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Sample records for male broiler chickens

  1. Comparison of serum biochemical profiles of male broilers with female broilers and White Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, V A; Julian, R J; Stirtzinger, T

    1989-01-01

    Male broiler chickens were compared to female broiler chickens and male White Leghorns with respect to a 15-parameter serum biochemical profile at 9, 20, 30 and 42 days of age in order to determine which, if any, of the parameters tested might be useful in the identification of birds susceptible to sudden death syndrome. In comparison to female broilers, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) total protein levels at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) cholesterol levels at 30 days of age. Compared to male White Leghorns, in which sudden death syndrome has not been reported, male broilers had significantly lower (p less than 0.01) levels of cholesterol and creatinine at nine days of age, total protein at 9 and 20 days of age and albumin at 20 days of age and significantly higher (p less than 0.01) levels of potassium at nine days, uric acid at 9, 20 and 30 days, lactate dehydrogenase at 20, 30 and 42 days and cholesterol at 30 days of age. PMID:2914228

  2. Eating behaviour, and preprandial and postprandial correlations in male broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Bokkers, E A M; Koene, P

    2003-09-01

    1. It has been suggested that broiler chickens have a disturbed satiety and hunger mechanism. The satiety mechanism for eating can be expressed as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the preceding (preprandial) interval; the hunger mechanism for eating as the positive correlation between meal length and the length of the succeeding (postprandial) interval. An experiment was conducted to investigate eating behaviour of male broiler and layer chickens by measuring meal and interval lengths. 2. Eight male broilers and 8 male layer chickens were housed individually and visually isolated in floor pens (1 m2/pen) on wood shavings. From 4 to 7 weeks of age, eating behaviour of each bird was recorded for 3 h in two conditions each week. In the first condition, the birds were not deprived from feed. In the second condition, they were 24-h food deprived and feed was provided just before the observation started. Preprandial and postprandial correlations were calculated based on data of the non-deprived condition. Before and after each observation bird and feeder were weighed to measure weight gain and feed consumption during observation. 3. Under the non-deprived condition, the broilers spent initially more, but at a later age less time on eating. The broilers had fewer meals per hour, consumed more feed per hour, and had longer meal and interval lengths than the layer chickens. After 24-h feed deprivation, the broilers had a longer first meal, consumed more feed per hour and spent more time on eating than the layer chickens. Significant preprandial correlations but no postprandial correlations were found in the broilers. In the layer chickens, both significant preprandial and postprandial correlations were found. This indicates that for regulating eating behaviour, the satiety mechanism dominates the hunger mechanism in broilers, and satiety and hunger mechanisms are equally involved in layer chickens. 4. The typical eating behaviour of broilers

  3. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie T; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2011-06-01

    There has been a recent emergence of epidemic spinal infections with necrosis causing lameness and mortality in male broilers and broiler breeders. Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation observed in the free thoracic vertebrae (FTV) of affected birds. Male broiler breeders in an experimental setting were challenged with pure E. cecorum isolates obtained from ES-affected commercial flocks. Challenge routes included oral gavage (10(8)), intravenous (i.v.; 10(3)), and air sac (AS; 10(3)). Half the study birds in each group were chemically immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spinal lesions were observed grossly in birds challenged intravenously (2.9%) and birds challenged orally (6.1%). Microscopic spinal lesions consistent with ES were more frequently identified compared with gross lesions in the orally challenged group (30.3%). Chemical immunosuppression with dexamethasone was not associated with a greater incidence of ES in this study. By recreating the disease experimentally, the study design reported here may help in the further development of an experimental challenge model for future studies on risk factors, prevention, and therapeutic intervention of ES.

  4. Accuracy of estimated breeding values with genomic information on males, females, or both: an example on broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Lourenco, Daniela A L; Fragomeni, Breno O; Tsuruta, Shogo; Aguilar, Ignacio; Zumbach, Birgit; Hawken, Rachel J; Legarra, Andres; Misztal, Ignacy

    2015-07-02

    As more and more genotypes become available, accuracy of genomic evaluations can potentially increase. However, the impact of genotype data on accuracy depends on the structure of the genotyped cohort. For populations such as dairy cattle, the greatest benefit has come from genotyping sires with high accuracy, whereas the benefit due to adding genotypes from cows was smaller. In broiler chicken breeding programs, males have less progeny than dairy bulls, females have more progeny than dairy cows, and most production traits are recorded for both sexes. Consequently, genotyping both sexes in broiler chickens may be more advantageous than in dairy cattle. We studied the contribution of genotypes from males and females using a real dataset with genotypes on 15 723 broiler chickens. Genomic evaluations used three training sets that included only males (4648), only females (8100), and both sexes (12 748). Realized accuracies of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were used to evaluate the benefit of including genotypes for different training populations on genomic predictions of young genotyped chickens. Using genotypes on males, the average increase in accuracy of GEBV over pedigree-based EBV for males and females was 12 and 1 percentage points, respectively. Using female genotypes, this increase was 1 and 18 percentage points, respectively. Using genotypes of both sexes increased accuracies by 19 points for males and 20 points for females. For two traits with similar heritabilities and amounts of information, realized accuracies from cross-validation were lower for the trait that was under strong selection. Overall, genotyping males and females improves predictions of all young genotyped chickens, regardless of sex. Therefore, when males and females both contribute to genetic progress of the population, genotyping both sexes may be the best option.

  5. Sensorial quality and bone strength of female and male broiler chickens are influenced by weight and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Erdal, R; Richardson, I; Ljøkjel, K; Haug, A

    2012-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted with 98 male and 98 female broiler chickens (Ross 308) to study the effect of growth rate, induced by different dietary means, sex and live weight (1500 g and 2000 g) at slaughter on production parameters, bone strength and sensorial characteristics of the breast meat. 2. The birds were divided into four groups and individually fed a standard commercial diet, a high energy diet or low energy diet from d 11 to slaughter at between d 28 and 39. Three groups were fed ad libitum and a further group was fed a restricted amount of the high energy feed. Half of the birds in each group were slaughtered at approximately 1500 g and the other half at 2000 g live weight. 3. The diets resulted in different growth rates. The chickens fed the high energy and the commercial diet had the highest growth rate at both live weights at slaughter. The restricted fed chickens had lower bone strength than the chickens fed the low energy diet. 4. Breast meat from male broilers was juicer, more tender and less hard than breast meat from females. Chickens slaughtered at 2000 g live weight were juicer than those slaughtered at 1500 g. Chickens given the high energy feed ad libitum and restricted had different growth rates, but the sensory parameter related to texture showed no difference. 5. It was concluded that an increased slaughter weight might improve meat quality due to improved juiciness.

  6. II. Evaluation of the impact of alternative light technology on male broiler chicken stress.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Allison G; Pritchett, Elizabeth M; Alphin, Robert L; Brannick, Erin M; Benson, Eric R

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the impact of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs), and incandescent lamps on broiler welfare in response to recent interest in the agriculture industry to transition to more energy-efficient lighting technologies. Male Ross 708 broilers (n=672) were raised to 6 wk age in 8 light-tight modified large colony houses under identical intermittent lighting conditions using 4 unique types of lamps, which were gradually dimmed throughout the study. Incandescent lamps served as the control; experimental technologies tested were a CCFL, and 2 different LED lamps. Each technology was tested in duplicate for each of the 4 trials (8 replications total per technology) conducted across the course of one year to account for seasonal variance. Birds were removed from each house at days 7, 14, 35, and 42 to be humanely euthanized and weighed for necropsy evaluation and comparison of body mass. Blood collection via cardiac puncture was performed to obtain heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratios for evaluation of environmental stress. Birds raised under CCFLs had significantly lower body weights (2,871 g±53) than the control (3,000±33 g) by 42 d. Birds raised under CCFLs additionally had significantly higher H:L ratios (0.68±0.06) than the control (0.53±0.03), indicating that these birds may have been chronically stressed (P=0.03). There were not significant differences in the H:L ratio between LED technologies at α=0.05. A significant age and seasonal correlation in H:L ratios was observed across all technologies, along with significant differences among birds raised under the experimental technologies. This study indicates that variation in broiler body weight and stress may be attributed in part to lighting technologies implemented in broiler houses.

  7. Thermal manipulation during Pre and Post-Hatch on thermotolerance of male broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zaboli, Gholam-Reza; Rahimi, Shaban; Shariatmadari, Farid; Torshizi, Mohammad Amir Karimi; Baghbanzadeh, Ali; Mehri, Mehran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of thermal manipulation (TM) during pre and post-hatch periods on thermotolerance of male broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress (CHS) during the finisher phase (34 ± 2°C, 6 h/day). Seven hundred fertile eggs of Ross 308 were assigned to the following groups: 1) control group incubated and housed in standard conditions, 2) pre-hatch treatment (PRE), the eggs were exposed to 39.5°C and 65% RH for 12 h, d from embryonic d 7 to 16 and after hatching the chicks where housed in standard conditions; 3 and 4) post-hatch TM at d 3 (PO3) and post-hatch TM at d 5 (PO5), which had the same incubation conditions as control and exposed to 36 to 38°C for 24 h at 3 and 5 days of age, respectively. TM in PRE group resulted in delay in the hatch time (6 h) along with reduction in body weight compared to control (P = 0.02). TM caused a significant reduction of facial surface temperature (FST) until d 28 (P < 0.02), but not significant during CHS. Body weight gain was suppressed in PO3 and PO5 groups at d 14 (P = 0.007) and compensated at d 28. However, TM led to higher BWG (P = 0.000) but lower FCR (P = 0.03) and mortality at the first week of CHS compared to control. European production efficiency index was higher in TM-treated chickens compared to control (P = 0.01). TM reduced the blood concentration of uric acid, total protein, T3, and T4 in which thyroid hormones in PO3 and PO5 treatments showed more reduction rather than other groups. In PRE group, chickens had lower abdominal fat pad than control (P = 0.0001). The relative weight of heart was decreased in TM groups (P = 0.001). It was concluded that TM may induce thermotolerance in growing broilers, possibly through the modification of physiological parameters of broilers especially during the first week of CHS. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. RNA sequencing for global gene expression associated with muscle growth in a single male modern broiler line compared to a foundational Barred Plymouth Rock chicken line.

    PubMed

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Hudson, Nicholas; Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Seok; Khatri, Bhuwan; Lassiter, Kentu; Cook, Devin; Piekarski, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter

    2017-01-13

    Modern broiler chickens exhibit very rapid growth and high feed efficiency compared to unselected chicken breeds. The improved production efficiency in modern broiler chickens was achieved by the intensive genetic selection for meat production. This study was designed to investigate the genetic alterations accumulated in modern broiler breeder lines during selective breeding conducted over several decades. To identify genes important in determining muscle growth and feed efficiency in broilers, RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was conducted with breast muscle in modern pedigree male (PeM) broilers (n = 6 per group), and with an unselected foundation broiler line (Barred Plymouth Rock; BPR). The RNAseq analysis was carried out using Ilumina Hiseq (2 x 100 bp paired end read) and raw reads were assembled with the galgal4 reference chicken genome. With normalized RPM values, genes showing >10 average read counts were chosen and genes showing <0.05 p-value and >1.3 fold change were considered as differentially expressed (DE) between PeM and BPR. DE genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) for bioinformatic functional interpretation. The results indicate that 2,464 DE genes were identified in the comparison between PeM and BPR. Interestingly, the expression of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in chicken are significantly biased towards the BPR group, suggesting a lowered mitochondrial content in PeM chicken muscles compared to BPR chicken. This result is inconsistent with more slow muscle fibers bearing a lower mitochondrial content in the PeM. The molecular, cellular and physiological functions of DE genes in the comparison between PeM and BPR include organismal injury, carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth/proliferation, and skeletal muscle system development, indicating that cellular mechanisms in modern broiler lines are tightly associated with rapid growth and differential muscle fiber contents compared to the unselected BPR line. Particularly, PDGF

  9. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  10. Effects of diet-induced differences in growth rate on metabolic, histological, and meat-quality properties of 2 muscles in male chickens of 2 distinct broiler breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Zhao, G P; Jiang, R R; Zheng, M Q; Chen, J L; Liu, R R; Wen, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper, the second from a comprehensive study, describes the effects of varying growth rate by feeding at different planes of nutrition with a constant ME:CP ratio on muscle characteristics and meat quality in 2 distinct broiler breeds of male chickens (Arbor Acres, a commercial line; and Beijing-You, a Chinese nonimproved line). Experimental diets, differing on average by 2% CP, were formulated with high-, medium-, or low-nutrient densities for 3 growing phases. Male hatchlings (216 of each breed) were randomly assigned to 6 pens of 12 birds in each treatment. Altered histological characteristics of muscle fibers, early postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality were investigated in the pectoralis major and biceps femoris. At their market age, Arbor Acres broilers had significantly higher concentrations of plasma protein and lipid metabolites, ratios of white to red and intermediate fibers, pH, L* and b* values, and lower concentrations of plasma glucose metabolites, muscle-fiber diameter, muscle contents of energy stores, a* value, drip loss, and shear force than the values found for the Beijing-You chickens (P < 0.01). Higher nutrient density increased the size of the muscle fibers, decreased glycogen reserve, and reduced the rate and extent of acidification in the Arbor Acres chickens, while accelerating transformation of red and intermediate-to-white fibers, enhancing energy stores, and hastening the decrease in pH postmortem in the Beijing-You chickens (P < 0.05). In each breed, most meat quality variables (e.g., shear force, drip loss, and color) were consistent with the histological and biochemical changes caused by the feeding strategy. Together, dietary nutrient density can influence meat quality as a result of altered histological and initial energy and metabolic characteristics of the muscle. Many of the responses to diet are breed and tissue dependent in broiler chickens.

  11. Electrical waterbath stunning: influence of different waveform and voltage settings on the induction of unconsciousness and death in male and female broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Prinz, S; Van Oijen, G; Ehinger, F; Bessei, W; Coenen, A

    2012-04-01

    Stunning effectiveness of male and female broiler chickens was analyzed in response to different waveforms at 3 constant voltage levels. In total, 180 male and female broiler chickens were stunned using a sine wave alternating current (AC) of 50 Hz, rectangular AC of 70 Hz, and pulsed direct current (DC) of 70 Hz (duty-cycle 1:1) with a constant voltage of 60, 80, or 120 V, respectively. In each stunning group, 10 male and 10 female birds were stunned for 4 s. The current obtained by every bird was recorded. For stunning efficiency, the electroencephalogram (EEG) and physical reflexes were recorded and analyzed. The EEG was recorded for 120 s poststun. Simultaneously, the occurrence of spontaneous eye blinking, wing flapping, and breathing was assessed, and the corneal reflex was tested every 20 s poststun. The EEG was analyzed regarding the occurrence of a profound suppression to less than 10% of the prestun level in the 2 to 30 Hz and 13 to 30 Hz bands. Female broilers obtained a significantly lower stunning current compared with that of the males. This resulted in a lower stunning efficiency for females, when the same constant voltage was applied to males and females. The waveforms required different amounts of currents to achieve a 90% stunning efficiency. A minimum necessary stunning current of 70, 90, and 130 mA could be established for sine wave AC, rectangular AC, and pulsed DC, respectively. The low stunning efficiency of pulsed DC might be caused by the short stunning time of 4 s. This effect should be further investigated for DC stunning. Very few birds stunned with AC resumed breathing following stunning, indicating stun to kill. Pulsed DC stunning showed a lower effect on the induction of death. The level of wing flapping, indicating convulsions and possible meat quality defects, was higher for the AC treatments.

  12. [Determination of beta-adrenergic binding sites in the myocardium of young female chickens of various strains--a study for the clarification of frequent occurrence of sudden death and ascites in male broilers].

    PubMed

    Neubert, E; Huppke, S; Gründel, G

    1999-06-01

    The present investigations should contribute to clarify the importance of beta-adrenergic system in myocard for the triggering of sudden death syndrome and ascites in male broiler chickens. Therefore it should be verified if differences in density of beta-adrenergic receptors in myocard exist in several strains and sexes of chickens. We showed in both male and female broilers that the receptor density was significantly higher as in chickens of the laying strain. There were no significant differences in receptor density between sexes in both investigated strains as well as in KD-values between all groups. The latter finding is referred to the absence of differences in receptor affinity for 3H-dihydroalprenolol between the groups. Clarification of the question if chronic heart failure is in contrast to myocard hypertrophy accompanied with reduction of beta-adrenergic receptor density or receptor affinity in broilers too, as could be shown in other species, has to carried out in further investigations.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced early inflammatory responses in male broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) fed a corn-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuaki; Takimoto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kan; Akiba, Yukio

    2011-12-01

    Effect of dietary supplementation of astaxanthin (Ax) from Phaffia rhodozyma on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses was investigated in male broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Birds (1 week of age) were fed a corn-enriched diet containing either 0 or 100 ppm Ax for 2 weeks and were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/kg body weight). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by determining changes in expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) in cytokines and mediators related to inflammatory responses (interleukin (IL)-1 beta and -6, inducible nitrite synthase (iNOS), interferon (IFN)- γ and cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 in the liver and spleen after 2 h of LPS injection and plasma ceruloplasmin concentration as an acute phase protein. Birds fed Ax showed significantly higher iNOS mRNA expression in the liver and spleen compared to that of control birds. Ax-fed birds also showed greater increase in mRNA expression in the liver of IL-1, IL-6 and IFN-γ compared to that of control birds. The enhancing effect of Ax was further progressed when LPS was injected. No difference was found in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration between the Ax-fed group and control group. The results suggest that feeding supplementation of Ax (100 ppm) to a corn-enriched diet possibly does not have anti-inflammatory effect in male broiler chickens. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effect of dietary protein and environmental temperature on growth performance and water consumption of male broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alleman, F; Leclercq, B

    1997-12-01

    1. Male broilers were reared in individual cages from 23 to 44 d of age. The effect of 2 temperatures (22 degrees and 32 degrees C) and 2 crude protein (CP) levels (160 and 200 g/kg) were studied. The low protein diet was supplemented with lysine, methionine, arginine, threonine and valine in order to meet requirements. 2. At 22 degrees C, a reduced CP content did not affect growth rate and breast muscle but slightly increased adiposity and food to gain ratio (FCR). Water consumption was reduced. 3. High temperature reduced growth rate and absolute and proportional breast muscle weight, and increased adiposity and FCR. These effects were more pronounced with the low CP diet. Water consumption was also reduced. 4. It was concluded that reducing CP content did not seem a good way to help broilers to withstand hot conditions. This experiment suggests that amino acids other than lysine, methionine and cystine are probably involved in the detrimental effect of high temperature.

  15. Effect of propolis supplementations on behavioral activities of heat stressed broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment investigated effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavior of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four 15-day old male Ross 708 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments containing 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000 or 3000 mg kg-1 ...

  16. Gene expression in breast muscle associated with feed efficiency in a single male broiler line using a chicken 44K oligo microarray. I. Top differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Kong, B-W; Song, J J; Lee, J Y; Hargis, B M; Wing, T; Lassiter, K; Bottje, W

    2011-11-01

    Global RNA expression in breast muscle obtained from a male broiler line phenotyped for high or low feed efficiency (FE) was investigated. Pooled RNA samples (n = 6/phenotype) labeled with cyanine 3 or cyanine 5 fluorescent dyes to generate cRNA probes were hybridized on a 4 × 44K chicken oligo microarray. Local polynomial regression normalization was applied to background-corrected red and green intensities with a moderated t-statistic. Corresponding P-values were computed and adjusted for multiple testing by false discovery rate to identify differentially expressed genes. Microarray validation was carried out by comparing findings with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. A 1.3-fold difference in gene expression was set as a cutoff value, which encompassed 20% (782 of 4,011) of the total number of genes that were differentially expressed between FE phenotypes. Using an online software program (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis), the top 10 upregulated genes identified by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis in the high-FE group were generally associated with anabolic processes. In contrast, 7 of the top 10 downregulated genes in the high-FE phenotype (upregulated in the low-FE phenotype) were associated with muscle fiber development, muscle function, and cytoskeletal organization, with the remaining 3 genes associated with self-recognition or stress-responding genes. The results from this study focusing on only the top differentially expressed genes suggest that the high-FE broiler phenotype is derived from the upregulation of genes associated with anabolic processes as well as a downregulation of genes associated with muscle fiber development, muscle function, cytoskeletal organization, and stress response.

  17. Locomotion of broiler chickens in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Lewis, N J; Hurnik, J F

    1990-07-01

    Locomotion has a major effect on production and animal welfare as it relates to feed and water acquisition, feed utilization, carcass quality, health, and physical vigor. The locomotor abilities of the broiler are also important considerations in pen design and placement of feed and water dispensers. To study the locomotion of broiler chickens and the effect stocking density has on locomotion, eight groups of broiler chickens were observed in an experimental floor pen (1.2 by 1.7 m). A Videomex V Image Motion Computer was used to determine the distance traveled and the frame-by-frame (30 frames per s) location of a focal bird. Four densities (660, 790, 990, and 1320 cm2 per bird) were tested, one on each day of the 4-day recording period for each group of birds. Broiler chickens were active throughout the day and traveled an average distance of 8.8 m per h or 212 m per day. Increasing housing density reduced the distance traveled (10, 8.8, 8.5, and 8.1 m per h for 1,320, 990, 790, and 660 cm2 per bird, respectively) but did not affect the average number of visits to the feeders (4 per h) and water cups (2 per h). The focal birds used the total space provided during the day, indicating that they were not consistently socially restricted to certain areas of the pen.

  18. Paradoxical Effects of Short Term Triiodothyronine administration to hypothyroid broiler chickens.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of these experiments were to determine possible relationships among certain indices of lipid metabolism and specific gene expression in chickens fed methimazole to induce a kind of artificial hypothyroidism. In both experiments, male, broiler chickens growing from 14 to 28 days of age we...

  19. Pharmacokinetic of sulfaclozine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sentepe, Ismail; Eraslan, Gökhan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 30-day-old, 14 male broiler chickens were used. Two groups, each comprising 7 animals, were established. While each animal included in the first group was administered sulfaclozine at a dose of 60 mg/kg bw by intravenous route (IV), group 2 was administered sulfaclozine at the same dose but by intracrop route (IC). In group 1, serum sulfaclozine concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined to be 99.62+/-3.31, 83.50+/-4.22, 72.68+/-5.02, 58.43+/-5.39, 38.66+/-4.04 and 13.14+/-1.64 microg/ml, respectively, via HPLC. In group 2, serum drug concentrations at 0.083, 0.50, 2, 6, 24 and 72h were determined as 4.33+/-0.45, 7.95+/-0.72, 16.46+/-2.68, 22.88+/-3.00, 16.03+/-3.53 and 5.74+/-0.98 microg/ml, respectively. Statistical analyses revealed that, of all the parameters studied, only A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT, Vd(area), k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) differed significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Compared to intravenous administration, significant increase in t(1/2)(alpha), t(1/2)(beta), MRT and Vd(area), and significant decrease in A(1)( *), A(2)( *), alpha, beta, k(12), k(21), AUC(0-->72) and AUC(0-->infinity) were observed in the group, which was administered sulfaclozine by intracrop route. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein 70 expression, resistance to infectious bursal disease, and growth in male broiler chickens subjected to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Liew, P K; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M; Omar, A R; Israf, D A

    2003-12-01

    The effects of early age feed restriction and heat conditioning on heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression, antibody production, resistance to infectious bursal disease (IBD), and growth of heat-stressed male broiler chickens were investigated. Chicks were divided into 4 groups: 60% feed restriction on d 4,5, and 6 (FR); exposure to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 1 h from d 1 to 21 (HT); combination of FR and HT (FRHT); and control. From d 35 to 50, heat stress was induced by exposing birds to 38 +/- 1 degrees C and 80% RH for 2 h/d. On d 36, each bird was administered 10 times the normal dose of live IBD vaccine. After heat exposure, the FRHT birds had higher HSP 70 density (d 41) and weight gain (from d 35 to 49) and lower bursal histological score (BHS) (d 51) than their HT and control counterparts. The HSP 70 expression and BHS of FR birds were not significantly different from those of the other 3 groups during the heat exposure period. Heat shock protein 70 and BHS data were negatively correlated (r = -0.33, P = 0.0008). We concluded that FRHT could improve weight gain and resistance to IBD in male broiler chickens under heat stress conditions. The improved heat tolerance and disease resistance in FRHT birds could be attributed to better HSP 70 response.

  1. Behavioral changes and feathering score in heat stressed broiler chickens fed diets containing different levels of propolis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of green Brazilian propolis on behavioral patterns and feather condition of heat stressed broiler chickens. Five hundred and four (504) male Ross 708 broiler chicks at 15-day old were randomly allotted to six dietary tr...

  2. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary antimicrobials (anticoccidials plus antibiotic growth promoters) on the development of post-hatch immune systems in commercial broiler chickens. One hundred and five day-old broiler chicks were raised on the used litter and provi...

  3. Echocardiographic study of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Lemus, L A; Miller, M W; Jeffrey, J S; Odom, T W

    2000-01-01

    Echocardiography was used to study cardiovascular structure and function during the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS) in broiler chickens. Body weight-normalized right and left ventricular diameters at both end-diastole (RVDD, LVDD) and end-systole (RVDS, LVDS) were determined weekly in broilers reared under either normobaric (altitude, 96.7 m) or hypobaric conditions (simulated altitude, 2900 m) until 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers had larger RVDD at 3 and 4 wk of age and larger RVDS at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age. Hypobaric-exposed broilers also had larger LVDD at 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and larger LVDS at 4 wk of age. Right (RVFS) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS) were smaller in hypobaric- vs. normobaric-exposed broilers at 3, 4, and 5 wk of age and at 4 wk of age, respectively. Among hypobaric-exposed birds, PHS-positive (+) broilers had larger RVDD and RVDS than PHS-negative (-) broilers on week 3 and on weeks 1 and 3 after hypobaric exposure, respectively. PHS-positive (+) broilers also had smaller RVFS on week 1 after hypobaric exposure. Electrocardiographic and post-mortem data indicated that PHS+ broilers also developed right ventricular hypertrophy when compared with PHS-negative (-) broilers. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that PHS develops as a result of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac overload and suggest that PHS+ broilers have a greater and more persistent reaction to hypoxia than PHS- broilers.

  4. Trace mineral interactions in broiler chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2010-02-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate trace mineral interactions among organic copper, iron, manganese and zinc (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in broiler chickens. 2. Three experiments were conducted using a control diet which was deficient in Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. 3. In experiment 1, the control diet, supplemental organic Cu, Fe alone and combined diets, were randomly fed to 4 groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 6 replicates of 4 birds). 4. In experiment 2, the control diet, supplemental organic Mn and Zn alone or combined with Cu, Fe diets and corresponding inorganic combined diet, were randomly fed to 6 groups (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 5. In experiment 3, the depletion of organic Zn, the depletion of inorganic Zn and normal Zn treatments were carried out in three groups of one-day-old Cobb broilers (each group had 8 replicates of 6 birds). 6. Adding organic Cu, Fe and Mn alone or combined to Zn deficient diets did not significantly improve bird performance and were mostly excreted. Supplemental organic Zn alone or combined with other elements significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain and tibia bone length. However, supplemental organic Fe alone or combined with Cu significantly increased feed intake but had no obvious effect on body weight gain. The organic Fe supplementation resulted in a wider tibia. 7. Depletion of organic and inorganic Zn resulted in decreased feed intake, body weight gain and total tibia bone Zn content. Zinc deficiency did not affect the uptake of organic Fe by tibia bone but reduced its total Fe content. 8. Zinc is the first limiting element among these 4 trace minerals. Adding Mn, Cu and Fe to Zn deficient diets did not stimulate bird performance. Surplus organic Fe and Cu resulted in increased feed intake and increased tibia bone Fe content but did not contribute to bird performance.

  5. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 2: Individual Variation

    PubMed Central

    Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Although the consumption of free-range chicken meat has increased, little is known about the ranging behaviour of meat chickens on commercial farms. Studies suggest range use is low and not all chickens access the range when given the opportunity. Whether ranging behaviour differs between individuals within a flock remains largely unknown and may have consequences for animal welfare and management. We monitored individual chicken ranging behaviour from four mixed sex flocks on a commercial farm across two seasons. Not all chickens accessed the range. We identified groups of chickens that differed in ranging behaviour (classified by frequency of range visits): chickens that accessed the range only once, low frequency ranging chickens and high frequency ranging chickens, the latter accounting for one-third to one half of all range visits. Sex was not predictive of whether a chicken would access the range or the number of range visits, but males spent more time on the range in winter. We found evidence that free-range chicken ranging varies between individuals within the same flock on a commercial farm. Whether such variation in ranging behaviour relates to variation in chicken welfare remains to be investigated. Abstract Little is known about broiler chicken ranging behaviour. Previous studies have monitored ranging behaviour at flock level but whether individual ranging behaviour varies within a flock is unknown. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 1200 individual ROSS 308 broiler chickens across four mixed sex flocks in two seasons on one commercial farm. Ranging behaviour was tracked from first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter flocks and 44 days of age in summer flocks. We identified groups of chickens that differed in frequency of range visits: chickens that never accessed the range (13 to 67% of tagged chickens), low ranging chickens (15 to 44% of tagged chickens) that accounted for <15

  6. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  7. Survey of skin pigmentation of yellow-skinned broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Meluzzi, A

    2010-07-01

    The appearance of whole carcass and skin-on cut-up products is an important attribute that deeply affects the consumer's choice. Skin pigmentation is affected mainly by genetics, concentration and dietary source of pigments, health status of the birds, and scalding-plucking conditions during slaughtering, although other factors might play an important role. Retailers request batches of broiler chicken carcasses characterized by uniform skin pigmentation to be sold as whole carcass or parts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of skin color of yellow-skinned broilers reared under intensive conditions. For the study, a total of 2,300 medium size broiler chickens (2,300 to 2,500 g of live weight) from 23 flocks (100 birds/flock; n = 12 flocks of males and n = 11 flocks of females; n = 12 flocks of Ross 508 and n = 11 flocks of Ross 308) were randomly selected in a single slaughterhouse. The color measurements were carried out on both breast and thigh pterylae as well as on shank skin adopting the L* a* b* system and using a Minolta colorimeter CR 300. The overall range in measured yellowness (b*) was fairly large for all skin color measurement positions. For breast, a mean value of 22.77 (SD = 5.12) was observed, with values ranging from 7.45 to 39.12. Average values of thigh and shank were 20.23 (SD = 5.02; range 1.99 to 37.82) and 53.99 (SD = 8.13; range 24.22 to 78.65), respectively. A higher skin yellowness was observed in females in all body parts as well as in Ross 308. Yellowness values of breast and thigh were significantly correlated (r = 0.85; P < 0.01), suggesting that the color evaluation may be carried out only on one measurement position of the skin.

  8. An Unusual Necrotizing cholangiohepatitis in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Janet L.; Julian, Richard J.; Hampson, Robert J.; Trenton, Ron G.; Yo, Ignatius H.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnosis of toxic necrotizing cholangiohepatitis was made in approximately 35% of a flock of 23,000 commercial broiler chickens. Affected chickens were small, and had discrete green foci throughout the liver. Seven to twelve days prior to shipping the flock to slaughter, premixes containing oxytetracycline, monensin, and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been added to the ration because the birds had wet droppings and were growing slowly. The 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid had been inadvertently incorporated at ten times the recommended level. Liver and kidney of affected birds had elevated levels of total arsenic, and special strains demonstrated arsenic in necrotic foci in liver. Histologically there was marked dilation of intrahepatic bile ducts, and patchy necrosis and hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium. Damage to bile ducts may have been a toxic manifestation of altered metabolism and excretion of the three drugs being fed to birds suffering from intercurrent diarrhea and/or undefined interactions among the drugs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423098

  9. Verification of specific selection SNPs between broiler and layer chicken in Chinese indigenous chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Lan, D; Hu, Y D; Zhu, Q; Li, D Y; Liu, Y P

    2015-07-28

    The direction of production for indigenous chicken breeds is currently unknown and this knowledge, combined with the development of chicken genome-wide association studies, led us to investigate differences in specific loci between broiler and layer chicken using bioinformatic methods. In addition, we analyzed the distribution of these seven identified loci in four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, Caoke chicken, Jiuyuan chicken, Sichuan mountain chicken, and Tibetan chicken, using DNA direct sequencing methods, and analyzed the data using bioinformatic methods. Based on the results, we suggest that Caoke chicken could be developed for meat production, while Jiuyuan chicken could be developed for egg production. As Sichuan mountain chicken and Tibetan chicken exhibited large polymorphisms, these breeds could be improved by changing their living environment.

  10. Dietary balanced protein in broiler chickens. 2. An economic analysis.

    PubMed

    Eits, R M; Giesen, G W J; Kwakkel, R P; Verstegen, M W A; Den Hartog, L A

    2005-06-01

    An economic model was developed that calculates economic optimal dietary balanced protein (DBP) contents for broiler chickens, based on performance input and prices of meat and feed. Input on broiler responses to DBP content (growth rate, feed conversion, carcase yield and breast meat yield) was obtained from the model described by Eits et al. (2005). Changes in broiler age, price of protein-rich raw materials and large changes (40%) in meat prices resulted in economic relevant differences in DBP content for maximum profit. Effects of changes in sex or feed price on DBP content for maximum profit were negligible. Formulating diets for maximum profit instead of maximum broiler performance can strongly increase the profitability of a broiler production enterprise. DBP content for maximum profitability depends on how the broilers are marketed; as whole birds, carcase or portions.

  11. Effects of polymannuronate on performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, cecal microflora, and volatile fatty acids in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhui; Li, Defa; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Hui; Xia, Xuan; Bi, Wanghua; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Liying

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of purified polymannuronate (PM) obtained from marine brown algae on the performance, antioxidant capacity, immune status, and cecal fermentation profile of broiler chickens. In a 42 d experiment, 540 (average BW 43.77±1.29 g) 1-d-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly divided into 5 treatments with 6 replicates of 18 chicks and fed a corn and soybean meal (SBM)-based diet supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg polymannuronate. Adding polymannuronate to the broiler chickens' diets resulted in a significantly increased ADG and improved feed conversion compared with the control treatment. From d 1 to 42, the ADG of broilers fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 g/kg of polymannuronate was increased by 2.58, 4.33, 4.20, and 3.47%, respectively. Furthermore, parameters related to immune status, antioxidant capacity, and composition of the cecal microflora in broiler chickens fed the polymannuronate-containing diets were altered compared with broiler chickens fed a diet without polymannuronate. Supplementation with polymannuronate significantly increased the concentrations of lactic acid and acetic acid in the cecum compared with the control group. The results indicate that polymannuronate has the potential to improve broiler chicken immune status, antioxidant capacity, and performance.

  12. Belgian citizens' and broiler producers' perceptions of broiler chicken welfare in Belgium versus Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Tuyttens, F A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-07-01

    New EU regulations require more stringent country-of-origin labeling, while imports of broiler meat from non-EU countries are increasing. In light of these trends, we have studied citizens' and producers' perceptions of broiler meat originating from Belgium versus Brazil and their perception of broiler production in Belgium versus Brazil. A particular focus was the association between country of origin and perceived level of animal welfare. We also investigated the perception of scaling-up and outdoor access in terms of perceived level of animal welfare. Cross-sectional survey data was collected among Flemish citizens (n = 541) and broiler producers (n = 114). In accordance with literature on general farm animal welfare, both stakeholder types claimed to allocate great importance to broiler welfare and generally agreed with the Welfare Quality model of broiler welfare. Citizens disagreed with the producers that 1) consumers are not willing to pay more for higher welfare products, 2) that broilers suffer little, 3) that broiler welfare in current Belgian production units is generally non-problematic, 4) that scaling-up production units would not have a positive impact on profitability nor a profoundly negative impact on broiler welfare, and 5) that the impact of providing broilers with outdoor access is negative for consumers, farmers, and broilers. Country of origin had a strong influence on the perception of both broiler production and broiler meat. Belgian citizens, and producers (much more than citizens) considered nearly all aspects related to broiler production and broiler meat to be significantly superior for chicken produced in Belgium compared to Brazil. Further research should focus on how these perceptions influence purchase intentions and production decisions. Future avenues for research are to quantify market opportunities for country-of-origin labeling and to investigate to which extent stakeholders' perceptions correspond with reality. © 2016 Poultry

  13. Effect of sodium bentonite on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxins.

    PubMed

    Santurio, J M; Mallmann, C A; Rosa, A P; Appel, G; Heer, A; Dageförde, S; Böttcher, M

    1999-03-01

    1. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of natural sodium bentonite (NaB) in the prevention of toxic effects of aflatoxins. Five hundred and twenty-eight 1-d-old Ross male broiler chickens were housed in pens (22 chickens per pen) for 42 d. There were 3 inclusion rates of NaB (0, 2.5, and 5 g/kg) and 2 of aflatoxins (0 and 3 mg/kg food). Each treatment had 4 replicates of 22 chickens. 2. All chickens treated with aflatoxin and without bentonite were adversely affected. NaB treatment at 5.0 g/kg improved body weights at 42 d of age by 31.3%, increased food intake by 23.8% and improved productive efficiency by 40.1%. Weights of liver, heart, pancreas and crop and biochemical variables were not affected by dietary NaB. However, serum phosphorous concentration was reduced by 30% compared with chickens that received aflatoxin. 3. NaB caused no adverse effects on chickens that did not receive aflatoxin. 4. It is concluded that NaB at pH 7.9 partially neutralises the effects of aflatoxins on broiler chickens when included at 5.0 g/kg in the diet.

  14. Effects of age on intestinal phosphate transport and biochemical values of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianhui; Yuan, Jianmin; Miao, Zhiqiang; Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this experiment was to characterize the mRNA expression profile of type IIb sodium-inorganic phosphate cotransporter (NaPi-IIb) and the biochemical values of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), calcium, inorganic phosphorus, tibial ash and minerals of broiler chickens with aging. Methods A total of 56 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chickens were used. Broiler chickens were weighed and samples were collected weekly from day 1. Results The result showed that before the growth inflection point, ash, calcium, and phosphorus content in the tibia of broiler chickens increased with growth (before 3 weeks of age), although there were no significant differences in chicks at different ages in the later period of the experiment and weight gain rate was relatively slow at this stage (4 to 6 weeks). NaPi-IIb gene expression in the small intestine in the early growth stage was higher than that in the later growth stage. Expression of calbindin and the vitamin D receptor protein in the intestinal mucosa increased with age in the duodenum and jejunum. Serum AKP activity first increased and subsequently decreased after peaking at 1 week of age, but there was no significant difference after 3 weeks of age. Conclusion These results show that compared with the early growth stage, the weight-gain rate of broiler chickens in the late growth stage gradually decreased with gradual tibia maturation, along with weaker positive transport of phosphorus in the intestine and reinforced re-absorption of phosphorus in the kidney, which might be the reason that phosphorus requirement in the late growth stage was decreased. PMID:27703131

  15. Experimental inoculation of specific pathogen free broiler chickens with a thyroid homogenate, containing chicken astrovirus, which was collected from broiler chickens with runting-stunting syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thyroid glands were collected from field broiler chickens with clinical signs and lesions of Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS), submitted for histopathology and processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using chicken Astrovirus primers. One-day-old White Rock specific pathogen free (SPF) ...

  16. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Donkoh, A

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C treatments showed highly significant (P less than 0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30 degrees and 35 degrees C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30 degrees and 35 degrees C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  17. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  18. The meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diet with cinnamon powder.

    PubMed

    Sang-Oh, Park; Chae-Min, Ryu; Byung-Sung, Park; Jong, Hwangbo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the feeding effect of diets containing 3, 5 and 7% of cinnamon powder on meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens. The chicken meat quality and growth performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder increased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. However, the TBARS of the meat of chickens fed diets containing cinnamon powder decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the cinnamon powder can improve the shelf life and quality of chicken meat with maximize the productivity of broiler chickens.

  19. Relationships between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Schwarzengrund and both broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

    PubMed

    Asai, Tetsuo; Murakami, Koichi; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2009-05-01

    We examined 29 isolates of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from broiler chickens (n=19) and retail chicken meats (n=10) in Japan for antimicrobial susceptibility and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiling. All isolates exhibited resistance to both bicozamycin and sulfadimethoxine (minimum inhibitory concentration of both antimicrobial agents: >512 microg/ml). Nalidixic acid resistance was found in only one broiler chicken isolate. PFGE analysis showed that there were two genotypes among S. Schwarzengrund isolates. Isolates from 11 of 19 broiler chickens and from 6 of 10 retail chicken meats exhibited resistance to dihydrostreptomycin, kanamycin, oxytetracycline, bicozamycin, trimethoprim, and sulfadimethoxine, and had an identical PFGE pattern classified into a predominant genotype. Thus, our results indicate that genetically identical multidrug-resistant S. Schwarzengrund appeared to be disseminated among broiler chickens and retail chicken meats in Japan.

  20. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  1. Postural evaluation in a poultry farm for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Kong, Yong-Ku; Jung, Myung-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate working postures in 9 operations of poultry farming for broiler chickens for 14 body segments with 4 categories, and for fingers with 14 categories. Overall, the farmers commonly bent almost all their body segments and used power grips. The operations of cleaning with water wand and inspecting chickens seemed light work because the farmers walked around most of their working time. The operations of detaching base from hanging feeder and attaching base to hanging feeder had the farmers continue squatting to handle the feeders close to the floor. The farmers also repeatedly bent their trunks in shoveling feces, unloading a box of chicks, and releasing chicks. A power grip was frequently observed due to using tools with round handles. Workplace design to raise working height would be necessary for a better working environment for broiler farmers.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Silva, R. O. S.; Salvarani, F.M.; Assis, R.A.; Martins, N.R.S.; Pires, P.S.; Lobato, F.C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1%) were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant. PMID:24031355

  3. Plantago ovata in broiler chicken nutrition: Performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population.

    PubMed

    Divani, A; Bagherzadeh-Kasmani, F; Mehri, M

    2017-06-13

    In this experiment, the effect of dietary Plantago ovata (PO) on performance, carcass criteria, intestinal morphology, immunity, and intestinal bacterial population of broiler chickens was evaluated. A total of 250 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to five treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 g/kg of PO with five replicate pens and 10 birds in each replicate. Dietary PO increased body weight gain and decreased feed conversion ratio in the finisher period, improving the performance index (p < .05). Dietary treatments had no effects on carcass criteria, but breast meat percentage showed an increasing trend with incremental levels of PO in the diet (p = .069). The length of small intestine, especially jejunum section, as well as the villus height, villus width, villus area, and goblet cell numbers were significantly increased with supplemental PO (p < .05). Humoral and cellular immunity parameters, and oxidation stability of meat were improved due to use of dietary PO (p < .05). Dietary PO decreased the CFU of Escherichia coli, whereas the Lactobacilli population was increased (p = .001). Broken-line regression revealed that dietary PO at the rate of 10 g/kg may results in the best performance in broiler chickens. This study showed that PO at the level of 10 g/kg could be considered as a beneficial feed additive in broiler diet. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J

    2005-03-01

    A 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.

  5. Effectiveness and efficiency of controlling Campylobacter on broiler chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Mangen, Marie-Josee J; de Koeijer, Aline A; Bogaardt, Marc-Jeroen; Evers, Eric G; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Wagenaar, Jaap A; de Wit, G Ardine; van der Zee, Henk; Nauta, Maarten J

    2007-08-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are an important cause of foodborne infections. We estimated the potential costs and benefits of a large number of possible interventions to decrease human exposure to Campylobacter by consumption of chicken meat, which accounts for 20-40% of all cases of human campylobacteriosis in the Netherlands. For this purpose, a farm-to-fork risk assessment model was combined with economic analysis and epidemiological data. Reduction of contamination at broiler farms could be efficient in theory. However, it is unclear which hygienic measures need to be taken and the costs can be very high. The experimental treatment of colonized broiler flocks with bacteriophages has proven to be effective and could also be cost efficient, if confirmed in practice. Since a major decrease of infections at the broiler farm is not expected in the short term, additional measures in the processing plant were also considered. At this moment, guaranteed Campylobacter-free chicken meat at the retail level is not realistic. The most promising interventions in the processing plant are limiting fecal leakage during processing and separation of contaminated and noncontaminated flocks (scheduling), followed by decontamination of the contaminated flock. New (faster and more sensitive) test methods to detect Campylobacter colonization in broilers flocks are a prerequisite for successful scheduling scenarios. Other methods to decrease the contamination of meat of colonized flocks such as freezing and heat treatment are more expensive and/or less effective than chemical decontamination.

  6. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P < 0.05) digestibility for Cys and Pro in ducks compared with broilers (P < 0.05). Within species, digestibility was not different between SBM and CM except for Lys of ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P < 0.05). The results of this study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  7. Effect of indomethacin on hyperthermia induced by heat stress in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, R. L.; Macari, M.; Malheiros, E. B.; Secato, E. R.; Guerreiro, J. R.

    An investigation was carried out to verify whether the heat stress hyperthermia response of broilers is prostaglandin-dependent. Male broiler chickens of the Hubbard-Petterson strain, aged 35-49 days, were used. Chickens were injected with indomethacin (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally ) 15 min before or 2 h after heat exposure (at 35°C for 4 h), and rectal temperature was measured before injection and up to 4 h thereafter. Birds were separated into two groups with and without access to water during heat stress. The increase in rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05) in birds with access to drinking water during heat exposure. All birds injected with indomethacin exhibited an increase in rectal temperature, irrespective of whether indomethacin was administered before or in the course of the rise in temperature. The results revealed that the increase in rectal temperature during heat exposure is not prostaglandin-dependent, and that the use of cyclooxigenase inhibitors is not recommended to attenuate heat stress hyperthermia in broiler chickens.

  8. Effects of feed additives on ileal mucosa-associated microbiota composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, R; Peinado, M J; Aranda-Olmedo, I; Abecia, L; Suárez-Pereira, E; Ortiz Mellet, C; García Fernández, J M; Rubio, L A

    2015-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with 2 recently developed feed additives on the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota of the ileum were studied in growing broiler chickens. A total of 48 male 1-d-old broiler chickens of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in 4 treatments with 2 replicates of 6 birds each. The 2 additives tested were a di-d-fructose dianhydride–enriched caramel (FC) and the garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O). Dietary treatments were a control (commercial diet with no additive), INU (20 g inulin/kg diet), CAR (20 g FC/kg diet), and GAR (90 mgPTS-O/kg diet). As a result of this study, inulin supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) and FC feeding resulted in higher (P < 0.05) Blautia coccoides/Eubacterium rectale log10 number of copies respect to controls. Higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria log10 number of copies with respect to the controls was determined in the ileal mucosa of birds fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR analysis on Bifidobacterium spp. revealed the presence of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum in samples from chickens fed the control and the PTS-O–supplemented diet. Bifidobacterium longum was exclusively found in poultry fed the control diet, whereas B. pseudocatenulatum was found only in poultry fed the PTS-O–supplemented diet. This study showed that both PTS-O and FC were able to modulate the composition of the ileal mucosa-associated microbiota of growing broiler chickens. Finally, in addition to B. pseudolongum, the presence of B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum, species not previously described in intestinal samples of broilers, was also demonstrated.

  9. Detection of genomic signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weixuan; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2016-08-26

    Identification of the genomic signatures of recent selection may help uncover causal polymorphisms controlling traits relevant to recent decades of selective breeding in livestock. In this study, we aimed at detecting signatures of recent selection in commercial broiler chickens using genotype information from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A total of 565 chickens from five commercial purebred lines, including three broiler sire (male) lines and two broiler dam (female) lines, were genotyped using the 60K SNP Illumina iSelect chicken array. To detect genomic signatures of recent selection, we applied two methods based on population comparison, cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) and cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR), and further analyzed the results to find genomic regions under recent selection in multiple purebred lines. A total of 321 candidate selection regions spanning approximately 1.45 % of the chicken genome in each line were detected by consensus of results of both XP-EHH and XP-CLR methods. To minimize false discovery due to genetic drift, only 42 of the candidate selection regions that were shared by 2 or more purebred lines were considered as high-confidence selection regions in the study. Of these 42 regions, 20 were 50 kb or less while 4 regions were larger than 0.5 Mb. In total, 91 genes could be found in the 42 regions, among which 19 regions contained only 1 or 2 genes, and 9 regions were located at gene deserts. Our results provide a genome-wide scan of recent selection signatures in five purebred lines of commercial broiler chickens. We found several candidate genes for recent selection in multiple lines, such as SOX6 (Sex Determining Region Y-Box 6) and cTR (Thyroid hormone receptor beta). These genes may have been under recent selection due to their essential roles in growth, development and reproduction in chickens. Furthermore, our results suggest that in some candidate regions, the same or

  10. Effect of sex and dietary organic zinc on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Lee, H R; Jo, C; Lee, S K; Lee, Bong Duk

    2012-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral for animal development and function. A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of sex and dietary organic zinc (OZ) on growth performance, carcass traits, tissue mineral content, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 240 1-day-old male and 240 female broiler chicks (Cobb × Cobb) were assigned to two dietary levels of OZ (2 × 2 factorial) with six replicates per treatment (20 birds/replicate pen). The OZ supplementation levels were 0 and 25 ppm. Results showed that OZ supplementation did not affect the growth performance of male and female broilers, but the males showed significantly better (P < 0.05) growth performance than females did. Similarly, OZ supplementation did not affect the thickness of both the back and thigh skin of male and female broilers; however, males had thicker skin than females. Dietary OZ supplementation did not affect collagen contents in the skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher skin collagen contents than females, but no sex difference was found in meat collagen contents. OZ supplementation did not affect the shear force values of skin and meat samples. Male broilers had higher shear force values of back skin than females, but not in the meat samples. Dietary OZ supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the thigh meat Zn content in both sexes. The plasma Ca content was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by dietary OZ supplementation; however, other blood parameters were not affected by dietary OZ supplementation. Males had higher plasma glucose and cholesterol content than females. It is concluded that dietary OZ supplementation at the level of 25 ppm does not affect the growth performance and skin quality of broiler chickens but increases the Zn content in thigh meat and Ca content in plasma of broiler chickens. Male broilers had better growth performance and skin quality than females.

  11. Broiler chickens exposed to melamine and cyanuric acid-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Zapletal, D; Straková, E; Novák, P; Suchý, P

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether melamine (MEL) is biotransformed into cyanuric acid (CYA) in male broiler chickens. The effects of the dietary addition of MEL and CYA alone and in combination on the growth performance and mortality of the chickens were also investigated. The chickens were divided into six experimental groups and were fed diets with an addition of 50 or 100 mg/kg MEL or 50 or 100 mg/kg CYA of diet, with the contaminants added separately or in combination. The control group was fed a diet without MEL or CYA. At the end of the experiment (day 40), samples of liver, kidney and breast and thigh muscles were collected from 12 birds per treatment group and were analysed for the presence of MEL and CYA. This study showed that MEL is biotransformed into CYA in broilers. Higher concentrations of MEL or CYA in the diet increased the presence of their residues in tissues, and the CYA residue concentration was several times higher in the respective tissues than the MEL residue concentration. The dietary addition of MEL and CYA did not affect the mortality rate, feed conversion ratio or body weight of the chickens.

  12. Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Growth in Grain-Based Diet Improves Broiler Chicken Production.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus P; Marcante, Rafael C; Santana, Thiago T; Tanaka, Henrique S; Funari, Pascoal; Alberton, Luiz R; Faria, Eliete V; Valle, Juliana S; Colauto, Nelson B; Linde, Giani A

    2015-01-01

    Many alternative compounds have been tested to improve poultry performance but few of them have previously used mycelial-colonized substrate to partially replace standard diet in broiler chickens. The objective of this study was to evaluate broiler chicken production, health, and meat sensory characteristics, with partial replacement of the standard diet by Pleurotus ostreatus-colonized substrate. One hundred fifty 1-day-old male Cobb chicks were given standard diet partially replaced by 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 g·kg⁻¹ of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate and randomly distributed into five treatments. Each treatment had three replicates, with 10 birds per replicate, totaling 30 birds. The replacement of the standard diet by 10 g·kg⁻¹ of colonized substrate increased (P≤0.05) chicken body mass up to 57% at 21 days, and up to 28% at 42 days. In general, partial replacement of standard diet by colonized substrate increased hematocrits and typical lymphocytes, and reduced low density lipoproteins. Also, it reduced chicken production period up to 21% and there is no meat taste alteration. The use of P. ostreatus-colonized substrate in chicken feeding is an alternative method to improve broiler chicken production.

  13. Effect of sand and wood-shavings bedding on the behavior of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shields, S J; Garner, J P; Mench, J A

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different bedding types, sand and wood shavings, on the behavior of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 6 pens were divided down the center and bedded half with sand and half with wood shavings. Male broilers (10/pen) were observed by scan sampling at 5- or 12-min intervals throughout the 6-wk growth period during the morning (between 0800 to 0900 h), afternoon (1200 to 1500 h), and night (2300 to 0600 h). There was a significant behavior x substrate x week interaction during the day (P < 0.0001) and at night (P < 0.0002). Drinking, dustbathing, preening, and sitting increased in frequency on the sand side but decreased on the wood shavings side during the day, as did resting at night. In general, broilers performed a greater proportion of their total behavioral time budget on the sand (P < 0.0001) as they aged. Broilers used the divider between the 2 bedding types to perch; perching behavior peaked during wk 4. In experiment 2, male broilers were housed in 8 pens (50 birds/pen) bedded only in sand or wood shavings. Bedding type had no effect on behavioral time budgets (P = 0.8946), although there were age-related changes in behavior on both bedding types. These results indicate that when given a choice, broilers increasingly performed many of their behaviors on sand, but if only one bedding type was provided they performed those behaviors with similar frequency on sand or wood shavings.

  14. Effects of epigallocatechin gallate on lipid metabolism and its underlying molecular mechanism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, J B; Zhang, Y; Zhou, Y B; Wan, X C; Zhang, J S

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on fat metabolism and to establish the molecular mechanism of these effects in broilers. Seventy-two 28-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into three groups with different levels of EGCG supplementation for 4 weeks: normal control (NC) group, L-EGCG (a low-level supplement of EGCG, 40 mg/kg body weight daily) and H-EGCG (a high-level supplement of EGCG, 80 mg/kg body weight daily). After 4 weeks of oral administration, EGCG significantly reduced the level of abdominal fat deposition in broilers. The serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of chickens in H-EGCG group were also significantly decreased compared with the NC group, and the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was notably increased at the same time. Moreover, the vital role of the liver and abdominal adipose tissue in lipid metabolism of poultry animals was examined through gene expression and enzyme activities related to fat anabolism and catabolism in these organs. Our data show that EGCG supplementation for 2 weeks significantly downregulated the expression of fatty acid synthesis and fat deposition-related genes, and upregulated the expression of genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and lipolysis genes. Simultaneously, the activities of hepatic fatty acid synthesis enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were significantly decreased, and the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 was notably elevated. The results suggest that EGCG could alleviate fat deposition in broilers through inhibiting fat anabolism and stimulating lipid catabolism in broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Microbial community mapping in intestinal tract of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingping; Xiang, Yun; Zhou, Weidong; Chen, Jinggang; Li, Kaifeng; Yang, Hua

    2016-10-06

    Domestic chickens are valuable sources of protein associated with producing meat and eggs for humans. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) houses a large microbial community, and these microbiota play an important role in growth and health of chickens, contributing to the enhancement of nutrient absorption and improvement of the birds' immune systems. To improve our understanding of the chicken intestinal microbial composition, microbiota inhabiting 5 different intestinal locations (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon) of 42-day-old broiler chickens were detected based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. As a result, 1,502,554 sequences were clustered into 796 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% sequence similarity value and identified into 15 phyla and 288 genera. Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Cyanobacteria were the major microbial groups and Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon accounting for > 60% of sequences, while Bacteroidetes was the dominant phylum in cecum (>50% of sequences), but little in the other four gut sections. At the genus level, the major microbial genera across all gut sections were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, and Corynebacterium. Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum (>35%), but was rarely present in cecum, and Bacteroides was the most dominant group in cecum (about 40%), but rarely present in the other 4 intestinal sections. Differences of microbial composition between the 5 intestinal locations might be a cause and consequence of gut functional differences and may also reflect host selection mediated by innate or adaptive immune responses. All these results could offer some information for the future study on the relationship between intestinal microbiota and broiler chicken growth performance as well as health.

  16. Yeast β-d-glucans induced antimicrobial peptide expressions against Salmonella infection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yujing; Wang, Zhong; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yuming; Zhang, Haibo

    2016-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of yeast β-d-glucans (YG) on gene expression of endogenous β-defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath) and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2 (LEAP-2) in broilers challenged with Salmonella enteritidis (SE). 240 day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly assigned to 2×2 factorial arrangements of treatments with two levels of dietary YG (0 or 200mg/kg in diet) and two levels of SE challenge (0 or 1×10(9) SE at 7-9 days of age). The results showed SE infection reduced growth performance,and increased salmonella cecal colonization and internal organs invasion, increased concentration of intestinal specific IgA and serum specific IgG antibody, as compared to uninfected birds. SE challenge differentially regulated AvBDs, Caths and LEAP-2 gene expression in the jejunum and spleen of broiler chickens during the infection period. However, YG supplementation inhibited the growth depression by SE challenge, and further increased level of serum specific IgG and intestinal specific IgA antibody. Higher level of salmonella colonization and internal organs invasion in the SE-infected birds were reduced by YG. SE-induced differentially expression patterns of AMPs genes was inhibited or changed by YG. Results indicated YG enhance chicken's resistance to salmonella infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary essential oils improve the hepatic antioxidative status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Karadas, F; Pirgozliev, V; Rose, S P; Dimitrov, D; Oduguwa, O; Bravo, D

    2014-01-01

    1. A total of 200 male Ross 308 chickens were used to evaluate the effects of a standardised combination of essential oils including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum oleoresin (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A., Geneva, Switzerland) on their performance, hepatic antioxidant concentration and caecal tonsils morphometry. 2. Two diets were offered to broiler chickens from d old to 21 d of age. The control diet (C) was slightly lower in metabolisable energy (12.13 MJ/kg ME) and crude protein (215 g/kg CP) than breeders' recommendation. The second diet, made as XT 6930, was added on the top of the control diet at 100 mg/kg. Each diet was offered ad libitum to birds housed in one of 10 floor pens in a randomised complete block design. The birds were housed in 20 floor pens, 10 birds in each pen, and were allocated to 10 replicates of the two dietary treatments. 3. The concentration of antioxidants in the liver of the birds was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 21 d of age. Birds fed control diet only had lower weight and converted less efficiently feed to gain compared to birds fed essential oils-supplemented diet. Feed consumption was not affected by dietary treatments. The antioxidant data showed that supplemented essential oils improved the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens. The morphometry of the caecal tonsils of the birds was not influenced by dietary treatments. 4. It can be concluded that that dietary combination of essential oils, including carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and capsicum oleoresin, improved growth, feed efficiency and the hepatic concentration of carotenoids and coenzyme Q10 when fed to broiler chickens.

  18. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A

    2009-01-01

    An experiment with 250 one-day-old male broilers (Ross 308) was conducted to investigate the differences of some blood parameters of cold-induced ascitic and healthy broiler chicks in a 6-wk period. The chickens were divided into 2 groups of 5 replicates each. One group of these chickens was raised in normal temperature (NT) treatment and the other in cold temperature (CT) treatment to induce ascites. Mortality was necropsied daily to determine cause of death. At the end of the experiment (wk 6), 5 chickens from each replicate were randomly selected and slaughtered. The heart was removed; the right ventricle was dissected away from the left ventricle and septum. Weights of right and left ventricles were determined separately. Average BW gain and average feed intake were measured weekly, and weekly average feed conversion ratio was calculated. Serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, activity of lactate dehydrogenase, as-partate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were determined. Throughout the study, the right ventricle-to-total ventricle ratio and total mortality percentage due to ascites of CT-treated birds at the end of experiment was greater (P < or = 0.05) than those of NT-treated ones. Fasting blood sugar of CT-treated birds in wk 4 and 6 was greater (P < or = 0.05) than NT-treated birds. Total blood protein of CT treatment was lower than NT-treated birds in every week and whole period, but this difference was only significant (P < or = 0.05) in wk 6. There was not a significant difference between 2 treatments for triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. It was concluded that cold-induced ascites could affect serum protein and fasting blood sugar of broiler chickens.

  19. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  20. Pharmacokinetic studies of the recombinant chicken interferon-α in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Jun; YU, Hai-Yang; ZHANG, Jun-Ling; WANG, Xing-Man; LI, Jin-Pei; HU, Tao; HU, Yong; WANG, Ming-Li; SHEN, Yong-Zhou; XU, Jing-Dong; HAN, Guo-Xiang; CHEN, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent. PMID:27890904

  1. Dietary High Fluorine Alters Intestinal Microbiota in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qin; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Liu, Juan; Deng, Yubing

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on ileal and cecal microbiota in broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and raised for 42 days. The control group was fed a corn-soybean basal diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg). The other three groups were fed the same basal diet, but supplemented with 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II, and III), administered in the form of sodium fluoride. The microbiota of ileal and cecal digesta was assessed with plate counts and polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). It was found that, compared with those in the control group, the counts of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. were markedly decreased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), whereas the counts of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were significantly increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in the high fluorine groups II and III. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the number of DGGE bands, similarity, and Shannon index of ileal and cecal bacteria were markedly reduced in the high fluorine groups II and III from 21 to 42 days. Sequencing analysis revealed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was altered in the high fluorine groups. In conclusion, dietary fluorine in the range of 800-1200 mg/kg obviously altered the bacterial counts, and the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiota in broiler chickens, a finding which implies that dietary high fluorine can disrupt the natural balance and structure of the intestinal microbiota.

  2. Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. III. Reproduction of the disease.

    PubMed Central

    Long, J R; Truscott, R B

    1976-01-01

    Lesions typical of necrotic enteritis could be produced experimentally in from 11-26% of broiler chickens consuming feed containing approximately 10(7) Clostridium perfringens per gram. Highest mortality was produced using isolates from field cases of necrotic enteritis which were reisolated from experimental cases in the laboratory. Penicillin in the drinking water at 100,000 I.U./litre completely prevented mortality whereas chloramphenicol at 110 mg/litre delayed the onset and reduced the number of deaths compared to controls. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:187291

  3. Immune responses following experimental infection with Ascaridia galli and necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Andronicos, Nicholas Matthew; Swick, Robert A; Hine, Brad; Sharma, Nisha; Kheravii, Sarbast K; Wu, Shu-Biao; Hunt, Peter

    2017-06-20

    Broilers commonly suffer from necrotic enteritis (NE). Other gastrointestinal infectious diseases affect poultry, including nematode infections which are considered a re-emerging disease in barn and free-range systems. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response of broilers after artificial infection with NE and contrast these with responses to the nematode Ascaridia galli and determine whether immune parameters measured during the course of infection can be used to distinguish infected from uninfected birds. A total of 96 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chickens were used in this study. At 10 days of age, broilers were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: control birds (n = 32), A. galli infected birds (n = 32), or NE infected birds (n = 32) and inoculated with the appropriate infective agents. The immune response of birds was monitored through evaluation of haematology parameters, acute phase protein production, and intraepithelial intestinal lymphocyte population changes at 11, 16, 20, and 32 days of age. T-helper cells (CD4(+)CD8(-)) increased significantly over time, and were significantly higher in A. galli and NE compared to day 10 controls. In conclusion, α-1 glycoprotein levels can distinguish birds with NE from other birds, including those infected with A. galli; also T-helper cell numbers can distinguish both NE and A. galli from uninfected birds and thirdly, 10 days post infection is the best time point to evaluate the bird's immune response for A. galli infections.

  4. Polytetrafluoroethylene gas intoxication in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boucher, M; Ehmler, T J; Bermudez, A J

    2000-01-01

    A poultry research facility that housed 2400 Peterson x Hubbard cross broilers (48 pens of 50 chicks each) experienced 4% mortality within 24 hr of chick placement. Mortality started within 4 hr of placement, and within 72 hr, cumulative mortality had reached 52%. Mild dyspnea was the only clinical sign noted in some chicks prior to death. The primary gross lesion noted in the chicks submitted was moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The lungs of four of these chicks sank in formalin, and blood-tinged fluid was noted in the mouth and nares of two chicks. The microscopic lesions noted in the affected chicks were moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion. The diagnosis indicated to the submitter was that pulmonary edema caused by exposure to an unidentified noxious gas caused the death of the chicks. The poultry house environment was tested for sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (as produced by combustion engines); all tests were negative for significant levels of these compounds. A second broiler flock was placed in the same facility and the mortality at 6 wk was 11%, which was greater than the 2.5%-4.7% mortality seen in the previous four flocks on the farm. Further investigation revealed that the only change in management practice in this facility prior to the onset of the severe mortality problem was the replacement of 48 heat lamp bulbs (one for each pen). The new heat lamp bulbs were polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coated. PTFE gas intoxication has been reported in several exotic avian species, but this intoxication has not been previously reported in a poultry flock.

  5. Influence of in ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, G; Sobolewska, A; Cianciullo, D; Walasik, K; Elminowska-Wenda, G; Slawinska, A; Tavaniello, S; Zylinska, J; Bardowski, J; Bednarczyk, M

    2012-11-01

    A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of prebiotic and synbiotics on growth performance, meat quality traits (cholesterol content, intramuscular collagen properties, fiber measurements), and the presence of histopathological changes in the pectoral muscle (PS) of broiler chickens. On d 12 of incubation, 480 eggs were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups treated with different bioactives, in ovo injected: C, control with physiological saline; T1 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides; T2 and T3 with 1.9 mg of raffinose family oligosaccharides enriched with different probiotic bacteria, specifically 1,000 cfu of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis SL1 and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris IBB SC1, respectively; T4 with commercially available synbiotic Duolac, containing 500 cfu of both Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus faecium with the addition of lactose (0.001 mg/embryo). Among the hatched chickens, 60 males were randomly chosen (12 birds for each group) and were grown to 42 d in collective cages (n = 3 birds in each 4 cages: replications for experimental groups). Broilers were fed ad libitum commercial diets according to age. In ovo prebiotic and synbiotic administration had a low effect on investigated traits, but depend on the kind of bioactives administered. Commercial synbiotic treatment (T4) reduced carcass yield percentage, and the feed conversion ratio was higher in T3 and T4 groups compared with other groups. The abdominal fat, the ultimate pH, and cholesterol of the PS were not affected by treatment. Broiler chickens of the treated groups with both slightly greater PS and fiber diameter had a significantly lower amount of collagen. The greater thickness of muscle fibers (not significant) and the lower fiber density (statistically significant), observed in treated birds in comparison with those of the C group, are not associated with histopathological changes in the PS of broilers. The incidence of

  6. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  7. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D; Bielke, Lisa R; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1-7) and grower diets (days 8-21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and 1

  8. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  9. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  10. Optimal dietary inclusion of organically complexed zinc for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y M; Choct, M; Iji, P A; Bruerton, K

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal content of organically complexed zinc (Zn) for broiler chickens. 2. Five different Zn and manganese (Mn) dietary contents from organically complexed supplements including a control diet containing 15 mg Mn and 20 mg Zn/kg diet, were randomly fed to one-day-old Cobb broilers (each treatment had 6 replicates of 4 birds) for 35 d. Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly. At the end of the experiment, two birds from each cage were killed and their right tibia were collected to measure bone size, strength and mineral contents. 3. Body weight gain and total tibia copper (Cu), iron (Fe), Mn and Zn contents increased linearly with supplemental Zn and Mn intake. The optimal Zn requirements for broilers at 1-14 and 14-35 d of age were 58 and 68 mg/kg diet, respectively. 4. Supplementation of Mn and Zn had no effect on tibia bone width and strength, but increased tibia length. 5. In commercial practice, organically complexed Zn may need to be supplemented during the entire period of production at a higher content than NRC recommendation but it is not necessary to exceed 70 mg/kg diet.

  11. Cool perch availability improves the performance and welfare status of broiler chickens in hot weather.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Jiang, Y B; Song, Z G; Wang, X J; Lin, H

    2012-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether water-cooled perches would be preferred by commercial broilers exposed to a hot ambient environment, and subsequently, whether utilization of these perches would improve performance and the well-being of birds, beyond those provided by normal perches. Four hundred and thirty-two 14-d-old male chickens from a commercial fast-growing strain (Arbor Acres) were housed in the following conditions: 1) cool perches, 2) normal perches, and 3) control pens with no perches. The results showed that there was greater use of cool perches than normal perches for broiler chickens during summer (F1, 4=125, P=0.0004). Cool perches increased BW gain (F2, 6=5.44, P=0.0449) and breast (F2, 24=3.31, P=0.0539) and thigh muscle yields (F2, 24=6.29, P=0.0063), while decreasing abdominal fat deposition (F2, 24=7.57, P=0.0028), cooking loss (pectoralis major, F2, 24=3.30, P=0.0542; biceps femoris, F2, 24=3.42, P=0.0493), percentage of panting birds (F2, 6=102, P<0.0001), and scores of footpad (F2, 6=122, P<0.0001) and hock (F2, 6=68.2, P<0.0001) burn, and abdominal plumage condition (F2, 6=52.0, P=0.0002), particularly toward the end of the rearing period. In contrast, normal perches hardly affected growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and behavioral patterns, and appeared to worsen the welfare status, including footpad and hock burns and abdominal plumage condition, due to a lower occupancy rate. Cool perches offer a thermoregulatory and performance advantage to broilers exposed to a hot environment and appear to be a management strategy for improving the production and well-being of commercial broilers.

  12. Growth performance, meat quality, and gut microflora of broiler chickens fed with cranberry extract.

    PubMed

    Leusink, G; Rempel, H; Skura, B; Berkyto, M; White, W; Yang, Y; Rhee, J Y; Xuan, S Y; Chiu, S; Silversides, F; Fitzpatrick, S; Diarra, M S

    2010-07-01

    Cranberry fruit components have been reported to have antimicrobial activities against a variety of pathogenic bacteria and to be beneficial for human health. Studies on their effects are very limited in animals and especially in chickens. This study investigated the effect of feed supplementation with a commercial cranberry fruit extract (CFE) on the performance, breast meat quality, and intestinal integrity of broiler chickens. Twelve hundred male 1-d-old broiler chicks were allocated randomly to CFE treatments at 0, 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg of feed from d 0 to 35. Cloacal and cecal samples were collected weekly to evaluate the influence of treatments on the intestinal population of generic Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Enterococcus spp., and Lactobacillus spp. At d 35, BW were 1.62, 1.60, 1.61, and 1.64 kg for the control birds and birds fed 40, 80, and 160 mg of CFE/kg of feed, respectively. Feed intake ranged from 2.7 to 2.8 kg and feed efficiency from 1.8 to 1.9 g of feed/g of BW. However, the treatment effects on bird performance were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The mortality rate tended to be lower (P = 0.09) in birds fed 40 mg of CFE/kg of feed. Feed supplementation with CFE did not significantly alter any broiler meat properties evaluated when compared with the control diet (P > 0.05). At d 28, the populations of Enterococcus spp. in cecal and cloacal samples were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in birds receiving CFE at 160 mg/kg of feed than the other groups. No significant differences were noted between the control and the treatment groups for general health and intestinal integrity (P > 0.05). These findings suggest that more studies are needed to investigate potential beneficial effects of CFE or its derivatives in broiler production.

  13. Effects of glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Sebastian Andrzej; Bochenek, Maciej; Samuelsson, Anne-Cathrine; Rutkowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A completely randomised design study with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to observe effects of an emulsifier (glyceryl polyethylene glycol ricinoleate (GPR)) on nutrient utilisation and performance of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were used to determine the influence of GPR (without addition or added at 0.04% of diet) and two levels of apparent metabolisable energy (AMEN) (according to standard requirements (Diets SE) or energy reduced by 0.4 MJ/kg diet (Diets LE)) on birds' performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD). ATTD of ether extract (EE) and AMEN were measured on d 14 and 35, and ATTD of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) was measured on d 35. All diets were based on wheat-maize-soybean meal with rapeseed oil and lard (blend of 50:50) as fat sources. During the grower period and the whole trial, birds fed Diets supplemented with GPR were characterised by higher body weight gain (BWG) and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to chicken receiving diets without GPR (p < 0.05). At the end of experiment, birds fed Diet LE without GPR were characterised by lower BWG and higher FCR (p < 0.05). Supplementation with GPR caused a higher ATTD of EE for diets SE and LE at d 14 and 35 (p < 0.05). Moreover, the GPR addition to Diet LE improved ATTD of NDF at d 35 (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the findings suggest that GPR effects the digestion of a blend of animal fat/rapeseed oil positively, even in a practical maize-wheat-based broiler diet with decreased AMEN level.

  14. Increased calcium deposits and decreased Ca2+ -ATPase in erythrocytes of ascitic broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhao, Lihong; Geng, Guangrui; Ma, Liqin; Dong, Shishan; Xu, Tong; Wang, Jianlin; Wang, Huiyu; Tian, Yong; Qiao, Jian

    2011-06-01

    The decrease of erythrocyte deformability may be one of the predisposing factors for pulmonary hypertension and ascites in broiler chickens. In mammals, the cytoplasmic calcium is a major regulator of erythrocyte deformability. In this study, the erythrocyte deformability was measured, and the precise locations of Ca2+ and Ca2+ -ATPase in the erythrocytes were investigated in chickens with ascites syndrome induced by low ambient temperature. The results showed that ascitic broilers had higher filtration index of erythrocyte compared with control groups, indicating a decrease in erythrocyte deformability in ascitic broilers. The more calcium deposits were observed in the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers compared with those of the age-matched control birds. The Ca2+ -ATPase reactive grains were significantly decreased on the erythrocyte membranes of ascitic broilers. Our data suggest that accumulation of intracellular calcium and inhibition of Ca2+ -ATPase might be important factors for the reduced deformability of the erythrocytes of ascitic broilers.

  15. Dietary and ontogenic regulation of fatty acid desaturase and elongase expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Gakhar, N; Gibson, R A; House, J D

    2013-08-01

    Effects of diet and ontogeny on the expression of fatty acid desaturases and elongases were examined in broiler chickens. In Study 1, 120 day-old male chicks received one of six diets with LA:ALA ranging from 46:4 to 16:34, for 33 days. Total n-6 PUFA decreased, and n-3 PUFA increased in response to a decrease in the dietary LA:ALA. FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 mRNAs were highest (P<0.05) in birds fed lower LA:ALA diets. In Study 2, 60 day-old male chicks were fed a basal diet, and liver samples were collected on day of hatch, and on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 35 post-hatch. Total n-6 and n-3 PUFA increased (P<0.01) from days 7 to days 21. FADS1, FADS2 and ELOVL2 mRNAs generally increased (P<0.01) with age. These findings provide evidence for the dietary and developmental regulation of PUFA metabolism in broiler chickens.

  16. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (<2.5 kg) with 10 birds in each subgroup. The pH of meat did not show any significant variation between Aseel and broiler chickens. The meat from heavier birds had significantly higher pH. Shear force value and hydroxyproline contents were significantly higher in Aseel chickens. Aseel birds had significantly higher red (a*) colouration and lower lightness (L*) than broiler chickens. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat were significantly higher. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that muscle fibres in Aseels were arranged in a more coiled pattern making the muscle tough. A larger amount of connective tissue was also observed between the muscle fibres compared with the broiler chickens. The dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  17. Effects of corticosterone and dietary energy on immune function of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiachang; Liu, Lei; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy.

  18. Effects of Corticosterone and Dietary Energy on Immune Function of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Congcong; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy level on the performance and immune function of stressed broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 96 three-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross × Ross) were divided into two groups. One group received a high energy (HE) diet and the other group received a low energy (LE) diet for 7 days. At 5 days of age, the chickens from each group were further divided into two sub-groups and received one of the following two treatments for 3 days: (1) subcutaneous injection of corticosterone, twice per day (CORT group; 2 mg of CORT/kg BW in corn oil) and (2) subcutaneous injection of corn oil, twice per day (Control/Sham treatment group). At 10 days of age, samples of blood, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were obtained. Compared with the other three groups, the LE group treated with CORT had the lowest average daily gain (ADG) and the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CORT treatment decreased the relative weight (RW) of the bursa independent of the dietary energy level, but it decreased the RW of the thymus only in the chickens fed the LE diet. By contrast, CORT administration decreased the RW of the spleen only in the chickens fed the HE diet (P < 0.05). The plasma total protein, albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 2 and immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were affected by the CORT treatment (P < 0.05); however, these factors were not significantly affected by the dietary energy level. Toll-like receptor-5 mRNA level was down-regulated by CORT injection in the duodenum and ileum (P < 0.05) and showed a trend of down-regulation in the jejunum (P=0.0846). The present study showed that CORT treatment induced immunosuppressive effects on the innate immune system of broiler chickens, which were ameliorated by consumption of higher dietary energy. PMID:25803644

  19. Dehydration indicators for broiler chickens at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, R F; Buijs, S; Sprenger, M; Goethals, K; Willemsen, H; Duchateau, L; Tuyttens, F A M

    2013-03-01

    Freedom of (prolonged) thirst is considered to be of paramount importance for animal welfare. This emotion normally results from dehydration, which can be measured using physiological indicators. Because no reliable physiological indicator for thirst was available for broilers, we aimed to identify such a measure in this study. This indicator would ideally be integrated into quality control systems in commercial slaughter plants. In the first experiment, water deprivation was manipulated systematically by withdrawing water for different durations (total water withdrawal for 0 (control), 24, 36, or 48 h, or a 10-d period with restricted access to water for 2 times 10 min per day). A significant decrease in drained blood content and BW occurred from 36 h of total water deprivation onward (both P = 0.03), whereas long-term restricted access tended to decrease drained blood content (P = 0.05). No effect of water deprivation or restriction on skin turgor was found. In the second experiment, water was withdrawn for 0 (control), 6, 12, 24, or 48 h. Plasma chloride concentration was increased after 6 h of water withdrawal, but did not rise further with longer withdrawal. If assessed at slaughter, chloride will thus mainly reflect the catching-to-slaughter interval. In contrast, plasma creatinine and hematocrit levels showed a numerical decrease after 6 h of water withdrawal, but rose again after prolonged withdrawal. Plasma creatinine values were significantly higher in 24-h-deprived birds than in 6-h-deprived birds (P < 0.01), allowing for discernment between water withdrawal during catching and transport from dehydration that had occurred on the farm. Blood sodium concentrations and plasma osmolality showed a steady increment between 0 and 24 h of water deprivation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001 for both), and may thus be used to assess the combined effects of water deprivation on farm and during the catching-to-slaughter interval. These findings may form the basis of an on

  20. The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, M; Petracci, M; Sirri, F; Folegatti, E; Franchini, A; Meluzzi, A

    2007-05-01

    The influence of the season and market class of broiler chickens on breast meat quality traits was determined on a total of 18 flocks reared and processed under commercial conditions. According to the Italian poultry production system the following classes of birds were considered: light size (1.2 kg of carcass weight; n = 90) and medium size (1.8 kg of carcass weight; n = 90), represented by females slaughtered at 40 and 52 d old, respectively, whereas heavy size were 57-d-old male broilers (2.4 kg of carcass weight; n = 90). After slaughter, 15 carcasses per flock (n = 270) were randomly collected during winter (n = 135) and summer (n = 135) seasons and used at 24 h postmortem to determine breast (pectoralis major) meat color (lightness, redness, and yellowness), pH, drip and cook loss, as well as Allo-Kramer (AK) shear values. Furthermore, pectoralis minor muscles were used to determine lipid, protein, moisture, and ash content. Finally, because the flocks included white- and yellow-skinned broilers, the color of the carcass skin was measured to assess the relationship between skin and raw breast meat color. With regard to the season, breast meat from birds slaughtered during summer exhibited a paler and less red color, lower pH, higher drip and cook losses, lower AK-shear, and a higher content of moisture and a lower content of protein and ash. In respect to medium and heavy birds, light broilers produced breast meat with higher values of redness, lower pH and cook loss, higher AK-shear values, and a higher content of moisture and ash. Finally, a positive correlation (r = +0.92; P < or = 0.001) between skin and breast meat yellowness was found. These results indicate that during summer, broiler breast meat undergoes a depression of its functionality and quality. Moreover, the market class of birds also determined some differences in breast meat quality attributes.

  1. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, Starling; Srinivasa Rao, G; Malik, Jitendra K

    2015-09-01

    The potential impact of subchronic exposure of aflatoxin B1 was investigated on the pharmacokinetic disposition of enrofloxacin in broiler chickens. Broiler chickens given either normal or aflatoxin B1 (750μg/kg diet) supplemented diet for 6 weeks received a single oral dose of enrofloxacin (10mg/kg body wt). Blood samples were drawn from the brachial vein at predetermined time intervals after drug administration. Enrofloxacin plasma concentrations analyzed by RP-HPLC were significantly lower in aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens at 0.167, 0.5 and 1.0h after drug administration. In aflatoxin B1-exposed broiler chickens, the absorption rate constant (ka) of enrofloxacin (0.20±0.05h(-1)) was significantly decreased as compared to the unexposed birds (0.98±0.31h(-1)). The values of [Formula: see text] , tmax and AUC0-∞ of enrofloxacin were nonsignificantly increased by 17%, 26% and 17% in aflatoxin-exposed broiler chickens, respectively. Subchronic aflatoxin B1 exposure markedly decreased the initial absorption of enrofloxacin without significantly influencing other pharmacokinetic parameters in broiler chickens.

  2. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In commercial chicken meat production, broiler chickens are usually kept on the floor in ware-house like buildings, but the use of cages is becoming more common. Confining chickens to cages is a welfare problem, as has been thoroughly demonstrated for laying hens used for egg production. Caged broiler chickens may suffer from poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, feather loss, and restriction of natural behavior. There are also potential food safety concerns associated with the use of cages. While cages may provide an economic advantage in some geographical regions of the world, the severe, inherent disadvantages should also be considered before cages are more widely adopted in the global broiler chicken industry. Abstract In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval. PMID:26487409

  3. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher ( P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting the effects of heat

  4. Effects of heat stress on the gene expression of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolei; Zhang, Haichao; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Song, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    In broiler chickens, heat stress disrupts nutrient digestion and absorption. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clearly understood. Hence, to investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures on the expression levels of nutrient transporters in the jejunum of broiler chickens, seventy-two 35-day-old male broiler chickens with similar body weights were randomly allocated into two groups: control (24 ± 1 °C) and heat-stressed (32 ± 1 °C). The chickens in the heat-stressed group were exposed to 10 h of heat daily from 08:00 to 18:00 and then raised at 24 ± 1 °C. The rectal temperature and feed intake of the chickens were recorded daily. After 7 days, nine chickens per group were sacrificed by exsanguination, and the jejunum was collected. The results show that heat exposure significantly decreased the feed intake and increased the rectal temperature of the broiler chickens. The plasma concentrations of uric acid and triglyceride significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the heat-stressed group. No significant differences in the levels of plasma glucose, total amino acids, and very low-density lipoprotein were observed between the heat-stressed and control groups. However, the plasma concentration of glucose tended to be higher (P = 0.09) in the heat-stressed group than in the control group. Heat exposure did not significantly affect the mRNA levels of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 and amino acid transporters y + LAT1, CAT1, r-BAT, and PePT-1. However, the expression levels of GLUT-2, FABP1, and CD36 were significantly decreased by heat exposure. The results of this study provide new insights into the mechanisms by which heat stress affects nutrient absorption in broiler chickens. Our findings suggest that periodic heat exposure might alter the jejunal glucose and lipid transport rather than amino acid transport. However, intestinal epithelial damage and cell loss should be considered when interpreting

  5. Comparative evaluation of probiotic and salinomycin effects on performance and coccidiosis control in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Teichmann, Klaus; Doupovec, Barbara; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Lumpkins, Brett; Mathis, Greg

    2014-12-01

    The annual financial loss to the poultry industry as a result of coccidiosis has been estimated at about US $3 billion. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of probiotics and salinomycin as feed additives on performance and coccidiosis control in male broilers raised to 42 d of age. The study consisted of 360 Cobb male broiler chickens randomly allocated to 4 groups each with 3 replicates. Group 1: untreated, unchallenged negative control group (NC); group 2: untreated, challenged positive control group (PC); group 3: negative control supplemented with salinomycin 66 mg/kg, challenged group (Sal); and group 4: negative control supplemented with probiotics, challenged (Prob mix). On d 15, all birds (except group 1) were challenged with approximately 75,000, 25,000, and 75,000 of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocytes, respectively, that were mixed into the feed. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded throughout the experiment. On d 21 and 42, intestinal lesions and litter conditions were scored. On d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42, oocyst counts were determined from 10 freshly collected fecal samples per pen. The results showed that mortality, litter, and lesion scores at d 21 and 42, and oocyst shedding at d 21 did not differ significantly between the Prob mix and the Sal groups. However on d 28, oocyst shedding was significantly lower in the Sal group than in the PC group but insignificantly lower than the Prob mix group. Body weights of the Prob mix group at d 42 were significantly lower than the Sal group; however, the feed conversion ratio values were similar between the 2 groups. The results of this study showed that probiotics supplementation could be considered as a potential strategy to control coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

  6. Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs share phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance with community-dwelling humans and patients with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Kurbasic, Azra; Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ejrnaes, Karen; Porsbo, Lone J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Olsen, Katharina E P; Aarestrup, Frank M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hammerum, Anette M

    2010-05-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). Phylogroup B2 and D isolates are associated with UTI. It has been proposed that E. coli causing UTI could have an animal origin. The objective of this study was to investigate the phylogroups and antimicrobial resistance, and their possible associations in E. coli isolates from patients with UTI, community-dwelling humans, broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs in Denmark. A total of 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n = 102), community-dwelling humans (n = 109), Danish (n = 197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n = 86), Danish broiler chickens (n = 138), Danish (n = 177) and imported pork (n = 10), and Danish pigs (n = 145) were tested for phylogroups (A, B1, B2, D, and nontypeable [NT] isolates) and antimicrobial susceptibility. Phylogroup A, B1, B2, D, and NT isolates were detected among all groups of isolates except for imported pork isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to three (for B2 isolates) or five antimicrobial agents (for A, B1, D, and NT isolates) was shared among isolates regardless of origin. Using cluster analysis to investigate antimicrobial resistance data, we found that UTI isolates always grouped with isolates from meat and/or animals. We detected B2 and D isolates, that are associated to UTI, among isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork, and pigs. Although B2 isolates were found in low prevalences in animals and meat, these sources could still pose a risk for acquiring uropathogenic E. coli. Further, E. coli from animals and meat were very similar to UTI isolates with respect to their antimicrobial resistance phenotype. Thus, our study provides support for the hypothesis that a food animal and meat reservoir might exist for UTI-causing E. coli.

  7. The correlation of chemical and physical corn kernel traits with production performance in broiler chickens and laying hens.

    PubMed

    Moore, S M; Stalder, K J; Beitz, D C; Stahl, C H; Fithian, W A; Bregendahl, K

    2008-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence on broiler chicken growth and laying hen performance of chemical and physical traits of corn kernels from different hybrids. A total of 720 male 1-d-old Ross-308 broiler chicks were allotted to floor pens in 2 replicated experiments with a randomized complete block design. A total of 240 fifty-two-week-old Hy-Line W-36 laying hens were allotted to cages in a randomized complete block design. Corn-soybean meal diets were formulated for 3 broiler growth phases and one 14-wk-long laying hen phase to be marginally deficient in Lys and TSAA to allow for the detection of differences or correlations attributable to corn kernel chemical or physical traits. The broiler chicken diets were also marginally deficient in Ca and nonphytate P. Within a phase, corn- and soybean-based diets containing equal amounts of 1 of 6 different corn hybrids were formulated. The corn hybrids were selected to vary widely in chemical and physical traits. Feed consumption and BW were recorded for broiler chickens every 2 wk from 0 to 6 wk of age. Egg production was recorded daily, and feed consumption and egg weights were recorded weekly for laying hens between 53 and 67 wk of age. Physical and chemical composition of kernels was correlated with performance measures by multivariate ANOVA. Chemical and physical kernel traits were weakly correlated with performance in broiler chickens from 0 to 2 wk of age (P<0.05, | r |<0.42). However, from 4 to 6 wk of age and 0 to 6 wk of age, only kernel chemical traits were correlated with broiler chicken performance (P<0.05, | r |<0.29). From 53 to 67 wk of age, correlations were observed between both kernel physical and chemical traits and laying hen performance (P<0.05, | r |<0.34). In both experiments, the correlations of performance measures with individual kernel chemical and physical traits for any single kernel trait were not large enough to base corn hybrid selection on for feeding poultry.

  8. Effects of dust, formaldehyde and delayed feeding on early postnatal development of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    de Gouw, Pieter; van de Ven, Lotte J F; Lourens, Sander; Kemp, Bas; van den Brand, Henry

    2017-06-01

    We investigated effects of perinatal exposure to dust or formaldehyde and the moment of first feed intake after hatching on broiler chicken development during the first week of life. Four environmental treatments were used from 468 until 512h of incubation: control (CONT), heat treated dust (HTD), untreated dust (UTD) or formaldehyde disinfection (FORM). After hatching, all chickens were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding treatments: early feeding (EF; feed and water available in the hatcher) or delayed feeding (DF). After 512h of incubation (day 0), chickens were reared until day 7 of age. In DF chickens, body weight (BW), yolk free body mass (YFBM) and relative liver weight did not differ among environmental treatments at day 0. However, in EF chickens BW at day 0 was greater in HTD chickens than in UTD and FORM chickens. YFBM in EF chickens at day 0 was greater when chickens were exposed to HTD compared to the other environmental treatments. In EF chickens, relative liver weight was greater in HTD chickens than in FORM. In DF chickens, BW at day 0 was positively related with hatching time (HT). In EF chickens, YFBM was positively related to HT. Residual yolk weight at day 0 was positively related with HT, whereas relative liver weight and microbicidal capacity were negatively related with HT. This study demonstrated that formaldehyde and dust during the hatching phase affect broiler chicken development at pulling from the incubator, but not at day 7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of pig antibacterial peptides on growth performance and intestine mucosal immune of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; She, R; Liu, T; Zhang, Y; Peng, K S; Luo, D; Yue, Z; Ding, Y; Hu, Y; Liu, W; Zhai, L

    2009-02-01

    Currently, substitutions for antibiotic growth promoters in animals are attracting interest. This study investigated the effects of pig antibacterial peptides (PABP) on growth performance and small intestine mucosal immune responses in broilers. Three hundred 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chickens were randomly allocated to 5 groups with 60 birds per group. The groups were control group; PABP administered in drinking water at 20 and 30 mg/L of water; or PABP supplemented in feed at 150 and 200 mg/kg of diet. The birds were fed a corn-soybean based diet for 6 wk. Chickens were weighed weekly and killed after 42 d of feeding, and growth performance was measured. Samples of the duodenum and jejunum were collected. The villus height, mucosa thickness, alkaline phosphatase activity, and numbers of secreting IgA and goblet cells were evaluated. The PABP-treated groups had greater BW and average daily gain, greater height of villus and thickness of gut mucosa, greater activity of alkaline phosphatase, higher ratio of secreting IgA, and a greater number of goblet cells compared with the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, PABP can improve the growth performance, increase the intestinal ability to absorb nutrients, and improve the mucosal immunity of the intestine.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on meat quality and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Wang, S; Gao, F; Zhou, G

    2017-02-01

    1. This study aimed to investigate the effects of carnosine supplementation on meat quality, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation status in broiler chickens. 2. A total of 256 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 8 replicates of 8 chickens each. The birds were supplied with 4 different diets: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg carnosine, respectively. The whole experiment lasted 42 d. 3. The results showed that dietary supplementation with carnosine linearly increased the values of pH45 min and redness and reduced drip loss of breast meat. Dietary carnosine increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver, serum and breast meat and decreased the contents of lipid peroxides at 21 and 42 d of age. 4. These findings indicated that dietary supplementation with carnosine was beneficial to enhance meat quality, antioxidant capacity and decrease lipid peroxidation status of breast meat.

  11. Effects of inulin on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and metabolisable energy in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Alzueta, C; Rodríguez, M L; Ortiz, L T; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2010-06-01

    1. A 35 d feeding trial with 480 d-old male broiler chickens (Cobb) was conducted to evaluate the effects of graded levels of inulin (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg diet) in a maize-soybean meal based diet on growth performance, AME(N) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein, amino acids, starch, crude fat and fatty acids. A commercial product (Inulina 95) containing 9140 g/kg of inulin and a degree of polymerisation (DP) ranging from DP 1-10 to DP 51-60 was used. 2. The performance of birds (feed intake, BW gain and feed to gain ratio) was not affected by the different dietary inclusions of inulin. 3. Dietary inulin significantly improved the AID coefficient of crude protein and crude fat. Also, there was a significant effect of inulin on the digestibility of most amino acids (10 out of 15) and major fatty acids (oleic and linoleic acids). The AID coefficient of starch and the AME(N) content of diets were not affected by inulin inclusion. 4. In conclusion, the current study showed that inulin supplementation improved the digestibility of protein and fat in a maize-soybean meal based diet, but had no effect on the performance of broiler chickens.

  12. Higher inclusion rate of canola meal under high ambient temperature for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Aljuobori, A; Zulkifli, I; Soleimani, A F; Abdullah, N; Liang, J B; Mujahid, A

    2016-06-01

    Extruded canola meal (ECM) was included in diet of broiler chickens at 0, 10, 20, and 30% (wt/wt) from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 240 day-old male chicks were assigned in groups of 5 to 48 battery cages in environmentally controlled chambers and diets were replicated with 12 cages/treatment. From d 29 to 35, birds from each dietary group were exposed to either thermoneutral (23 ± 1°C; unheated) or high (36 ± 1°C; heated) temperature conditions. High ambient temperature, irrespective of ECM inclusion, depressed the growth performance of birds. Inclusion of ECM increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) linearly in unheated birds during d 1 to 28 (P < 0.001) and d 29 to 35 (P = 0.001). However, no adverse effects of ECM inclusion were observed on the growth performance of heated birds. The absence of these detrimental effects could be associated with the lack of triiodothyronine (T3) elevation by ECM inclusion in heated birds. In conclusion, ECM can be fed, at least, up to 30%, without any adverse effect on growth performance of broiler chickens raised under chronic high ambient temperature. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Gene expression profiling in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Gary J; Barb, C Rick; Fairchild, Brian D; Gamble, John; Lee-Rutherford, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for gene microarray analysis with Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of global gene expression in chicken adipose tissue were initiated since such studies in many animal species show that adipose tissue expresses and secretes many factors that can influence growth and physiology. Microarray results indicated 333 differentially expressed adipose tissue genes between 3 and 6 wk, 265 differentially expressed genes between 4 and 6 wk and 42 differentially expressed genes between 3 and 4 wk. Enrichment scores of Gene Ontology Biological Process categories indicated strong age upregulation of genes involved in the immune system response. In addition to microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to confirm the influence of age on the expression of adipose tissue CC chemokine ligands (CCL), toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF), chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), and several other genes. Between 3 and 6 wk of age CCL5, CCL1, and CCR8 expression increased (P = 0.0001) with age. Furthermore, TLR2, CCL19, and LITAF expression increased between 4 and 6 wk of age (P = 0.001). This is the first demonstration of age related changes in CCL, LITAF, and TLR2 gene expression in chicken adipose tissue. Future studies are needed to elucidate the role of these adipose tissue genes in growth and the immune system. PMID:26317054

  14. Colonization of broiler chickens by waterborne Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, A D; Greenwood, M; Healing, T D; Rollins, D; Shahamat, M; Donaldson, J; Colwell, R R

    1993-01-01

    Chickens on a broiler farm in southern England were found to be colonized with Campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, Lior 1 Penner 4. The farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. The serotype persisted on the farm for at least 18 months after the outbreak; its prevalence in the human population served by the farm remained high until it disappeared from the farm in 1986. The possible sources and routes of transmission of C. jejuni to the broilers on the farm were investigated. The results showed that vertical transmission, feed, litter, small mammals, and environmental or airborne cross-contamination between sheds or successive crops could be excluded as persistent sources of C. jejuni. The predominant source of C. jejuni on the farm was shown to be the water supply. Direct microscopy and fluorescent antibody methods revealed presumptive campylobacters throughout the farm's water system. Campylobacter-free chickens raised in an animal house and given water from the farm supply became colonized with the serotype of C. jejuni endemic on the farm (Lior 1 Penner 4). An intervention program based on water chlorination, shed drinking system cleaning and disinfection, and withdrawal of furazolidone from feed reduced the proportion of birds colonized with campylobacter from 81 to 7% and was associated with a 1,000- to 10,000-fold reduction in campylobacters recoverable from the carcasses. Two months after the end of the intervention program colonization of the birds returned to high levels (84%), indicating that there was a temporal association between intervention and reduced colonization with C. jejuni. Investigations continue to establish the general applicability of these findings. PMID:8476300

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia fergusonii Isolated from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Karen; Islam, M Rashedul; Rempel, Heidi; Block, Glenn; Topp, Edward; Diarra, Moussa S

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance of Escherichia fergusonii isolated from commercial broiler chicken farms. A total of 245 isolates from cloacal and cecal samples of 28- to 36-day-old chickens were collected from 32 farms. Isolates were identified using PCR, and their susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion assay. All isolates were susceptible to meropenem, amikacin, and ciprofloxacin. The most common resistances were against ampicillin (75.1%), streptomycin (62.9%), and tetracycline (57.1%). Of the 184 ampicillin-resistant isolates, 127 were investigated using a DNA microarray carrying 75 probes for antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. Of these 127 isolates, the β-lactamase blaCMY2, blaTEM, blaACT, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M-15 genes were detected in 120 (94.5%), 31 (24.4%), 8 (6.3%), 6 (4.7%), and 4 (3.2%) isolates, respectively. Other detected genes included those conferring resistance to aminoglycosides (aadA1, strA, strB), trimethoprims (dfrV, dfrA1), tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC, tetE), and sulfonamides (sul1, sul2). Class 1 integron was found in 35 (27.6%) of the ampicillin-resistant isolates. However, our data showed that the tested E. fergusonii did not carry any carbapenemase blaOXA genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that the selected ampicillin-resistant E. fergusonii isolates were genetically diverse. The present study indicates that the monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria should include enteric bacteria such as E. fergusonii, which could be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. The detection of isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes, particularly blaCTX-M-15, in this work suggests that further investigations on the occurrence of such genes in broilers are warranted.

  16. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangxing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Kyung Woo; Jang, Seung I; Marc, Pages; Gay, Cyril G; Ritter, G Donald; Bautista, Daniel A; Phillips, Kathy; Neumann, Anthony P; Rehberger, Thomas G; Siragusa, Gregory R

    2010-08-01

    The present report describes an outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis (GD) infection in a commercial poultry farm in Delaware involving 34-day-old broiler chickens. In addition to obvious clinical signs, some GD-affected broilers also showed severe fibrino-necrotic enteritis and large numbers of Gram-positive rods in the necrotic tissue. Histopathological findings included haemorrhage, degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous cells, especially of skin, muscle, and intestine. Immunofluorescence staining revealed Clostridium-like bacilli in the skin and the intestine. Both Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium septicum genomic sequences were identified by polymerase chain reaction in bacterial cultures isolated from the skin, muscle, and intestine, and in the frozen tissues from the GD-affected birds. Serological analysis demonstrated that both affected and clinically healthy birds from the same house had high serum antibody titres against C. perfringens, C. septicum, Eimeria, chick anaemia virus, and infectious bursal disease virus. These results are discussed in the context of the relationship between the different Clostridium spp. and the pathogenesis of GD.

  17. Incidence and tracking of Clostridium perfringens through an integrated broiler chicken operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens has been shown to be widespread in the broiler chicken hatchery, grow-out, and processing operations. In a previous study, ribotypes of certain strains of C. perfringens isolated from processed chicken carcasses were shown to match ribotypes isolated from paper pad lining tra...

  18. Predicting water-holding capacity of intact chicken broiler breast fillets with Vis/NIR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ability of using visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy to predict water-holding capacity (WHC) of intact chicken broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was assessed in this study. Boneless and skinless chicken fillets (214 in total) were procured from a commercial processing plant ...

  19. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city/department) were collected using a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the ...

  20. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  1. Effect of dietary antimicrobials on immune status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, K W; Lillehoj, H S; Lee, S H; Jang, S I; Park, M S; Bautista, D A; Ritter, G D; Hong, Y H; Siragusa, G R; Lillehoj, E P

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX) or monensin (COBN) as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA)-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2(+) IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2(+) and CD4(+) IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2(+), BU1(+), and TCR1(+) spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  2. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olanrewaju, H A; Purswell, J L; Collier, S D; Branton, S L

    2010-12-01

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. The 9 treatments consisted of 3 levels of temperatures (low = 15.6°C; moderate = 21.1°C; high = 26.7°C) from 21 to 56 d of age and 3 levels of light intensities (0.5, 3.0, 20 lx) from 8 to 56 d of age at 50% RH. A total of 540 Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 9 environmentally controlled chambers (30 male and 30 female chicks/chamber) at 1 d of age. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Venous blood samples were collected on d 21 (baseline), 28, 42, and 56. High ambient temperature significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced BW, partial pressure of CO(2), bicarbonate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, K(+), and Na(+) along with significantly (P ≤ 0.05) elevated pH level, Cl(-), glucose, osmolality, and anion gap concentrations. Partial pressure of O(2) was slightly increased in response to increased ambient temperature. There was no effect of light intensity on most of the blood variables examined. Acid-base regulation during high ambient temperature and light intensity exposure did not deteriorate despite a lower partial pressure of CO(2), which consequently increased blood pH because of a compensatory decrease in HCO(3)(-) concentration. Plasma corticosterone was not affected by temperature, light intensity, or their interaction. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to varying light intensities had a minor effect on physiological blood variables, whereas high ambient temperature markedly affected various blood variables without inducing stress in broilers.

  3. Dietary Nisin Modulates the Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology and Enhances Growth Performance of the Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI900 and NI2700 groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement for broiler

  4. Dietary nisin modulates the gastrointestinal microbial ecology and enhances growth performance of the broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, Damian; Kierończyk, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Rawski, Mateusz; Długosz, Jakub; Sip, Anna; Højberg, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Due to antimicrobial properties, nisin is one of the most commonly used and investigated bacteriocins for food preservation. Surprisingly, nisin has had limited use in animal feed as well as there are only few reports on its influence on microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The present study therefore aimed at investigating effects of dietary nisin on broiler chicken GIT microbial ecology and performance in comparison to salinomycin, the widely used ionophore coccidiostat. In total, 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly distributed to six experimental groups. The positive control (PC) diet was supplemented with salinomycin (60 mg/kg). The nisin (NI) diets were supplemented with increasing levels (100, 300, 900 and 2700 IU nisin/g, respectively) of the bacteriocin. The negative control (NC) diet contained no additives. At slaughter (35 days of age), activity of specific bacterial enzymes (α- and β-glucosidases, α-galactosidases and β-glucuronidase) in crop, ileum and caeca were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the NC group, and nisin supplementation decreased the enzyme activities to levels observed for the PC group. A similar inhibitory influence on bacterial activity was reflected in the levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and putrefactive SCFA (PSCFA) in digesta from crop and ileum; no effect was observed in caeca. Counts of Bacteroides and Enterobacteriacae in ileum digesta were significantly (P<0.001) decreased by nisin and salinomycin, but no effects were observed on the counts of Clostridium perfringens, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus and total bacteria. Like salinomycin, nisin supplementation improved broiler growth performance in a dose-dependent manner; compared to the NC group, the body weight gain of the NI₉₀₀ and NI₂₇₀₀ groups was improved by 4.7 and 8.7%, respectively. Our findings suggest that dietary nisin exerts a mode of action similar to salinomycin and could be considered as a dietary supplement

  5. Supplemental zinc and vitamin A can alleviate negative effects of heat stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Osman; Sahin, Nurhan; Sahin, Kazim

    2003-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc (ZnSO4.H2O) and vitamin A (retinol) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and serum concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total protein, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in broiler chickens (Ross) reared at a high temperature (34 degrees C). One hundred twenty 10-d-old male broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups, 3 replicates of 10 birds each. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 30 mg Zn/kg diet, 4.5 mg (15,000 IU) retinol/kg diet, or 30 mg Zn + 4.5 mg retinol/kg diet. Supplemental zinc and vitamin A significantly increased live weight gain and improved feed efficiency (p<0.05). However, a combination of zinc and vitamin A, rather than each separately, provided a greater performance. Hot and chilled carcass weights and yields and the weights of internal organs with the exception of abdominal fat were greater for each supplement (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Abdominal fat decreased (p<0.05) upon dietary zinc and vitamin A supplementation. Supplemental treatments resulted in an increased total serum protein but decreased glucose, cholesterol, and MDA concentrations. The results of the study show that, separately or as a combination, zinc and vitamin A supplementation resulted in an improved live weight gain, feed efficiency, and carcass traits, as well as a decrease in serum MDA concentrations. The results of the present study also suggest that zinc and vitamin A have similar effects and that a combination of zinc and vitamin A may offer a potential protective management practice in preventing heat-stress-related depression in performance of broiler chickens.

  6. Apparent metabolizable energy of glycerin for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Dozier, W A; Kerr, B J; Corzo, A; Kidd, M T; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Bregendal, K

    2008-02-01

    Three energy balance experiments were conducted to determine AMEn of glycerin using broiler chickens of diverse ages. In experiment 1, two dietary treatments were fed from 4 to 11 d of age. Dietary treatments consisted of a control diet (no added glycerin) and a diet containing 6% glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin). Four dietary treatments were provided in experiment 2 (from 17 to 24 d of age) and 3 (from 38 to 45 d of age). Diets in experiment 2 and 3 were 1) control diet (no added glycerin); 2) 3% added glycerin (97% control diet + 3% glycerin); 3) 6% added glycerin (94% control diet + 6% glycerin); and 4) 9% added glycerin (91% control diet + 9% glycerin). Diets in experiment 1 and 2 were identical, but the diet used in experiment 3 had reduced nutrient levels based on bird age. In experiments 2 and 3, broilers were fed 91, 94, 97, and 100% of ad libitum intake so that differences in AMEn consumption were only due to glycerin. A single source of glycerin was used in all experiments. Feed intake, BW, energy intake, energy excretion, nitrogen intake, nitrogen excretion, AMEn, and AMEn intake were determined in all experiments. In experiment 1, AMEn determination utilized the difference approach by subtracting AMEn of the control diet from AMEn of the test diet. In experiments 2 and 3, AMEn intake was regressed against feed intake with the slope estimating AMEn of glycerin. Regression equations were Y = 3,331x -72.59 (P < or = 0.0001) and Y = 3,348.62x -140.18 (P < or = 0.0001) for experiments 2 and 3, respectively. The AMEn of glycerin was determined as 3,621, 3,331, and 3,349 kcal/kg in experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The average AMEn of glycerin across the 3 experiments was 3,434 kcal/kg, which is similar to its gross energy content. These results indicate that AMEn of glycerin is utilized efficiently by broiler chickens.

  7. Maternal hyperthyroidism is associated with a decreased incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Zare Shahneh, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Nejati Javaremi, A; Rahimi Mianji, G; Mollasalehi, M R; Shojaie, H; Akhlaghi, A A; Deldar, H; Atashi, H; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Zhandi, M

    2012-05-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing the breeder hens with exogenous thyroxine (T(4)) would help their offspring to better survive the ascites-inducing condition during the growing period. In total, 132 broiler breeder hens were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatments: control (CON), hypothyroid [HYPO; 6-N-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-treated], and hyperthyroid (HYPER; T(4)-treated). The hens were artificially inseminated, and the hatching eggs (n = 1,320) were incubated. No eggs in the HYPO group hatched. The 1-d-old male chicks (n = 288) from other groups were reared for 42 d under standard or low ambient temperature to induce ascites. Blood samples were drawn from the hens, embryos, and broilers for determination of T(4) and triiodothyronine (T(3)). The hematocrit was also determined in broilers. The PTU-treated hens had an increased BW along with lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations. Plasma T(4) was higher in the HYPER hens compared with CON hens, but T(3) concentration was not different between these groups. The fertility rate was not affected by either hypo- or hyperthyroidism. The embryos in the HYPO group had lower plasma T(3) and T(4) concentrations at d 18 of embryonic development and internal pipping. Higher plasma T(4) was recorded in the HYPER birds at internal pipping, although plasma T(3) concentration was not affected at this stage. Maternal hyperthyroidism decreased the overall incidence of ascites in the cold-exposed chickens (10.0 vs. 33.4% for HYPER and CON groups, respectively). Although the effect of maternal PTU or T(4) treatment on plasma thyroid hormones and on the right ventricle-to-total ventricular weight ratio in the broilers was not significant, the cold-exposed healthy CON chicks showed higher hematocrit values, compared with the HYPER birds. It was concluded that maternal hyperthyroidism could decrease the incidence of cold-induced ascites in broiler chickens; however, probable causal mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

  8. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  9. Effects of aflatoxins on performance and exocrine pancreas of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Marchioro, A; Mallmann, A O; Diel, A; Dilkin, P; Rauber, R H; Blazquez, F J H; Oliveira, M G A; Mallmann, C A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, on a weekly basis, the effects of aflatoxins on the activity of digestive enzymes (alpha-amylase, lipase, and trypsin) in the pancreas as well as on the performance and histology of pancreas in broiler chickens over the course of 42 days. One thousand and eighty 1-day-old male Cobb broilers were divided into four treatments with 18 replicates and 15 birds per replicate (i.e., 270 broilers per treatment). Treatments were established according to the amount of aflatoxins added to the diet, as follows: T1 = 0 mg of aflatoxins per kilogram of feed (mg/kg); T2 = 0.7 mg/kg; T3 = 1.7 mg/kg; and T4 = 2.8 mg/kg. Pancreas sample collection was performed from one bird out of each replicate at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of experiment, which yielded a total of 18 samples per treatment on each collection. Each sample was homogenized in distilled water, frozen in liquid nitrogen, lyophilized, and stored at -20 C until analysis. Performance parameters (body weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion rate) were measured at 21, 35, and 42 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment (42 days), six birds from each treatment were randomly chosen for histologic evaluation of the pancreas. The presence of aflatoxins in the diet induced a negative effect on all performance parameters. The pancreatic activity of lipase and alpha-amylase were significantly increased in treatments T3 and T4, while the specific activity of trypsin was only affected during treatment T4. In addition, several histologic changes were observed in the pancreas of birds receiving aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Aflatoxins present in the feed determined an increase in the activity of pancreatic enzymes in broilers, affecting the digestibility of the diet, thereby leading to losses in performance and productivity.

  10. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, I; Mitchell, M A; Hall, S; Beard, P M; Gous, R M; De Koning, D J; Hocking, P M

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality. The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment. There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen. Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology. It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative.

  11. Predicted optimum ambient temperatures for broiler chickens to dissipate metabolic heat do not affect performance or improve breast muscle quality

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, I.; Mitchell, M.A.; Hall, S.; Beard, P.M.; Gous, R.M.; De Koning, D.J.; Hocking, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens is associated with an ambient temperature that does not permit the birds to lose metabolic heat resulting in physiological heat stress and a reduction in meat quality.The experiment was performed in 4 climate chambers and was repeated in 2 trials using a total of 200 male broiler chickens. Two treatments compared the recommended temperature profile and a cool regimen. The cool regimen was defined by a theoretical model that determined the environmental temperature that would enable heat generated by the bird to be lost to the environment.There were no differences in growth rate or feed intake between the two treatments. Breast muscles from birds on the recommended temperature regimen were lighter, less red and more yellow than those from the cool temperature regimen. There were no differences in moisture loss or shear strength but stiffness was greater in breast muscle from birds housed in the cool compared to the recommended regimen.Histopathological changes in the breast muscle were similar in both treatments and were characterised by mild to severe myofibre degeneration and necrosis with regeneration, fibrosis and adipocyte infiltration. There was no difference in plasma creatine kinase activity, a measure of muscle cell damage, between the two treatments consistent with the absence of differences in muscle pathology.It was concluded that breast muscle damage in fast-growing broiler chickens was not the result of an inability to lose metabolic heat at recommended ambient temperatures. The results suggest that muscle cell damage and breast meat quality concerns in modern broiler chickens are related to genetic selection for muscle yields and that genetic selection to address breast muscle integrity in a balanced breeding programme is imperative. PMID:26670305

  12. The effect of volatile oil mixtures on the performance and ilio-caecal microflora of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E; Yibar, A; Yesilbag, D; Cetin, I; Cengiz, S S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the individual and combined effects of rosemary, oregano and fennel volatile oil (FVO) supplementation on the performance and ilio-caecal bacteriological flora of broiler chickens. A total of 800 male Ross-308 broiler chickens were divided equally into 8 groups; each contained 100 chickens. The study included a control treatment (NC) with no dietary additives that was supplemented with oils according to the following 7 treatments: 200 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg (PC), 100 mg oregano volatile oil (OVO)/kg, 100 mg rosemary volatile oil (RVO)/kg, 100 mg FVO/kg and an equal mixture of oregano+rosemary+fennel VO (100, 200, 400 mg/kg, VOM-1, VOM-2 and VOM-3, respectively). The experiment lasted for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, dietary supplementation with α-tocopherol, oregano, rosemary and FVO and two different volatile oil mixtures (VOMs) (VOM-2; VOM-3) significantly increased the body weights (BWs) of broilers at 7, 14 and 21 d of age compared to the negative control (NC) (-) and VOM-1 groups. At 0-42 d, birds fed on VOM-3 were considerably heavier and also gained more weight than NC (-) and VOM-1 groups. The blend of VOs at 400 mg/kg significantly increased Lactobacillus spp. in faeces. The blends of oregano, rosemary and FVOs (VOM-3) at 400 mg/kg concentration and also VOM-3 group exhibited stronger antibacterial activity against coliform bacteria compared to the NC (-) group. In conclusion, the blend of oregano, rosemary and fennel VOs at higher concentrations (400 mg/kg concentration) in diets can be used to stimulate the growth and can improve the intestinal microbial balance (including a reduction of coliform bacteria and an increase in Lactobacillus spp. counts) of broiler chickens.

  13. Supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis fmbJ on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Kaiwen; Huang, Qiang; Zhang, Jingfei; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the supplemental effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis fmbJ (BS fmbJ) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and meat quality of broiler chickens. A total of 240 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 4 treatments and raised for 6 wk. Each treatment had 6 replicate pens with ten birds per replicate. Birds in the control group (CON) were fed diets without BS fmbJ and antibiotics. The BS groups were fed the basal diets with BS fmbJ at 2 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-1 group), BS fmbJ at 3 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-2 group), BS fmbJ at 4 × 10(10) cfu/kg (BS-3 group) without antibiotics for 42 d. In the study, dietary supplementation with BS fmbJ significantly improved (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers from 21 to 42 d and 1 to 42 d. At 42 d, the final body weight was increased (P < 0.05) in BS-2 group compared with that in CON. Dietary BS fmbJ significantly increased (P < 0.05) serum IgA and IgG concentrations of broilers after 42 days raising. The glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of serum and liver were increased (P < 0.05), and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) contents in serum and liver were decreased (P < 0.05) by BS fmbJ added into the broiler diets. Dietary supplementation with BS fmbJ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents in liver mitochondria of broilers. Additionally, the expression of antioxidant enzyme gene including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were improved (P < 0.05) by BS fmbJ added into the broiler diets. Among measuring items of chicken breast meat quality, the drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, L*24 h, a*24 h, b*45 min, and b*24 h values were influenced (P < 0

  14. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under various laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Sollner-Dolenc, Marija

    2016-03-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterized in the laboratory according to the CVMP guideline on determining the fate of veterinary medicinal products in manure. Degradation was followed in a flow-through system under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, in the dark and in the presence of light. The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin and the formation of its degradation products are dependent on laboratory conditions. A rapid degradation of enrofloxacin in the dark was noticed, where a shorter degradation half-life under aerobic (DT50 = 59.1 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 88.9 days), was determined. The presence of light slowed down the enrofloxacin degradation half-life, which was significantly shorter under aerobic (DT50 = 115.0 days), comparing to anaerobic conditions (DT50 = 190.8 days). Desethylene-enrofoxacin was the only degradation product formed, its concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 14.9 %. The concentration of the degradation product was approximately 2.5-fold higher under aerobic conditions. Enrofloxacin degradation in sterile manure incubated under sterile conditions was marginal comparing to non-sterile conditions; after 120 days of incubation, approximately 80 % of enrofloxacin was still present in manure and only 1 % of desethylene-enrofloxacin was formed. The present work demonstrates that enrofloxacin degradation in chicken manure is relatively fast when incubated in the dark under aerobic conditions which is the recommended incubation system for chicken manure according to CVMP guideline.

  15. Effect of vancomycin, tylosin, and chlortetracycline on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium colonization of broiler chickens during grow-out

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chickens may serve as reservoirs for human colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). We examined the effects of vancomycin and two commonly-used antimicrobial feed additives on VRE colonization in broiler chickens during grow-out. Chicks received unsupplemented feed or feed ...

  16. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned ...

  17. Effects of Light Color on Energy Expenditure and Behavior in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nara; Lee, Sang-Rak; Lee, Sang-Jin

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate whether the presence of light or different colors of light would influence the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. Eight 8-week-old broiler chickens were adapted to a respiration chamber (Length, 28.5 cm; Height, 38.5 cm; Width, 44.0 cm) for one week prior to the initiation of the experiment. In experiment 1, energy expenditure and behavior of the chickens were analyzed in the presence or absence of light for four days. Chickens were exposed to 6 cycles of 2 h light/2 h dark period per day. In experiment 2, the broiler chickens that had been used in experiment 1 were used to evaluate the effect of 4 different wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens. The LEDs used in this study had the following wavelength bands; white (control), red (618 to 635 nm), green (515 to 530 nm) and blue (450 to 470 nm). The chickens were randomly exposed to a 2-h LED light in a random and sequential order per day for 3 days. Oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production of the chickens were recorded using an open-circuit calorimeter system, and energy expenditure was calculated based on the collected data. The behavior of the chickens was analyzed based on following categories i.e., resting, standing, and pecking, and closed-circuit television was used to record these behavioral postures. The analysis of data from experiment 1 showed that the energy expenditure was higher (p<0.001) in chickens under light condition compared with those under dark condition. The chickens spent more time with pecking during a light period, but they frequently exhibited resting during a dark period. Experiment 2 showed that there was no significant difference in terms of energy expenditure and behavior based on the color of light (white, red, green, and blue) to which the chickens were exposed. In conclusion, the energy expenditure and behavior of broiler chickens were found to be

  18. Effects of supplementation with L. plantarum TN8 encapsulated in alginate-chitosan in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ktari, Naourez; Ben Slima, Sirine; Bouchaala, Kamel; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2016-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum TN8 encapsulated in sodium alginate-chitosan or a commercial blend of essential oils on total cholesterol, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and growth performance of broiler chickens. The results showed that the broiler chickens supplemented with encapsulated L. plantarum TN8 or essential oil has a higher growth than the control group. After 35days, the weight means were 1860 and 1880g respectively in dietary supplementation with probiotic or essential oil, while they are 1800g in the control group. The evolution of the feed consumption and feed conversion per week showed that the supplementation of encapsulated TN8 strain or essential oil in broiler chickens food has a positive influence on their appetite. Similarly, supplementation of the feed with this encapsulated strain significantly reduced the rate of cholesterol (HDL and LDL) as well as the contents of triglycerides in broiler chickens. Through our study, it appears that the use of the probiotic supplementation or essential oil to broilers were found to be better than the control group of chickens, resulting in a significant economic impact and promoting effect on health.

  19. Systemic Metabolic Responses of Broiler Chickens and Piglets to Acute T-2 Toxin Intravenous Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qianfen; He, Qinghua; Deng, Xianbai; Hao, Fuhua; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2016-01-27

    The aim of this study is to thoroughly investigate the toxicity mechanism of mycotoxin T-2 toxin and to further understand the endogenous metabolic alterations induced by T-2 toxin. To achieve this, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics approach was used to analyze the metabolic alterations induced by a single intravenous injection of T-2 toxin (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) in piglets and broiler chickens. A range of metabolites in the plasma, liver, kidney, and spleen of broiler chickens and plasma of piglets was changed following T-2 toxin injection. For example, a rapid increase of amino acids together with a significant reduction of glucose and lipid occurred in the plasma of broiler chickens and piglets following T-2 toxin treatment. A significant accumulation of amino acids and modulated nucleotides were detected in the liver, kidney, and spleen of T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens. These data indicated that T-2 toxin caused endogenous metabolic changes in multiple organs and perturbed various metabolic pathways, including energy, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism, as well as oxidative stress. We also observed elevated levels of tryptophan in the T-2 toxin-treated broiler chickens, which may explain the reported neurotoxic effects of T-2 toxin. These findings provide important information on the toxicity of T-2 toxin and demonstrate the power of the NMR-based metabonomics approach in exploring the toxicity mechanism of xenobiotics.

  20. Effect of inclusion level of linseed on the nutrient utilisation of diets for growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Ortiz, L T; Centeno, C; Treviño, J

    2001-07-01

    1. Diets containing linseed at inclusions of 0, 80, 120 and 160 g/kg were evaluated for digestibility of nutrients and AMEn content with male broiler chickens. 2. Increasing the concentration of linseed decreased the retention of nitrogen and the digestibility of amino acids, crude fat and fatty acids of diets. 3. Dietary AMEn (MJ/kg) was also affected by the rate of inclusion of linseed, values decreasing from 14.39 to 12.49. 4. In general, a linear regression model explained the relationship between dietary linseed content and nutritive parameters. However, the quadratic response found for the digestibility of several amino acids and fatty acids indicated a non-additive change in their digestibility. 5. Viscosity ofjejunal digesta was markedly increased by each increment of linseed in the diets. This is attributable to the presence of mucilage in linseed and it might explain many of the results obtained in this study.

  1. Effect of age on hepatic cytochrome P450 of Ross 708 broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X

    2013-05-01

    Age has significant impact on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) systems in animals. Ross 708 broiler chicken is a breed of chicken with fast growth characteristics. Cytochrome P450 in the livers of Ross 708 broiler chicken of different ages has been investigated. The birds were raised under standard husbandry conditions. A certain number of chickens was randomly sampled weekly for liver collection from d 1 to 56 posthatch. The chicken body and liver weights were recorded. The chicken livers were processed for liver microsomes though a multiple-step procedure at low temperature. Total CYP450 content in chicken liver homogenates and liver microsomes was measured using a UV/visible spectroscopic method. The enzymatic activities of CYP450 in the chicken liver microsomes were determined through incubation of CYP450 isoform substrates followed by measurement of formation of their metabolites. The chicken showed an opposite age pattern in hepatic CYP450 content and activities compared with most mammals. The hepatic CYP450 content and activities of chicken at d 1 posthatch were higher than at other ages. The total hepatic CYP450 content in chickens at d 1 posthatch was more than twice the average hepatic value of the chickens at d 7 to 28. This high CYP450 fell quickly in the first week posthatch and slightly rose from d 28 to 56. Hepatic CYP450 activities of CYP1A, 3A, 2C, 2D, and 2H were much higher in the chicken at d 1 posthatch. The differences of these enzymatic activities between d 1 and other ages of chicken were CYP450 isoform dependent. This result suggests that embryonic development of chicken livers has a significant impact on the age profile of hepatic CYP450 content and activities of posthatch chickens.

  2. Effects of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance and immune responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Sung-Hyen

    2014-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of salinomycin and Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, serum antibody levels against Clostridium spp. and Eimeria spp., and cytokine mRNA expression levels in broiler chickens raised in the used litter. Broiler chickens fed a diet containing salinomycin showed lower (P < 0.05) body weights compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Serum nitric oxide levels were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in chickens fed the B. subtilis-enriched diet compared with those on either the salinomycin-fed or control diet-fed chickens. None of the dietary treatments affected (P > 0.05) serum antibody levels against Clostridium perfringens toxins. Both salinomycin and B.subtilis significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the serum levels of Eimeria-specific antibodies compared with the control group. Salinomycin, but not B. subtilis, significantly modulated (P < 0.05) the expression of cytokines encoding interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15 (TNFSF15) compared with the control group. In conclusion, dietary salinomycin and B. subtilis affected serum anticoccidial antibody and intestinal cytokine expression, but failed to improve growth performance in broiler chickens. Further study is warranted to investigate the mode of action of salinomycin on host immune response and growth performance in broiler chickens.

  3. Histopathological and clinical investigations in Neospora caninum experimentally infected broiler chicken embryonated eggs.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Maryam; Khodakaram-Tafti, Azizollah; Namavari, Mehdi

    2009-12-23

    To date, despite the limited information about the role of birds in Neospora caninum infection, there are no reports regarding the role of broiler chickens. In the present study, an experimental infection with N. caninum NC-1 isolate was conducted in embryonated eggs from 70 Lohman broiler chickens randomly divided into seven equal groups. At 8 days of incubation, six groups were inoculated via chorioallantoic (CA) liquid with different dilutions (10, 10(2), 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 10(6)) of tachyzoites/embryonated egg. The 7th group was considered the control. The mortality rate, gross and histopathologic changes of tissues of the dead embryos and live hatched chickens up to 60 days old were studied and evaluated. There were no hatchings in groups with 10(5) and 10(6) tachyzoites. In groups with 10, 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) tachyzoites there were 8, 7, 5 and 2 hatchings, respectively. From the surviving chickens only one 10(4) tachyzoites inoculated chicken showed clinical neurologic signs. In all groups the main gross lesions were hemorrhage associated with thickening of the CA membranes. Three chickens (one chicken with 10(4) tachyzoites and two with 10(5) tachyzoites) showed arthritis in the feet joints after two weeks of inoculation. Microscopic examination of the heart, liver and chorioallantoic membrane revealed acute neosporosis and, in some cases, granulomatous inflammation. Our findings implied that broiler chicken embryonated egg is a completely suitable animal model for biological studies of acute neosporosis studies and genetic susceptibility can be propounded in different chicken breeds. It seems 10(3) tachyzoites dilution is equal to LD50 in N. caninum infection in broiler chicken embryonated eggs and can be used in other experimental investigations.

  4. Selection for Growth Performance in Broiler Chickens Associates with Less Diet Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently. PMID:26042600

  5. Feed contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins induces a corticosterone stress response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, G; De Baere, S; Devreese, M; Van Immerseel, F; Martel, A; Croubels, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) on the stress response in broiler chickens, using corticosterone (CORT) in plasma as a biomarker. Chickens were fed either a control diet, a DON contaminated diet, a FBs contaminated diet, or a DON and FBs contaminated diet for 15 d at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels for DON and FBs in poultry. Mean plasma CORT levels were significantly higher in broiler chickens fed a DON contaminated and a DON and FBs contaminated diet compared to birds fed a control diet. A similar trend was observed for animals fed a FBs contaminated diet. Consequently, feeding broilers a diet contaminated with DON and/or FBs induced a CORT stress response, which may indicate a negative effect on animal welfare. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Selection for growth performance in broiler chickens associates with less diet flexibility.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Jana; Coopman, Frank; Cools, An; Michiels, Joris; Fremaut, Dirk; De Smet, Stefaan; Janssens, Geert P J

    2015-01-01

    Global competition for high standard feed-food resources between man and livestock, such as industrial broilers, is a concerning problem. In addition, the low productivity of scavenger chickens in developing countries leaves much to be desired. Changing the ingredients, and therefore, the nutrient composition of feed intake by commercial fed as well as scavenger chickens seems like an obvious solution. In this study, the ability of four broiler chicken breeds to perform on a commercial versus a scavenger diet was tested. The four broiler breeds differed genetically in growth potential. A significant (P < 0.01) negative effect of the scavenger diet on the bodyweight of the fast growing breeds was found and this effect decreased with decreasing growth rate in the other breeds. These differences in bodyweight gain could not be explained by differences in nutrient digestibility but were caused by the lack of ability of the fast growing breeds to increase their feed intake sufficiently.

  7. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  8. Studies on the Cecal Microflora of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Salanitro, J. P.; Blake, I. G.; Muirhead, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    A study was made of the cecal microflora isolated from broilers (5-week-old) reared under typical commercial husbandry conditions. Three hundred and twenty-five bacterial strains (randomly isolated from colonies representing 49 to 81% of the microscopic count) were isolated from cecal digesta of six animals on a rumen fluid roll tube medium (M98-5). Seventy-seven percent of these strains consisted of strict anaerobes: gram-negative, pleomorphic cocci (5.2%), Peptostreptococcus (1.5%), gram-positive rods (36.1% as Propionibacterium acnes and Eubacterium sp.), gram-negative rods (18.6% as Bacteroides clostridiiformis, B. hypermegas and B. fragilis) and sporeforming rods (15.7% as Clostridium sp.). Two types of facultatively anaerobic bacteria (gram-positive cocci and Escherichia coli) were also isolated and constituted 17.5% of the remaining flora. The distribution of the bacterial groups isolated from six cecal samples varied considerably. Data on the growth requirements of anaerobic strains indicated that many could be cultured in a simple medium consisting of an energy source, minerals, reducing agent, Trypticase, and yeast extract (or a vitamin mixture in place of yeast extract). The growth of some of these bacteria was also enhanced by CO2 and rumen fluid. These preliminary data suggest that some of the more numerous anaerobes isolated from the chicken cecum may not require complex nutrients for growth and, in fact, may be nutritionally similar to rumen anaerobes. PMID:4608322

  9. Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella from chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, O; Holley, R A; Ahmed, R; Tabor, H; Nadon, C; Ng, L K; D'Aoust, J Y

    2007-10-01

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting foodborne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis as a result of consuming partly cooked chicken nuggets may be due in part to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and characterize the strains of Salmonella contaminating chicken nuggets, strips, and pelleted feeds, in an attempt to demonstrate whether the same Salmonella strains present in broiler feed could be isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips available for human consumption. Salmonellae were recovered using the Health Canada MFHPB-20 method for the isolation and identification of Salmonella from foods. Strains were characterized by serotyping, phage typing, antimicrobial resistance typing (R-typing), and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Salmonellae were isolated from 25-g samples in 27% (n=92) of nugget and strip samples, 95% (n=20) of chicken nugget meat samples, and from 9% (n=111) of pelleted feed samples. Salmonella Heidelberg, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Orion were the most commonly isolated serovars from chicken nuggets and strips, nugget and strip meat, and pelleted broiler feeds, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis phage type (PT) 13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0006 and R-type sensitive as well as Salmonella Enteritidis PT13a with PFGE pattern SENXAI.0068 and R-type sensitive were isolated from pelleted feed, and chicken nugget and strip meat in two separate instances. Data showed that Salmonella strains isolated from broiler feed were indistinguishable from strains isolated from packaged raw, frozen chicken nuggets and strips. However, results did not rule out the possibility that breeding stock or contamination during processing may have contributed to chicken meat contamination by Salmonella.

  10. The efficacy of Mycoplasma gallisepticum K-strain live vaccine in broiler and layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains.

  11. Effects of floor eggs on hatchability and later life performance in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Sosef, M P; Lourens, A; van Harn, J

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted in which effects of floor eggs, washed floor eggs, and clean nest eggs were investigated on incubation characteristics and performance in later life of broiler chickens. In both experiments, a young and an older breeder flock were used in a 3×2 factorial design during incubation. In the second experiment, male and female chickens were reared separately until d 35 of age in floor pens. During this grow out trial, an extra group was created in which chickens obtained from clean nest eggs were mixed with chickens obtained from floor eggs, meaning that grow out period was set up as a 4×2×2 factorial design with 4 egg types, 2 breeder ages, and 2 sexes. In both experiments, fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were lower in floor and washed eggs than in clean nest eggs (hatchability: experiment 1: 74.4 vs. 70.6 vs. 92.6% for floor eggs, washed floor eggs and clean nest eggs, respectively, P<0.001; experiment 2: 78.3 vs. 81.7 vs. 90.2%, respectively, P<0.001). In experiment 2, BW at d 0 of chickens obtained from clean nest eggs was higher than that of chickens from floor eggs and washed floor eggs (41.5 vs. 40.4 and 40.3 g, respectively; P<0.001). This difference disappeared during the grow out period and was absent at slaughter age at d 35 of age. Feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and mortality during the grow out period were not affected by egg type. Incidence and severity of hock burns and footpad dermatitis were not affected by egg type or breeder age. Litter friability at d 35 of age tended to be lower in pens with chickens obtained from washed floor eggs compared to clean nest eggs. We conclude that incubation of floor eggs or washed floor eggs resulted in lower fertility and hatchability compared to clean nest eggs, but that performance during the grow out period was not affected.

  12. Identification of Potential Biomarkers for Gut Barrier Failure in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juxing; Tellez, Guillermo; Richards, James D.; Escobar, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify potential biomarkers for gut barrier failure in chickens. A total of 144 day-of-hatch Ross 308 male broiler chickens were housed in 24 battery cages with six chicks per cage. Cages were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or gut barrier failure (GBF) group. During the first 13 days, birds in CON or GBF groups were fed a common corn–soy starter diet. On day 14, CON chickens were switched to a corn grower diet, and GBF chickens were switched to rye–wheat–barley grower diet. In addition, on day 21, GBF chickens were orally challenged with a coccidiosis vaccine. At days 21 and 28, birds were weighed by cage and feed intake was recorded to calculate feed conversion ratio. At day 28, one chicken from each cage was euthanized to collect intestinal samples for morphometric analysis, blood for serum, and intestinal mucosa scrapings for gene expression. Overall performance and feed efficiency was severely affected (P < 0.05) by a GBF model when compared with CON group at days 21 and 28. Duodenum of GBF birds had wider villi, longer crypt depth, and higher crypt depth/villi height ratio than CON birds. Similarly, GBF birds had longer crypt depth in jejunum and ileum when compared with CON birds. Protein levels of endotoxin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in serum, as well as mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4, and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 6 were increased (P < 0.05) in GBF birds compared to CON birds; however, mRNA levels of FABP2, occludin, and mucin 2 (MUC2) were reduced by 34% (P < 0.05), 24% (P = 0.107), and 29% (P = 0.088), respectively, in GBF birds compared to CON birds. The results from the present study suggest that serum endotoxin and AGP, as well as, gene expression of FABP2, FABP6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β4, occludin, and MUC2 in mucosa may work as potential biomarkers for gut barrier health in chickens. PMID:26664943

  13. Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in broiler chicken carcasses and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Dalila Angélica Moliterno; Ribeiro, Aldemir Reginato; Vasconcelos, Ana Mércia Mendes; Santos, Sylnei Barros; Silva, Juliana Vital Domingos; de Andrade, Patrícia Lúcia Arruda; de Arruda Falcão, Lúcia Sadae Pereira da Costa

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonellae in broiler chicken carcasses and to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolated strains. Twenty-five out of the 260 broiler chicken carcasses samples (9.6%) were positive for Salmonella. S. Enteritidis was the most frequent serovar. Nineteen Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance, and the results indicated that 94.7% were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. Resistance to streptomycin (73.7%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), tetracycline (31.6%), and nalidixic acid (21%) were the prevalent amongst Salmonella strains tested. PMID:24031401

  14. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Escherichia coli Isolates from Penned Broiler and Scavenging Local Chickens in Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rugumisa, Bernadether T; Call, Douglas R; Mwanyika, Gaspary O; Mrutu, Rehema I; Luanda, Catherine M; Lyimo, Beatus M; Subbiah, Murugan; Buza, Joram J

    2016-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from household-level producers of broiler (commercial source breeds) and local chickens in the Arusha District of Tanzania. Households were composed of a single dwelling or residence with independent, penned broiler flocks. Free-range, scavenging chickens were mixed breed and loosely associated with individual households. A total of 1,800 E. coli isolates (1,200 from broiler and 600 from scavenging local chickens) from 75 chickens were tested for their susceptibility against 11 antibiotics by using breakpoint assays. Isolates from broiler chickens harbored a higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli relative to scavenging local chickens, including sulfamethoxazole (80.3 versus 34%), followed by trimethoprim (69.3 versus 27.7%), tetracycline (56.8 versus 20%), streptomycin (52.7 versus 24.7%), amoxicillin (49.6 versus 17%), ampicillin (49.1 versus 16.8%), ciprofloxacin (21.9 versus 1.7%), and chloramphenicol (1.5 versus 1.2%). Except for resistance to chloramphenicol, scavenging local chickens harbored fewer resistant E. coli isolates (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens harbored more isolates that were resistant to ≥7 antibiotics (P < 0.05). The higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from broiler chickens correlated with the reported therapeutic and prophylactic use of antibiotics in this poultry population. We suggest that improved biosecurity measures and increased vaccination efforts would reduce reliance on antibiotics by these households.

  15. Quantitative Determination of Tenuazonic Acid in Pig and Broiler Chicken Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Its Comparative Toxicokinetics.

    PubMed

    Fraeyman, Sophie; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; De Mil, Thomas; Antonissen, Gunther; De Baere, Siegrid; De Backer, Patrick; Rychlik, Michael; Croubels, Siska

    2015-09-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate tenuazonic acid (TeA) in pig and broiler chicken plasma was successfully developed and validated. Linear matrix-matched calibration curves ranged between 5 and 200 ng/mL. Correlation coefficients, goodness-of-fit coefficients, and within-day and between-day precision and accuracy fell well within the acceptance criteria. The limit of quantitation was 5.0 ng/mL in both pig and broiler chicken plasma. The LC-MS/MS method was applied in a comparative toxicokinetic study in both pigs and broiler chickens. TeA was completely bioavailable after oral administration in both animal species. However, absorption was deemed to be slower in broiler chickens (mean tmax 0.32 h in pigs vs 2.60 h in chickens). TeA was more slowly eliminated in broiler chickens (mean t1/2el 0.55 h in pigs vs 2.45 h in chickens after oral administration), mainly due to the significantly lower total body clearance (mean Cl 446.1 mL/h/kg in pigs vs 59.2 mL/h/kg in chickens after oral administration). Tissue residue studies and further research to elucidate the biotransformation and excretion processes of TeA in pigs, broiler chickens, and other animal species are imperative.

  16. Effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids on performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, B; Yavari, Z; Kordestani, A H

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and some serum parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 176 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatments including control treatment (basal diet), 0.1% MCFA, 0.2% MCFA, and 0.3% MCFA treatments according to a completely randomised design. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates with 11 chicks for each replicate. In MCFA treatments, the amounts of MCFAs were added to basal diet as a substitution of soybean oil. There were not any significant differences in body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio among the treatments in different stages of the experiment. However, MCFA treatments had a lower abdominal fat and a higher breast yield compared to control treatment. Blood glucose, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased, but blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the MCFA treatments compared to the control treatment. These results indicate that dietary MCFA has a positive effect on the health and productivity of broiler chickens.

  17. Use of Vitamin D3 and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ana Flávia Quiles Marques; Murakami, Alice Eiko; Duarte, Cristiane Regina do Amaral; Rojas, Iván Camilo Ospina; Picoli, Karla Paola; Puzotti, Maíra Mangili

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OH)D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, and 1α(OH)D3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d) and growth phases (22 to 42 d), respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OH)D3 when compared with the other treatments (p<0.05). No significant differences were noted among the treatments (p>0.05) for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05). All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OH)D3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected. PMID:25049804

  18. Growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens supplemented with Rhodopseudomonas palustris in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q Q; Yan, H; Liu, X L; Lv, L; Yin, C H; Wang, P

    2014-01-01

    1. The effect of the bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chickens was investigated. 2. A total of 900-d-old Arbor Acres broilers were allocated to three experimental treatments for 6 weeks. Chicks were administered with R. palustris in drinking water as follows: (i) control group without R. palustris; (ii) treatment 1 (R1) with R. palustris of 8 × 10(9) cells per chick per day in drinking water; (iii) treatment 2 (R2) with R. palustris of 1.6 × 10(10) cells per chick per day in drinking water. 3. The results showed that, compared with that of control, both groups of R. palustris treatment increased daily weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens significantly during the whole growing period of 6 weeks. 4. Both total and glutamic acid contents of chicken breast fillet in R. palustris treatment R2 were higher, while the fat content was lower, than those of the control group. Furthermore, R. palustris treatments also improved sensory attributes of chicken breast fillet. 5. As a probiotic providing rich nutrients and biological active substances, R. palustris administration in drinking water displayed a growth promoting effect and improved meat quality of broiler chickens.

  19. Comparison of growth performance and excreta composition in broiler chickens when ranked according to various feed efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Molnár, A; Hollmann, M; Magowan, E; Hawken, R J; Lawlor, P G; Zebeli, Q

    2016-07-01

    Several feed efficiency (FE) metrics are currently used in livestock production to select for improved FE. Whether or not different FE metrics similarly estimate physiological characteristics in chickens of diverging FE has not been reported so far. This study aimed to assess potential differences in feed intake (FI), performance, and nutrient excretion in broiler chickens of diverging FE when ranked according to their residual FI (RFI), residual BW gain (RBG), RFI and BW gain (RIG), and G:F between d 7 and 35 of life. The FI was determined daily and BW was recorded once a week. The ranking of chickens into good, medium, and poor FE groups was completed separately for each FE metric. Freshly dropped excreta were collected for pH and DM measurements on d 30 to 32 of life and total excreta for determination of nutrient excretion was collected on d 34 to 36 of life. Relationships among FE metrics were evaluated using regression analysis showing that RFI, RIG, and G:F were more related to each other than to RBG. The FE values greatly varied among chickens for all FE metrics and chickens did not always cluster within the same FE group when using RFI, RIG, RBG, and G:F as the FE metrics because of the calculation approaches. Due to sex-related differences in performance, data of male and female chickens were analyzed separately. The RFI and RIG metrics showed a linear increase ( < 0.01) in total FI from good to poor FE in male and female chickens, whereas G:F showed this effect ( ≤ 0.011) only when BW gain was standardized to 1,500 g. The RBG did not clearly select chickens of enhanced total BW gain and only tended ( < 0.1) to select for greater BW gain from good to poor FE in female chickens. Excreta pH linearly decreased by 0.7 log units and DM content increased in males from good to poor FE when using RFI and RIG, respectively ( < 0.01). In both sexes, RFI ( < 0.05) and RIG metrics ( ≤ 0.06) showed a linear increase in daily nitrogen excretion from good to poor FE

  20. Skeletal response to diet with soya bean seeds used as primary source of protein in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Olkowski, B; Charuta, A; Radzki, R; Bieńko, M; Toczko, R

    2016-08-01

    The study was conducted using 120 commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The experimental diets, differing only in protein source, either solvent-extracted soya bean meal (SBM) or traditional (non-genetically modified) full-fat soya bean seeds (FFS), were prepared using practical corn-based formulation designed to meet nutritional requirements of broilers. Performance parameters were monitored weekly. Also, the subjects were evaluated daily for overt changes in skeletal anatomy and gait physiology. Randomly selected chickens from each group (seven males and seven females) were euthanized at 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks of age, and bone specimens were collected for further study. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in tibiotarsal bones. Broilers fed FFS diet showed retarded growth rate and decreased feed intake (both p < 0.001). Both BMD and BMC parameters were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in bones of chickens from the FFS group in comparison with the SBM group. The chickens fed the FFS diet showed higher incidence of skeletal pathology including angular deformities and torticollis (both p < 0.01). Of note, cases of torticollis were observed only in FFS group. In many cases, skeletal abnormalities resulted in considerable changes in gait pattern, and in some instances, the pathology of leg bones was so advanced that the affected individuals were unable to walk, but this deformity was not seen in SBM group. From this study, it can be inferred that raw soya beans contain factors that have some specific detrimental effects on skeletal system of chickens. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Dietary overload lithium decreases the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shiping; Pan, Shuqin; Zhang, Keying; Ding, Xuemei; Wang, Jianping; Zeng, Qiufeng; Xuan, Yue; Su, Zuowei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the toxic effects of dietary overload lithium on the adipogenesis in adipose tissue of chicken and the role of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) in this process, one-day-old male chicks were fed with the basal diet added with 0 (control) or 100mg lithium/kg diet from lithium chloride (overload lithium) for 35days. Abdominal adipose tissue and hypothalamus were collected at day 6, 14, and 35. As a percentage of body weight, abdominal fat decreased (p<0.001) at day 6, 14, and 35, and feed intake and body weight gain decreased during day 7-14, and day 15-35 in overload lithium treated broilers as compared to control. Adipocyte diameter and DNA content in abdominal adipose tissue were significantly lower in overload-lithium treatment than control at day 35, although no significant differences were observed at day 6 and 14. Dietary overload lithium decreased (p<0.01) transcriptional expression of preadipocyte proliferation makers ki-67 (KI67), microtubule-associated protein homolog (TPX2), and topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A), and preadipocyte differentiation transcriptional factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α mRNA abundance in abdominal adipose tissue. In hypothalamus, dietary overload lithium influenced (p<0.001) NPY, and NPY receptor (NPYR) 6 mRNA abundance at day 6 and 14, but not at day 35. In conclusion, dietary overload lithium decreased the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of chicken, which was accompanied by depressing transcriptional expression of adipogenesis-associated factors. Hypothalamic NPY had a potential role in the adipogenesis in abdominal adipose tissue of broilers with a short-term overload lithium treatment.

  2. TCF21 is related to testis growth and development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Na, Wei; Zhang, Hong-Li; Wang, Ning; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Zhiwu; Li, Hui

    2017-02-24

    Large amounts of fat deposition often lead to loss of reproductive efficiency in humans and animals. We used broiler chickens as a model species to conduct a two-directional selection for and against abdominal fat over 19 generations, which resulted in a lean and a fat line. Direct selection for abdominal fat content also indirectly resulted in significant differences (P < 0.05) in testis weight (TeW) and in TeW as a percentage of total body weight (TeP) between the lean and fat lines. A total of 475 individuals from the generation 11 (G11) were genotyped. Genome-wide association studies revealed two regions on chicken chromosomes 3 and 10 that were associated with TeW and TeP. Forty G16 individuals (20 from each line), were further profiled by focusing on these two chromosomal regions, to identify candidate genes with functions that may be potentially related to testis growth and development. Of the nine candidate genes identified with database mining, a significant association was confirmed for one gene, TCF21, based on mRNA expression analysis. Gene expression analysis of the TCF21 gene was conducted again across 30 G19 individuals (15 individuals from each line) and the results confirmed the findings on the G16 animals. This study revealed that the TCF21 gene is related to testis growth and development in male broilers. This finding will be useful to guide future studies to understand the genetic mechanisms that underlie reproductive efficiency.

  3. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  4. Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rosales, S.; de L. Angeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water. PMID:25557817

  5. Detection and characterization of chicken anemia virus from commercial broiler breeder chickens

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Giap, Tan Ching

    2008-01-01

    Background Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protection afforded in the breeder farms is lacking in Malaysia. Hence, the present study was aimed to detect CAV from commercial broiler breeder farms and characterize CAV positive samples based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene. Results A total of 12 CAV isolates from different commercial broiler breeder farms were isolated and characterized. Detection of CAV positive embryos by the PCR assay in the range of 40 to 100% for different farms indicated high level of occurrence of vertical transmission of viral DNA to the progeny. CAV antigen was detected in the thymus and in the bone marrow but not in spleen, liver, duodenum, ovary and oviduct by indirect immunoperoxidase staining. The 12 CAV isolates were characterized based on partial sequences of VP1 gene. Six isolates (MF1A, MF3C, M3B5, NF4A, P12B and P24A) were found to have maximum homology with previously characterized Malaysian isolate SMSC-1, four isolates (M1B1, NF3A, PYT4 and PPW4) with isolate BL-5 and the remaining two (NF1D and NF2C) have maximum homology both with isolates 3-1 and BL-5. Meanwhile, seven of the isolates with amino acid profile of 75-I, 97-L, 139-Q and 144-Q were clustered together in cluster I together with other isolates from different geographical places. The remaining five isolates with amino acid profile of 75-V, 97-M, 139-K and 144-E were grouped under cluster II. All the CAV isolates demonstrated omega values (Ka/Ks) of less than one (the values ranging from 0.07 to 0.5) suggesting the occurrence of purifying (negative) selection in all the studied isolates. Conclusion The present study showed that CAV is widespread in the studied commercial broiler breeder farms. The result also indicated the occurrence of genetic variability in local CAV isolates

  6. Anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts in experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Li, Wei; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu

    2016-06-01

    To study the anticoccidial effect of Piper sarmentosum extracts (PSE) in experimental broiler coccidiosis, 270 one-day-old Wenchang broiler chickens were randomly assigned to six groups, each with three replicates (n = 15). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC), and another three PSE addition groups. Chickens in three control groups were fed a basal diet without PSE supplementation. Chickens in the three PSE addition groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with PSE at 100 (T100), 200 (T200), and 300 (T300) mg/kg of feed, respectively. At 15 days of age, chickens in group NC, PC, and three PSE addition groups were challenged with an oral dose of 1 × 10(5) Eimeria tenella oocysts each chick. Chickens in group PC were fed with diclazuril solution in water for 5 days after 48 h with oocysts inoculation. The results showed that PSE and diclazuril improved growth performance and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased oocysts per gram in inoculated broiler chickens. PSE and diclazuril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased nitric oxide at 6 and 9 days post-inoculation relative to the NC group, respectively. At 6 and 9 days post-inoculation, PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet increased concentration of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) (P < 0.05). PSE supplementation at 200 mg/kg in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased mRNA expressions of IFN-γ and IL-2 in the cecum of chickens at 9 days post-inoculation relative to the BC and NC group. The current results showed the anticoccidial properties, and beneficial effect on intestinal mucosa damage of PSE in broiler chickens that had been challenged by coccidiosis.

  7. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  8. Supplemental glycine and threonine effects on performance, intestinal mucosa development, and nutrient utilization of growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Oliveira, C A L; Guerra, A F Q G

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate Gly requirements in low-CP diets with different levels of digestible (dig) Thr, and their effects on performance, intestinal mucosal development, and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d age. A total of 240 twenty-one-day-old Cobb-Vantress male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized 4 × 2 factorial arrangement for a total of 8 treatments with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. The treatments consisted of 4 levels of Gly+Ser (1.47, 1.57, 1.67, or 1.77%) and 2 levels of dig Thr (0.70 or 0.77%, corresponding to 100 or 110% of Thr requirements, respectively). Common diets were fed to broilers until 20 d of age. At d 35, an interaction (P ≤ 0.01) was observed between the Gly+Ser and dig Thr levels for G:F. Glycine supplementation resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in BW gain, G:F, intestinal mucin secretion, apparent digestibility of fat, and AME values of the experimental diets. Threonine levels greater than the levels required (0.77%) improved (P < 0.05) G:F and increased (P < 0.05) intestinal mucin secretion. However, intestinal morphometry and the number of goblet cells in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were not affected by the treatments. The dietary Gly+Ser level necessary to optimize G:F in low-CP diets containing 0.77% Thr for broiler chickens during growth was estimated to be 1.54%; however, this requirement may be greater than 1.77% in diets with 0.70% Thr. Supplemental Gly may be essential to support maximum performance for broiler chickens from 21 to 35 d of age when they are fed diets based exclusively on vegetable ingredients and with low protein levels. Glycine can directly or indirectly influence the proper function of the intestinal mucosa and improve dietary energy utilization.

  9. L-carnitine supplementation decreases lipid peroxidation and improves cardiopulmonary function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Khajali, Zahra

    2014-12-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance and cardiopulmonary function of broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m above sea level). A total of 96 day-old male chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly assigned into two dietary treatments containing 0 (control group) and 200 mg/kg L-carnitine. The experimental diets were fed for a period of 42 days consisting of the starting (days 1 to 21) and growing periods (days 21 to 42). Nutrient requirements of chickens met the NRC (1994) recommendations. The results showed that dietary L-carnitine had no significant influence on body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. L-carnitine reduced plasma concentration of malondialdehyde, packed cell volume (PCV) and abdominal fat deposition compared to the control (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease was observed in the right to total ventricular weight ratio (RV:TV) in birds receiving L-carnitine when compared to the control. Supplementation of L-carnitine increased plasma nitric oxide and immune responsiveness, which manifested in an increased toe-web thickness index measured at 24 h following the injection of phytohaemagglutinin P. In conclusion, supplementation of L-carnitine had beneficial effects on preventing lipid peroxidation and pulmonary hypertension in broiler chickens raised at high altitude.

  10. Dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid modulates growth performance and inflammatory responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Matsushita, K; Takahashi, K; Aoki, M; Fuziwara, J; Miyanari, S; Kamada, T

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) on the immune system, inflammatory response, and growth performance of broiler chickens. The levels of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) mRNA in the spleens of chickens gradually increased with dietary 5-ALA concentration, while the expression levels of interleukin (IL)-2 decreased. Mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells and blood mononuclear cell phagocytosis in chickens fed 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA-supplemented diets were significantly greater than in chickens fed a basal diet (control). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentration gradually increased along with 5-ALA supplement concentration. These results provide the first evidence that the use of dietary 0.001 and 0.01% 5-ALA supplementation induces the T-cell immune system via mild oxidative stress in chickens. Three hours after Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced immune stimulation, the levels of mRNA encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-like ligand 1A (TL1A), in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet were significantly lower than those in chickens exposed to other treatments. The plasma caeruloplasmin concentration in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet was significantly lower than in controls or in chickens fed diets supplemented with other concentrations of 5-ALA 24 h after injection of LPS. In addition, BW at 21 and 50 d of age was significantly higher in chickens fed a 0.001% 5-ALA-supplemented diet than in control chickens. The findings suggest that supplementation of diets with 0.001% 5-ALA could prevent the catabolic changes induced by immunological stimulation. These results show that 5-ALA might be useful as an immunomodulator to stimulate T-cells via mild oxidative stress in growing broiler chickens, thereby improving the growth performance.

  11. Phosphorus digestibility response of broiler chickens to dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios.

    PubMed

    Liu, J B; Chen, D W; Adeola, O

    2013-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the true digestibility of P in soybean meal (SBM) for broiler chickens fed diets with different dietary calcium-to-phosphorus ratios (Ca:P) using the regression method. The experiment used a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with 12 diets formulated to contain combinations of 4 levels of dietary Ca:P: 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, or 2.0 and 3 levels of SBM: 31.0, 44.0, or 57.0%. A total of 576 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 12 dietary treatments with 8 cages (6 birds per cage) per treatment from d 15 to 22 posthatching, and the BW between groups were similar. Chromic dioxide was used as an indigestible marker to calculate P digestibility and retention. The results showed that BW gain and feed efficiency were increased (linear, P < 0.01), and prececal DM digestibility and DM retention were decreased (linear, P < 0.01) with graded SBM in diets for each Ca:P. Decreasing linear (P < 0.01) relationships were observed for apparent prececal P digestibility and total tract P retention with increased dietary SBM levels. The prececal and excreta P output increased (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05) as increasing levels of SBM were added to the experimental diets. True prececal P digestibility in SBM was greater (P < 0.05) for birds fed a diet with Ca:P of 0.8 compared with those fed higher Ca:P, but there was no difference among the Ca:P ratios between 1.2 and 2.0. However, the total tract retention of P from SBM was not affected by Ca:P between 0.8 and 2.0. In conclusion, results of the present experiment demonstrated that prececal digestibility of P in SBM was not affected by Ca:P ratio between 1.2 and 2.0; and there was no difference in total tract retention of P from SBM among the Ca:P ratios between 0.8 and 2.0 in broiler chickens.

  12. Effects of probiotic, Clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, C M; Cao, G T; Ferket, P R; Liu, T T; Zhou, L; Zhang, L; Xiao, Y P; Chen, A G

    2012-09-01

    Four hundred and fifty 1-d-old male Lingnan Yellow broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora. The birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and offered the same antibiotic-free basal diets for 42 d. The treatments were as follows: no addition (control), 1 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB1), 2 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB2), 3 × 10(7) cfu C. butyricum/kg of diet (CB3), and 10 mg of colistine sulfate/kg of diet (antibiotic). Birds fed either CB2 or antibiotic had greater overall BW than those in the control group. During d 1 to 7, d 21 to 42, and d 1 to 42, birds fed either CB2 or CB3 or the antibiotic diet had greater ADG compared with those in the control group. No significant differences were observed in BW or ADG among the CB2, CB3, and antibiotic groups. Birds fed the CB2 or CB3 diet had greater concentrations of IgA and IgG in the serum from d 14 to 42 and greater IgM in the serum from d 21 to 42 than those in the control group. Birds fed the CB3 diet had a greater concentration of complement component 3 in the serum than those in the control group from d 7 to 42. Dietary C. butyricum decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli in cecal contents on d 14 and 42, and both CB2 and CB3 decreased (P < 0.05) cecal Salmonella and Clostridium perfringen from d 14 to 42 compared with the control. Broilers fed either CB2 or CB3 had greater cecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts from d 21 to 42, and birds fed C. butyricum had greater cecal C. butyricum counts during the whole period compared with those in the control group. The results indicate that C. butyricum promotes growth performance and immune function and benefits the balance of the intestinal microflora in broiler chickens.

  13. Animal Welfare and Food Safety Aspects of Confining Broiler Chickens to Cages.

    PubMed

    Shields, Sara; Greger, Michael

    2013-05-13

    In most areas of the world, broiler chickens are raised in floor systems, but cage confinement is becoming more common. The welfare of broiler chickens in cages is affected by movement restriction, poor bone strength due to lack of exercise, and prevention of key behavioral patterns such as dustbathing and ground scratching. Cages for broiler chickens also have a long history of causing skin and leg conditions that could further compromise welfare, but a lack of controlled studies makes it difficult to draw conclusions about newer cage designs. Cage environments are usually stocked at a higher density than open floor systems, and the limited studies available suggest that caging may lead to increased levels of fear and stress in the birds. Further, birds reared on the floor appear less likely to harbor and shed Salmonella, as litter may serve as a seeding agent for competitive exclusion by other microorganisms. Cages for laying hens used in egg production have met with substantial opposition due to welfare concerns and caging broiler chickens will likely be subject to the same kinds of social disapproval.

  14. Immune modulation by Bacillus subtilus-based direct-fed microbials in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Direct-fed microbials (DFMs), also known as probiotics, have been successfully used to improve the balance of gut microbiota. Spores of Bacillus subtilis, have been used as DFMs for food animals and humans and our previous studies showed that dietary supplementation of broiler chickens with a B. su...

  15. Effect of varying light intensity on welfare indices of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of varying light-intensity on ocular, immue, fear, and leg health of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights under environmentally controlled conditions were evaluated. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 Ross 308 chicks were randomly ...

  16. Interactive effects of ammonia and light intensity on hematochemical variables in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study examined the influence of atmospheric ammonia exposure, light intensity, and their interaction on blood gases, electrolytes, and acid-base balance in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions. The experiment consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arranged in a randomized comple...

  17. Effect of ambient temperature and light intensity on physiological reactions of heavy broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, and their interaction on blood acid-base balance, metabolites, and electrolytes in broiler chickens under environmentally controlled conditions were examined in 2 trials. The experiment was consisted of a factorial arrangement of treatments in a r...

  18. Applications of Bacteriocins in Broiler Chickens to Reduce Carriage of Campylobacter and Salmonella

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The paper will review studies which have used a variety of bacteriocins to treat Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enteritidis colonized broiler chickens. Antagonistic bacteria were chosen by selecting those isolates which produced zones of inhibition among confluent C. jejuni growth. From the...

  19. Proteomic changes in plasma of broiler chickens with femoral head necrosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The FHN selected birds showed higher bodyweights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of health...

  20. External and internal bacterial in broiler chickens before and after defeathering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler chicken carcasses were removed from the shackle line in a commercial processing plant to determine incidence and counts of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella both before and after picking. Five carcasses were taken from each sampling location on 10 different days (n=...

  1. Effects of a Lactobacillus salivarius mixture on performance, intestinal health and serum lipids of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Ramasamy, Kalavathy; Sieo, Chin Chin; Ho, Yin Wan

    2017-01-01

    The ban or severe restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry feeds to promote growth has led to considerable interest to find alternative approaches. Probiotics have been considered as such alternatives. In the present study, the effects of a Lactobacillus mixture composed from three previously isolated Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CI1, CI2 and CI3) from chicken intestines on performance, intestinal health status and serum lipids of broiler chickens has been evaluated. Supplementation of the mixture at a concentration of 0.5 or 1 g kg-1 of diet to broilers for 42 days improved body weight, body weight gain and FCR, reduced total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, increased populations of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, decreased harmful bacteria such as E. coli and total aerobes, reduced harmful cecal bacterial enzymes such as β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase, and improved intestinal histomorphology of broilers. Because of its remarkable efficacy on broiler chickens, the L. salivarius mixture could be considered as a good potential probiotic for chickens, and its benefits should be further evaluated on a commercial scale. PMID:28459856

  2. Role of water hardness in rinsing bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of water hardness on the ability of water to rinse bacteria from the skin of processed broiler chickens was examined. Artificial hard water with a total hardness of 200 ppm (very hard water) was prepared by dissolving calcium chloride (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 •6H2...

  3. Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials augment macrophage function in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the function of Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions, i.e., nitric oxide (NO) production and phagocytosis in broiler chickens. DFMs used in this study were eight single strains designated as Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs1...

  4. Valgus-Varus Deformity of the Intertarsal Joint in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A lateral or medial angulation of the shaft of the distal tibiotarsal bone resulting in deviation of the lower part of the leg and frequently with bending of the proximal shaft of the tarsometatarsus is the most common leg deformity in broiler chickens. This lateral or medial deviation of the legs in broiler chickens, which has been described by many workers, deserves a specific name such as angular bone deformity or valgus-varus deformity of intertarsal joint, so that it may be separated from other varieties of lameness in broilers. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2A.Figure 2B.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 5A and 5B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 6A and 6B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figures 7A and 7B.Figure 8. PMID:17422417

  5. Review of antimicrobial therapy of selected bacterial diseases in broiler chickens in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, Dave; Carson, Carolee

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada. PMID:23729827

  6. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-12-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly.

  7. Negative Trends in Transport-related Mortality Rates in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Vecerek, Vladimir; Voslarova, Eva; Conte, Francesca; Vecerkova, Lenka; Bedanova, Iveta

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of deaths during transport for slaughter is associated with poor welfare and represents a considerable loss to the poultry industry. In the period from 2009 to 2014, all shipments of broiler chickens to poultry processing plants were monitored in the Czech Republic and the numbers of chickens transported and those dying as a result of their transport were recorded and analysed. Overall transport-related mortality of broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic was 0.37%. It ranged from 0.31% to 0.72%, the increase approximately corresponding to the increasing transport distance. Statistically highly significant (p<0.001) differences were found when comparing transport-related mortality rates in individual seasons of the year. The greatest mortality (0.55%) was associated with transports carried out in winter months whereas the lowest death losses (0.30%) were found in chickens transported for slaughter in summer months. Our study revealed greater transport-related mortality rates in broiler chickens transported for slaughter in the Czech Republic than expected when considering earlier studies. The most pronounced increases were found in transports for shorter distances and in winter months. However, an increase was found at all transport distances monitored except for distances exceeding 300 km and all seasons except for summer. Furthermore, a general increasing tendency in chicken losses during the monitored period was found. The particularly alarming finding is that the mortality of broiler chickens being transported to processing plants has been showing a long-term increasing tendency over the last two decades. Further research should focus on the identification of specific factors leading to such high and growing mortality rates and developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of the birds in transit accordingly. PMID:26954219

  8. The gait dynamics of the modern broiler chicken: a cautionary tale of selective breeding.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Heather; Daley, Monica A; Corr, Sandra A; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-09-01

    One of the most extraordinary results of selective breeding is the modern broiler chicken, whose phenotypic attributes reflect its genetic success. Unfortunately, leg health issues and poor walking ability are prevalent in the broiler population, with the exact aetiopathogenesis unknown. Here we present a biomechanical analysis of the gait dynamics of the modern broiler and its two pureline commercial broiler breeder lines (A and B) in order to clarify how changes in basic morphology are associated with the way these chickens walk. We collected force plate and kinematic data from 25 chickens (market age), over a range of walking speeds, to quantify the three-dimensional dynamics of the centre of mass (CoM) and determine how these birds modulate the force and mechanical work of locomotion. Common features of their gait include extremely slow walking speeds, a wide base of support and large lateral motions of the CoM, which primarily reflect changes to cope with their apparent instability and large body mass. These features allowed the chickens to keep their peak vertical forces low, but resulted in high mediolateral forces, which exceeded fore-aft forces. Gait differences directly related to morphological characteristics also exist. This was particularly evident in Pureline B birds, which have a more crouched limb posture. Mechanical costs of transport were still similar across all lines and were not exceptional when compared with more wild-type ground-running birds. Broiler chickens seem to have an awkward gait, but some aspects of their dynamics show rather surprising similarities to other avian bipeds.

  9. Effect of Salmonella vaccination of breeder chickens on contamination of broiler chicken carcasses in integrated poultry operations.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Cole, Dana J; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P; Lee, Margie D; Maurer, John J

    2010-12-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program.

  10. Effect of Salmonella Vaccination of Breeder Chickens on Contamination of Broiler Chicken Carcasses in Integrated Poultry Operations ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Cole, Dana J.; Hofacre, Charles; Zamperini, Katherine; Mathis, Demetrius; Doyle, Michael P.; Lee, Margie D.; Maurer, John J.

    2010-01-01

    While measures to control carcass contamination with Salmonella at the processing plant have been implemented with some success, on-farm interventions that reduce Salmonella prevalence in meat birds entering the processing plant have not translated well on a commercial scale. We determined the impact of Salmonella vaccination on commercial poultry operations by monitoring four vaccinated and four nonvaccinated breeder (parental) chicken flocks and comparing Salmonella prevalences in these flocks and their broiler, meat bird progeny. For one poultry company, their young breeders were vaccinated by using a live-attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine (Megan VAC-1) followed by a killed Salmonella bacterin consisting of S. enterica serovar Berta and S. enterica serovar Kentucky. The other participating poultry company did not vaccinate their breeders or broilers. The analysis revealed that vaccinated hens had a lower prevalence of Salmonella in the ceca (38.3% versus 64.2%; P < 0.001) and the reproductive tracts (14.22% versus 51.7%; P < 0.001). We also observed a lower Salmonella prevalence in broiler chicks (18.1% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001), acquired from vaccinated breeders, when placed at the broiler farms contracted with the poultry company. Broiler chicken farms populated with chicks from vaccinated breeders also tended to have fewer environmental samples containing Salmonella (14.4% versus 30.1%; P < 0.001). There was a lower Salmonella prevalence in broilers entering the processing plants (23.4% versus 33.5%; P < 0.001) for the poultry company that utilized this Salmonella vaccination program for its breeders. Investigation of other company-associated factors did not indicate that the difference between companies could be attributed to measures other than the vaccination program. PMID:20889797

  11. Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Masood; Hai, Abdul; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2012-05-25

    This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in

  12. Detection of clonal group A Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, community-dwelling humans, and urinary tract infection (UTI) patients and their virulence in a mouse UTI model.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-12-01

    Escherichia coli clonal group A isolates cause infections in people. We investigated 158 phylogroup D E. coli isolates from animals, meat, and humans. Twenty-five of these isolates were of clonal group A, and 15 isolates were shown to cause infection in a mouse urinary tract infection (UTI) model. We conclude that clonal group A isolates are found in both broiler chickens and broiler chicken meat and may cause UTI in humans.

  13. Nanosilver effects on growth parameters in experimental aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha

    2013-03-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a cause of economic losses in broiler production. In this study, the effect of one commercial nanocompound, Nanocid (Nano Nasb Pars Co., Iran) was evaluated in reduction of aflatoxin effects on the growth and performance indices in broiler chickens suffering from experimental aflatoxicosis. For this, a total of 300 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross strain) were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates of 15 chicks in each separated pen during the 28-day experiment. Treatment groups including group A: chickens fed basal diet, group B: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin in basal diet, group C: chickens fed basal diet plus 2500 ppm Nanocid, and group D: chickens fed 3 ppm productive aflatoxin and 2500 ppm Nanocid, in basal diet. Data on body weight, body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded at weekly intervals. Also cumulative data were assessed. Results showed, although supplement of Nanocid to conventional diet had no effect on performance but addition of Nanocid to diet containing 3 ppm aflatoxin increased significantly the cumulative BWG, cumulative feed consumption and decreased FCR in the last 2 weeks of experimental period. The improvement in these performance indices by supplement of Nanocid to diet containing aflatoxin showed the ability of Nanocid to diminish the inhibitory effects of aflatoxin.

  14. Kinematic Analysis Quantifies Gait Abnormalities Associated with Lameness in Broiler Chickens and Identifies Evolutionary Gait Differences

    PubMed Central

    Caplen, Gina; Hothersall, Becky; Murrell, Joanna C.; Nicol, Christine J.; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E.; Weeks, Claire A.; Colborne, G. Robert

    2012-01-01

    This is the first time that gait characteristics of broiler (meat) chickens have been compared with their progenitor, jungle fowl, and the first kinematic study to report a link between broiler gait parameters and defined lameness scores. A commercial motion-capturing system recorded three-dimensional temporospatial information during walking. The hypothesis was that the gait characteristics of non-lame broilers (n = 10) would be intermediate to those of lame broilers (n = 12) and jungle fowl (n = 10, tested at two ages: immature and adult). Data analysed using multi-level models, to define an extensive range of baseline gait parameters, revealed inter-group similarities and differences. Natural selection is likely to have made jungle fowl walking gait highly efficient. Modern broiler chickens possess an unbalanced body conformation due to intense genetic selection for additional breast muscle (pectoral hypertrophy) and whole body mass. Together with rapid growth, this promotes compensatory gait adaptations to minimise energy expenditure and triggers high lameness prevalence within commercial flocks; lameness creating further disruption to the gait cycle and being an important welfare issue. Clear differences were observed between the two lines (short stance phase, little double-support, low leg lift, and little back displacement in adult jungle fowl; much double-support, high leg lift, and substantial vertical back movement in sound broilers) presumably related to mass and body conformation. Similarities included stride length and duration. Additional modifications were also identified in lame broilers (short stride length and duration, substantial lateral back movement, reduced velocity) presumably linked to musculo-skeletal abnormalities. Reduced walking velocity suggests an attempt to minimise skeletal stress and/or discomfort, while a shorter stride length and time, together with longer stance and double-support phases, are associated with

  15. Effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Płowiec, Arkadiusz; Sławińska, Anna; Siwek, Maria Z; Bednarczyk, Marek F

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of inulin and Lactococcus lactis on immune-related gene expression in broiler chickens. ANIMALS 45 Ross broilers. PROCEDURES On day 12 of embryonic development, 360 eggs were equally allocated among 3 treatment groups and injected with 0.2 mL of a solution that contained 1.76 mg of inulin (prebiotic group) or 1.76 mg of inulin enriched with 1,000 CFUs of L lactis subsp lactis 2955 (synbiotic group), or they were injected with 0.2 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control). At 1, 14, and 35 days after hatching, 5 male birds from each group were euthanized, and the spleen and cecal tonsils were harvested for determination of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p40, IL-18, cluster of differentiation 80, interferon-β, and interferon-γ expression by means of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Gene expressions in the cecal tonsils and spleens of chickens in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups were compared with those of control chickens at each tissue collection time. RESULTS Compared with control birds, immune-related gene expression was downregulated in birds in the prebiotic and synbiotic groups, and the magnitude of that downregulation was more pronounced in the cecal tonsils than in the spleen and increased with age. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that in ovo administration of a prebiotic or synbiotic to broilers was associated with downregulation of immune-related gene expression in the cecal tonsils and spleen. The magnitude of that downregulation increased with age and was most likely caused by stabilization of the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  16. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Moemen A; Shehata, Mostafa A; Rafeek, Elshimaa

    2014-01-01

    A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans.

  17. Neopterin and biopterin as biomarkers of immune system activity associated with crating in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bedanova, I; Voslarova, E; Zelinska, G; Blahova, J; Marsalek, P; Chloupek, J

    2014-10-01

    Neopterin and biopterin belong to a group of unconjugated pterin derivates. These biomolecules are present in many animal species and perform several functions. Pterin concentrations may provide additional information on the effect of stress on immune system activity. This study focused on an investigation of the effect of crating on plasma concentrations of neopterin and biopterin in broilers. The effects of 2 crating periods (2 and 4 h) were monitored in Hubbard broilers (n = 90) aged 42 d. After a given crating period, randomly selected chickens from each group were sampled immediately and the remaining chickens were sampled after 24 h. Plasma corticosterone increased (P < 0.001) immediately after 2 and 4 h crating, but no difference between the crated and the control noncrated broilers was found 24 h later. Immediately after crating, neopterin in 2- and 4-h broilers did not differ from the control, but 24 h later a decrease (P = 0.011) in plasma neopterin was found in 4-h broilers compared with the control. Simultaneously, 24 h after crating, neopterin levels in 2- and 4-h broilers decreased (P < 0.001) in comparison with the levels immediately after crating. Plasma biopterin was higher (P < 0.001) in 4-h broilers than in the control immediately after the crating. A time of sampling effect (P = 0.016) was found for the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, with heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio higher 24 h after crating in comparison with its level immediately after the crating. This study shows that crating may significantly affect the immune system of broiler chickens. This is corroborated by the increase in plasma biopterin concentrations in broilers immediately after crating and the decrease in plasma neopterin concentrations in broilers 24 h after crating. The correlations were found for widely used indicators of acute and chronic stress in birds [i.e., plasma corticosterone concentrations (biopterin) and the heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (neopterin

  18. Leucine and valine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Nascimento, G R; Garcia, E R M; Sakamoto, M I; Nunes, R V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. Treatments consisted of 5 SID Leu levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, or 1.8%) and 5 SID Val levels (0.52, 0.67, 0.82, 0.97, or 1.12%). At 42 d of age, there was interaction (P < 0.05) between the SID levels of Leu and Val on feed intake and weight gain. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of Leu and Val levels on feed conversion, with minimal point estimated at the levels of 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. Dietary Leu supplementation reduced linearly (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of triglycerides and β-hydroxybutyrate. Dietary Leu increased (P ≤ 0.05) the fiber diameters of the pectoralis major muscle and breast yield at the levels of 1.24 and 1.13%, respectively, while the thigh yield was improved with the level of 0.71% Val. Abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary Leu and Val. The SID Leu and Val levels needed to optimize weight gain and feed conversion in low-CP diets for broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch were estimated at 1.15 and 0.86%, and 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. The supplementation of Leu and Val can reduce the abdominal fat deposition in birds fed low-CP diets during the grower phase. Leu and Val interactions can influence the performance but not the serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broilers fed low-protein diets. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dietary Leu content to estimate the ideal level of Val in low-CP diets for optimum broiler

  19. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock*

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-01-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5′-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned. PMID:24101206

  20. Meat quality traits of four Chinese indigenous chicken breeds and one commercial broiler stock.

    PubMed

    Guan, Rong-fa; Lyu, Fei; Chen, Xiao-qiang; Ma, Jie-qing; Jiang, Han; Xiao, Chao-geng

    2013-10-01

    Meat quality traits of four genotypes of Chinese indigenous chicken [Ninghai chicken (NC), frizzle chicken (FC), Ninghai xiang chicken (XC), and Zhenning loquat chicken (LC)] and one genotype of commercial broiler [Arbor Acres plus broiler (AAB)] were analyzed. The indigenous chickens were raised before the commercial chickens in order to achieve the same final processed days. Indigenous chickens of NC, FC, XC, and LC showed significantly higher inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content, shorter fiber diameter, and lower shear force than those of AAB (P<0.05). In the indigenous genotypes, NC and FC had significantly shorter fiber diameters and lower shear forces than XC and LC (P<0.05), and NC and XC had a higher IMP content than FC and LC (P<0.05). Moreover, the indigenous genotype of LC significantly displayed the highest protein content (P<0.05) in the five genotypes of birds, and no significant differences of protein content were found between the other genotypes of NC, FC, XC, and AAB (P>0.05). The indigenous chickens from FC displayed the highest total lipid content in the five bird genotypes (P<0.05). Significant differences of pH, color values of L* and a*, and drip loss for the five genotypes of birds were also observed. In conclusion, there were significant differences in the meat quality traits of the bird breeds selected in this study, and the indigenous chickens, especially the NC genotype, produced better quality meat as far as the IMP content, fiber diameters, and shear forces were concerned.

  1. Effect of lycopene on the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Woo; Choo, Won-Don; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate whether dietary lycopene (LP) could prevent the copper-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL), and affect growth performance, relative organ weights, plasma and meat lipid profiles, and LP contents in plasma and tissues in broiler chickens. A total of 160 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 16 pens with rice husk as a bedding material. Each experiment had 4 replicates, 10 chicks per replicate (n = 4 per treatment). A corn-soybean meal base diet was used as a control diet (CONT). To formulate the experimental diets, the base diet was added with LP at the levels of 10 (LP10) or 20 mg/kg (LP20), or 17 g/kg of tomato paste (TP17) which was equivalent to 5 ppm of LP. The experiment lasted 4 weeks. Growth performance and relative organ weights were not affected (p > 0.05) by any of dietary treatments. Dietary LP significantly lowered (p < 0.05) triglyceride and LDL cholesterol at 2 weeks of age, but did not affect them at 4 weeks of age. Total cholesterol in thigh meats was not altered by dietary treatments. LP was not detected in leg meats in all chicks, nor in liver or plasma of the CONT group. LP was found in liver and plasma, being the former greater in the concentration, of the chicks fed diets containing LP10, LP20, or TP17. At 2 and 4 weeks, the copper-mediated oxidation of LDL was delayed (p < 0.05) in either LP- or TP-fed chickens compared with the CONT group. In conclusion, LP lowers triglyceride and LDL cholesterol, is deposited into serum and liver, and prevents the LDL oxidation in broiler chickens, confirming the role of LP in the lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties in broiler chickens.

  2. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction typing and sequencing of mitochondrial D-loop region in broiler chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Harumi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Naito, Mitsuru

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to comprehend a feature of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mainly of general broiler chickens in Japan. We typed two SNP sites (199C/T and 792A/G) of the D-loop region in mtDNA by allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) in 359 broiler (182 chunky and 177 cobb) and 506 layer (233 White Leghorn, 140 Barred Plymouth Rock and 133 Rhode Island Red) chickens. The SNP of 199C or 792A by AS-PCR was observed in the chunky and cobb chickens, and not in the layers. The haplotype 199T/792G was observed in a part of cobb and all layers. By the result of AS-PCR haplotyping and the broiler brands, the D-loop region was sequenced in 44 broiler chickens (20 chunky and 24 cobb) and compared with the layers' sequence data. Among the broiler and layer chickens, 21 SNP sites (including one insertion) and 11 sequence haplotypes were observed. Haplotype variation or correspondence was observed in and between the broiler brands. This study provides important information to establish a chicken meat traceability system by SNP haplotyping of mtDNA in Japan.

  3. Effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and their combination on growth performance, small intestine morphology, and resident Lactobacillus of male broilers.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Farnell, Y Z; Peebles, E D; Kiess, A S; Wamsley, K G S; Zhai, W

    2016-06-01

    Effects of commercial antimicrobials and the individual and combinational use of commercial prebiotics and probiotics in feed from d zero to 41 on the growth performance, small intestine size, jejunal morphology, and ileal resident bacteria population of broiler chickens were determined. A total of 1,040 one-day-old male Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly distributed to 80 floor pens (5 treatments, 16 replications per treatment, 13 chicks per pen). Five dietary treatments were employed: 1) a corn soybean-meal basal diet (served as a negative control diet, NC); 2) a basal diet supplemented with a commercial prebiotic product (Pre); 3) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores (Pro); 4) a basal diet supplemented with both prebiotic and probiotic products (Pre + Pro); and 5) a basal diet supplemented with commercial antimicrobials (served as a positive control diet, PC). At d 14, Pre diets improved the relative level of Lactobacillus in ileal mucosa as compared to NC, Pro, or PC diets (P = 0.045) without improving broiler BW. Broilers fed PC diets exhibited the highest BW gain from d 15 to 27, the lowest duodenum, jejunum, and ileum relative weights as percentage of BW at d 27, and the highest breast weight at d 42 (P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.002, 0.025, and 0.035, respectively). Broilers fed Pro or Pre + Pro diets exhibited higher BW gain from d 28 to 41 (P = 0.005) and higher overall BW gain from d zero to 41 (P = 0.039) than those fed other diets. Dietary treatments did not affect jejunal morphology or ileal resident Escherichia coli level at any age. From our results, including spores of Bacillus subtilis in feed may stimulate growth at a later age and may facilitate broilers in reaching their target weight sooner. Therefore, probiotics are recommended as potential alternatives to antimicrobials in chicken diets, especially in grower and finisher feed.

  4. Effects of a phytogenic feed additive on growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Amad, A A; Männer, K; Wendler, K R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2011-12-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) containing essential oils of thyme and star anise as lead active components on the growth performance and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in broiler chickens. In total, 528 one-day-old Cobb male broilers were randomly divided into 4 dietary treatment groups with 6 replicate pens per treatment group (22 birds each). The dietary treatments were a control starter and grower basal diet without PFA or 150, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg of PFA. Body weight, weight gain, and feed intake were not significantly influenced by the feed additive, but the feed conversion ratio during the grower (22-42 d) and overall (1-42 d) periods improved linearly (P < 0.05) by the administration of PFA compared with that of the control diet. The average weights of the liver, heart, kidneys, and spleen were not significantly affected by the PFA. The results of the apparent ileal digestibility of crude ash, CP, crude fat, calcium, and phosphorus showed a linear increase (P < 0.05) related to the increase of PFA dose in the diet. Therefore, the means of digestibility of these nutrients were significantly higher in birds fed the PFA for all categories of age compared with the digestibility of these nutrients in the controls. In conclusion, the mode of action of the tested PFA can be explained by an improvement in the nutrient digestibility in the small intestine. The underlying physiological mechanisms, however, need to be characterized further.

  5. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  6. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in breast muscle cholesterol at 42 d of age: 57.2, 48.0, and 43.2 mg/100 g meat for birds supplemented for 0, 35, or 42 d, respectively. Feeding 10 vs 260 mg/kg copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  7. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Mossad; Elkomy, Ashraf; Morad, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. PMID:24808972

  8. Jerusalem artichokes stimulate growth of broiler chickens and protect them against endotoxins and potential cecal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kleessen, Brigitta; Elsayed, N A A E; Loehren, U; Schroedl, W; Krueger, Monika

    2003-11-01

    Control of intestinal pathogens during the earliest phases of broiler production may be the best strategy for the reduction of human pathogens on processed broiler carcasses. The recent ban on antibiotics in poultry feed has served to focus much attention on alternative methods of controlling the gastrointestinal microflora. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of the fructan-rich Jerusalem artichoke, or topinambur (administered as 0.5% topinambur syrup in drinking water), on cultural numbers of selected cecal bacteria (total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, Bdellovibrio spp., and Clostridium perfringens) and levels of bacterial endotoxins as well as on body weights and relative weights of organs (the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius) of chickens in the first 35 days of life (with weekly investigations being conducted). One-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to experimental (with topinambur) and control (without topinambur) groups. They were allowed free access to a standard broiler diet without growth-promoting antibiotics. Topinambur treatment resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in cecal counts of B. bacteriovorus, which parasitizes susceptible gram-negative pathogens. Topinambur led to significantly smaller numbers of total aerobes, Enterobacteriaceae, and C. perfringens as well as to reduced levels of endotoxins in the blood compared with those for control birds. Increased body weights resulting from topinambur consumption were observed on day 35 of the trial period (P < 0.05). The relative weights of the pancreas and the bursa of Fabricius, however, were higher (P < 0.05) for topinambur-treated broilers than for control birds at the ages of 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. These results indicate that a small amount of topinambur in broilers' drinking water has a beneficial effect on growth performance, reduces bacterial endotoxin levels, and suppresses potential pathogens in broilers' ceca.

  9. Genome Analysis of Staphylococcus agnetis, an Agent of Lameness in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ojha, Sohita; Pummill, Jeff F.; Koon, Joseph A.; Wideman, Robert F.; Rhoads, Douglas D.

    2015-01-01

    Lameness in broiler chickens is a significant animal welfare and financial issue. Lameness can be enhanced by rearing young broilers on wire flooring. We have identified Staphylococcus agnetis as significantly involved in bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in proximal tibia and femorae, leading to lameness in broiler chickens in the wire floor system. Administration of S. agnetis in water induces lameness. Previously reported in some cases of cattle mastitis, this is the first report of this poorly described pathogen in chickens. We used long and short read next generation sequencing to assemble single finished contigs for the genome and a large plasmid from the chicken pathogen. Comparison of the S. agnetis genome to those of other pathogenic Staphylococci shows that S.agnetis contains a distinct repertoire of virulence determinants. Additionally, the S. agnetis genome has several regions that differ substantially from the genomes of other pathogenic Staphylococci. Comparison of our finished genome to a recent draft genome for a cattle mastitis isolate suggests that future investigations focus on the evolutionary epidemiology of this emerging pathogen of domestic animals. PMID:26606420

  10. Effects of Xylo-Oligosaccharides on Broiler Chicken Performance and Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    De Maesschalck, C.; Eeckhaut, V.; Maertens, L.; De Lange, L.; Marchal, L.; Nezer, C.; De Baere, S.; Croubels, S.; Daube, G.; Dewulf, J.; Haesebrouck, F.; Ducatelle, R.; Taminau, B.

    2015-01-01

    In broiler chickens, feed additives, including prebiotics, are widely used to improve gut health and to stimulate performance. Xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS) are hydrolytic degradation products of arabinoxylans that can be fermented by the gut microbiota. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the prebiotic properties of XOS when added to the broiler diet. Administration of XOS to chickens, in addition to a wheat-rye-based diet, significantly improved the feed conversion ratio. XOS significantly increased villus length in the ileum. It also significantly increased numbers of lactobacilli in the colon and Clostridium cluster XIVa in the ceca. Moreover, the number of gene copies encoding the key bacterial enzyme for butyrate production, butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA):acetate CoA transferase, was significantly increased in the ceca of chickens administered XOS. In this group of chickens, at the species level, Lactobacillus crispatus and Anaerostipes butyraticus were significantly increased in abundance in the colon and cecum, respectively. In vitro fermentation of XOS revealed cross-feeding between L. crispatus and A. butyraticus. Lactate, produced by L. crispatus during XOS fermentation, was utilized by the butyrate-producing Anaerostipes species. These data show the beneficial effects of XOS on broiler performance when added to the feed, which potentially can be explained by stimulation of butyrate-producing bacteria through cross-feeding of lactate and subsequent effects of butyrate on gastrointestinal function. PMID:26092452

  11. Effects of oxygenated or hydrogenated water on growth performance, blood parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shin, D; Cho, E S R; Bang, H-T; Shim, K S

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of providing oxygenated and hydrogenated water on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters, and immunoglobulin concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity of broiler chickens. In our investigation, 144 Ross × Ross broiler chicks were randomly allotted to three different treatment groups with four replicates (treatment × replicate × bird = 3 × 4 × 12). All chicks were given one of the following types of water for five weeks: tap water (CON), hydrogenated water (HNW), and oxygenated water (ONW). ONW supplementation increased the final body weight and weight gain and also improved both feed intake and feed conversion of broiler chickens as compared to those of CON broiler chickens (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat and its ratio to the final body weight showed that fat accumulation in the broiler chicken abdomen was reduced when broiler chickens drank only ONW for five weeks (P < 0.05). ONW supplementation improved blood parameters, including triacylglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Additionally, in accordance with a globulin increase in broiler chickens, both IgG and IgM generation were significantly enhanced when ONW was supplied to broiler chickens (P < 0.05) but only a numerical advance was observed in the HNW group (P > 0.05). Both oxygenated and hydrogenated water supplementation significantly improved the antioxidant effects (P < 0.05), and it seems that superoxide dismutase refinement was completed due to oxygen and/or hydrogen enhancement of drinking water. These results indicate that oxygen enhancement of drinking water may be recommended to improve growth performance by increasing immunoglobulins mainly IgG and IgM. © Crown copyright 2016.

  12. The effect of supplementation of clove and agrimony or clove and lemon balm on growth performance, antioxidant status and selected indices of lipid profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, V; Marcincak, S; Popelka, P; Simkova, J; Martonova, M; Buleca, J; Marcincakova, D; Tuckova, M; Molnar, L; Kovac, G

    2012-12-01

    The study investigated the effects of diet supplementation with 1% clove flower buds powder combined with either 0.2% lemon balm extract or 0.2% agrimony extract (each of the two pulverized extracts supplied through drinking water) on body weight of broilers, total feed intake, feed conversion ratio and the carcass yield, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 1.11.1.9) in blood, concentration of sulfhydryl (-SH) groups, malondialdehyde (MDA), vitamin A and E, low-density lipoproteins in the blood plasma, serum cholesterol, total lipids, triglycerides and high-density lipoproteins in broiler chickens at 42 days of age. On the day of hatching, 120 male and female broilers of Cobb 500 were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (1st group) of broilers received a basal diet (BD) without any feed and water additive. Both experimental groups of chicks were fed BD enriched with clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) powder at a dose of 10 g/kg DM for 42 days. Moreover, either lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L.) extract or agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L.) extract diluted with drinking water (2:1000) was given to broilers in the 2nd and 3rd group respectively. The results indicated that feeding the diets enriched with selected herbal supplements failed to affect the growth performance of broiler chickens at 42 days of age. In addition, this supplementation had no influence on the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, concentration of vitamin A and selected lipid metabolism indices. On the other hand, we observed beneficial effects on some indices of the antioxidant status (increased concentration of -SH groups and vitamin E, decreased concentration of MDA) in the blood of broilers in both experimental groups in comparison with the control group of chickens (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a slightly better antioxidant capacity was found in the blood of broilers supplied the combination of clove and lemon balm compared

  13. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status.

  14. Apilarnil reduces fear and advances sexual development in male broilers but has no effect on growth.

    PubMed

    Altan, O; Yücel, B; Açikgöz, Z; Seremet, C; Kösoğlu, M; Turgan, N; Ozgönül, A M

    2013-06-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to determine the possibility of stimulating sexual development at an early age in male and female broiler chickens by administration of apilarnil, a natural bee product, in the pre-pubertal period. 2. From 28 to 55 d of age, birds were given apilarnil orally. The effects of low (2.5 g/bird) and high (7.5 g/bird) doses of apilarnil on growth performance, testicular weight, secondary sexual characteristics, blood lipids, testosterone and fearful behaviour were evaluated. 3. Apilarnil administration did not cause a positive effect on growth performance of male and female broilers suggesting that apilarnil did not have an anabolic effect. 4. Apilarnil administration suppressed blood glucose and cholesterol. 5. Birds receiving apilarnil remained immobile for a shorter period in a tonic imobiliy test and showed less home-cage avoidance responses suggesting a lower level of fearfulness. 6. Increases in testicular weight, testosterone concentration and comb growth in males receiving apilarnil implied that it stimulates the sexual maturation at an early age. However, a similar stimulation of secondary sexual characteristics was not observed in females.

  15. Effect of inulin on growth performance, intestinal tract sizes, mineral retention and tibial bone mineralisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, L T; Rodríguez, M L; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J

    2009-05-01

    1. A 5-week feeding trial with 240 one-day-old male broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the responses of performance, intestinal tract measurements, relative apparent retention of minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Cu), and tibial bone measurements and mineral content (ash and Ca) to dietary graded levels of inulin. Treatments consisted of a maize-soybean meal control diet without or with supplemental antibiotic (flavomycin, 40 mg/kg diet) and 4 diets containing inulin at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g/kg. 2. Growth performance of birds and morphological measurements of intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and caeca) showed no response to dietary levels of inulin as compared with the control diet and the control diet with flavomycin. 3. Dietary inulin improved the relative apparent retention of Ca, Zn and Cu (up to 18.4, 35.5 and 466%, respectively), did no affect that of Mg and impaired the retention of Fe. Differences among inulin treatments and control with flavomycin were significant only for Mg content. 4. Dietary inulin increased the concentration of ash and Ca in the tibiae. This effect was not reflected in the tibial bone morphology (weight, length and width). In conclusion, the results from the current study suggest that feeding inulin to broiler chickens may have a beneficial effect on bone quality.

  16. The behaviour of broiler chickens and its modification by lameness.

    PubMed

    Weeks; Danbury; Davies; Hunt; Kestin

    2000-03-22

    The behaviour of six replicates of broilers obtained from commercial farms, fed ad-libitum and housed on 23-h light:1-h dark schedule at 20 lx was observed using scan sampling. Comparisons were made between sound birds and those of varying degrees of lameness between 39 and 49 days of age. Sound broilers averaged 76% of their time lying and this increased significantly to 86% in lame birds (gait score 3). Lying also increased with age. Although sound broilers spent only a minor part of the day on their feet, they spent significantly more time standing idle (7%), standing preening (3.5%) and standing eating (4.7%) than lame birds. Walking declined with age, but occupied an average 3.3% of the time of a slaughter-weight broiler. Again, lameness significantly reduced this to a minimal 1.5% in the worst affected birds. Sound birds predominantly chose the usual standing posture for eating, whereas, lame birds lay down to eat for almost half their feeding time. Detailed observations using video records revealed that lameness altered the feeding strategy of broilers. Whereas sound birds fed over 50 times in 24 h, the number of visits to the feeder was reduced with increasing lameness to an average of around 30 in the lamest broilers. However, meal duration was adjusted to give no overall differences in time spent feeding per day. Time spent drinking was also the same for all birds, averaging 3% of the day. The alterations of the time budget, in particular the reductions in activities performed whilst standing, and the different feeding strategies adopted, are consistent with lameness imposing a cost on the affected broilers to the detriment of their welfare.

  17. Toxicokinetics of the broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hüyük, R; Eraslan, G

    2017-02-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine single-dose toxicokinetics of deltamethrin, a broad-spectrum pyrethroid insecticide, for treatment of broiler chickens. 2. Twenty male broiler chickens were used. Animals were divided into two groups, each comprising 10 animals. An intravenous dose of 0.75 mg of deltamethrin/kg body weight was given intravenously to the first group and the same dose (0.75 mg/kg body weight) was administered by intracrop by gavage to the second group. Blood samples were also collected at specified intervals. 3. Serum deltamethrin levels were measured via micro-electron capture detection with gas chromatography equipment. According to the serum deltamethrin level-time curve, deltamethrin tended to distribute according to a two-compartment open model. 4. The half-life at β phase (t1/2β), mean residence time (MRT) and area under the concentration time curve in 0-∞ (AUC0→∞) values after intravenous application of deltamethrin were 4.00 ± 0.76 h, 4.65 ± 0.75 h and 702.27 ± 236.07 ng h/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the absorption half-life (t1/2a), maximal concentration in serum after intracrop administration (Cmax), time needed to reach Cmax (tmax), t1/2β, MRT and AUC0→∞ values after intracrop application of deltamethrin were determined to be 0.18 ± 0.06 h, 19.65 ± 4.58 ng/ml, 0.70 ± 0.10 h, 7.27 ± 1.36 h, 10.46 ± 1.84 h and 153.33 ± 30.83 ng h/ml, respectively. The bioavailability of deltamethrin was 21.83%. 5. It was concluded that deltamethrin was rapidly but incompletely absorbed after intracrop administration and bioavailability was at a low level. The t1/2β and MRT of the deltamethrin were short for both intracrop and intravenous applications, and the risk of toxic and residual effects of deltamethrin is therefore limited.

  18. Expression of interleukins, neuropeptides, and growth hormone receptor and leptin receptor genes in adipose tissue from growing broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, total RNA was collected from abdominal adipose tissue samples obtained from ten broiler chickens at 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks of age and prepared for quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Studies of the gene expression of cytokines and associated genes in chicken adipose tissue were initia...

  19. Effect of Zinc on Appetite Regulatory Peptides in the Hypothalamus of Salmonella-Challenged Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiyi; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir; Li, Xianlei; Wang, Yufeng; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Bingkun; Song, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    The effects of dietary Zinc (Zn) supplementation on the gene expression of appetite regulatory peptides were investigated in Salmonella-infected broiler chickens. Broiler chickens (Arbor Acres, 1 day old) were allocated randomly into 24 pens of 10 birds. The chickens from 12 pens were fed with basal diet and the other with basal diet supplemented with Zn (ZnSO4·H2O, 120 mg/kg). At 5 days of age, the chickens were divided into 4 treatments with 6 pens: basal diet; basal diet and Salmonella challenge; Zn-supplemented diet; Zn-supplemented diet and Salmonella challenge. At 42 days of age, the hypothalamus from 6 chickens per treatment (1 chicken per pen) was individually collected for gene expression determination. Results showed that dietary supplementation of Zn reduced the gene expression of hypothalamic ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (P < 0.05). Salmonella infection upregulated the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and TNF-α. Zn supplementation and Salmonella inoculation were significantly correlated with the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2-1 (P < 0.05). However, neither dietary Zn supplementation nor Salmonella inoculation had significant effect on hypothalamic agouti-related protein, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and pro-opiomelanocortin. This study shows that dietary Zn supplementation promoted orexigenic appetite regulatory peptides and reduced the expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α in the hypothalamus of Salmonella-challenged broilers.

  20. Imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Cheng, Xiang-Chao; Li, Meng; Sun, Tong-Wen; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Guo, Wen; Li, Li

    2013-06-01

    This study explored the effect of imidapril on the right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 8), including the control group, low temperature group, and imidapril group. Chickens in the control group were raised at normal temperature, whereas chickens in the low temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 18°C) from 14 d of age until 45 d of age. At the same time, chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril at 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 d. The thickness of the right ventricular wall was observed with echocardiography. The BW and wet lung weight as well as weight of right and left ventricles and ventricular septum were measured. Both wet lung weight index and right ventricular hypertrophy index were calculated. Pulmonary arterial systolic pressure was assessed according to echocardiography. The expression of ACE and ACE2 mRNA in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was quantified by real-time PCR. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells were detected by immunohistostaining. The concentration of angiotensin (Ang) II and Ang (1-7) in the right ventricular myocardial tissue was measured with ELISA. The results showed that right ventricular hypertrophy index, wet lung weight index, pulmonary arterial systolic pressure, expression of ACE mRNA in the right ventricular tissue, Ang II concentration, and the thickness of the right ventricular wall in the low temperature group increased significantly compared with those in the control group and imidapril group. The ACE2 mRNA expression increased 36%, whereas Ang (1-7) concentration decreased significantly in the low temperature group compared with that in the control group and imidapril group. In conclusion, imidapril inhibits right ventricular remodeling induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

  1. Performance of broiler chickens supplemented with Bacillus coagulans as probiotic.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, V; Adami, A; Castrovilli, C

    1998-09-01

    1. A newly isolated Bacillus coagulans strain as probiotic was assayed as the only dietary additive for chickens. 2. Chickens receiving no additive at all or only virginiamycin were used for comparison. 3. Two trials each carried out on 75 chickens showed that, in terms of efficacy in growth and food conversion ratio, the B. coagulans biomass as a probiotic had a growth-promoting, prophylactic effect comparable to that of virginiamycin.

  2. A novel Lactobacillus plantarum strain P-8 activates beneficial immune response of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Caihong; Chen, Ma; Ya, Tuo; Huang, Weiqiang; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Heping

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether Lactobacillus plantarum P-8 may be used as an alternative to antibiotics in the broiler chicken diet, we compared P-8 and antibiotics for their immunobiotic properties and their effect on growth performance of broiler chickens in a 42-day trial. The results showed that P-8 provided similar benefits in weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency as antibiotics did. Importantly, P-8 activated protective immune responses of the broilers while antibiotics lacked this effect. P-8 induced higher fecal secretory IgA (sIgA) levels on day 42 (P≤0.027) and IgA(+) lymphocytes in the jejunum and Peyer's patches (PP) (P<0.001) compared to antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics reduced the IgA(+) lymphocytes in jejunum and PP on day 42 compared to the control. P-8 increased CD3(+) T cells in the small intestinal tissues in most test situations whereas antibiotics had fewer CD3(+) cells in PP and cecal tonsil compared with the control broilers at the end of the trial. In addition, P-8 increased CD4(+) T cells significantly in the intestinal tissues compared to both antibiotics and the control (P<0.0052). Both Th1 and Th2 cytokine expression were enhanced by P-8 on day 14, consistent with the clinical trial results showing probiotic benefits in diseases. Antibiotics up- and down-regulated interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4 and IL-10 transcripts in an age-dependent manner, and showed anti-inflammatory potential. These data indicate that P-8 may provide protective immune response to broilers while maintaining similar growth performance and may be a potential alternative to antibiotics supplemented in chicken feeds.

  3. The effect of phytase and fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth performance, bone quality, and phosphorus utilization in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Y; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A; Kim, W K

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phytase and 2 levels of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) supplementation on growth performance, bone mineralization, and P utilization of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chickens (Ross) were randomly placed into 7 dietary treatments consisting of 6 replicates with 5 birds per pen. The experiment was designed as an augmented 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 0 or 500 U/kg of phytase and 0, 0.5% or 1% of FOS added to a reduced Ca (0.8%) and available P (0.25%) negative control diet (NC). A positive control diet (PC) that contained 1% Ca and 0.45% available P was also included. During the entire experimental period, phytase supplementation significantly improved (P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio (FCR), BW gain (BWG), and feed intake. Birds fed the PC diet showed significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in both femur and tibia bones (P < 0.0001) than those fed the NC diet. Phytase supplementation increased femur BMD (P < 0.05), whereas FOS decreased femur BMD and BMC (P < 0.05). Phosphorus utilization was significantly higher for the NC diet (P < 0.0001). Phytase alone and in combination with 0.5% FOS increased P utilization significantly when compared with other treatments (P < 0.05). Fructooligosaccharides, especially at the level of 0.5%, increased P retention. In conclusion, phytase supplementation in low Ca and P diets improved growth performance, bone quality, and P utilization. However, supplementing NC diets with phytase and FOS did not result in bone mineralization values comparable with that of the PC diet. The application of dietary FOS alone had a negative effect on broiler bone quality.

  4. Fatty acid and energy metabolism in broiler chickens fed diets containing either beef tallow or an oil blend.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Yuangklang, C; Vasupen, K; Mitchaothai, J; Alhaidary, A; Mohamed, H E; Beynen, A C

    2011-04-01

    The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in more whole-body fatty acid oxidation than the feeding of saturated fatty acids (SFA). It was reasoned that the increased fatty acid oxidation would be associated with enhanced whole-body energy expenditure and stimulated de novo fatty acid synthesis. To put the hypothesis to the test, broiler chickens were fed diets containing either beef tallow as source of SFA or an oil blend as source of n-6 PUFA. The broilers either had free access to their diet or were fed a restricted amount. Seven-day-old, male broiler chickens were used; they were kept individually in cages from 1 to 4 weeks of age. In the birds fed ad libitum, the n-6 PUFA diet reduced average daily feed intake (ADFI), but did not significantly affect average daily weight gain (ADG) and the feed:conversion ratio (FCR). The lower ADFI on the n-6 PUFA diet was associated with a higher apparent digestibility of total fatty acids. The ratio of deposition in the body to intake of digestible total PUFA, which reflected n-6 PUFA, was significantly decreased by the n-6 PUFA diet, pointing at preferentially increased n-6 PUFA oxidation on the n-6 PUFA diet. The ratio for n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was higher than 1.0, which agrees with net de novo synthesis, but the n-6 PUFA diet induced a lower value than did the SFA diet. Feeding either the n-6 PUFA or SFA diet did not influence energy expenditure expressed as percentage of energy intake. This study supports the idea that dietary n-6 PUFA instead of SFA are preferentially oxidized, but no proof was obtained for enhanced energy expenditure and contrary to the hypothesis put forward, the n-6 PUFA diet depressed de-novo fatty acid synthesis.

  5. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin as dietary additives for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahim, S M; Haddadin, M S; Odetallah, N H; Robinson, R K

    1999-03-01

    The influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc bacitracin alone, or in combination, on the growth of broiler chickens was monitored over a period of 8 weeks. 2. The maximum improvement in body weight over the controls was 10.8% with both additives in the diet but the use of bacitracin alone induced a 9.1% improvement. 3. Food conversion was reduced by zinc bacitracin alone but was improved by the use of L. acidophilus and bacitracin in combination. 4. The combination treatment increased abdominal fat deposition in the female chickens by 31%.

  6. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xue-Qin; Zhang, Shou-Yan; Li, Meng; Yang, Zhen; Niu, Ming-Fu; Sun, Tong-Wen; Yang, Dan-Li; Kong, Tao; Li, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to explore the role of imidapril on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. Ninety chickens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 30): a control group, a low-temperature group and an imidapril group. Chickens in the low-temperature group and imidapril group were exposed to low ambient temperature from 14 days of age until 45 days of age; chickens in the imidapril group were gavaged with imidapril 3 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. The pulmonary arterial pressure, main pulmonary arterial diameter and pulmonary arterial wall thickness were measured, and lung tissue ACE, ACE2 mRNA expression, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells and Ang II, Ang (1-7) concentration were evaluated. The pulmonary arterial pressure was higher, the main pulmonary arterial diameter was wider and the pulmonary arterial wall was thicker in the low-temperature group than those in the control group and the imidapril group. ACE mRNA and PCNA-positive cells increased significantly in the low-temperature group compared with the control group and imidapril group; lung tissue Ang II concentration in the low-temperature group was higher, but Ang (1-7) content was lower than that in the control group and imidapril group. Imidapril provides a protective effect on pulmonary hypertension induced by low ambient temperature in broiler chickens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Broiler Chickens 1: Factors Related to Flock Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hemsworth, Paul H.; Groves, Peter J.; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Free-range chicken meat consumption has increased. However, little is known about how meat chickens use the outdoor range. Understanding ranging behaviour could help improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. We tracked 1200 individual broiler chickens in four mixed sex flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. More chickens accessed the range in summer than winter. Chickens that accessed the range in winter did so less frequently and for a shorter period of time daily than chickens ranging in summer. The number of chickens ranging and the frequency and duration of range visits increased over the first two weeks of range access and stabilised thereafter. More chickens entered and exited the range through particular doors in the shed. More chickens ranged in the morning and evening compared to the middle of the day. Ranging behaviour decreased with increased rainfall and shed dew point. This study provides knowledge regarding ranging behaviour in commercial conditions that may guide improvements on farm to provide chickens with optimal ranging opportunities. Abstract Little is known about the ranging behaviour of chickens. Understanding ranging behaviour is required to improve management and shed and range design to ensure optimal ranging opportunities. Using Radio Frequency Identification technology, we tracked 300 individual broiler chickens in each of four mixed sex ROSS 308 flocks on one commercial farm across two seasons. Ranging behaviour was tracked from the first day of range access (21 days of age) until 35 days of age in winter and 44 days of age in summer. Range use was higher than previously reported from scan sampling studies. More chickens accessed the range in summer (81%) than winter (32%; p < 0.05). On average, daily frequency and duration of range use was greater in summer flocks (4.4 ± 0.1 visits for a total of 26.3 ± 0.8 min/day) than winter flocks (3.2 ± 0.2 visits for a total

  8. Effect of intermittent feeding, structural components and phytase on performance and behaviour of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Svihus, B; Lund, V B; Borjgen, B; Bedford, M R; Bakken, M

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent feeding on performance and the efficacy of an exogenous phytase, and to assess whether intermittent feeding changed the activity pattern of broiler chickens. 2. Broiler chickens were given, either ad libitum or intermittently, a phosphorus deficient pelleted diet containing either coarsely or finely ground oat hulls and either no enzyme or a phytase added from 10 d of age, in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Ad libitum feeding consisted of continuous access to feed in a room with 18 h of light and 6 h of complete darkness, whereas birds on intermittent feeding had restricted access to feed from 7 d of age, with 4 1-h feeding bouts/d and one 2-h feeding bout/d from d 14. 3. Performance, characteristics of the anterior digestive tract and phosphorus retention were assessed in experiment 1, while in experiment 2, birds were observed during 4-h periods to quantify different behaviours. 4. Intermittent feeding and phytase improved performance, but intermittent feeding did not improve the efficacy of the enzyme added. Ad libitum fed broiler chickens ate and drank on average twice per hour, and spent close to three-quarters of their time resting. Apart from an increased standing and feed searching activity for intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds during the last hour before feed was presented, no differences in activity was detected. 5. It was concluded that broiler chickens quickly adapt to intermittent feeding without reduction in final body weight and with improvements in feed efficiency, but without improving the efficacy of dietary phytase. Only small changes occur in the behaviour of intermittently fed birds compared to ad libitum fed birds.

  9. Evaluation of Relative Bioavailability of 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol to Cholecalciferol for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Han, J. C.; Chen, G. H.; Wang, J. G.; Zhang, J. L.; Qu, H. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Yan, Y. F.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relative bioavailability (RBV) of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3) to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in 1- to 21-d-old broiler chickens fed with calcium (Ca)- and phosphorus (P)-deficient diets. On the day of hatch, 450 female Ross 308 broiler chickens were assigned to nine treatments, with five replicates of ten birds each. The basal diet contained 0.50% Ca and 0.25% non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) and was not supplemented with vitamin D. Vitamin D3 was fed at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 μg/kg, and 25-OH-D3 was fed at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 μg/kg. The RBV of 25-OH-D3 was determined using vitamin D3 as the standard source by the slope ratio method. Vitamin D3 and 25-OH-D3 intake was used as the independent variable for regression analysis. The linear relationships between the level of vitamin D3 or 25-OH-D3 and body weight gain (BWG) and the weight, length, ash weight, and the percentage of ash, Ca, and P in femur, tibia, and metatarsus of broiler chickens were observed. Using BWG as the criterion, the RBV value of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 was 1.85. Using the mineralization of the femur, tibia, and metatarsus as criteria, the RBV of 25-OH-D3 to vitamin D3 ranged from 1.82 to 2.45, 1.86 to 2.52, and 1.65 to 2.05, respectively. These data indicate that 25-OH-D3 is approximately 2.03 times as active as vitamin D3 in promoting growth performance and bone mineralization in broiler chicken diets. PMID:26954155

  10. Chicken parvovirus viral loads in cloacal swabs from malabsorption syndrome-affected and healthy broilers.

    PubMed

    Finkler, Fabrine; de Lima, Diane Alves; Cerva, Cristine; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) has been associated with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers. However, the participation of this virus in such syndrome is unclear, since it may be detected in diseased and healthy chickens. In the course of these studies, it was argued whether ChPV genome loads might be correlated to the occurrence of MAS. To check such a hypothesis, a SYBR green-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect and quantify ChPV genomes. Cloacal swabs from 68 broilers with MAS and 59 from healthy animals were collected from different poultry farms. Genomes of ChPV were detected in all samples, regardless of their health status. However, viral genome loads in MAS-affected broilers were significantly higher (1 × 10(5) genome copies per 100 ng DNA) than in healthy animals (1.3 × 10(3) GC/100 ng DNA). These findings indicate that there is an association between high ChPV genome loads and the occurrence of MAS in broilers.

  11. Absorption and tissue distribution of dietary quercetin and quercetin glycosides of apple skin in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha; Ronalds, Clinton M; Rathgeber, Bruce; Robinson, Robin A

    2010-05-01

    Apple skins are a rich source of flavonols, in particular quercetin (Q) glycosides. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Q metabolites in plasma, various tissues, and excreta when the commercial broiler chicken's diet was supplemented with Q (0, 50, 150, 300, or 600 mg kg(-1) body weight per day), an apple skin extract (ASE; 50, 150 mg total phenolics kg(-1) body weight per day), or a dried apple skin powder (ASP; 50 mg total phenolics kg(-1) body weight per day). When Q was supplemented for 3 days, Q sulfate, Q glucuronide, Q glucoside glucuronide, Q glucoside sulfate, and isorhamnetin glucoside were detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the liver and duodenum. Deconjugated Q was also detected in the breast and thigh tissues of ASE- and ASP-supplemented broilers. Regardless of the source or concentration of Q, the antioxidant capacity measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay in the plasma and tissues of the broilers did not change significantly. As far as is known, this is the first report to demonstrate that Q and its glycosides can be absorbed and metabolized by broiler chickens.

  12. Effects of dietary supplementation of red ginseng marc and α-tocopherol on the growth performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Jik; Lee, Gee-Dong; Choi, In-Hag

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of supplementation of broiler diets with red ginseng marc and α-tocopherol on the growth performance and meat quality during a 35-day feeding period. A total of 225 Hubbard male broiler chicks were fed diets supplemented with 0%, 1%, 2% and 3% red ginseng marc, or 2% red ginseng marc + 200 IU α-tocopherol kg(-1) and randomly allocated to five dietary groups (15 floor pens), so that each group had three replicates and 15 broilers per pen (0.09 m(2) per bird). There were no differences among the treated groups with regard to growth performance and proximate composition, except for mortality and crude fat in broilers. Serum cholesterol levels were lower in the chickens receiving diets supplemented with red ginseng marc and α-tocopherol than those in the control. With the exception of water-holding capacity or shear force values, increasing levels of red ginseng marc and a combination of red ginseng marc and α-tocopherol affected chicken thigh meat quality by decreasing the pH and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and increasing the total phenol and DPPH-radical scavenging compared with those in the control. Broiler diets with increasing levels of red ginseng marc and the combination of red ginseng marc and α-tocopherol did not affect the color of thigh muscle, but the treatment significantly increased a* values. Supplementation of poultry diets with 3% red ginseng marc markedly reduced mortality and serum cholesterol levels and remarkably improved meat quality in broilers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Green tea polyphenols alleviate obesity in broiler chickens through the regulation of lipid-metabolism-related genes and transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinbao; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Yibin; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2013-09-11

    The current study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on lipid metabolism and its mechanisms using broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 36 male chickens (35 days old) had been subjected to an oral administration of GTPs at a dosage of 0, 50 (low), and 100 (high) mg/kg of body weight for 20 days. Our results showed that GTPs significantly decreased the abdominal and subcutaneous fat masses of broilers and reduced the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared to those of the control. Furthermore, the expression levels for lipid anabolism genes were significantly downregulated, while the expression levels of fat transportation and catabolism-related genes, carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT-I), acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) in liver, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) in abdominal fat, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscles, were notably upregulated. Our data have revealed that GTPs alleviate obesity and serum lipid levels in broiler chickens by suppressing fatty acid synthesis and stimulating lipolysis.

  14. Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Ke; Wang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Tang, Chun-Hong; Wei, Xiu-Li

    2016-08-15

    To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p<0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher fatty acid synthase and AMP-activated protein kinase activities were observed in the treatment groups (p<0.05). Chickens fed with normal diets had the lowest serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels which differed from that of other treatments (p<0.05). High-P diets significantly decreased the lipid accumulation in the liver (p<0.01), whereas phosphorus levels in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.01). It can be concluded that deficient or higher P levels could affect meat quality and expression of indicators on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens.

  15. Antibiotic resistance of Clostridium perfringens isolates from broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, K M; Elhariri, M

    2013-12-01

    The use of antibiotic feed additives in broiler chickens results in a high prevalence of resistance among their enteric bacteria, with a consequent emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic enteropathogens. Despite growing concerns about the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains, which show varying prevalences in different geographic regions, little work has been done to investigate this issue in the Middle East. This study provides insight into one of the world's most common and financially crippling poultry diseases, necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens. The study was designed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in C. perfringens isolates from clinical cases of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens in Egypt. A total of 125 isolates were obtained from broiler flocks in 35 chicken coops on 17 farms and were tested using the disc diffusion method. All 125 isolates were resistant to gentamicin, streptomycin, oxolinic acid, lincomycin, erythromycin and spiramycin. The prevalence of resistance to other antibiotics was also high: rifampicin (34%), chloramphenicol (46%), spectinomycin (50%), tylosin-fosfomycin (52%), ciprofloxacin (58%), norfloxacin (67%), oxytetracycline (71%), flumequine (78%), enrofloxacin (82%), neomycin (93%), colistin (94%), pefloxacin (94%), doxycycline (98%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (98%). It is recommended that C. perfringens infections in Egypt should be treated with antibiotics for which resistant isolates are rare at present; namely, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephradine, fosfomycin and florfenicol.

  16. Modification of fatty acid composition in broiler chickens fed canola oil.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, María A; Pérez, Druso D; Leighton, Federico M

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the possibility of modifying the composition of fat tissue in broiler chickens fed canola oil, which is high in monounsaturated fatty acids. 128 one-day old broiler chickens, randomly assigned into 4 groups of 32 chicks each, received one of four diets containing 15% oil with different percentages of canola oil (diet 1: 0% canola oil, diet 2: 5% canola oil, diet 3: 10% canola oil and diet 4: 15% canola oil), for 31 days. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups of 8 chicks. The birds were sacrificed at day 45 to obtain tissue samples. The fatty acid composition was measured in meat (legs and breasts), fat (abdominal and subcutaneous) and plasma. An increase in oleic acid (p<0.01) was detected, as well as a decrease in linoleic acid (p<0.01), together with a slight increase in α-linolenic acid (p<0.05) with a higher percentage of canola oil. The composition of fat tissue was more representative of the dietary fatty acids than muscle tissue. In conclusion, canola oil increased the content of omega 9 and omega 3 fatty acids and decreased the content of omega 6 fatty acids in meat, fat and plasma in broiler chickens.

  17. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  18. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  19. Evaluation of homeopathy in broiler chickens exposed to live viral vaccines and administered Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Sagherian, Vatché; Talhouk, Salma; Talhouk, Rabih; Farran, Mohamad T; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Harakeh, Steve

    2004-08-01

    In this study it was determined that a Calendula officinalis water extract can reduce the immune response to three different viruses in broiler chickens, associated with improvement in body weights. The experiment was conducted on broiler chickens divided into two groups of 105 birds each. The first group received a Calendula officinalis water extract orally, while the second group received drinking water only. All birds in the two groups were similarly exposed to three different live vaccine viruses. Quantitative assessment of humoral immunity to each of the 3 viruses and records of bursal and thymus weight indices were taken. Performance, as observed in weight records at 21 and 41 days of age, feed conversion, and% mortality up to market age, was also evaluated. There was a reduction in immune response to IB virus at 42 days of age, to ND virus at 29 and 42 days of age, and to IBD virus at 14, 29, and 42 days of age in the Calendula officinals-treated birds in comparison with controls. This immune reduction in Calendula officinalis-treated birds was associated with insignificant reduction in the bursal weight index at 42 days of age and an improvement in mean weights at 21 and 41 days of age; the feed conversion and mortality rates were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). Calendula officinalis had an immunomodulation effect against three different live viruses in broiler chickens.

  20. Effect of dietary astaxanthin rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, on meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Perenlei, Ganzaya; Tojo, Hitomi; Okada, Toru; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated effects of dietary supplementation with astaxanthin (Ax)-rich yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous), on broiler chicken meat quality. Fourteen-day-old female Ross broilers were divided into three groups: control group, Ax-free diet; Ax 10 group, 10 mg/kg Ax diet; and Ax 20 group, 20 mg/kg Ax diet for 28 days. At 42 days old, chickens were slaughtered, and then growth performance, meat quality and sensory attributes were analyzed. Compared with the control, a* values increased significantly after slaughter and 48 h postmortem for Ax 20 samples (P<0.05) and for b* values in Ax 20 and Ax 10 groups (P<0.05). Cooking loss decreased in the Ax 20 group (P<0.05). After 120 h aging, contents of several free amino acids and total free amino acid content of Ax 20 group were significantly higher than the control (P<0.05). In sensory evaluation, meat texture attributes improved significantly in the Ax 20 group (P<0.01). No significant changes occurred in flavor attribute scores of meat soup from the Ax 20 group compared with the control even though most assessors preferred meat soup from the Ax 20 group. Overall, Ax-rich yeast in the diet improves broiler chicken meat quality.

  1. Apple peel waste as a natural antioxidant for heat-stressed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Heidarisafar, Zahra; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali; Karimi, Ahmad; Azizi, Osman

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of processed apple peel waste (APW), alone or in combination with an enzyme, as a natural antioxidant on broiler chickens under heat stress. A total of 360 unsexed, 28-day-old broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments with four replicates (15 broilers per pen). The experiment consisted of a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of apple peel waste (0, 50 or 100 g/kg of diet) and two levels of enzyme (0 or 500 mg/kg, ZY Multi(®)). Inclusion of 100-g APW/kg of diet decreased broiler weight gain at 42 days of age. Inclusion of 50 and 100-g APW/kg of diet increased gizzard and small intestine weights. Feeding 50 and 100-g APW/kg increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and malondialdehyde in blood serum at 49 days of age. At 49 days of age, apparent ileal protein digestibility was reduced when 50 and 100-g APW/kg were used in the diet. This study showed that feeding APW up to 50 g/kg from 28 to 49 days of age increased HDL cholesterol and decreased LDL cholesterol in serum and had no adverse effect on broiler performance.

  2. Preslaughter mortality in broiler chickens, turkeys, and spent hens under commercial slaughtering.

    PubMed

    Petracci, M; Bianchi, M; Cavani, C; Gaspari, P; Lavazza, A

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of dead on arrival (DOA) birds was surveyed over 33 broiler, 11 turkey, and 19 spent hen abattoirs representing the majority (around 70%) of the Italian poultry slaughter plants. Data were recorded monthly during a 4-yr period (August 2001 to July 2005), considering a total of 1266 million chicken broilers, 118 million turkeys, and 54 million spent hens, which represent 67.7, 84.0, and 28.4% of the national production, respectively. The overall average incidence of DOA was found to be 0.35, 0.38, and 1.22% in broilers, turkeys, and spent hens, respectively. The season significantly (P < or = 0.01) influenced the mortality of all considered poultry categories, with higher incidence being observed during the summer (0.47, 0.52, and 1.62% for broilers, turkeys, and spent layers, respectively). The incidence of DOA broilers was found to be lower in small slaughter plants compared with medium and large slaughter plants (0.28 vs. 0.38 and 0.35%, P < or = 0.01). The data obtained in this study might be used for establishing limit values of DOA as a welfare indicator during the preslaughter time of birds, including catching, loading, transportation, and lairage.

  3. An extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenolic compounds has antioxidant effects in meat-type broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Laudadio, Vito; Casalino, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) in the liver of broiler chickens not subjected to any form of insult. A total of 120 male broiler chickens (Hubbard strain) were divided into three groups and fed ad libitum with three isoenergetic diets from hatching until slaughter age (49 days) on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 2.5% added oil or fat from three sources as follows: diet containing sunflower oil (SFO); diet containing lard (LRD), and diet containing extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The activity of the main antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GS-Px) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content, was measured in the liver of chickens. The susceptibility to undergo lipid peroxidation was assessed by exposing liver homogenate to 30 °C or to an ascorbate/iron mixture as pro-oxidant system. Dietary oil or fat type improved significantly (P < 0.05) the body weight and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed EVOO compared to those fed with the other treatments. Supplementing EVOO in the diet significantly (P < 0.05) reduced lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant defense system. These findings, besides adding more results on the antioxidant effect of extra-virgin olive oil on liver of other experimental model other than rats and humans, could be significant for animal welfare, with consequent benefits for both producers and consumers.

  4. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding. PMID:27760160

  5. Molecular Differences in Hepatic Metabolism between AA Broiler and Big Bone Chickens: A Proteomic Study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Chang, Wenhuan; Liu, Guohua; Yue, Ying; Li, Jianke; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Yang, Aijun; Chen, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the metabolic differences in the livers of modern broilers and local chicken breeds is important for understanding their biological characteristics, and many proteomic changes in their livers are not well characterized. We therefore analyzed the hepatic protein profiles of a commercial breed, Arbor Acres (AA) broilers, and a local dual purpose breed, Big Bone chickens, using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization-quadruple time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 145 proteins were identified as having differential abundance in the two breeds at three growth stages. Among them, 49, 63 and 54 belonged to 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age, respectively. The higher abundance proteins in AA broilers were related to the energy production pathways suggesting enhanced energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, the higher abundance proteins in Big Bone chickens showed enhanced lipid degradation, resulting in a reduction in the abdominal fat percentage. Along with the decrease in fat deposition, flavor substance synthesis in the meat of the Big Bone chickens may be improved by enhanced abundance of proteins involved in glycine metabolism. In addition, the identified proteins in nucleotide metabolism, antioxidants, cell structure, protein folding and transporters may be critically important for immune defense, gene transcription and other biological processes in the two breeds. These results indicate that selection pressure may have shaped the two lines differently resulting in different hepatic metabolic capacities and extensive metabolic differences in the liver. The results from this study may help provide the theoretical basis for chicken breeding.

  6. Prevalence of Salmonella on retail broiler chicken meat carcasses in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Clavijo, Viviana; León, Maribel; Tafur, Mc Allister; Gonzales, Sebastian; Hume, Michael; Alali, Walid; Walls, Isabel; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Doyle, M P

    2012-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella on retail market chicken carcasses in Colombia. A total of 1,003 broiler chicken carcasses from 23 departments (one city per department) were collected via a stratified sampling method. Carcass rinses were tested for the presence of Salmonella by conventional culture methods. Salmonella strains were isolated from 27 % of the carcasses sampled. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine potential risk factors for Salmonella contamination associated with the chicken production system (conventional versus free-range), storage condition (chilled versus frozen), retail store type (supermarket, independent, and wet market), poultry company (integrated company versus nonintegrated company), and socioeconomic stratum. Chickens from a nonintegrated poultry company were associated with a significantly (P < 0.05) greater risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 2.0) than were chickens from an integrated company. Chilled chickens had a significantly (P < 0.05) higher risk of Salmonella contamination (odds ratio, 4.3) than did frozen chicken carcasses.

  7. Antimicrobial use surveillance in broiler chicken flocks in Canada, 2013-2015

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Rebecca J.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%). The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg). Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks), virginiamycin (25%) and avilamycin (21%), mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU) the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU), and penicillins (15 mg/PCU), whereas when using a number of

  8. Effect of Chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R.; Morgan, Marion J.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×105 colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 105 CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment. PMID:24237042

  9. Effects of structure and xylanase treatment of brewers' spent grain on performance and nutrient availability in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Denstadli, V; Westereng, B; Biniyam, H G; Ballance, S; Knutsen, S H; Svihus, B

    2010-06-01

    1. A factorial (2 x 3) feeding trial was set up to investigate the effects of coarse or finely ground brewers' spent grain (BSG) and xylanase treatment, either with no xylanase, top-dressed with xylanase or pre-treated with xylanase. 2. The experimental diets shared the same basal formulation and were fed to male broiler chickens (Ross 308) housed in individual cages from 12 to 29 d of age. 3. Xylanase pre-treatment reduced the dietary concentration of arabinoxylan by 15-30%. Pellet durability increased when BSG was ground. 4. Feed utilisation was significantly higher (6%) when the birds were given coarse BSG rather than ground BSG, whereas there was no significant effect of enzyme treatment. Apparent metabolisable energy was unaffected by the dietary treatments. 5. The overall starch digestibility was high (99%), with no dietary differences, whereas ileal protein digestibility was low (57%). Xylanase top-dressing tended to improve ileal protein digestibility but, in general, xylanase treatment had no major effect on overall performance in male broilers given diets with BSG.

  10. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  11. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  12. Combined effects of muscular dystrophy, ecological stress, and selenium on blood antioxidant status in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Nedyalka V; Stoyanchev, Krasimir; Bozakova, Nadia; Jotova, Ivanka

    2011-09-01

    The results obtained in this study demonstrated that experimentally induced alimentary muscular dystrophy (MD) in Cobb 500 broiler chickens resulted in increased plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), deviations in activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes Cu,Zn-SOD (decrease), and CAT (increase) as well as reduction in plasma concentrations of trace elements Cu, Zn, and Se in affected birds. These data evidenced the presence of oxidative stress in birds with MD, reared both under conditions of ecological comfort and ecological stress. The increased MDA and САТ levels and the reduced Cu,Zn-SOD, Cu, Zn, and Se concentrations in healthy chickens reared under unfavorable microclimatic conditions such as higher air temperature and humidity, higher ammonia concentrations, and lower light intensity were indicative about an induced ecological stress. After the 10-day oral treatment with a selenium-containing preparation, the levels of MDA, Cu,Zn-SOD, CAT, Cu, Zn, and Se attained their normal values in chickens with MD, reared under ecologically comfortable conditions. According to our results, ecological stress was shown to exert independently a significant adverse effect upon the levels of the studied parameters and possibly to be a cause for their slower and not complete normalization despite the selenium therapy in experimental broiler chickens.

  13. Effects of dietary fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. on growth performance, digestibility, and intestinal microbiology and morphology in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong Mei; Song, Hui; Xing, Ya Li; Niu, Shu Li; Ding, Guo Dong; Jiang, Yun Yao; Liang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of fermentation concentrate of Hericium caput-medusae (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (HFC) on growth performance, digestibility, intestinal microbiology, and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 600 male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into five dietary treatments (20 broilers per pen with six pens per treatment): CON (basal diet), ANT (basal diet supplemented with 5 mg kg(-1) flavomycin) and HFC (basal diet supplemented with 6, 12, and 18 g kg(-1) HFC). The experimental lasted for 42 days. The results revealed that the average daily gain [linear (L), P < 0.01; quadratic (Q), P < 0.01] of broilers increased when the HFC levels increased during the starter (days 1-21), finisher (days 22-42), and the overall experiment period (days 1 to 42). In the small intestinal digesta and the caecum digesta, the Escherichia coli count (L, P < 0.05; Q, P < 0.001) decreased while the Lactobacilli count (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) and Bifidobacteria count (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. The crude protein digestibility of broilers (L, P < 0.01; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. In the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of broilers, the villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio (L, P < 0.001; Q, P < 0.001) increased when the HFC levels increased. Dietary supplementation with HFC increased gut Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria counts and inhibited E. coli growth, improved nutrient utilisation and intestine villus structure, and thus improved the growth of broilers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Changing the incubation temperature during embryonic myogenesis influences the weight performance and meat quality of male and female broilers.

    PubMed

    Janisch, S; Sharifi, A R; Wicke, M; Krischek, C

    2015-10-01

    Eggs of broilers were initially incubated at 37.8°C, then at 38.8°C (group H) and 36.8°C (group L) between embryonic days 7 to 10 (time A) and days 10 to 13 (time B) and further incubated at 37.8°C until hatching. The chicks were fattened until day 35 and then slaughtered. The effect of treatment, time, and sex and their interactions on carcass and meat quality traits were determined. No significant impact of the "treatment time" was analysed, but "treatment" and "sex" and their interactions influenced (P < 0.05) the different parameters. After hatching, group L broilers were heavier (P < 0.05), followed by slower growth compared to group H chicken. At slaughter day, body, carcass, and leg weights of group H broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and yield results lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L animals. pH, drip loss, shear force, and lightness values of group H broiler breast muscles were higher (P < 0.05) and grill loss and redness values lower (P < 0.05) compared to group L Musculus pectoralis superficialis (MPS). Body, carcass, MPS, and leg weights, leg yields and grill loss and lightness values of the male broiler were higher (P < 0.05) and drip loss results lower (P < 0.05) than the female birds. Male group H broiler showed lower (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS yields compared to the control and group L males, whereas females group H birds had higher (P < 0.05) carcass and MPS weights and lower leg yields (P < 0.05) than the female group L animals. The study shows that an increasing incubation temperature during early embryogenesis positively influences the growth and carcass traits of the broilers, accompanied with a partly negative impact on meat quality (drip loss, shear force, lightness). The growth effects were sex-dependent, as significant weight differences could be only found in female broilers. The results indicate that incubation temperature alteration influences molecular mechanisms in the muscle and other tissues with an impact on growth after

  15. Precaecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphate sources in male broilers

    PubMed Central

    Bikker, P.; Spek, J. W.; Van Emous, R. A.; Van Krimpen, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study, comprising two experiments, was (1) to determine in Experiment 1 the relationship of incremental dietary P (phosphorus) content on precaecal digestible P in male broilers and (2) to determine in Experiment 2 the precaecal P digestibility of various inorganic P sources at marginal levels of P supply.In Experiment 1, a total of 260 male Ross 308 broilers were divided into groups of 10 birds per pen resulting in 8 replicates for treatment 1 and 6 replicates for treatments 2–4. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 4 incremental concentrations of digestible P by means of increasing concentrations of monocalcium phosphate (MCP). In the second experiment, 480-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were divided in groups of 12 birds per pen resulting in 16 replicates for the basal diet and 6 replicates for each test diet. A total of 4 inorganic P sources, MCP, monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP) were added to the basal diet to determine the precaecal P digestibility. Three of the 4 inorganic P sources (MCP, MDCP and DCP) represented a mix of batches from different producers. At the end of both experiments, the chyme of the posterior part of the small intestine was collected. Digestibility of P and Ca was determined using titanium dioxide as indigestible marker.In Experiment 1, a reduction in precaecal digestibility of P was observed above an estimated precaecal digestible dietary P concentration of 4.8 g/kg.The precaecal P digestibility of the tested inorganic P sources in Experiment 2 was 78.3% for MCP, 59.0% for DCP, 70.7% for MDCP and 31.5% for DFP. PMID:27635437

  16. Precaecal phosphorus digestibility of inorganic phosphate sources in male broilers.

    PubMed

    Bikker, P; Spek, J W; Van Emous, R A; Van Krimpen, M M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study, comprising two experiments, was (1) to determine in Experiment 1 the relationship of incremental dietary P (phosphorus) content on precaecal digestible P in male broilers and (2) to determine in Experiment 2 the precaecal P digestibility of various inorganic P sources at marginal levels of P supply. In Experiment 1, a total of 260 male Ross 308 broilers were divided into groups of 10 birds per pen resulting in 8 replicates for treatment 1 and 6 replicates for treatments 2-4. Experimental diets were formulated to contain 4 incremental concentrations of digestible P by means of increasing concentrations of monocalcium phosphate (MCP). In the second experiment, 480-d-old male Ross 308 broilers were divided in groups of 12 birds per pen resulting in 16 replicates for the basal diet and 6 replicates for each test diet. A total of 4 inorganic P sources, MCP, monodicalcium phosphate (MDCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and defluorinated phosphate (DFP) were added to the basal diet to determine the precaecal P digestibility. Three of the 4 inorganic P sources (MCP, MDCP and DCP) represented a mix of batches from different producers. At the end of both experiments, the chyme of the posterior part of the small intestine was collected. Digestibility of P and Ca was determined using titanium dioxide as indigestible marker. In Experiment 1, a reduction in precaecal digestibility of P was observed above an estimated precaecal digestible dietary P concentration of 4.8 g/kg. The precaecal P digestibility of the tested inorganic P sources in Experiment 2 was 78.3% for MCP, 59.0% for DCP, 70.7% for MDCP and 31.5% for DFP.

  17. Age- and sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric and geometric parameters of tibiotarsal bone in Ross broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Charuta, Anna; Dzierzecka, Małgorzata; Komosa, Marcin; Kalinowski, Łukasz; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2013-01-01

    For the first time computed tomography has been used to analyze densitometric and geometric parameters in proximal metaphyses and the mid-diaphyses of tibiotarsal bones in broiler chickens in posthatching development as influenced by age and sex. The research was conducted on 60 tibial bones of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) (10 males and 10 females in each age group). Statistical analysis has been conducted with the use of one-way ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Calculations have been performed separately for each sex, with age as a differentiation variable and separately for each of the developmental stages, with sex as a differentiation factor. Pearson's correlation coefficient have been calculated. Also, relative bone density has been determined. It was observed that volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in the diaphyses was two times higher (app. 550 cm3) than in the proximal metaphyses (app. 230 cm ) of the tibiae in broiler chickens. In the proximal metaphyses of the tibiotarsal bones, densitometric and geometrical parameters increased with age of the birds. Densitometric parameters (vBMD, BMC) in 6-week-old males displayed (slightly) higher values than in females. It is worth emphasising that in both sexes bone mineral content (BMC) was higher in the tibial proximal metaphyses than in the diaphyses. At the mid-diaphysis, most of the densitometric and geometrical parameters, i.e. bone mineral content (BMC), Strength-Strain Index (SSI), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endosteal circumference (ENDO_C), cortical area(CRT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A) and bone area (TOT_A), tended to grow with the birds' age. vBMD (volumetric bone mineral density in situ) is the only parameter that did not grow with age. It was also observed that in males in 4 wk, vBMD in the proximal metaphyses displayed the lowest values during posthatching development (217.47 cm3). Also between 2 and 4 wk of the development, vBMD in the diaphyses decreased from 637.64 cm3

  18. Effect of silver nanoparticles on growth performance, metabolism and microbial profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Lane; Chwalibog, Andrè; Sawosz, Ewa; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Engberg, Ricarda; Elnif, Jan; Hotowy, Anna; Sawosz, Filip; Gao, Yuhong; Ali, Abdalla; Moghaddam, Heshmat Sepehri

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNano) as an antimicrobial growth-promoting supplement for broiler chickens. One hundred forty-four seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly to AgNano treatments at 0, 10 and 20 mg/kg (Control, Group AgNano10, and Group AgNano20, respectively) provided via the drinking water from day 7 to 36 post-hatching. Body weight and feed consumption were measured weekly. In addition, balance and respiration experiments were carried out to determine nitrogen (N) utilisation and energy retention. At days 22 and 36, blood samples and intestinal content were collected to evaluate the effects of AgNano on plasma concentration of immunoglobulins and the intestinal microflora, respectively. The provision of water solutions containing different concentrations of AgNano had no effect on postnatal growth performance and the energy metabolism of broiler chickens. However, in Group AgNano10 N intake (p = 0.05) and retention (p = 0.03) was increased, but N excretion and efficiency of utilisation was not affected. The populations of bacteria in the intestinal samples were not affected by AgNano supplementation. The concentration of immunoglobulin (IgG) in the blood plasma of broilers supplemented with AgNano decreased at day 36 (p = 0.012). The results demonstrated that AgNano affects N utilisation and plasma IgG concentration; however, it does not influence the microbial populations in the digestive tract, the energy metabolism and growth performance of chickens.

  19. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  20. An L-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an L-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator (P<0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio (P<0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls (P<0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  1. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with the Combination of Zeolite and Attapulgite on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Secretion of Digestive Enzymes and Intestinal Health in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, P.; Tan, Y. Q.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y. M.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of basal diets supplemented with a clay product consisting of zeolite and attapulgite (ZA) at 1:1 ratio on growth performance, digestibility of feed nutrients, activities of digestive enzymes in small intestine and intestinal health in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 112 one-day-old male chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups with 8 replicates of 7 chickens each. In experiment 2, 84 one-day-old male chickens were randomly allocated into 2 groups consisting 6 replicates of 7 chickens each. The experimental diets both consisted of a maize-soybean basal control diet supplemented with 0% or 2% ZA. The diets were fed from 1 to 42 days of age. The results showed that ZA supplementation could increase body weight gain (BWG) and feed intake (FI), but had no significant effect on feed conversion ratio. The apparent digestibility values of crude protein and gross energy were significantly increased (p<0.05) by ZA from 14 to 16 d and 35 to 37 d. Dietary ZA treatment significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of amylase, lipase and trypsin in jejunal digesta and the activities of maltase and sucrase in jejunal mucosa on days 21 and 42. The ZA supplementation also significantly increased (p<0.05) the catalase activity, reduced (p<0.05) the malondialdehyde concentration in the jejunal mucosa. In addition, a decrease of serum diamine oxidase activity and an increase (p<0.05) in concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A in jejunal mucosa were observed in birds treated with ZA on 21 and 42 days. It is concluded that ZA supplementation (2%) could partially improve the growth performance by increasing BWG and FI. This improvement was achieved through increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes, enhancing the digestibilites of nutrients, promoting intestinal health of broiler chickens. PMID:25178375

  2. Estimating danofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens based on physiologically based pharmacokinetics modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Sun, N; Liu, Y M; Zeng, Z L

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was firstly developed for danofloxacin in healthy broiler chickens after a single oral administration at 5 mg/kg bw. Then, the model extrapolation from healthy chickens to those infected with Pasteurella multocidaones was performed. The healthy model was validated through a comparison of predicted and previously published concentrations, which indicated that the healthy PBPK model had good predictive ability in plasma, lung, muscle, liver, and kidney, especially at the later sampling time points. Multiple dosing of administration was incorporated into the healthy and infected models. In addition, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into both models to predict the withdrawal times of danofloxacin in healthy and infected chickens, which were estimated to be 3 and 2 days, respectively.

  3. Reduction of Salmonella typhimurium concentration in broiler chickens by milk or whey.

    PubMed

    DeLoach, J R; Oyofo, B A; Corrier, D E; Kubena, L F; Ziprin, R L; Norman, J O

    1990-01-01

    Whey (5%) in the feed of chicks for the first 10 days of life reduced the mean log10 number of viable S. typhimurium from 5.68 in control chickens to 3.38 in whey-fed chickens. Lactose in drinking water or reconstituted dry milk (5% wt: vol) in drinking water reduced the mean log10 number of S. typhimurium to 2.60 and 2.11, respectively. Milk (5% wt: wt) in feed was not effective in reducing S. typhimurium colonization. The lack of effect of milk in the feed is believed to be because not enough lactose was provided at the 5% (wt: wt) concentration. Lactose in whey or nonfat dried milk offers alternatives to the use of pure lactose in preventing or lowering S. typhimurium numbers in young broiler chickens.

  4. Laboratory study of methane production from broiler-chicken litter

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.; Huang, J.J.H.

    1980-01-01

    North Carolina is one of the largest poultry-production states in the United States. Although a considerable amount of work has been done on methane production from livestock, brewery, and municipal wastes, little is known concerning poultry waste. Consequently, a laboratory study was conducted to delineate the potential for thermophilic (60/sup 0/C) methane generation from broiler litter. Broiler litter was chosen as the substrate for the following reasons: first, it is the most abundant waste of poultry production in North Carolina; second, wood chips which are used as the bedding material could be a potential source of carbon for methane biosynthesis; and third, it has a desirable nitrogen content of 3 to 4%, a level similar to that of the cattle waste..

  5. Evaluation of dietary stevioside supplementation on anti-human serum albumin immunoglobulin G, Alpha-1-glycoprotein, body weight and thyroid hormones in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Daneshyar, M; Geuns, J M C; Willemsen, H; Ansari, Z; Darras, V M; Buyse, J G; Everaert, N

    2012-08-01

    Sixty male broiler chickens fed a diet supplemented with 130 mg/kg stevioside (S group) or an unsupplemented diet (C group) from day 1 of age onwards. On day 21 of age, ten birds from either the S (SH) or C (CH) group were injected subcutaneously with 100 μg human serum albumin (HSA) and ten others from either S (SP) or C (CP) group injected with 100 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in the same way. There were no significant effect of supplementation nor interaction with age on average body weights, T(3) and T(4) concentrations of non-injected chickens. After the primary immunization, α(1) -glycoprotein concentrations increased in all treatment groups except the CP group, and were significantly higher in the CH group in relation to the other groups. Fourteen and 18 days after the primary immunization, HSA injected chickens of both dietary treatments had significantly higher anti-HSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels than their PBS injected controls. No effect of stevioside supplementation was observed for IgG level. In conclusion, dietary stevioside inclusion can attenuate the pro-inflammatory response after stimulation of the innate immune response in broiler chickens. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Silicon in broiler drinking water promotes bone development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sgavioli, S; de Faria Domingues, C H; Castiblanco, D M C; Praes, M F F M; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Santos, E T; Baraldi-Artoni, S M; Garcia, R G; Junqueira, O M

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal abnormalities, bone deformities and fractures cause significant losses in broiler production during both rearing and processing. Silicon is an essential mineral for bone and connective tissue synthesis and for calcium absorption during the early stages of bone formation. Performance was not affected by the addition of silicon. However, broilers receiving silicon showed a significant increase of phosphorus, zinc, copper, manganese and ash in the tibia. In conclusion, broiler performance was not impaired by adding the tested silicon product to the drinking water. In addition, bone development improved, as demonstrated by higher mineral and ash content. Further studies are required to determine the optimal concentration of silicon, including heat stress simulations, to better understand the effects of silicon on bone development.

  7. Prevalence of Coccidiosis in Broiler Chicken Farms in Western Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharekhani, Jamal; Sadeghi-Dehkordi, Zivar; Bahrami, Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of current study was to investigate the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler farms in Hamedan province, western Iran. Chicks and fecal samples were collected in all of the 220 broiler farms in this region. All viscera were examined for gross pathological changes. The mucosa of small intestine and the caeca were examined for the presence and identification of parasitic forms using parasitology methods. The overall rate of coccidiosis was 31.8%; E. acervulina (75.7%), E. tenella (54.3%), E. necatrix (28.6%), and E. maxima (20%) were determined. Mixed infections were observed in all of the positive farms. There was a statistical significant difference (P < 0.05) among infection rate and age groups, dysentery, history of colibacilosis and clostridiosis in farm, and history of coccidiostats consumption, unlike to breed (P > 0.05). This is the first report of coccidiosis rate in broiler farms in this region. Further additional researches and design control strategies for improving management in farms are necessary.

  8. Effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianmin; Wang, Xingyu; Yin, Dafei; Wang, Maofei; Yin, Xiaonan; Lei, Zhao; Guo, Yuming

    2016-09-23

    This study compared the effect of different amylases on the utilization of cornstarch in broiler chickens fed a corn-based diet. Three-day-old Arbor Acres plus male chickens were randomly divided into 7 treatments and fed a diet supplemented with different sources and concentrations of amylase: 1,500 U/kg and 3,000 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Aspergillus oryzae (α-amylase A); 480 U/kg and 960 U/kg α-1,4 amylase from Bacillus subtilis (α-amylase B); 200 U/kg and 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase from B. subtilis; and the control. The experimental period comprised 11 d, during which performance, nutrient digestibility, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal morphology, and glucose transporter transcription of the chickens were evaluated. The results indicated that 1,500 U/kg α-amylase improved the digestibility of energy and decreased the feed conversion rate compared to α-1,6 isoamylase (P < 0.05). Supplemental 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase decreased ileal digestibility of amylopectin and total starch (P < 0.05) compared to 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase, α-amylase A, α-amylase B, and the control (P < 0.05). Supplemental α-1,6 isoamylase decreased (P < 0.05) insulin content. Supplemental 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-1,6 isoamylase increased (P < 0.05) the relative weight of the liver. In addition, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A, 480 U/kg α-amylase B, and α-1,6 isoamylase decreased the V:C in the duodenum and ileum. α-amylase A increased sucrase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), whereas 400 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase reduced maltase activity in the duodenum (P < 0.05). Furthermore, 3,000 U/kg α-amylase A and α-amylase B decreased (P < 0.05) sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) mRNA expression in the duodenum and jejunum. However, 200 U/kg α-1,6 isoamylase increased glucose transporter 2 (GLUCT2) in the duodenum (P < 0.05). These results suggest that exogenous amylase affects the digestibility of starch by affecting disaccharidase activity in the

  9. Campylobacter jejuni Is Not Merely a Commensal in Commercial Broiler Chickens and Affects Bird Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. PMID:24987092

  10. Histopathology in diagnosis of broiler chicken and layer diseases--review of cases 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Dolka, I; Sapierzyński, R; Bielecki, W; Malicka, E; Zbikowski, A; Szeleszczuk, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the different organs in relation to the commercial-type and the age of birds (i.e. broiler chickens and layers). During the period 1999-2010 a total of 189 cases was submitted to the Division of Animal Pathomorphology, Department of Pathology and Veterinary Diagnostics at WULS. Most cases were found in broiler chickens (66.7%). The majority of the histopathological lesions were detected in the liver and lymphoid organs. In of 29% cases of hepatic injury pathognomonic lesions associated with inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) were found. The mean age of birds was 23 days. Among IBH cases proventriculitis (58%) was more often found than gizzard lesions (25.8%). Interestingly, we noted some intranuclear inclusions in the epithelial cells within the proventriculus. A low percentage of histopathological evidence of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was reported in chickens. The gastrointestinal tract was the second most frequent predilection site for histopathological lesions. Histopathological findings within the heart and lungs were less common and were more often seen in the upper respiratory tract. Cases of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) were registered in broiler chickens (3.2%, mean age 37 days) and in layers (4.8%; mean age 196 days). Lesions associated with Marek's disease, avian leukosis and fowl pox were recognized only in layers, respectively in 3.2% (mean age 176 days), 1.6% (mean age 205 days) and 1.1% (mean age 196 days) of all cases. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was noted only in 0.5% of all cases.

  11. Effects of dietary copper supplementation on production performance and plasma biochemical parameters in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Samanta, B; Biswas, A; Ghosh, P R

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the effect of copper (Cu) supplementation on growth performance and biochemical profiles of blood and meat in broiler chickens. A total of 240 d-old broiler chicks (Vencobb-100) were randomly divided into 12 groups, each of 20 chicks (4 treatments x 3 replicates). The basal diet (T₁) contained 215 g kg⁻¹ crude protein (CP), 12·76 MJ kg⁻¹ ME, 32 g kg⁻¹ total calcium and 5 g kg⁻¹ total phosphorus. T₂, T₃ and T₄ were formulated to contain an additional 75, 150 and 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ diet, respectively. Copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO₄, 5H₂O) was used as the source of Cu. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride, and an elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol, were observed in the chickens fed with 250 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed at the 3rd and 6th week of the experiment. Total cholesterol in meat decreased significantly in the birds fed with dietary Cu at 250 mg kg⁻¹ (T₄) of feed. Growth performance was measured in terms of live weight gain, cumulative feed intake and feed conversion ratio at the end of d 21 and d 42 of the experiment, and the result was found to be commercially beneficial for the chickens receiving 150 mg Cu kg⁻¹ (T₃) of diet. The concentration of Cu in breast muscle and liver increased significantly at the end of experiment. From this study it can be concluded that supplementation with dietary Cu may be beneficial for production performance and plasma biochemical characteristics of broiler chickens.

  12. Effect of chitosan on Salmonella Typhimurium in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Menconi, Anita; Pumford, Neil R; Morgan, Marion J; Bielke, Lisa R; Kallapura, Gopala; Latorre, Juan D; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M; Tellez, Guillermo

    2014-02-01

    Public concern with the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, particularly among foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, has been challenging the poultry industry to find alternative means of control. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate in vitro and in vivo effects of chitosan on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) infection in broiler chicks. For in vitro crop assay experiments, tubes containing feed, water, and ST were treated with either saline as a control or 0.2% chitosan. The entire assay was repeated in three trials. In two independent in vivo trials, 40 broiler chicks were assigned to an untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 7 days (20 broiler chicks/treatment). At day 4, chicks were challenged with 2×10⁵ colony-forming units (CFU) ST/bird. In a third in vivo trial, 100 broiler chicks were assigned to untreated control diet or dietary treatment with 0.2% chitosan for 10 days (50 broiler chicks/treatment) to evaluate ST horizontal transmission. At day 3, 10 birds were challenged with 10⁵ CFU ST/bird, and the remaining nonchallenged birds (n=40) were kept in the same floor pen. In all three in vitro trials, 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of ST at 0.5 and 6 h postinoculation compared with control (p<0.05). In two in vivo trials, at 7 days, dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total CFU of recovered ST in the ceca in both experiments. Dietary 0.2% chitosan significantly reduced total ST CFU recovered in the ceca of horizontally challenged birds in the third in vivo trial. Chitosan at 0.2% significantly reduced the CFU of recovered ST in vitro and in vivo, proving to be an alternative tool to reduce crop, ceca, and consequently carcass ST contamination as well as decreasing the amount of ST shed to the environment.

  13. Depression of leukocyte protein synthesis, immune function and growth performance induced by high environmental temperature in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Nancy N.; Ahmed, Ayman M. H.; Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-04-01

    In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition. In this study, 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb500™) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. From 21 to 42 days of age, one group was exposed to non-stressed condition at 24 °C and 50% relative humidity (control group), while the other group was exposed to heat stress at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity (HS group). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from each group to evaluate stress indicators, immune function, and leukocytes protein synthesis. Production performance was also recorded. Noteworthy, protein synthesis in leukocytes was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited in HS group by 38% compared to control group. In contrast, the phosphorylation level on threonine 56 site (Thr56) of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2), which indicates the suppression of protein translation process through altering the protein elongation phase, was significantly threefold higher in HS group than in control (P < 0.05). In addition, an increase in stress indicators was markedly (P < 0.05) presented in the HS birds by twofold increase in heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and threefold increase in plasma corticosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, the immune function was significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed in HS birds than control (0.99 vs. 1.88 mg/mL plasma IgG, 89.2 vs. 148.0 μg/mL plasma IgM, 4.80 vs. 7.20 antibody titer against SRBC, and 1.38 vs. 3.39 stimulation index of lymphocyte

  14. Depression of leukocyte protein synthesis, immune function and growth performance induced by high environmental temperature in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Nancy N.; Ahmed, Ayman M. H.; Mehaisen, Gamal M. K.; Mashaly, Magdi M.; Abass, Ahmed O.

    2017-09-01

    In tropical and semitropical regions, raising broiler chickens out of their thermal comfort zone can cause an added economic loss in the poultry industry. The cause for the deleterious effects on immunity and growth performance of broilers under high environmental temperatures is still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effect of heat stress on leukocytes protein synthesis and immune function as a possible direct cause of low performance in broiler chickens under such condition. In this study, 300 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb500™) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 5 replicates of 30 chicks each. From 21 to 42 days of age, one group was exposed to non-stressed condition at 24 °C and 50% relative humidity (control group), while the other group was exposed to heat stress at 35 °C and 50% relative humidity (HS group). At 42 days of age, blood samples were collected from each group to evaluate stress indicators, immune function, and leukocytes protein synthesis. Production performance was also recorded. Noteworthy, protein synthesis in leukocytes was significantly ( P < 0.05) inhibited in HS group by 38% compared to control group. In contrast, the phosphorylation level on threonine 56 site (Thr56) of eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF2), which indicates the suppression of protein translation process through altering the protein elongation phase, was significantly threefold higher in HS group than in control ( P < 0.05). In addition, an increase in stress indicators was markedly ( P < 0.05) presented in the HS birds by twofold increase in heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and threefold increase in plasma corticosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, the immune function was significantly ( P < 0.05) suppressed in HS birds than control (0.99 vs. 1.88 mg/mL plasma IgG, 89.2 vs. 148.0 μg/mL plasma IgM, 4.80 vs. 7.20 antibody titer against SRBC, and 1.38 vs. 3.39 stimulation index of lymphocyte

  15. Bacillus subtilis PB6 improves intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Sathishkumar; Thangavel, Gokila; Kurian, Hannah; Mani, Ravichandran; Mukkalil, Rajalekshmi; Chirakkal, Haridasan

    2013-02-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 replicates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12 birds in each replicate. The 3 treatment groups were an uninfected control, an infected control, and an infected group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 at 500 g/t of feed, containing 5 × 10(11) cfu/kg. Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broiler birds via oral inoculation of 30,000 oocysts of mixed strains of Eimeria species on d 14 followed by C. perfringens (10(8) cfu/mL) on d 19 through 21 of trial. The birds were analyzed for BW gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal lesion score, intestinal C. perfringens counts, and villus histomorphometry. The infected control group showed markedly thickened mucosa, hemorrhages, intestinal lesions, and ballooning of intestine. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 reduced the FCR (P < 0.05) and intestinal C. perfringens counts significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the infected control group. It was also observed that B. subtilis PB6 improved villi length by 10.88 and 30.46% (P < 0.05) compared with uninfected and infected control groups, respectively. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the villi length to crypt

  16. The effects of supplemental microbial phytase on the performance and utilization of dietary calcium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc in broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Touchburn, S P; Chavez, E R; Lague, P C

    1996-06-01

    A 3-wk feeding trial with 180 sexed day-old broiler chickens was conducted to study the efficacy of microbial phytase (Natuphos 1000) on growth performance, relative retention of P, Ca, Cu, and Zn, and mineral contents of plasma and bone. Treatments involved a normal P level corn-soybean diet, a low-P diet, and a low-P plus phytase (600 phytase units/kg) diet. Phytase supplementation increased (P < or = 0.05) body weight in male and female chickens by 13.2 and 5.8%, respectively, at 21 d. The improvements yielded body weights comparable to those obtained on the normal P diet. Phytase supplementation overcame (P < or = 0.05) the depression of feed intake observed on the low-P diet. Treatments had no effect on feed:gain ratio. Phytase supplementation of the low-P diet increased (P < or = 0.05) the relative retention of total P, Ca, Cu, and Zn by 12.5, 12.2, 19.3, and 62.3 percentage units, respectively, in male chickens. Microbial phytase increased the plasma P by 15.7% and reduced (P < or = 0.05) the Ca concentration by 34.1%, but had no effect on plasma concentrations of Cu or Zn. Phytase supplementation increased the percentage ash in both head and shaft portions of dry, fat-free tibia bone to a level comparable to that of the normal-P diet. Phytase supplementation had no effect on the concentration of any of the minerals measured in whole tibia ash but did increase (P < or = 0.05) the DM percentage of P and Ca min tibia head of male chickens by 0.65 and 1.4 percentage units, respectively. These results show that microbial phytase supplementation of a low-P diet increased growth and relative retention of total P, Ca, Cu, and Zn and improved bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

  17. A note on the effects of perches and litter substrate on leg weakness in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Sørensen, P; Kestin, S C

    2000-09-01

    Two trials were conducted to investigate the effect of availability of perches on indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. A third trial investigated the effect of litter substrate on similar indices of leg weakness in broiler chickens. Leg weakness traits examined were walking ability and tibial dyschondroplasia, tibial curvature, foot burn, and hock burn. Body weight was also measured in all trials. The presence of perches in the rearing pens had no effect on any of the indices of leg weakness examined in either trial. There were no consistent effects of perches on BW. Litter substrate significantly affected some indices of leg weakness; birds reared on wheat straw had poorer walking ability and more foot burn than birds reared on wood shavings, and birds reared on hemp waste were intermediate between them. There was no effect of litter substrate on tibial dyschondroplasia or tibial curvature. Turning the straw litter regularly and adding fresh supplies when necessary did not significantly improve indices of leg weakness. It was concluded that wood shavings provide a better litter substrate than straw, but that perches have no beneficial effect on reducing leg weakness in broilers.

  18. Adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in a flock of broiler chickens in Kermanshah province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh Siavosh Haghighi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) has been reported in many countries in the world. The IBH or similar cases characterized by hepatitis and presence of intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes have not been reported in broiler chickens in Iran. This is the first report on outbreak of adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in Iran. On October 2012, an onset of high acute mortality in a flock of 2 day-old broiler chickens was reported to the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The birds showed lethargy, huddling, ruffled feathers, and inappetence. At necropsy the livers were the primary organ affected which were enlarged, pale yellow with necrotic foci and multiple petechial hemorrhages. Tissue samples of liver, kidneys and heart were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. They were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Significant microscopic lesions were seen in the livers. Large eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were seen in hepatocytes. Based on the acute high mortality, age of the broilers, gross lesions and histopathological findings (especially intra-nuclear inclusion bodies), the condition was diagnosed as adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis. PMID:25992259

  19. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  20. Physiological stress and welfare of broiler chickens in transit: solutions not problems!

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M A; Kettlewell, P J

    1998-12-01

    The rearing of large numbers of broiler chickens at geographically dispersed sites means that they have to be transported by road, over various distances, to centralized processing plants for slaughter. The birds may be exposed to a variety of stressors during transit, including the thermal demands of the transport microenvironment. The thermal environments experienced by broiler chickens during routine transport in the U.K. on a large number of commercial vehicles under a wide range of external climatic conditions have been characterized using three-dimensional thermal mapping (temperature and water vapor density). Inadequate ventilation results in heterogeneous distributions of temperature and humidity and, thus, thermal loads within the vehicle, and, therefore, the existence of a "thermal core" in which the risk of heat stress is increased. Relationships between specific physiological indices of stress and quantified thermal loads have been determined in accurate transport simulations in the laboratory. The findings have been employed to establish a predictive model of the induction of heat stress during commercial transportation, as well as to define the acceptable ranges and limits for temperature and humidity within the transport containers. These principles have been utilized in developing a monitoring system to warn of impending heat stress and in improving vehicle design to facilitate the prevention of heat stress during broiler transportation.

  1. A Systematic Review Characterizing On-Farm Sources of Campylobacter spp. for Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  2. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Agunos, Agnes; Waddell, Lisa; Léger, David; Taboada, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to

  3. Tissue fatty acid composition and estimated ∆ desaturase activity after castration in chicken broilers fed with linseed or sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Mašek, T; Starčević, K; Filipović, N; Stojević, Z; Brozić, D; Gottstein, Z; Severin, K

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of the short-term addition of sunflower and linseed oil and castration on fatty acid composition and desaturation indexes in chicken broilers. Forty-eight male Ross 308 chicken broilers were supplemented with 5% of sunflower or linseed oil. The four experimental groups were linseed oil supplementation and castration (LC), linseed oil without castration (LN), sunflower oil and castration (SC) and sunflower oil without castration (SN). There was no significant influence of castration or oil supplement on live weights, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. Castration resulted in an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), total n3, n6, measured desaturation indexes and a decrease in the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content of abdominal fat. In breast muscle, castration increased PUFA and 18:3n3 values, while in the liver tissue, castration did not influence the parameters measured. Linseed oil supplementation significantly increased 18:3n3, n3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA), total n3 and decreased total n6, n6/n3 ratio, and 20:4n6 content. Values for 20:4n6 were the highest in SC and the lowest in the LC group. Linseed oil also significantly decreased ∆5 and ∆4 desaturation indexes in the thighs and ∆5 and ∆5, 6 in abdominal fat and the liver. These results suggest that short-term supplementation of basal diet with 5% of linseed oil could significantly increase n3 LC PUFA and decrease n6/n3 ratio content in the edible tissues of chicken broilers, without adverse effects on growth performance. Meanwhile, castration only improved fatty acid profile in abdominal fat, which is not nutritionally important. The interactions observed between basal diet, supplemented oil, sex hormones and other non-nutritional factors must be elucidated in future trials in order to correctly predict the nutritional value of linseed-fed poultry. Journal of Animal

  4. Effect of yeast-derived products on systemic innate immune response of broiler chickens following a lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Yitbarek, A; Sharif, S; Crow, G; Slominski, B A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, serum antibody levels, and mRNA gene expression of pattern-recognition receptors, and cytokines in broiler chickens. Two hundred and sixteen one-day-old male broiler chickens (Ross-308) were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments with six replicates (cage) of 6 birds per cage. Dietary treatments consisted of a Control diet without antibiotics (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of "virginiamycin", 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product "Maxi-Gen Plus" containing processed yeast and nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 8% of distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). On d 21 post-hatch blood samples were collected from 6 birds per treatment and serum sample were analyzed for antibody levels. After blood sampling, birds were injected intraperitoneally with 3 mg/kg of BW of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The unchallenged group was fed the Control diet and injected with saline solution. Spleen samples were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors (TLR)2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and interferon (IFN)-γ. No significant difference in body weight gain, feed intake, and FCR were observed among treatments. Regarding humoral immunity, the diet supplemented with YCW increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)A level compared with the antibiotic group; however, serum concentrations of IgG and IgM were not affected by dietary treatments. Relative gene expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was not affected by dietary treatments, whereas the expression of TLR21 and MRR was upregulated in diets containing YCW and DDGS. The diet supplemented with YCW increased the expression of all cytokines, and expression of IFN-γ was upregulated in the DDGS group. However, no significant difference was observed for cytokine gene expression in the antibiotic and

  5. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  6. Growth Performance, Relative Meat and Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, and Blood Characteristics in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Different Nutrient Density with or without Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Chang-Won; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate whether dietary essential oils could affect growth performance, relative organ weights, cecal microflora, immune responses and blood profiles of broiler chickens fed on diets containing different nutrient densities. A total of eight hundred-forty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into twenty-eight pens (7 pens per treatment, 30 chicks per pen). There were four experimental diets containing two different nutrient densities and supplemented with or without essential oils. Experimental period lasted for 35 days. No clear interaction between nutrient density and essential oils on any of growth performance-related parameters was observed. Live body weights were affected (p<0.05) by nutrient density at 21 days and by dietary essential oils at 35 days. Essential oils significantly (p<0.05) increased daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio during the periods of 22 to 35 and 1 to 35 days, but failed to affect feed intake during the entire experimental period. Daily weight gain at 1 to 21 days and feed intake at 1 to 21 and 1 to 35 days were significantly impaired (p<0.05) by nutrient density. There were significant treatment interactions (p<0.05) on relative weights of bursa of Fabricius and abdominal fat contents. Finally, either essential oil or nutrient density did not influence the relative percentages of breast and leg meats, the population of cecal microflora, blood parameters and antibody titers against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens. It was concluded that dietary essential oils, independent to nutrient density, failed to stimulate feed intake, but increased growth performance in broiler chickens. PMID:26949956

  7. Color and fatty acid profile of abdominal fat pads from broiler chickens fed lobster meal.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, B M; Anderson, D M; Thompson, K L; Macisaac, J L; Budge, S

    2011-06-01

    Consumer demands for food products enriched with healthful n-3 fatty acids are steadily increasing. Feeding marine byproducts may provide an economical means of increasing the long-chain n-3 content of broiler tissues. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary lobster meal (LM) on the color and fatty acid profile of broiler chicken fatty tissue. Broilers were fed increasing levels (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10%) of LM for 35 d. Fat pad samples were collected at slaughter and color and fatty acid concentrations were determined. A linear effect was found of LM on red coloration (P < 0.05) as dietary LM increased. Fat pad eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels also increased (P < 0.0001) in a linear fashion. The essential long-chain fatty acids were lower for the 10% LM diet (0.37 mg of EPA/g; 0.16 mg of DHA/g) compared with the 8% LM diet (0.51 mg of EPA/g; 0.27 mg of DHA/g). Using lobster meal as a feed ingredient resulted in broiler abdominal fat pads with a favorable increase in n-3 fatty acids.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp. in chicken broiler flocks in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Henry, Isabelle; Reichardt, Jef; Denis, Martine; Cardinale, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Our objectives were to determine Campylobacter prevalence in broiler chicken flocks in Reunion Island and to define specific practices associated with the presence of Campylobacter spp. Infection in Reunionese broiler flocks. Fifty broiler flocks were studied in Reunion Island from May 2007 to February 2009. A questionnaire was submitted to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were collected to assess the flock's Campylobacter status. Fifty four percent of the flocks were infected by Campylobacter spp.: 30% (95% CI: 28.71-31.29) were infected with Campylobacter coli and 17% (95% CI: 15.95-18.05) with Campylobacter jejuni; only 7% (95% CI: 6.28-7.72) were infected by both species at the same time. Several poultry houses in the farm (OR=11.2; [1.05-92]) and cleaning without any detergent (OR=13.1; [2.1-78.3]) increased the risk of Campylobacter infection. A distance higher than 500 m between broiler farms (OR=0.27; [0.1-0.8]) and use of disinfectant during the rearing period decreased this risk of infection (OR=0.15; [0.1-0.75]).

  9. Laboratory evaluation of Newcastle disease vaccination programs for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Giambrone, J J

    1985-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.

  10. Influence of broccoli extract and various essential oils on performance and expression of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Kristin; Blum, Nicole M; Kluge, Holger; Mueller, Andreas S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our present study was to examine the regulation of xenobiotic- and antioxidant enzymes by phytogenic feed additives in the intestine and the liver of broilers. A total of 240 male Ross-308 broiler chickens (1 d old) were fed a commercial starter diet for 2 weeks. On day 15, the birds were assigned to six treatment groups of forty birds each. The control (Con) group was fed a diet without any additive for 3 weeks. The diet of group sulforaphane (SFN) contained broccoli extract providing 0.075 g/kg SFN, whereas the diets of the other four groups contained 0.15 g/kg essential oils from turmeric (Cuo), oregano (Oo), thyme and rosemary (Ro). Weight gain and feed conversion were slightly impaired by Cuo and Oo. In the jejunum SFN, Cuo and Ro increased the expression of xenobiotic enzymes (epoxide hydrolases 1 and 2 and aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase) and of the antioxidant enzyme haeme oxygenase regulated by an 'antioxidant response element' (ARE) compared to group Con. In contrast to our expectations in the liver, the expression of these enzymes was decreased by all the additives. Nevertheless, all the additives increased the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of the jejunum and the liver and reduced Fe-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver. We conclude that the up-regulation of ARE genes in the small intestine reduces oxidative stress in the organism and represents a novel mechanism by which phytogenic feed additives improve the health of farm animals.

  11. Use of Caprylic Acid in Broiler Chickens: Effect on Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Hovorková, Petra; Skřivanová, Eva

    2015-08-01

    The effect of caprylic acid (CA) on Campylobacter jejuni in chickens was evaluated using two approaches: dietary supplementation or surface treatment of chilled chicken carcasses. To analyze the dietary effect of CA, individually housed broiler chickens (n = 48) were artificially infected with C. jejuni VFU612 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]/bird) on the 21st and 35th days of life. Dietary CA (2.5 and 5 g/kg of feed, fed throughout the entire experiment) significantly decreased C. jejuni shedding (p<0.05). However, the effect only lasted for 3-7 days after infection. The numbers of Campylobacter shed by the positive control birds reached its maximum on the 37th day of life, while on that same day, both Treatment I and Treatment II groups shed significantly lower (p<0.05) numbers of Campylobacter (by 0.8 and 1.8 log10 CFU/g, respectively). Also, peak shedding was delayed by 1 day in both treated groups. After euthanasia of each chicken on the 42nd day of life, no differences in Campylobacter counts in the crop, gizzard, ileum, and cecum were found between the positive control and the treated groups (p>0.05). Surface contamination of the chilled chicken halves was performed with C. jejuni VFU612 (clinical isolate) and CCM6214 (collection strain). Surface treatment with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL for 1 min significantly reduced C. jejuni VFU612 contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05) by 0.29-0.53 and 1.14-1.58 log10 CFU/g of skin, respectively. Counts of C. jejuni CCM6214 were reduced by 0.68-1.65 log10 CFU/g of skin). In conclusion, dietary CA affected numbers of C. jejuni in the gastrointestinal contents of chickens, whereas surface treatment reduced C. jejuni contamination in processed chicken carcasses.

  12. Potential use of caprylic acid in broiler chickens: effect on Salmonella enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Skřivanová, Eva; Hovorková, Petra; Čermák, Ladislav; Marounek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of dietary caprylic acid (CA) on Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as the surface treatment of chicken skin contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis was evaluated. To evaluate the dietary effect of CA on Salmonella Enteritidis, the individually housed broiler chickens (n=48) were divided into 4 groups (positive control, negative control, 2.5 g/kg of CA in the feed, and 5 g/kg of CA in the feed). The feed of all groups, except the negative control, was artificially contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 (10(7) colony-forming units/100 g of feed). Both concentrations of dietary CA significantly decreased counts of Salmonella Enteritidis in the crop and cecum of experimental chickens (p<0.05). The effect of CA in the crop contents was more pronounced than in the cecum. Surface treatment of chilled chicken halves with CA at 1.25 and 2.5 mg/mL significantly decreased Salmonella Enteritidis contamination of chicken skin (p<0.05). The sensory evaluation of the skin and meat showed that treatment of the skin with 1.25 mg/mL of CA worsened odor and appearance of the chicken skin, while sensory traits of chicken meat were not significantly affected. Taste and overall acceptability was not influenced by CA in both meat and skin. Treatment of the skin with 2.5 mg/mL of CA resulted in more pronounced changes of the skin odor and appearance. In conclusion, dietary CA reduced carriage of Salmonella Enteritidis in chickens, whereas surface-treatment reduced or eliminated Salmonella Enteritidis contamination in the processed bird.

  13. Thermal resistance of Salmonella serovars isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips, nugget meat and pelleted broiler feed.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Oliver; D'Aoust, J-Y; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-31

    Raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips available at retail and prepared at home before consumption have been identified as a significant risk factor in contracting food-borne salmonellosis. Cases of salmonellosis from consumption of these products may be due, in part, to Salmonella strains originating in broiler feed. In this study the thermal resistances of Salmonella strains isolated from chicken nuggets and strips, chicken nugget/strip meat and broiler feed were determined to assess whether they exhibited enhanced thermal resistance. Thermal resistances (D- and z- values) of 7 cocktails (25 isolates, 4 serovars) were determined in commercially prepared irradiation-treated chicken nugget/strip meat blend, and heated in a constant temperature waterbath. The thermal resistances found were lower than those reported for similar strains in the literature. D-values ranged from 6.93 to 0.12 min at 55 and 62 degrees C respectively, with z-values from 4.10 to 5.17 degrees C. Two strains of S. Enteritidis separately isolated from pelleted feed and chicken nugget meat blend, with indistinguishable geno- and phenotypes, had lower (and probably identical) thermal resistances than the other isolates. Results indicated that the strains of Salmonella isolated from raw, frozen chicken nuggets/strips and pelleted broiler feed did not exhibit unusually high thermal resistance, and that normal heating (71 degrees C) prior to consumption should eliminate these organisms from chicken nuggets/strips.

  14. Persistence and tissue distribution of infectious bursal disease virus in experimentally infected SPF and commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Abdul, Rauf; Murgia, Maria V; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alex; Lee, Chang-Won; Saif, Yehia M

    2013-12-01

    This study was initiated to determine the persistence, distribution, and quantification of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) and commercial broiler chickens. Two serotype 1 strains, STC classic and IN variant, were independently used in the experiments. Five separate experiments were conducted using 2- and 4-wk-old SPF chickens, 2- and 4-wk-old in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers, and 2-wk-old commercial broilers having maternally derived anti-IBDV antibodies. Pooled data from five experiments revealed that SPF chickens had a significantly higher incidence of IBDV-positive reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) results than commercial chickens (multivariable logistic regression, adjusted odds ratio = 15.28; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 9.53, 24.51, P < 0.0001). In many cases, the viral RNA (vRNA) persisted longer in in ovo-vaccinated commercial broilers bearing maternally derived antibodies compared with similar broilers not vaccinated in ovo. The STC strain was more frequently detected in tissues than the IN strain (chi-square P < 0.0001). In lymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected for the longest duration in bursal tissues followed by spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. In nonlymphoid tissues, STC and IN strains were detected the longest in cecum followed by liver, kidney, pancreas, lungs, thigh, and breast muscles. Compared with bursal tissues, muscle and bone marrow tissues were significantly less likely to yield an IBDV-positive RT-PCR result (P < 0.0001). Although STC vRNA was detected up to 42 days postinoculation (DPI) in bursal homogenates of SPF chickens, virus isolation from bursal homogenates using embryonated chicken eggs was only possible up to 28 DPI. Similarly, STC vRNA was detected up to 42 DPI in bursal tissues of commercial broilers, but infectious virus could be isolated only up to 21 DPI. The IN strain was isolated up to 10 DPI from bursal homogenates of SPF chickens

  15. The effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Geier, M S; Torok, V A; Guo, P; Allison, G E; Boulianne, M; Janardhana, V; Bean, A G D; Hughes, R J

    2011-10-01

    The influence of in-feed lactoferrin (Lf) on bird production, intestinal microbiota, mucosal immune system and gut microarchitecture was assessed in male Cobb 500 broiler chickens. Birds were given one of four diets from day of hatch: Control (basal diet with no additives), ZnB (basal diet + 50 mg/kg zinc bacitracin), Lf 250 mg/kg (basal diet + 250 mg/kg Lf) and Lf 500 mg/kg (basal diet + 500 mg/kg Lf); n = 24 birds/treatment. An apparent metabolisable energy study was performed between d 25-32. Lf did not affect growth rate or feed conversion in the period 0-21 d of age, nor performance or energy metabolism during the 7 d metabolism experiment which commenced at 25 d of age.The profiles of caecal microbial communities were significantly different in birds given ZnB compared with birds given a diet with no additives, or supplemented with 250 mg/kg Lf. Birds given 250 mg/kg Lf also had a different microbial profile compared with birds given 500 mg/kg Lf. In comparison to control birds, Lf treated birds showed some differences in the T cell proportions in caecal tonsil and spleen. No differences in ileal villus height, crypt depth or goblet cell proportions were observed amongst dietary treatments. Whilst Lf had little effect on the measured parameters, the use of an integrated approach to study the influence of novel feed additives may facilitate a greater understanding of the relationships between nutrition, gut health and bird performance.

  16. Effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Apeldoorn, E J; Schrama, J W; Mashaly, M M; Parmentier, H K

    1999-02-01

    The effect of melatonin and lighting schedule on energy metabolism in broiler chickens was studied. Eight groups of six female broiler chickens each were assigned to a continuous lighting schedule [23 h light (L):1 h darkness (D)] or an intermittent lighting schedule (1L:3D), and were fed a diet with or without melatonin (40 ppm). At 21 d of age, the chickens were placed in respiration chambers for 20 d. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and physical activity were measured per group. The only effect of melatonin on energy metabolism, was a decreasing effect on activity-related heat production. The intermittent lighting schedule induced improved feed conversion, higher metabolizability of the diet, and lower physical activity compared to continuous lighting. No interactions between melatonin and lighting schedule were found on energy metabolism traits. Lighting schedule strongly affected daily heat production pattern (total, activity-related, and nonactivity-related heat production). Melatonin had a reducing effect on activity-related heat production during the day, especially during light periods. The present study demonstrated that reduced energy expenditure for physical activity, caused by the supplementation of melatonin to the diet, might be a reason for the often observed improvement of feed conversion. Furthermore, this study showed that feed conversion was improved with an intermittent lighting schedule, which was related to higher metabolizability and lower energy expenditure on physical activity, compared to continuous lighting.

  17. Enrofloxacin degradation in broiler chicken manure under field conditions and its residuals effects to the environment.

    PubMed

    Slana, M; Žigon, D; Sollner-Dolenc, M

    2017-05-01

    The rate of degradation of enrofloxacin in broiler chicken manure has been characterised. Its degradation was investigated in manure excreted by broiler chickens in an intensively reared chicken facility; further, the degradation also followed after transfer of the excreta into the natural environment occurred. The effect of enrofloxacin and its degradation products on cucumber and tomato was also investigated. Enrofloxacin degradation was shown to take place within the rearing facility and also continuing after the manure was transferred into the environment. The rates of enrofloxacin degradation and the degree of degradation product formation in the manure heap incubated in the environment were condition specific, both variables depending on the manure sampling depth. The degradation half-lives ranged from 12.7 to 38.1 days for enrofloxacin and from 1.2 to 8.2 days for the main metabolite ciprofloxacin. Only the cucumber showed signs of toxicity when incubated with the composted manure immediately after transfer into field occurred (t = 0). No toxic effects to plants were observed when manure from the last incubation day (60th) of the field study and manure from the last incubation day of the laboratory degradation study were applied. The degradation study under field conditions showed that enrofloxacin and its degradation products degrade fast in the environment. Additionally, the toxic effects to plants decrease with the incubation time of manure containing enrofloxacin residuals.

  18. Functional assessment of encapsulated citral for controlling necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuexi; Wang, Qi; Diarra, Moussa S; Yu, Hai; Hua, Yufei; Gong, Joshua

    2016-04-01

    Development of viable alternatives to antibiotics to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringensis becoming urgent for chicken production due to pessures on poultry producers to limit or stop the use of antibiotics in feed. We have previously identified citral as a potential alternative to antibiotics. Citral has strong antimicrobial activity and can be encasupsulated in a powder form for protection from loss during feed processing, storage, and intestinal delivery. In the present study, encapsulated citral was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for its antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens Encapsulation did not adversely affect the antimicrobial activity of citral. In addition, encapsulated citral was superior to the unencapsulated form in retaining its antimicrobial activity after treatment with simulated gastrointestinal fluids and in the presence of chicken intestinal digesta. In addition, the higher antimicrobial activity of encapsulated citral was confirmed in digesta samples from broilers that had been gavaged with encapsulated or unencapsulated citral. In broilers infected with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsualted citral at both 250 and 650 μg/g significantly reduced intestinal NE lesions, which was comparable to the effect of bacitracin- and salinomycin-containing diets. However, supplementation with the encapsulated citral appeared to have no significant impact on the intestinal burden of Lactobacillus These data indicate that citral can be used to control NE in chickens after proper protection by encapsulation. © Crown copyright 2016.

  19. Protective potential of Lactobacillus species in lead toxicity model in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, M F; Liang, J B; Ebrahimi, R; Soleimani, A F; Rezaeizadeh, A; Abdullah, N; Shokryazdan, P

    2016-11-02

    To alleviate adverse effects of heavy metal toxicity, diverse range of removing methods have been suggested, that is usage of algae, agricultural by-products and microorganisms. Here, we investigated lead (Pb) biosorption efficacy by two lactic acid bacteria species (LABs) in broiler chickens. In an in vitro study, Pb was added to culture medium of LABs (Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidipiscis ITA44) in the form of lead acetate. Results showed that these LABs were able to absorb more than 90% of Pb from the culture medium. In follow-up in vivo study, LABs mixture was added to diet of broiler chickens contained lead acetate (200 mg/kg). Pb exposure significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant activity in liver. The changes were recovered back to normal level upon LABs supplementation. Moreover, addition of LABs eliminated the liver tissue lesion and the suppressed performance in Pb-exposed chicks. Analysis of liver and serum samples indicated 48% and 28% reduction in Pb accumulation, respectively. In conclusion, results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidipiscis ITA44 effectively biosorb and expel dietary Pb from gastrointestinal tract of chickens.

  20. Sensor-based monitoring of the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G; Ammon, C; Volkamer, L; Sürie, C; Radko, D

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a dielectric measurement to evaluate the prevalence and severity of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens. 2. The study focussed on surveying the occurrence of FPD during the growing period of one broiler chicken flock. A scoring system consisting of 5 categories was used to assess the prevalence and severity of FPD macroscopically. Additionally, the dielectric constant (DC) of both foot pads of 50 chickens was measured in a triple iteration with the MoistureMeter D (Delfin Technologies, Kuopio, Finland) on three different dates. 3. On all measurement days, DC and FPD score were negatively correlated. The severity of FPD increased during the growing period, and severe lesions occurred at an early stage. 4. Further research is necessary to develop an effective early warning system for FPD in poultry houses. However, the non-invasive measurement of DC provides a reliable method for the objective assessment of occurrence and severity of FPD.

  1. Antibiotic sensitivity and resistance in Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains from Belgian broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Devriese, L A; De Herdt, P; Haesebrouck, F

    2001-06-01

    Establishing the antibiotic sensitivity of the avian respiratory pathogen Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is difficult because of the organism's complex growth requirements and the unusually frequent occurrence of resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of 10 antibiotics were determined for 45 strains of O. rhinotracheale from Belgian broiler chickens collected from 45 farms between 1995 and 1998. They were compared with the type strain, which was isolated from a turkey, and a strain isolated from a rook. All the broiler strains were resistant to lincomycin and to the beta-lactams ampicillin and ceftiofur. Less than 10% of the strains were sensitive to the macrolides tylosin and spiramycin, tilmicosin and flumequine. A few strains were sensitive to enrofloxacin and doxycycline. All strains were sensitive to tiamulin.

  2. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    PubMed Central

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  3. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    PubMed

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  4. Deboning broiler chicken legs and wings by dislocation of articular cartilage followed by stripping periosteum.

    PubMed

    Nakano, T; Ozimek, L; Betti, M

    2012-11-01

    The yield of deboned meat is an important economic factor affecting the profit of the meat industry. This study was undertaken to determine whether the yield of boneless meat from broiler chicken leg (thigh and drumstick) and wing (drumette and winglet) is improved by introducing a new deboning method consisting of articular cartilage dislocation followed by stripping periosteum. A total of 44 broiler chicken carcasses were used in the deboning experiment. Right and left legs or wings from the first 22 carcasses were assigned to the new and ordinary hand deboning methods, respectively. For the remaining 22 carcasses, right and left legs or wings were assigned to the ordinary and new methods, respectively. The weight of residue, composed of bone and small amounts of cartilage and noncartilaginous tissues obtained after deboning, was then compared between the right and left legs or wings to see the difference between the 2 methods. The removal of tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, or ulna resulted in formation of a hollow in boneless meat obtained. There was no difference (P > 0.05) between the right and left legs or wings in the weight of residue obtained after deboning as expected. The weight of residue was less (P < 0.05) with the new method compared with the ordinary method in all chicken parts examined. The difference of residue weight between the 2 methods accounted for 10, 12, 14, and 21% of the weight of residue obtained by the ordinary method in thigh, drumstick, drumette, and winglet, respectively. The new method may be useful to deboners at home kitchens as well as the poultry meat industry. The present study also showed the development of a secondary ossification center at the proximal end of the carpometacarpus of chickens. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of development of secondary ossification center in chicken wings.

  5. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Kogut, Michael H.; Wolfenden, Amanda; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Hargis, Billy M.; Bottje, Walter G.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Faulkner, Olivia B.

    2014-01-01

    Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the utilization of rye as energy source on bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal viscosity, gut integrity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with a traditional cereal (corn) in broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood samples were collected to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate BT. Duodenum, ileum, and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye showed increased (p < 0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens fed with corn. Chickens fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with rye when compared with corn fed chickens. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in chickens that alter the intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition as well as bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected DFM candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed chickens are currently being evaluated. PMID:25309584

  6. Residue depletion of sulfachlorpyrazine in edible tissues of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, B; Kowalski, C J

    2013-01-01

    The residue depletion profile of sulfachlorpyrazine was studied in healthy broilers after oral administration of Sulfatyf®, given at a dose of 50 mg sulfachlorpyrazine (SCP) per kg body weight once daily for 3 consecutive days. Twenty-five medicated broilers were slaughtered on the 5th, 10th, 14th and 16th day of post-medication, and muscle, fat with skin, liver and kidney tissues were sampled and analysed using an high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with satisfactory recovery (74.5% ± 2.9%) and specificity. The estimated values of LOD and LOQ were 18.40 and 55.70 ng ml(-1), respectively. On the 5th and 10th day of post-medication, the concentrations of SCP residue in all samples examined were higher than the corresponding MRLs established by the European Union and the highest SCP concentrations were measured in muscle. A maximum withdrawal time of 14 days was calculated to ensure consumer safety.

  7. Performance and tissue fatty acid profile of broiler chickens and laying hens fed hemp oil and HempOmegaTM.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Zhao, S; House, J D

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of hemp oil (HO) and HempOmega (HΩ), an equivalent product to HO, on performance and tissue fatty acid profile of layers and broiler chickens in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, forty 19-wk old Lohmann white laying hens were randomized to 1 of 5 dietary treatments, either a control diet or a control diet supplemented with 4 or 8% hemp oil provided by HO or HΩ, for a period of 6 wk (n = 8/diet). In experiment 2, 150-day-old mixed-sex (75 male; 75 female) Ross 308 chicks were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments, a control diet or a control diet supplemented with either 3 or 6% hemp oil provided by HO or HΩ, each with six replicates of 5 chicks for a 21-d feeding period. Performance of layers and broilers was not affected by dietary treatments. Animals provided with either HO or HΩ diets had greater total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in egg yolks, thighs, and breasts compared to the control diet (P < 0.01), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) content of egg yolks and thighs decreased (P < 0.05). The levels of total n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), or arachidonic acid (ARA) of the egg yolk and meat were generally not affected by dietary supplementation with HO or HΩ, but gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) was notably increased (P < 0.01). The current data show that inclusion of hemp oil up to 8% in layer diets and 6% in broiler diets provided by HO or HΩ does not negatively affect overall performance of birds and results in the enrichment of n-3 PUFAs and GLA in eggs and meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  9. Performance of broiler chickens given whey in the food and/or drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shariatmadari, F; Forbes, J M

    2005-08-01

    1. The effects on food intake and weight gain of offering broiler chickens (2 to 7 weeks of age) dry food, wet food, wet food containing whey, whey as drinking liquid and combinations of two of these were studied in 5 experiments. 2. Wet feed generally improved both weight gain and feed efficiencies significantly. Feeding whey also improved weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, but whey offered as a drinking fluid had an adverse effect on broiler performance. 3. When whey was offered both as drinking liquid and added to the food it had a deleterious effect. 4. When whey was offered from 4 or 6 weeks of age, it had a better effect than when offered from 2 weeks of age. 5. There was better performance when whey in the drinking water was diluted and/or offered on alternate days or half-days. 6. Broilers allowed to choose between wet and dry feed when water was freely available chose mostly dry feed; in the absence of drinking water they chose mostly wet food. Birds offered water and liquid whey avoided whey completely. 7. It is concluded that whey can be used in diets for broiler chickens by incorporating it in the food as long as drinking water is offered ad libitum. Whey may be offered as a drink if the food is mixed with 1.8 times its weight of water but it is better to dilute the whey with an equal volume of water whether it is added to food or given as drink. Good results can also be obtained when undiluted whey is offered alternately with water, either in half-day or full-day periods.

  10. The effect of supplementary bacterial phytase on dietary metabolisable energy, nutrient retention and endogenous losses in precision fed broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bedford, M R; Oduguwa, O; Acamovic, T; Allymehr, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-two Ross 308 male broiler chickens were used in a precision feeding assay to investigate the effect of exogenous phytase (EC 3.1.3.26) on dietary apparent metabolisable energy (AME), dry matter digestibility (DMD) coefficient, nitrogen (NR), amino acid and mineral retentions. The excretion of endogenous losses measured as sialic acid (SA) was also determined. Four dietary treatments (control (C), C + 250 FTU (phytase units per kg feed), C + 500 FTU, and C + 2500 FTU) were studied with each treatment replicated eight times in randomised complete block design. Diets were formulated to be nutritionally adequate with the exception of available P content (2.3 g/kg non-phytate P). Over the 48-h collection period, the phytase fed birds retained 29.3 mg more Na and 2.3 mg more Zn (p < 0.05) than the control fed birds, with the relationship between phytase dose and Na and Zn retention being best described by a linear function (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, for Na and Zn, respectively). Phytase supplementation did not have an effect on dietary AME, DMD and NR. However, increasing the dose of phytase led to a linear increase in dietary amino acid retention (p < 0.05). Dietary phytase decreased total sialic acid excretion in a linear fashion (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that supplementary phytase increases the retention (reduces the excretion) of dietary Zn and Na in broiler chickens. The beneficial effects of the addition of exogenous phytases to poultry diets seems to be mediated through improved dietary nutrients absorption and reduced endogenous losses.

  11. Effects of lysophospholipid supplementation to lower nutrient diets on growth performance, intestinal morphology, and blood metabolites in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Boontiam, W; Jung, B; Kim, Y Y

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of dietary lysophospholipid (LPL) supplementation on low-energy, crude protein, and selected amino acids on growth performance, intestinal morphology, blood metabolites, inflammatory response, and carcass traits in broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replications of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. The 5 treatments were: positive control (PC) without LPL supplementation and adequate in all nutrients, negative control (NC) without LPL, and reduced 150 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy and reduced 5 to 6% of crude protein and selected amino acids including Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp in a calculated amount relative to the PC, NC + 0.05% LPL (LPL05), NC + 0.10% LPL (LPL10), and NC + 0.15% LPL (LPL15). Feeding LPL linearly improved growth performance, feed conversion ratio, ether extract, and protein digestibility. LPL supplementation on low-energy and nitrogenous diets showed significant enhancements in metabolic profiles of blood glucose, protein utilization, and immune system functions. These improvements influenced carcass composition, especially in relative weights of pancreas and breast muscle. In contrast, LPL addition showed no significant effects on relative weights of immune organs, gizzard, and abdominal fat. The NC birds were more susceptible to inflammation via modulating the secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and increasing crypt depth in the jejunal and duodenal segments. However, the inclusion of 0.05% LPL to the NC diet could alleviate inflammation with increased jejunal villi height, ratio of villi height to crypt depth, and decreased IL-1 level. Overall, LPL promotes growth performance, nutrient utilization, gut health, anti-inflammation, and muscle yields when applied to diets of broiler chickens with lower levels of energy, crude protein, and selected amino acids.

  12. Dietary Inulin Supplementation Modifies Significantly the Liver Transcriptomic Profile of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T.; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg−1 diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile. PMID:24915441

  13. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed.

    PubMed

    Heres, Lourens; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Knapen, Frans; Urlings, Bert A P

    2003-04-01

    In vivo experiments were conducted in order to investigate the passage and bacterial reduction of Salmonella in the crop and gizzard of chickens when fed two different feeds. The chickens were fed dry conventional feed and fermented liquid feed. The fermented feed contains a relatively high concentration of lactic and acetic acid and lactobacilli. One and three week old broiler chickens were necropsied at short intervals after inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis. Counts of Salmonella from the crop, gizzard, duodenum, caecum and colon/rectum were obtained. This revealed a sharper decrease of Salmonella in the anterior parts of the gastro-intestinal tract in chickens fed with fermented feed than in chickens fed dry feed. It is therefore concluded that fermented feed improves the barrier formed by the crop and gizzard. The reduction of Salmonella is fully realised in the crop and gizzard. The lower intestinal compartment did not show a substantial effect on the reduction of Salmonella. The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

  14. Immunotherapeutic effects of some sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) extracts against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Muhammad, Faqir; ul Haq, Ahsan; Anwar, M Irfan

    2011-06-01

    Present paper reports the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) juice and bagasse, respectively on protective immune responses in industrial broiler chickens against coccidiosis. Immunotherapeutic efficacies of the extracts were measured by evaluating their effect on body weight gain, oocyst shedding, lesion score, anti-coccidial indices, per cent protection and elicited serum antibody responses against coccidiosis. Results revealed a significantly lower (P<0.05) oocyst shedding and mortality in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to control. Further, significantly higher (P<0.05) body weight gains and antibody responses were detected in chickens administered with sugar cane extracts as compared to chickens of control group. Moreover, ethanolic extract showed higher anti-coccidia index (227.61) as compared to aqueous extract (192.32). The organ body weight ratio of the lymphoid organs of experimental and control groups were statistically non-significant (P>0.01). These results demonstrated that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of sugar cane possess immune enhancing properties and their administration in chickens augments the protective immunity against coccidiosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary inulin supplementation modifies significantly the liver transcriptomic profile of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sevane, Natalia; Bialade, Federica; Velasco, Susana; Rebolé, Almudena; Rodríguez, Maria Luisa; Ortiz, Luís T; Cañón, Javier; Dunner, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Inclusion of prebiotics in the diet is known to be advantageous, with positive influences both on health and growth. The current study investigated the differences in the hepatic transcriptome profiles between chickens supplemented with inulin (a storage carbohydrate found in many plants) and controls. Liver is a major metabolic organ and has been previously reported to be involved in the modification of the lipid metabolism in chickens fed with inulin. A nutrigenomic approach through the analysis of liver RNA hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome Array identified 148 differentially expressed genes among both groups: 104 up-regulated (≥ 1.4-fold) and 44 down-regulated (≤ 0.6-fold). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for five out of seven genes tested. The functional annotation analyses revealed a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in chicken growth and performance, while reinforcing the immune status of animals, and fostering the production of long chain fatty acids in broilers supplemented with 5 g of inulin kg(-1) diet. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study on the effect of dietary inulin supplementation, supporting further research on the use of this prebiotic on chicken diets as a useful alternative to antibiotics for improving performance and general immunity in poultry farming, along with a healthier meat lipid profile.

  16. Effect of daily lithium chloride administration on bone mass and strength in growing broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Harvey, B M; Eschbach, M; Glynn, E A; Kotha, S; Darre, M; Adams, D J; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R; Govoni, K E

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of oral lithium chloride supplementation on bone strength and mass in broiler chickens. Ninety-six broilers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups (lithium chloride or control; n=48/treatment). Beginning at 1 or 3 wk of age, chickens were administered lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) or water daily by oral gavage. At 6 wk of age, chickens were euthanized and bone and muscle samples were collected. A 24 h lithium chloride (20 mg/kg body weight) challenge determined that serum lithium chloride increased within 2 h and cleared the system within 24 h, demonstrating the effective delivery of lithium chloride. Treatment did not influence body weight (P≥0.20) or feed intake (P≥0.81), demonstrating that lithium chloride did not negatively affect broiler growth. To determine bone strength, 3-point bending was performed on the femora and tibiae obtained from control and lithium chloride-treated birds in the 1 wk group. Lithium chloride-treated birds had a 22% reduction in stiffness compared with control in the femora (P=0.02) without a corresponding reduction in elastic modulus. No differences were observed in yield or ultimate load and in the corresponding calculations of stresses (P≥0.26). The toughness of tibiae was not altered in lithium chloride compared with control (P=0.11). Bone length and micro-CT imaging were performed on the tibiae of control and lithium chloride groups. No differences (P≥0.52) in bone length, cortical or trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, number, or spacing were observed. Lithium chloride treatment did not affect pectoralis muscle color or lipid oxidation (P>0.05). In conclusion, lithium chloride treatment in broilers did not negatively affect growth or meat quality. A reduction in bone stiffness of the femur with lithium chloride treatment was observed, however unlike the mouse model, the dosages of lithium chloride used in the current study did not result in anabolic effects

  17. Splitting the scotoperiod: effects on feeding behaviour, intestinal fill and digestive transit time in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Duve, L R; Steenfeldt, S; Thodberg, K; Nielsen, B L

    2011-02-01

    1. The aim of this study was to evaluate how splitting the dark period (scotoperiod) affects feeding behaviour and associated intestinal measures in broilers. 2. Ross 308 broilers were reared to 37 d in groups given either a daily 8-h continuous scotoperiod (DARK 8) or an intermittent light schedule with two equally spaced 4-h scotoperiods (DARK 4 + 4), which yielded the same total duration of darkness per 24 h. 3. Feeding behaviour was recorded weekly from 24-h video recordings of 24 groups each of 64 birds. Empty intestinal weights as well as their contents were measured weekly at 4 time points (n = 192). Digestive transit time was estimated on d 29 using a chromic oxide marker; production variables and the extent of foot pad dermatitis were also recorded. 4. In the 3 h prior to a scotoperiod, feeding activity increased in chickens from DARK 8 but not DARK 4 + 4. This increase was reflected in a higher relative content of the crop in DARK 8 at this time. 5. Immediately following the scotoperiod, feeding activity peaked and, although the chickens in DARK 4 + 4 expressed more feeding behaviour in the first 20 min after the scotoperiod, the chickens in DARK 8 had overall higher feeding activity across the day. However, DARK 4 + 4 had a higher feed intake and weight gain. The occurrence and severity of foot pad dermatitis was similar between treatments. 6. In conclusion, broilers modify their feeding behaviour according to the prevailing light schedule. Eight consecutive hours of darkness reduced growth, but did not affect overall feed conversion efficiency, and did not appear to exacerbate hunger or foot pad dermatitis to any great extent.

  18. Effects of feeding diets contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Faixová, Zita; Faix, Stefan; Borutová, Radka; Leng, Lubomír

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on some biochemical indices of broiler chickens. Twenty-four Ross 308 hybrid broiler chickens of both sexes were fed diets containing maize contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins. The diets included a control diet (DON 0.60 mg/kg feed; ZEA 0.07 mg/kg feed), an experimental 1 diet (DON 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 3.4 mg kg⁻¹ feed), and an experimental 2 diet (DON 8.2 mg kg⁻¹ feed; ZEA 8.3 mg kg⁻¹ feed). Contaminated diets were fed from 14 days of age for 14 days. Blood samples were collected from 4-week-old birds. Chicks fed a diet containing a low level of contaminated maize (experimental 1) had decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased cholesterol and calcium levels as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) enzyme activities as compared to the control. Feeding a diet contaminated with high levels of mycotoxins (experimental 2) resulted in decreased plasma potassium, magnesium, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, free glycerol concentrations and increased plasma ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and AST enzyme activities. The effect of mycotoxin-contaminated diets on ALP activity was dose dependent. Chloride concentration was not affected by the diets. It can be concluded that feeding diets contaminated with both levels of Fusarium mycotoxins significantly affected protein, lipid and mineral metabolism as well as AST and ALP enzyme activities in broiler chickens.

  19. Exploring the in vivo digestion of plant proteins in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sabboh-Jourdan, H.; Narcy, A.; Lessire, M.; Harichaux, G.; Labas, V.; Duclos, M.J.; Réhault-Godbert, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of various protein sources (industry by-products, proteaginous) in poultry diets requires a greater understanding of protein digestion mechanisms. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular actors required for protein digestion in broilers fed 4 different diets containing soybean meal, rapeseed meal, pea, or corn distiller's dried grain with solubles as the only protein source. The digesta of the digestive tract segments were collected and soluble proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE analyses revealed 5 ubiquitous bands in digesta of all digestive tract segments regardless of the diet, whereas 3 bands were diet-specific. The digesta of the jejunum were further submitted to proteomic analysis. Forty-two proteins of chicken origin and 17 plant proteins were identified in digesta samples by mass spectrometry. Fifteen proteins of chicken origin were specific to one diet and 18 were common to all diets. By homology with mammals, these proteins are thought to be involved in protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid metabolism and also in intestinal homeostasis. Some of the 17 plant proteins were found to be not fully digested (soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and pea diets) and others were identified as protease inhibitors (soybean meal and pea diets). This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the physiological proteins involved in the digestion of 4 protein sources used in broiler diets. Such an approach, combined with the analysis of insoluble components of these different protein sources, would contribute to define whether these protein sources could be more largely used in poultry nutrition. It also would allow identifying ways to improve their digestibility in broiler chickens (feed additives such as exogenous proteases or processing to inactivate anti-nutritional factors, for instance). PMID:28339732

  20. Effects of high dietary fluorine on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yubing; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Luo, Qin

    2013-11-01

    Fluoride can exert toxic effects on soft tissues, giving rise to a broad array of symptoms and pathological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate on erythrocytes and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens fed with high fluorine (F) diets by measuring the total erythrocyte count (TEC), the contents of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volumn (PCV), erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF), erythrocyte C3b receptor rosette rate (E-C3bRR), and erythrocyte immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR). A total of 280 1-day-old healthy avian broiler chickens were randomly allotted into four equal groups of 70 birds each and fed with a corn-soybean basal diet containing 22.6 mg F/kg (control group) or same basal diets supplemented with 400, 800, and 1,200 mg F/kg (high F groups I, II, and III) in the form of sodium fluoride for 42 days. Blood samples were collected for the abovementioned parameters analysis at 14, 28, and 42 days of age during the experiment. The experimental results indicated that TEC, Hb, and PCV were significantly lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01), and EOF was higher (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III than that in the control group from 14 to 42 days of age. The E-C3bRR was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in the three high F groups, whereas the E-ICRR was markedly increased (p < 0.01) in the high F groups II and III from 14 to 42 days of age. It was concluded that dietary F in the range of 800 to 1, 200 mg/kg could significantly cause anemia and impair the integrity of erythrocyte membrane, the transport capacity of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and erythrocyte immune adherence function in broiler chickens.

  1. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolated from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Malidareh, Naser; Firouzi, Sobhan; Ranjbar Malidareh, Neda; Habibi, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Salmonellosis is the most important zoonotic disease, causing diarrhea and systemic infections. Due to poor management in antibiotic consumption, microbial resistance has increased in the treatment of zoonotic diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. isolated from day-old broiler chickens which were referred to a private laboratory in Mazandaran-a province in the north of Iran-from 2008 to 2010. After harvesting the samples from the yolk sac, liver, and intestine of chickens, intestinal samples were transferred to selenite F and then incubated at 43 °C for 12-16 h. A loopful from selenite F and samples of liver and yolk sac were streaked on XLD and S.S agars. After incubation, the suspected colonies were inoculated into TSI agar for biochemical confirmation. The disk diffusion method on Muller Hinton agar was used to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Because of the predominant use of enrofloxacin, sulfadiazine + trimethoprim, and flumequine for controlling Salmonella and Escherichia coli infections in the first week of broilers brooding in Iran, these three antibiotics were used in the in vivo study. From day 2 and continuing for 4 days, antibiotics were administrated in water, and after 10 days, samples from the liver, heart, and intestine were taken for isolation of Salmonella. In antimicrobial resistant tests, the most susceptible antibiotics were chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, and sulfadiazine + trimethoprim. The antimicrobial resistance to enrofloxacin, flumequine, colistin, and neomycin were 6.6, 11.6, 21.6, and 33.3 %, respectively. The results showed that 12 parties of broiler chickens were infected with paratyphoid salmonellae and the in vivo study showed that enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine + trimethoprim had the best and the weakest performance, respectively.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolates from broiler chickens and humans

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Tricia D; McLaughlin, Wayne; Brown, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial usage is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms in both veterinary and human medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic basis of tetracycline resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy broiler chickens and compare these data with isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in Jamaica. Results Eighty-two E. coli strains isolated from faecal samples of broiler chickens and urine and wound specimens of hospitalized patients were analyzed by agar disc diffusion to determine their susceptibility patterns to 11 antimicrobial agents. Tetracycline resistance determinants were investigated by plasmid profiling, transformations, and amplification of plasmid-borne resistance genes. Tetracycline resistance occurred at a frequency of 82.4% in avian isolates compared to 43.8% in human isolates. In addition, among avian isolates there was a trend towards higher resistance frequencies to kanamycin and nalidixic acid (p < 0.05), while a greater percentage of human isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (p < 0.05). Multiple drug resistance was found in isolates from both sources and was usually associated with tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline-resistant isolates from both avian and human sources contained one or several plasmids, which were transmissible by transformation of chemically-competent E. coli. Tetracycline resistance was mediated by efflux genes tetB and/or tetD. Conclusion The present study highlights the prevalence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among healthy broiler chickens in Jamaica, possibly associated with expression of tetracycline resistance. While there did not appear to be a common source for multiple drug resistance in the strains from avian or human origin, the genes encoding resistance are similar. These results suggest that genes are disseminated in the

  3. Chicken embryo origin-like strains are responsible for Infectious laryngotracheitis virus outbreaks in Egyptian cross-bred broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.

  4. Forsythia suspensa Extract Has the Potential to Substitute Antibiotic in Broiler Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Piao, X. S.; Zhang, H. Y.; Li, P. F.; Yi, J. Q.; Zhang, Q.; Li, P.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. First, a well-diffusion assay procedure and a 2-fold dilution method were used to determine the bacteriostatic activity of FSE on Escherichia coli K88, staphylococcus aureus, and salmonella was assayed. An inhibitory effect of FSE was observed on the growth of these bacteria. This effect seems to be dose depended, which disappeared after 25.00, 12.50, 1.56 mg/ml. Second, a 42-d trial with 252 broiler chickens (d 1, 38.7±1.1 g BW) was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of FSE in broiler chicken. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet from d 1 to 21 and a finisher diet from d 22 to 42. Dietary treatments included were: i) NC: negative control fed a corn-soybean meal based diet; ii) PC: positive control group fed based diet with chlortetracycline; and iii) FC: a test group fed with 100 mg FSE/kg diet. In this study growth performance did not differ among treatments during the starter period. However, dietary supplemental chlortetracycline and FSE increased (p<0.05) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared with NC during the finisher and overall phase. Apparent digestibility of calcium on d 21, digestibility of energy and calcium on d 42 of FC was greater (p<0.05) than NC. Moreover, cecal Escherichia coli counts for birds from FC were lower (p<0.05) than NC. Dietary FSE supplementation also improved (p<0.05) villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratios in both duodenum and ileum and decreased (p<0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum. Duodenum villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in both duodenum and ileum from the FC group were also greater (p<0.05). Serum growth hormone and IGF-1 were not influenced by different treatments. Apparently, FSE has the potential to substitute for antibiotic in broiler chicken. PMID:25049598

  5. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  6. [Avian Escherichia coli virulence factors associated with coli septicemia in broiler chickens].

    PubMed

    Ramirez Santoyo, R M; Moreno Sala, A; Almanza Marquez, Y

    2001-01-01

    In order to detect phenotypic characteristics associated with pathogenicity, 25 strains of Escherichia coli, isolated from clinical cases of colisepticemia in broiler chickens, were examined to determine the following properties: colicinogenicity, colicin V production, type 1 fimbriae, hemolysin expression and motility. Colicinogenicity occurred in 72% of the strains, 56% of all strains produced colicin V, 84% were positive for type 1 fimbriae and 80% were positive for motility. None of the strains had hemolytic activity; however, all of them, expressed at least one of the other characteristics studied. These results suggest that the diversity of phenotypes detected partially explain the multifactorial nature of avian colisepticemia.

  7. Effect of poultry by-product meal on pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure and ascites in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Richard J.; Caston, Linda J.; Mirsalimi, S. Medhi; Leeson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that poultry by-product meal would produce a thermogenic response (an increased requirement for oxygen) resulting in an increased incidence of pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular failure and ascites in commercial broiler chickens. Four treatment groups, each with three replicates of 40 chicks, were fed a commercial broiler starter to day 21, grower to day 35, and the following experimental diets after day 35: group 1, commercial chicken broiler finisher; group 2, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry by-product meal added to replace part of the soyabean meal; group 3, commercial chicken broiler finisher with poultry fat added to replace the animal-vegetable (AV) fat; group 4, commercial chicken broiler finisher with both poultry by-product meal and poultry fat added to replace soyabean meal and AV fat. On day 35, pen temperature was reduced to 15°C, and on day 42 to 12°C. Mortality from ascites between days 35 and 56 was 11(9%) in group 2, 5(4%) in group 4 and 3(2.5%) in groups 1 and 3 The incidence of pulmonary hypertension, as measured by an increased right ventricle: total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio (RV:TV > 0.249) at processing on day 57, was higher in the groups receiving poultry by-product and poultry fat: 27(22.5%) in group 2, 26(21.7%) in group 3, and 20(16.7%) in group 4 compared to that of the controls 12(10%). PMID:17424018

  8. Individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Huff, W E; Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Hagler, W M; Swanson, S P; Phillips, T D; Creger, C R

    1986-07-01

    The individual and combined effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were evaluated in young broiler chickens (Hubbard X Hubbard). The experimental design was a 2 X 2 factorial with treatments of 0 and 2.5 micrograms of aflatoxin/g of feed (ppm) and 0 and 16 micrograms of DON/g of feed. The broilers were maintained on these dietary treatments from hatching to 3 weeks of age in electrically heated batteries with feed and water available ad libitum. The aflatoxin treatment significantly (P less than .05) decreased body weight; weight gain; increased the relative weight of the spleen, liver, and kidney; induced hepatic hyperlipemia; decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase; and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, and phosphorus. The toxicity of DON was expressed through reduced growth rate, increased feed conversion; increased relative weight of the gizzard, anemia, decreased activity of lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum triglycerides. The interaction between aflatoxin and DON was characterized by reduced growth rates; increased feed conversion, increased relative weight of the proventriculus, gizzard, spleen, liver, and kidney, anemia, hepatic hyperlipemia, decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, and lactic dehydrogenase, and decreased serum levels of protein, albumin, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, and calcium. These data demonstrate that both aflatoxin and DON can limit broiler performance and adversely effect broiler health. The effects of the combination of aflatoxin and DON on broiler performance and health was more severe than the individual effects of these mycotoxins; however, the interaction was not severe enough to represent toxic synergy and can best be characterized as additive toxicity.

  9. Effect of heating system using a geothermal heat pump on the production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Choi, H C; Salim, H M; Akter, N; Na, J C; Kang, H K; Kim, M J; Kim, D W; Bang, H T; Chae, H S; Suh, O S

    2012-02-01

    A geothermal heat pump (GHP) is a potential heat source for the economic heating of broiler houses with optimum production performance. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of a heating system using a GHP on production performance and housing environment of broiler chickens. A comparative analysis was also performed between the GHP system and a conventional heating system that used diesel for fuel. In total, 34,000 one-day-old straight run broiler chicks were assigned to 2 broiler houses with 5 replicates in each (3,400 birds/replicate pen) for 35 d. Oxygen(,) CO(2), and NH(3) concentrations in the broiler house, energy consumption and cost of heating, and production performance of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that the final BW gain significantly (P < 0.05) increased when chicks were reared in the GHP broiler house compared with that of chicks reared in the conventional broiler house (1.73 vs. 1.62 kg/bird). The heating system did not affect the mortality of chicks during the first 4 wk of the experimental period, but the mortality markedly increased in the conventional broiler house during the last wk of the experiment. Oxygen content in the broiler house during the experimental period was not affected by the heating system, but the CO(2) and NH(3) contents significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the conventional broiler house compared with those in the GHP house. Fuel consumption was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) and electricity consumption significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the GHP house compared with the consumption in the conventional house during the experiment. The total energy cost of heating the GHP house was significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared with that of the conventional house. It is concluded that a GHP system could increase the production performance of broiler chicks due to increased inside air quality of the broiler house. The GHP system had lower CO(2) and NH(3) emissions with lower energy cost than the

  10. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J; Lee, William R; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  11. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Zhu; Lamont, Susan J.; Lee, William R.; Abasht, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE) are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE) chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE) commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample) in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE) at q (False Discover Rate) < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01) enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences. PMID:26295149

  12. Supplementation of direct-fed microbials as an alternative to antibiotic on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Salim, H M; Kang, H K; Akter, N; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, M J; Na, J C; Jong, H B; Choi, H C; Suh, O S; Kim, W K

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the supplementation of direct-fed microbials (DFM) as an alternative to antibiotics on growth performance, immune response, cecal microbial population, and ileal morphology of broiler chickens. A total of 800 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross × Ross) were randomly allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment (50 birds/replicate pen). The 4 dietary treatments fed for 35 d were a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 0.1% virginiamycin, as an antibiotic growth promoter (AGP); control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained Lactobacillus reuteri (DFM 1); and control plus 0.1% direct-fed microbials that contained a mixture of L. reuteri, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (DFM 2). Results showed that dietary AGP and DFM supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the BW gain of broilers during 0 to 21 d. The feed intake was reduced, whereas the feed conversion was improved significantly when birds were fed DFM 2 at 0 to 7 d of age. The white blood cell and monocyte levels were significantly higher in the DFM 2 group compared with the control. In addition, feeding DFM significantly (P < 0.05) increased the plasma immunoglobulin levels where a higher level was observed in DFM 2 compared with those of the other treatments. Neither DFM nor AGP treatments affected the cecal Lactobacillus and Salmonella content; however, cecal Escherichia coli content significantly decreased in broiler chickens fed DFM and AGP. The ileal villus height, and width and total thickness of muscularis externa were significantly increased when birds were fed DFM compared with AGP and control. These results indicate that the dietary supplementation of DFM increases the growth performance of birds at an early age, stimulates the immune response, decreases the number of E. coli, and improves the ileal morphology of broiler chickens. Thus, DFM that contained a mixture of several beneficial

  13. The effect of Brazilian propolis on serum thyroid hormones in broilers reared under chronic heat stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment evaluated the effect of dietary supplement with green Brazilian propolis on serum thyroxin (T4) and tri-iodothyronine (T3) levels in broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress for 4 wks (from 15 to 42 d of age). Five hundred and four 15-d-old, male broiler chickens (Ross 708) w...

  14. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Alters Oxidative Stability and Alleviates Plasma Cholesterol Content in Meat of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4°C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05). PMID:25386625

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid alters oxidative stability and alleviates plasma cholesterol content in meat of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kumari Ramiah, Suriya; Meng, Goh Yong; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition, lipoprotein content, lipid peroxidation, and meat colour of broiler chickens. A total of 180 broiler chickens were allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0, 2.5, and 5% Lutrell) and given a standard broiler starter diet and finisher diet. Body weight of chickens and feed intake were recorded weekly. After slaughter, the breast meat was aged at 4 °C for 0, 3, and 6 days. The fatty acid composition was measured in the breast meat. Body weight (BW) and feed efficiency were decreased by dietary CLA level (P < 0.05). Chicken fed with 2.5% Lutrell had the highest feed intake compared to the control (CON) group. The total CLA increased significantly (P < 0.05) in breast meat from birds supplemented with CLA. Propensity for lipid peroxidation was significantly higher after 6 days of meat storage (P < 0.05) and the redness in chicken breast meat was lower in CLA-fed birds (P < 0.05). It is also notable that a 5% Lutrell supplementation decreased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density protein (LDL), and HDL (high-density lipoprotein)/LDL ratio in chickens (P < 0.05).

  16. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

    PubMed Central

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Bae, Young Sik; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Jun Heon; Kim, Jong Geun; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC) and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL), KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS), broiler for baeksuk (BL), and broiler for samgyetang (BS) were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines. PMID:25049883

  17. Bone response of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Luo, J W; Zhou, Z L; Zhang, H; Ma, R S; Hou, J F

    2013-02-01

    Experiments were conducted with chickens exposed to corticosterone (CORT), with the aim of determining its effects on bone characteristics. At 7 d of age, the experimental birds were injected daily with CORT (4 mg/kg of body mass) for 1 week. CORT administration significantly decreased the body weight while increasing relative liver weight of the chickens and the bone parameters were also decreased. Histology and immunohistochemistry of type X collagen revealed that CORT reduced the lengths of proliferative and prehypertrophic zone in growth plate and the number of positive chondrocytes in the prehypertrophic zone. In conclusion exposure to CORT depressed the growth performance and retarded the longitudinal growth of the long bones by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes in growth plate in broilers.

  18. Feasibility of screening broiler chicken flocks for risk markers as an aid for meat inspection.

    PubMed

    Lupo, C; Le Bouquin, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Peraste, J; Petetin, I; Colin, P; Chauvin, C

    2009-08-01

    The feasibility of using risk markers to screen broiler chicken flocks and anticipate their risk of condemnation at meat inspection was examined in 404 randomly selected flocks in 15 French slaughterhouses in 2005. Condemnation rate and information about rearing conditions, health history, catching and loading, transport and slaughtering were collected. The Poisson regression model of the condemnation rate consisted of six simple and biologically relevant predictors: production type, frequency of farmer's visits during the starting period, health disorders during rearing, on-farm mortality, mortality during transport, and slaughter-line speed. Although accurate prediction of the condemnation rate for a given flock was not feasible, flocks with low or high risk of condemnation could be distinguished. These findings could be useful at various stages of chicken production, to monitor and improve farm husbandry practices, minimize the impact of transport conditions, and optimize meat inspection procedures.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of the pectoral muscles of local chickens and commercial broilers using Ribo-Zero ribonucleic acid sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Donghua; Han, Ruili; Wang, Yanbin; Li, Guoxi; Liu, Xiaojun; Tian, Yadong; Kang, Xiangtao; Li, Zhuanjian

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying meat quality and muscle growth are not clear. The meat quality and growth rates of local chickens and commercial broilers are very different. The Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology is an effective means of analyzing transcript groups to clarify molecular mechanisms. The aim of this study was to provide a reference for studies of the differences in the meat quality and growth of different breeds of chickens. Ribo-Zero RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the pectoral muscle transcriptomes of Gushi chickens and AA broilers. Compared with AA broilers, 1649 genes with annotated information were significantly differentially expressed (736 upregulated and 913 downregulated) in Gushi chickens with Q≤0.05 (Q is the P-value corrected by multiple assumptions test) at a fold change ≥2 or ≤0.5. In addition, 2540 novel significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes (1405 upregulated and 1135 downregulated) were discovered. The results showed that the main signal transduction pathways that differed between Gushi chickens and AA broilers were related to amino acid metabolism. Amino acids are important for protein synthesis, and they regulate key metabolic pathways to improve the growth, development and reproduction of organisms. This study showed that differentially expressed genes in the pectoral tissues of Gushi chickens and AA broilers were related to fat metabolism, which affects meat. Additionally, a large number of novel genes were found that may be involved in fat metabolism and thus may affect the formation of meat, which requires further study. The results of this study provide a reference for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of meat formation.

  20. Characterization of infectious bursal disease viruses isolated in 2007 from Delmarva commercial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gelb, J; Jackwood, D J; Mundt, E; Pope, C R; Hein, R; Slacum, G; Harris, J M; Ladman, B S; Lynch, P; Bautista, D A; Ruano, J M; Troeber, M M

    2012-03-01

    A study was performed in 2007 to isolate and characterize infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) in commercial broilers grown in the Delmarva (DMV) Peninsula region of the United States. Bursae of Fabricius were collected weekly from 1 to 4 wk of age from broilers on 10 farms with a history of poor performance. Microscopic pathology was used to determine the infectious bursal disease (IBD) status of the broilers. Bursae from 1- and 2-wk-old broilers did not show IBD microscopic lesions. Moreover, broilers on 1 of the 10 farms were IBD lesion free at 3 and 4 wk of age. However, 3 of 9 and 9 of 9 farms yielded broilers with IBD-affected bursae from 3- and 4-wk-old commercial broilers, respectively. Ten IBDV isolates were recovered from 3 of 3 lesion-positive bursal pools at 3 wk of age and 7 of 9 lesion-positive bursal pools at 4 wk of age. Analysis of the viral protein (VP) 2 genes identified all isolates as serotype 1 Delaware (Del) variant viruses. Five field isolates, each representing different molecular clades of the Delaware variant viruses, were selected for further study. Experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens with isolates DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/4955/07, DMV/5038/07, and DMV/5041/07 produced gross and microscopic pathology of the bursa consistent with Delaware variant infection. Monoclonal antibody testing showed DMV/4813/07, DMV/4947/07, DMV/ 4955/07, and DMV/5041/07 to be similar to previous recognized variant viruses. However, DMV/5038/07 was found to be unreactive with the monoclonal antibodies that typically recognize reference strains STC, Del E, GLS, RS593, and AL2. In a challenge of immunity study, 10-day-old progeny from breeders immunized with a commercially available inactivated IBDV vaccine containing the Del E and classic strains were protected to a lesser degree against isolate DMV/5038/07 compared to Del E challenge based on microscopic lesion scores (P < 0.01) of the bursa. This result suggests the

  1. Environmental impacts of French and Brazilian broiler chicken production scenarios: an LCA approach.

    PubMed

    Prudêncio da Silva, Vamilson; van der Werf, Hayo M G; Soares, Sebastião Roberto; Corson, Michael S

    2014-01-15

    This study compared the environmental burdens of two broiler chicken production systems in Brazil and two in France. One Brazilian system represents large-scale production in the Center-West region of the country; the other is a small-scale production in the South. One of the French systems represents an extensive broiler chicken production system, known as "Label Rouge"; the other is a standard system. Life-cycle impact assessments were performed using the CML-IA characterization method. The main functional unit adopted was 1 tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, ready for distribution. For the systems and impacts studied, production scale did not affect the environmental impact, but production intensity did. The extensive Label Rouge system had the largest impact among the impact categories studied. This resulted principally from the high feed-conversion ratio of this production system (3.1 kg of feed per kg of live weight) in conjunction with the fact that the feed-production stage contributed most to the overall impact. The contribution of deforestation to the crop-production stage was significant, particularly for climate change, equaling 19% of total emissions of CO2eq per tonne of cooled and packaged chicken, in the system of the Center-West of Brazil. The French systems were also affected, since they import crops from Brazil. The system of southern Brazil had less climate change impact because there is no longer deforestation in southern Brazil for crop production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exogenous administration of chronic corticosterone affects hepatic cholesterol metabolism in broiler chickens showing long or short tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Duan, Yujing; Hu, Yun; Sun, Lili; Wang, Song; Fu, Wenyan; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is an innate characteristic of animals related to fear or stress response. Animals can be classified into long TI (LTI) and short TI (STI) phenotypes based on TI test duration. In this study, effect of TI phenotype, chronic corticosterone administration (CORT), and their interaction on cholesterol metabolism in liver was evaluated in broilers. LTI broilers showed higher level of cholesterol in liver compared to STI chickens (p<0.05), and CORT significantly increased hepatic cholesterol content (p<0.01). Real-time PCR results showed that both TI and CORT potentially altered ABCA1 and CYP7A1 gene expressions (0.05broilers showed higher level of HMGCR protein expression in liver than STI (p<0.05). These results indicate that chronic CORT administration causes hepatic cholesterol accumulation in broiler chickens mainly by enhancing cholesterol synthesis and uptake into liver. LTI chickens had higher amount of total cholesterol in liver, which might be associated with an increase of hepatic HMGCR protein expression. However, there is no interaction between TI and CORT on cholesterol metabolism in liver of broilers.

  3. Quality characteristics of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system for the consumers.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Débora Cristina Fernandes; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela; Gonçalves, Alex Augusto

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the quality parameters of broiler chicken meat from free-range and industrial poultry system. Proximate composition, color, pH, shear force, microbial quality and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Both free-range and industrial chicken meat presented PSE (pale, soft and exudative) anomaly (L* > 53). An inverse correlation between lightness, pH and shear force was observed. The free range broiler meat had higher yellow color (b* 11.56) and shear force (2.75 kgf) and lower red color (a* 1.65) and pH (5.75) in comparison to the industrial broiler meat, due intensive physical activity on growing phase and influence of the pre-slaughter stress on the rigor mortis. The thigh cut from free range broiler meat showed higher protein levels (18.00%), while to the thigh and drumstick cuts of industrial broiler meat showed higher total fat levels (3.4 and 5.0%, respectively). In general, each strain and chickens producing methods gave the peculiar characteristics to meat (chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial).

  4. Use of high-density SNP data to identify patterns of diversity and signatures of selection in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Stainton, J J; Charlesworth, B; Haley, C S; Kranis, A; Watson, K; Wiener, P

    2017-04-01

    The development of broiler chickens over the last 70 years has been accompanied by large phenotypic changes, so that the resulting genomic signatures of selection should be detectable by current statistical techniques with sufficiently dense genetic markers. Using two approaches, this study analysed high-density SNP data from a broiler chicken line to detect low-diversity genomic regions characteristic of past selection. Seven regions with zero diversity were identified across the genome. Most of these were very small and did not contain many genes. In addition, fifteen regions were identified with diversity increasing asymptotically from a low level. These regions were larger and thus generally included more genes. Several candidate genes for broiler traits were found within these 'regression regions', including IGF1, GPD2 and MTNR1AI. The results suggest that the identification of zero-diversity regions is too restrictive for characterizing regions under selection, but that regions showing patterns of diversity along the chromosome that are consistent with selective sweeps contain a number of genes that are functional candidates for involvement in broiler development. Many regions identified in this study overlap or are close to regions identified in layer chicken populations, possibly due to their shared precommercialization history or to shared selection pressures between broilers and layers. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni is not merely a commensal in commercial broiler chickens and affects bird welfare.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Kemmett, Kirsty; Davidson, Nicola; Williams, Nicola; Kipar, Anja; Humphrey, Tom; Wigley, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection; chicken meat is its main source. C. jejuni is considered commensal in chickens based on experimental models unrepresentative of commercial production. Here we show that the paradigm of Campylobacter commensalism in the chicken is flawed. Through experimental infection of four commercial breeds of broiler chickens, we show that breed has a significant effect on C. jejuni infection and the immune response of the animals, although these factors have limited impact on the number of bacteria in chicken ceca. All breeds mounted an innate immune response. In some breeds, this response declined when interleukin-10 was expressed, consistent with regulation of the intestinal inflammatory response, and these birds remained healthy. In another breed, there was a prolonged inflammatory response, evidence of damage to gut mucosa, and diarrhea. We show that bird type has a major impact on infection biology of C. jejuni. In some breeds, infection leads to disease, and the bacterium cannot be considered a harmless commensal. These findings have implications for the welfare of chickens in commercial production where C. jejuni infection is a persistent problem. Importance: Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of food-borne bacterial diarrheal disease in the developed world. Chicken is the most common source of infection. C. jejuni infection of chickens had previously not been considered to cause disease, and it was thought that C. jejuni was part of the normal microbiota of birds. In this work, we show that modern rapidly growing chicken breeds used in intensive production systems have a strong inflammatory response to C. jejuni infection that can lead to diarrhea, which, in turn, leads to damage to the feet and legs on the birds due to standing on wet litter. The response and level of disease varied between breeds and is related to regulation of the inflammatory immune response. These findings

  6. The effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y B; Piao, X S; Kim, S W; Wang, L; Liu, P

    2010-01-01

    One hundred twenty-six 19-d-old male broiler chickens were used to determine the effects of berberine on the magnitude of the acute inflammatory response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The birds were weighed and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments at d 19 (3 treatments x 7 replicates x 6 birds). The treatments comprised a control group in which saline was injected at d 21, an LPS-treated group in which LPS (3 mg/kg of BW) was injected at d 21, and finally a berberine and LPS-treated group in which berberine (15 mg/kg of BW) was orally administered from d 19 to d 24 with LPS injection (3 mg/kg of BW) at d 21. Injection of LPS alone decreased (P < 0.01) weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion compared with the control and the berberine-administered group. Relative liver weight was increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection compared with the control and the berberine-treated group. Total counts of white blood cells and lymphocytes were also increased (P < 0.05) in the LPS-treated group 72 h postinjection. The heterophil concentration of the LPS-treated group was greater (P < 0.05) than that of both the control and the berberine-administered group 24 h postinjection. Broilers in the LPS-treated group had greater (P < 0.05) total serum protein compared with birds in the control and the berberine-administered group both 24 and 72 h postinjection. In addition, the plasma interleukin-6 level of the LPS-treated group was significantly elevated (P < 0.01) at 24 h compared with that of the control and the berberine-administered group. Our results indicate that LPS injection initiated a series of physiological changes typical of an acute phase response in broiler chickens. These effects were largely mitigated by oral administration of berberine.

  7. Detection of Campylobacter on the outer surface of retail broiler chicken meat packages and on product within

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare prevalence of Campylobacter on the outside of broiler meat packages to the product inside the same packages. Chicken meat products were purchased at retail. Samples comprised whole carcasses and six different cut-up part products. Fifteen packages of eac...

  8. Growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites of broiler chicken fed on diets containing flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, D C N; Xavier, E G; Santos, V L; Gonçalves, F M; Anciuti, M A; Roll, V F B; Del Pino, F A B; Feijó, J O; Catalan, A A S

    2013-01-01

    1. This study evaluated the effects of diets with partial and total substitution of soya bean oil (SO) with flaxseed (linseed) oil (FO) on broiler chicken performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition and blood serum metabolites. 2. A total of 448 one-d-old Cobb 500 broiler chicken were used. They were allotted among 4 treatments with 8 replications, using a completely randomised design, for 35 d. Four diets were compared: T1 = 100% SO (3%, 1-7 d; 4%, 8-21 d; and 5%, 22-35 d); T2 = 50% SO + 50% FO; T3 = 25% SO + 75% FO and T4 = 100% FO. 3. No significant differences were observed in body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and blood serum metabolites (total triglycerides, TRI; total cholesterol, CHO; high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; glucose, GLU; albumin, ALB; globulin, GLO; and total proteins, TPs). Significant effects were observed for TRI, CHO, HDL, GLU, HDL, LDL, ALB and GLO with regard to the day of collection. 4. Carcass traits did not show significant differences for the treatments. No significant differences were observed for breast and drumstick chemical compositions, with the exception of drumstick fat concentration (quadratic effect). 5. In conclusion, the partial or total substitution of SO with FO did not affect growth performance, carcass traits, meat chemical composition or blood serum profile in broiler chicken. Therefore, FO can be an alternative to SO in the diet formulation for broiler chicken.

  9. Supplemental dietary L-arginine attenuates intestinal mucosal disruption during a coccidial vaccine challenge in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary arginine (Arg) supplementation on intestinal barrier integrity in broiler chickens undergoing coccidial challenge. The design of this study was a randomized complete block employing a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement (n = 8) with 3 level of Arg (1.11,...

  10. Comparison of live Eimeria vaccination with in-feed Salinomycin on growth and immune status in broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...

  11. Effect of varying light intensity on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated effects of varying levels of light intensities (25, 10, 5, 2.5, and 0.2 lx) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown to heavy weights. Four identical trials were conducted with two replications per trial. In each trial, 600 1-d-old Ross 308 ...

  12. Induction of Passive Immunity in Broiler Chickens Against Eimeria acervulina by Hyperimmune Egg Yolk IgY

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk (SC) prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts, on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing SC or a non-suppleme...

  13. Effects of various field coccidiosis control programs on host innate and adaptive immunity in commercial broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...

  14. Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall in broiler chickens inoculated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Morales-Lopez, R; Brufau, J

    2013-01-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall (YCW) supplemented in diets of broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. One-day-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 24 cages (6 replicate cages; 8 birds/cage) and were inoculated with 0 or 1 mg/kg body weight E. coli-LPS (d 4 and 9) and 0 or 500 mg YCW/kg feed, resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Experimental diets did not include coccidiostats, in-feed antibiotics or enzymes. 3. On d 21, the inoculation of E. coli-LPS reduced weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds, an effect maintained until 28 d. In contrast, chickens given diets with YCW improved the FCR at both 21 and 28 d of age. 4. E. coli-LPS challenge reduced the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, except when chickens were given YCW, which resulted in an interaction. Supplementation of broiler diets with YCW exacerbated the cellular immune response as measured by the delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity response test. 5. The results of this study suggested a benefit on feed efficiency when YCW was added to diets fed to broiler chickens challenged with E. coli-LPS. Part of the mode of action of YCW might be related to better maintenance of immune status in response to microbial challenge.

  15. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  16. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health.

  17. Composition of diet modifies colonization dynamics of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Molnár, A; Hess, C; Pál, L; Wágner, L; Awad, W A; Husvéth, F; Hess, M; Dublecz, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of diet composition on colonization dynamics of Camp. jejuni and on related physiological parameters in the chicken intestine. A total of 54 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly divided into three isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary groups: maize-based (MB), wheat-based (WB) diet and wheat-based diet with NSP-degrading enzyme supplementation (WBES). Chickens were orally infected with 10(8)  CFU Camp. jejuni on day 14, and samples (n = 6) were collected on 7, 14 and 21 days postinfection (DPI), respectively. Colony forming units of Camp. jejuni of caecum and jejunum, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations, pH values of the caecum, jejunal histomorphology and viscosity of jejunal chymus were measured. In case of WBES diet, lower Camp. jejuni colonization 14 DPI, higher jejunal viscosity, higher total SCFA concentrations in the caecum and enhanced jejunal histomorphology were observed compared to those measured in chickens fed MB diet. The WBES diet altered Camp. jejuni colonization dynamics in the chicken intestine which resulted by higher SCFA concentrations in the caecum and by the change of gut morphology. Our study proves that diet composition can modify Camp. jejuni colonization depending on sampling time point postinfection. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Incidence of Salmonella Contamination in Broiler Chickens in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, K.K.; O'Neil, J.B.; Prior, M.G.; Dunkelgod, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of Salmonella contamination in ten Saskatchewan broiler flocks varying in size from 6 200 to 14 000 was investigated from February, 1977 to April, 1979. Prior to the initial chick placement, brooding equipment, feed, water and fresh litter samples were found to be free of Salmonellae. Samples obtained from the clean and disinfected processing plant equipment before the commencement of daily operation were negative except the isolation for Salmonella anatum from the fingers of the defeathering machine in flock 4. There was no evidence of Salmonella contamination in flocks 5, 6, 8 and 10. The incidence of Salmonella was lower when cloacal swabs were taken from day old chicks fasted for 48 hours than for the same groups of chicks when carcasses were blended in nutrient broth (flocks 7 and 9). The blending of such chicks appears to be a more critical test. The serotypes isolated from eviscerated birds were the same as those isolated from used litter samples. Salmonella saintpaul was isolated from a water sample at 53 days in flock 1 and the same serotype was recovered from the intestinal contents and skin of eviscerated birds. Salmonella typhimurium was recovered from the eviscerated birds and neck samples in flock 3. In flock 4, S. saintpaul and S. anatum were isolated from 13% of the eviscerated birds sampled. Salmonella thompson, Salmonella agona and Salmonella heidelberg were recovered from 61%, 5% and 1%, respectively, of the processed carcasses sampled in flock 7. PMID:6831304

  19. Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisins Alter the Extrinsic Component of Intestinal Barrier in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Janssens, Geert P J; De Baere, Siegrid; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Su, Shengchen; Wong, Eric A; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Verlinden, Marc; Devreese, Mathias; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Novak, Barbara; Dohnal, Ilse; Martel, An; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-23

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FBs) are secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium fungi that frequently contaminate broiler feed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of DON and/or FBs on the intestinal barrier in broiler chickens, more specifically on the mucus layer and antioxidative response to oxidative stress. One-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight pens of seven birds each, and were fed for 15 days either a control diet, a DON-contaminated diet (4.6 mg DON/kg feed), a FBs-contaminated diet (25.4 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed), or a DON+FBs-contaminated diet (4.3 mg DON and 22.9 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed). DON and FBs affected the duodenal mucus layer by suppressing intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 gene expression and altering the mucin monosaccharide composition. Both mycotoxins decreased gene expression of the intestinal zinc transporter (ZnT)-1 and regulated intracellular methionine homeostasis, which are both important for preserving the cell's critical antioxidant activity. Feeding a DON- and/or FBs-contaminated diet, at concentrations close to the European Union maximum guidance levels (5 mg DON and 20 mg FB1 + FB2/kg feed) changes the intestinal mucus layer and several intestinal epithelial antioxidative mechanisms.

  20. Identification of genes involved in regulatory mechanism of pigments in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tarique, T M; Yang, S; Mohsina, Z; Qiu, J; Yan, Z; Chen, G; Chen, A

    2014-09-05

    Chicken is an important model organism that unites the evolutionary gap between mammals and other vertebrates and provide major source of protein from meat and eggs for all over the world population. However, specific genes underlying the regulatory mechanism of broiler pigmentation have not yet been determined. In order to better understand the genes involved in the mechanism of pigmentation in the muscle tissues of broilers, the Affymetrix microarray hybridization experiment platform was used to identify gene expression profiles at 7 weeks of age. Broilers fed canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII pigments (100 mg/kg) were used to explore gene expression profiles). Our data showed that the 7th week of age was a very important phase with regard to gene expression profiles. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes; in canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII, there were 54 (32 upregulated and 22 downregulated), 23 (15 upregulated and 8 downregulated), and 7 (5 upregulated and 2 downregulated) known genes, respectively. Our data indicate that the numbers of differentially expressed genes were more upregulated than downregulated, and several genes showed conserved signaling to previously known functions. Thus, functional characterization of differentially expressed genes revealed several categories that are involved in important biological processes, including pigmentation, growth, molecular mechanisms, fat metabolism, cell proliferation, immune response, lipid metabolism, and protein synthesis and degradation. The results of the present study demonstrate that the genes associated with canthaxanthin, natural lutein, and orangeII are key regulatory genes that control the regulatory mechanisms of pigmentation.

  1. Safety profile of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of herbal origin in broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G; Boland, R; Bachmann, H; Toggenburger, A; Rambeck, W

    2016-12-01

    The safety of supplementing broiler feed with a standardised herbal extract, Solanum Glaucophyllum Standardised Leaves (SGSL) containing glycosylated 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and standardised to contain 10 µg/g 1,25(OH)2D3 equivalent, was examined in two studies. In a first study, we examined the potential of SGSL to substitute vitamin D3 (VD3) and the tolerated dose range of SGSL when applied without concomitant VD3 by analyzing performance and blood chemical parameters after 14, 25 and 38 days on diets containing two doses of SGSL (1 and 10 g/kg feed) as source of 1,25(OH)2D3. In the second study, the no adverse effect level of SGSL was determined by analyzing the same parameters after 35 days on diets containing basic VD3 supply and in addition 0.2, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g of SGSL/kg feed. We showed that SGSL was able to substitute VD3 in broilers as far as the performance parameters were concerned. Also, we found that the no adverse effect level is at least 4 g SGSL/kg feed when used with moderate doses of VD3. This is 20 times higher than the upper limit of the commercially recommended dose. We concluded that SGSL is a safe feed additive to use in broiler chicken.

  2. Effects of copper source and level on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Arias, V J; Koutsos, E A

    2006-06-01

    Dietary copper sulfate (CuSO4) and tribasic copper chloride (TBCC) were examined for their effects on intestinal physiology and growth of broiler chickens. In 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2), day-old broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet with no supplemental copper (Cu; negative control), a basal diet + 188 mg of Cu/kg of diet from TBCC or CuSO4, or a basal diet + subtherapeutic antibiotics (bacitracin and roxarsone; positive control). In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), CuSO4 and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 45 posthatch) compared with the negative control (P < 0.05 for each). In Experiment 2 (fresh litter), negative control and TBCC increased carcass weight (d 42 posthatch) compared with the positive control (P < 0.05 for each). At d 30 to 31 posthatch, intestinal histology was measured. In Experiment 1 (recycled litter), dietary TBCC, CuSO4, and positive control decreased the number of lamina propia lymphocytes or intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), or both, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). However, in Experiment 2 (fresh litter), TBCC and positive control increased the number of duodenum IEL compared with the negative control (P < 0.05), and negative control and TBCC increased the number of ileum IEL. These data demonstrate that broiler performance and intestinal physiology can be influenced by dietary Cu source and level as well as microbial environment (fresh vs. recycled litter).

  3. Non-reducible collagen cross-linking in cartilage from broiler chickens with tibial dyschondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Orth, M W; Leach, R M; Vailas, A C; Cook, M E

    1994-01-01

    Recent work has shown that hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), a non-reducible cross-link that stabilizes the collagen fibril network, is significantly greater (over 10-fold) in dyschondroplastic cartilage than in normal growth-plate cartilage in the tibiotarsi of chickens with homocysteine-induced tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). In the present study, broiler chicks with a genetic disposition to TD, as well as normal broiler chicks on a copper-deficient diet alone or supplemented with copper and thiram, were raised for 3 to 4 weeks (Expts. 1 and 2). Their dyschondroplastic cartilage from the proximal tibiotarsus was collected and analyzed for HP as well as lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links. Normal growth plate cartilage was obtained from chicks on the copper-deficient diet supplemented with copper. In a third experiment, another set of broiler chicks was raised on a corn/soybean meal-based diet with or without homocysteine, and their articular and sternal cartilage were isolated for cross-link analysis. In the first two experiments, dyschondroplastic cartilage from all birds with induced TD had higher HP and LP concentrations than growth-plate cartilage from birds without TD, although the ratios of HP to LP varied. In the third experiment, the sternal and articular cartilage from birds with homocysteine-induced TD appeared normal, having similar HP concentrations in the same types of cartilage in birds without TD.

  4. Campylobacter Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Humans, Broiler Chickens, and Pigs, France

    PubMed Central

    Prouzet-Mauléon, Valérie; Kempf, Isabelle; Lehours, Philippe; Labadi, Leila; Camou, Christine; Denis, Martine; de Valk, Henriette; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Mégraud, Francis

    2007-01-01

    We describe isolates from human Campylobacter infection in the French population and the isolates' antimicrobial drug resistance patterns since 1986 and compare the trends with those of isolates from broiler chickens and pigs from 1999 to 2004. Among 5,685 human Campylobacter isolates, 76.2% were C. jejuni, 17.2% C. coli, and 5.0% C. fetus. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased from 8.2% in 1990 to 26.3% in 2004 (p<10-3), and resistance to ampicillin was high over time. Nalidixic acid resistance was greater for C. coli (21.3%) than for C. jejuni (14.9%, p<10-3). C. jejuni resistance to ciprofloxacin in broilers decreased from 31.7% in 2002 to 9.0% in 2004 (p = 0.02). The patterns of resistance to quinolones and fluoroquinolones were similar between 1999 and 2004 in human and broiler isolates for C. jejuni. These results suggest a potential benefit of a regulation policy limiting use of antimicrobial drugs in food animals. PMID:17479889

  5. The efficacy of dietary xylanase and phytase in broiler chickens fed expeller-extracted camelina meal.

    PubMed

    Pekel, A Y; Horn, N L; Adeola, O

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phytase (PHY) and xylanase (XYL) on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and intestinal characteristics in broilers fed corn-soybean meal-based diets with added expeller-extracted camelina meal (CM). The corn-soybean meal-based diets without or with CM was formulated to contain 2.9 or 2.7 g/kg non phytate phosphorus, respectively. A total of 384 male Ross 708 broilers were allocated to 8 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 replicates per treatment, from 7 to 21 d post hatching. The experiment consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 dietary CM levels (zero or 100 g/kg), 2 dietary levels of XYL (zero or 800 unit/kg), and 2 dietary levels of PHY (zero or 4,000 unit/kg). Chromic oxide was included in the diets as an indigestible marker. Growth was measured throughout the experiment and excreta were collected on d 18 to 21 post hatching for measurement of nutrient and energy retention. On d 21 post hatching, broilers were euthanized by CO2 asphyxiation, ileal digesta was collected for nutrient and energy digestibility measurements, and the left tibia was removed for bone ash measurement. Furthermore, duodenal digesta was collected and a segment of the mid jejunum was excised for viscosity and morphology measurement, respectively. Broilers fed 100 g/kg CM diets showed lower (P < 0.001) BW gain and G:F than those fed zero g/kg CM diets for 7 to 14 d and 7 to 21 d post hatching periods, respectively. Phytase supplementation improved (P < 0.05) all the growth parameters measured regardless of CM addition. Phytase supplementation resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in jejunum villus height but there was no impact of CM or XYL. Additionally, duodenal digesta viscosity increased (P < 0.001) with added CM. Tibia ash and weight increased (P < 0.001) with PHY supplementation. There was a CM × PHY interaction (P < 0.05) on percentage tibia ash, with

  6. Effect of copper on antioxidant ability and nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens stimulated by lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhigang; Zhao, Tong; Liu, Lei; Jiao, Hongchao; Lin, Hai

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the experiment was to investigate the interaction between Cu intake, inflammatory challenge and oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Furthermore, it was tested whether plasma ceruloplasmin (Cp) could be a sensible parameter for dietary Cu. One hundred forty-four day old chickens were raised on a basal control diet without added copper (Group Cu-6.5, basal Cu content 6.5 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with Cu at 8 or 50 mg/kg (Groups Cu-14.5 and Cu-56.5, respectively) with four replicates of 12 animals for each treatment. Starting on day 21, chickens were injected intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) once a day for 3 days. Before this challenge, Group Cu-14.5 had the lowest gain and the feed to gain ratio was the highest. After injection of LPS, however, chickens of Group Cu-14.5 had the best zoo-technical performance. For chickens of Group Cu-6.5, LPS injection resulted in elevated rectal temperature, and lower erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) activity, compared with the other groups. LPS injection increased plasma uric acid in Group Cu-6.5 significantly, but was without influence in Group Cu-56.5. At all Cu-levels, LPS injection increased erythrocyte CuZn-SOD activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. No significant difference in plasma Cp was found in chickens fed different dietary Cu. LPS injection significantly increased plasma Cp in Group Cu-56.5. The results suggest that varying dietary Cu levels seem to modulate the parameters involved in immunological responses and oxidant stress and that plasma Cp is not a reliable parameter for dietary Cu.

  7. Estimating marbofloxacin withdrawal time in broiler chickens using a population physiologically based pharmacokinetics model.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Yang, Y R; Wang, L; Huang, X H; Qiao, G; Zeng, Z L

    2014-12-01

    Residue depletion of marbofloxacin in broiler chicken after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days was studied in this study. The areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to ∞ (AUC0-∞ s) of marbofloxacin in tissues and plasma were used to calculate tissue/plasma partition coefficients (PX s). Based on PX s and the other parameters derived from published studies, a flow-limited physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model was developed to predict marbofloxacin concentrations, which were then compared with those derived from the residue depletion study so as to validate this model. Considering individual difference in drug disposition, a Monte Carlo simulation included 1000 iterations was further incorporated into the validated model to generate a population PBPK model and to estimate the marbofloxacin residue withdrawal times in edible tissues. The withdrawal periods were compared to those derived from linear regression analysis. The PBPK model presented here successfully predicted the measured concentrations in all tissues. The withdrawal times in all edible tissues derived from the population PBPK model were longer than those from linear regression analysis, and based on the residues in kidney, a withdrawal time of 4 days was estimated for marbofloxacin after oral administration at 5 mg/kg/day for three consecutive days. It was shown that population PBPK model could be used to accurately predict marbofloxacin residue withdrawal time in edible tissues in broiler chickens.

  8. Suppression of fat deposition in broiler chickens by (-)-hydroxycitric acid supplementation: A proteomics perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mengling; Han, Jing; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) suppresses fatty acid synthesis in animals, but its biochemical mechanism in poultry is unclear. This study identified the key proteins associated with fat metabolism and elucidated the biochemical mechanism of (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. Four groups (n = 30 each) received a diet supplemented with 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA for 4 weeks. Of the differentially expressed liver proteins, 40 and 26 were identified in the mitochondrial and cytoplasm respectively. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 components (PDHA1 and PDHB), dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD), aconitase (ACO2), a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (DLST), enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) and phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) were upregulated, while NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME1) was downregulated. Biological network analysis showed that the identified proteins were involved in glycometabolism and lipid metabolism, whereas PDHA1, PDHB, ECHS1, and ME1 were identified in the canonical pathway by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. The data indicated that (-)-HCA inhibited fatty acid synthesis by reducing the acetyl-CoA supply, via promotion of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (upregulation of PDHA1, PDHB, ACO2, and DLST expression) and inhibition of ME1 expression. Moreover, (-)-HCA promoted fatty acid beta-oxidation by upregulating ECHS1 expression. These results reflect a biochemically relevant mechanism of fat reduction by (-)-HCA in broiler chickens. PMID:27586962

  9. The effects of the dark house system on growth, performance and meat quality of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rafael Humberto; Soares, Adriana Lourenço; Grespan, Moisés; Spurio, Rafael Sanches; Coró, Fábio Augusto Garcia; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2015-02-01

    Meat production with minimum animal suffering is a humanitarian concern. Thus, the objective of this work was to observe the performance of Cobb broiler chickens from 7 to 46 days of age when raised under different installations: dark house system (DHS), conventional yellow system (CYC) and conventional blue system (CBC). The feed conversion ratio for the birds raised on the DHS was 3.8% and 2.7% lower than those for the CYC and CBC systems, respectively. Compared with the CYC and CBC systems, average daily gain under the DHS was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively, and body weight at 46 days was 11.4% and 9.3% higher, respectively (P ≤ 0.05). The birds' welfare was assessed based on their stress by determining the amount of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat in the breast fillets. The CYC and CBC birds had 24.3% and 25.3% PSE meat, respectively, whereas the DHS birds had 37.0%. We concluded that the DHS has a greater potential to produce broiler chickens, with superior performance to conventional systems, despite the higher stress faced by the birds during the maneuvers just before slaughter. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. Thermoregulation responses of broiler chickens to humidity at different ambient temperatures. I. One week of age.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Zhang, H F; Jiao, H C; Zhao, T; Sui, S J; Gu, X H; Zhang, Z Y; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-08-01

    Three trials were conducted to investigate the effect of RH (35, 60, and 85%) on thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens at different temperatures (35, 30, and 25 degrees C). The response to humidity in rectal temperature and plumage temperature at the back and breast within 24 h after exposure were recorded at 5 time points (1,4,8,16, and 24 h). Humidity affected the thermoregulation of 1-wk-old broiler chickens by redistributing heat within the body at high, low, and thermoneutral temperatures. The redistribution of heat resulted in decreased rectal temperature and increased peripheral temperature, which were, respectively, beneficial and unfavorable at high and low temperatures. These results suggested that feedback effects of surface temperature on core temperature also exist in poultry, as already observed in mammals, and could be induced not only by changed ambient temperature but also by the changes in humidity at high temperature. The disturbance of thermal equilibrium could not be established solely by changes in RT, but rather core and surface temperatures had to be considered. The daily rhythms in rectal and surface temperatures were affected by humidity.

  11. Developmental study of rectum in broiler chicken: A stereological and morphometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Fatahian Dehkordi, Rahmat-Allah; Ghahremani, Poria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of the weight and the morphological development of the rectum in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens (Ross 308) were used in this experiment and they were 12, 20, 35 and 44 days of age. Samples from the rectum of chicks were sectioned in an unbiased manner and examined quantitatively using stereology. In addition, the weight of both body (BW) and rectum and also rectum weight as a proportion of BW, height and width of the villi and thickness of rectum wall were measured. The results revealed that the body and rectum weight were increased with age. The greatest rectum weight as a proportion of BW was observed on day 20. An increase in height and width of the villi during the study period were obtained. The increase was more significant on days 35 and 44 than on days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). There were significant difference in thickness of tunica mucosa, submucosa and muscular layer of the rectum on day 20 compared to day 35 (p < 0.05). The increase in the volume density of the wall, tunica mucosa and tunica muscular was greater on day 20 than on day 35. However, significant differences were observed in volume density of this layers between days 35 and 44 compared to days 12 and 20 (p < 0.05). PMID:27226886

  12. L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine uptake by broiler chicken intestinal brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Michelangeli, C; Gonzalez-Mujica, F

    2003-09-01

    1. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from 3-week-old broiler chickens. 2. Electron microscopy of the BBMV fraction showed single membrane vesicles of different sizes with no electron dense material inside. No other organelles were observed. The sucrase and maltase activities were enriched by factors of 16 and 18, respectively, in the BBMV fraction in comparison with the homogenate. On the other hand, the Na+/K+-ATPase sensitivity to ouabain was increased by a factor of 0.8. 3. The BBMV showed a maximum L-[14C]-arginine uptake (944.9 +/- 22.9 pmoles/mg protein) at 45 s and thereafter it declined slowly. In the presence of 0.5 mM L-canavanine, the L-[14C]-arginine uptake by BBMV was reduced by 43.6% at 45 s. 4. It is concluded that L-canavanine inhibits L-arginine Na+-dependent transport across the enterocyte apical membrane in a highly purified intestinal BBMV from broiler chickens.

  13. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial sensitivity of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in broilers chicken flocks of Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mayahi, Mansour; Gharibi, Darioush; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Talazadeh, Forough

    2016-01-01

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) is a bacterium associated with respiratory disease, growth retardation, decreased egg production and mortality in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study was isolation, identification and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of ORT bacterium in slaughtered broilers chicken flocks based on cultural and molecular tests in Khuzestan province, south-west of Iran. A total of 210 tracheal swab samples were collected from 21 broiler flocks slaughtered in abattoirs of the province. The results of cultural and biochemical tests showed that 23 (10.95%) isolates from tracheal swabs of 4 flocks (19.04%) were identified as ORT, but according to molecular characterization, 18 (8.57%) ORT isolates were positive in PCR assay and produced the predicted 784 bp amplification product. Finally, using the disk diffusion method, the drug resistance patterns of ORT isolates were determined against a panel of commonly used antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all isolates (100%) were sensitive to tetracycline, florfenicol and cephalexin. The highest antimicrobial resistance (89.00%) was seen for fosfomycin, sultrim and gentamicin. The results of present research showed that there was significant difference between the isolation rates of ORT from various areas of the province. As well, our findings indicated that the simultaneous use of both cultural and molecular techniques results in more comprehensive outcomes in the isolation and identification of the organismfrom understudy hosts. PMID:28144427

  14. Effect of dietary lead on intestinal nutrient transporters mRNA expression in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Roohollah; Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammad; Liang, Juan Boo; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli

    2015-01-01

    Lead- (Pb-) induced oxidative stress is known to suppress growth performance and feed efficiency in broiler chickens. In an attempt to describe the specific underlying mechanisms of such phenomenon we carried out the current study. Ninety-six one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatment groups of 6 pen replicates, namely, (i) basal diet containing no lead supplement (control) and (ii) basal diet containing 200 mg lead acetate/kg of diet. Following 3 weeks of experimental period, jejunum samples were collected to examine the changes in gene expression of several nutrient transporters, antioxidant enzymes, and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) using quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that addition of lead significantly decreased feed intake, body weight gain, and feed efficiency. Moreover, with the exception of GLUT5, the expression of all sugar, peptide, and amino acid transporters was significantly downregulated in the birds under Pb induced oxidative stress. Exposure to Pb also upregulated the antioxidant enzymes gene expression together with the downregulation of glutathione S-transferase and Hsp70. In conclusion, it appears that Pb-induced oxidative stress adversely suppresses feed efficiency and growth performance in chicken and the possible underlying mechanism for such phenomenon is downregulation of major nutrient transporter genes in small intestine.

  15. Characterization and reactivity of broiler chicken sera to selected recombinant Campylobacter jejuni chemotactic proteins.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E; Seal, Bruce S

    2014-05-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod bacterium, is the leading causative agent of human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of raw or undercooked poultry are regarded as a major source for human infection. Because bacterial chemotaxis guides microorganisms to colonization and invasion in the host cells, proteins involved in chemotactic processes can be novel targets for vaccine development. In this communication, we report amplification, cloning and expression of the C. jejuni chemotactic proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system. A total of 15 chemotactic protein genes were successfully expressed. These recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing, SDS-PAGE analysis and immunoblot analysis of six-His and hemagglutinin tags. Twelve recombinant chemotactic proteins were further tested whether they were antigenic using sera from broiler chickens older than 4 weeks. The immunoblot results show that each chicken serum reacted to a variety of the recombinant proteins, but all sera reacted to the Cjj0473 gene product (annotated as a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein), suggesting that anti-Campylobacter antibodies may be prevalent in the poultry population. These antibody screening results provide a rationale for further evaluation of the Cjj0473 protein as a potential vaccine for broilers to improve human food safety.

  16. Lighting schedule and dimming period in early life: consequences for broiler chicken leg bone development.

    PubMed

    van der Pol, Carla W; Molenaar, Roos; Buitink, Christiaan J; van Roovert-Reijrink, Inge A M; Maatjens, Conny M; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged (>20 h) light periods during grow-out of broiler chickens have been shown to increase the occurrence of skeletal abnormalities, but the effects of early life light-dark schedules are not well known. The present experiment investigated the effect of lighting schedule and light-dark transition during the first days of a broiler chicken's life on leg bone development. In 2 experiments, Ross-308 broiler chicks (n = 2,500 per experiment) were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments for 4 d: 24L; 2L:1D lighting schedule with either an abrupt or gradual light-dark transition ("dimming"); and a 2L:6D lighting schedule with an abrupt transition or dimming. At d 4, tibia and femur weight, length, and diameter, yolk free body mass, organ weights, realized weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were determined. In Experiment 2, chick length and relative asymmetry of the femur and tibia were determined additionally. Data were analyzed using orthogonal contrasts. 24L resulted in higher femur diameter (P<0.028; both experiments), tibia diameter (P<0.001; Experiment 1), relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.002; Experiment 2), and relative asymmetry of femur length (P=0.003) than applying a light-dark schedule. A 2L:1D lighting schedule resulted in higher femur length (P=0.039; Experiment 1) and relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.032; Experiment 2) and lower relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.016) than a 2L:6D lighting schedule. An abrupt light-dark transition resulted in higher relative asymmetry of tibia length (P=0.004; Experiment 2) and relative asymmetry of tibia diameter (P=0.018) than dimming. To conclude, leg bone development in the first 4 d of a broiler chicken's life was higher for 24L than when a lighting schedule was applied, but relative asymmetry was higher as well, suggesting developmental instability. The effect of dimming on leg bone development was less pronounced, but the decreased relative asymmetry levels in the dimming

  17. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in

  18. Risk factors for Campylobacter spp. contamination in French broiler-chicken flocks at the end of the rearing period.

    PubMed

    Refrégier-Petton, J; Rose, N; Denis, M; Salvat, G

    2001-07-19

    Our objectives were to identify risk factors for contamination of French broiler flocks by Campylobacter. We used 75 broiler farms in western France. A questionnaire was administered to the farmers and samples of fresh droppings were taken to assess the Campylobacter status of the broiler flocks. 42.7% of the flocks were positive for Campylobacter spp. The risk of contamination of the broiler flocks by Campylobacter was increased in summer/autumn, in houses with static air distribution, when two or more people took care of the flock, in poultry farms with three or more houses and when the drinking water for the chickens was acidified. The presence of litter-beetles in the change room also increased the risk of contamination. The administration of an antibiotic treatment following a disease decreased the risk of a flock being contaminated by Campylobacter.

  19. Molecular analysis of intestinal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens fed diets containing fermented cottonseed meal.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Tang, J W; Fang, C L; Yao, X H; Wu, Y F; Wang, X; Feng, J

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of fermented cottonseed meal (FCM) on the ileal and cecal bacterial microbiota of broiler chickens. A total of 300 newborn yellow-feathered broiler chickens were randomly divided into 2 treatments with 3 replicates each (50 birds per replicate): control and 80 g/kg of FCM group. The feeding trial lasted for 42 d. Ileal and cecal digesta samples were collected from 8 chicks per replicate at 21 and 42 d of age to determine the composition of bacterial microbiota using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, sequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The results demonstrated that the microbial composition in the ileum and cecum were considerably affected by the diet. The similarity dendrogram of banding profiles showed a more rapid stabilization of intestinal bacterial microbiota in broilers fed diets supplemented with FCM, compared with that of the birds fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in total number of bands and Shannon-Weaver index, indicating that FCM had no effects on bacterial diversity. However, enumeration of bacteria in the ileal and cecal contents by quantitative PCR showed an increased (P < 0.05) population of lactobacilli, as well as a decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli number by the dietary inclusion of FCM. In summary, dietary inclusion of FCM did not affect the intestinal microbial diversity but shifted intestinal microbiota, with a more homogenous population and an increased colonization of lactobacilli. The results also support the concept that dietary FCM inclusion could promote the beneficial bacteria in the intestinal tract.

  20. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  1. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    PubMed

    Hothersall, Becky; Caplen, Gina; Parker, Richard M A; Nicol, Christine J; Waterman-Pearson, Avril E; Weeks, Claire A; Murrell, Joanna C

    2014-01-01

    Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare) have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1) and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg) and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg) (Part 2). Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167) from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold) were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1). In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further investigation.

  2. Genetic and phenotypic parameters of carcass and organ traits of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G C; Cruz, V A R; Rosa, J O; Baldi, F; El Faro, L; Ledur, M C; Peixoto, J O; Munari, D P

    2014-12-04

    The objective of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters for carcass, carcass part, and organ weights in a paternal strain of broiler chickens that was selected mainly for body weight at 42 days of age (BW42) to provide support for poultry genetic improvement programs. A total of 1448 chickens were used that resulted from the expansion of a pure paternal strain named TT, which was developed by Embrapa Suínos e Aves. The following weights were evaluated: BW42, chilled carcass, wing, drumstick meat, thigh meat, breast meat, breast fillet, back, liver, heart (HRT), and gizzard (GIZ). The variance component was estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multi-trait animal model. The general model included the additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effect of the sex-hatch group (10 levels). The heritability estimates ranged from 0.27 ± 0.06 for HRT to 0.44 ± 0.08 for GIZ. These results indicated that all the traits have enough additive genetic variability to respond to selection. The genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and the carcass and carcass part weights were high and positive. However, the genetic correlation estimates between BW42 and organ weights were low. In this population, the carcass traits might respond indirectly to selection applied to BW42. It can be concluded that selection to increase BW42 is not effective in improving broiler organ weight. Therefore, to obtain suitable genetic improvement for these traits, the selection indexes for broilers should include organ weight-based criteria.

  3. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Richard A.; Watson, Kellie A.; Bilgili, S. F.; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271–0.418; for DPM and WB h2 <0.1; and for WS h2 ≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens. PMID:26476091

  4. The genetic basis of pectoralis major myopathies in modern broiler chicken lines.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Richard A; Watson, Kellie A; Bilgili, S F; Avendano, Santiago

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report providing estimates of the genetic basis of breast muscle myopathies (BMM) and their relationship with growth and yield in broiler chickens. In addition, this paper addresses the hypothesis that genetic selection for increase breast yield has contributed to the onset of BMM. Data were analyzed from ongoing recording of BMM within the Aviagen breeding program. This study focused on three BMM: deep pectoral myopathy (DPM; binary trait), white striping (WS; 4 categories) and wooden breast (WB; 3 categories). Data from two purebred commercial broiler lines (A and B) were utilized providing greater than 40,000 meat quality records per line. The difference in selection history between these two lines has resulted in contrasting breast yield (BY): 29% for Line A and 21% for Line B. Data were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters using a multivariate animal model including six traits: body weight (BW), processing body weight (PW), BY, DPM, WB, and WS, in addition to the appropriate fixed effects and permanent environmental effect of the dam. Results indicate similar patterns of heritability and genetic correlations for the two lines. Heritabilities (h2) of BW, PW and BY ranged from 0.271-0.418; for DPM and WB h2<0.1; and for WS h2≤0.338. Genetic correlations between the BMM and BW, PW, or BY were ≤0.132 in Line A and ≤0.248 in Line B. This paper demonstrates the polygenic nature of these traits and the low genetic relationships with BW, PW, and BY, which facilitates genetic improvement across all traits in a balanced breeding program. It also highlights the importance of understanding the environmental and/or management factors that contribute greater than 65% of the variance in the incidence of white striping of breast muscle and more than 90% of the variance of the incidence of wooden breast and deep pectoral myopathy in broiler chickens.

  5. Cardiovascular tolerance of intravenous lidocaine in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Brandão, João; da Cunha, Anderson F; Pypendop, Bruno; Stout, Rhett; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-07-01

    To determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine infused intravenously (IV) in broiler chickens. Two phase study: Phase 1, randomized up-and-down study to determine effective dose 50 (ED50) for lidocaine; Phase 2, prospective randomized study to determine the cardiovascular effects of lidocaine. Seventeen Ross-708 broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) [11 chickens (Phase 1) and 6 chickens (Phase 2)], weighing 2.6-4.3 kg. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and placement of monitoring equipment including invasive blood pressure, chickens were administered lidocaine IV. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down design, each animal received a variable dose selected based on the response of the previous animal. During Phase 2, each animal was administered 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine IV over 2 minutes. Clinically irrelevant cardiovascular effects were defined as a relative decrease of heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MAP) <30% subsequent to IV lidocaine administration. The ED50 was defined as the dose rate that would cause clinically irrelevant cardiovascular depression in 50% of the population. During Phase 1, using an up-and-down study design (n = 11), the ED50 of lidocaine was determined to be 6.30 mg kg(-1) and 6.22 mg kg(-1) (95% confidence interval, 5.30-7.13 mg kg(-1)), when calculated by Dixon's up-and-down method, and logistic regression, respectively. During Phase 2, following infusion of lidocaine (6 mg kg(-1)), no clinically relevant effects on HR or MAP were detected in any animal. Previous reports state that the dose of lidocaine used in birds should be ≤4 mg kg(-1). In this study, 6 mg kg(-1) of lidocaine injected IV was not associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These results suggest that the dose of 4 mg kg(-1) can be exceeded, at least in chickens, and opens the possibility of other therapeutic uses for lidocaine in birds. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia

  6. Evaluation of associations between feed withdrawal and other management factors with Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Mainali, C; Gensler, G; McFall, M; King, R; Irwin, R; Senthilselvan, A

    2009-10-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most common bacterial foodborne diseases of public health concern in industrialized countries. Poultry products are considered an important source of Salmonella-related foodborne disease in humans. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between various management factors including feed withdrawal and transportation time with Salmonella contamination in crops, ceca, and carcasses of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta. Using a two-stage sampling procedure, 30 matched crop and cecal samples before evisceration and an additional 30 neck skin samples after final wash of broiler chickens were collected at slaughter. A questionnaire was administered at the time of sampling to collect information on flock management risk factors. Cecal contents were individually screened with Salmonella-specific real-time PCR to detect positive flocks, and all cecal, crop, and neck skin samples from positive flocks were processed further for Salmonella isolation and characterization. The flock prevalence of Salmonella was 57.1% and within-flock prevalence of Salmonella for positive flocks was 17.2, 8.1, and 53.9% for ceca, crops, and neck skins, respectively. Salmonella Hadar was the most common serovar identified from crops, ceca, and neck skins of broiler chickens tested. Longer transport (P = 0.04 for neck skins) and waiting time in-plant (P = 0.04 for crops, P = 0.03 for ceca) were identified as important risk factors for Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter. Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens could potentially be minimized by reducing waiting time in-plant for flocks with longer transport time.

  7. Manipulation of broiler chickens sex differentiation by in ovo injection of aromatase inhibitors, and garlic and tomato extracts.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Nahid; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Mottaghitalab, Majid; Hajati, Hosna

    2015-11-01

    The influence of in ovo administration of aromatase inhibitors, clomiphen citrate, tomoxifen, and garlic and tomato extracts on sex differentiation in broiler chickens were investigated in 2 experiments. Five hundred, and 1,000 fertile eggs from Ross 308 strain were used in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In both experiments, eggs were divided into 5 groups: control group (DW, 0.1 mL/egg), tomoxifen (0.05 mg/egg), clomiphene citrate (0.05 mg/egg), garlic and tomato extracts (0.1 mL/egg). Eggs were sanitized and prepared for incubation in a regular automatic hatchery. Experimental preparations were injected into eggs at day 5 of the incubation period. Injection sites on the eggs were cleaned with 70% ethylic alcohol, bored by a needle, and aromatase inhibitors were injected into the white from the thin end of the eggs by insulin syringe and then sealed by melted paraffin. In experiment 1, hatched one-day-old chicks (mixed-sex) were raised till 42 days of age in 25 floor pens with a completely randomized design. Experiment 2 was designed to investigate the effects of sex and treatments on the feed-to-gain ratio of broiler chicks. In experiment 2, hatched one-day-old chicks were feather sexed and raised till 42 days of age in 50 floor pens. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments (sex×treatment) was used. Gonads of the chicks were checked to determine their sex on day 42 by optic microscope to make sure feather sexing was correct. At the end of both experiments, on day 42, one bird from each pen was slaughtered for carcass analysis. In experiment 1, hatchability and the one-day-old weight of chicks showed no significant differences among treatments (P > 0.05). However, in ovo administration of garlic and tomato extracts caused the highest percentage of male chicks (P < 0.05). Also, the percentage of thighs and wings of the males were significantly higher than those of females (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, feed-to-gain ratio

  8. Thermal treatments prior to and during the beginning of incubation affect phenotypic characteristics of broiler chickens posthatching.

    PubMed

    Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

    2013-04-01

    The significance and importance of the preincubation and incubation temperatures for broiler chickens has been elucidated by altering normal incubation conditions to study the effects on embryo development. Furthermore, only recently has convincing evidence that temperature could influence the sex ratio of avian offspring become available. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of temperature before or during (or both) the sex determination period of incubation on hatchability, apparent sex ratio, growth and development posthatching, and secondary sexual phenotypic characteristics. Two experiments were conducted in winter and summer using Cobb 500 fertile eggs that had been stored for 4 and 9 d, respectively. Four treatments of 180 eggs each were applied: control, preheating (Pre) 30.2°C for 12 h before incubation, heating (38.1°C) the embryos between embryonic d 0 (E0) and E5 (M) of incubation, and a combination of both (Pre+M). All 3 thermal treatments increased early embryonic deaths, but improved hatchability in both experiments. The point of 50% hatchability was achieved more rapidly in the treated eggs. The BW of males and females at 35 d of age in both experiments was numerically or significantly greater in the broilers that had been exposed to thermal treatments, which was coincident with a similar trend for increased relative breast muscle weight. Secondary sexual characteristics (comb, wattles, testes in males) were also affected by thermal treatments, being heavier in most cases, which may be attributed to the finding that the 3 thermal treatments resulted in numerically or significantly increased plasma testosterone concentration in both sexes and experiments. Differences in the level of significance between the experiments probably related to the length of storage period and the season in which each experiment took place. It was concluded that thermal treatments preincubation or during the sex determination period of incubation had

  9. Higher bioavailability of doxycycline in broiler chickens with a novel in-feed pharmaceutical formulation.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Lilia; Zermeño, Juan; Alcalá, Yazmín; Sumano, Héctor

    2017-02-23

    Bioavailability of a new, long-acting (LA) pharmaceutical preparation for administering doxycycline as in-feed medication to broiler chickens was compared to the standard in-feed administration of doxycycline. A commercial poultry house harboring Ross-308 broiler chickens, weighing 450 g, was divided into 7 sections as follows: doxy-FOLA group (n = 6,000 chickens divided into 3 replicates) medicated with 10% doxycyline, long-acting pellets at a dose of 400 g of doxycycline HCl/ton of food, resulting in a calculated dose of 48 mg/kg for 5 d; doxy-ref group (n = 6,000, divided into 3 replicates) medicated as for doxy-FOLA, but using a 20% commercial preparation of doxycycline. A third group of 300 broiler chickens (divided into 3 replicates), received a single IV dose of 48 mg/kg from a 2.4% solution of doxycycline HCl under ketamine anesthesia. Blood samples were obtained at designated times, serum was harvested, and doxycycline concentrations determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bioavailability values were 156% and 227% on d 1 and 5 for doxy-FOLA and 13% and 23% for doxy-ref, on the same days. Mean residence time (MRT) and elimination half-life (T½β) were statistically different (P < 0.05) in doxy-FOLA group as compared to doxy-ref group (MRT: 26 h and 5.2 h; and T½β: 18 h vs 3 h, on the first day for doxy-FOLA and doxy-ref, respectively). Based on 3 levels of bacterial sensitivity of E. coli derived from a small survey carried out (i.e., 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL) and considering pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) ratios required for this time-dependent antibacterial drug, it is possible to postulate that doxy-FOLA outstrips the reference preparation maintaining higher and more prolonged serum concentrations of doxycycline and consequently complying better with PK/PD ratios regarded as optimal for this drug. The advantages of using doxy-FOLA in poultry medicine include a more comprehensive use of the active principle

  10. Influence of different prebiotics and mode of their administration on broiler chicken performance.

    PubMed

    Bednarczyk, M; Stadnicka, K; Kozłowska, I; Abiuso, C; Tavaniello, S; Dankowiakowska, A; Sławińska, A; Maiorano, G

    2016-08-01

    In the post-antibiotics era, prebiotics are proposed as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production. The goal of this study was to compare in ovo method of prebiotic delivery with in-water supplementation and with both methods combined (in ovo+in-water) in broiler chickens. Two trials were conducted. Trial 1 was carried out to optimize the doses of two prebiotics, DN (DiNovo®, extract of beta-glucans) and BI (Bi2tos, trans-galactooligosaccharides), for in ovo delivery. The estimated parameters were hatchability and bacteriological status of the newly hatched chicks. Prebiotics were dissolved in 0.2 ml of physiological saline, at the doses: 0.18, 0.88, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/embryo; control group (C) was injected in ovo with 0.2 ml of physiological saline. Trial 2 was conducted to evaluate effects of different prebiotics (DN, BI and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO)) delivered in ovo, in-water and in a combined way (in ovo+in-water) on broiler chickens performance. The results of the Trial 1 indicated that the optimal dose of DN and BI prebiotics delivered in ovo, that did not reduce chicks' hatchability, was 0.88 mg/embryo (DN) and 3.5 mg/embryo (BI). Both prebiotics numerically increased number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in chicken feces (P>0.05). In Trial 2, all prebiotics (DN, BI and RFO) significantly increased BW gain compared with the C group (P<0.05), especially during the first 21 days of life. However, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were increased upon prebiotics delivery irrespective of method used. Injection of prebiotics in ovo combined with in-water supplementation did not express synergistic effects on broilers performance compared with in ovo injection only. Taken together, those results confirm that single in ovo prebiotics injection into the chicken embryo can successfully replace prolonged in-water supplementation post hatching.

  11. Interrelations between the Microbiotas in the Litter and in the Intestines of Commercial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Michael D.; Yu, Zhongtang; Nelson, Michael C.; Moeller, Steven J.; Lilburn, Michael S.; Zerby, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of broiler chickens and the microbiota in the litter have been well studied, but the interactions between these two microbiotas remain to be determined. Therefore, we examined their reciprocal effects by analyzing the intestinal microbiotas of broilers reared on fresh pine shavings versus reused litter, as well as the litter microbiota over a 6-week cycle. Composite ileal mucosal and cecal luminal samples from birds (n = 10) reared with both litter conditions (fresh versus reused) were collected at 7, 14, 21, and 42 days of age. Litter samples were also collected at days 7, 14, 21, and 42. The microbiotas were profiled and compared within sample types based on litter condition using PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The microbiotas were further analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from microbiota DNA extracted from both chick intestinal and litter samples collected at day 7. Results showed significant reciprocal effects between the microbiotas present in the litter and those in the intestines of broilers. Fresh litter had more environmental bacteria, while reused litter contained more bacteria of intestinal origin. Lactobacillus spp. dominated the ileal mucosal microbiota of fresh-litter chicks, while a group of bacteria yet to be classified within Clostridiales dominated in the ileal mucosal microbiota in the reused-litter chicks. The Litter condition (fresh versus reused) seemed to have a more profound impact on the ileal microbiota than on the cecal microbiota. The data suggest that the influence of fresh litter on ileal microbiota decreased as broilers grew, compared with temporal changes observed under reused-litter rearing conditions. PMID:20693454

  12. Evaluation of a highly soluble calcium source and phytase in the diets of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Walk, C L; Addo-Chidie, E K; Bedford, M R; Adeola, O

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of a highly soluble Ca (HSC) source on performance, bone ash and mineralization, and apparent ileal digestibility of Ca, P, N, and energy in Ross 708 broiler chickens. Dietary Ca was supplied by the HSC source and monocalcium phosphate to provide 4 levels of Ca (0.45, 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90%). Available P (aP) was maintained at 0.32% in all the diets. Each diet was supplemented with 0, 500, or 2,500 U/kg of phytase as a 4 × 3 factorial. An additional diet was formulated using limestone to contain 0.90% Ca and 0.45% aP as a positive control (PC). Diets were fed to 7 replicate cages of 8 birds per cage from d 0 to 21 posthatch. Feed intake (FI) was linearly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced, and BW gain was quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) reduced as Ca from HSC increased from 0.45 to 0.90%. Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased FI and BW gain and improved feed conversion ratio. Tibia ash and P weights were lower in birds fed 0.90% Ca from HSC compared with broilers fed 0.90% Ca from limestone. Phytase supplementation increased tibia ash and P weights in broilers fed 0.60, 0.75, or 0.90% HSC (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased tibia Ca weight. Reducing HSC from 0.90 to 0.45% or increasing phytase supplementation linearly (P ≤ 0.05) improved ileal P digestibility. Ileal Ca digestibility increased linearly only in broilers fed 0.45% Ca from HSC as phytase supplementation increased (Ca level × phytase P ≤ 0.05). Nitrogen or energy digestibility were quadratically (P ≤ 0.05) influenced as HSC or phytase increased. In conclusion, feeding HSC with phytase allowed for reductions in dietary Ca while maintaining broiler performance and bone ash. In addition, P digestibility and P in the bones were increased in broilers fed reduced dietary Ca in the presence of phytase.

  13. Evaluation of different agroindustrial waste on the effect of different carcass characteristics and physiological and biochemical parameters in broilers chicken.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Roque, Y; Pérez-Luna, Y D C; Pérez-Luna, E; Hernández, R Berrones; Saldaña-Trinidad, S

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and biochemical effect in chickens of the Ross breed of a food enriched with agroindustrial waste. The food is one of the main components of the total cost for the production of chickens. Rations should be formulated to provide the correct balance of energy, protein, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and essential fatty acids, to allow optimal growth and performance. This study was intended to evaluate a natural feed for chicken, made from corn, yucca meal, eggshells, orange peel, soybean meal, salt and garlic, enriched with agroindustrial waste (molasses, milk whey and ferment of coffee). The weight gain was evaluated in broilers using a diet enriched with different agroindustrial wastes, with respect to a control food of the same composition but not containing residue. To develop the experiment 120 male Ross 308 chicks were used, these were evaluated for 6 weeks. Physicochemical test for the food and the agroindustrial waste were performed; moisture was determined; organic carbon, organic material and the ash, to characterize the agroindustrial wastes, the reducing sugars content using a spectrophotometer at 540 nm and proteins through the Kjeldahl method was evaluated. During the experiment, the weight gain of chickens and feed conversion was evaluated; the end of the experiment the weight of eviscerated channel relative weight breast, thighs, pancreas, and abdominal fat was determined, besides including blood chemistries as determination of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. Finally, the microbiological analyzes to detect the presence of Escherichia coli in the cecum was determinate. Data were analyzed by InfoStat statistical program using the generalized linear model procedure. The statistical comparison was made by Tukey test at the 95% probability level. After the evaluation, fed chickens with the treatments food + milk whey (FMW) and food + ferment of coffee (FFC) demonstrated increased from 1949 to

  14. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bessegatto, Jose A.; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Weese, J. Scott; Filho, João A. B.; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken. PMID

  15. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Bessegatto, Jose A; Alfieri, Amauri A; Weese, J Scott; Filho, João A B; Oba, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton), enramycin (10g/ton); halquinol® (30g/ton); virginiamycin (16,5g/ton) and avilamycin (10g/ton) on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500) arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96) was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05). Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001) and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004) and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015), and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004). Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  16. Influence of penicillin on microbial diversity of the cecal microbiota in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pallavi; Karimi, Ahmad; Devendra, Kshitiz; Waldroup, Park W; Cho, Kwang Keun; Kwon, Young Min

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for growth promotion of chickens in poultry industry since 1940. Recently, concerns have been raised to the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock due to development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of penicillin supplementation in the feed on cecal microbiota of broiler chickens. Two groups (n = 30) of chickens were fed corn-soybean meal diets with and without supplementation of penicillin at the concentration of 55 mg/kg (ANT vs. CON, respectively). At 18 d of age, the ANT group had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher mean BW than the CON group (668.6 vs. 570.0 g). Cecal samples of 5 randomly selected birds were pooled from each group and used for genomic DNA isolation and PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene; 454 pyrosequencing of the amplicons resulted in 7,881 and 11,214 sequence reads for ANT and CON groups, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that penicillin supplementation in the ANT group resulted in an elevated proportion of phylum Firmicutes from 58.15 to 91.5% and a decreased proportion of phylum Bacteroidetes from 31.1 to 2.96% compared with the CON group. Recent studies conducted in humans, pigs, and mice have shown a similar shift in gut microbiota in obese individuals compared with the lean ones, indicating that this microbial shift could be responsible for the increase in energy harvest and BW. The results of this study suggest that the growth-promoting effect of penicillin supplementation in broilers may be mediated by a similar microbial process.

  17. Development of mechanical and thermal nociceptive threshold testing devices in unrestrained birds (broiler chickens).

    PubMed

    Hothersall, B; Caplen, G; Nicol, C J; Taylor, P M; Waterman-Pearson, A E; Weeks, C A; Murrell, J C

    2011-09-30

    Behavioural signs of pain are difficult to quantify and interpret in animals. Nociceptive threshold testing is therefore a useful method for examining the perception and processing of noxious stimuli underlying pain states. Devices were developed to measure response thresholds to quantified, ramped mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimuli applied to the leg or keel of unrestrained birds. Up to 9N mechanical force was delivered via a single round-ended 2mm pin using a pneumatic actuator at 0.4Ns(-1). Heat was applied through a small copper element at 0.8°Cs(-1) to a maximum of 50°C. The repeatability and reliability of threshold measures were validated using 10-12 broiler chickens (aged 49-66 days) per site and modality. Mechanical threshold, or skin and threshold temperature, were recorded over three sessions across a 36h period. Both stimulus types elicited clear, reproducible behavioural responses. Mechanical threshold means and 95% confidence intervals were 3.0 (2.8-3.2)N for keel and 2.0 (1.8-2.1)N for leg sites. Keel thermal tests gave a mean skin temperature of 39.3 (39.1-39.5)°C, and threshold of 46.8 (46.6-47.1)°C. Leg skin temperature was 35.7 (35.6-35.9)°C and threshold 42.5 (42.2-42.8)°C. Threshold measures were consistent within and across sessions and birds showed individual repeatability across tests within sessions. Individual birds' mechanical keel thresholds were also repeatable across sessions. The apparatus gave reliable, reproducible measurements of thresholds to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli. The range recorded was comparable with previously published nociceptor thresholds in dissected chicken nerve filament fibres, and the method appears suitable for studying nociceptive processes in broiler chickens.

  18. In Vitro Exposure to Escherichia coli Decreases Ion Conductance in the Jejunal Epithelium of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Wageha A.; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R.; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×108 CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier. PMID:24637645

  19. In vitro exposure to Escherichia coli decreases ion conductance in the jejunal epithelium of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Awad, Wageha A; Hess, Claudia; Khayal, Basel; Aschenbach, Jörg R; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections are very widespread in poultry. However, little is known about the interaction between the intestinal epithelium and E. coli in chickens. Therefore, the effects of avian non-pathogenic and avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) on the intestinal function of broiler chickens were investigated by measuring the electrogenic ion transport across the isolated jejunal mucosa. In addition, the intestinal epithelial responses to cholera toxin, histamine and carbamoylcholine (carbachol) were evaluated following an E. coli exposure. Jejunal tissues from 5-week-old broilers were exposed to 6×10(8) CFU/mL of either avian non-pathogenic E. coli IMT11322 (Ont:H16) or avian pathogenic E. coli IMT4529 (O24:H4) in Ussing chambers and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 1 h. After incubation with E. coli for 1 h, either cholera toxin (1 mg/L), histamine (100 μM) or carbachol (100 μM) were added to the incubation medium. Both strains of avian E. coli (non-pathogenic and pathogenic) reduced epithelial ion conductance (Gt) and short-circuit current (Isc). The decrease in ion conductance after exposure to avian pathogenic E. coli was, at least, partly reversed by the histamine or carbachol treatment. Serosal histamine application produced no significant changes in the Isc in any tissues. Only the uninfected control tissues responded significantly to carbachol with an increase of Isc, while the response to carbachol was blunted to non-significant values in infected tissues. Together, these data may explain why chickens rarely respond to intestinal infections with overt secretory diarrhea. Instead, the immediate response to intestinal E. coli infections appears to be a tightening of the epithelial barrier.

  20. Effect of lactulose supplementation on growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbial population, and short-chain fatty acid composition of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Calik, Ali; Ergün, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary lactulose supplementation on broiler growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, cecal microflora, and cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations. A total of 245 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 different treatments, with 7 replicates including 7 birds each. The birds received the same basal diet based on corn--soybean meal, and lactulose was included in the diet at 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8% at the expense of corn and/or soybean meal. The body weight gain (linear, P=0.027) and feed conversion (linear, P=0.003) from 0 to 21 d showed significant improvement as dietary lactulose was increased from 0.2 to 0.8%. However, dietary lactulose did not affect broiler performance at the end of the experiment (42 d). Furthermore, intestinal measurements and the goblet cell count of broilers fed a lactulose-containing diet differed from those of birds fed a diet that did not contain lactulose. In addition, a significant quadratic response in the Lactobacillus count (P≤0.001) was observed at 42 d on increasing the level of lactulose. The cecal coliform bacterial population was not affected by the dietary treatments. Supplementation with lactulose significantly increased the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total SCFA measured on d 7 and d 42. In conclusion, inclusion of lactulose in the diet can enhance broiler performance and intestinal morphology by selectively stimulating intestinal microflora and increasing cecal SCFA concentrations. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Effect of therapeutic supplementation of plant molecules, trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in market-age broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the therapeutic efficacy of food-grade plant compounds, trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EG) on reducing SE in commercial, market-age broiler chickens. In two separate experiments, day-old commercial broiler chicks were randomly grouped into six groups of 14 birds each ...

  2. The influence of phytoncides on the immune system of broiler chickens and turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Śmiałek, Marcin; Tykałowski, Bartłomiej; Pestka, Daria; Stenzel, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of adiSalmoSOL PF dietary supplement, given for 3 days in drinking water, on selected parameters of cell-mediated (Experiment I) and humoral (Experiment II) immunity in chicken and turkey broilers. In Experiment I, birds were randomly divided into two groups of 10 birds each. Group 1 comprised control turkeys or chickens, whereas group 2 birds were administered adiSalmoSOLPF. In Experiment II, a total of 69 chickens were divided into three groups (1-3) of 23 birds each. At the age of 25 days, group 1 was given adiSalmoSOLPF. Birds from groups 1-3 were vaccinated at 28 days of age. Group 2 was given adiSalmoSOLPF after vaccination. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, cecal tonsils and spleen, CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius and ileal mucosa and IgM + B lymphocyte in the ileal mucosa were observed in group 2 chickens. In Experiment I, a significant increase in percentages of CD4 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen, CD8+ T lymphocytes in the cecal tonsils and blood, and CD4 + CD8 + T lymphocytes in the thymus and ileal mucosa was recorded in group 2 turkeys. No differences in percentages of IgM + B lymphocytes were observed between turkey groups. In Experiment II, the highest post-vaccination titers of anti-IB antibodies were observed in group 2, but it was not statistically significant. The results of our study indicate that adiSalmoSOLPF showed immunomodulatory activity in chickens and turkeys. PMID:26648771

  3. Metabolism of Deoxynivalenol and Deepoxy-Deoxynivalenol in Broiler Chickens, Pullets, Roosters and Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E.; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%–106% (chickens), 51%–72% (roosters), and 131%–151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine. PMID:26569307

  4. Cardiovascular tolerance of intravenous bupivacaine in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    DiGeronimo, Peter M; da Cunha, Anderson F; Pypendop, Bruno; Brandão, João; Stout, Rhett; Rinaldi, Max; Tully, Thomas N

    2017-03-01

    To determine the median effective dose (ED50) of intravenous (IV) bupivacaine associated with a 50% probability of causing clinically relevant cardiovascular effects [defined as 30% change in heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP)] in chickens anesthetized with isoflurane. Randomized up-and-down study. A total of 14 Ross-708 broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) weighing 1.70-2.75 kg. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Monitoring included the electrocardiogram and invasive arterial pressures. Chickens were administered bupivacaine IV over 2 minutes using a dose based on the response of the previous animal. Dose was decreased when HR and/or MAP in the previous animal increased or decreased ≥30% after bupivacaine administration, or increased when HR or MAP changed <30%. The ED50 was defined as the dose resulting in ≥30% variation in HR or MAP in 50% of the population studied. The IV ED50 of bupivacaine was 1.94 mg kg(-1) using Dixon's up-and-down method and 1.96 mg kg(-1) by logistic regression. These results suggest that 1.33 and 1.96 mg kg(-1) of IV bupivacaine are associated with a respective 1 or 50% probability of a clinically significant change in MAP in isoflurane-anesthetized chickens. Identification of the cardiovascular changes associated with different doses of bupivacaine can be used as the basis for studies of therapeutic applications in the domestic chicken. Further studies are required to determine interspecies variation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Metabolism of deoxynivalenol and deepoxy-deoxynivalenol in broiler chickens, pullets, roosters and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi E; Fruhmann, Philipp; Dänicke, Sven; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Caha, Sylvia; Weber, Julia; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-11-12

    Recently, deoxynivalenol-3-sulfate (DON-3-sulfate) was proposed as a major DON metabolite in poultry. In the present work, the first LC-MS/MS based method for determination of DON-3-sulfate, deepoxy-DON-3-sulfate (DOM-3-sulfate), DON, DOM, DON sulfonates 1, 2, 3, and DOM sulfonate 2 in excreta samples of chickens and turkeys was developed and validated. To this end, DOM-3-sulfate was chemically synthesized and characterized by NMR and LC-HR-MS/MS measurements. Application of the method to excreta and chyme samples of four feeding trials with turkeys, chickens, pullets, and roosters confirmed DON-3-sulfate as the major DON metabolite in all poultry species studied. Analogously to DON-3-sulfate, DOM-3-sulfate was formed after oral administration of DOM both in turkeys and in chickens. In addition, pullets and roosters metabolized DON into DOM-3-sulfate. In vitro transcription/translation assays revealed DOM-3-sulfate to be 2000 times less toxic on the ribosome than DON. Biological recoveries of DON and DOM orally administered to broiler chickens, turkeys, and pullets were 74%-106% (chickens), 51%-72% (roosters), and 131%-151% (pullets). In pullets, DON-3-sulfate concentrations increased from jejunum chyme samples to excreta samples by a factor of 60. This result, put into context with earlier studies, indicates fast and efficient absorption of DON between crop and jejunum, conversion to DON-3-sulfate in intestinal mucosa, liver, and possibly kidney, and rapid elimination into excreta via bile and urine.

  6. Overcrowding stress decreases macrophage activity and increases Salmonella Enteritidis invasion in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V S; Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Baskeville, E; Akamine, A T; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2014-01-01

    Overcrowding stress is a reality in the poultry industry. Chickens exposed to long-term stressful situations present a reduction of welfare and immunosuppression. We designed this experiment to analyse the effects from overcrowding stress of 16 birds/m(2) on performance parameters, serum corticosterone levels, the relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius, plasma IgA and IgG levels, intestinal integrity, macrophage activity and experimental Salmonella Enteritidis invasion. The results of this study indicate that overcrowding stress decreased performance parameters, induced enteritis and decreased macrophage activity and the relative bursa weight in broiler chickens. When the chickens were similarly stressed and infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, there was an increase in feed conversion and a decrease in plasma IgG levels in the stressed and Salmonella-infected birds. We observed moderate enteritis throughout the duodenum of chickens stressed and infected with Salmonella. The overcrowding stress decreased the macrophage phagocytosis intensity and increased Salmonella Enteritidis counts in the livers of birds challenged with the pathogenic bacterium. Overcrowding stress via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that is associated with an increase in corticosterone and enteritis might influence the quality of the intestinal immune barrier and the integrity of the small intestine. This effect allowed pathogenic bacteria to migrate through the intestinal mucosa, resulting in inflammatory infiltration and decreased nutrient absorption. The data strengthen the hypothesis that control of the welfare of chickens and avoidance of stress from overcrowding in poultry production are relevant factors for the maintenance of intestinal integrity, performance and decreased susceptibility to Salmonella infection.

  7. Induction of passive immunity in broiler chickens against Eimeria acervulina by hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, E P

    2009-03-01

    The protective effect of hyperimmune IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with multiple species of Eimeria oocysts on experimental coccidiosis was evaluated in young broilers. Chickens were continuously fed from hatch with a standard diet containing hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder or a nonsupplemented control diet and orally challenged at d 7 posthatch with 5.0 x 10(3) sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts. Body weight gain between d 0 and 10 and fecal oocyst shedding between d 5 and 10 postinfection were determined as parameters of protective immunity. Chickens given 10 or 20% hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder showed significantly increased BW gain and reduced fecal oocyst shedding compared with control birds fed the nonsupplemented diet. In another trial, lower IgY concentrations (0.01, 0.02, and 0.05%) were used to treat birds with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts of E. acervulina. Total oocyst shedding was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in chickens fed the 0.02 and 0.05% hyperimmune IgY supplemented-diets compared with animals fed the nonsupplemented diet. Similarly, chickens fed 0.5% of hyperimmune IgY egg yolk powder diet and challenged with 1.0 x 10(4) oocysts exhibited reduced oocyst shedding compared with the control birds given 0.5% of IgY from nonimmunized hen eggs, although BW gain was not affected. We conclude that passive immunization of chickens with anti-coccidia IgY antibodies provide protective immunity against coccidiosis challenge infection.

  8. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  9. Active immunization of broiler breeder cockerels against chicken inhibin accelerates puberty and prevents age-induced testicular involution.

    PubMed

    Satterlee, D G; Castille, S A; Fioretti, W C

    2006-06-01

    Injection of quail and breeder hens with a recombinant protein antigen (MBP-cINA521)--a fusion of the bacterical maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a fragment of the alpha-subunit of chicken inhibin (cINA521)--accelerates puberty and enhances lay. Herein, the effects of this immunogen on reproductive responses in broiler breeder males were assessed. Cockerels were subcutaneously injected with 0 (vehicular controls), 1, 3, or 5 mg of MBP-cINA521 at 13 wk of age and with one-half of these dosages (boosters) at 18 wk. Bird subsamples were weighed, blood sampled, and killed at 24, 28, and 39 wk of age to assess age and vaccination effects on BW, testes weight (TWT), TWT relative to BW (RTWT), TWT > or = 20 g (TWT20; theoretical threshold TWT for maximum fertility), and plasma testosterone. Breeder males are sexually developing, reach peak sexual activity, and show age-related reproductive decline at these ages. Because vaccine gonadal effects at 24 wk appeared to be dramatic, the size of the left testis was also scored to see if size differences could be detected by mere visual inspection. Male fighting increasingly reduced sample sizes beyond 24 wk. Because mortality was unrelated to the treatments and to insure meaningful statistical comparisons, MBP-cINA521 data were pooled. Body weight (P < 0.04), testis score (P < 0.02), TWT (P < 0.03), RTWT (P = 0.06), and plasma testosterone (P = 0.08) were elevated in immunogen-treated males at 24 wk of age, and more (P < 0.05) MBP-cINA521-treated birds than controls achieved a TWT20 at this time. These variables did not differ by treatment at 28 wk. However, by 39 wk, treatment effects reemerged as follows: TWT (P < 0.04), RTWT (P = 0.06), and TWT20 (P < 0.01) were increased in vaccinated males who also showed nearly 3-fold higher levels of plasma testosterone. We conclude that immunoneutralization of inhibin accelerates puberty and retards age-related sexual senescence that typically occurs in broiler breeder males.

  10. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase.

    PubMed

    Morita, V S; Almeida, V R; Matos Junior, J B; Vicentini, T I; van den Brand, H; Boleli, I C

    2016-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a constant incubation temperature [machine temperatures: 36°C (Low), 37.5°C (Control), and 39°C (High); eggshell temperature of 37.4 ± 0.08°C, 37.8 ± 0.15°C, and 38.8 ± 0.33°C, respectively] from d 13 till hatching. Low treatment chickens showed lower plasma T3 and GH levels at d 1 of age and lower T3 level at d 42 of age compared to the Control treatment. Preferred ambient, rectal temperature, T4 level, growth rate, food intake rate, and response to thermal challenge were not altered in these chickens. On the other hand, High-treatment chickens exhibited high preferred ambient temperature and rectal temperature during the first 2 wk post-hatch, lower plasma T3 level at d 21 and 42 and a delayed increase in respiratory movement in response to thermal challenge compared to the Control treatment. However, chickens subjected to the Control and High treatments did not differ in T4 and GH level and performance. We conclude that exposure to high temperature during late embryonic development has long-lasting effects on the thermoregulatory system of broiler chickens by affecting the heat tolerance of these chickens. Moreover, the preferred ambient temperature of the chickens from heat-treated eggs correspond to those recommended for the strain under study, whereas for the cold-treated and control-chickens it was 1°C below, indicating that incubation temperature might have consequences on the ambient temperature chickens require during the rearing phase. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment.

    PubMed

    Mohammadalipour, R; Rahmani, H R; Jahanian, R; Riasi, A; Mohammadalipour, M; Nili, N

    2017-02-01

    Intensive selection of broilers for faster growth and better feed efficiency resulted in greater susceptibility to metabolic disorders such as ascites syndrome, which is one of the major causes of mortality and economic loss in broiler industry. Whereas cool temperature is one of the primary triggers for ascites, early feed restriction (FDR) significantly alleviates its incidence and mortality. However, little is known about effects of FDR, cold environmental temperature and their interaction on physiological responses in broiler chickens. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old male broilers were divided into two treatment groups of Ad libitum (Ad) and feed restricted (FR) with eight pen replicates each. Chickens in FR group underwent feed access limitation from days 7 to 14 of age. On day 21 half of the birds (four pens) in each group exposed to the cold temperature (CT) and the other half (four pens) continued at normal temperature (NT). Average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured at days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42. At 39 and 46 days of age two chicks with a BW around the pen average were selected from each pen and slaughtered after collecting blood samples. Then, relative weight of internal organs and right ventricle weight per total ventricle weight (RV : TV) ratio were calculated. Compared with NT group, CT birds had higher daily feed intake and FCR (P<0.05) from day 28 to 42. Cumulative ascites mortality in CT chickens was higher (P<0.001) than NT chicks. Within the CT group, ascites mortality in FR chickens was reduced (P<0.001) to 1.25% compared with 8.75% in Ad chicks. Birds in CT group had significantly (P<0.05) thicker right ventricle and greater relative weight of heart, hematocrit and triiodothyronine concentration. However, none of these parameters were affected by FDR. Under cold stress conditions, FDR reduced activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.05). Serum triglyceride

  12. Use of rosemary, oregano, and a commercial blend of essential oils in broiler chickens: in vitro antimicrobial activities and effects on growth performance.

    PubMed

    Mathlouthi, N; Bouzaienne, T; Oueslati, I; Recoquillay, F; Hamdi, M; Urdaci, M; Bergaoui, R

    2012-03-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 3 essential oils [oregano, rosemary, and a commercial blend of essential oils (BEO)] against pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria and to evaluate their effects on broiler chicken performances. The chemical composition of the essential oils was determined using the gas chromatography interfaced with a mass spectroscopy. The disc diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were applied for the determination of antimicrobial activities of essential oils. In vivo study, a total of seven hundred fifty 1-d-old male broiler chickens were assigned to 6 dietary treatment groups: basal diet (control; CON), CON + 44 mg of avilamycin/kg (A), CON + 100 mg of rosemary essential oil/kg (ROS), CON + 100 mg of oregano essential oil/kg (OR), CON + 50 mg of rosemary and 50 mg of oregano essential oils/kg (RO), and CON + 1,000 mg of BEO/kg (essential oil mixture, EOM). The essential oils isolated from rosemary and oregano were characterized by their greater content of 1,8-cineole (49.99%) and carvacrol (69.55%), respectively. The BEO was mainly represented by the aldehyde (cinnamaldehyde) and the monoterpene (1,8-cineole) chemical groups. The results of the disc diffusion method indicated that the rosemary essential oil had antibacterial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against only 3 pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli (8 mm), Salmonella indiana (11 mm), and Listeria innocua (9 mm). The essential oil of oregano had antimicrobial activities (P ≤ 0.05) on the same bacteria as rosemary but also on Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 mm). Oregano essential oil had greater (P ≤ 0.05) antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacteria than rosemary essential oil but they had no synergism between them. The BEO showed an increased antimicrobial activity (P ≤ 0.05) against all studied bacteria (pathogenic and

  13. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts.

  14. Effect of different levels of dietary sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pourhossein, Zohreh; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Seidavi, Alireza; Laudadio, Vito; Centoducati, Gerardo; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel extract (SOPE) on humoral immune system responses in broiler chickens. Three hundred 1-day broilers (Ross-308) were randomly allocated to treatments varying in supplemental SOPE added in the drinking water. The experimental groups consisted of three treatments fed for 42 days as follows: a control treatment without feed extract, a treatment containing 1000 ppm of SOPE and a treatment containing 1250 ppm of SOPE. All treatments were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Broilers were vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus (NDV), avian influenza (AI), infectious bursal disease (IBD) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) vaccines. Antibody titer response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was higher in the group fed 1250 ppm of SOPE (P < 0.05) as well as for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. Similarly, antibody titer responses to all vaccines were constantly elevated (P < 0.05) by SOPE enrichment in a dose-dependent manner. Relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius were unaffected by treatments. Dietary SOPE supplementation may improve the immune response and diseases resistance, indicating that it can constitute a useful additive in broiler feeding. Thus, supplying SOPE in rations may help to improve relative immune response in broiler chickens. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter in broiler chickens during industrial processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Franchin, P R; Ogliari, P J; Batista, C R V

    2007-04-01

    1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken. 2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71.3% were positive for Campylobacter. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcases rinsed in BPW and skin samples from carcases was 49 of 72 (68.0%) after defeathering, 50 of 72 (69.4%) after evisceration, 61 of 72 (84.7%) after chilling, and 46 of 72 (63.9%) after freezing. Campylobacter was positive for 21 of 23 (91.3%) samples in the chilling water and for 12 of 24 (50.0%) samples on the table surface. 3. The frequency of qualitative analysis for Campylobacter spp. was reduced in frozen chickens, but not during the slaughtering process. The use of drinking water alone as a decontaminant to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter spp. during slaughter is therefore not sufficient. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, chickens must be cooked properly before consuming.

  16. Effect of encapsulated carvacrol on the incidence of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaozhen; Diarra, Moussa S; Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi; Yu, Hai; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong; Gong, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    There is an urgent need to control necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens in chickens when antibiotics are withdrawn from feed. Carvacrol has strong antimicrobial activity and its delivery to the animal intestine can be significantly enhanced after encapsulation. The present study has investigated the potential of encapsulated carvacrol in controlling NE. In general, micro-encapsulation of carvacrol in an alginate-whey protein matrix showed no adverse effect on its antimicrobial activity towards C. perfringens in either Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or a simulated gastrointestinal model. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both encapsulated and un-encapsulated carvacrol were approximately 200 μl/l against C. perfringens in BHI. In a broiler infection model with C. perfringens, the diets supplemented with encapsulated carvacrol at the dose of either 250 or 650 μg/g significantly reduced NE in the chicken intestine, which was close to the degree of lesions observed in bacitracin/salinomycin treated birds. Supplementation with either bacitracin/salinomycin or encapsulated carvacrol showed no significant impact on intestinal burden of Lactobacillus. However, the treatment with bacitracin/salinomycin or the low dose of encapsulated carvacrol reduced the level of C. perfringens in the ileum of birds at 35 days of age. These results suggest that our encapsulated carvacrol can be used to combat NE disease in chickens.

  17. Metabolic study of enrofloxacin and metabolic profile modifications in broiler chicken tissues after drug administration.

    PubMed

    Morales-Gutiérrez, F J; Barbosa, J; Barrón, D

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the identification and distribution of the metabolites from enrofloxacin (ENR) in liver, kidney and muscle tissues from broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment was studied. In addition, qualitative analyses of changes in the metabolic profile in those tissues after drug administration were also investigated. As a result, a total of 31 different metabolites from ENR were identified, which ciprofloxacin (CIP) and desethylene-ENR were the major metabolites. After four days of withdrawal period, most of the metabolites were excreted, but residues of ENR and CIP still persisted in tissues at a concentration under the permitted maximum residue limit (MRL). Non-medicated, medicated and post-treatment samples of chicken tissues were clearly clustered according to their metabolite profile by principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis, which indicates that endogenous metabolites have not returned to their original levels after the withdrawal period. A total of 22 relevant mass features contributing to this separation as potential markers of chicken samples were tentatively identified.

  18. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  19. Insights on the host stress, fear and growth responses to the deoxynivalenol feed contaminant in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens.

  20. Insights on the Host Stress, Fear and Growth Responses to the Deoxynivalenol Feed Contaminant in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A.; Sid-Ahmed, Omer E.; Böhm, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins pose an important danger to human and animal health. Poultry feeds are frequently contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin. It is thus of great importance to evaluate the effects of DON on the welfare related parameters in poultry industry. In the present study, the effects of contamination of broiler diet with 10 mg DON/kg feed on plasma corticosterone and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio as indicators of stress, tonic immobility duration as an index for fear response and growth performance of broiler chickens were studied. In addition, the effect of a microbial feed additive either alone or in combination with DON contamination on these different aspects was also evaluated. The results showed that DON feeding significantly affected the welfare related parameters of broiler chickens. The feeding of DON contaminated diet resulted in an elevation of plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and increased the fear levels as indicated by longer duration of tonic immobility reaction. Furthermore, DON reduced the body weight and body weight gain during the starter phase definitely at the second and third week. However, during grower phase, feeding of DON decreased the body weight at the fourth week and reduced the body gain at the fifth week. Addition of the microbial feed additive, a commercial antidote for DON mycotoxin, was able to overcome DON effects on stress index (H/L ratio), fearfulness and growth parameters of broilers. In conclusion, we showed for the first time that the DON feeding increased the underlying fearfulness and physiological stress responses of broilers and resulted in a reduction in the welfare status as indicated by higher plasma corticosterone, higher H/L ratio and higher fearfulness. Additionally, feeding the microbial feed additive was effective in reducing the adverse effects of DON on the bird's welfare and can improve the performance of broiler chickens. PMID:24498179

  1. A study of Aspergillus niger- hydrolyzed cassava peel meal as a carbohydrate source on the histology of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Adeyemi Isaiah; Sani, Alhassan; Aderibigbe, Temitayo Abosede; Abdurrasheed, Muhammed Ola; Agbolade, James Oludare

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolysed cassava peel inclusion as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken feedstuff on the histology of the internal organs of broiler chickens. Thirty six, two weeks old unsexed broiler chickens were used for the study in a feeding trial of forty two days. The chickens were randomly allocated to six dietary treatments A - F using a completely randomized design. Each treatment group contained two replicates of three broiler chickens. Group A chickens (A1 and A2) were fed with the control diet (0% hydrolyzed cassava peel as main carbon source). Groups B-E (in replicates 1 and 2) were administered with experimental diets containing 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% of hydrolyzed cassava peels respectively replacing maize while group F (F1 and F2) were fed with diet containing 100% unhydrolyzed cassava peels replacing maize as the main carbon source. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum for the six weeks feeding trials period. Vaccine and drugs were administered as at when due. At the end of the third week, two replicate per group were fasted for twelve hours and slaughtered. Samples of liver, kidney and heart were collected and tissue samples were taken for histological examinations. All the chickens in group F that fed on unhydrolyzed cassava peel recorded 100% mortality within the first six days of the feeding trials while those in groups A to E recorded 0% mortality. Histology of the kidney, heart and liver showed increasing mark of coagulative necrosis, degeneration of the hepatocytes and vacuolations due to the shrinking of the hepatocellular and cardiac tissues as the cassava inclusion level increases in feed. It is concluded that birds can be fed with maize replaced with up to 50% hydrolyzed cassava peel in chicken feeds without serious deleterious effects and that the wastes have useful products in animal nutrition. Also, the replacement added economic in chicken production. The hydrolysis has led to a

  2. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Nihar Ranjan; Babu, L. K.; Kumar, A.; Pradhan, C. R.; Pati, P. K.; Mishra, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period. Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study. Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken. PMID:27057118

  3. Dietary electrolyte balance influences ileal endogenous amino acid losses in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Adedokun, S A; Applegate, T J

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of nitrogen-free diets formulated with 2 ratios of corn starch and dextrose and 2 levels of dietary electrolyte balance (DEB; calculated as Na + K - Cl(-), in mEq/kg of diet) on ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) losses in 48-d-old broiler chickens. On d 43, 240 broiler chickens were allotted to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicate cages per diet in a completely randomized design. Each experimental diet was fed for 5 d (d 43-48). All diets were free of nitrogen with 2 ratios of corn starch-to-dextrose (0.31 and 1.04) and 2 levels of DEB (108 and 219 mEq/kg of diet). Final BW and BW loss between birds fed the 2 corn starch-to-dextrose ratios and between birds fed 2 levels of DEB were not different (P > 0.05). Birds fed the diet containing a high level of DEB consumed less (P < 0.05) feed than birds on the low-DEB diet. Birds on the high-corn starch-to-dextrose (1.04) diet showed a tendency for higher (P = 0.08) feed intake. High dietary dextrose level (corn starch-to-dextrose ratio of 0.31) resulted in higher (P < 0.05) ileal DM and energy digestibility. A high level of DEB resulted in higher (P < 0.05) ileal endogenous nitrogen loss. Arginine, Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Glu, Gly, Pro, and Tyr secretion into the gut increased (P ≤ 0.05) with an increasing level of DEB. Endogenous His, Lys, Thr, Asp, Cys, and Ser showed a tendency for increased (P ≤ 0.1) losses with a high level of DEB. Mean ileal EAA losses for the indispensable and dispensable amino acids for the low-DEB diet were 81 and 82%, respectively, that of the birds fed the high-DEB diet. The 4 amino acids with the lowest endogenous flow were Met, His, Tyr, and Cys, whereas the highest endogenous flow was found in Glu, Asp, Val, and Leu. Data from the current study showed that EAA losses in the ileum of broiler chickens are significantly affected by DEB, but not by the ratio of corn starch to dextrose.

  4. Digestion of fat and fatty acids along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tancharoenrat, P; Ravindran, V; Zaefarian, F; Ravindran, G

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The first experiment investigated the digestion of fat and fatty acids (FA) from soybean oil and tallow along the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens. The second experiment was conducted to determine endogenous fat and FA losses and the FA profile of chicken bile. In experiment 1, 2-wk-old broilers were fed corn-soy diets supplemented with 50 g/kg of soybean oil or tallow for 7 d and digesta were collected from the duodenum, upper jejunum, upper ileum, and lower ileum. Apparent digestibility coefficients were calculated using the titanium marker ratio in diets, and digesta. Digestibility of fat was determined to be negative in the duodenum, indicating marked net secretion of fat into this segment. Fat was rapidly digested in the jejunum, with digestibility coefficients of 0.60 to 0.64 being determined at the end of the jejunum. The digestion of fat continued in the upper ileum. The apparent digestibility coefficient of fat determined at lower ileum in soybean oil diets was higher (P < 0.05) than that in tallow diets (0.82 vs. 0.74). Linoleic acid was digested throughout the intestinal tract, whereas the digestion of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids started only in the jejunum. Measurements at the lower ileal level showed that the unsaturated FA (linoleic and oleic acids) were well digested (0.90 to 0.94), irrespective of the source of fat. In contrast, the digestibility of saturated FA (palmitic and stearic acids) was influenced (P < 0.05) by the fat source. Digestibility coefficients of palmitic and stearic acids at lower ileum were markedly higher (P < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil (0.77 to 0.85) compared with that containing tallow (0.58 to 0.68). In experiment 2, ileal endogenous fat loss was determined to be 1,714 mg/kg of DM intake. Endogenous fat was composed mainly of palmitic (75 g/kg), stearic (131 g/kg), oleic (73 g/kg), linoleic (133 g/kg), and arachidonic (60 g/kg) acids. Fatty acid profile of

  5. Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, R; Raes, K; Turchini, G M; Huyghebaert, G; De Smet, S

    2010-07-01

    The PUFA metabolism in broiler chicken was studied through the whole body fatty acid balance method. Four dietary lipid sources (palm fat, Palm; soyabean oil, Soya; linseed oil, Lin; fish oil, Fish) were added at 3 % to a basal diet containing 5 % palm fat. Diets were fed to female and male birds from day 1 to either day 21 or day 42 of age. Birds fed the Lin diet showed a significantly higher 18 : 2n-6 accumulation compared with the other diets (85.2 v. 73.6 % of net intake), whereas diet did not affect 18 : 3n-3 accumulation (mean 63 % of net intake). Bioconversion of 18 : 2n-6 significantly decreased in the order Palm>Lin>Soya>Fish (4.7, 3.9, 3.4 and 1 % of net intake, respectively). The 18 : 3n-3 bioconversion on the Palm and Soya diets was similar and significantly higher than in broilers on the Lin diet (9.1 v. 5.8 % of net intake). The beta-oxidation of 18 : 2n-6 was significantly lower on the Lin diet than on the other diets (10.8 v. 23.3 % of net intake), whereas beta-oxidation of 18 : 3n-3 was significantly higher on the Fish diet than on the other diets (41.5 v. 27.3 % of net intake). Feeding fish oil suppressed apparent elongase and desaturase activity, whereas a higher dietary supply of 18 : 3n-3 and 18 : 2n-6 enhanced apparent elongation and desaturation activity on the PUFA involved in the n-3 and n-6 pathway, respectively. Accumulation of 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 increased and beta-oxidation decreased with age. Sex had a marginal effect on the PUFA metabolism.

  6. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  7. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  8. Immune Response of Salmonella Challenged Broiler Chickens Fed Diets Containing Gallipro®, a Bacillus subtilis Probiotic.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ali Asghar; Shawrang, Parvin; Shakorzadeh, Shirin

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding a probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, on antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses in broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis. One hundred and sixty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were negative control, probiotic-treated group, challenged group, and challenged probiotic treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) the relative weights of spleen and bursa. Inclusion of probiotic to diet of challenged chickens increased the relative weight of spleen, but had no effect on the relative weight of bursa. There were no differences for the antibody titers of chickens between negative control and probiotic-treated group. Salmonella challenging decreased (P < 0.05) antibody titers against Newcastle and infectious bursal viruses. Improvements in the antibody titers were observed by the addition of probiotic to diet of these chickens. The results showed that dietary inclusion of probiotic had no significant effect on immune parameters of chickens at non-contaminated environment, display a greater efficacy at environment contaminated with pathogen and can improve immune responses of infected chickens.

  9. Association of increased rate of condemnation of broiler carcasses due to hepatic abnormalities with immunosuppressive diseases in the broiler chicken industry in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Keyvan; Zachar, Tara; Popowich, Shelly; Knezacek, Tennille; Goodhope, Bob; Willson, Philip; Gomis, Susantha

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done. Of the 264 livers with gross lesions, 83% had multifocal to coalescing necrotizing hepatitis, 16% had perihepatitis, and 1% had hemorrhages. No definitive causative microorganisms were isolated from the hepatic lesions; however, no significant bacterial isolations were made. Bursal atrophy, low BBW ratio, and high titer of antibody against IBDV each correlated with the rate of total condemnations (P = 0.0188, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0073, respectively). Nucleotide sequencing of IBDV isolated from the BF identified the variant strains Delaware-E and 586. Condemnation because of hepatic lesions was correlated with titer of antibody against IBDV and BBW (P = 0.016 and P = 0.027). The results of this study demonstrate that hepatic lesions in Saskatchewan chickens are not currently caused by a primary bacterial pathogen but are associated with indicators of immunosuppression that is likely due to variant IBDV. PMID:26424905

  10. Drinking water contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, benzene, and trichloroethylene). 1. Interaction of contaminants with nutritional status on general performance and immune function in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Vodela, J K; Renden, J A; Lenz, S D; McElhenney, W H; Kemppainen, B W

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine possible interactions between drinking water contaminants and suboptimal nutritional status for performance and immune function in male broiler chickens. Experimental drinking water contained a mixture of arsenic, benzene, cadmium, lead, and trichloroethylene (TCE) at low concentrations (0.80, 1.3, 5.0, 6.7, and 0.65 ppm) and high concentrations (8.6, 13, 50, 67, and 6.5 ppm). These chemicals were selected because they are among the most common contaminants found in ground water near hazardous waste sites. The experimental diets included feed containing 50% added vitamins and minerals (V&M) and feed without added V&M. Increasing levels of drinking water contaminants and decreasing levels of V&M in diet resulted in significantly (P < or = 0.05) decreased water and feed intake, decreased weight gain, and suppression of natural, humoral, and cell-mediated immune response. In a paired-water study, feed consumption, body weight, and immune function were decreased in chickens provided low and high concentrations of the chemical mixture in drinking water compared with chickens given control drinking water equal to the volumes consumed by the chickens given the low and high concentration of mixture, respectively. A deficiency of dietary V&M caused increased sensitivity to adverse effects of drinking water contaminants.

  11. Evaluation of Aloe vera and synbiotic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, gut morphology, immune responses and blood constitutes of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Naghi Shokri, Ali; Ghasemi, Hossein A; Taherpour, Kamran

    2017-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with Aloe vera (AV) powder and synbiotic as growth promoter agents on performance, gut morphology, immune responses, hematology and serum biochemistry in broilers. A total of 240-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg virginiamycin (VM), 1 g/kg synbiotic (Syn), 2.5 g/kg AV (AV1), 5.0 g/kg AV (AV2) or 7.5 g/kg AV (AV3). Chickens fed any of the diets, except diet AV1, exhibited better feed conversion ratios at the 14-28 day period and higher average daily gain and duodenal villus height/crypt depth ratio at 42 days than those fed the control diet. Synbiotic supplementation caused a marked increase in the serum antibody titer against infectious bursal disease and infectious bronchitis vaccines. Feeding diet AV3 significantly increased red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration, and decreased serum triglyceride level compared to the control group. The results suggested that dietary inclusion of 5 and 7.5 g/kg AV, similar with synbiotic supplementation, can be applied as effective alternatives to in-feed antibiotics for broiler diets.

  12. A comparison survey of organic and conventional broiler chickens for infectious agents affecting health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Van Overbeke, I; Duchateau, L; De Zutter, L; Albers, G; Ducatelle, R

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the health status of organic broiler chickens and the contamination rate with Salmonella and Campylobacter in organic broiler production in Belgium. The broilers were screened for antibodies against routinely monitored poultry diseases at 1 day old and at slaughter. Fecal examination for the presence of worm eggs was done at slaughter. Bacteriological examination for the detection of Salmonella and Campylobacter was performed at day 1, week 2, week 4, week 7, week 10, and slaughter. Conventional broilers of the same poultry integration and reared in the same geographic area were also screened and served as reference. Serologic data indicated lower antibody titers against infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease in organic flocks. No significant differences could be found in prevalence of Salmonella between organic and conventional broilers at slaughter. In contrast, Campylobacter infections at slaughter were significantly higher in organic flocks. Organic flocks most probably become infected with Campylobacter between week 7 and week 10. Worm eggs were found in neither the organic flocks nor the conventional flocks. In conclusion, there are indications that the respiratory health status is better in organic broilers but that organic flocks are more often infected with Campylobacter than are conventional flocks.

  13. Probiotic (Enterococcus faecium) induced responses of the hepatic proteome improves metabolic efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Aijuan; Luo, Jianjie; Meng, Kun; Li, Jianke; Bryden, Wayne L; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Wang, L X N; Liu, Guohua; Yao, Bin

    2016-02-01

    The liver plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, detoxification and immunity. Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) is a probiotic that has been shown to have positive effects on broiler production. However, its molecular effects on liver metabolism have not been characterized. This study aims to further identify the biological roles of E. faecium by characterizing the hepatic proteomic changes of broilers (Gallus gallus) fed E. faecium using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS). Thirty-three proteins (50 protein spots) involved in nutrient metabolism, immunity and the antioxidant system were shown to be differentially expressed in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium than from birds not fed the probiotic. The biological processes of sulphur amino acids, vitamin and cellular hormone metabolism, sulphur compound biosynthesis and protein tetramerization were enhanced in the liver of broilers fed E. faecium. However, proteins involved in calcium ion flux, cell redox homeostasis and platelet activation related to hepatic immune responses were down-regulated in broilers fed E. faecium. These results indicate that the supplementation of poultry feed with E. faecium may alter the partitioning of nutrients and promote optimal nutrient utilization. This study assists in unraveling the molecular effects of the dietary probiotic, E. faecium, in the liver of broiler chickens. It shows that the probiotic improves the metabolism of nutrients and decreases inflammatory responses. Our findings extend previous knowledge of the mechanism of dietary probiotic action and provide new findings for research and future probiotic development.

  14. Prediction of carcase and breast weights and yields in broiler chickens using breast volume determined in vivo by real-time ultrasonic measurement.

    PubMed

    Silva, S R; Pinheiro, V M; Guedes, C M; Mourão, J L

    2006-12-01

    1. The use of in vivo real-time ultrasonic (RTU) to predict breast and carcase weights and yields in 103 male broiler chickens was evaluated. Breast area (mm(2)), thickness (mm) and volume (cm(3)) were measured by RTU in three identified sites. After RTU measurements, the broiler chickens were weighed (live weight, LW, g) and slaughtered Carcase and breast weights (g) and physical measures of breast area (mm(2)), and thickness (mm) corresponding to the three identified sites, and volume (cm(3)) were recorded. 2. The best simple correlation between RTU and carcase measurements was obtained for breast volume. Breast and carcase weights were well predicted by LW. Furthermore, breast volume measured in carcase or by RTU was better in predicting breast weight and breast and carcase yields. 3. Multiple regression equations were fitted using LW (g) and RTU measurement of breast volume to predict breast and carcase weights and yields. The coefficients of determination were 0.52 and 0.65 for breast and carcase yields, respectively, and 0.92 and 0.99 for breast and carcase weights, respectively.

  15. Use of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla in the diet of broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. A.; Nishibori, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The experiments were carried out to measure the effect of multivitamin, acidifier and Azolla on growth performance, profitability and lipid profiles of blood of broiler chickens to produce safe and cost effective broilers. Methods In experiment 1, 240 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; D1 (control), D2 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin/liter water), D3 (D1 with 1 mL acidifier/liter water), D4 (D1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 2 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication. In experiment 2, 150 day-old Cobb-500 broiler chicks were fed diets; T1 (control), T2 (5% Azolla in the diet), T3 (7% Azolla in the diet) and T4 (T1 with 1 mL multivitamin and 1 mL acidifier/liter water) having 3 replications in each, and 20 chicks/replication in control, and 10 chicks/replication in the remaining dietary treatment groups for 35 days. Results In experiment 1, the highest live weight was observed in D4 (p<0.05), however, feed intake was statistically similar between diets (p>0.05). The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.001) and mortality (p<0.05) were observed in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. There were no significant differences between diets for feed cost and net profit (p>0.05). However, evidently but not significantly, the highest net profit was obtained in D2 followed by D4, D1, and D3, respectively. In experiment 2, the highest live weight (p<0.05) and feed intake (p<0.001) were observed in T4. Mortality (p<0.01), FCR (p<0.01), feed cost (p<0.05) and net profit (p<0.05) were significantly different among diets. Considering net profit, T2 was the best performing dietary group followed by T3, T1, and T4, respectively. The lowest lipid profiles were observed in D3 followed by D1, D4, and D2, respectively (p<0.05). In experiment 2, the lowest total cholesterol, TG, and the highest amount of high density lipoprotein were observed in T2, followed by T3, T1, and T4, respectively (p<0.05). Evidently but not

  16. Molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens from broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gharaibeh, Saad; Al Rifai, Rami; Al-Majali, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens (Cp) causes necrotic enteritis disease in commercial poultry. Antimicrobials are used to control and treat this disease and sometimes clinical outbreaks do not respond well to certain treatments. This study was designed to isolate Cp from clinical cases, type these isolates by multiplex PCR, and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility by micro-dilution method. A total of 67 Cp isolates were obtained from 155 broiler chicken flocks. All isolates were classified as type A and non-enterotoxin producers. Lincomycin, erythromycins, and tilmicosin showed very high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 50 of ≥256 μg/ml. However, tylosin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin, florfenicol, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, and oxytetracycline had variable MIC₅₀ of 64, 0.5, 1, 1, 8, 4, 8, 4, 8, 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. It is recommended that Cp infections in Jordan be treated with either penicillins or tetracyclines especially amoxicillin and oxytetracycline.

  17. Anticoccidial efficacy of toltrazuril and halofuginone against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, A; Abo el-Sooud, K; el-Bahy, M M

    1997-01-01

    The anticoccidial activities of toltrazuril and halofuginone against Eimeria tenella were tested in broiler chickens. Comparisons were made between ummedicated infected and uninfected control birds in addition to infected groups given either toltrazuril at 37.5, 75 and 150 ppm in the drinking water, or halofuginone at 1.5, 3 and 6 ppm in the feed. Both drugs were highly efficacious against E tenella. Treatment improved the bodyweight gain and survival percentage in comparison with the unmedicated, infected group. Intestinal lesions, faecal and oocyst scores and oocyst shedding in dropping were significantly reduced by both drugs. Toltrazuril gave better protection than halofuginone; 75 and 150 ppm toltrazuril in drinking water gave good protection when administered four and five days after inoculation.

  18. Studies on Effect of Lighting on “Sudden Death Syndrome” in Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ononiwu, J. C.; Thomson, R. G.; Carlson, H. C.; Julian, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Broiler chicken flocks were studied to determine the mortality from sudden death syndrome occurring in the flocks. The difference in the incidence of the syndrome in pullets and cockerels, and the age at which the most birds are affected were also studied. The weight of sudden death syndrome birds was compared with the flock average and the effect of continuous lighting as opposed to intermittent lighting was examined. The results suggest that; continuous lighting produces more sudden death syndrome deaths than intermittent lighting; that the incidence of sudden death syndrome is higher in cockerels than pullets; that the highest death rate occurred during the third and fourth weeks of life, and that sudden death syndrome birds on the average were heavier than the flock average. PMID:436101

  19. Bioavailability of water- and lipid-soluble thiamin compounds in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Geyer, J; Netzel, M; Bitsch, I; Frank, T; Bitsch, R; Krämer, K; Hoppe, P P

    2000-12-01

    The bioavailability of thiamin mononitrate, thiamin chloride-hydrochloride and benfotiamin was compared in broiler chickens. A thiamin-deficient diet was supplemented with either 1.8 and 1.5 mg/kg thiamin equivalent as water-soluble salts, or with 1.5 and 1.2 mg/kg thiamin equivalent as benfotiamin, respectively, and fed to 3 replicate groups/treatment for 21 days. Weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion rate were not significantly affected by solubility or dietary level of thiamin. Likewise, using biochemical indices of thiamin status (erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficient, and thiamin concentrations in blood and liver), no differences were found between the water-soluble thiamin salts, indicating that they have identical potency. In contrast, biochemical indices of thiamin status showed a significantly higher bioavailability for benfotiamin than for the water-soluble sources.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from the broiler chicken industry in Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    McGarr, C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C; Fish, N A

    1977-01-01

    Antibacterial drug resistance among 219 salmonella isolates recovered during 1974 from poultry and poultry environments at the various production stages of broiler chickens in three integrated Ontario companies are recorded. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole complex, furazolidone, cephaloridine and amoxicillin. A relative increase in resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin with an accompanying decrease in resistance to triple sulfa compound was recorded when compared to a previous investigation of avian salmonella isolates in Ontario. The percentage and patterns of antimicrobial resistance were comparable at the various stages of production. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was the most common pattern found among both Salmonella typhimurium and other serotypes. A notably high prevalence of resistance was found among Salmonella enteritidis isolates including some isolates with R factors for chloramphenicol resistance. This latter finding is of particular concern because of the high prevalence of this serotype in poultry and in human salmonellosis. PMID:318909

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolates from the broiler chicken industry in Ontario.

    PubMed

    McGarr, C; Mitchell, W R; Carlson, H C; Fish, N A

    1977-01-01

    Antibacterial drug resistance among 219 salmonella isolates recovered during 1974 from poultry and poultry environments at the various production stages of broiler chickens in three integrated Ontario companies are recorded. All isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, trimethroprim-sulfamethoxazole complex, furazolidone, cephaloridine and amoxicillin. A relative increase in resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin with an accompanying decrease in resistance to triple sulfa compound was recorded when compared to a previous investigation of avian salmonella isolates in Ontario. The percentage and patterns of antimicrobial resistance were comparable at the various stages of production. Resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin was the most common pattern found among both Salmonella typhimurium and other serotypes. A notably high prevalence of resistance was found among Salmonella enteritidis isolates including some isolates with R factors for chloramphenicol resistance. This latter finding is of particular concern because of the high prevalence of this serotype in poultry and in human salmonellosis.

  2. Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli mixed infection model in broiler chickens for studying valnemulin pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Xiao, X; Zhao, D H; Yang, X; Shi, W; Deng, H; Ma, J; Zhang, S; Liu, Y H

    2014-02-01

    A Mycoplasma gallisepticum-Escherichia coli mixed infection model was developed in broiler chickens, which was applied to pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in the present experiment. The velogenic M. gallisepticum standard strain S6 was rejuvenated to establish the animal model, and the wild E. coli strain O78 was injected as supplementary inoculum to induce chronic respiratory disease in chickens. The disease model was evaluated based on its clinical signs, histopathological examination, bacteriological assay, and serum plate agglutination test. The pharmacokinetics of valnemulin in infected chickens was determined by intramuscular (i.m.) injection and oral administration (per os, p.o.) of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW). Plasma samples were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration-time curve of valnemulin was analyzed using the noncompartmental method. After the i.m. administration, the mean values of Cmax , Tmax , AUClast , MRT, CLβ /F, Vz /F, and t1⁄2β , were 27.94 μg/mL, 1.57 h, 171.63 μg·h/mL, 4.51 h, 0.06 L/h/kg, 0.56 L/kg, and 6.50 h, respectively. By contrast, the corresponding values after p.o. administration were 5.93 μg/mL, 7.14 h, 47.60 μg·h/mL, 9.80 h, 0.22 L/h/kg, 3.35 L/kg, and 10.60 h. The disposition of valnemulin was retarded in infected chickens after both modes of extravascular administration as compared to the healthy controls. More attention should be given to monitoring the therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects of mixed infection because of higher required plasma drug concentration and enlarged AUC with valnemulin treatment.

  3. Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Chickens As Affected by Litter Management Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Lilburn, Mike; Yu, Zhongtang

    2016-01-01

    Poultry litter is a mixture of bedding materials and enteric bacteria excreted by chickens, and it is typically reused for multiple growth cycles in commercial broiler production. Thus, bacteria can be transmitted from one growth cycle to the next via litter. However, it remains poorly understood how litter reuse affects development and composition of chicken gut microbiota. In this study, the effect of litter reuse on the microbiota in litter and in chicken gut was investigated using 2 litter management regimens: fresh vs. reused litter. Samples of ileal mucosa and cecal digesta were collected from young chicks (10 days of age) and mature birds (35 days of age). Based on analysis using DGGE and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, the microbiota of both the ileal mucosa and the cecal contents was affected by both litter management regimen and age of birds. Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Butyricicoccus, and one unclassified candidate genus closely related to Ruminococcus were most predominant in the cecal samples, while Lactobacillus was predominant in the ileal samples at both ages and in the cecal samples collected at day 10. At days 10 and 35, 8 and 3 genera, respectively, in the cecal luminal microbiota differed significantly in relative abundance between the 2 litter management regimens. Compared to the fresh litter, reused litter increased predominance of halotolerant/alkaliphilic bacteria and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a butyrate-producing gut bacterium. This study suggests that litter management regimens affect the chicken GI microbiota, which may impact the host nutritional status and intestinal health. PMID:27242676