eurasia Bee's Products Co., Ltd.; Feidong Foreign Trade Co., Ltd.; Fresh Honey Co., Ltd. (formerly Mgl....; Tianjin Eulia Honey Co., Ltd.; Tianjin Weigeda Trading Co., Ltd.; Wanxi Haohua Food Co., Ltd.; Wuhan Bee... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey from the People's...

  13. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycling of honey bee colonies. To understand the physiological states of honey bees used for long-term pollination in greenhouses, we characterized their gene expression profiles by microarray. We found that the greenhouse environment changes the gene expression profiles and induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees. In fact, the increase of the number of Nosema microsporidia and protein carbonyl content was observed in honey bees during pollination in greenhouses. Thus, honey bee colonies are likely to collapse during pollination in greenhouses when heavily infested with pathogens. Degradation of honey bee habitat by changing the outside environment of the colony, during pollination services for example, imposes negative impacts on honey bees. Thus, worldwide use of honey bees for crop pollination in general could be one of reasons for the decline of managed honey bee colonies. PMID:22393496

  14. 78 FR 38941 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...., Shanghai Taiside Trading Co., Ltd., Tianjin Eulia Honey Co., Ltd., and Wuhan Bee Healthy Co., Ltd. as... Qingdao Branch 14 Eurasia Bee's Products Co., Ltd. 15 Feidong Foreign Trade Co., Ltd. 16 Fresh Honey Co... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's...

  15. 77 FR 79 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of the Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's...'') is conducting the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's... found the sales made by Dongtai Peak Honey Industry Co., Ltd. (``Dongtai Peak'') that entered during the...

  16. 78 FR 56860 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Industry Co., Ltd. 15. Eurasia Bee's Products Co., Ltd. 16. Feidong Foreign Trade Co., Ltd. 17. Fresh Honey... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The...

  17. 77 FR 45334 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for the period of December 1, 2010, through November 30, 2011... on honey from Argentina was published on December 10, 2001.\\1\\ On January 3, 2012, the Department...

  18. 77 FR 65670 - Honey From Argentina: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina: Final... order on honey from Argentina for the period of December 1, 2010, through November 30, 2011.\\1\\ We...\\ See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 77 FR 45334...

  19. 75 FR 12734 - Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-357-813] Honey from Argentina... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See... countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2009. In...

  20. 75 FR 23674 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final... review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary... Argentinas (ACA). The period of review (POR) is December 1, 2007, through November 30, 2008. We invited...

  1. 76 FR 5332 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina: Notice... received a request for a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63672 (December 10, 2001) (Order). In...

  2. 77 FR 21968 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-357-813] Honey From Argentina... Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63673 (December 10, 2001... review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2011, through...

  3. 77 FR 4763 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina: Notice... Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66 FR 63672 (December 10, 2001...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina...

  4. 77 FR 1458 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-357-812] Honey From Argentina... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. The review covers..., through November 30, 2010. We preliminarily determine that sales of honey from Argentina have not been...

  5. Periodontal Application of Manuka Honey: Antimicrobial and Demineralising Effects In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Safii, Syarida H; Tompkins, Geoffrey R; Duncan, Warwick J

    2017-01-01

    Background . Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods . The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results . Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion . Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease.

  6. Periodontal Application of Manuka Honey: Antimicrobial and Demineralising Effects In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Safii, Syarida H.; Tompkins, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Topical application of manuka honey is effective in the treatment of burns and soft-tissue infections. The aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against plaque-associated bacteria in vitro in order to evaluate the potential application as an adjunct to periodontal treatment. Materials and Methods. The minimum bacteriostatic and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) of manuka honey were compared to those of white clover honey against a variety of plaque-associated bacteria, at the natural and neutral pH. Dissolved calcium was measured following incubation of honeys with hydroxyapatite (HA) beads to assess their potential to demineralise oral hard tissues. Results. Both honeys inhibited most tested oral bacteria at similar MIC/MBC, but Streptococcus mutans was comparatively resistant. The honeys at pH neutral had little effect on antimicrobial activity. Incubation of HA beads in honey solutions resulted in pH-dependent calcium dissolution, and inoculation with S. mutans promoted further demineralisation by both types of honey. Conclusion. Manuka honey is antimicrobial towards representative oral bacteria. However, the relative resistance of S. mutans in association with the high concentrations of fermentable carbohydrates in honey and the direct demineralising effect at natural pH mitigate against the application of honey as an adjunct in the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:28392803

  7. Physicochemical properties of honey from Serbia in the period 2014-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranić, D.; Petronijević, R.; Đinović Stojanović, J.; Korićanac, V.; Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.

    2017-09-01

    Honey is a viscous, aromatic, sweet food that is consumed and enjoyed by people around the world due to its unique nutritional and medicinal properties. The physicochemical parameters of natural honeys, such as moisture, reducing sugars, sucrose, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), free acidity, diastase activity, water-insoluble content and electrical conductivity are strictly defined and constitute the quality indicators which characterize individual honey varieties. The present study shows results of honey quality investigation from various regions of Serbia, which were evaluated according to the Serbian Regulation. A total of 372 honey samples (132 acacia honey, 221 blossom honey and 19 honeydew honey) were obtained from the Serbian market. All applied methods were performed according to the Harmonized Methods of the International Honey Commission. Summarizing the results presented, the most important parameters for detecting honey that was non-compliant with the regulation were HMF content along with diastase activity and sugar content. Results show that in 2014 and 2015, a great number of honey samples were of insufficient quality to satisfy regulatory requirements. In 2016, the situation on the Serbian honey market improved and became more under control.

  8. Honey and diabetes mellitus: Obstacles and challenges - Road to be repaired.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Sattar, Kamran; Chaudhary, Habib Ullah; Hajjar, Waseem; Alasiri, Saleh

    2017-07-01

    Since ancient times, honey has been used due to its nutritional and therapeutic value. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature however, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in modern medicine especially for diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of honey in diabetic patients. In this study, we identified 107 research articles from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Science", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "Honey", "Honey bee" and "Diabetes Mellitus". The research documents in which "Honey" and "Diabetes Mellitus" were debated are included. After screening, we reviewed 66 papers and finally we selected 35 studies which met the inclusion criteria and the remaining documents were excluded. This study investigated the preclinical, clinical, human and animal model studies on honey and diabetes mellitus and found that honey decreases the fasting serum glucose, increases the sting C-peptide and 2-h postprandial C-peptide. Although, there is a dearth of data and literature also contrary discussed the use of honey in diabetic patients. Honey decreases the fasting serum glucose, increases fasting C-peptide and 2-h postprandial C-peptide. Honey had low glycemic index and peak incremental index in diabetic patients. The use of honey in diabetic patients still has obstacles and challenges and needs more large sample sized, multi-center clinical controlled studies to reach better conclusions.

  9. Persistence of echimidine, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, from honey into mead

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Honey produced by bees foraging on Echium plantagineum is known to contain dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids characteristic of the plant. Following a prolific growth of E. plantagineum in the wake of Australian bushfires, two samples of mead, a fermented drink made from honey, and the honey used to pre...

  10. 77 FR 34343 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ..., 2011, Mongolia Altin Bee-Keeping Co., Ltd., Suzhou Shanding Honey Product Co., Ltd., and Wuhu Fenglian... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's... order on honey from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ We gave interested parties an...

  11. 77 FR 25682 - Honey From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ...., Tianjin Eulia Honey Co., Ltd., and Wuhan Bee Healthy Co., Ltd. Petitioners were the only party to request...., Shanghai Taiside Trading Co., Ltd., Tianjin Eulia Honey Co., Ltd., and Wuhan Bee Healthy Co., Ltd.\\1\\ \\1... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-863] Honey From the People's...

  12. Spore loads and immune responses of honey bees naturally infected by Nosema ceranae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nosema ceranae, a microsporidia parasite originally found in Asian honey bees, Apis cerana, causes widespread infection in adult workers of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, and has often been linked to honey bee colony losses worldwide. Previous investigations of the host immune response to N. c...

  13. A perspective study on green cleaning for Malaysian public hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, N. A.; Zawawi, E. M.; Arif, N. R. M.; Mahbob, N. S.; Sulaiman, Z.; Zainol, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Cleaning being a major contributor to the operations and maintenance expenditure and also Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) issues. Improper and ineffective cleaning can harm the environment and poses greatest risk to health. The use of traditional cleaning products presents a variety of human health and ecological concerns; and may contribute to poor IEQ. As an effort to reduce the issue of operations and maintenance costs and IEQ issues in a building, it is important to establish a green cleaning programme to ensure that the buildings are cleaned in a green way. Numbers of scholars has pointed out the factors which had prevented the green cleaning implementation in hospital buildings. Nonetheless, the significance of these factors has yet to be practically explored in the Malaysian context. Hence, the aim of the paper is to identify the most critical factor that prevents the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. A questionnaire survey and personal communication (i.e. interview) was conducted which involved two groups of respondents. They are the hospital maintenance staff (Cleansing Service Department) and cleaning contractors. Frequency and criticality index calculations have been used to rank these factors according to the level of importance. The result showed that an “unclear components and requirements of green cleaning” indicated as the most critical factor that prevent the implementation of green cleaning in Malaysian hospital building. In the concern for a successful implementation of green cleaning, it is hope that the findings of these studies can be enlightenment to the cleaning contractors as well as the hospital maintenance management team in Malaysia.

  14. Dosimetry audits and intercomparisons in radiotherapy: A Malaysian profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Noor, Noramaliza; Nisbet, A.; Hussein, M.; Chu S, Sarene; Kadni, T.; Abdullah, N.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Quality audits and intercomparisons are important in ensuring control of processes in any system of endeavour. Present interest is in control of dosimetry in teletherapy, there being a need to assess the extent to which there is consistent radiation dose delivery to the patient. In this study we review significant factors that impact upon radiotherapy dosimetry, focusing upon the example situation of radiotherapy delivery in Malaysia, examining existing literature in support of such efforts. A number of recommendations are made to provide for increased quality assurance and control. In addition to this study, the first level of intercomparison audit i.e. measuring beam output under reference conditions at eight selected Malaysian radiotherapy centres is checked; use being made of 9 μm core diameter Ge-doped silica fibres (Ge-9 μm). The results of Malaysian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) participation in the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit services during the period between 2011 and 2015 will also been discussed. In conclusion, following review of the development of dosimetry audits and the conduct of one such exercise in Malaysia, it is apparent that regular periodic radiotherapy audits and intercomparison programmes should be strongly supported and implemented worldwide. The programmes to-date demonstrate these to be a good indicator of errors and of consistency between centres. A total of ei+ght beams have been checked in eight Malaysian radiotherapy centres. One out of the eight beams checked produced an unacceptable deviation; this was found to be due to unfamiliarity with the irradiation procedures. Prior to a repeat measurement, the mean ratio of measured to quoted dose was found to be 0.99 with standard deviation of 3%. Subsequent to the repeat measurement, the mean distribution was 1.00, and the standard deviation was 1.3%.

  15. Is honey a fallback food for wild chimpanzees or just a sweet treat?

    PubMed

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    Honey is a highly nutritious resource for any primate able to exploit it. Wild chimpanzees exploit nests of honey-making bees (Apini and Meliponini) for honey and brood, typically using tools to overcome the bees' defences. The universality of honey-gathering among modern human foragers in tropical climates and chimpanzees suggests energy-rich honey, acquired with tools, was likely a regular food for ancestral hominins. However, few studies have assessed its role in seasonal foraging strategies of chimpanzees. This study asks whether honey serves as a high-quality fallback food for chimpanzees at Bulindi, Uganda. Honey consumption was investigated via fecal analysis over 22 months during two studies (Study 1: 2007-2008; Study 2: 2012-2014). Additionally, flower and fruit phenology was measured during Study 1; peak flowering intensity was expected to facilitate increased honey and/or brood production by bees. Chimpanzees consumed honey (and/or brood) at low frequencies year-round, but bees/beeswax appeared in feces at higher frequencies with decreasing fruit availability (Study 1). Honey consumption was unrelated to flowering and chimpanzees did not consume honey more frequently during the "honey season" when local people harvest beehives. Moreover, consumption was inversely related to fruit intake (both study periods). Although honey fits the functional definition of a filler fallback food at Bulindi, the chimpanzees unlikely depend on honey to replace nutrients provided by fruit. Overall, honey best qualifies as an energy-dense "treat" during low fruiting months. The data lend support to the hypothesis that tools can facilitate chimpanzees' access to high-quality fallbacks including insect foods when fruit availability is low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A study of the origin of chloramphenicol isomers in honey.

    PubMed

    Yanovych, Dmytro; Berendsen, Bjorn; Zasadna, Zvenyslava; Rydchuk, Mariana; Czymai, Tobias

    2018-03-01

    Due to the unexpected detection of chloramphenicol isomer residues in honey, we have studied the hypothesis of unauthorized or unintended use of unregistered veterinary drug preparations. First, we have investigated honey samples in which a discrepancy was observed between the results of the immunological screening methods and the confirmatory liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. In all samples, previously identified to be contaminated with the banned antibiotic chloramphenicol according to LC-MS/MS only, the presence of dextramycin (SS-para isomer of chloramphenicol) was detected by chiral LC-MS/MS. The source of dextramycin in honey was investigated by studying the preparations utilized in apiaries from which the above non-compliant honey samples have been received. In all these preparations (beehive strips applied against the mite Varroa destructor) chloramphenicol was detected in the concentrations ranging from 33 to 34,400 μg kg -1 . Chiral LC-MS/MS demonstrated the presence of chloramphenicol and dextramycin in different ratios, and it was concluded that these preparations can be the source of chloramphenicol and dextramycin residues in honey. These preparations were of foreign production and are not officially registered in accordance with current legislation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys.

    PubMed

    Anjos, Ofélia; Iglesias, Carla; Peres, Fátima; Martínez, Javier; García, Ángela; Taboada, Javier

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters. The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral (almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower) and multifloral. The moisture content, electrical conductivity, water activity, ashes content, pH, free acidity, colorimetric coordinates in CIELAB space (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)) and total phenols content of the honey samples were evaluated. Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables. The reduced error rates (5%) allow us to conclude that the botanical origin of honey can be reliably and quickly known from the colorimetric information and the electrical conductivity of honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polyphenols as Possible Markers of Botanical Origin of Honey.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš M; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, the botanical and geographical origin of food has become an important topic in the context of food quality and safety, as well as consumer protection, in accordance with international standards. Finding chemical markers, especially phytochemicals, characteristic for some kind of food is the subject of interest of a significant number of researchers in the world. This paper is focused on the use of polyphenols as potential markers for the determination of botanical origin of honey. It includes a review of the polyphenols present in various honey samples and the methods for their separation and identification. Special emphasis in this paper is placed on the identification of honey polyphenols using advanced LC-MS techniques in order to find specific markers of botanical origin of honey. In this regard, this study gives an overview of the literature that describes the use of LC-MS techniques for the isolation and determination of honey polyphenols. This review focuses on the research performed in the past two decades.

  19. From the hive: Honey, a novel weapon against cancer.

    PubMed

    Badolato, Mariateresa; Carullo, Gabriele; Cione, Erika; Aiello, Francesca; Caroleo, Maria Cristina

    2017-12-15

    Nowadays there is a folk medicine branch called apitherapy that aims to treat diseases with bee products, including honey. Honey has long been known for its medicinal and health promoting properties. It encloses numerous types of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content, which contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Varieties and variants of polyphenols in honey showed antiproliferative property against several types of cancer. This review focuses on the latest discoveries about the key role of honey in different stages of carcinogenesis, initiation, proliferation and progression, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on its adjuvant effect in cancer therapy. Although a possible application of honey and its active compounds as drugs against cancer is still far away from clinical practice, scientific results highlight that they could be used as immune booster for patients undergoing chemotherapy. They showed protective effects against the common exasperating and disabling side effects, mostly mucositis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  1. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    PubMed Central

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency. PMID:28468244

  2. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  3. Pollen viability and transgene expression following storage in honey.

    PubMed

    Eady, C; Twell, D; Lindsey, K

    1995-07-01

    Transgenic plants of tobacco and Arabidopsis that produce genetically marked pollen, expressing the reporter gene uidA (gusA), were generated to determine whether pollen proteins can be expressed and stable in honey, a potential route by which foreign proteins might enter the wider environment. Hydrated tobacco pollen was found to lose viability rapidly in honey, while pollen in the natural dehydrated form remained viable for at least several days and in some cases several weeks, as determined by FDA staining activity and germinability. Dehydrated pollen was found to be capable of transient foreign gene expression, following microprojectile bombardment, after incubation in honey for at least 120 h. PCR amplification of transgene sequences in pollen of transgenic plants revealed that pollen DNA can remain relatively intact after 7 weeks in honey. GUS enzyme activity analysis and SDS-PAGE of pollen proteins revealed that foreign and native pollen proteins are stable in pollen incubated in honey for at least 6 weeks. We conclude that pollen may represent an ecologically important vector for transgenic protein products.

  4. Up-to-date use of honey for burns treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zbuchea, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Made by bees from the nectar of flowers, used since ancient times to treat wounds and burns, honey has lately acquired a growing interest from the international scientific community and has been the subject of many specialized studies and communications. This article highlights the up-to-date knowledge on qualities, properties and mode of appliance of honey in the treatment of wounds of various etiologies, particularly burns, through an extensive retrospective analysis of data from the literature. This article aims to review and provide a synthesis of current issues regarding the complex action of honey on burn wounds, evidenced by in vitro studies, laboratory experiments and clinical trials published in the specialized literature. The present work analyzes extensively the anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties of honey, as well as its favorable effect on wound regeneration. Effectiveness of topical administration of honey is evidenced both by a series of experiments on laboratory animals and by clinical trials. This article also draws the attention of both medical staff and patients to the possibility of using this product, and to its acceptability in practice. PMID:25249844

  5. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) worker genome

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Erik M. K.; Amdam, Gro V.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provide a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera) uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens) and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, include cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the “social repertoire” of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior. PMID:25705215

  6. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    López-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators. PMID:26536606

  7. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health.

    PubMed

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-04-29

    Honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees' natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis . We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests ( Nosema , viruses, Varroa destructor , and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency.

  8. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    PubMed

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  9. The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar

    2008-09-01

    Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not.

  10. Evaluation of baker's yeast in honey using a real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Roetschi, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    Occasionally, melissopalynological analysis reveals the presence of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in honey sediments. A field experiment reproducing a common spring bee feeding practice, using sugar paste containing baker's yeast, was performed to understand how S. cerevisiae are introduced into honey. Apart from classical microscopy, a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system specific for S. cerevisiae was established for quantification of S. cerevisiae in honeys. Results showed that S. cerevisiae cells are stored in the honey of the brood combs and are also transferred into honey in the supers. The concentrations of S. cerevisiae were highest in honey of the brood frames immediately after the feeding and decreased over time to low concentrations at the end of the year. A high content of S. cerevisiae cells were also found in the honey from supers of the spring harvest. Observed S. cerevisiae cells were not able to multiply in a high-sugar environment, such as honey, and their viability decreased rapidly after addition to the honey. The screening of 200 Swiss honeys revealed the presence of S. cerevisiae in 4.5% of the samples, as determined by microscopy and qPCR. Finally, the method described here may indicate an unwanted sucrose addition to honey through bee-feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analyses of avocado (Persea americana) nectar properties and their perception by honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Afik, O; Dag, A; Kerem, Z; Shafir, S

    2006-09-01

    Honey bees are important avocado pollinators. However, due to the low attractiveness of flowers, pollination is often inadequate. Previous work has revealed that avocado honey is relatively unattractive to honey bees when compared with honey from competing flowers. We characterized avocado honey and nectar with respect to their odor, color, and composition of sugars, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Furthermore, we tested how honey bees perceive these parameters, using the proboscis extension response bioassay and preference experiments with free-flying bees. Naïve bees were indifferent to odors of avocado and citrus flowers and honey. Experienced bees, which were collected in the field during the blooming season, responded preferentially to odor of citrus flowers. The unique sugar composition of avocado nectar, which contains almost exclusively sucrose and a low concentration of the rare carbohydrate perseitol, and the dark brown color of avocado honey, had no negative effects on its attractiveness to the bees. Phenolic compounds extracted from avocado honey were attractive to bees and adding them to a solution of sucrose increased its attractiveness. Compared with citrus nectar and nonavocado honey, avocado nectar and honey were rich in a wide range of minerals, including potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, iron, and copper. Potassium and phosphorus, the two major minerals, both had a repellent effect on the bees. Possible explanations for the presence of repellent components in avocado nectar are discussed.

  12. Physicochemical Parameters as a Tool for the Assessment of Origin of Honey.

    PubMed

    Lazarević, Kristina B; Jovetić, Milica S; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2017-07-01

    Honey is a complex mixture of various substances, and its composition depends on both botanical and geographical origin, as well as anthropogenic factors. The accurate identification of honey origin guarantees the satisfaction of consumers' needs and has an impact on the honey market value. Physicochemical parameters, some of which are used in routine analysis of honey quality, could be useful for the assessment of its origin. In this review, special attention is paid to those studies that assessed the sugar and mineral composition of honey, whether they were investigated in terms of botanical or geographical origin, or for the characterization of honey type. The oligosaccharides present in honey and the electrical conductivity of honey correlate strongly with its botanical origin. Mineral content could be indicative for distinguishing honeys according to their botanical and geographical origins because it depends on both the soil composition and the floral type of melliferous plants. This review provides insight into the results obtained by various studies from approximately the last 10 years concerning the sugar profile and the mineral and trace element content of different types of honey. An attempt was made to statistically analyze the results regarding mineral and trace element content in order to identify indicators that could distinguish honey by origin.

  13. Antibacterial potential of Manuka honey against three oral bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, PatrickSchmidlin R; English, Helen; Duncan, Warwick; Belibasakis, Georgios N; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Honey is an ancient natural remedy for the treatment of infected wounds. It has regained attention in the medical profession, as it has recently been reported to have a broad-spectrum inhibitory effect against bacteria. Data concerning Manuka honey of New Zealand origin, which is claimed to provide additional non-peroxide antimicrobial activity (so-called standard NPA) against oral pathogens, is still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to screen for the antibacterial efficacy of different Manuka honey products against S. mutans (OMZ 918), P. gingivalis (OMZ 925) and A. actinomycetemcomitans (OMZ 299). Chlorhexidine and saline served as positive and negative controls, respectively, whereas a Swiss multifloral honey served as control honey without intrinsic non-peroxide activity. Chlorhexidine showed the highest inhibiting potential against all specimens tested. Manuka honey below an NPA value of 15 showed the least bacterial growth-inhibiting potential, even less – although not significantly so – than multifloral Swiss honey. Manuka honey above an NPA value of 15 showed a significantly higher antibacterial effect compared to the other honeys tested. All Manuka honey preparations were more effective in inhibiting the growth of P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans, rather than S. mutans. In conclusion, the study showed an NPA dose-dependent antibacterial efficacy of Manuka honey. Further investigations of this natural product are now open for scrutiny.

  14. Synergy between oxacillin and manuka honey sensitizes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to oxacillin.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rowena E; Cooper, Rose

    2012-06-01

    Honey is an ancient wound remedy that has recently been introduced into modern clinical practice in developed countries. Manuka honey inhibits growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by preventing cell division. In Gram-negative bacteria a synergistic interaction between honey and antibiotics has been suggested. We aimed to determine the effect of manuka honey on oxacillin resistance in MRSA. Inhibition of MRSA by manuka honey and oxacillin separately and in combination was tested by disc diffusion, Etest strips, serial broth dilution, chequerboards and growth curves. Manuka honey and oxacillin interacted synergistically to inhibit MRSA. Manuka honey reversed oxacillin resistance in MRSA, and down-regulation of mecR1 was found in cells treated with manuka honey. Microarray analysis showed that exposure of MRSA to inhibitory concentrations of manuka honey resulted in down-regulation of mecR1. Here we demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations of honey in combination with oxacillin restored oxacillin susceptibility to MRSA. Other honey and antibiotic combinations must now be evaluated.

  15. Unique Pattern of Protein-Bound Maillard Reaction Products in Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) Honey.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Rückriemen, Jana; Sandner, Daniel; Henle, Thomas

    2017-05-03

    As a unique feature, honey from the New Zealand manuka tree (Leptospermum scoparium) contains substantial amounts of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) and methylglyoxal (MGO). Although MGO is a reactive intermediate in the Maillard reaction, very little is known about reactions of MGO with honey proteins. We hypothesized that the abundance of MGO should result in a particular pattern of protein-bound Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in manuka honey. A protein-rich high-molecular-weight fraction was isolated from 12 manuka and 8 non-manuka honeys and hydrolyzed enzymatically. By HPLC-MS/MS, 8 MRPs, namely, N-ε-fructosyllysine, N-ε-maltulosyllysine, carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine (CEL), pyrraline, formyline, maltosine, and methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone 1 (MG-H1), were quantitated. Compared to non-manuka honeys, the manuka honeys were characterized by high concentrations of CEL and MG-H1, whereas the formation of N-ε-fructosyllysine was suppressed, indicating concurrence reactions of glucose and MGO at the ε-amino group of protein-bound lysine. Up to 31% of the lysine and 8% of the arginine residues, respectively, in the manuka honey protein can be modified to CEL and MG-H1, respectively. CEL and MG-H1 concentrations correlated strongly with the MGO concentration of the honeys. Manuka honey possesses a special pattern of protein-bound MRPs, which might be used to prove the reliability of labeled MGO levels in honeys and possibly enable the detection of fraudulent MGO or DHA addition to honey.

  16. Antiradical activity of natural honeys and antifungal effect against Penicillium genera.

    PubMed

    Kacániová, Miroslava; Fatrcová-Sramková, Katarína; Nozková, Janka; Melich, Martin; Kadasi-Horáková, Miriam; Knazovická, Vladimíra; Felsöciová, Sona; Kunová, Simona; Máriássyová, Magda

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the antiradical activity of 11 natural honeys and to evaluate the antifungal properties of honey. Honey samples (10) were collected from different locations of Slovak Republic. Honeys were native to different plant species of Robinia pseudoacaccia, Brassica napus subs. napus, Castanea sativa Mill. Thymus serpyllum vulgaris and the other samples had multifloral origin. The low antiradical activitity in honey samples was determined. The best results were found in thyme honey from Rhodos (11.84 %) and Castanea honey from Nitra (10.61 %). The lowest antiradical activity was found in Acacia honey and determined to be 7.62 %. Statistically significant differences (P< 0.001) were found among thyme/Rhodos and Castanea/Nitra. The antifungal activities of honey samples were tested by 10 %, 25 % and 50 % (by mass per volume) concentration against fungi Penicillium crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. raistrickii and P. verrucosum and by the agar well diffusion method. The solutions containing 10 % (by mass per volume) of honey did not have any effect on the growth of fungi. The strongest antifungal effect was shown by 50 % honey concentration against P. raistrickii.

  17. The effect of mad honey on testosterone levels of male rats.

    PubMed

    Tatli, O; Karaca, Y; Turkmen, S; Gulgen, G S; Sahin, A; Eryigit, U; Fazli, O; Karaguzel, E; Mentese, A; Orem, A; Cansu, A; Turedi, S; Gunduz, A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of mad honey on sexual performance. In traditional medicine in Turkey, mad honey is used to improve appetite, to heighten mental alertness, to reduce joint pain, to eliminate gastrointestinal system pains and to increase sexual performance. In this experimental animal study eighteen Sprague Dawley male rats were randomized into three groups, a control group, a normal honey group and a mad honey group. Rats in the treatment groups were given a daily dose of 80 mg/kg normal honey or mad honey throughout the 30-day study period. Total testosterone, free testosterone, FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels were subsequently investigated from blood sera on day 30. Comparison of blood total testosterone levels among the groups revealed significantly higher levels in the mad honey group compared to the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.006, p = 0.00). Free testosterone levels were also significantly higher in the mad honey group than in the normal honey and control groups (p = 0.023, p = 0.01). No statistically significant differences were determined for other hormonal measurements. This study revealed a significant increase in both total and free testosterone levels in mad-honey group (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 16).

  18. Physicochemical Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Bee Honey Enriched With Herbs.

    PubMed

    Dżugan, Małgorzata; Sowa, Patrycja; Kwaśniewska, Monika; Wesołowska, Monika; Czernicka, Maria

    2017-03-01

    Three groups of products enriched with herbs were studied: (1) commercial herb honeys (n = 5) produced by bees fed a syrup with an herbal extract, (2) natural herbal honey (n = 3) produced by bees from the nectar of herbs, and (3) creamed multifloral honey with added dried herbs (n = 5). As a control, multifloral honey (n = 5) was used. The physicochemical parameters (i.e., sugar extract, water content, specific rotation, conductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, pH and acidity), sugar profiles (HPLC analysis), antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds content of the studied samples were compared. Although great diversity in the basic properties of the studied products was observed, they were comparable to multifloral honey and complied with honey regulations. Significant differences in sugar composition were observed, and adversely positive rotation (excluding nettle herb honey) was detected in group 1, likely resulting from the change in bee feeding. The best antioxidant activity for creamed honeys with dried herbs (group 2) was investigated, whereas herb honeys (group 1) exhibited similar antioxidant properties as multifloral honey. The use of controlled feeding of bees appears to be an effective method of enriching honey with desirable plant bioactive components to create innovative bee products.

  19. A quantitative model of honey bee colony population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Khoury, David S; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

    2011-04-18

    Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation on honey quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, A.; Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Sabato, S. F.

    2009-07-01

    Honey is one of the most complex substances produced by bees, mainly from the nectar of flowers. Gamma radiation is a technique that can be used to decrease the number of microbiological problems associated with food and increase the shelf life of certain products. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of gamma radiation with source of cobalto-60 (10 kGy) on some parameters used in honey quality control. Seven samples of pure honey were obtained from local markets in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2007. The methods used are in accordance with Brazilian Regulations. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture, HMF, free acidity, pH, sugars and ash. The results showed that gamma radiation, in the dose mentioned above, did not cause significant physicochemical alterations.

  1. Antioxidant activity of honey supplemented with bee products.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Socha, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of supplementation of multiflower honey with bee products on the phenolic compound content and on antioxidant activity. Average total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the multiflower honeys were 36.06 ± 10.18 mg GAE/100 g and 4.48 ± 1.69 mg QE/100 g, respectively. The addition of royal jelly did not affect significantly the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Supplementation of honey with other bee products, i.e. beebread, propolis, pollen, resulted in significant increase in the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and in antiradical activity and reducing power, with the largest effect found for addition of beebread. Significant linear correlations between the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and antiradical activity and reducing power were found.

  2. In vitro activity of an engineered honey, medical-grade honeys, and antimicrobial wound dressings against biofilm-producing clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Halstead, F D; Webber, M A; Rauf, M; Burt, R; Dryden, M; Oppenheim, B A

    2016-02-01

    Honey is recognised to be a good topical wound care agent owing to a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity combined with healing properties. Surgihoney RO (SH1) is a product based on honey that is engineered to produce enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been reported to be highly antimicrobial. The objective was to investigate the ability of the engineered honey and its comparators to prevent biofilm formation in vitro. We tested the ability of three medical-grade honeys SH1, Activon manuka honey (MH) and Medihoney manuka honey (Med), alongside five antimicrobial dressings (AMDs) to prevent the formation of biofilms by 16 isolates. Honeys were serially double diluted from 1:3 down to 1:6144 and the lowest dilution achieving a statistically significant reduction in biomass of at least 50%, compared with untreated controls, was recorded. Although all the honeys were antibacterial and were able to prevent the formation of biofilms, SH1 was the most potent, with efficacy at lower dilutions than the medical honeys for five isolates, and equivalent dilutions for a further six. Additionally, SH1 was superior in antibacterial potency to three commercially available AMDs that contain honey. SH1 is effective at preventing bioflms from forming and is superior to medical honeys and AMDs in in vitro tests. Surgihoney RO was provided free of charge for testing by Matoke Holdings, UK and the hospital pharmacy provided the other honeys and dressings. This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health.

  3. Botanical origin, colour, granulation, and sensory properties of the Harenna forest honey, Bale, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Abera; Solomon, W K; Bultossa, Geremew; Adgaba, Nuru; Melaku, Samuel

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the Harenna forest honey samples were investigated with respect to their botanical origin, granulation, colour and sensory properties. Sixteen honey samples were collected from two representative sites (Chiri, C, and Wabero, W) using random sampling techniques. Botanical origin was investigated using qualitative pollen analysis by counting 500 pollen grains using harmonised methods of melissopalynology. Granulation, colour, and sensory properties of honey were determined by visual observation, using Pfund grader, acceptability and preference tests, respectively. Honey samples were also tested for tetracycline. Honey obtained from Wabero is originated dominantly from Syzygium guineense while Chiri was multifloral. The colour of honey ranged from 34 to 85 with light amber and extra light amber colours. The honey samples were free from tetracycline residue and form coarse granules slowly. Significant variation (p>0.05) in sensory preference and acceptability tests not observed due to hive types and locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plausible authentication of manuka honey and related products by measuring leptosperin with methyl syringate.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoji; Fujinaka, Rie; Ishisaka, Akari; Nitta, Yoko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Takimoto, Yosuke

    2014-07-09

    Manuka honey, obtained from Leptospermum scoparium flowers in New Zealand, has strong antibacterial properties. In this study, plausible authentication of the manuka honey was inspected by measuring leptosperin, methyl syringate 4-O-β-D-gentiobiose, along with methyl syringate. Despite a gradual decrease in methyl syringate content over 30 days at 50 °C, even at moderate 37 °C, leptosperin remained stable. A considerable correlation between nonperoxide antibacterial activity and leptosperin content was observed in 20 certified manuka honey samples. Leptosperin and methyl syringate in manuka honey and related products were analyzed using HPLC connected with mass spectrometry. One noncertified brand displayed significant variations in the leptosperin and methyl syringate contents between two samples obtained from different regions. Therefore, certification is clearly required to protect consumers from disguised and/or low-quality honey. Because leptosperin is stable during storage and specific to manuka honey, its measurement may be applicable for manuka honey authentication.

  5. Topical honey for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kateel, Ramya; Adhikari, Prabha; Augustine, Alfred J; Ullal, Sheetal

    2016-08-01

    Topical honey has been used for the treatment of wound since ancient time. But the medical evidence proving it is limited. Hence a systematic review was planned. An exhaustive literature search was done in PUBMED, COCHRANE, GOOGLE using 'topical honey', 'diabetic foot ulcer', 'chronic wounds' as key words. Literature search showed total of five clinical trials and about ten observational studies in various part of world. Out of five clinical trials three concluded that honey dressing is better than conventional dressing, all the clinical trials proved safety of honey for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer. Observational studies included total of 320 patients which also showed safety of honey but efficacy cannot be considered from observational studies. This review showed that honey dressing is safer for treatment of diabetic foot ulcer but there is insufficient good quality data to realistically conclude on the efficacy of honey on diabetic foot ulcers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Detection of Spiroplasma melliferum in honey bee colonies in the US.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Chen, Yan Ping

    2014-06-01

    Spiroplasma infections in honey bees have been reported in Europe and Asia quite recently, due to intensive studies on the epidemiology of honey bee diseases. The situation in the US is less well analyzed. Here, we examined the honey bee colonies in Beltsville, MD, where Spiroplasmamelliferum was originally reported and found S. melliferum infection in honey bees. Our data showed high variation of S. melliferum infection in honey bees with a peak prevalence in May during the course of one-year study period. The colony prevalence increased from 5% in February to 68% in May and then decreased to 25% in June and 22% in July. Despite that pathogenicity of spiroplasmas in honey bee colonies remains to be determined, our results indicated that spiroplasma infections need to be included for the consideration of the impacts on honey bee health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Pollution monitoring using networks of honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Dewart, M.L.; Thomas, J.M.

    1983-08-01

    Each year thousands of chemicals in large quantities are introduced into the global environment and the need for effective methods of monitoring these substances has steadily increased. Most monitoring programs rely upon instrumentation to measure specific contaminants in air, water, or soil. However, it has become apparent that humans and their environment are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals rather than single entities. As our ability to detect ever smaller quantities of pollutants has increased, the biological significance of these findings has become more uncertain. Also, it is clear that monitoring efforts should shift from short-term studies of easily identifiablemore » sources in localized areas to long-term studies of multiple sources over widespread regions. Our investigations aim at providing better tools to meet these exigencies. Honey bees are discussed as an effective, long-term, self-sustaining system for monitoring environmental impacts. Our results indicate that the use of regional, and possibly national or international, capability can be realized with the aid of beekeepers in obtaining samples and conducting measurements. This approach has the added advantage of public involvement in environmental problem solving and protection of human health and environmental quality.« less

  8. Honey Lake Power Facility under construction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal energy and wood waste are primary energy sources for the 30 megawatt, net, Honey Lake Power Facility, a cogeneration power plant. The facility 60% completed in January 1989, will use 1,300 tons per day of fuel obtained from selective forest thinnings and from logging residue combined with mill wastes. The power plant will be the largest industrial facility to use some of Lassen County's geothermal resources. The facility will produce 236 million kilowatt-hours of electricity annually. The plant consists of a wood-fired traveling grate furnace with a utility-type high pressure boiler. Fluids from a geothermal well will pass throughmore » a heat exchange to preheat boiler feedwater. Used geothermal fluid will be disposed of in an injection well. Steam will be converted to electrical power through a 35.5-megawatt turbine generator and transmitted 22 miles to Susanville over company-owned and maintained transmission lines. The plant includes pollution control for particulate removal, ammonia injection for removal of nitrogen oxides, and computer-controlled combustion systems to control carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons. The highly automated wood yard consists of systems to remove metal, handle oversized material, receive up to six truck loads of wood products per hour, and continuously deliver 58 tons per hour of fuel through redundant systems to ensure maximum on-line performance. The plant is scheduled to become operational in mid-1989.« less

  9. Molecular Tracing of the Origin of Six Different Plant Species in Bee Honey Using Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Liu, Mingchang; Wang, Bin; Li, Meige; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The quality of honey is significantly influenced by floral origin. Mislabeling floral species occurs frequently in bee honey products. To protect consumers from economic fraud and maintain a fair market environment, methods to identify floral species in honey are necessary. In our study, real-time PCRs were established, targeting six honey types mainly produced in China (canola, Chinese milkvetch, Chinese chaste tree, locust tree, litchi, and longan). Sensitivity testing on DNA from plant tissues exhibited LODs of about 0.5-5 pg/μL. For DNA extracts of pollen sediments from different honey species, LODs ranged from 13.6 to 403.2 pg/μL. In an experiment to determine the practical LODs of honey in which adulterant honey was spiked in the genuine honey, adulterant honey as low as about 0.1-0.5% was detected in 90-100% in 10 parallel tests. Additionally, pollen was spiked in the honey and stored under various conditions to investigate the migration of pollen DNA into the honey supernatant. Finally, the efficiency of our method was investigated by testing honey samples of unknown compositions from different geographic regions. Of the 159 honey samples that were supposed to be monofloral that had been collected in five provinces, a small portion were found to be contaminated with foreign pollen (7%). The methods proved to be specific, sensitive, and reliable in identifying the six plant species in honey, which would be a useful tool during the market supervision and QC of honey products.

  10. Social isolation in older Malaysians: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Rahimah; Abolfathi Momtaz, Yadollah; Hamid, Tengku Aizan

    2013-06-01

    Social isolation is one of the most important emerging issues among ageing populations, as it reduces well-being, health and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to identify prevalence and risk factors of social isolation in older Malaysians. The sample for this study was drawn from a national survey entitled 'Patterns of Social Relationships and Psychological Well-Being among Older Persons in Peninsular Malaysia'. Social isolation was measured with the Lubben Social Network Scale. The findings from the present study showed that 49.8% of older Malaysians are at risk for social isolation. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that the number of sons, number of brothers, number of sisters, household size, self-rated health, place of residence, home ownership, sex and ethnicity were significantly associated with social isolation. These findings may have some implications for social and health-care policymakers in planning and developing new and effective interventions such as educational programmes to reduce social isolation among this vulnerable population. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  11. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students.

    PubMed

    Babar, Muneer G; Hasan, Syed S; Ooi, Yong J; Ahmed, Syed I; Wong, Pei S; Ahmad, Siti F; Mnm-Rosdy, Nik M; Malik, Normaliza A

    2015-05-02

    The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students.

  12. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Syed S.; Ooi, Yong J.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Wong, Pei S.; Ahmad, Siti F.; MNM-Rosdy, Nik M.; Malik, Normaliza A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. Results A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. Conclusion The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students. PMID:25935506

  13. Applications of building information model (BIM) in Malaysian construction industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M. M.; Haron, N. A.; Alias, A. H.; Al-Jumaa, A. T.; Muhammad, I. B.; Harun, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Since the introduction of BIM in Malaysia in 2009, the technology adoption rate is slow when compared to other countries of the world. Most of the construction companies in Malaysia have an insight on the BIM concept but are yet to implement it in the management of their construction projects. By the year 2020, the Malaysian government will make BIM mandatory, this makes it important to carry out research on the possible applications of the technology. A qualitative method of enquiry was used for this study in Klang Valley using semistructured interview. The responses received were analysed using Principal component analysis (PCA). The result of the analysis showed that “quantity take-off and estimation”, “clash detection and coordination”, “integration and collaboration of stakeholders”, and “design and visualisation” as the main applications of BIM in Malaysia presently. The implication of this findings is that the Malaysian construction industry productivity is likely to increase to meet the demand of the population through the implementations of BIM. More also, BIM technology is regarded as the future of construction industry, which makes it very important for the industry.

  14. Admission hypothermia among VLBW infants in Malaysian NICUs.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Guat-Sim Cheah, Irene

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of admission hypothermia (AH) among very-low-birth-weight (≤1500 g) infants in 32 Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all very-low-birth-weight infants admitted and a questionnaire survey of the practice of AH prevention. Of the 3768 (99.8%) infants with admission temperature recorded, 64.8% (n = 2440) were hypothermic: 40.3% (n = 983) mildly (36.0-36.4°C), 58.5% (n = 1428) moderately (32.0-35.9°C) and 1.2% (n = 29) severely (<32.0°C). Mean ambient temperature of these NICUs was 22.8°C (SD = 2.7, n = 28) in labour rooms and 20.1°C (SD = 1.6, n = 30) in operation theatres. None of the NICUs practised complete care bundle against AH at birth (i.e. use of pre-warmed radiant warmer and cling wrap, ambient temperature of at least 25°C and use of pre-warmed transport incubator). Care bundle against neonatal hypothermia should be actively promoted in Malaysian labour rooms and operation theatres.

  15. Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Ibrahim, Suraya; Mohamed, Isa Naina; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men. PMID:25431881

  16. Comparison between the development of Malaysian and Denver children.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1989-01-01

    126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.

  17. Organ donation among Malaysian Muslims: the role of mosques.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Abdullah, Nawi; Wan Md Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhdi; Che Soh, Mazlan

    2015-04-13

    Malaysia, a country of Muslim majority, is suffering from a severe organ shortage due to the lack of donors. Mosques are the main gateways into the Muslim community. Hence, it is imperative to explore their role in facilitating organ donation. A self-administered survey was conducted between October and December 2013. We distributed 700 pilot-tested questionnaires to 82 mosques in Kuala Lumpur and its suburbs. The respondents were stratified into 2 groups: the mosque committees and the Muslim Jama'ah (individuals who come regularly to mosque for prayer). Data collected from a survey on 653 Malaysian Muslims reveals that the main factors that hamper organ donation-related activities at the mosques in Malaysia are the lack of experts and financial resources. The level of autonomy of the mosque is also another main issue. The respondents believe that talks and dialogues are the best methods for organ donation campaigns at the mosques. Conclusions We argue that if the mosques are to play a role in imparting knowledge on organ donation, there should be ample opportunity for the mosque committee to choose the content of religious talks held in their community. The mosques in Malaysia are not sufficiently facilitated to channel the information on organ donation to the Muslim community. Providing financial support and expert campaigners are expected to increase organ donation-related activities at the mosques and subsequently could increase awareness regarding organ donations among Malaysian Muslims.

  18. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  19. Cross-linguistic transfer of phonological skills: a Malaysian perspective.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Caroline; Reason, Rea

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the phonological and reading performance in English of Malaysian children whose home language was Bahasa Malaysia (BM). A sample of 69 Malaysian Standard Two pupils (aged 7-8 years) was selected for the study. Since commencing school at the age of 6 years, the children had been learning to read in BM and had subsequently also been learning to read in English for some 12 months. The study was part of a larger scale research programme that fully recognized the limitations of tests that had not been developed and standardized in Malaysia. Nevertheless, as a first step to developing such tests, a comparison with existing norms for the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB) and the Wechsler Objective Reading Dimension (WORD) was undertaken in relation to information about the children's L1 and L2 language competencies. Results showed that the children's performance on PhAB was at least comparable to the UK norms while, not surprisingly, they fared less well on WORD. The results are discussed in terms of L1 and L2 transfer, whereby the transparency of written BM and the structured way in which reading is taught in BM facilitates performance on phonological tasks in English. This has implications for identifying children with phonologically based reading difficulties.

  20. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Abu Bakar, Fazleen I.; Abu Bakar, Mohd F.; Rahmat, Asmah; Abdullah, Norazlin; Sabran, Siti F.; Endrini, Susi

    2018-01-01

    Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: “gout,” “medicinal plants,” “Malaysia,” “epidemiology,” “in vitro,” and “in vivo.” In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%); specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated. PMID:29628890