Science.gov

Sample records for male fertility endpoints

  1. Male adolescent fertility preservation.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jared L; Choi, Andrew Wonho; Fitzgerald Keeter, Mary Kate; Brannigan, Robert E

    2016-02-01

    Until the 1960s, few adolescents and young adults (AYAs) survived their initial cancer diagnoses. Now, ∼12,400 AYA patients are diagnosed with cancer each year, and almost 80% will now achieve a long-term cure. This dramatic improvement in survival is primarily due to multimodal treatments and combined chemotherapeutic regimens. Unfortunately, the increase in survival is often accompanied by treatment-related toxicities due to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical procedures. Despite guidelines published by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and numerous other professional organizations, high percentages of male AYA oncology patients are not properly counseled regarding their fertility preservation options before cancer treatment. Although administering fertility preservation care to adolescent males can be challenging in many ways, numerous studies show that this care can be delivered with high degrees of success and high levels of patient and parent satisfaction. The key to this success at many institutions has been the implementation of formalized integrated fertility preservation programs with infrastructure geared toward the delivery of comprehensive expedited care.

  2. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  3. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  4. Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161569.html Sleep Can Affect Male Fertility Study found too little ... appears to be 7 to 8 hours of sleep a night, said study author Lauren Wise, a ...

  5. Effects of male sexual maturity of reproductive endpoints relevant to DART studies in Wistar Hannover rats.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Ikuro; Creasy, Dianne M; Yokoi, Ryohei; Terashima, Yukari; Onozato, Tomoya; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Chino, Tomonobu; Tahara, Toru; Tamura, Toru; Kuroda, Junji; Kusama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Wistar Hannover rats have been utilized as one of major strains in regulatory toxicology studies. This study was performed to verify the appropriate age of male sexual maturity in the development and reproductive toxicity (DART) study in Wistar Hannover rats (RccHan:WIST) by comparing reproductive endpoints between 8, 10 and 12 weeks of ages. Although fertility showed a tendency toward decrease in 8-week-old males, copulation index was not different among three ages. Testis weights reached a plateau at 10 weeks of age, whereas weights of other reproductive organs developed until 12 weeks of age. Indices of spermatogenesis (sperm motility, number of sperm in the epididymis and testis and contents of morphologically abnormal sperm) showed age-related progress and did not fully develop except for 12-week-old. For histology, epididymal tubules in 8-week-old animals showed immaturity with tall epithelium. At cesarean section, dams mated with 8-week-old males showed high incidence of preimplantation loss and the number of live fetuses was less than 10. In conclusion, although reproductive performance attained maturity by age of 10 weeks, spermatogenesis was not fully established at 10-week-old, which could result in a low fertility index. Therefore, we recommend that Wistar Hannover male rats at 12-week-old or older are used to conduct DART study properly and evaluate any adverse effects on dams and embryo-fetal development. PMID:24646708

  6. Increased male fertility using fertility-related biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Ryu, Do-Yeal; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Conventional semen analyses are used to evaluate male factor fertility/infertility in humans and other animals. However, their clinical value remains controversial. Therefore, new tools that more accurately assess male fertility based on sperm function and fertilization mechanism are of interest worldwide. While protein markers in spermatozoa that might help differentiate fertile and infertile sperm have been identified, studies are in their infancy, and the markers require validation in field trials. In the present study, to discover more sensitive biomarkers in spermatozoa for predicting male fertility, we assessed protein expression in capacitated spermatozoa. The results demonstrated that cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2 (UQCRC2) was abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). On the other hand, equatorin, beta-tubulin, cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1 (UQCRC1), speriolin, Ras-related protein Rab-2A (RAB2A), spermadhesin AQN-3, and seminal plasma sperm motility inhibitor were abundantly expressed in low-litter size spermatozoa (>3-fold). Moreover, RAB2A and UQCRC1 expression negatively correlated with litter size, while UQCRC2 expression positively correlated with litter size. Finally, the putative biomarkers predicted litter size in field trials. Our study suggests that biomarkers present in spermatozoa after capacitation can help differentiate superior male fertility from below-average fertility with high sensitivity.

  7. Artificial insemination in pigs: predicting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Efficient artificial insemination (AI) is essential for future challenges in the pig industry. Knowledge on the exact relation between semen quality characteristics and fertility can have a major impact on both the genetic merit of future animals and the efficiency of AI. Variation in fertility is caused not only by farm- or sow-related parameters but also by boar- and semen-related parameters. In pig AI there is no gold standard concerning semen quality assessment. Assessing semen quality characteristics objectively and relating them to large field fertility datasets leads to an efficient production of insemination doses, which results in an efficient dissemination/descent of the breeding program required genes. Overall, this contributes to the development of semen quality assessments, which improves the prediction of porcine male fertility. Knowing which semen characteristics, and to what extent, contribute to male fertility and makes the field fertility more predictable. PMID:23092203

  8. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  9. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues.

  10. Fertility assurance through extrapair fertilization, and male parental effort.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2002-07-01

    Extrapair paternity (EPP) has been observed in many formally monogamous species. Male pursuit of extrapair fertilizations (EPF) is explained by the advantages of having offspring that receive essential paternal care from other males. Because females are capable of exercising a degree of control over the post-copulatory sperm competition, EPP's persistence indicates that females benefit from EPF. Thus, EPP involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek EPF for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. Our results indicate that in these circumstances pursuit of EPF is the only evolutionary stable female strategy. Males, on the other hand, have two, mutually exclusive, evolutionary stable strategies: males that restrict parental care regardless of their mate's fidelity, and males that never restrict parental care. That is, when females seek EPF for reasons of fertility assurance and/or genetic diversity, the conditional male strategy--therein the male's parental efforts are based on his certainty of paternity--loses in competition with the unconditional strategies.

  11. The epididymis, cytoplasmic droplets and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2011-01-01

    The potential of spermatozoa to become motile during post-testicular maturation, and the relationship between the cytoplasmic droplet and fertilizing capacity are reviewed. Post-testicular maturation of spermatozoa involves the autonomous induction of motility, which can occur in vivo in testes with occluded excurrent ducts and in vitro in testicular explants, and artefactual changes in morphology that appear to occur in the testis in vitro. Both modifications may reflect time-dependent oxidation of disulphide bonds of head and tail proteins. Regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which counters sperm swelling at ejaculation, is discussed in relation to loss of cytoplasmic droplets and consequences for fertility. It is postulated that: (i) fertile males possess spermatozoa with sufficient osmolytes to drive RVD at ejaculation, permitting the droplet to round up and pinch off without membrane rupture; and (ii) infertile males possess spermatozoa with insufficient osmolytes so that RVD is inadequate, the droplet swells and the resulting flagellar angulation prevents droplet loss. Droplet retention at ejaculation is a harbinger of infertility caused by failure of the spermatozoon to negotiate the uterotubal junction or mucous and reach the egg. In this hypothesis, the epididymis regulates fertility indirectly by the extent of osmolyte provision to spermatozoa, which influences RVD and therefore droplet loss. Man is an exception, because ejaculated human spermatozoa retain their droplets. This may reflect their short midpiece, approximating head length, permitting a swollen droplet to extend along the entire midpiece; this not only obviates droplet migration and flagellar angulation but also hampers droplet loss. PMID:21076437

  12. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  13. Male fertility preservation before gonadotoxic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wyns, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in cancer therapy have resulted in an increased number of long-term cancer survivors. Unfortunately, aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy and preparative regimens for bone marrow transplantation can severely affect male germ cells, including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and lead to permanent loss of fertility. Different options for fertility preservation are dependent on the pubertal state of the patient. Methods: Relevant studies were identified by an extensive Medline search of English and French language articles. Results: Sperm cryopreservation prior to gonadotoxic treatment is a well established method after puberty. In case of ejaculation failure by masturbation, assisted ejaculation methods or testicular tissue sampling should be considered. Although no effective gonadoprotective drug is yet available for in vivo spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) protection in humans, current evidence supports the feasibility of immature testicular tissue (ITT) cryopreservation. The different cryopreservation protocols and available fertility restoration options from frozen tissue, i.e. cell suspension transplantation, tissue grafting and in vitro maturation, are presented. Results obtained in humans are discussed in the light of lessons learned from animal studies. Conclusion: Advances in reproductive technology have made fertility preservation a real possibility in young patients whose gonadal function is threatened by gonadotoxic therapies. The putative indications for such techniques, as well as their limitations according to disease, are outlined. PMID:25302103

  14. Antidepressant medications, mood and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, V; Gitlin, M; Altshuler, L; Korenman, S

    2000-01-01

    By modulating the activity of central neurotransmitters, psychotropic agents may affect reproductive functioning in men and women. Many neurotransmitters influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and can consequently affect menstrual cycling in women and spermatogenesis in men. Emotional state similarly may disrupt reproductive functioning through the effects of stress hormones on the HPG axis. While some data exist on the relationship between stress and menstrual cyclicity in women of reproductive age, little is known regarding the potential effect of emotional state on reproductive function in men. This paper will review: (1) aspects of male reproductive function that may be vulnerable to medication-induced influences; (2) the impact of emotional state on male reproductive function; and (3) the literature on the possible effects of antidepressant medications on male fertility.

  15. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Shin, Choong Ho

    2013-12-01

    With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  16. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R. L.; Sherins, R. J.; Lee, I. P.

    1979-01-01

    boron displayed a significant loss of germinal elements, although most of the Leydig and Sertoli cells appeared normal. Testicular atrophy was associated with a decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter and a marked reduction of spermatocytes and spermatogenic cells. These morphologic alterations were associated with a concomitant reduction of H, SDH, and LDH-X specific activities. In contrast, the specific activities of G3PDH and MDH were significantly elevated above control. The increase in these enzyme activities can be attributed to the relative enrichment of spermatogonial cells during the loss of spermatocytes and spermiogenic cells. Boron-induced male germinal aplasia was also associated with significantly elevated plasma FSH while plasma LH and testosterone levels were not significantly altered. Plasma testosterone levels were unaltered. Male fertility studies demonstrated that at the 500 ppm boron level, fertility was unaffected. However, at 1000 and 2000 ppm boron, male fertility was significantly reduced. Most effects were reversible within 5 weeks. However, the male group receiving 2000 ppm boron for 60 days remained sterile. There was no dose-related decrease in litter size or fetal death in utero. Therefore, the boron-induced infertility was apparently not due to a dominant lethal effect but rather to germinal aplasia. Boron appears toxic to spermatogenic cells at testicular concentrations of 6–8 ppm. ImagesFIGURE 6.FIGURE 9. PMID:446458

  17. Effects of psychological stress on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Nargund, Vinod H

    2015-07-01

    Psychological stress can be defined as any uncomfortable 'emotional experience' accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological and behavioural changes or responses. Many clinical studies looking at the effects of psychological stress on male fertility have shown that stress is associated with reduced paternity and abnormal semen parameters. Enough scientific evidence exists to suggest that psychological stress could severely affect spermatogenesis, mainly as a result of varying testosterone secretion. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has a direct inhibitory action on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and Leydig cells in the testes. The newly discovered hormone, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), also has an inhibitory effect on the HPG axis. Inhibition of the HPG axis results in a fall in testosterone levels, which causes changes in Sertoli cells and the blood-testis barrier, leading to the arrest of spermatogenesis. Germ cells also become vulnerable to gonadotoxins and oxidation. However, the extent and severity of the effects of psychological stress on human testes is difficult to study and data mostly come from animal models. Despite this limitation, stress as a causative factor in male infertility cannot be ignored and patients should be made aware of its effects on testicular function and fertility and helped to manage them.

  18. Timing of prenatal phthalate exposure in relation to genital endpoints in male newborns.

    PubMed

    Martino-Andrade, A J; Liu, F; Sathyanarayana, S; Barrett, E S; Redmon, J B; Nguyen, R H N; Levine, H; Swan, S H

    2016-07-01

    Prior studies report that penile size and male anogenital distance (AGD), sensitive markers of androgen action in utero, may be shortened by prenatal exposure to certain phthalates, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), but no human study has investigated the importance of exposure timing in these associations. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of exposure timing on the action of prenatal phthalates in particular DEHP, on male infant penile size and AGD. In The Infant Development and the Environment Study (TIDES) we measured penile width (PW) as well as anoscrotal distance (AGDAS ) and anopenile distance (AGPAP ) in newborn males. We modeled these endpoints in relation to phthalate metabolite concentrations in maternal urine samples collected in each trimester (T1, T2, and T3) in a subset of TIDES mothers (N = 168). PW was inversely associated with T2 oxidized DEHP metabolites, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP, β=-0.48; 95% confidence interval, -0.93, -0.02), MEHHP (-0.48; -0.92, -0.05), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl (MECPP, -0.51; -1.01, -0.004), although no appreciable associations were seen between PW and T1 and T3 DEHP metabolite concentrations in this subset. Concentrations of DEHP metabolites in T1 urine samples were inversely related to male AGD. For example, in T1 samples in this subset of women mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) was inversely associated with male AGDAP (β = -1.73; 95% confidence interval, -3.45, 0.0004). However, no appreciable associations were seen between AGD measures and any DEHP metabolite in T2 and T3 samples. These data suggest that DEHP exposure is inversely associated with AGD and PW, with PW primarily associated with T2 exposure and AGD associations seen only for T1 exposure, but no associations were found between T3 DEHP metabolites and any of these genital endpoints. These findings are consistent with data on critical windows in rodent studies, supporting the biological plausibility of these

  19. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fronczak, Carolyn M; Kim, Edward D; Barqawi, Al B

    2012-01-01

    One-third of infertile couples may have a male factor present. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility and includes use of anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, opioid narcotics, cocaine, and methamphetamines. The use of these illicit drugs is common in the United States, with a yearly prevalence rate for any drug consistently higher in males compared with females. We aim to provide a review of recent literature on the prevalence and effects of illicit drug use on male fertility and to aid health professionals when counseling infertile men whose social history suggests illicit drug use. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics all negatively impact male fertility, and adverse effects have been reported on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, sperm function, and testicular structure. The use of illicit drugs is prevalent in our society and likely adversely impacting the fertility of men who abuse drugs.

  20. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction. PMID:26787324

  1. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction.

  2. Inbreeding effect on male and female fertility and inheritance of male sterility in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nadilia N; Shaw, Ruth G

    2006-05-01

    Models of the evolution of gynodioecy assume that inbreeding affects male and female fertility equally and ignore quantitative variation in sex expression. The objectives of this study were to assess inbreeding effects, genetic background, and plant maturity on male and female fertility and the mechanism of male sterility inheritance for Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae). Frequency of male-sterile flowers, number of anthers and ovules, and percentage of viable pollen were measured on plants from different pedigrees and five inbreeding levels (F = 0, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). Quantitative variation in male sterility was evident. As inbreeding increased, anther and ovule number decreased; the effect on anther number was greater than on ovule number. Pedigrees varied in number of male-sterile flowers and inbreeding effects. Frequency of male-sterile flowers was greatest among first flowers. No trade-off between male and female fertility was detected. A model attributing male sterility to a cytoplasmic locus and restoration to male fertility to a nuclear locus accounted for the distribution of complete sterility and hermaphroditism over the pedigrees. This study suggests that models of the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy should allow for quantitative variation in male and female fertility components due to inbreeding, pedigree, and plant maturity. PMID:21642137

  3. QTL analysis of fertility restoration in cytoplasmic male sterile pepper.

    PubMed

    Wang, L H; Zhang, B X; Lefebvre, V; Huang, S W; Daubèze, A M; Palloix, A

    2004-09-01

    Fertility restoration of Peterson's cytoplasmic male-sterility in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is quantitative and environment-dependent. QTL analysis of fertility restoration was performed based on the test-cross progeny of 77013A (a strict cytoplasmic-genetic male sterile line) and a doubled haploid population of 114 lines obtained from an F1 hybrid between Yolo wonder (a sterility maintainer line) and Perennial (a fertility-restorer line). The fertility of the test-crossed lines was assessed under greenhouse and open field conditions using three criteria related to pollen or seed production. One major QTL for fertility restoration was mapped to chromosome P6. It was significant in all the environments and for all the traits, accounting for 20-69% of the phenotypic variation, depending on the trait. Four additional minor QTLs were also detected on chromosomes P5, P2, and linkage groups PY3 and PY1, accounting for 7-17% of the phenotypic variation. Most of the alleles increasing fertility originated from the restorer parent, except for two alleles at minor QTLs. Phenotypic analysis and genetic dissection indicated that breeding pepper for complete sterility of female lines and high hybrid fertility requires complex combinations of alleles from both parents and a strict control of the environment. PMID:15173931

  4. DEFINING THE SPERMATOZOA RNA FINGERPRINT FOR THE NORMAL FERTILE MALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defining the spermatozoa RNA fingerprint for the normal fertile male
    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David Dix2, David Miller3, and Stephen A. Krawetz1

    1Departments of Ob/Gyn, CMMG & ISC, Wayne State University, USA.
    2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Pr...

  5. Impact of cancer and cancer treatment on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Dimou, Petros; Anagnostou, Ioannis; Zeginiadou, Theodosia

    2015-01-01

    While cancer, and especially testicular cancer and Hodgkin's disease, affects male fertility in many ways, the current increase of survival of male cancer patients of reproductive age or earlier has emerged as a new challenge to their subsequent ability to father children. Cancer treatments, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, can have a transitory as well as a permanent detrimental impact on male fertility. Gonadotoxic effects and the length of time for sperm recovery after radiotherapy depends not only on initial semen quality, but also on gonadal dosage and the delivery method after chemotherapy, on the type of regimens and dosages and on the spermatogenesis phase that each drug impacts. Combination treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy will induce more gonadotoxicity than either modality alone. Although efforts to prevent gonadal toxicity in cancer treatment are routinely applied, sperm cryopreservation remains the gold standard to maintain male fertility after cancer survival. Fertility preservation for prepubertal boys presents the greatest problem due to the absence of mature sperm in their gonads. In this area, research efforts are concentrated on cryopreservation of immature gametes and, in particular, techniques for their maturation and proliferation after thawing. PMID:26732148

  6. Male-factor infertility and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yates, C A; De Kretser, D M

    1987-06-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was developed primarily as a treatment for female and idiopathic infertility. However, with the discovery that relatively few sperm are required to achieve fertilization in vitro, it was proposed that IVF could be used also as an effective treatment for male-factor infertility. This review deals with the work that has been carried out by various groups in this area of male-factor infertility. As the standards of classification and the presentation of results vary from group to group, this also shows that there is a need for some standardization of how patient selection and the presentation of results are carried out in the area of male-factor infertility.

  7. Sphingomyelin Synthase 1 Is Essential for Male Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Scherthan, Harry; Horsch, Marion; Beckers, Johannes; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Ford, Steven J.; Burton, Neal C.; Razansky, Daniel; Trümbach, Dietrich; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hartmann, Tobias; Floss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids and the derived gangliosides have critical functions in spermatogenesis, thus mutations in genes involved in sphingolipid biogenesis are often associated with male infertility. We have generated a transgenic mouse line carrying an insertion in the sphingomyelin synthase gene Sms1, the enzyme which generates sphingomyelin species in the Golgi apparatus. We describe the spermatogenesis defect of Sms1-/- mice, which is characterized by sloughing of spermatocytes and spermatids, causing progressive infertility of male homozygotes. Lipid profiling revealed a reduction in several long chain unsaturated phosphatidylcholins, lysophosphatidylcholins and sphingolipids in the testes of mutants. Multi-Spectral Optoacoustic Tomography indicated blood-testis barrier dysfunction. A supplementary diet of the essential omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid diminished germ cell sloughing from the seminiferous epithelium and restored spermatogenesis and fertility in 50% of previously infertile mutants. Our findings indicate that SMS1 has a wider than anticipated role in testis polyunsaturated fatty acid homeostasis and for male fertility. PMID:27788151

  8. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level.

  9. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level. PMID:26318229

  10. Current practices in fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Masson, Puneet; Brannigan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of a cancer diagnosis in children and young adolescents is increasing. With better treatments, the number of young cancer survivors living through reproductive age is increasing. Fertility preservation of these men and women has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. Here we review the current guidelines for male oncofertility patients and highlight some of the important gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Options for fertility preservation are also discussed along with resources that should be made available to all patients. PMID:24669115

  11. Influence of hernioplastic implants on male fertility in rats.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, T; Lechner, W

    2007-05-01

    This study explored the vulnerability of the ductus deferens due to mesh induced inflammation and shrinkage after hernia repair in the rodent model. Two commonly used types of hernioplastic implants (Prolene and Vypro II) were surgically wrapped around the ductus deferentes on both sides in 20 juvenile and 20 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty male rats underwent sham surgeries as controls. After 3 months, each male was mated with 2-3 adult females, which were subsequently sacrificed and oocytes or embryos were flushed and counted. Histochemical investigations of the implants and the ductus recovered surgically 4 weeks after implantation (one side) and after the fertility test (second side) were conducted. All groups exhibited 1-3 males with decreased or restricted fertility but there was no difference between groups. Histochemical analysis of the implants and the ductus recovered 4 weeks and 4 months after implantation revealed some sperm granulomes due to lesions of the spermatic cord caused by the implant in the Prolene group. There was no inflammatory reaction in the mucosa or blockage of the spermatic cord visible. Both types of hernioplastic implants tested in this investigation do not give an indication of a negative influence on male fertility in juvenile or adult rats. PMID:17022062

  12. Bisphenol-A Affects Male Fertility via Fertility-related Proteins in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    The xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that has been studied for its impact on male fertility in several species of animals and humans. Growing evidence suggests that xenoestrogens can bind to receptors on spermatozoa and thus alter sperm function. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of BPA (0.0001, 0.01, 1, and 100 μM for 6 h) on sperm function, fertilization, embryonic development, and on selected fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. Our results showed that high concentrations of BPA inhibited sperm motility and motion kinematics by significantly decreasing ATP levels in spermatozoa. High BPA concentrations also increased the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm proteins involved in protein kinase A-dependent regulation and induced a precocious acrosome reaction, which resulted in poor fertilization and compromised embryonic development. In addition, BPA induced the down-regulation of β-actin and up-regulated peroxiredoxin-5, glutathione peroxidase 4, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Our results suggest that high concentrations of BPA alter sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development via regulation and/or phosphorylation of fertility-related proteins in spermatozoa. We conclude that BPA-induced changes in fertility-related protein levels in spermatozoa may be provided a potential cue of BPA-mediated disease conditions. PMID:25772901

  13. Male fertility potential alteration in rheumatic diseases: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tiseo, Bruno Camargo; Cocuzza, Marcello; Bonfá, Eloisa; Srougi, Miguel; Clovis, A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Improved targeted therapies for rheumatic diseases were developed recently resulting in a better prognosis for affected patients. Nowadays, patients are living longer and with improved quality of life, including fertility potential. These patients are affected by impaired reproductive function and the causes are often multifactorial related to particularities of each disease. This review highlights how rheumatic diseases and their management affect testicular function and male fertility. Materials and Methods A systematic review of literature of all published data after 1970 was conducted. Data was collected about fertility abnormalities in male patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatomyositis, ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet disease and gout. Two independent researchers carried out the search in online databases. Results A total of 19 articles were included addressing the following diseases: 7 systemic lupus erythematosus, 6 Behçet disease, 4 ankylosing spondylitis, 2 rheumatoid arthritis, 2 dermatomyositis and one gout. Systemic lupus erythematosus clearly affects gonadal function impairing spermatogenesis mainly due to antisperm antibodies and cyclophosphamide therapy. Behçet disease, gout and ankylosing spondylitis patients, including those under anti-TNF therapy in the latter disease, do not seem to have reduced fertility whereas in dermatomyositis, the fertility potential is hampered by disease activity and by alkylating agents. Data regarding rheumatoid arthritis is scarce, gonadal dysfunction observed as consequence of disease activity and antisperm antibodies. Conclusions Reduced fertility potential is not uncommon. Its frequency and severity vary among the different rheumatic diseases. Permanent infertility is rare and often associated with alkylating agent therapy. PMID:27120778

  14. [Variation trend of male fertility and semen parameters].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the variation trend of male fertility and semen parameters has aroused much academic controversy and become a focus of public attention. For the assessment of male fertility, female pregnancy is regarded as a gold standard, but semen parameters are commonly used as surrogate or indirect evidence in clinical practice and laboratory research. The reference range of se- men parameters being used in China is based on the WHO recommended data and lacks the specific reference value for healthy Chinese men. No definite conclusion has yet been derived from studies at home and abroad on the general variation trend of semen parameters worldwide, but many researchers agree on the decline of semen quality in some areas of the world. Long-term continuous prospective studies are needed for the evaluation and prediction of the general variation trend of semen quality. PMID:25597168

  15. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  16. Quebec public funding facilitates fertility preservation for male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, M.B.; García, A.; Buckett, W.; Tulandi, T.; Chan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August 2010, the Quebec government introduced provincial coverage of assisted reproductive technologies, with sperm cryopreservation included as a covered service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether and how such a program affects the behaviour of cancer patients with respect to sperm cryopreservation. Methods We analyzed the database derived from male patients undergoing sperm cryopreservation from August 2008 to August 2012 at our centre. The retrieved data included patient age, male infertility or oncologic diagnosis, sperm quality parameters, and details about the number of visits for sperm cryopreservation. Results The number of cancer patients who cryopreserved sperm before and after the policy change did not differ significantly, but a marked increase in the number of non-cancer patients was observed. Further analysis revealed that, after implementation of the public funding program, the total number of sperm cryopreservation sessions per patient increased significantly in cancer patients but not in non-cancer patients. Conclusions It appears that cancer patients who are willing to freeze sperm are keen to return for more sessions of sperm banking when no fees are associated with the service. Those findings suggest that cost reduction is an important factor for improving delivery of fertility preservation services to male cancer patients. PMID:26966400

  17. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  18. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  19. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

  20. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  1. Adverse effects of common medications on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Nangia, Ajay K

    2015-07-01

    An increasing number of patients require long-term medication regimens at a young age, but the adverse effects of medications on male reproduction are often inadequately considered, recognized and investigated. Medications can affect male reproduction through central hormonal effects, direct gonadotoxic effects, effects on sperm function or on sexual function. For example, exogenous testosterone inhibits spermatogenesis through central suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. 5α-reductase inhibitors can impair sexual function, decrease semen volume and negatively affect sperm parameters, depending on dose and treatment duration. α-Blockers might decrease seminal emission and cause retrograde ejaculation, depending on the receptor specificity and dose of the agent. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors seem to have variable effects based on the isoform inhibited and evidence is conflicting. Antihypertensive and psychotropic agents can affect sperm, sexual function and hormonal parameters. For antibiotics, the literature on effects on sperm and sperm function is limited and dated. Many chemotherapeutic agents have a direct gonadotoxic effect, depending on agents used, dosing and number of treatment cycles. Overall, many medications commonly used in urology can have effects on male fertility (mostly reversible) but conclusive evidence in humans is often limited. Men should be counselled appropriately about potential drug-related adverse effects on their fertility.

  2. High-energy diets: a threat for male fertility?

    PubMed

    Rato, L; Alves, M G; Cavaco, J E; Oliveira, P F

    2014-12-01

    Male fertility is declining in developed countries, as well as in developing countries. External factors linked to lifestyle, such as eating disorders, negatively affect spermatogenesis, both at central and gonadal levels. The overconsumption of high-energy diets (HED) alters the functioning of the male reproductive axis and consequently affects the testicular physiology, disrupting its metabolism and bioenergetic capacity. Testicular metabolism presents unique characteristics, partly because of its cellular heterogeneity and to the specific functions that each cell type plays within the testicular environment. Disruption of the tightly regulated metabolic pathways leads to adverse reproductive outcomes, such as inefficient energy supply to germ cells, sperm defects or spermatogenesis arrest. Testicular metabolic alterations induced by HED intake may also lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which is closely associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative stress. ROS easily target spermatozoa DNA and lipids, contributing to decreased sperm quality. Thus, understanding the detrimental effects of HED overconsumption on the pathways underlying testicular metabolism and sperm production is imperative; otherwise, one may favour a transgenerational amplification of subfertility. Herein, we present an up-to-date overview of the effects of HED on testicular metabolism, sperm parameters and the subsequent consequences for male fertility.

  3. Developmental neurotoxicity of PHAHs: Endocrine-mediated and general behavioral endpoints in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Roth-Härer, Astrid; Hack, Alfons; Altmann, Lilo; Winneke, Gerhard

    2005-05-01

    During development, gonadal steroids exert effects on the nervous system which are long-lasting or organizational, in contrast to the transient activational actions in adulthood. Therefore, disturbance of neuroendocrine functions by developmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) is likely to affect sex-dependent behavior in adults. Our previous data revealed effects of maternal PCB exposure on sexual differentiation of the brain and subsequent sweet preference as sexually dimorphic behavior in adult offspring. Present research is focused on brominated flame retardants because of their wide-spread use and accumulation in human breast milk. Pregnant Long Evans rats were SC injected with PBDE 99 (2,2',4,4',5-PBDE) daily from gestational day 10 to 18. For comparison, an additional group was exposed to Aroclor 1254. Preliminary results indicate a dose-related increase in sweet preference in adult male offspring exposed to PBDE. Exposure also led to decreases in testosterone and estradiol serum levels. Additional decreases were detected in male anogenital distance. There were no changes of locomotor activity in the open field. On haloperidol-induced catalepsy, latencies were prolonged in all exposed males. In summary, PBDE induced endocrine effects and concomitant changes of sex-dependent behavior similar to PCBs. Outcome of general behavior suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in developmental PBDE exposure.

  4. High male fertility in males of a subdioecious shrub in hand-pollinated crosses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Female reproductive success in females versus hermaphrodites has been well documented. However, documenting a potential advantage in male fertility of male versus hermaphrodite individuals in subdioecious species is also essential for understanding the evolutionary pathway toward dioecy from hermaphroditism via gynodioecy. Siring success in terms of fruit set, fruit mass, number of seeds and mean seed mass was compared by hand-pollinated crosses in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica. The pollen was from male and hermaphrodite individuals, and the pollen recipients were females and hermaphrodites. Seed quality was also evaluated in terms of seed germination rate, seed germination day and seedling survival. Overall, pollen from males sired more fruits of larger size and more seeds than did pollen from hermaphrodites. The male advantage was observed when pollen recipients were females, whereas no effect was found in hermaphrodite recipients. Pollen from males also produced better quality seeds with higher germination rate and sooner germination day. Although these results could also be explained by a higher pollen load for crosses with male pollen donors, we took care to saturate the stigma regardless of the pollen donor. Therefore, these results suggest that male individuals of E. japonica have advantages in male fertility in terms of both quantity and quality. Our previous studies indicated that females exhibit higher female reproductive success compared with hermaphrodites. Thus, both the female and male functions of hermaphrodites are outperformed by females and males, respectively, raising the possibility that the subdioecious E. japonica at this study site is entering the transitional phase to dioecy along the gynodioecy–dioecy pathway. PMID:27658818

  5. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  6. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  7. Importance of male fertility control in family planning.

    PubMed

    Tulsiani, Daulat R P; Abou-Haila, Aida

    2014-01-01

    The world population, currently estimated to be almost seven billion, is expected to double in less than four decades. The projected population growth will cause severe competition for existing resources, not to mention the issue of overcrowding of the planet and additional greenhouse gases that will have an adverse effect on the ecological health of the planet. A recent survey conducted by the United Nations Population Control Division shows that the majority of today's young men in many countries are willing to participate in family planning by taking full control of their fertility, an important global health issue. However, the contraceptive needs of tens of millions of men/couples go unmet every single day and results in millions of unwanted pregnancies. Ever since the approval of the birth control pill by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1960, scientists have been hoping for a male equivalent. It has, however, been a difficult road, in part because of the complicated science of the male reproductive system. It is easier to control a monthly event of ovulation in women than to regulate the production of millions of fertile spermatozoa every day in men. Thus, the contraceptive options for men have not changed in decades and are still limited to the use of condoms, a timely withdrawal/pulling out (coitus interruptus) or vasectomy, a minor surgical procedure in which the vas deferens is occluded to prevent the release of spermatozoa during ejaculation. The first two approaches have a relatively higher failure rate, whereas the last approach is largely irreversible and not suitable for younger men. In this article, we will discuss various approaches currently available for men to take control of their fertility. Our intention is to discuss the details of three similar approaches that will provide safe, affordable and reversible contraception for men and are close to being approved for use by millions of men around the globe. The availability of safe

  8. Evaluation of degradation in DNA from males with a quantitative gender typing, endpoint PCR multiplex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Byron C; Vandegrift, Emily; Fuller, Valerie Mattimore; Allen, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Evidentiary samples submitted to a forensic DNA laboratory occasionally yield DNA that is degraded. Samples of intact chromosomal DNA (both nuclear and mitochondrial) were subjected to a heating protocol to induce DNA degradation. The DNAs were then analyzed using a multiplex PCR assay that amplifies targets of low and high molecular weight on the X/Y and mitochondrial chromosomes. If degradation is random, the amplification of larger DNA targets should be more adversely affected by degradation than smaller targets. In nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from a male donor, exhibiting degradation, DNA quantity estimates based upon higher molecular weight amplicons (HMW) are significantly lower than estimates made using low molecular weight (LMW) Q-TAT amplicons. DNA degradation estimated using this approach correlated well with actual fluorescence associated with HMW and LMW STR alleles amplified from the same genomic DNA templates. Q-TAT is thus useful not only as a quantitation tool, but also as an indicator of template degradation.

  9. Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Stefan S; Agarwal, Ashok; Syriac, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Marijuana has the highest consumption rate among all of the illicit drugs used in the USA, and its popularity as both a recreational and medicinal drug is increasing especially among men of reproductive age. Male factor infertility is on the increase, and the exposure to the cannabinoid compounds released by marijuana could be a contributing cause. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is deeply involved in the complex regulation of male reproduction through the endogenous release of endocannabinoids and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Disturbing the delicate balance of the ECS due to marijuana use can negatively impact reproductive potential. Various in vivo and in vitro studies have reported on the empirical role that marijuana plays in disrupting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, and sperm function such as motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. In this review, we highlight the latest evidence regarding the effect of marijuana use on male fertility and also provide a detailed insight into the ECS and its significance in the male reproductive system. PMID:26277482

  10. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review.

    PubMed

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  11. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  12. Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Stefan S; Agarwal, Ashok; Syriac, Arun

    2015-11-01

    Marijuana has the highest consumption rate among all of the illicit drugs used in the USA, and its popularity as both a recreational and medicinal drug is increasing especially among men of reproductive age. Male factor infertility is on the increase, and the exposure to the cannabinoid compounds released by marijuana could be a contributing cause. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is deeply involved in the complex regulation of male reproduction through the endogenous release of endocannabinoids and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Disturbing the delicate balance of the ECS due to marijuana use can negatively impact reproductive potential. Various in vivo and in vitro studies have reported on the empirical role that marijuana plays in disrupting the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, spermatogenesis, and sperm function such as motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. In this review, we highlight the latest evidence regarding the effect of marijuana use on male fertility and also provide a detailed insight into the ECS and its significance in the male reproductive system.

  13. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review.

    PubMed

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility.

  14. Tripterygium wilfordii, a Chinese herb effective in male fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    Qian, S Z

    1987-09-01

    A refined extract from the root xylem of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (the so-called multi-glycosides of the plant), available in the market as tablets for the long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and various skin disorders, has recently been shown to possess a powerful antifertility effect in male rats and in men after oral administration at dose levels not showing apparent toxicity or side effects. Fertility appears to be reversible after cessation of treatment. Moreover, preliminary data indicated that the effective antifertility dose in men is only 1/3 of the recommended dose for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or skin diseases. This fact supports additional optimism that the side effects of this small dose will be much less as compared with those of the regular dose level. However, a large amount of further investigation is required before one can predict the future of the drug, which seems to hinge upon the successful isolation of the active principle(s) and the careful toxicological evaluation of the safety of the latter. The present paper is a review article summarizing the chemistry, the general pharmacology and the fertility regulatory effect of the plant. PMID:3315438

  15. DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    DO BODY WEIGHT CHANGES IMPACT AGE OF PUBERTY AND REPRODUCTIVE ENDPOINTS IN THE EDSP TIER 1 MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS? T.E. Stoker, K. McElroy, J. Ferrell, K. Bremser, R. Cooper and S.C. Laws. Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    The relations...

  16. Bile Acid Alters Male Mouse Fertility in Metabolic Syndrome Context

    PubMed Central

    Baptissart, Marine; De Haze, Angélique; Vaz, Frederic; Kulik, Wim; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Baron, Silvère; Caira, Françoise; Volle, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids have recently been demonstrated as molecules with endocrine activities controlling several physiological functions such as immunity and glucose homeostases. They act mainly through two receptors, the nuclear receptor Farnesol-X-Receptor alpha (FXRα) and the G-protein coupled receptor (TGR5). These recent studies have led to the idea that molecules derived from bile acids (BAs) and targeting their receptors must be good targets for treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Thus it might be important to decipher the potential long term impact of such treatment on different physiological functions. Indeed, BAs have recently been demonstrated to alter male fertility. Here we demonstrate that in mice with overweight induced by high fat diet, BA exposure leads to increased rate of male infertility. This is associated with the altered germ cell proliferation, default of testicular endocrine function and abnormalities in cell-cell interaction within the seminiferous epithelium. Even if the identification of the exact molecular mechanisms will need more studies, the present results suggest that both FXRα and TGR5 might be involved. We believed that this work is of particular interest regarding the potential consequences on future approaches for the treatment of metabolic diseases. PMID:26439743

  17. Proteomic revolution to improve tools for evaluating male fertility in animals.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Jin; You, Young-Ah; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2013-11-01

    Artificial insemination has been used as a common breeding technique for the rapid dissemination of important genes to improve livestock quality. However, infertility or subfertility in the male leads to the disintegration of the breeding system and large economic losses. Therefore, the development of an accurate diagnostic protocol for male fertility is of critical importance. To this end, many basic laboratory assays have been developed on the basis of semen analysis. Although these assays may provide a preliminary estimate of male fertility, their accuracies are often unacceptably low. Therefore, it is vital to develop new semen analyses that are simple to use and accurate. Proteomic approaches will shed light on understanding sperm physiology and help in developing new diagnostic tools for male fertility. The aim of this study was to review the retrospective semen analyses and prospective proteomic studies of male fertility determination and usefulness of proteomic approaches in diagnosing male fertility potential in animal industry.

  18. [Evolution of male fertility in the last twenty years].

    PubMed

    Auger, J

    1997-01-01

    After the meta-analysis by Carlsen et al. (1992) showing a decline in human sperm count over the last 50 years, several studies have been made on the sperm characteristics of more or less homogeneous groups of men who were collecting semen in the same center for 10-20 years. A significant decline in sperm count was reported in some studies but not in others. The debate on declining sperm counts is not closed and these studies raised the following important questions: could the differences in results be the reflect of variation in techniques or blas in methodologies? If these phenomena are real, why a deterioration of semen quality in some places and not in others with so important geographical differences of sperm production? What are the possible consequences on human fertility and what are the causes? Unfortunately, there is presently no answer. The danish study provoked extensive discussion on the many possible sources of bias while there was less controversy concerning the studies carried out in a single center despite the extent of limitations of several of them. Recent publications indicated concomitant and increasing alterations of the development and/or function of the male genital tract, various observations in the wildlife and several experimental studies suggesting the possible deleterious role of numerous chemical compounds present in our environment. Therefore, prospective epidemiological studies and fundamental researchs are urgently needed.

  19. Male-male sexual behavior in Japanese quail: being "on top" reduces mating and fertilization with females.

    PubMed

    Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) engage in vigorous same-sex sexual interactions that have been interpreted as aggressive behavior reflecting dominance relationships. The consequences of this behavior for reproductive success, and whether it is a form of competition over mating and fertilization, are unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of seeing or interacting with another male on a male's subsequent mating and fertilization success with females. A vigorous interaction with another male in which the subject performed more cloacal contact movements (movements to try to make contact with the other bird's cloacal opening) reduced subsequent mating and fertilization success with a female to a similar extent as a prior mating with a different female. Receiving one or more cloacal contacts from another male was less detrimental for subsequent success. The mere presence of another (stimulus) male delayed mating initiation in those male subjects that approached the stimulus first instead of the female. These results do not support the idea that the male "on top" in male-male sexual interactions is the dominant bird who goes on to achieve greater reproductive success. Instead, the results are consistent with male-male sexual behavior as an occasionally costly by-product of strong mating motivation.

  20. Male fertility following spinal cord injury: an update.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, E; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs most often in young men at the peak of their reproductive health. The majority of men with SCI cannot father children naturally. Three major complications contribute to infertility in men with SCI: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, and abnormal semen quality. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by regimens available to the general population, including oral administration of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, intracavernosal injections, vacuum devices, and penile prostheses. Semen may be obtained from anejaculatory men with SCI via the medically assisted ejaculation methods of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or electroejaculation (EEJ). Sperm retrieval is also possible via prostate massage or surgical sperm retrieval. Most men with SCI have abnormal semen quality characterized by normal sperm concentrations but abnormally low sperm motility and viability. Accessory gland dysfunction has been proposed as the cause of these abnormalities. Leukocytospermia is evident in most SCI patients. Additionally, elevated concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and elevated concentrations of inflammasome components are found in their semen. Neutralization of these constituents has resulted in improved sperm motility. There is a recent and alarming trend in the management of infertility in couples with SCI male partners. Although many men with SCI have sufficient motile sperm in their ejaculates for attempting intrauterine insemination (IUI) or even intravaginal insemination, surgical sperm retrieval is often introduced as the first and only sperm retrieval method for these couples. Surgical sperm retrieval commits the couple to the most advanced, expensive, and invasive method of assisted conception: in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). Couples should be informed of all options, including semen retrieval by PVS or EEJ. Intravaginal insemination or IUI should be considered when indicated

  1. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  2. Effects of lead on the male mouse as investigated by in vitro fertilization and blastocyst culture

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Sjoeblom, P.; Wide, M.

    1987-02-01

    Long-term exposure of male mice to inorganic lead (lead chloride, 1 g/liter) in the drinking water reduces their fertility. The cause of this reduction, expressed as a decrease in the number of mated females showing inplantations, was investigated, using an in vivo fertilization method. It was found that spermatozoa from lead-exposed males had a significantly lower ability to fertilize mouse eggs than those from unexposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males. Preimplantation embryos, isolated from uterine horns of mice mated with lead-exposed males, were examined. No morphologically abnormal embryos were found. However, when cultured in vitro over the implantation period, blastocysts of the group mated with lead-exposed males showed an increased frequency of delayed hatching from the zona pellucida or an inability to hatch. Among blastocysts from this group a decreased frequency of inner cell mass development was also found.

  3. Heterozygous alleles restore male fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.): a case of overdominance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi Wei; De Wang, Chuan; Wang, Chuan; Gao, Lei; Mei, Shi Yong; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Chang Ping; Wang, Ting

    2013-04-01

    The practice of hybridization has greatly contributed to the increase in crop productivity. A major component that exploits heterosis in crops is the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/nucleus-controlled fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, it is shown that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are responsible for restoring fertility to cytoplasmic male-sterile radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Furthermore, it was found that heterozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-2) show higher expression and RNA polymerase II occupancy in the CMS cytoplasmic background compared with their homozygous alleles (RsRf3-1/RsRf3-1 or RsRf3-2/RsRf3-2). These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of fertility restoration to cytoplasmic male-sterile plants and illustrate a case of overdominance.

  4. The Genetic Basis of Male Fertility in Relation to Haplodiploid Reproduction in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Brakefield, Paul M.; Zwaan, Bas J.

    2004-01-01

    Traits under relaxed selection are expected to become reduced or disappear completely, a process called vestigialization. In parthenogenetic populations, traits historically involved in sexual reproduction are no longer under selection and potentially subject to such reduction. In Leptopilina clavipes, thelytokous (parthenogenetic) populations are infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Arrhenotokous populations do not harbor Wolbachia. When antibiotics are applied to infected females, they are cured from their infection and males arise. Such males are capable of producing offspring with uninfected females, but with lower fertilization success than sexual males. This can be attributed to the lack of selection on male fertility in thelytokous lines. In this study we used this variation in L. clavipes male fertility to determine the genetic basis of this trait. Males from cured thelytokous populations were crossed to females from uninfected populations. Using AFLP markers, a genetic linkage map was generated, consisting of five linkage groups and spanning a total distance of 219.9 cM. A single QTL of large effect (explaining 46.5% of the phenotypic variance) was identified for male fertility, which we call male fertility factor (mff). We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the effect of mff, as well as mechanisms involved in vestigialization of traits involved in sexual reproduction. PMID:15454547

  5. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility.

  6. Effect of estrogen receptor-subtype-specific ligands on fertility in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Dumasia, Kushaan; Kumar, Anita; Kadam, Leena; Balasinor, N H

    2015-06-01

    Maintenance of normal male fertility relies on the process of spermatogenesis which is under complex endocrine control by mechanisms involving gonadotropin and steroid hormones. Although testosterone is the primary sex steroid in males, estrogen is locally produced in the testis and plays a very crucial role in male fertility. This is evident from presence of both the estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) in the testis and their absence, as in the case of knockout mice models, leads to sterility. The present study was undertaken to understand individual roles of the two ERs in spermatogenesis and their direct contribution towards the maintenance of male fertility using receptor-subtype-specific ligands. Administration of ERα and β agonists to adult male rats for 60 days results in a significant decrease in fertility, mainly due to an increase in pre- and post-implantation loss and a concomitant decrease in litter size and sperm counts. Our results indicate that ERα is mainly involved in negative feedback regulation of gonadotropin hormones, whereas both ERs are involved in regulation of prolactin and testosterone production. Histological examinations of the testis reveal that ERβ could be involved in the process of spermiation since many failed spermatids were observed in stages IX-XI following ERβ agonist treatment. Our results indicate that overactivation of estrogen signaling through either of its receptors can have detrimental effects on the fertility parameters and that the two ERs have both overlapping and distinct roles in maintenance of male fertility. PMID:25869617

  7. Effect of sodium fluoride on male mouse fertility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Lee, June-Sub; Yoon, Sung-Jae; Park, Yoo-Jin; You, Young-Ah; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-05-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), an environmental pollutant, has been tested for its impact on fertility in several species of laboratory animals. A literature demonstrated that NaF adversely affects sperm motility, morphology, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, present study was designed to evaluate the regulatory pathways involved in the effect of NaF on sperm function and fertilization. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with a range of concentrations (2.5, 5, and 10 mm) of NaF for 90 min in media that support in vitro fertilization. Our results showed that NaF was associated with reduced intracellular ATP generation, motility, and motion kinematics. Likewise, short-term exposure of spermatozoa to NaF significantly reduced the intracellular calcium concentration, protein kinase-A activity, and tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins, which were associated with a significant decrease in the rate of capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Finally, NaF significantly reduced the fertilization and blastocyst formation during early embryonic development. On the basis of these results, we propose that NaF reduces sperm motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction leading to poor fertilization and suppressed embryonic development.

  8. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  9. THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

  10. Failure of fertilization in in vitro fertilization: the "occult" male factor.

    PubMed

    Oehninger, S; Acosta, A A; Kruger, T; Veeck, L L; Flood, J; Jones, H W

    1988-08-01

    Failure of fertilization in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) deserves extensive analysis for better prediction of the success or failure of this therapeutic modality. Consequently, we retrospectively studied the 52 couples in whom fertilization failed during Norfolk series 18 to 25, in an effort to establish the precise causes of failure. In the initial evaluation, pure oocyte abnormalities were identified in 19.2% of the cases; 32.6% showed sperm abnormalities, and a combination of oocyte and sperm anomalies was found in 7.7%. In 40.4% of the cases, failure of fertilization could not be explained. Reassessment of sperm morphology by new, strict criteria increased the identification of sperm abnormalities to 61.5% and of combined sperm and oocyte anomalies to 13.4%, for a total of 74.9% of sperm factors involved, as opposed to 40.3% in the original evaluation. The incidence of unexplained failed fertilization was substantially reduced, to 11.5%. In a control group (tubal infertility) matched by age, date, and stimulation, in whom fertilization occurred, 83.3% had normal sperm parameters as judged by the new criteria for morphology evaluation. This paper emphasizes the need for a more accurate diagnosis of sperm abnormalities to establish the true incidence of this factor in failed fertilization and to obtain information of prognostic value to patients and clinicians.

  11. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; P<0.01), suggesting that a high level of plant water availability is needed for the expression of fertility-restoring genes of revertants. These data show that the fertility-restoring genes for the 9E cytoplasm are dominant in conditions of high water availability and recessive in drought conditions; reversions to male fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of

  12. Direct but no transgenerational effects of decitabine and vorinostat on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kläver, Ruth; Sánchez, Victoria; Damm, Oliver S; Redmann, Klaus; Lahrmann, Elisabeth; Sandhowe-Klaverkamp, Reinhild; Rohde, Christian; Wistuba, Joachim; Ehmcke, Jens; Schlatt, Stefan; Gromoll, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Establishment and maintenance of the correct epigenetic code is essential for a plethora of physiological pathways and disturbed epigenetic patterns can provoke severe consequences, e.g. tumour formation. In recent years, epigenetic drugs altering the epigenome of tumours actively have been developed for anti-cancer therapies. However, such drugs could potentially also affect other physiological pathways and systems in which intact epigenetic patterns are essential. Amongst those, male fertility is one of the most prominent. Consequently, we addressed possible direct effects of two epigenetic drugs, decitabine and vorinostat, on both, the male germ line and fertility. In addition, we checked for putative transgenerational epigenetic effects on the germ line of subsequent generations (F1-F3). Parental adult male C57Bl/6 mice were treated with either decitabine or vorinostat and analysed as well as three subsequent untreated generations derived from these males. Treatment directly affected several reproductive parameters as testis (decitabine & vorinostat) and epididymis weight, size of accessory sex glands (vorinostat), the height of the seminiferous epithelium and sperm concentration and morphology (decitabine). Furthermore, after decitabine administration, DNA methylation of a number of loci was altered in sperm. However, when analysing fertility of treated mice (fertilisation, litter size and sex ratio), no major effect of the selected epigenetic drugs on male fertility was detected. In subsequent generations (F1-F3 generations) only subtle changes on reproductive organs, sperm parameters and DNA methylation but no overall effect on fertility was observed. Consequently, in mice, decitabine and vorinostat neither affected male fertility per se nor caused marked transgenerational effects. We therefore suggest that both drugs do not induce major adverse effects-in terms of male fertility and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance-when used in anti-cancer-therapies.

  13. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes. PMID:25697426

  14. The effects of cigarette smoking on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jason R; Khanna, Abhinav; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-04-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the main causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, has a multitude of well-known side effects. The relationship between cigarette smoking and infertility has been studied for decades; however, large-scale, population-wide prospective studies are lacking. The majority of the current literature is in the form of retrospective studies focused on the effects of smoking on semen analyses. This article discusses the results of these studies and reviews the postulated mechanisms. The effects of smoking on assisted reproduction and in vitro fertilization outcomes are noted. The consequences of smoking while pregnant on future fertility as well as the outcomes of second-hand smoke are analyzed. The current evidence suggests that men should be advised to abstain from smoking in order to improve reproductive outcomes.

  15. How to overcome male infertility after 40: Influence of paternal age on fertility.

    PubMed

    Belloc, Stephanie; Hazout, Andre; Zini, Armand; Merviel, Philippe; Cabry, Rosalie; Chahine, Hikmat; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2014-05-01

    The recent trend toward delayed parenthood raises major safety concerns because of the adverse effects of aging on couple fertility. Studies have demonstrated that aging clearly affects female fertility, but can also affect male fertility. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact mechanisms responsible for the observed age-related decline in male fertility remain to be elucidated. It has been shown that advanced paternal age (PA) is associated with reduced semen volume as well as, reduced sperm count, motility and morphology. Recent studies have also reported that paternal aging is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of both genomic and epigenomic sperm defects. In the context of natural and intrauterine insemination (IUI) conception, advanced paternal age has been associated with lower pregnancy rates and increased rates of spontaneous abortion (independent of maternal age). In IVF and oocyte donation programs, a significant decrease in late blastocyst development has been seen in those cycles using spermatozoa of men older than 55. However, no significant relationship between paternal age and IVF or ICSI pregnancy rates has been observed. Although there are no treatments that can fully restore the age-related decline in male fertility, various measures have been shown to optimize male fertility potential. Specific therapies (e.g. varicocelectomy) and lifestyle changes (e.g. dietary antioxidant supplements) may help minimize some of the age-related deleterious effects on spermatogenesis, such as, oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities. PMID:24680129

  16. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Lukasz; Martin, Oliver Y; Millard, Anna L; Emerson, Brent C; Gage, Matthew J G

    2010-11-22

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male-male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P(2) 'offence' role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm 'defence' (P(1)). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  17. Female life span and fertility are increased by the ejaculates of preferred males.

    PubMed

    Wagner, William E; Harper, Christopher J

    2003-09-01

    In animals with internal fertilization, sperm competition among males can favor the evolution of male ejaculate traits that are detrimental to females. Female mating preferences, in contrast, often favor traits in males that are beneficial to females, yet little is known about the effect of these preferences on the evolution of male ejaculates. A necessary condition for female preferences to affect the evolution of male ejaculate characteristics is that females select mates based on a trait correlated with ejaculate quality. Previous work has shown that females of the variable field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, prefer males that produce calling songs containing faster and longer chirps. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that females receive more beneficial ejaculates from preferred males. Females were placed on either a high- or a reduced-nutrition diet then mated twice to a male of known song phenotype. Females received only sperm and seminal fluid from males during these matings. There was no effect of male song phenotype on any fitness component for females on the high-nutrition diet. Reduced-nutrition females mated to males that produced preferred song types, however, lived longer, produced more eggs, produced more fertile eggs, and had a higher proportion of their eggs fertilized than those mated to other males. The life-span benefit was positively associated with male chirp duration, and the reproductive benefits were positively associated with male chirp rate. We explored two possible mechanisms for the life span and reproductive benefits. First, a path analysis suggested that part of the effect of male chirp duration on female life span may have been indirect; females mated to males that produced longer chirps showed delayed oviposition, and females that delayed oviposition lived longer. Males that produce longer chirps may thus transfer fewer or less potent oviposition stimulants to females in their seminal fluid. Second, there was a positive

  18. Suppressed expression of RETROGRADE-REGULATED MALE STERILITY restores pollen fertility in cytoplasmic male sterile rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Sota; Toriyama, Kinya

    2009-01-01

    Conflict/reconciliation between mitochondria and nuclei in plants is manifested by the fate of pollen (viable or nonviable) in the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS)/fertility restoration (Rf) system. Through positional cloning, we identified a nuclear candidate gene, RETROGRADE-REGULATED MALE STERILITY (RMS) for Rf17, a fertility restorer gene for Chinese wild rice (CW)-type CMS in rice (Oryza sativa L.). RNA interference-mediated gene silencing of RMS restored fertility to a CMS plant, whereas its overexpression in the fertility restorer line induced pollen abortion. The mRNA expression level of RMS in mature anthers depended on cytoplasmic genotype, suggesting that RMS is a candidate gene to be regulated via retrograde signaling. We found that a reduced-expression allele of the RMS gene restored fertility in haploid pollen, whereas a normal-expression allele caused pollen to die in the CW-type CMS. RMS encodes a mitochondrial protein, 178 aa in length, of unknown function, unlike the majority of other Rf genes cloned thus far, which encode pentatricopeptide repeat proteins. The unique features of RMS provide novel insights into retrograde signaling and CMS. PMID:19458265

  19. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dana A; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2012-05-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of "non-traditional" mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  20. Morphology of the external genitalia of the adult male and female mice as an endpoint of sex differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161

  1. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Walczak–Jedrzejowska, Renata; Wolski, Jan Karol

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress results from the imbalance between production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the protective effect of the antioxidant system responsible for their neutralization and removal. An excess of ROS causes a pathological reaction resulting in damage to cells and tissues. Spermatozoa are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of ROS. Oxidative stress affects their activity, damages DNA structure, and accelerates apoptosis, all of which consequently decrease their numbers, hinders motility and development of normal morphology, and impairs function. This leads to disturbances in fertility or embryo development disorder. The main cellular source of ROS in the semen are immature sperm cells and white blood cells. The increase in the number of leukocytes may be due to infection and inflammation, but can also be secondary to harmful environmental factors, long sexual abstinence, or varicocele. The protective antioxidant system in the semen is composed of enzymes, as well as nonenzymatic substances, which closely interact with each other to ensure optimal protection against ROS. Non–enzymatic antioxidants include vitamins A, E, C, and B complex, glutathione, pantothenic acid, coenzyme Q10 and carnitine, and micronutrients such as zinc, selenium, and copper. It seems that a deficiency of any of them can cause a decrease in total antioxidant status. In vitro and in vivo that studies demonstrate many antioxidants possess a beneficial effect on fertility and, therefore, their use is recommended as supportive therapy for the treatment of infertility in men. PMID:24578993

  2. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of endocrine disruptors and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Anway, Matthew D; Cupp, Andrea S; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Skinner, Michael K

    2005-06-01

    Transgenerational effects of environmental toxins require either a chromosomal or epigenetic alteration in the germ line. Transient exposure of a gestating female rat during the period of gonadal sex determination to the endocrine disruptors vinclozolin (an antiandrogenic compound) or methoxychlor (an estrogenic compound) induced an adult phenotype in the F1 generation of decreased spermatogenic capacity (cell number and viability) and increased incidence of male infertility. These effects were transferred through the male germ line to nearly all males of all subsequent generations examined (that is, F1 to F4). The effects on reproduction correlate with altered DNA methylation patterns in the germ line. The ability of an environmental factor (for example, endocrine disruptor) to reprogram the germ line and to promote a transgenerational disease state has significant implications for evolutionary biology and disease etiology.

  3. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  4. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  5. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  6. Male-by-female interactions influence fertilization success and mediate the benefits of polyandry in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that females benefit from mating with multiple males (polyandry) by minimizing the probability of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. Few, however, have directly attributed variation in female reproductive success to the fertilizing capacity of sperm. In this study we report on two experiments that investigated the benefits of polyandry and the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization in the free-spawning Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. In the first experiment we used a paired (split clutch) experimental design and compared fertilization rates within female egg clutches under polyandry (eggs exposed to the sperm from two males simultaneously) and monandry (eggs from the same female exposed to sperm from each of the same two males separately). Our analysis revealed a significant fertilization benefit of polyandry and strong interacting effects of males and females at fertilization. Further analysis of these data strongly suggested that the higher rates of fertilization in the polyandry treatment were due to an overrepresentation of fertilizations due to the most compatible male. To further explore the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization we performed a second factorial experiment in which four males were crossed with two females (in all eight combinations). In addition to confirming that fertilization success is influenced by male x female interactions, this latter experiment revealed that both sexes contributed significant variance to the observed patterns of fertilization. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of male x female interactions at fertilization and suggest that polyandry will enable females to reduce the cost of fertilization by incompatible gametes.

  7. Male-by-female interactions influence fertilization success and mediate the benefits of polyandry in the sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Marshall, Dustin J

    2005-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that females benefit from mating with multiple males (polyandry) by minimizing the probability of fertilization by genetically incompatible sperm. Few, however, have directly attributed variation in female reproductive success to the fertilizing capacity of sperm. In this study we report on two experiments that investigated the benefits of polyandry and the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization in the free-spawning Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma. In the first experiment we used a paired (split clutch) experimental design and compared fertilization rates within female egg clutches under polyandry (eggs exposed to the sperm from two males simultaneously) and monandry (eggs from the same female exposed to sperm from each of the same two males separately). Our analysis revealed a significant fertilization benefit of polyandry and strong interacting effects of males and females at fertilization. Further analysis of these data strongly suggested that the higher rates of fertilization in the polyandry treatment were due to an overrepresentation of fertilizations due to the most compatible male. To further explore the interacting effects of males and females at fertilization we performed a second factorial experiment in which four males were crossed with two females (in all eight combinations). In addition to confirming that fertilization success is influenced by male x female interactions, this latter experiment revealed that both sexes contributed significant variance to the observed patterns of fertilization. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of male x female interactions at fertilization and suggest that polyandry will enable females to reduce the cost of fertilization by incompatible gametes. PMID:15792231

  8. Strategies for fertility preservation in female and male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Oehninger, Sergio

    2005-05-01

    Improved survival rates and quality of life following modern cancer treatment have resulted in a growing number of patients requesting maintenance of reproductive capacity, both before and after completion of treatment. Several established options are currently available. In men, sperm banking should be offered as soon as the diagnosis of any malignant disease is established, irrespective of the expected cryosurvival rate. In such cases, conception can be achieved with frozen-thawed spermatozoa following either intrauterine insemination (IUI) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In women, depending on the type of cancer, the presence of an adequate ovarian reserve, and time to delay cancer treatment, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with embryo cryopreservation constitutes a valid alternative. On the other hand, cryopreservation of mature oocytes following IVF/ICSI offers some advantages, but it is still limited by its low success rate. Emerging and exciting techniques of germ cell/gonadal tissue cryopreservation (banking) followed by autotransplantation have been clinically explored, particularly in women. Novel cryotechnologies of ovarian and testicular tissue have proven efficacious and new transplantation strategies promise improved results. However, only one live birth following autotransplanted frozen-thawed ovarian tissue has been established and there are still no pregnancies reported from autotransplanted cryopreserved testicular tissue in the human. Efficiency and safety of these techniques needs to be demonstrated. Methods for gamete in vitro maturation also need further development. Gonadal tissue cryopreservation and transplantation should be considered experimental in humans for the present time until greater evidence regarding efficacy and safety is accrued.

  9. Environmental toxins: alarming impacts of pesticides on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pallav; Banerjee, Rajdeb

    2014-10-01

    This review comprehensively summarizes the effects of more than 15 mostly used pesticides on male reproductive physiology, as recent experimental and epidemiological research have indicated their alarming impact on overall human health. Mechanisms have described that pesticide exposure damages spermatozoa, alter Sertoli or Leydig cell function, both in vitro and in vivo and thus affects semen quality. But, the literature suggests a need for more intricate research in those pesticides that are defined as mutagens or carcinogens and directly affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This literature review also proposes specific solutions to overcome these health effects.

  10. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  11. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability

    PubMed Central

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C. Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species. PMID:25608881

  12. Protein and carbohydrate intake influence sperm number and fertility in male cockroaches, but not sperm viability.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Rapkin, James; Belcher, Laurence; Archer, C Ruth; Jensen, Kim; Hunt, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that because males produce many, tiny sperm, they are cheap to produce. Recent work, however, suggests that sperm production is not cost-free. If sperm are costly to produce, sperm number and/or viability should be influenced by diet, and this has been documented in numerous species. Yet few studies have examined the exact nutrients responsible for mediating these effects. Here, we quantify the effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on sperm number and viability in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, as well as the consequences for male fertility. We found the intake of P and C influenced sperm number, being maximized at a high intake of diets with a P : C ratio of 1 : 2, but not sperm viability. The nutritional landscapes for male fertility and sperm number were closely aligned, suggesting that sperm number is the major determinant of male fertility in N. cinerea. Under dietary choice, males regulate nutrient intake at a P : C ratio of 1 : 4.95, which is midway between the ratios needed to maximize sperm production and pre-copulatory attractiveness in this species. This raises the possibility that males regulate nutrient intake to balance the trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory traits in this species.

  13. TOWARDS USING STABLE SPERMATOZOAL RNAS FOR PROGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF MALE FACTOR FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: To establish the stability of spermatozoal RNAs as a means to validate their use as a male fertility marker. Design: Semen samples were randomly selected for 1 of 3 cryopreservation treatments. Setting: An academic research environment. Patient(s): Men aged...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON SPERMATOGENESIS, APOPTOSIS, GENE EXPRESSION AND FERTILITY IN ADULT MALE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of hyperthermia on spermatogenesis, apoptosis, gene expression and fertility in adult male mice
    John C. Rockett1, Faye L. Mapp1, J. Brian Garges1, J. Christopher Luft1, Chisato Mori2 and David J. Dix1.
    1Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Envir...

  15. Diversifying sunflower germplasm by integration and mapping of a novel male fertility restoration gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combination of a single cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) PET-1, originating from wild Helianthus petiolaris subsp. petiolaris Nutt., and the corresponding fertility restoration gene Rf1, has been used for commercial sunflower hybrid seed production worldwide since the early 1970s. A new CMS line 5...

  16. Preoperative duplex ultrasound parameters predicting male fertility after successful varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Alshehri, Fahad M.; Akbar, Mahboob H.; Altwairgi, Adel K.; AlThaqufi, Omar J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess duplex ultrasound (DUS) parameters, and predicti the outcome of varicocele ligation in male infertility. Methods: This retrospective and follow up study was conducted at Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Hospital, AlQassim, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2012. Eighty-two patients were selected, who presented with clinical/subclinical varicocele and male infertility. All these patients had DUS of the scrotum and underwent for low ligation varicocelectomy. These patients were followed for a period of 12-24 months after surgery for the occurrence of paternity. We reviewed pre-operative scrotal DUS of these 82 patients for the testicular size and volume, pampiniform veins caliber and duration of reflux in the dilated veins at rest, and after valsalva maneuver. These DUS parameters were correlated with the postoperative paternity rate. Results: Postoperative paternity was achieved in 18 patients (31.6%) with normal-sized testes, and in 3 patients (12%) with small size testes. The positive paternity rate was higher (38.5%) in patients with clinically detected varicocele, compared with only 16.7% of patients with subclinical varicocele (detected by ultrasound only). In addition, postoperative paternity was significantly higher in patients with bilateral varicocele (70.6%), with shunt-type varicocele (71.4%), and patients with a permanent grade of venous reflux (62.5%). Conclusion: Selection of patients for the successful paternity after varicocele repair depends mainly on DUS parameters, which includes normal size testicles with shunt type of bilateral varicocele and continuous reflux. PMID:26620986

  17. Control of Male and Female Fertility by the Netrin Axon Guidance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Newquist, Gunnar; Hogan, Jesse; Walker, Kirsti; Lamanuzzi, Matthew; Bowser, Micah; Kidd, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The netrin axon guidance genes have previously been implicated in fertility in C. elegans and in vertebrates. Here we show that adult Drosophila lacking both netrin genes, NetA and NetB, have fertility defects in both sexes together with an inability to fly and reduced viability. NetAB females produce fertilized eggs at a much lower rate than wild type. Oocyte development and ovarian innervation are unaffected in NetAB females, and the reproductive tract appears normal. A small gene, hog, that resides in an intron of NetB does not contribute to the NetAB phenotype. Restoring endogenous NetB expression rescues egg-laying, but additional genetic manipulations, such as restoration of netrin midline expression and inhibition of cell death have no effect on fertility. NetAB males induce reduced egg-laying in wild type females and display mirror movements of their wings during courtship. Measurement of courtship parameters revealed no difference compared to wild type males. Transgenic manipulations failed to rescue male fertility and mirror movements. Additional genetic manipulations, such as removal of the enabled gene, a known suppressor of the NetAB embryonic CNS phenotype, did not improve the behavioral defects. The ability to fly was rescued by inhibition of neuronal cell death and pan-neural NetA expression. Based on our results we hypothesize that the adult fertility defects of NetAB mutants are due to ovulation defects in females and a failure to properly transfer sperm proteins in males, and are likely to involve multiple neural circuits. PMID:23977313

  18. KATNAL1 Regulation of Sertoli Cell Microtubule Dynamics Is Essential for Spermiogenesis and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee B.; Milne, Laura; Nelson, Nancy; Eddie, Sharon; Brown, Pamela; Atanassova, Nina; O'Bryan, Moira K.; O'Donnell, Liza; Rhodes, Danielle; Wells, Sara; Napper, Diane; Nolan, Patrick; Lalanne, Zuzanna; Cheeseman, Michael; Peters, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process reliant upon interactions between germ cells (GC) and supporting somatic cells. Testicular Sertoli cells (SC) support GCs during maturation through physical attachment, the provision of nutrients, and protection from immunological attack. This role is facilitated by an active cytoskeleton of parallel microtubule arrays that permit transport of nutrients to GCs, as well as translocation of spermatids through the seminiferous epithelium during maturation. It is well established that chemical perturbation of SC microtubule remodelling leads to premature GC exfoliation demonstrating that microtubule remodelling is an essential component of male fertility, yet the genes responsible for this process remain unknown. Using a random ENU mutagenesis approach, we have identified a novel mouse line displaying male-specific infertility, due to a point mutation in the highly conserved ATPase domain of the novel KATANIN p60-related microtubule severing protein Katanin p60 subunit A-like1 (KATNAL1). We demonstrate that Katnal1 is expressed in testicular Sertoli cells (SC) from 15.5 days post-coitum (dpc) and that, consistent with chemical disruption models, loss of function of KATNAL1 leads to male-specific infertility through disruption of SC microtubule dynamics and premature exfoliation of spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium. The identification of KATNAL1 as an essential regulator of male fertility provides a significant novel entry point into advancing our understanding of how SC microtubule dynamics promotes male fertility. Such information will have resonance both for future treatment of male fertility and the development of non-hormonal male contraceptives. PMID:22654668

  19. Male coping with cancer-fertility issues: putting the 'social' into biopsychosocial approaches.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-09-01

    Biopsychosocial approaches in infertility and cancer services and research pay limited attention to 'social dimensions'. Additionally, existing cancer-related male infertility research is dominated by sperm banking studies even though fertility-related social concerns in the long term are reported to have an adverse effect on wellbeing. This paper considers whether social influences affected the fertility-related experiences of 28 men interviewed as part of a mixed-gender qualitative study of 'South Asian' and 'White' cancer survivors and their professional carers. Findings are reported under: managing stigma; sexuality and virility; ambiguity in fertile status; relationship to sperm; and meaning of fatherhood. Gender and other social influences were ambiguous, fluid and subtle--yet powerful. Combinations were neither standard nor static, indicating the dangers of practitioners stereotyping, and/or assuming homogeneity of, (in)fertile men and being unaware of their own socialized expectations. Social structures and attitudes towards valued male social roles as well as the men's psychological capacity and bodily state appear to affect experience. Men may more readily be engaged if practitioners proactively attend to the impact of social concerns, including employment and financial matters, on their perceived capacity to be fathers as a route into raising issues of sexuality and fertility.

  20. ERK signaling in the pituitary is required for female but not male fertility.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Stuart P; Miller, Andrew; Navratil, Amy M; Xie, Jianjun; McDonough, Sean P; Fisher, Patricia J; Landreth, Gary E; Roberson, Mark S

    2009-07-01

    Males and females require different patterns of pituitary gonadotropin secretion for fertility. The mechanisms underlying these gender-specific profiles of pituitary hormone production are unknown; however, they are fundamental to understanding the sexually dimorphic control of reproductive function at the molecular level. Several studies suggest that ERK1 and -2 are essential modulators of hypothalamic GnRH-mediated regulation of pituitary gonadotropin production and fertility. To test this hypothesis, we generated mice with a pituitary-specific depletion of ERK1 and 2 and examined a range of physiological parameters including fertility. We find that ERK signaling is required in females for ovulation and fertility, whereas male reproductive function is unaffected by this signaling deficiency. The effects of ERK pathway ablation on LH biosynthesis underlie this gender-specific phenotype, and the molecular mechanism involves a requirement for ERK-dependent up-regulation of the transcription factor Egr1, which is necessary for LHbeta expression. Together, these findings represent a significant advance in elucidating the molecular basis of gender-specific regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and sexually dimorphic control of fertility.

  1. Sensory properties and instrumental texture analysis of chevon patties from intact male Boer and Kiko goats harvested at four endpoints.

    PubMed

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Solaiman, S G; Broadway, P R; Min, B R; Mikel, W B; Williams, J B; Schilling, M W

    2012-07-01

    Intact male Boer and Kiko goats (n=48) were harvested after 0, 4, 8, or 12 weeks on a 16% crude protein concentrate diet. Boneless goat carcass left sides were ground and formed into patties to evaluate cook loss, texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory characteristics. Increasing feeding duration increased percent fat and decreased moisture in raw ground meat (P<0.05). Boer ground meat had more fat and less moisture than Kiko meat (P<0.05). Breed and feeding duration did not affect cook loss (P>0.05). Increased feeding duration increased aroma intensity and goaty, bloody, musty, and liver/organy aromas; salty, bitter, umami, grassy, goaty, fat, liver/organy, metallic, earthy, and chemical flavors; and juiciness and oiliness, while decreasing chewiness and crumbliness (P<0.05). Boer and Kiko patties had similar sensory properties after 0 and 4weeks on feed, but breeds were more distinguishable after 8 or 12 weeks on feed. PMID:22417728

  2. Effects of prenatal hydrocortisone acetate exposure on fertility and sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Arena, Arielle C; Yasuhara, Fabiana; Kempinas, Wilma G

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hydrocortisone during the prenatal period and its later repercussions on the fertility and sexual behavior of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated (s.c.) with hydrocortisone acetate, at 1.5 mg/day on the 17th, 18th, and 19th days of gestation. Decreased body weight and no alteration in anogenital distance were observed in male offspring. Adulthood, presented reductions of body weight, plasma testosterone levels, and seminal-vesicle wet weight without secretion as well as no alteration in the wet weights of the testes, epididymis, and seminal vesicle with secretion in the treated group. Males exposed to hydrocortisone during the prenatal period were able to mate with normal females, which became pregnant but exhibited an increased number of post-implantation losses. In spite of this, these treated males exhibited decreased male sexual behavior and the appearance of female sexual behavior after these male rats were castrated and pretreated with exogenous estrogen. These results indicate that exposure to hydrocortisone in the later stages of pregnancy may have a long-term effect on the fertility and sexual behavior of male rats, suggesting an incomplete masculinization and defeminization of the central nervous system.

  3. Experimental methods to preserve male fertility and treat male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families, and society, which extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for men with azoospermia.

  4. Male mice produced by in vitro culture have reduced fertility and transmit organomegaly and glucose intolerance to their male offspring.

    PubMed

    Calle, Alexandra; Miranda, Alberto; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Raul; Pericuesta, Eva; Laguna, Ricardo; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    It has been reported that suboptimal in vitro culture (IVC) of mouse embryos can affect the postnatal expression of epigenetically sensitive alleles, resulting in altered postnatal growth, organ dimensions, health, and behavior in the offspring. Although these detrimental impacts on the offspring are well described, the relative contribution of the IVC-produced fathers is unclear. In this work, we have analyzed if suboptimal IVC (achieved by altering the culture medium by the addition of FCS) can affect male fertility and if organ size and glucose clearance, two of the adverse effects produced by suboptimal IVC conditions, were transmitted to the next two generations. IVC-produced males had lower sperm concentrations (5.8 × 10(6) spermatozoa in IVC vs. 14.5 × 10(6) spermatozoa in control), and these sperm exhibited decreased overall motility (49.6% vs. 72.8% in control) and progressive motility (22.6% vs. 32.2% in control). Fertility tests demonstrated that the percentage of pregnancies was reduced for IVC males (35% for IVC-produced males vs. 86% for in vivo controls). These features were related to a modified gene expression pattern in adult male testes, showing an altered gene expression in genes involved in DNA repair and apoptosis that was confirmed by TUNEL assay. Regarding the IVC related adverse phenotype transmitted to offspring, male glucose intolerance was shown only in F1 and F2 male but not female offspring. The same occurred with male abnormalities in the organ size of the liver, which were transmitted to F1 and F2 males but not to F1 females; moreover, analysis of the F0, F1, and F2 males revealed greater coefficients of variance in body weight and glucose intolerance than the control group. Finally, we analyzed, through gene silencing, the effect of IVC on the mRNA expression at the blastocyst stage for 11 known gene expression modifiers of epigenetic reprogramming. Suboptimal IVC reduced the expression of Kap1, Sox2, Hdac1, Dnmt1, and Dnmt3a

  5. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  6. Impact of boric acid exposure at different concentrations on testicular DNA and male rats fertility.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Abd El-Wahab, Hanan M F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid (BA) on male rats reproduction, fertility and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality. Adult male rats (12 weeks old) were treated orally with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt/d of BA for 60 d. The results indicated that BA administration at 125 mg/kg bwt had no adverse effects on fertility, sperm characteristics or prenatal development of the impregnated females. However, at dose 250 mg, BA treatment significantly increased serum nitric oxide, testosterone, estradiol levels and testicular boron and calcium levels and also significantly reduced serum arginase activity, sperm quality and testicular DNA content with minor DNA fragmentation. The impact of BA exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of BA at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility. In conclusion, BA impaired fertility, in a dose-dependant manner, by targeting the highly proliferative cells, the germ cells, through decreasing DNA synthetic rate rather than the induction of DNA damage. PMID:23301826

  7. Impact of boric acid exposure at different concentrations on testicular DNA and male rats fertility.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Abd El-Wahab, Hanan M F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid (BA) on male rats reproduction, fertility and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality. Adult male rats (12 weeks old) were treated orally with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt/d of BA for 60 d. The results indicated that BA administration at 125 mg/kg bwt had no adverse effects on fertility, sperm characteristics or prenatal development of the impregnated females. However, at dose 250 mg, BA treatment significantly increased serum nitric oxide, testosterone, estradiol levels and testicular boron and calcium levels and also significantly reduced serum arginase activity, sperm quality and testicular DNA content with minor DNA fragmentation. The impact of BA exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of BA at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility. In conclusion, BA impaired fertility, in a dose-dependant manner, by targeting the highly proliferative cells, the germ cells, through decreasing DNA synthetic rate rather than the induction of DNA damage.

  8. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerable body of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factors can negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have been shown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinical attention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primary relevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnostics and recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost, success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), early efforts to improve male fertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal. A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November 14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, sperm defects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed for upcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies were reviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type; and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinical relevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of space limitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes of male infertility, their early detection, and treatment. PMID:24520443

  9. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Mrinalini; Singh, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Metronidazole (MTZ) is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activity and sperm indices. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ on the structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organs have been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally with MTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive days to study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility. Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day) neither altered the weights of the testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices. The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day) caused significant reductions in the weights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at the high dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remained unaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count of epididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminal vesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes were noticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treated mice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leading to an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease was noticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinduced changes in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 days after cessation of the treatment. Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproduction and fertility. PMID

  10. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    PubMed

    Campagne, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerable body of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factors can negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have been shown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinical attention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primary relevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnostics and recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost, success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), early efforts to improve male fertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal. A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November 14(th), 2010 to January 26(th), 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, sperm defects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed for upcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies were reviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type; and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinical relevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of space limitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes of male infertility, their early detection, and treatment.

  11. Long-term exposure of the male mouse to lead: effects of fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Wide, M.

    1986-12-01

    Sexually mature male mice, exposed to lead in the drinking water for 3 months, attained a mean blood level of 32 ..mu..g/100 ml. In control mice, given deionized water, blood lead levels were <0.5 ..mu..g/100 ml. At the end of the exposure period, each male was caged with three untreated females. On Day 17 after mating, the frequency of pregnant females and the number of fetuses and resorptions were recorded. Females without implantations were significantly more numerous in the group that had been mated with the lead-exposed males. The frequencies of resorptions and fetal malformations were similar in the two groups. The two groups of males were compared with respect to body weight, plasma level of testosterone, number of epididymal sperms, and weight of reproductive organs. No statistically significant differences were found. Increased tissue concentrations of lead were noted for all the male reproductive organs, as well as the hypothalamus. It cannot be decided at present whether the decrease in the number of pregnant females was due to a reduction in the ability of spermatozoa from the lead-exposed males to fertilize or to a preimplantation loss of fertilized ova.

  12. Male fertility and obesity: are ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 pharmacologically relevant?

    PubMed

    Alves, Marco G; Jesus, Tito T; Sousa, Mário; Goldberg, Erwin; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is rising to unprecedented numbers, affecting a growing number of children, adolescents and young adult men. These individuals face innumerous health problems, including subfertility or even infertility. Overweight and obese men present severe alterations in their body composition and hormonal profile, particularly in ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. It is well known that male reproductive health is under the control of the individual's nutritional status and also of a tight network of regulatory signals, particularly hormonal signaling. However, few studies have been focused on the effects of ghrelin, leptin and GLP-1 in male reproduction and how energy homeostasis and male reproductive function are linked. These hormones regulate body glucose homeostasis and several studies suggest that they can serve as targets for anti-obesity drugs. In recent years, our understanding of the mechanisms of action of these hormones has grown significantly. Curiously, their effect on male reproductive potential, that is highly dependent of the metabolic cooperation established between testicular cells, remains a matter of debate. Herein, we review general concepts of male fertility and obesity, with a special focus on the effects of ghrelin, leptin and GLP-1 on male reproductive health. We also discuss the possible pharmacological relevance of these hormones to counteract the fertility problems that overweight and obese men face.

  13. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted. PMID:26123530

  14. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Harvey Millar, A.; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted. PMID:26123530

  15. Consequences of Nosema apis infection for male honey bees and their fertility.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The queens of eusocial bees, ants and wasps mate only during a very short period early in life and males therefore produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Such extreme selection for high fecundity resulted in males investing minimally into their somatic survival, including their immune system. However, if susceptible males are unable to protect their reproductive tissue from infections, they compromise queen fitness if they transfer pathogens during mating. We used the honey bee Apis mellifera and investigated the course of infection of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis. We predicted that honey bee males are susceptible but protect their reproductive tissues from infections. We investigated the effects of N. apis infections on the midgut, the accessory glands and the accessory testes and quantified the consequences of infection on male survival and fecundity. We found that N. apis is able to infect males, and as infections progressed, it significantly impacted fertility and survival in older males. Even though we confirm males to be able to minimize N. apis infections of their reproductive tissues, the parasite is present in ejaculates of older males. Consequently N. apis evolved alternative routes to successfully infect ejaculates and get sexually transmitted.

  16. THE QUALITY OF MALE FERTILITY DATA IN MAJOR U.S. SURVEYS*

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Kara; Peters, H. Elizabeth; Hynes, Kathryn; Sikora, Asia; Rubenstein, Jamie; Rendall, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers continue to question fathers’ willingness to report their biological children in surveys and the ability of surveys to adequately represent fathers. To address these concerns, this study evaluates the quality of men’s fertility data in the 1979 and 1997 cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79 and NLSY97) and in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Comparing fertility rates in each survey to population rates based on data from the Vital Statistics and the U.S. Census Bureau, we document how the incomplete reporting of births in different surveys varies according to men’s characteristics, including their age, race, marital status, and birth cohort. In addition, we use Monte Carlo simulations based on the NSFG data to demonstrate how birth underreporting biases associations between early parenthood and its antecedents. We found that in the NSFG, roughly four out of five early births were reported, but in the NLSY79 and NLSY9, almost nine-tenths of early births were reported. In all three surveys, incomplete reporting was especially pronounced for nonmarital births. Our results suggest that the quality of male fertility data is strongly linked to survey design and that it has implications for models of early male fertility. PMID:22203451

  17. Contemporary and future insights into fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chloe; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, survival rates of cancer patients have increased, resulting in a shift of focus from quantity to quality of life. A key aspect of quality of life is fertility potential; patients suffering from iatrogenic infertility often become depressed. Since many cancer therapies—chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery—and even cancer itself have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system, it is important to preserve fertility before any treatment commences. Currently, the only reliable method of male fertility preservation is sperm banking. For patients who are unable to provide semen samples by the conventional method of masturbation, there are other techniques such as electroejaculation, microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction that can be employed. Unfortunately, it is presently impossible to preserve the fertility potential of pre-pubertal patients. Due to the increasing numbers of adolescent cancer patients surviving treatment, extensive research is being conducted into several possible methods such as testicular tissue cryopreservation, xenografting, in vitro gamete maturation and even the creation of artificial gametes. However, in spite of its ease, safety, convenience and many accompanying benefits, sperm banking remains underutilized in cancer patients. There are several barriers involved such as the lack of information and the urgency to begin treatment, but various measures can be put in place to overcome these barriers so that sperm banking can be more widely utilized. PMID:26816750

  18. Negative correlation between male allocation and rate of self-fertilization in a hermaphroditic animal

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Mark O.; Das, Bijon; Hoeh, Walter R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory predicts that the evolution of increased rates of self-fertilization should be accompanied by decreased allocation to male reproduction (sperm production and broadcast). This prediction has found support in plants but has not previously been tested in animals, which, in contrast to biotically pollinated plants, are free of complications associated with incorporating the costs of attractive structures such as petals. Here we report rates of self-fertilization as well as proportional allocation to male reproductive tissues within populations of the simultaneous hermaphrodite Utterbackia imbecillis, a freshwater mussel. Individuals from populations with higher selfing rates devoted a lower proportion of reproductive tissue to sperm production (correlation = −0.99), in support of theory. PMID:9435241

  19. Mammalian male germ cells are fertile ground for expression profiling of sexual reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Gunnar; Primig, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Recent large-scale transcriptional profiling experiments of mammalian spermatogenesis using rodent model systems and different types of microarrays have yielded insight into the expression program of male germ cells. These studies revealed that an astonishingly large number of loci are differentially expressed during spermatogenesis. Among them are several hundred transcripts that appear to be specific for meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells. This group includes many genes that were previously implicated in spermatogenesis and/or fertility and others that are as yet poorly characterized. Profiling experiments thus reveal candidates for regulation of spermatogenesis and fertility as well as targets for innovative contraceptives that act on gene products absent in somatic tissues. In this review, consolidated high density oligonucleotide microarray data from rodent total testis and purified germ cell samples are analyzed and their impact on our understanding of the transcriptional program governing male germ cell differentiation is discussed. PMID:15615893

  20. [Negative impact of cigarette smoking on male fertility: from spermatozoa to the offspring].

    PubMed

    Sepaniak, S; Forges, T; Fontaine, B; Gerard, H; Foliguet, B; Guillet-May, F; Zaccabri, A; Monnier-Barbarino, P

    2004-09-01

    Cigarette smoking has negative effects on male fertility. Recent studies showed an active transfer of several components of cigarettes through the blood-testis barrier. The presence of these components in the seminal plasma may induce a degradation of sperm parameters and nuclear quality of spermatozoa, and compromise the chances of pregnancy. Moreover, smoking may have a negative impact on the smokers'offspring: poor quality embryos, development of childhood cancers. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage seems to be one of the major causes of sperm quality alteration. Several methods are now available to analyze the degree of DNA fragmentation. In order to optimize the success rate of assisted reproduction technologies, the deleterious effects of smoking on male fertility and the necessity of cessation have to be explained in detail to these patients.

  1. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  2. The limitations of in vitro fertilization from males with severe oligospermia and abnormal sperm morphology.

    PubMed

    Yovich, J L; Stanger, J D

    1984-09-01

    Thirty-one patients whose infertility was attributed to oligospermia were included for treatment by in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Three subgroups were defined: severe oligospermia (less than or equal to 5 million motile sperm/ml), moderate oligospermia (6 to less than 12 million motile sperm/ml), and abnormal sperm morphology (greater than 60% atypical). The fertilization rates were compared to those of a normospermic group managed concurrently. A modified overlay technique of sperm preparation is described for oligospermic samples so that the number of motile spermatozoa inseminated into each tube or culture dish containing a mature preovulatory oocyte was similar in each category, within the range 0.5 to 2 X 10(5)/ml. Significantly fewer oocytes were fertilized in the severe oligospermic group (P less than 0.001), suggesting a reduced capacity for fertilization by spermatozoa from severely oligospermic males. The fertilization rate of oocytes was normal in the moderate oligospermic group and those with abnormal morphology, although in the latter there was a significant delay noted in reaching the pronuclear stage (P less than 0.001), and the embryos were at a less advanced stage of cleavage at the time of transfer (0.001 less than P less than 0.01). Pregnancies were achieved in both the severe and the moderate oligospermic groups, with healthy infants delivered from each.

  3. Review of local herbal compounds found in the Iranian traditional medicine known to optimise male fertility.

    PubMed

    Nejatbakhsh, F; Shirbeigi, L; Rahimi, R; Abolhassani, H

    2016-10-01

    The male reproductive function can be influenced by many different factors, including genetic, environmental and socioeconomic parameters leading to a progressive decline. However, the cause of infertility cannot be found in a significant proportion of couples, and even with the presence of the sign of testicular dysfunction or obstructive azoospermia, the main aetiology is not identified. In the absence of knowledge about predisposing factor, targeted therapeutic modalities for male infertility may not be possible, and a wide variety of empiric drug approaches, even with low scientific evidence, have been utilised in current conventional medicine. According to the recently updated reports of the European Association of Urology guidelines on male infertility, the implication of previous recommendations and complementary alternative medicine based on the old literature has been suggested to improve a multifaceted integrative therapeutic approach for this disease. We have reviewed the potential herbal active compounds optimising male fertility, according to the principles of Iranian traditional medicine. PMID:27681643

  4. Review of local herbal compounds found in the Iranian traditional medicine known to optimise male fertility.

    PubMed

    Nejatbakhsh, F; Shirbeigi, L; Rahimi, R; Abolhassani, H

    2016-10-01

    The male reproductive function can be influenced by many different factors, including genetic, environmental and socioeconomic parameters leading to a progressive decline. However, the cause of infertility cannot be found in a significant proportion of couples, and even with the presence of the sign of testicular dysfunction or obstructive azoospermia, the main aetiology is not identified. In the absence of knowledge about predisposing factor, targeted therapeutic modalities for male infertility may not be possible, and a wide variety of empiric drug approaches, even with low scientific evidence, have been utilised in current conventional medicine. According to the recently updated reports of the European Association of Urology guidelines on male infertility, the implication of previous recommendations and complementary alternative medicine based on the old literature has been suggested to improve a multifaceted integrative therapeutic approach for this disease. We have reviewed the potential herbal active compounds optimising male fertility, according to the principles of Iranian traditional medicine.

  5. Identification of male-factor semen samples prior to insemination and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Chan, P J; Tredway, D R; Su, B C; Corselli, J; Davidson, B; Ren, S

    1991-02-01

    Semen analyses carried out as part of the clinical in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination protocols provide important information that determine the type of clinical treatment of the male partner and the sperm processing method. It is postulated that the sperm of male-factor patients cannot survive hypoosmotic stress conditions because of defective sperm membrane function. To test this, 0.1 ml of semen from each of 102 patients was placed in 1.0 ml of 150 mosmol/liter eosin citrate fructose solution and incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C. The percentage viability of the sperm cells was then determined. The results indicated that patients with two or more abnormal semen parameters had a significantly lower percentage viability while in the hypoosmotic solution (40.6 +/- 4.7%), in contrast to non-male-factor patients (69.0 +/- 1.6%). Donor sperm (N = 32) serving as controls (73.3 +/- 2.1%) had a viability in hypoosmotic solution similar to that of non-male-factor patients. The data suggest that sperm of male-factor patients are less able to survive the hypoosmotic stress conditions as shown by the percentage viability in hypoosmotic solution and emphasize the importance of using less stressful sperm processing methods for in vitro fertilization or insemination in these patients.

  6. Aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, N; Singh, S K

    2016-09-01

    Antifertility efficacy of oral administration of aqueous fruit extract of Mimusops elengi (200, 400 and 600 mg kg(-1) body weight/day for 35 days) was evaluated in Parkes strain male mice. Various reproductive end points such as histopathology, sperm parameters, testosterone level, haematology, serum biochemistry and fertility indices were assessed; activities of 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and immunoblot expressions of StAR and P450scc in the testis were also assessed. Histologically, testes in Mimusops-treated mice showed nonuniform and diverse degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules; both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same sections of testis. The treatment had adverse effects on testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and StAR and P450scc, serum level of testosterone and on motility, viability and number of spermatozoa in cauda epididymis. However, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatinine, and haematological parameters were not affected by the treatment. Also, libido was not affected in treated males, but their fertility was markedly suppressed. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, the alterations caused in the above parameters recovered to control levels, suggesting that Mimusops treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Further, there were no detectable signs of toxicity in treated males. PMID:27489141

  7. Information asymmetries among males: implications for fertilization success in the thirteen-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Schwagmeyer, P L; Parker, G A; Mock, D W

    1998-10-01

    The classical view of mammalian mating competition focuses on combat and threat. By contrast, field studies have revealed that male mating success in some species is more strongly determined by mate location ability than by physical dominance. In thirteen-lined ground squirrels, competition in locating oestrous females is exacerbated by sperm competition that favours the first male to mate with a female. We used a female-removal experiment to identify the distinguishing characteristics of males that were the first at finding and mating with females. Each focal female was observed the day before she entered oestrus; the identities of males that made contact with her and the locations of their interactions were recorded. The following morning the females were temporarily removed, and we monitored male search behaviour in their absence. Males that arrived first were those that had spent more time with the female the previous day relative to their rivals. Time invested the day before, in turn, was highly correlated with male search persistence and familiarity with the female's likely whereabouts. These results demonstrate that differential fertilization success can arise from information asymmetries among males: the advantaged individuals are those that have greater a priori knowledge of the reproductive state and spatial locations of prospective mates than rivals. PMID:9802243

  8. IUSSP activities. Committee on Anthropological Demography. Report: Seminar on Fertility and the Male Life Cycle in the Era of Fertility Decline, Zacatecas, Mexico, 13-16 November 1995.

    PubMed

    Infesta Dominquez, G

    1996-05-01

    This article gives an overview of a conference on Fertility and the Male Life Cycle held in Mexico on November 13-16, 1995. The seminars, organized by anthropological demographers, were based on the view that differences in men's life course events affect how many children are produced, when children are produced, and the kind of support given to children. Little research has focused on male fertility. Two overview papers addressed the issues of men's changing sexual and reproductive intentions as a response to economic changes (Jane Guyer) and theories of male fertility trends in industrialized countries (David Coleman). Other papers were presented on the following topics: changes in male fertility, sexuality and the male life cycle, polygyny and fertility, men's notions of sexuality and reproductive health, masculinity and reproduction, and future research directions. Laurent Toulemon and Evelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk and Katarina Pohl presented papers on gender differences in fertility. Philip Setel presented an analysis of the social construction of parenthood among Coastal Boiken in Papua New Guinea. Paul Miret discussed men's role in the sharp decline in Spanish fertility. Nosa Orobaton contrasted African men's changing roles over the life course. Differences in fertility among polygynous populations in Africa and in China were analyzed by Ann Blanc and Anastasia Gage, and James Lee and Wang Feng. Other papers were prepared by Juan Gillermo Figueroa Perea, John Anarfi and Clara Korkor, Frances L. Goldscheider et al., Benno de Keijzer, and Mario Humberto Ruz, Ondina Fachel Leal and Jandyra M.G. Fachel, and Kamran Asdar Ali. Seminar papers were expected to be published in several collections.

  9. Male Fertility Is Reduced by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Mimicking Sleep Apnea in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marta; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Dalmases, Mireia; Calle, Alexandra; Pericuesta, Eva; Montserrat, Josep M.; Navajas, Daniel; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Farré, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia and oxidative stress. However, it is unknown whether intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA modifies male fertility. We tested the hypothesis that male fertility is reduced by chronic intermittent hypoxia mimicking OSA in a mouse model. Design: Case-control comparison in a murine model. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen F1 (C57BL/6xCBA) male mice. Interventions: Mice were subjected to a pattern of periodic hypoxia (20 sec at 5% O2 followed by 40 sec of room air) 6 h/day for 60 days or normoxia. After this period, mice performed a mating trial to determine effective fertility by assessing the number of pregnant females and fetuses. Measurements and Results: After euthanasia, oxidative stress in testes was assessed by measuring the expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) and superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod1) by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Sperm motility was determined by Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS). Intermittent hypoxia significantly increased testicular oxidative stress, showing a reduction in the expression of Gpx1 and Sod1 by 38.9% and 34.4%, respectively, as compared with normoxia (P < 0.05). Progressive sperm motility was significantly reduced from 27.0 ± 6.4% in normoxia to 12.8 ± 1.8% in the intermittent hypoxia group (P = 0.04). The proportion of pregnant females and number of fetuses per mating was significantly lower in the intermittent hypoxia group (0.33 ± 0.10 and 2.45 ± 0.73, respectively) than in normoxic controls (0.72 ± 0.16 and 5.80 ± 1.24, respectively). Conclusions: These results suggest that the intermittent hypoxia associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) could induce fertility reduction in male patients with this sleep breathing disorder. Citation: Torres M, Laguna-Barraza R, Dalmases M, Calle A, Pericuesta E, Montserrat JM, Navajas D, Gutierrez-Adan A, Farré R. Male fertility is

  10. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: 1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; 2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  12. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA. PMID:26656530

  13. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages.

  14. Male Investments in High Quality Sperm Improve Fertilization Success, but May Have Negative Impact on Offspring Fitness in Whitefish

    PubMed Central

    Kekäläinen, Jukka; Soler, Carles; Veentaus, Sami; Huuskonen, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We tested this possibility in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) by experimentally fertilizing the eggs of 24 females with the sperm of either highly-ornamented (large breeding tubercles, dominant) or less-ornamented (small tubercles, subordinate) males (split-clutch breeding design). In comparison to highly-ornamented individuals, less-ornamented males had higher sperm motility, which fertilized the eggs more efficiently, but produced embryos with impaired hatching success. Also offspring size and body condition were lower among less-ornamented males. Furthermore, sperm motility was positively associated with the fertilization success and offspring size, but only in highly-ornamented males. Together our results indicate that male investments on highly motile (fertile) sperm is not necessarily advantageous during later offspring ontogeny and that male status-dependent differences in sperm phenotype may have important effects on offspring fitness in different life-history stages. PMID:26389594

  15. Female sperm use and storage between fertilization events drive sperm competition and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2014-12-01

    Sperm competition theory has traditionally focused on how male allocation responds to female promiscuity, when males compete to fertilize a single clutch of eggs. Here, we develop a model to ask how female sperm use and storage across consecutive reproductive events affect male ejaculate allocation and patterns of mating and paternity. In our model, sperm use (a single parameter under female control) is the main determinant of sperm competition, which alters the effect of female promiscuity on male success and, ultimately, male reproductive allocation. Our theory reproduces the general pattern predicted by existing theory that increased sperm competition favors increased allocation to ejaculates. However, our model predicts a negative correlation between male ejaculate allocation and female promiscuity, challenging the generality of a prevailing expectation of sperm competition theory. Early models assumed that the energetic costs of precopulatory competition and the level of sperm competition are both determined by female promiscuity, which leads to an assumed covariation between these two processes. By modeling precopulatory costs and sperm competition independently, our theoretical framework allows us to examine how male allocation should respond independently to variation in sperm competition and energetic trade-offs in mating systems that have been overlooked in the past.

  16. Genetic analysis of male fertility restoration in wild cytoplasmic male sterility G of beet.

    PubMed

    Touzet, Pascal; Hueber, Nathalie; Bürkholz, Alexandra; Barnes, Stephen; Cuguen, Joël

    2004-06-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been used in the breeding of sugar beet for decades but is also more generally an important feature of the reproductive system in its wild relative, Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Among the several CMSs found in wild populations, the G CMS is a mitochondrial variant of the respiratory chain. The segregants derived from a cross between a restored plant and a female (male-sterile) plant on G cytoplasm exhibited three sexual phenotypic classes: female, hermaphrodite and intermediate. The pattern of segregation suggests a genetic inheritance with two loci in epistatic interaction. Nevertheless, it was possible to apply a bulk segregant analysis approach to search for AFLP and microsatellite markers linked to the restorer locus ( RfG(1)) which controls the capacity to produce pollen [female versus non female (i.e. intermediates and hermaphrodites)] in the segregating population. A linkage group was constructed with four AFLP markers and nine microsatellites, and a total size of 40 cM (Kosambi). The closest marker, a microsatellite, was totally linked to RfG1, which was also flanked by two AFLP markers delimiting a 5 cM window. This linkage group was identified as being chromosome VIII where neither of the restorer loci of the Owen CMS are located.

  17. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this 'Mother's Curse', their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COII(G177S), a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COII(G177S) represents one of the clearest examples of a 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COII(G177S) might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. PMID:27481326

  18. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this 'Mother's Curse', their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COII(G177S), a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COII(G177S) represents one of the clearest examples of a 'male-harming' mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COII(G177S) might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COII(G177S) -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations.

  19. A mitochondrial DNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase specifically impairs male fertility in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulik R; Miriyala, Ganesh K; Littleton, Aimee J; Yang, Heiko; Trinh, Kien; Young, Janet M; Kennedy, Scott R; Yamashita, Yukiko M; Pallanck, Leo J; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    Due to their strict maternal inheritance in most animals and plants, mitochondrial genomes are predicted to accumulate mutations that are beneficial or neutral in females but harmful in males. Although a few male-harming mtDNA mutations have been identified, consistent with this ‘Mother’s Curse’, their effect on females has been largely unexplored. Here, we identify COIIG177S, a mtDNA hypomorph of cytochrome oxidase II, which specifically impairs male fertility due to defects in sperm development and function without impairing other male or female functions. COIIG177S represents one of the clearest examples of a ‘male-harming’ mtDNA mutation in animals and suggest that the hypomorphic mtDNA mutations like COIIG177S might specifically impair male gametogenesis. Intriguingly, some D. melanogaster nuclear genetic backgrounds can fully rescue COIIG177S -associated sterility, consistent with previously proposed models that nuclear genomes can regulate the phenotypic manifestation of mtDNA mutations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16923.001 PMID:27481326

  20. A New Role of the Mosquito Complement-like Cascade in Male Fertility in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Pompon, Julien; Levashina, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a key immune factor that determines mosquito resistance to a wide range of pathogens, including malaria parasites. Here we report a new allele-specific function of TEP1 in male fertility. We demonstrate that during spermatogenesis TEP1 binds to and removes damaged cells through the same complement-like cascade that kills malaria parasites in the mosquito midgut. Further, higher fertility rates are mediated by an allele that renders the mosquito susceptible to Plasmodium. By elucidating the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying TEP1 function in spermatogenesis, our study suggests that pleiotropic antagonism between reproduction and immunity may shape resistance of mosquito populations to malaria parasites. PMID:26394016

  1. Sperm parameters and male fertility after bariatric surgery: three case series.

    PubMed

    Sermondade, Nathalie; Massin, Nathalie; Boitrelle, Florence; Pfeffer, Jérôme; Eustache, Florence; Sifer, Christophe; Czernichow, Sébastien; Lévy, Rachel

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have underlined the impact of obesity on sperm parameters, but very few data are available on the effect of weight loss on male fertility. This article reports the case series of three male patients who underwent rapid and major weight loss following bariatric surgery and the consequences of this surgery on semen parameters and fertility. A severe worsening of semen parameters was observed during the months after bariatric surgery, including extreme oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, but azoospermia was not observed. This effect may hypothetically be the result of two opposite mechanisms: (i) the suppression of the deleterious effects of obesity; and (ii) the negative impact of both nutritional deficiencies and the release of toxic substances. Information about potential reproductive consequences of bariatric surgery should be given to patients and sperm cryopreservation before surgery proposed. However, for one case, the alterations of spermatogenesis were reversible 2 years after the surgical procedure. Finally, intracytoplasmic sperm injection with fresh spermatozoa after male bariatric surgery can be successful, as demonstrated here, where clinical pregnancies were obtained for two out of the three couples.

  2. The effects of diabetes on male fertility and epigenetic regulation during spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Lian; Liu, Ye; Liu, Miao-E; Pan, Jie-Xue; Guo, Meng-Xi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damages, dysfunctions, and failures of various organs. An important complication of diabetes is the disturbance in the male reproductive system. Glucose metabolism is an important event in spermatogenesis. Moreover, glucose metabolism is also important for maintaining basic cell activity, as well as specific functions, such as motility and fertilization ability in mature sperm. Diabetic disease and experimentally induced diabetes both demonstrated that either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes could have detrimental effects on male fertility, especially on sperm quality, such as sperm motility, sperm DNA integrity, and ingredients of seminal plasma. Epigenetic modifications are essential during spermatogenesis. The epigenetic regulation represents chromatin modifications including DNA methylation, histone modifications, remodeling of nucleosomes and the higher-order chromatin reorganization and noncoding RNAs. If spermatogenesis is affected during the critical developmental window, embryonic gonadal development, and germline differentiation, environmentally-induced epigenetic modifications may become permanent in the germ line epigenome and have a potential impact on subsequent generations through epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. Diabetes may influence the epigenetic modification during sperm spermatogenesis and that these epigenetic dysregulation may be inherited through the male germ line and passed onto more than one generation, which in turn may increase the risk of diabetes in offspring. PMID:25814158

  3. The effects of diabetes on male fertility and epigenetic regulation during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Guo-Lian; Liu, Ye; Liu, Miao-E; Pan, Jie-Xue; Guo, Meng-Xi; Sheng, Jian-Zhong; Huang, He-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damages, dysfunctions, and failures of various organs. An important complication of diabetes is the disturbance in the male reproductive system. Glucose metabolism is an important event in spermatogenesis. Moreover, glucose metabolism is also important for maintaining basic cell activity, as well as specific functions, such as motility and fertilization ability in mature sperm. Diabetic disease and experimentally induced diabetes both demonstrated that either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes could have detrimental effects on male fertility, especially on sperm quality, such as sperm motility, sperm DNA integrity, and ingredients of seminal plasma. Epigenetic modifications are essential during spermatogenesis. The epigenetic regulation represents chromatin modifications including DNA methylation, histone modifications, remodeling of nucleosomes and the higher-order chromatin reorganization and noncoding RNAs. If spermatogenesis is affected during the critical developmental window, embryonic gonadal development, and germline differentiation, environmentally-induced epigenetic modifications may become permanent in the germ line epigenome and have a potential impact on subsequent generations through epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. Diabetes may influence the epigenetic modification during sperm spermatogenesis and that these epigenetic dysregulation may be inherited through the male germ line and passed onto more than one generation, which in turn may increase the risk of diabetes in offspring. PMID:25814158

  4. Genetic parameters for male fertility and its relationship to skatole and androstenone in Danish Landrace boars.

    PubMed

    Strathe, A B; Velander, I H; Mark, T; Ostersen, T; Hansen, C; Kadarmideen, H N

    2013-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding selection against the boar taint compounds, androstenone and skatole, due to potential unfavorable genetic correlations with important male fertility traits (i.e., selection of boars with low levels of these boar taint compounds might also reduce male fertility). Hence, the objective of this investigation was to study the genetic association between direct measures of male fertility and the boar taint compounds in Danish Landrace pigs. Concentrations of skatole and androstenone in the back fat were available for approximately 6,000 and 1,000 Landrace boars, respectively. The litter size traits, such as total number born, live piglets at d 5, and piglet survival until d 5 on relatives of the slaughter boars, were extracted from the Danish Landrace breeding program, yielding 35,715 records. Semen volume, sperm concentration, subjective sperm quality score, and total number of sperm were available from 95,267 ejaculates. These ejaculates were collected between 2005 and 2012 and originated from 3,145 Landrace boars from 12 AI stations in Denmark. The traits were analyzed using single and multitrait animal models including univariate random regression models. Skatole and androstenone concentrations were moderate to highly heritable (i.e., 0.33 and 0.59, respectively). The genetic correlation between the two compounds was moderate (0.40). Genetic variance of sperm production per ejaculate increased during the productive life of the boar, resulting in heritability estimates increasing from 0.18 to 0.31. Genetic correlations between sperm production per ejaculate at different ages were high and generally larger than 0.8, indicating that later genetic merit can be predicted from records at an early age. The heritability (based on service-sire genetic component) of both total number of piglets born and survival to d 5 were 0.02, and the correlation between these effects and the additive genetic effect on boar taint ranged from 0.05 to -0

  5. Advances in cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells and restoration of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Aliakbari, Fereshte; Yazdekhasti, Hosein; Abbasi, Mehdi; Hajian Monfared, Mahdieh; Baazm, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly complicated process which initiated by spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs are the only cell type that can restore fertility in infertile recipient after SSCs transplantation. SSCs damage during cancer diagnosis and therapy and their depletion may be cause of male infertility in cancer survivors. In this review, used experimental methods regarding SSCs and testis tissue cryopreservation have been reviewed with a special focus on animal models and human which have generated the majority of data about SSCs and the cryopreservation process.

  6. Predator odour and its impact on male fertility and reproduction in Phodopus campbelli hamsters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilieva, N. Y.; Cherepanova, E. V.; von Holst, D.; Apfelbach, R.

    This study investigated the influence of cat urine odour in suppressing development and fertility in Campbell's hamster males. Exposure to this odour from postnatal day 11 until day 45 (sexual maturation) resulted in reduced sex organ weights, reduced testosterone levels and in an increase in abnormalities of the synaptonemal complex in both sex chromosomes and autosomes. Subsequent breeding experiments revealed a significant decrease in litter size. All these data indicate a severe effect of predator odour on the breeding success of potential prey species. It is assumed that these effects are caused by the sulphurous compounds in the urine; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet known.

  7. Reproductive toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine in the rat. 1. Effect on male fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Thysen, B.; Varma, S.K.; Bloch, E.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of 2,4-toluenediamine (TDA) on reproduction in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Diets containing 0, 0.01 and 0.03% TDA were fed ad libitum to experimental animals for 10 wk. No signs of toxicity were found. Exposure to the high dose resulted in decreased mating frequency and an increase in infertile matings. Light-microscopic examination of the testes revealed reduced numbers of sperm in the seminiferous tubules and cauda epididymides. These results indicate that TDA is capable of reducing fertility and of exerting an inhibitory or toxic effect on spermatogenesis in the rat.

  8. Recent progress in plant reproduction research: the story of the male gametophyte through to successful fertilization.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Go

    2009-11-01

    Sexual reproduction is an important biological event not only for evolution but also for breeding in plants. It is a well known fact that Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was interested in the reproduction system of plants as part of his concept of 'species' and 'evolution.' His keen observation and speculation is timeless even in the current post-genome era. In the Darwin anniversary year of 2009, I have summarized recent molecular genetic studies of plant reproduction, focusing especially on male gametophyte development, pollination and fertilization. We are just beginning to understand the molecular mechanisms of the elaborate reproduction system in flowering plants, which have been a mystery for >100 years.

  9. Effects of Saikokaryukotsuboreito on Spermatogenesis and Fertility in Aging Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Ji, Su-Yun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Gao, Yong; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aspermia caused by exogenous testosterone limit its usage in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) patients desiring fertility. Saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT) is reported to improve serum testosterone and relieve LOH-related symptoms. However, it is unclear whether SKRBT affects fertility. We aimed to examine the effects of SKRBT on spermatogenesis and fertility in aging male mice. Methods: Thirty aging male mice were randomly assigned to three groups. Mice were orally administered with phosphate-buffer solution or SKRBT (300 mg/kg, daily) or received testosterone by subcutaneous injections (10 mg/kg, every 3 days). Thirty days later, each male mouse was mated with two female mice. All animals were sacrificed at the end of 90 days. Intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels, quality of sperm, expression of synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3), and fertility were assayed. Results: In the SKRBT-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were all improved compared with the control group (ITT: 85.50 ± 12.31 ng/g vs. 74.10 ± 11.45 ng/g, P = 0.027; sperm number: [14.94 ± 4.63] × 106 cells/ml vs. [8.79 ± 4.38] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.002; sperm motility: 43.16 ± 9.93% vs. 33.51 ± 6.98%, P = 0.015; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 77.50 ± 11.01 ng/ml vs. 49.30 ± 8.73 ng/ml, P < 0.001; the expression of SYCP3 protein: 1.23 ± 0.09 vs. 0.84 ± 0.10, P < 0.001), but fertility was not significantly changed (P > 0.05, respectively). In the testosterone-treated group, ITT, quality of sperm, and expression of SYCP3 were markedly lower than the control group (ITT: 59.00 ± 8.67, P = 0.005; sperm number: [4.34 ± 2.45] × 106 cells/ml, P = 0.018; sperm motility: 19.53 ± 7.69%, P = 0.001; the number of SYCP3-positive cells/tubule: 30.00 ± 11.28, P < 0.001; the percentage of SYCP3-positive tubules/section 71.98 ± 8.88%, P = 0.001; the expression of SYCP3 protein: 0.71 ± 0.09, P < 0.001), and fertility was also suppressed (P < 0

  10. Female Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) mated with males that harassed them are unlikely to lay fertilized eggs.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Kamini N; Galef, Bennett G

    2005-11-01

    Results of previous studies of courtship and mating in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) suggest that females avoid conspecific males because, while courting and mating, males engage in behaviors that are potentially injurious to females. However, prior experiments provided no direct evidence that females avoided harassing males. Here the authors show that a female quail choosing between a previous sex partner and an unfamiliar male avoids the former if he engaged in relatively many potentially injurious acts while courting and mating, (Experiments 1 and 2) and that males behaving aggressively toward mates are less likely than are gentler males to fertilize the females' eggs (Experiment 3). Male sexual harassment appears to be a tactic both aversive to female quail and relatively ineffective in fertilizing them. PMID:16366777

  11. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  12. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction. PMID:26685998

  13. Comparison of fertilization outcome between microdrop and open insemination methods in non-male factor IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubin; Li, Tao; Mai, Qingyun; Long, Lingli; Ou, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Both microdrop and open methods are commonly used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols for embryo culture as well as oocyte insemination. However, few comparative studies evaluating the microdrop or open method of insemination on the fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development have been performed. A randomized study was conducted to compare microdrop and open fertilization with respect to fertilization rate and embryo development among non-male factor patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the fertilization failure rate [total fertilization failure rate (TFF) plus low fertilization rate (<25% oocytes fertilized)] in the microdrop insemination group was higher than in the open insemination group (11.9% versus 3.3%, p < 0.001), while the good quality embryo rate and pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the groups. As a highly complicated process involving many extrinsic and intrinsic factors, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of these insemination methods on the rate of fertilization failure.

  14. Comparison of fertilization outcome between microdrop and open insemination methods in non-male factor IVF patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubin; Li, Tao; Mai, Qingyun; Long, Lingli; Ou, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Both microdrop and open methods are commonly used for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols for embryo culture as well as oocyte insemination. However, few comparative studies evaluating the microdrop or open method of insemination on the fertilization outcome and subsequent embryo development have been performed. A randomized study was conducted to compare microdrop and open fertilization with respect to fertilization rate and embryo development among non-male factor patients undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The results presented in this study demonstrate that the fertilization failure rate [total fertilization failure rate (TFF) plus low fertilization rate (<25% oocytes fertilized)] in the microdrop insemination group was higher than in the open insemination group (11.9% versus 3.3%, p < 0.001), while the good quality embryo rate and pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the groups. As a highly complicated process involving many extrinsic and intrinsic factors, further studies are needed to confirm the effects of these insemination methods on the rate of fertilization failure. PMID:24499510

  15. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    males may be useful to fit their needs and provide a constant daily supply of nutrients, with some sperm morphologic characteristics being improved, as well as the fertility of their pooled semen.

  16. Self-Fertilization and the Role of Males in Populations of Tadpole Shrimp (Branchiopoda: Notostraca: Triops).

    PubMed

    Horn, Rebekah L; Cowley, David E

    2016-11-01

    Self-fertilization has both negative and positive fitness effects on species evolution. Selfing can increase inbreeding depression, thereby decreasing genetic diversity. In contrast, self-fertilization can preserve beneficial gene combinations and facilitate colonization success. Within the class of crustaceans Branchiopoda, selfing is a primary reproductive mode. Some species of Triops, in the family Notostraca, are a few of the animal species thought to have a mixed mating system between hermaphrodites and males termed androdioecy. The objective of this study is to validate the reproductive mode utilized by Triops newberryi in southern New Mexico by the use of progeny arrays and population simulations. Individuals were reared in the lab from dried soil collected from temporary ponds inhabited by T. newberryi The adults reared and the encysted embryos contained within their brood pouches were genotyped using 7 T. newberryi specific microsatellite markers to determine the relatedness between parent and offspring. Overall microsatellite diversity was low with few heterozygous individuals and limited polymorphisms. Simulated populations and allele segregation analysis suggest hermaphroditism is the primary reproductive mode for T. newberryi In addition, based on the offspring's alleles, there was no direct evidence that a male (ovisacless) T. newberryi outcrossed with a female. Population simulations further suggest that the rate of successful outcrossing events must be low and could explain why outcrossing was not observed in the laboratory rearing trials. PMID:27358476

  17. Male Fertility Defect Associated with Disrupted BRCA1-PALB2 Interaction in Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Simhadri, Srilatha; Peterson, Shaun; Patel, Dharm S.; Huo, Yanying; Cai, Hong; Bowman-Colin, Christian; Miller, Shoreh; Ludwig, Thomas; Ganesan, Shridar; Bhaumik, Mantu; Bunting, Samuel F.; Jasin, Maria; Xia, Bing

    2014-01-01

    PALB2 links BRCA1 and BRCA2 in homologous recombinational repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Mono-allelic mutations in PALB2 increase the risk of breast, pancreatic, and other cancers, and biallelic mutations cause Fanconi anemia (FA). Like Brca1 and Brca2, systemic knock-out of Palb2 in mice results in embryonic lethality. In this study, we generated a hypomorphic Palb2 allele expressing a mutant PALB2 protein unable to bind BRCA1. Consistent with an FA-like phenotype, cells from the mutant mice showed hypersensitivity and chromosomal breakage when treated with mitomycin C, a DNA interstrand crosslinker. Moreover, mutant males showed reduced fertility due to impaired meiosis and increased apoptosis in germ cells. Interestingly, mutant meiocytes showed a significant defect in sex chromosome synapsis, which likely contributed to the germ cell loss and fertility defect. Our results underscore the in vivo importance of the PALB2-BRCA1 complex formation in DSB repair and male meiosis. PMID:25016020

  18. Zona occludens-2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianliang; Anuar, Farhana; Ali, Safiah Mohamed; Ng, Mei Yong; Phua, Dominic C Y; Hunziker, Walter

    2009-10-01

    Tight junction integral membrane proteins such as claudins and occludin are tethered to the actin cytoskeleton by adaptor proteins, notably the closely related zonula occludens (ZO) proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, and ZO-3. All three ZO proteins have recently been inactivated in mice. Although ZO-3 knockout mice lack an obvious phenotype, animals deficient in ZO-1 or ZO-2 show early embryonic lethality. Here, we rescue the embryonic lethality of ZO-2 knockout mice by injecting ZO-2(-/-) embryonic stem (ES) cells into wild-type blastocysts to generate viable ZO-2 chimera. ZO-2(-/-) ES cells contribute extensively to different tissues of the chimera, consistent with an extraembryonic requirement for ZO-2 rather than a critical role in epiblast development. Adult chimera present a set of phenotypes in different organs. In particular, male ZO-2 chimeras show reduced fertility and pathological changes in the testis. Lanthanum tracer experiments show a compromised blood-testis barrier. Expression levels of ZO-1, ZO-3, claudin-11, and occludin are not apparently affected. ZO-1 and occludin still localize to the blood-testis barrier region, but claudin-11 is less well restricted and the localization of connexin-43 is perturbed. The critical role of ZO-2 for male fertility and blood-testis barrier integrity thus provides a first example for a nonredundant role of an individual ZO protein in adult mice.

  19. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M.; Fernandes, John F.; Egger, Rachel L.; Walbot, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Summary During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  20. A low molecular weight proteome comparison of fertile and male sterile 8 anthers of Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongxue; Adams, Christopher M; Fernandes, John F; Egger, Rachel L; Walbot, Virginia

    2012-10-01

    During maize anther development, somatic locular cells differentiate to support meiosis in the pollen mother cells. Meiosis is an important event during anther growth and is essential for plant fertility as pollen contains the haploid sperm. A subset of maize male sterile mutants exhibit meiotic failure, including ms8 (male sterile 8) in which meiocytes arrest as dyads and the locular somatic cells exhibit multiple defects. Systematic proteomic profiles were analysed in biological triplicates plus technical triplicates comparing ms8 anthers with fertile sibling samples at both the premeiotic and meiotic stages; proteins from 3.5 to 20 kDa were fractionated by 1-D PAGE, cleaved with Lys-C and then sequenced using a LTQ Orbitrap Velos MS paradigm. Three hundred and 59 proteins were identified with two or more assigned peptides in which each of those peptides were counted at least two or more times (0.4% peptide false discovery rate (FDR) and 0.2% protein FDR); 2761 proteins were identified with one or more assigned peptides (0.4% peptide FDR and 7.6% protein FDR). Stage-specific protein expression provides candidate stage markers for early anther development, and proteins specifically expressed in fertile compared to sterile anthers provide important clues about the regulation of meiosis. 49% of the proteins detected by this study are new to an independent whole anther proteome, and many small proteins missed by automated maize genome annotation were validated; these outcomes indicate the value of focusing on low molecular weight proteins. The roles of distinctive expressed proteins and methods for mass spectrometry of low molecular weight proteins are discussed. PMID:22748129

  1. Actin-related protein 2/3 complex-based actin polymerization is critical for male fertility.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Kwon, W S; Rahman, M S; Yoon, S J; Park, Y J; Pang, M G

    2015-09-01

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex is critical for regulation of actin polymerization, which is associated with sperm motility and capacitation status. However, the function of the Arp2/3 complex in male fertility has not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of the Arp2/3 complex in different processes in spermatozoa and its consequences on fertilization and early embryonic development. In this in vitro study, mouse spermatozoa were incubated with different concentrations (10, 100, and 500 μm) of CK-636, an Arp2/3 complex antagonist. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex by high concentrations (100 and 500 μm) of CK-636 induced hyper-activated motility and acrosomal reaction, whereas intracellular calcium and tyrosine phosphorylation levels in spermatozoa were inhibited. Moreover, exposure of spermatozoa to the highest concentration of CK-636 reduced fertilization and embryo development. Interestingly, fertilization was significantly increased after treatment with 100 μm CK-636, whereas embryonic development was significantly decreased. Therefore, we conclude that the Arp2/3 complex plays a decisive role in regulation of sperm function and male fertility via actin polymerization. We anticipate that the Arp2/3 complex may have clinical application as marker for male fertility and male contraceptive targeting.

  2. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHA1 and NHA2 control sperm motility and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Ren; Chen, M; Deng, S-L; Hao, X-X; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work identified NHA1, a testis-specific sodium-hydrogen exchanger, is specifically localized on the principal piece of mouse sperm flagellum. Our subsequent study suggested that the number of newborns and fertility rate of NHA1-vaccinated female mice are significantly stepped down. In order to define the physiological function of NHA1 in spermatozoa, we generated Nha1(Fx/Fx), Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha1 cKO) mice and found that Nha1 cKO males were viable and subfertile with reduced sperm motility. Notably, cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis by soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was attenuated in Nha1 cKO spermatozoa and cAMP analogs restored sperm motility. Similar to Nha1 cKO males, Nha2(Fx/Fx), Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha2 cKO) male mice were subfertile, indicating these two Nha genes may be functionally redundant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that male mice lacking Nha1 and Nha2 genes (hereafter called Nha1/2 dKO mice) were completely infertile, with severely diminished sperm motility owing to attenuated sAC-cAMP signaling. Importantly, principal piece distribution of NHA1 in spermatozoa are phylogenetically conserved in spermatogenesis. Collectively, our data revealed that NHA1 and NHA2 function as a key sodium-hydrogen exchanger responsible for sperm motility after leaving the cauda epididymidis. PMID:27010853

  3. Methyltestosterone efficiently induces male development in the self-fertilizing hermaphrodite fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Akira; Yamamura, Aki; Koshiba, Satoshi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Orlando, Edward F; Hori, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    A hermaphrodite fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, is the only known vertebrate that reproduces by self-fertilization. In nature, males have been rarely observed. Low-temperature treatment during late embryonic stages is known to induce males but its efficacy is variable. Here we report that 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) treatment of the embryos converted most of the fish to males. We examined a time course of this male induction with histological and marker gene expression analyses. Oogenesis started in the gonads of the control embryo at hatching; spermatogenesis did not start until two months after hatching. In the MT-treated fish, oogenesis started initially as in the control but stopped completely within one month after hatching. Instead, spermatogonial proliferation started earlier than in the control fish and progressed to full spermatogenesis. Expression profiles of the sex-specific marker genes corresponded well with histological observations. From one month after hatching, expression of an oocyte-specific marker, figalpha, and a testicular somatic cell marker, dmrt1, started to increase in the control and in the MT-treated fish, respectively.

  4. The Rapamycin-Sensitive Complex of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Is Essential to Maintain Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Schell, Christoph; Kretz, Oliver; Liang, Wei; Kiefer, Betina; Schneider, Simon; Sellung, Dominik; Bork, Tillmann; Leiber, Christian; Rüegg, Markus A; Mallidis, Con; Schlatt, Stefan; Mayerhofer, Artur; Huber, Tobias B; Grahammer, Florian

    2016-02-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor rapamycin and its analogs are being increasingly used in solid-organ transplantation. A commonly reported side effect is male subfertility to infertility, yet the precise mechanisms of mTOR interference with male fertility remain obscure. With the use of a conditional mouse genetic approach we demonstrate that deficiency of mTORC1 in the epithelial derivatives of the Wolffian duct is sufficient to cause male infertility. Analysis of spermatozoa from Raptor fl/fl*KspCre mice revealed an overall decreased motility pattern. Both epididymis and seminal vesicles displayed extensive organ regression with increasing age. Histologic and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated increased amounts of destroyed and absorbed spermatozoa in different segments of the epididymis. Mechanistically, genetic and pharmacologic mTORC1 inhibition was associated with an impaired cellular metabolism and a disturbed protein secretion of epididymal epithelial cells. Collectively, our data highlight the role of mTORC1 to preserve the function of the epididymis, ductus deferens, and the seminal vesicles. We thus reveal unexpected new insights into the frequently observed mTORC1 inhibitor side effect of male infertility in transplant recipients. PMID:26683665

  5. Sodium–hydrogen exchanger NHA1 and NHA2 control sperm motility and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Ren; Chen, M; Deng, S-L; Hao, X-X; Wang, X-X; Liu, Y-X

    2016-01-01

    Our previous work identified NHA1, a testis-specific sodium–hydrogen exchanger, is specifically localized on the principal piece of mouse sperm flagellum. Our subsequent study suggested that the number of newborns and fertility rate of NHA1-vaccinated female mice are significantly stepped down. In order to define the physiological function of NHA1 in spermatozoa, we generated Nha1Fx/Fx, Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha1 cKO) mice and found that Nha1 cKO males were viable and subfertile with reduced sperm motility. Notably, cyclic AMP (cAMP) synthesis by soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) was attenuated in Nha1 cKO spermatozoa and cAMP analogs restored sperm motility. Similar to Nha1 cKO males, Nha2Fx/Fx, Zp3-Cre (hereafter called Nha2 cKO) male mice were subfertile, indicating these two Nha genes may be functionally redundant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that male mice lacking Nha1 and Nha2 genes (hereafter called Nha1/2 dKO mice) were completely infertile, with severely diminished sperm motility owing to attenuated sAC-cAMP signaling. Importantly, principal piece distribution of NHA1 in spermatozoa are phylogenetically conserved in spermatogenesis. Collectively, our data revealed that NHA1 and NHA2 function as a key sodium–hydrogen exchanger responsible for sperm motility after leaving the cauda epididymidis. PMID:27010853

  6. Sperm calcineurin inhibition prevents mouse fertility with implications for male contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Mashiko, Daisuke; Muto, Masanaga; Nozawa, Kaori; Shiba, Kogiku; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Isotani, Ayako; Inaba, Kazuo; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-10-23

    Calcineurin inhibitors, such as cyclosporine A and FK506, are used as immunosuppressant drugs, but their adverse effects on male reproductive function remain unclear. The testis expresses somatic calcineurin and a sperm-specific isoform that contains a catalytic subunit (PPP3CC) and a regulatory subunit (PPP3R2). We demonstrate herein that male mice lacking Ppp3cc or Ppp3r2 genes (knockout mice) are infertile, with reduced sperm motility owing to an inflexible midpiece. Treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or FK506 creates phenocopies of the sperm motility and morphological defects. These defects appear within 4 to 5 days of treatment, which indicates that sperm-specific calcineurin confers midpiece flexibility during epididymal transit. Male mouse fertility recovered a week after we discontinued treatment. Because human spermatozoa contain PPP3CC and PPP3R2 as a form of calcineurin, inhibition of this sperm-specific calcineurin may lead to the development of a reversible male contraceptive that would target spermatozoa in the epididymis.

  7. G9a-mediated histone methylation regulates cadmium-induced male fertility damage in pubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Liu, Chuan; Yang, Lingling; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Lu, Yonghui; Feng, Wei; Pi, Huifeng; Zhang, Yanwen; Zhong, Min; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-06-11

    Increasing evidence suggests that cadmium (Cd) is associated with male fertility damage. However, the effects of histone modification on Cd-induced male fertility damage remain obscure. This study aims to evaluate the roles of histone methylation mediated by euchromatin histone methyltransferase (EHMT2/G9a) in regulating Cd-induced male fertility damage. We exposed 4-week-old male C57BL/6J mice to Cd by intraperitoneal injection at 2mg/kg for 1, 3 and 5days. Our data showed that Cd exposure decreased the numbers of impregnated females and litter sizes, which was concomitant with sperm count reduction, histological changes in the cauda epididymal ducts and seminiferous epithelium, and testicular cell apoptosis as evaluated by terminal dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay and immunoblotting with increased levels of cleaved caspase 3, PARP and Bax and a decreased level of Bcl-2. Cd-induced male fertility damage was accompanied by enhanced G9a activity followed by increased histone H3 lysine 9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and dimethylation (H3K9me2) in testes. Furthermore, inhibition of G9a by BIX-01294 normalized H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 to basal levels and prevented Cd-induced male fertility damage and testicular cell apoptosis. Our present study revealed that G9a-mediated histone methylation plays a critical role in Cd-induced male fertility damage and testicular cell apoptosis. PMID:27060504

  8. Protective effects of cornus mas extract on in vitro fertilization potential in methotrexate treated male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Leila; Shahrooz, Rasoul; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Ahmadi, Abbas; Bakhtiary, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Current study was aimed to evaluating protective effects of cornus mas fruit extract (CMFE) in mice treated with methotrexate (MTX). For this purpose, 48 young mature male mice were divided into 6 groups. Control group received only normal saline (0.1 mL per day, intraperitoneally), and the second group was administered MTX (20 mg kg-1 per week, intraperitoneally). The third, fourth and fifth groups received MTX daily oral doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 CMFE as well as MTX. The sixth group was only given CMFE with a dose of 1000 mg kg-1 per day, orally, for 35 days. Then, the animals were anesthetically euthanized and the sperms were separated from epididymis. DNA damage level, the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as in vitro fertility was evaluated. The number of sperms with damaged DNA and MDA level in MTX-treated group showed a significant increase compared to control group (p < 0.05). In groups receiving CMFE along with MTX, DNA damage level and MDA amount suggested a decrease in comparison with MTX group (p < 0.05). Also, in vitro fertilization and embryonic development in MTX-treated group was significantly lower than the control group, and the level of embryonic arresting was higher (p < 0.05). In groups which received CMFE along with MTX, in vitro fertility and embryonic development was higher than MTX group (p < 0.05) and the arrested embryos showed a decrease. This study suggested that cornus mas is able to ameliorate the side effects of MTX. PMID:25992252

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity upon the hormonal and molecular mechanisms controlling spermatogenesis and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lien M; Millar, Kate; Jones, Celine; Fatum, Muhammad; Coward, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide obesity rates have nearly doubled since 1980 and currently over 10% of the population is obese. In 2008, over 1.4 billion adults aged 20 years and older had a body mass index or BMI above a healthy weight and of these, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women were obese. While obesity can have many ramifications upon adult life, one growing area of concern is that of reproductive capacity. Obesity affects male infertility by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thus causing detrimental effects upon spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility. In particular, evidence indicates that excess adipose tissue can alter the relative ratio of testosterone and oestrogen. Additional effects involve the homeostatic disruption of insulin, sex-hormone-binding-globulin, leptin and inhibin B, leading to diminished testosterone production and impairment to spermatogenesis. Aberrant spermatogenesis arising from obesity is associated with downstream changes in key semen parameters, defective sperm capacitation and binding, and deleterious effects on sperm chromatin structure. More recent investigations into trans-generational epigenetic inheritance further suggest that molecular changes in sperm that arise from obesity-related impaired spermatogenesis, such as modified sperm RNA levels, DNA methylation, protamination and histone acetylation, can impact upon the development of offspring. Here, we summarise our current understanding of how obesity exerts influence over spermatogenesis and subsequent fertility status, and make recommendations for future investigative research.

  10. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda). Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the “classical” methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools). However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment. PMID:25966625

  11. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda). Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools). However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment. PMID:25966625

  12. Ssb2/Nabp1 is dispensable for thymic maturation, male fertility, and DNA repair in mice.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Didier; Vu, Therese; Bain, Amanda L; Tagliaro-Jahns, Marina; Shi, Wei; Lane, Steven W; Khanna, Kum Kum

    2015-08-01

    SSB1 and SSB2 are newly identified single-stranded (ss) DNA binding proteins that play a crucial role in genome maintenance in humans. We recently generated a knockout mouse model of Ssb1 and revealed its essential role for neonatal survival. Notably, we found compensatory up-regulation of Ssb2 protein levels in multiple tissues of conditional Ssb1(-/-) mice, suggesting functional compensation between these 2 proteins. We report here the first description of Ssb2(-/-) knockout mice. Surprisingly, unlike Ssb1 knockout mice, Ssb2(-/-) mice are viable and fertile and do not exhibit marked phenotypic changes when compared with their Ssb2(+/+) and Ssb2(+/-) littermates. Notably, we did not detect any pathologic changes in the thymus, spleen, or testes, tissues with the most abundant expression of Ssb2. Moreover, Ssb2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) did not show any sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, or defects in DNA repair capacity. However, we observed modest up-regulation of Ssb1 levels in Ssb2(-/-) MEFs as well as in Ssb2(-/-) thymus and spleen, suggesting that Ssb1 is likely able to compensate for the loss of Ssb2 in mice. Altogether, our results show that Ssb2 is dispensable for embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis, including thymopoiesis, splenic development, male fertility, and DNA repair in mice.

  13. Biobanking efforts and new advances in male fertility preservation for rare and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Comizzoli, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and sustaining biodiversity is a multi-disciplinary science that benefits highly from the creation of organized and accessible collections of biomaterials (Genome Resource Banks). Large cryo-collections are invaluable tools for understanding, cataloging, and protecting the genetic diversity of the world's unique animals and plants. Specifically, the systematic collection and preservation of semen from rare species has been developed significantly in recent decades with some biobanks now being actively used for endangered species management and propagation (including the introduction of species such as the black-footed ferret and the giant panda). Innovations emerging from the growing field of male fertility preservation for humans, livestock species, and laboratory animals are also becoming relevant to the protection and the propagation of valuable domestic and wild species. These new approaches extend beyond the "classical" methods associated with sperm freezing to include testicular tissue preservation combined with xenografting or in vitro culture, all of which have potential for rescuing vast amounts of unused germplasm. There also are other options under development that are predicted to have a high impact within the next decade (stem cell technologies, bio-stabilization of sperm cells at ambient temperatures, and the use of genomics tools). However, biobanking efforts and new fertility preservation strategies have to expand the way beyond mammalian species, which will offer knowledge and tools to better manage species that serve as valuable biomedical models or require assistance to reverse endangerment.

  14. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C

    2002-03-01

    According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats.

  15. Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds inhibits sexual competence but not fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C

    2002-03-01

    According to Ayurvedic literature of Sri Lanka, roasted seeds of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Family: Moraceae) has aphrodisiac activity. However, some reproductively active young men in rural areas of Sri Lanka claim that consumption of these seeds few hours prior to coitus disrupts sexual function. Because of these two conflicting claims, it was thought useful to scientifically investigate the effects of A. heterophyllus seeds on male sexual function and fertility. This was done using a seed suspension in 1% methylcellulose (SS) in rats. In a sexual behaviour study using receptive female rats, an oral administration of 500 mg/kg dose of SS markedly inhibited libido, sexual arousal, sexual vigour and sexual performance within 2 hr. Further, the treatment induced a mild erectile dysfunction. These antimasculine effects on sexual function was not evident 6 hr post treatment indicating rapid onset and offset of action. Further, these actions on the sexual behaviour was not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, stress or reduction in blood testosterone level but due to marked sedative activity. In a mating study, SS failed to alter ejaculating competence and fertility. These results suggest that A. heterophyllous seeds do not have aphrodisiac action, at least, in rats. PMID:12635700

  16. Prtl99C Acts Together with Protamines and Safeguards Male Fertility in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Eren-Ghiani, Zeynep; Rathke, Christina; Theofel, Ina; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2015-12-22

    The formation of motile spermatozoa involves the highly conserved formation of protamine-rich, tightly packed chromatin. However, genetic loss of protamine function in Drosophila and mice does not lead to significant decompaction of sperm chromatin. This indicates that other proteins act redundantly or together with protamines. Here, we identify Prtl99C as a Drosophila sperm chromatin-associated protein that is essential for male fertility. Whereas the loss of protamines results in modest elongation of sperm nuclei, knockdown of Prtl99C has a much stronger effect on sperm nuclei. Loss of protamines and Prtl99C indicates an additive effect of these proteins on chromatin compaction, in agreement with independent loading of these factors into sperm chromatin. These data reveal that at least three chromatin-binding proteins act together in chromatin reorganization to compact the paternal chromatin.

  17. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    PubMed Central

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtained under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol. Results Fifty males, aged 18-65 years (mean 39±16.03 years) volunteered to be part of this study. The mean reported age for the onset of puberty was 12.39 years (95% CI, 11.99-12.80 years), 13.59 years (95% CI, 13.05-14.12 years) for the first ejaculation, 12.56 years (95% CI, 11.80-13.32 years) for the start of masturbation, and 17.26 years (95% CI, 16.18-18.33 years) for the first experienced intercourse. Seventy-five percent of the cohort reached puberty by the age of 13.33, experienced masturbation by 14.5, first ejaculated by the age of 14.83, and had intercourse at age of 19.15 years. The first experienced ejaculation fell 1.5 years after the onset of puberty in 80% present of the cohort, and 84% starts masturbation 1.5 years after the onset of puberty. The mean response between the younger and the older subject was not statistical significance. Conclusions It is appropriate to consider a request for semen specimens by masturbation from teenagers at one year and six months after the onset of puberty; the onset age of puberty plus 1.5 years is an important predictor of ejaculation and sample collection for cryopreservation. PMID:26813354

  18. The influence of male parr body size and mate competition on fertilization success and effective population size in Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Jones, M W; Hutchings, J A

    2001-06-01

    Alternative mating strategies in male Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are characterized by variability in body size and mate competition. Controlling breeding numbers of larger, older anadromous males, we examined whether body size of mature male parr influenced fertilization success and whether such an association was affected by mate competition among parr. Variation at three to four hypervariable microsatellite loci was used to determine individual paternity of 53-60 offspring from two or three nests from each experimental treatment. Although individual and total parr reproductive success differed significantly among nests within treatments, there was no relationship between parr size and individual reproductive success at any level of competition when anadromous males were involved. However, in a single treatment having no anadromous male, the influence of body size on parr fertilization success was highly significant. Combining data from all treatments, parr body size was an important predictor of the probability of an individual being involved in spawning. We found a negative relationship between total parr reproductive success and intensity of anadromous male competition. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to estimate the effective number of males from individual fertilization success in fish. Our estimates of Ne should not be taken as absolute and may have a downward bias because we did not sample all nests and we used a proxy for lifetime reproductive success. They do, however, illustrate how mature male parr can greatly increase the effective number of males when the latter is estimated from anadromous individuals alone. Although reproductive success by mature male parr increases the effective number of males, this increase seems likely to be most pronounced in natural populations when the number of anadromous males is low.

  19. Pre-chemotherapy preservation of fertility in male patients with high-grade malignant bone and soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Manabu; Oebisu, Naoto; Takada, Jun; Iwai, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Rie; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Only a limited number of orthopedic oncologists make arrangements for pre-chemotherapy fertility preservation, such as sperm cryopreservation, for their patients. The purpose of this study was to offer fertility preservation to male patients with high-grade malignant bone and soft tissue tumors and assess the outcomes. The study included 14 male patients, aged <45 years, with high-grade bone and soft tissue tumors. The median age at diagnosis was 23.0±12.0 years (range, 8-42 years). Following pathological confirmation of high-grade malignant tumor, we informed all the patients and/or their guardians on the issue of chemotherapy-related male infertility. If the patients were interested in preserving fertility, they were referred to a team of reproductive specialists. We documented the patients' clinical characteristics and techniques used for fertility preservation. The majority of unmarried and childless patients were interested in fertility preservation. Four patients (28.5%) selected sperm cryopreservation and 1 patient (7.1%) selected hemi-testicular preservation, as he had developed erectile dysfunction following previous surgery for colon cancer. Married patients and those with children did not wish to preserve fertility. In conclusion, infertility following chemotherapy raises serious concerns for young male patients with high-grade bone and soft tissue tumors. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, the potential risks of chemotherapy should be explained, counseling should be provided and informed consent should be obtained from the patients, ideally without delaying commencement of cancer treatment. Prior to administering cancer chemotherapy, orthopedic oncologists are encouraged to offer sperm banking to young male patients at risk of infertility. PMID:25279207

  20. Singular features of fertilization and their impact on the male reproductive system in eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J Michael

    2014-02-01

    Therian (marsupial and eutherian) mammals have evolved a suite of novel reproductive features - seen variously in their gametes, the steps of fertilization and the male reproductive tract - whose adaptive significance remains unclear. Present evidence for the better-understood eutherian mammals suggests that the 'prime mover' in their evolution has been the character of the egg coat, with other such features being adaptations to the consequences of this. Its elastic thickness allows the zona pellucida to stretch to a variable degree and yet remain around the blastocyst during much or all of its expansion before implantation, but its character represents an unusual challenge for spermatozoa. Novel aspects of the acrosome related to this challenge enable it to maintain a relatively prolonged binding after the onset of the acrosome reaction, and the structure, shape and behaviour of the sperm head point to physical thrust as a major element of zona penetration - with the unique configuration of gamete fusion as a sequela of this strategy. In the male, such adaptations are reflected in sperm head formation in the testis and in sperm maturation in the epididymis involving at least the sperm head's structure, plasmalemma and acrosome. This complexity allied to a slow epididymal sperm transport, a relatively modest sperm production and the brief life span of mature spermatozoa kept above the cauda epididymidis could account for the evolution of the sperm storage function - a development seemingly linked, in turn, to the need for sperm capacitation and scrotal evolution.

  1. The forkhead transcription factor, FOXP3: a critical role in male fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Jasurda, Jake S; Jung, Deborah O; Froeter, Erin D; Schwartz, David B; Hopkins, Torin D; Farris, Corrie L; McGee, Stacey; Narayan, Prema; Ellsworth, Buffy S

    2014-01-01

    Fertility is dependent on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Each component of this axis is essential for normal reproductive function. Mice with a mutation in the forkhead transcription factor gene, Foxp3, exhibit autoimmunity and infertility. We have previously shown that Foxp3 mutant mice have significantly reduced expression of pituitary gonadotropins. To address the role of Foxp3 in gonadal function, we examined the gonadal phenotype of these mice. Foxp3 mutant mice have significantly reduced seminal vesicle and testis weights compared with Foxp3(+/Y) littermates. Spermatogenesis in Foxp3 mutant males is arrested prior to spermatid elongation. Activation of luteinizing hormone signaling in Foxp3 mutant mice by treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin significantly increases seminal vesicle and testis weights as well as testicular testosterone content and seminiferous tubule diameter. Interestingly, human chorionic gonadotropin treatments rescue spermatogenesis in Foxp3 mutant males, suggesting that their gonadal phenotype is due primarily to a loss of pituitary gonadotropin stimulation rather than an intrinsic gonadal defect.

  2. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  3. The SCF/c-KIT system in the male: Survival strategies in fertility and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Henrique J; Figueira, Marília I; Correia, Sara; Vaz, Cátia V; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-12-01

    Maintaining the delicate balance between cell survival and death is of the utmost importance for the proper development of germ cells and subsequent fertility. On the other hand, the fine regulation of tissue homeostasis by mechanisms that control cell fate is a factor that can prevent carcinogenesis. c-KIT is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase activated by its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF). c-KIT signaling plays a crucial role in cell fate decisions, specifically controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Indeed, deregulating the SCF/c-KIT system by attenuation or overactivation of its signaling strength is linked to male infertility and cancer, and rebalancing its activity via c-KIT inhibitors has proven beneficial in treating human tumors that contain gain-of-function mutations or overexpress c-KIT. This review addresses the roles of SCF and c-KIT in the male reproductive tract, and discusses the potential application of c-KIT target therapies in disorders of the reproductive system. PMID:25359157

  4. Testicular connexin 43, a precocious molecular target for the effect of environmental toxicants on male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Gilleron, Jérôme; Carette, Diane; Segretain, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Many recent epidemiological, clinical and experimental findings support the hypothesis that environmental toxicants are responsible for the increasing male reproductive disorders (congenital malformations, declining sperm counts and testicular cancer) over the past 20 years. It has also been reported that exposure to these toxicants, during critical periods of development (fetal and neonatal), represents a more considerable risk for animals and humans than exposure during adulthood. However, the molecular targets for these chemicals have not been clearly identified. Recent studies showed that a family of transmembranous proteins, named connexins, regulates numerous physiological processes involved in testicular development and function, such as Sertoli and germ cell proliferation, differentiation, germ cell migration and apoptosis. In the testis, knockout strategy revealed that connexin 43, the predominant connexin in this organ, is essential for spermatogenesis. In addition, there is evidence that many environmental toxicants could alter testicular connexin 43 by dysregulation of numerous mechanisms controlling its function. In the present work, we propose first to give an overview of connexin expression and intercellular gap junction coupling in the developing fetal and neonatal testes. Second, we underline the impact of maternally chemical exposure on connexin 43 expression in the perinatal developing testis. Lastly, we attempt to link this precocious effect to male offspring fertility. PMID:22332114

  5. EXTENSIN18 is required for full male fertility as well as normal vegetative growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pratibha; Saha, Prasenjit; Ray, Tui; Tang, Yuhong; Yang, David; Cannon, Maura C.

    2015-01-01

    EXTENSINS (EXTs) are a 65-member subfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) of which 20 putatively form crosslinking networks in the cell wall. These 20 classical EXTs are involved at the start of new wall assembly as evidenced by a requirement for EXT3 during cytokinesis, and the ability of some EXTs to polymerize in vitro into dendritic patterns. EXT3 was previously shown to form pulcherosine (three Tyrosines) cross-links. Little direct data exists on the other 19 classical EXTs. Here, we describe the phenotypes of ext18 mutants and rescued progeny as well as associated expression profiles of all 20 classical EXT genes. We found that EXT18 is required for full male fertility, as well as for normal vegetative growth. EXT18 has potential to form crosslinking networks via di-iso-di-tyrosine (four Tyrosines) covalent bonds, and not via pulcherosine due to deficit of lone Tyrosines. This together with ext18 defective pollen grains and pollen tubes, and reduced plant size, suggests that EXT18-type EXTs are important contributors to wall integrity, in pollen and other rapidly extending walls. The data also show that a knockout of EXT18 had a pleiotropic affect on the expression of several EXTs, as did the reintroduction of the native EXT18 gene, thus supporting the thesis that transcription of groups of EXTs are co-regulated and work in different combinations to make distinctive inputs into wall assembly of different cell types. These insights contribute to basic knowledge of cell wall self-assembly in different cell types, and potentially enable biotechnological advances in biomass increase and plant fertility control. PMID:26257758

  6. Genital morphology and fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus: an example of sexually selected male genitalia.

    PubMed

    House, Clarissa M; Simmons, Leigh W

    2003-03-01

    In animals with internal fertilization and promiscuous mating, male genitalia show rapid and divergent evolution. Three hypotheses have been suggested to explain the evolutionary processes responsible for genital evolution: the lock-and-key hypothesis, the pleiotropy hypothesis and the sexual-selection hypothesis. Here, we determine whether variation in male genital morphology influences fertilization success in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, as predicted by the sexual-selection hypothesis. Variation in four out of five genital sclerites of the endophallus influenced a male's fertilization success, supporting the general hypothesis that male genitalia can evolve under sexual selection. Furthermore, different genital sclerites were found to enhance first versus second male paternity, indicating that different sclerites serve offensive and defensive roles. Genital-trait variability was comparable to that in other species but was less variable than a non-genital sexually selected trait (head horns). We suggest that directional selection for genital elaboration may be countered by natural selection, which should favour genitalia of a size and shape necessary for efficient coupling and sperm transfer.

  7. Performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea: analysis of paternity and fertilization success in a natural population of a red seaweed, Gracilaria gracilis

    PubMed Central

    Engel, C. R.; Wattier, R.; Destombe, C.; Valero, M.

    1999-01-01

    In haploid–diploid red seaweeds, the dispersal of male gametes is presumed limited due to their lack of flagella. It has been suggested that this group suffers from sperm limitation and, consequently, that fertilization is relatively inefficient. Fertilization in most floridean rhodophytes results in the formation a cystocarp, a swelling on the haploid female thallus housing the diploid zygote and its thousands of diploid daughter spores. To study the performance of non-motile male gametes in the sea, we evaluated both female and male fertilization success in a natural population of the red marine alga Gracilaria gracilis. Female fertilization success, estimated by cystocarp yield per unit female thallus, was evaluated with respect to the availability of male gametes. Male fertilization success, estimated by the individual contribution of different males to zygotes, was assessed by paternity analyses on 350 cystocarps produced in one reproductive season using two microsatellite loci. The results show that cystocarp yield is not sperm limited and that the large variation in male fertilization success cannot be solely explained by the distance travelled by the male gamete to find a mate. Taken together, the results suggest that, not only is fertilization efficient, but that male–male competition and/or female choice may play a role in shaping population mating patterns.

  8. Dose-Dependent Adverse Effects of Salinomycin on Male Reproductive Organs and Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Olajumoke Omolara; Bhadauria, Smrati; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Salinomycin is used as an antibiotic in animal husbandry. Its implication in cancer therapy has recently been proposed. Present study evaluated the toxic effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice. Doses of 1, 3 or 5 mg/kg of Salinomycin were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 h of the last treatment and other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Effects of SAL on body and reproductive organ weights were studied. Histoarchitecture of testis and epididymis was evaluated along with ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells. Serum and testicular testosterone and luteinizing hormones were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured. Spermatozoa count, morphology, motility and fertility were evaluated. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage proteins (CYP11A1) were assessed by Western blotting. Salinomycin treatment was lethal to few mice and retarded body growth in others with decreased weight of testes and seminal vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Seminiferous tubules in testes were disrupted and the epithelium of epididymis showed frequent occurrence of vacuolization and necrosis. Leydig cells showed hypertrophied cytoplasm with shrunken nuclei, condensed mitochondria, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum and increased number of lipid droplets. Salinomycin decreased motility and spermatozoa count with increased number of abnormal spermatozoa leading to infertility. The testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were decreased in testis but increased in serum at higher doses. Depletion of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione with increased lipid peroxidation in both testis and epididymis indicated generation of oxidative stress. Suppressed expression of StAR and CYP11A1 proteins indicates inhibition of steroidogenesis

  9. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Toppari, Jorma; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Eisenberg, Michael L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Sapra, Katherine J; Ziebe, Søren; Priskorn, Lærke; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography. PMID:26582516

  10. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Toppari, Jorma; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Eisenberg, Michael L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Sapra, Katherine J; Ziebe, Søren; Priskorn, Lærke; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography.

  11. Gene dosage of Otx2 is important for fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Larder, Rachel; Kimura, Ikuo; Meadows, Jason; Clark, Daniel D; Mayo, Susan; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-09-01

    Together, the hypothalamus, pituitary and gonads direct the development and regulation of reproductive function in mammals. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression is limited to ∼800 neurons that originate in the olfactory placode then migrate to the hypothalamus. Coordination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is dependent upon correct neuronal migration of GnRH neurons into the hypothalamus followed by proper synthesis and pulsatile secretion of GnRH. Defects in any one of these processes causes infertility. Otx2, the vertebrate homologue of Drosophila orthodenticle, is a transcription factor that has been shown to be critical for normal brain and eye development and is expressed in both the developing GnRH neurons and the pituitary, suggesting that this gene may play a critical role in development of the HPG axis. As Otx2-null mice are embryonic lethal, we have analyzed the reproductive capacity of heterozygous Otx2 mice to determine the contribution of Otx2 gene dosage to normal HPG axis function. Our data reveal that correct dosage of Otx2 is critical for normal fertility as loss of one allele of Otx2 leads to a discernible reproductive phenotype in male mice due to disruption of the migration of GnRH neurons during development.

  12. Transcription of gypsy elements in a Y-chromosome male fertility gene of Drosophila hydei

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstenbach, R.; Harhangi, H.; Hennig, W.

    1996-02-01

    We have found that defective gypsy retrotransposons are a major constituent of the lampbrush loop pair Nooses in the short arm of Y chromosome of Drosophila hydei. The loop pair is formed by male fertility gene Q during the primary spermatocyte stage of spermatogenesis, each loop being a single transcription unit with an estimated length of 260 kb. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we show that throughout the loop transcripts gypsy elements are interspersed with blocks of a tandemly repetitive Y-specific DNA sequence, ayl. Nooses transcripts containing both sequence types show a wide size range on Northern blots, do not migrate to the cytoplasm, and are degraded just before the first meiotic division. Only one strand of ayl and only the coding strand of gypsy can be detected in the loop transcripts. However, as cloned genomic DNA fragments also display opposite orientations of ayl and gypsy, such DNA sections cannot be part of the Nooses. Hence, they are most likely derived from the flanking heterochromatin. The direction of transcription of ayl and gypsy thus appears to be of a functional significance. 76 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate) is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because they transferred more sperm or

  14. Are old males still good males and can females tell the difference? Do hidden advantages of mating with old males off-set costs related to fertility, or are we missing something else?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L; Gemmell, Neil J

    2012-07-01

    Sperm function generally declines with male age. Paradoxically, females of many species still choose to mate with old males rather than young males. Females choosing old mates may suffer reduced fertilization rates and an increased incidence of birth defects in offspring, lowering fitness which may in turn lead to conflict between the sexes. This apparent paradox has generated much interest from theorists, but whether this paradox presents in nature remains equivocal. Empirical studies have found mixed support for both a decline in fertility with male age and age-based female mate preference. Here, we examine recent evidence for this paradox, identify confounding variables, highlight areas that deserve further investigation, and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:22581618

  15. Insulin rescues impaired spermatogenesis via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in Akita diabetic mice and restores male fertility.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Erica L; Albanna, Gabriella; Frolova, Antonina I; Moley, Kelle H

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism responsible for poor reproductive outcomes in type 1 diabetic males is not well understood. In light of new evidence that the Sertoli cells of the testis secrete insulin, it is currently unclear whether diabetic subfertility is the result of deficiency of pancreatic insulin, testicular insulin, or both. In this study, the Akita mouse diabetic model, which expresses a mutant, nonfunctional form of ins2 in testes and pancreas, was used to distinguish between systemic and local effects of insulin deficiency on the process of spermatogenesis and fertility. We determined that Akita homozygous male mice are infertile and have reduced testis size and abnormal morphology. Spermatogonial germ cells are still present but are unable to mature into spermatocytes and spermatids. Exogenous insulin treatment regenerates testes and restores fertility, but this plasma insulin cannot pass through the blood-testis barrier. We conclude that insulin does not rescue fertility through direct interaction with the testis; instead, it restores function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and, thus, normalizes hormone levels of luteinizing hormone and testosterone. Although we show that the Sertoli cells of the testis secrete insulin protein, this insulin does not appear to be critical for fertility.

  16. Restoration of spermatogenesis and male fertility using an androgen receptor transgene.

    PubMed

    Walker, William H; Easton, Evan; Moreci, Rebecca S; Toocheck, Corey; Anamthathmakula, Prashanth; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam

    2015-01-01

    Androgens signal through the androgen receptor (AR) to regulate male secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive tract development, prostate function, sperm production, bone and muscle mass as well as body hair growth among other functions. We developed a transgenic mouse model in which endogenous AR expression was replaced by a functionally modified AR transgene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) was constructed containing all AR exons and introns plus 40 kb each of 5' and 3' regulatory sequence. Insertion of an internal ribosome entry site and the EGFP gene 3' to AR allowed co-expression of AR and EGFP. Pronuclear injection of the BAC resulted in six founder mice that displayed EGFP production in appropriate AR expressing tissues. The six founder mice were mated into a Sertoli cell specific AR knockout (SCARKO) background in which spermatogenesis is blocked at the meiosis stage of germ cell development. The AR-EGFP transgene was expressed in a cyclical manner similar to that of endogenous AR in Sertoli cells and fertility was restored as offspring were produced in the absence of Sertoli cell AR. Thus, the AR-EGFP transgene under the control of AR regulatory elements is capable of rescuing AR function in a cell selective, AR-null background. These initial studies provide proof of principle that a strategy employing the AR-EGFP transgene can be used to understand AR functions. Transgenic mice expressing selective modifications of the AR-EGFP transgene may provide crucial information needed to elicit the molecular mechanisms by which AR acts in the testis and other androgen responsive tissues. PMID:25803277

  17. Significance of microRNA targeted estrogen receptor in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Abhari, Alireza; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Shahnazi, Vahideh; Barzegar, Abolfazl; Farzadi, Laya; Karami, Hadi; Zununi Vahed, Sepideh; Nouri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) mediates estrogen action in regulation of different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis. It has a key role in spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptor alpha knock-out (ER koα) male mice were infertile and severe impairment in spermatogenesis and seminiferous tubules was observed. Recently, it has been reported that microRNA (miRNA) mir-100 and let-7b were predicted to target ERα gene. MiRNA are small, endogenous, single stranded RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and have been implicated in various disease states. It has been proved that some miRNAs expression is tissue- and disease-specific, giving potential for identifying miRNAs as a diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: In this study, the change in the expression levels of mir-100, let-7b and ERα expression levels were evaluated in oligospermic infertile patients (n=43) compared to control fertile subjects (n=43). After washing and separating sperms, total RNA was isolated and then cDNA was synthesized. The expression levels of mir-100 and let-7b and ERα were evaluated by real time PCR. Results: Mir-100, let-7b levels were significantly higher than those in control group (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). We have found that, ERα level was significantly decreased in comparison with normal group (P< 0.0001). Conclusion: Changes in mir-100, let-7b and ERα expression levels in oligospermic patients may be associated with the susceptibility and progression of infertility. The results of this study indicate that miRNA can have a key role in spermatogenesis and might have a diagnostic and prognostic value in men infertility. PMID:24711889

  18. The catalytic function of hormone-sensitive lipase is essential for fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu Pei; Wu, Jiang Wei; Bourdages, Hugo; Lefebvre, Jean François; Casavant, Stéphanie; Leavitt, Blair R; Labuda, Damian; Trasler, Jacquetta; Smith, Charles E; Hermo, Louis; Mitchell, Grant A

    2014-08-01

    In male mice, deficiency of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL, Lipe gene, E.C.3.1.1.3) causes deficient spermatogenesis, azoospermia, and infertility. Postmeiotic germ cells express a specific HSL isoform that includes a 313 amino acid N-terminus encoded by a testis-specific exon (exon T1). The remainder of testicular HSL is identical to adipocyte HSL. The amino acid sequence of the testis-specific exon is poorly conserved, showing only a 46% amino acid identity with orthologous human and rat sequences, compared with 87% over the remainder of the HSL coding sequence, providing no evidence in favor of a vital functional role for the testis-specific N-terminus of HSL. However, exon T1 is important for Lipe transcription; in mouse testicular mRNA, we identified 3 major Lipe transcription start sites, finding numerous testicular transcription factor binding motifs upstream of the transcription start site. We directly explored two possible mechanisms for the infertility of HSL-deficient mice, using mice that expressed mutant HSL transgenes only in postmeiotic germ cells on a HSL-deficient background. One transgene expressed human HSL lacking enzyme activity but containing the testis-specific N-terminus (HSL-/-muttg mice). The other transgene expressed catalytically inactive HSL with the testis-specific N-terminal peptide (HSL-/-atg mice). HSL-/-muttg mice were infertile, with abnormal histology of the seminiferous epithelium and absence of spermatozoa in the epididymal lumen. In contrast, HSL-/-atg mice had normal fertility and normal testicular morphology. In conclusion, whereas the catalytic function of HSL is necessary for spermatogenesis in mice, the presence of the N-terminal testis-specific fragment is not essential.

  19. EndPoints 2000

    2009-08-13

    The application leads the user through a logical framework to determine the minimum effort and cost necessary to reach the desired end state for each space, system, and facility. Endpoints are used to plan the project work, track and manage the determination, management, verification, and closure of D&D endpoints, consistent with DOE End Point guidance documents.

  20. Gendered Divisions of Fertility Work: Socioeconomic Predictors of Female versus Male Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic labor researchers have examined a multitude of duties disproportionately performed by women, yet the responsibility associated with navigating a couple's fertility--fertility work--has been overlooked. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth ("N" = 1,415), the author examined how racial and socioeconomic factors…

  1. Characterization of Raphanus sativus pentatricopeptide repeat proteins encoded by the fertility restorer locus for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Uyttewaal, M; Arnal, N; Quadrado, M; Martin-Canadell, A; Vrielynck, N; Hiard, S; Gherbi, H; Bendahmane, A; Budar, F; Mireau, H

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA.

  2. Characterization of Raphanus sativus pentatricopeptide repeat proteins encoded by the fertility restorer locus for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Uyttewaal, M; Arnal, N; Quadrado, M; Martin-Canadell, A; Vrielynck, N; Hiard, S; Gherbi, H; Bendahmane, A; Budar, F; Mireau, H

    2008-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility is a maternally inherited trait in higher plants that prevents the production of functional pollen. Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility in radish (Raphanus sativus) is regulated by the orf138 mitochondrial locus. Male fertility can be restored when orf138 accumulation is suppressed by the nuclear Rfo locus, which consists of three genes putatively encoding highly similar pentatricopeptide repeat proteins (PPR-A, -B, and -C). We produced transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) plants separately expressing PPR-A and PPR-B and demonstrated that both encoded proteins accumulated preferentially in the anthers of young flower buds. Immunodetection of ORF138 showed that, unlike PPR-B, PPR-A had no effect on the synthesis of the sterility protein. Moreover, immunolocalization experiments indicated that complete elimination of ORF138 from the tapetum of anthers correlated with the restoration of fertility. Thus, the primary role of PPR-B in restoring fertility is to inhibit ORF138 synthesis in the tapetum of young anthers. In situ hybridization experiments confirmed, at the cellular level, that PPR-B has no effect on the accumulation of orf138 mRNA. Lastly, immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PPR-B, but not PPR-A, is associated with the orf138 RNA in vivo, linking restoration activity with the ability to directly or indirectly interact with the orf138 RNA. Together, our data support a role for PPR-B in the translational regulation of orf138 mRNA. PMID:19098270

  3. Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F.; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health. PMID:26497140

  4. Heterosis Increases Fertility, Fecundity, and Survival of Laboratory-Produced F1 Hybrid Males of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Ekechukwu, Nkiru E; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Catteruccia, Flaminia; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    The success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically-modified male mosquitoes critically depends on mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females. Unfortunately, mosquito colonization, laboratory rearing, and genetic manipulations can all negatively affect male competitiveness. Heterosis is commonly used to produce domestic animals with enhanced vigor and homogenous genetic background and could therefore potentially improve the mating performance of mass-reared male mosquitoes. Here, we produced enhanced hybrid males of the malaria mosquito Anopheles coluzzii by crossing two strains colonized >35 and 8 years ago. We compared the amount of sperm and mating plug proteins they transferred to females, as well as their insemination rate, reproductive success and longevity under various experimental conditions. Across experiments, widespread adaptations to laboratory mating were detected in the older strain. In large-group mating experiments, no overall hybrid advantage in insemination rates and the amount of sperm and accessory gland proteins transferred to females was detected. Despite higher sperm activity, hybrid males did not appear more fecund. However, individual-male mating and laboratory-swarm experiments revealed that hybrid males, while inseminating fewer females than older inbred males, were significantly more fertile, producing larger mating plugs and drastically increasing female fecundity. Heterotic males also showed increased longevity. These results validate the use of heterosis for creating hybrid males with improved fitness from long-established inbred laboratory strains. Therefore, this simple approach could facilitate disease control strategies based on male mosquito releases with important ultimate benefits to human health.

  5. EVALUATION OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE IN THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM'S MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL: ABILITY TO DETECT EFFECTS OF THYROID ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Tier 1 male pubertal protocol was designed to detect reproductive development and thyroid function. One purpose of this in vivo protocol is to detect thyrotoxicants via a number of different mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate ...

  6. RAN-Binding Protein 9 is Involved in Alternative Splicing and is Critical for Male Germ Cell Development and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Li, Jiachen; Zhang, Ying; Bhetwal, Bhupal P.; Zheng, Huili; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the large Ran-binding protein family, Ran-binding protein 9 (RANBP9) has been suggested to play a critical role in diverse cellular functions in somatic cell lineages in vitro, and this is further supported by the neonatal lethality phenotype in Ranbp9 global knockout mice. However, the exact molecular actions of RANBP9 remain largely unknown. By inactivation of Ranbp9 specifically in testicular somatic and spermatogenic cells, we discovered that Ranbp9 was dispensable for Sertoli cell development and functions, but critical for male germ cell development and male fertility. RIP-Seq and proteomic analyses revealed that RANBP9 was associated with multiple key splicing factors and directly targeted >2,300 mRNAs in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Many of the RANBP9 target and non-target mRNAs either displayed aberrant splicing patterns or were dysregulated in the absence of Ranbp9. Our data uncovered a novel role of Ranbp9 in regulating alternative splicing in spermatogenic cells, which is critical for normal spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:25474150

  7. Molecular mapping of three male-sterile, female-fertile mutants and generation of a comprehensive map of all known male sterility genes in soybean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Speth, Benjamin D; Boonyoo, Napatsakorn; Baumert, Eric; Atkinson, Taylor R; Palmer, Reid G; Sandhu, Devinder

    2014-03-01

    In soybean, an environmentally stable male sterility system is vital for making hybrid seed production commercially viable. Eleven male-sterile, female-fertile mutants (ms1, ms2, ms3, ms4, ms5, ms6, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been identified in soybean. Of these, eight (ms2, ms3, ms5, ms7, ms8, ms9, msMOS, and msp) have been mapped to soybean chromosomes. The objectives of this study were to (i) locate the ms1, ms4, and ms6 genes to soybean chromosomes; (ii) generate genetic linkage maps of the regions containing these genes; and (iii) develop a comprehensive map of all known male-sterile, female-fertile genes in soybean. The bulked segregant analysis technique was used to locate genes to soybean chromosomes. Microsatellite markers from the corresponding chromosomes were used on F2 populations to generate genetic linkage maps. The ms1 and ms6 genes were located on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F) and ms4 was present on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b). Molecular analyses revealed markers Satt516, BARCSOYSSR_02_1539, and AW186493 were located closest to ms1, ms4, and ms6, respectively. The ms1 and ms6 genes, although present on the same chromosome, were independently assorting with a genetic distance of 73.7 cM. Using information from this study and compiled information from previously published male sterility genes in soybean, a comprehensive genetic linkage map was generated. Eleven male sterility genes were present on seven soybean chromosomes. Four genes were present in two regions on chromosome 2 (molecular linkage group D1b) and two genes were present on chromosome 13 (molecular linkage group F).

  8. Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

    2015-01-01

    Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases. PMID:25482591

  9. Sexual behavior and seminal characteristics of fertile mature New Zealand White male rabbits of different body weights.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Fallas-López, M; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Rangel-Santos, R; Maldonado-Siman, E; Cadena-Meneses, J A

    2015-01-01

    Body weight in different mammalian species influences reproductive potential. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of body weight at the time of semen collection with libido, seminal characteristics and number of semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) in New Zealand White mature fertile male rabbits. Data came from 728 semen collections of 14 rabbits, 15-months of age that were sexually experienced with proven semen quality and fertility. Semen collection was performed twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection time and lasted 14 weeks. A second ejaculation was collected at 1-2h after the first. Data from each male from first and second ejaculates from 1 day of semen collection throughout the trial were averaged (n=324) and partial correlation coefficients and regression equations were estimated to describe the relationship of male body weight to ejaculation reaction time and 12 semen and sperm characteristics. As body weight increased there was a linear (P<0.05) increase in reaction time, abnormal sperm with an intact membrane and abnormal sperm with a damaged membrane and a linear (P<0.05) decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration per ejaculate, normal sperm with an intact membrane, number of normal motile sperm with an intact membrane and suitable semen doses for AI. Body weight of the mature male rabbit at semen collection had some influence on libido, semen and sperm characteristics, with a general trend toward a lesser reproduction potential as body weight increases.

  10. Ameliorating effect of olive oil on fertility of male rats fed on genetically modified soya bean

    PubMed Central

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A. F.; Al-Abbadi, Hatim A.; Qahwaji, Dina; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K.; Shelat, Vishal G.; Sobhy, Hanan M.; Hilal, Mohammad Abu

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetically modified soya bean (GMSB) is a commercialized food. It has been shown to have adverse effects on fertility in animal trials. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has many beneficial effects including anti-oxidant properties. The aim of this study is to elucidate if addition of EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects on reproductive organs of rats fed on GMSB containing diet. Methods Forty adult male albino rats (150–180 g) of Sprague Dawley strain were separated into four groups of 10 rats each: Group 1 – control group fed on basal ration, Group 2 – fed on basal ration mixed with EVOO (30%), Group 3 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%), and Group 4 – fed on basal ration mixed with GMSB (15%) and EVOO (30%). This feeding regimen was administered for 65 days. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum zinc, vitamin E, and testosterone levels. Histopathological and weight changes in sex organs were evaluated. Results GMSB diet reduced weight of testis (0.66±0.06 vs. 1.7±0.06, p<0.001), epididymis (0.489±0.03 vs. 0.7±0.03, p<0.001), prostate (0.04±0.009 vs. 0.68±0.04, p<0.001), and seminal vesicles (0.057±0.01 vs. 0.8±0.04, p<0.001). GMSB diet adversely affected sperm count (406±7.1 vs. 610±7.8, p<0.001), motility (p<0.001), and abnormality (p<0.001). GMSB diet also reduced serum zinc (p<0.05), vitamin E (p<0.05), and testosterone (p<0.05) concentrations. EVOO diet had no detrimental effect. Addition of EVOO to GMSB diet increased the serum zinc (p<0.05), vitamin E (p<0.05), and testosterone (p<0.05) levels and also restored the weights of testis (1.35±0.16 vs. 0.66±0.06, p<0.01), epididymis (0.614±0.13 vs. 0.489±0.03, p<0.001), prostate (0.291±0.09 vs. 0.04±0.009, p<0.001), seminal vesicle (0.516±0.18 vs. 0.057±0.01, p<0.001) along with sperm count (516±3.1 vs. 406±7.1, p<0.01), motility (p<0.01), and abnormality (p<0.05). Conclusion EVOO ameliorates the adverse effects of GMSB on reproductive organs in adult male

  11. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M.; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R.; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L.; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M.; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2016-01-01

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201–12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract–enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the “gold standard” to determine whether a gene’s function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others. PMID:27357688

  12. Genome engineering uncovers 54 evolutionarily conserved and testis-enriched genes that are not required for male fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Haruhiko; Castaneda, Julio M; Fujihara, Yoshitaka; Yu, Zhifeng; Archambeault, Denise R; Isotani, Ayako; Kiyozumi, Daiji; Kriseman, Maya L; Mashiko, Daisuke; Matsumura, Takafumi; Matzuk, Ryan M; Mori, Masashi; Noda, Taichi; Oji, Asami; Okabe, Masaru; Prunskaite-Hyyrylainen, Renata; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Satouh, Yuhkoh; Zhang, Qian; Ikawa, Masahito; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-07-12

    Gene-expression analysis studies from Schultz et al. estimate that more than 2,300 genes in the mouse genome are expressed predominantly in the male germ line. As of their 2003 publication [Schultz N, Hamra FK, Garbers DL (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100(21):12201-12206], the functions of the majority of these testis-enriched genes during spermatogenesis and fertilization were largely unknown. Since the study by Schultz et al., functional analysis of hundreds of reproductive-tract-enriched genes have been performed, but there remain many testis-enriched genes for which their relevance to reproduction remain unexplored or unreported. Historically, a gene knockout is the "gold standard" to determine whether a gene's function is essential in vivo. Although knockout mice without apparent phenotypes are rarely published, these knockout mouse lines and their phenotypic information need to be shared to prevent redundant experiments. Herein, we used bioinformatic and experimental approaches to uncover mouse testis-enriched genes that are evolutionarily conserved in humans. We then used gene-disruption approaches, including Knockout Mouse Project resources (targeting vectors and mice) and CRISPR/Cas9, to mutate and quickly analyze the fertility of these mutant mice. We discovered that 54 mutant mouse lines were fertile. Thus, despite evolutionary conservation of these genes in vertebrates and in some cases in all eukaryotes, our results indicate that these genes are not individually essential for male mouse fertility. Our phenotypic data are highly relevant in this fiscally tight funding period and postgenomic age when large numbers of genomes are being analyzed for disease association, and will prevent unnecessary expenditures and duplications of effort by others. PMID:27357688

  13. Case series of fertility treatment in HIV-discordant couples (male positive, female negative): the Ontario experience.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Trent; Tecimer, Sandy N; Jaworsky, Denise; Chihrin, Steven; Gough, Kevin; Rachlis, Anita; Martin, James; Mohammed, Saira; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-01-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in prolonged life expectancy (over 40 years from diagnosis) and an improved quality of life for people living with HIV. The risk of vertical HIV transmission during pregnancy has been reduced to less than 1%. As a result of these breakthroughs and as many of these individuals are of reproductive age, fertility issues are becoming increasingly important for this population. One population in which conception planning and reduction of horizontal HIV transmission warrants further research is HIV-discordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive and the female partner is HIV-negative. Sperm washing is a technique carried out in a fertility clinic that separates HIV from the seminal fluid. Although sperm washing followed by intrauterine insemination significantly reduces the risk of horizontal HIV transmission, there has been limited access to the procedure in North America. Furthermore, little is known about the conception decision-making experiences of HIV-discordant couples who might benefit from sperm washing. Chart reviews and semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 HIV-discordant couples in Ontario, Canada. Couples were recruited through HIV clinics and one fertility clinic that offered sperm washing. Participants identified a number of factors that affected their decision-making around pregnancy planning. Access to sperm washing and other fertility services was an issue (cost, travel and few clinics). Participants identified a lack of information on the procedure (availability, safety). Sources of support (social networks, healthcare providers) were unevenly distributed, especially among those who did not disclose their HIV status to friends and family. Finally, the stigmatisation of HIV continues to have a negative affect on HIV-discordant couples and their intentions to conceive. Access to sperm washing and fertility service

  14. Polygyny, mate-guarding, and posthumous fertilization as alternative male mating strategies.

    PubMed

    Zamudio, K R; Sinervo, B

    2000-12-19

    Alternative male mating strategies within populations are thought to be evolutionarily stable because different behaviors allow each male type to successfully gain access to females. Although alternative male strategies are widespread among animals, quantitative evidence for the success of discrete male strategies is available for only a few systems. We use nuclear microsatellites to estimate the paternity rates of three male lizard strategies previously modeled as a rock-paper-scissors game. Each strategy has strengths that allow it to outcompete one morph, and weaknesses that leave it vulnerable to the strategy of another. Blue-throated males mate-guard their females and avoid cuckoldry by yellow-throated "sneaker" males, but mate-guarding is ineffective against aggressive orange-throated neighbors. The ultradominant orange-throated males are highly polygynous and maintain large territories; they overpower blue-throated neighbors and cosire offspring with their females, but are often cuckolded by yellow-throated males. Finally, yellow-throated sneaker males sire offspring via secretive copulations and often share paternity of offspring within a female's clutch. Sneaker males sire more offspring posthumously, indicating that sperm competition may be an important component of their strategy.

  15. The potential of sanrego (Lunasia amara) in enhancing fertility and anti-hyperglycemic effect in diabetic induced male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor Raidah, R.; Mahanem M., N.; Mohd Shazrul Fazry, S.

    2014-09-01

    Study on the effects of Lunasia amara (LA) aqueous extract on male fertility and its anti-hyperglycemic activity was carried out. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups for fertility test; control given orally distilled water (n=6) and treatment (n=6) given 60 mg/kg aqueous extract of LA for 42 days. On day 43, all rats were sacrificed and cauda epididymis was isolated for sperm quality analysis that includes parameter of sperm count, motility and viability. Anti-hyperglycemic study was done on five groups of male rats; I-normal control, II-Diabetic control and three other groups induced diabetic given 500 mg/kg metformin, 60 mg/kg LA and 120 mg/kg LA respectively. Diabetes was induced in the male rats by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg streptozotocin. On day 7, the fasting blood glucose level was measured from blood drawn by tail snip. Results showed that aqueous extract of LA increased significantly (p < 0.05) sperm count (39.88 ± 2.33) × 106, viability 82.46 ± 1.91 % and progressive motility 76.00 ± 1.51and of sperm data in treated group compared to control group. LA aqueous extract at dose 120 mg/kg was significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose in the diabetic rats by 49.53 %. In conclusion, the aqueous extract of LA effective in increasing sperm quality of male rats and suggest that LA may possess anti-hyperglycemic property.

  16. Familial inv(X) (p22q22): ovarian dysgenesis in two sisters with del Xq and fertility in one male carrier.

    PubMed

    Madariaga, M L; Rivera, H

    1997-09-01

    A recombinant chromosome with Xp duplication and Xq deletion was found in two sisters with normal height and gonadal dysgenesis. Their mother and other four relatives, including a fertile male, carried an inv(X) (p22q22); the inverted X was randomly inactivated in one female carrier. The abnormal X chromosome showed inactivation in all the examined cells. This is the tenth report of a recombinant X chromosome. A review of the literature shows that: i) most female carriers of inv(X) are phenotypically normal and fertile; ii) recombinants having short-arm duplication and long-arm deletion are associated with ovarian failure and normal or tall stature, whereas the reciprocal recombinants are compatible with fertility but cause short stature; and iii) except for one index case, all male carriers have a normal phenotype and 11 of them (from eight families) are of proven fertility. Moreover, no instance of male infertility has been documented.

  17. Males are here to stay: fertilization enhances viable egg production by clonal queens of the little fire ant ( Wasmannia auropunctata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Misato O.; Mikheyev, Alexander S.

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of reproduction strategies is affected by both phylogenetic and physiological constraints. Although clonality may benefit females, it may not be selected if a male contribution is necessary to start egg laying and embryo development. In little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, sexual populations employ a typical Hymenopteran system of reproduction. In clonal populations, however, queens and males are produced with only maternal and paternal genomes, respectively, whereas sterile workers are produced sexually. Although this system requires both sexes for worker production, previous work has shown that workers may also be produced clonally by the queens. If so, why are males maintained in this species? Our data suggest that fertilization is necessary to increase the hatching rate of eggs. Although clonal queens can indeed produce both workers and queens without mating, the hatching rate is far below the level necessary to maintain functional colonies. On the other hand, virgin queens from populations exhibiting the original Hymenopteran reproduction system also show low hatching rates, but produce only haploid male eggs. Reasons for the existence of W. auropunctata males have been disputed. However, our data suggest that physiological constraints, such as the requirement for insemination, must be considered in regard to evolution of reproduction systems, in addition to ecological data and theoretical considerations of fitness.

  18. Males are here to stay: fertilization enhances viable egg production by clonal queens of the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata).

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Misato O; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2015-04-01

    Evolution of reproduction strategies is affected by both phylogenetic and physiological constraints. Although clonality may benefit females, it may not be selected if a male contribution is necessary to start egg laying and embryo development. In little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, sexual populations employ a typical Hymenopteran system of reproduction. In clonal populations, however, queens and males are produced with only maternal and paternal genomes, respectively, whereas sterile workers are produced sexually. Although this system requires both sexes for worker production, previous work has shown that workers may also be produced clonally by the queens. If so, why are males maintained in this species? Our data suggest that fertilization is necessary to increase the hatching rate of eggs. Although clonal queens can indeed produce both workers and queens without mating, the hatching rate is far below the level necessary to maintain functional colonies. On the other hand, virgin queens from populations exhibiting the original Hymenopteran reproduction system also show low hatching rates, but produce only haploid male eggs. Reasons for the existence of W. auropunctata males have been disputed. However, our data suggest that physiological constraints, such as the requirement for insemination, must be considered in regard to evolution of reproduction systems, in addition to ecological data and theoretical considerations of fitness.

  19. Male reproductive traits, semen cryopreservation, and heterologous in vitro fertilization in the bobcat (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Gañán, N; González, R; Sestelo, A; Garde, J J; Sánchez, I; Aguilar, J M; Gomendio, M; Roldan, E R S

    2009-08-01

    There is limited information on bobcat ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation and fertilizing ability. Bobcats were electroejaculated under general anesthesia in November (autumn) and April (spring), and endocrine and sperm traits were characterized. Testosterone (mean+/-SEM: 0.90+/-0.15 ng/mL) was not different between sampling times, but cortisol (average: 13.95+/-1.73 microg/dL) was significantly higher in April. Average number of spermatozoa was 10.0+/-3.4 x 10(6) sperm/ejaculate, with values being significantly higher in April. Sperm motility (average 55.7+/-5.8% motile sperm) was not different between sampling times. The proportion of normal spermatozoa in the ejaculate (average: 14.7+/-2.1%) was significantly higher in April, but the percentage of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes (average: 43.7+/-3.8%) was significantly higher in autumn. Spermatozoa were cryopreserved in a Tes-Tris-based diluent (TEST) or Biladyl, both containing 20% egg yolk and 4% glycerol. Diluted sperm were loaded into straws, refrigerated using a programmable thermoblock with a dry chamber, frozen in nitrogen vapors, thawed, and incubated in F-10 medium with 5% fetal bovine serum for up to 3h. After cryopreservation in TEST, there were about 50% motile sperm upon thawing, and survival was high during incubation post-thaw. Cryopreservation in Biladyl led to similar results, but motility decreased substantially during incubation post-thaw. Bobcat spermatozoa fertilized domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro. Fertilization rates were higher for sperm collected in April and cryopreserved in TEST (46%) than for those cryopreserved using Biladyl (<3%). Fertilized oocytes cleaved in culture, and some (27%) reached the morula stage. This study has allowed us to gain further baseline information on bobcat reproduction, explore sperm cryopreservation conditions, and show that fertilizing capacity can be tested using in vitro-matured cat oocytes. These results will be important for future

  20. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  1. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in linkage disequilibrium with the male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus in open-pollinated and inbred populations of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintainer lines are used to seed propagate male-sterile lines for the development of hybrid-onion cultivars. The identification of maintainer lines would be more efficient with molecular markers distinguishing genotypes at the nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Ms has been mapped to chr...

  3. The importance of chromosomes from the sixth homeologic group in the restoration of male fertility in winter triticale with Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Stojałowski, Stefan; Bobrowska, Aleksandra; Hanek, Monika; Myśków, Beata

    2013-05-01

    The sterilising cytoplasm from Triticum timopheevii is presently considered to be the most promising as regards to the seed production of triticale hybrid cultivars. This study was aimed at the utilisation of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) for the preliminary identification of genomic regions with loci controlling male sterility/fertility in the field-grown F2 generation of the interline hybrid between male sterile line CMS-Salvo 15/1 and restorer line Stan I. The fertility of plants was examined by visual scoring as well as by the assessment of seed setting within bagged spikes. For DNA analyses, 92 individuals representing opposite phenotypes (male sterile vs. fully male fertile) were chosen from the whole F2 population, which consisted of 414 plants. The constructed genetic map consists of 759 DArT markers distributed in 24 linkage groups that cover a distance of 974.4 cM. Application of the interval mapping method and the Kruskal-Wallis test enabled the identification of six genomic regions engaged in the restoration of male fertility within the mapping population. The most effective restorer genes were found on chromosomes of the sixth homeologic group, i.e. on 6R (the most efficient), 6A and 6B. Additionally, linkage groups assigned to chromosomes 1BS, 3A and 3A/3B were important for the determination of male fertility.

  4. Birth Order and Sibling Sex Ratio in a Population with High Fertility: Are Turkish Male to Female Transsexuals Different?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ali; Bozkurt, Ozlem Hekim; Sonmez, Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Western studies have consistently found that androphilic (sexually attracted to men) male-to-female transsexuals have a later birth order and a relative excess of brothers compared with appropriate control participants. However, non-Western studies on birth order and sibling sex ratio in androphilic males (transsexual or non-transsexual) are rare. The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that androphilic male-to-female transsexuals have a late birth order and a relative excess of brothers in a non-Western culture with a higher fertility rate. The participants were 60 androphilic male-to-female transsexuals and 61 male heterosexual controls. The transsexual participants had significantly more older brothers than the control participants, but the groups did not differ in their numbers of older sisters, younger brothers, or younger sisters. The foregoing pattern is usually referred to as the "fraternal birth order effect." Slater's and Berglin's Indexes both showed that the mean birth order of the control participants was very close to that expected from a random sample drawn from a demographically stable population whereas the mean birth order of the transsexual participants was later. A measure of sibship composition, brothers/all siblings, showed that the transsexual group had a higher proportion of male siblings compared with the control group. In conclusion, the present study found that Turkish androphilic male-to-female transsexuals show the same high fraternal birth order that has been found in comparable androphilic samples in Western Europe, North America, and the South Pacific, which suggests a common underlying biological causal mechanism.

  5. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  6. Adaptive regulation of testis gene expression and control of male fertility by the Drosophila hairpin RNA pathway. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiayu; Duan, Hong; Bejarano, Fernando; Okamura, Katsutomo; Fabian, Lacramioara; Brill, Julie A; Bortolamiol-Becet, Diane; Martin, Raquel; Ruby, J Graham; Lai, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Although endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) have been described in many species, still little is known about their endogenous utility. Here, we show that Drosophila hairpin RNAs (hpRNAs) generate an endo-siRNA class with predominant expression in testes. Although hpRNAs are universally recently evolved, we identify highly complementary protein-coding targets for all hpRNAs. Importantly, we find broad evidence for evolutionary divergences that preferentially maintain compensatory pairing between hpRNAs and targets, serving as first evidence for adaptive selection for siRNA-mediated target regulation in metazoans. We demonstrate organismal impact of hpRNA activity, since knockout of hpRNA1 derepresses its target ATP synthase-β in testes and compromises spermatogenesis and male fertility. Moreover, we reveal surprising male-specific impact of RNAi factors on germ cell development and fertility, consistent with testis-directed function of the hpRNA pathway. Finally, the collected hpRNA loci chronicle an evolutionary timeline that reflects their origins from prospective target genes, mirroring a strategy described for plant miRNAs.

  7. Effect of gibberellic acid on the quality of sperm and in vitro fertilization outcome in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinchi, Mohammadreza; Soltanalinejad, Farhad; Najafi, Gholamreza; Roshangar, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a group of plant hormones identified in various plants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GA3 on sperm parameters and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Fifty six adult male rats were divided into seven groups as, control, treatment and sham. Following 15, 30 and 45 days of GA3 and methanol alcohol (MA) administration, rats were euthanized and epididymis tail was transferred to human tubular fluid (HTF) medium containing 4 mg mL(-1) bovine serum albumin (BSA) .Total number of sperms, the percentage of live sperms, immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin and IVF were examined. The oocytes were obtained from immature rats after the injection of pregnant mare's serum (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) hormones. Human tubular fluid was used as the fertilization medium and zygotes transferred to fresh 1-cell rat embryos culture medium (mR1ECM) to reach the blastocyst stage. This study showed that GA3 could decrease the number of total sperms on days 30 and 45 in treated group comparison with the control and sham groups. Additionally, GA3 increased the immature sperms and sperms with damaged chromatin. The percentage of fertilization, two-cell embryos and blastocyst resulting from the treatment group on days 30 and 45 also decreased and showed significant differences with the control and sham groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained from this study indicated that the oral use of GA3 could reduce the fertility in rats by influencing the sperm number and the quality of sperm's chromatins. PMID:25568681

  8. Anti-Müllerian hormone in serum and seminal plasma in comparison with other male fertility parameters.

    PubMed

    Kucera, Radek; Ulcova-Gallova, Zdenka; Windrichova, Jindra; Losan, Petr; Topolcan, Ondrej

    2016-06-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a factor most associated with female fertility and especially with the ovarian reserve. AMH is also used as a parameter of fertility in men as it arises from the epithelium of the seminiferous tubules that contain Sertoli cells which produce the AMH. To investigate the relationship between AMH production and sperm related parameters we compared the AMH levels in serum and seminal plasma between a group of healthy males (n=65) and male patients (n=68) of infertile couples with semen pathology. We assessed the following fertility parameters: sperm count (SC), presence of intra-acrosomal enzymes (IAE), and antispermatozoal antibodies (ASA). Infertile men were divided into four subgroups according to: SC less than 15 million, SC less than 15 million and lack of IAE, SC less than 15 million and presence of ASA, presence of all three pathological parameters. The mean AMH serum level in the healthy group was 6.95 ng/ml and no significant difference was observed in serum AMH levels. The mean AMH seminal plasma level in the healthy group was 14.21 ng/ml. We observed a statistically significant decrease in the group with a SC with less than 15 million (3.29 ng/ml, p=0.0001) sperm, in the group with SC less than 15 million sperm and lack of IAE (3.95 ng/ml, p=0.0046), and in the group with all three pathological parameters (2.65 ng/ml, p=<0.0001). No significant difference was observed in the group with SC less than 15 million sperm and ASA positivity (11.41 ng/ml, p=0.3171). In conclusion AMH serum levels do not correlate with any of the observed parameters. AMH levels in seminal plasma positively correlate with the pathological SC and with SC pathology and IAE together.

  9. Linkage analysis between the partial restoration (pr) and the restorer-of-fertility (Rf) loci in pepper cytoplasmic male sterility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jundae; Yoon, Jae Bok; Park, Hyo Guen

    2008-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in chili pepper is restored by one major dominant nuclear gene, restorer-of-fertility (Rf), together with some modifier genes and is also affected by temperature. As a result, male fertility was identified as having several phenotypes. That identified and used in the present study allowed partial restoration of fertility, producing plants that simultaneously produce normal and aborted pollen grains, with most grains stuck to the anther wall, even after dehiscence, resulting in low seed set per fruit. The trait was visible only in the presence of Paterson's sterile cytoplasm and was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene, partial restoration (pr). A CAPS marker, PR-CAPS, closely linked to the trait, has been developed by Lee et al. (2008). In this study, linkage analysis was performed in 205 F(2) individuals derived from the 'Buja' Korean commercial F(1) chili pepper variety using the PR-CAPS marker and the three Rf-linked markers (OPP13-CAPS, AFRF8-CAPS, and CRF-SCAR) previously reported. Consequently, we found that these four markers were tightly linked. This result means that the pr gene might be tightly linked to the Rf locus or the third allele of Rf locus. The sequence diversity of the pr- and Rf-linked markers was also analyzed. The internal sequences of OPP13-CAPS (1,180 bp) and PR-CAPS (640 bp) markers in 91 Korean inbred lines were clearly divided into three haplotypes. According to the sequencing results, a new PR-CAPS (MseI or SphI digestion) marker was designed to distinguish the three haplotypes. This marker will be useful for marker-assisted selection to develop new maintainers and restorers in commercial hybrid pepper breeding using CMS. PMID:18465115

  10. Epididymal protein Rnase10 is required for post-testicular sperm maturation and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Krutskikh, Anton; Poliandri, Ariel; Cabrera-Sharp, Victoria; Dacheux, Jean Louis; Poutanen, Matti; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2012-10-01

    Eutherian spermatozoa are dependent on the environment of the proximal epididymis to complete their maturation; however, no specific epididymal factors that mediate this process have so far been identified. Here, we show that targeted disruption of the novel gene Rnase10 encoding a secreted proximal epididymal protein in the mouse results in a binding defect in spermatozoa and their inability to pass through the uterotubal junction in the female. The failure to gain the site of fertilization in the knockout spermatozoa is associated with a gradual loss of ADAM3 and ADAM6 proteins during epididymal transit. In the distal epididymis, these spermatozoa appear to lack calcium-dependent associations with the immobilizing glutinous extracellular material and are released as single, vigorously motile cells that display no tendency for head-to-head agglutination and lack affinity to the oviductal epithelium. In sperm-egg binding assay, they are unable to establish a tenacious association with the zona pellucida, yet they are capable of fertilization. Furthermore, these sperm show accelerated capacitation resulting in an overall in vitro fertilizing ability superior to that of wild-type sperm. We conclude that the physiological role of sperm adhesiveness is in the mechanism of restricted sperm entry into the oviduct rather than in sperm-egg interaction. PMID:22750516

  11. Last male wins the egg fertilization fight: A case study in ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Desh Deepak; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection and the mechanisms involved in sperm competition have not been greatly explored in ladybird beetles. The present study was conducted to investigate the processes of sperm competition and the role of mate guarding behaviour in its regulation in ladybird beetles. We investigated these questions in polyandrous females of the ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic marker (typical and intermediate morph) to assess paternity of offspring; to determine sperm competition. We conducted two double mating experiments: (i) complete first and second matings, and (ii) disrupted first and complete second matings each using homomorphic and heteromorphic pairing in alternation. Males which mated last were found to sire up to 72% of the offspring produced, indicating last male sperm precedence. Morph itself, independent of mating order, did not have a significant effect on proportion of offspring sired. Paternity share of the last male was negatively associated with mating duration of the first male; mating duration of the first male being indicative of mate guarding. This therefore indicates that prolonged matings by first males are essentially examples of post-copulatory mate guarding to prevent last male sperm precedence. PMID:27476769

  12. Last male wins the egg fertilization fight: A case study in ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Desh Deepak; Mishra, Geetanjali; Omkar

    2016-10-01

    Sexual selection and the mechanisms involved in sperm competition have not been greatly explored in ladybird beetles. The present study was conducted to investigate the processes of sperm competition and the role of mate guarding behaviour in its regulation in ladybird beetles. We investigated these questions in polyandrous females of the ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) using a phenotypic marker (typical and intermediate morph) to assess paternity of offspring; to determine sperm competition. We conducted two double mating experiments: (i) complete first and second matings, and (ii) disrupted first and complete second matings each using homomorphic and heteromorphic pairing in alternation. Males which mated last were found to sire up to 72% of the offspring produced, indicating last male sperm precedence. Morph itself, independent of mating order, did not have a significant effect on proportion of offspring sired. Paternity share of the last male was negatively associated with mating duration of the first male; mating duration of the first male being indicative of mate guarding. This therefore indicates that prolonged matings by first males are essentially examples of post-copulatory mate guarding to prevent last male sperm precedence.

  13. Transgenic male-sterile plant induced by an unedited atp9 gene is restored to fertility by inhibiting its expression with antisense RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Zabaleta, E; Mouras, A; Hernould, M; Suharsono; Araya, A

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of an unedited atp9 chimeric gene correlated with male-sterile phenotype in transgenic tobacco plant. To study the relationship between the expression of chimeric gene and the male-sterile trait, hemizygous and homozygous transgenic tobacco lines expressing the antisense atp9 RNA were constructed. The antisense producing plants were crossed with a homozygous male-sterile line, and the F1 progeny was analyzed. The offspring from crosses between homozygous lines produced only male-fertile plants, suggesting that the expression antisense atp9 RNA abolishes the effect of the unedited chimeric gene. In fact, the plants restored to male fertility showed a dramatic reduction of the unedited atp9 transcript levels, resulting in normal flower development and seed production. These results support our previous observation that the expression of unedited atp9 gene can induce male sterility. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8855343

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on spermatogenesis and fertility of male Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, J.H. Jr.; Stanley, M.A.

    1987-04-01

    Amblyomma americanum males were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad of gamma radiation. Testes of ticks treated with 2, 3, 4, 8, and 16 krad were smaller than those of ticks irradiated at lower levels and controls. No recognizable alteration in timing of spermatogenesis was noted among the different radiation groups, but severe breakdown and depletion of germinal cells was noted at 4, 8, and 16 krad. Percent hatch of larvae from crosses of irradiated males and untreated females decreased with increasing radiation level. No hatch was observed from eggs of females mated to males treated at 2 krad or higher.

  15. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nozhat, Fatemeh; Alaee, Sanaz; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Azadi Chegini, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively. Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility. PMID:25386406

  16. Alloplasmic male-sterile Brassica juncea with Enarthrocarpus lyratus cytoplasm and the introgression of gene(s) for fertility restoration from cytoplasm donor species.

    PubMed

    Banga, S S; Deol, J S; Banga, S K

    2003-05-01

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) source in Brassica juncea (2n = 36; AABB) was developed by substituting its nucleus into the cytoplasm of Enarthrocarpus lyratus (2n = 20; E(l)E(l)). Male sterility was complete, stable and manifested in either petaloid- or rudimentary-anthers which were devoid of fertile pollen grains. Male sterile plants resembled the euplasmic B. juncea except for slight leaf yellowing and delayed maturity. Leaf yellowing was due mainly to higher level of carotenoids rather than a reduction in chlorophyll pigments. Female fertility in male-sterile plants varied; it was normal in lines having rudimentary anthers but poor in those with petaloid anthers. Each of the 62 evaluated germplasm lines of B. juncea was a functional maintainer of male sterility. The gene(s) for male-fertility restoration ( Rf) were introgressed from the cytoplasm donor species through homoeologous pairing between A and E(l) chromosomes in monosomic addition plants (2n = 18II+1E(l)). The percent pollen fertility of restored F(1) ( lyr CMS x putative restorer) plants ranged from 60 to 80%. This, however, was sufficient to ensure complete seed set upon by bag selfing. The CMS ( lyr) B. juncea compared favourably with the existing CMS systems for various productivity related characteristics. However, the reduced transmission frequency of the Rf gene(s) through pollen grains, which was evident from the sporadic occurrence of male-sterile plants in restored F(1) hybrids, remains a limitation.

  17. DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN FERTILIZATION FAILURE AND EARLY PREGNANCY LOSS WHEN IDENTIFYING MALE-MEDIATED ADVERSE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful reproduction depends upon the precise orchestration of many physiological processes. With respect to male reproductive performance, normal copulatory behavior and ejaculatory function are required to insure that semen is deposited in the female tract. Then, a suffici...

  18. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Weining; Zhang, Chunling; Cao, Zhe; Bao, Manzhu; He, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS) and male fertile (MF) two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter). Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176) were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database) and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation. PMID:26939127

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes during Flower Organ Development in Genetic Male Sterile and Male Fertile Tagetes erecta by Digital Gene-Expression Profiling.

    PubMed

    Ai, Ye; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Weining; Zhang, Chunling; Cao, Zhe; Bao, Manzhu; He, Yanhong

    2016-01-01

    Tagetes erecta is an important commercial plant of Asteraceae family. The male sterile (MS) and male fertile (MF) two-type lines of T. erecta have been utilized in F1 hybrid production for many years, but no report has been made to identify the genes that specify its male sterility that is caused by homeotic conversion of floral organs. In this study, transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling were performed to generate expression profiles of MS and MF plants. A cDNA library was generated from an equal mixture of RNA isolated from MS and MF flower buds (1 mm and 4 mm in diameter). Totally, 87,473,431 clean tags were obtained and assembled into 128,937 transcripts among which 65,857 unigenes were identified with an average length of 1,188 bp. About 52% of unigenes (34,176) were annotated in Nr, Nt, Pfam, KOG/COG, Swiss-Prot, KO (KEGG Ortholog database) and/or GO. Taking the above transcriptome as reference, 125 differentially expressed genes were detected in both developmental stages of MS and MF flower buds. MADS-box genes were presumed to be highly related to male sterility in T. erecta based on histological and cytological observations. Twelve MADS-box genes showed significantly different expression levels in flower buds 4 mm in diameter, whereas only one gene expressed significantly different in flower buds 1 mm in diameter between MS and MF plants. This is the first transcriptome analysis in T. erecta and will provide a valuable resource for future genomic studies, especially in flower organ development and/or differentiation.

  20. The capability of reprogramming the male chromatin after fertilization is dependent on the quality of oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Luisa; Barboni, Barbara; Turriani, Maura; Capacchietti, Giulia; Pistilli, Maria Gabriella; Berardinelli, Paolo; Mattioli, Mauro

    2005-07-01

    The present experiments compared the ability of pig oocytes matured either in vivo or in vitro to structurally reorganize the penetrated sperm chromatin into male pronucleus (PN) and to carry out, in parallel, the epigenetic processes of global chromatin methylation and acetylation, 12-14 h after in vitro fertilization (IVF). In addition, PN distribution of histone deacetylase (HDAC), a major enzyme interfacing DNA methylation and histone acetylation, was investigated. The ability of the oocyte to operate an efficient block to polyspermy was markedly affected by maturation. The monospermic fertilization rate was significantly higher for in vivo than for in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes (P < 0.01) which, furthermore, showed a reduced ability to transform the chromatin of penetrated sperm into male PN (P < 0.01). Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of global DNA methylation, histone acetylation and HDAC distribution (HDAC-1, -2 and -3), carried out in monospermic zygotes that reached the late PN stage, showed that IVM oocytes also had a reduced epigenetic competence. In fact, while in about 80% of in vivo matured and IVF oocytes the male PN underwent a process of active demethylation and showed a condition of histone H4 hyperacetylation, only 40% of IVM/IVF zygotes displayed a similar PN remodelling asymmetry. Oocytes that carried out the first part of maturation in vivo (up to germinal vesicle breakdown; GVBD) and then completed the process in vitro, displayed the same PN asymmetry as oocytes matured entirely in vivo. A crucial role of HDAC in the establishment of PN acetylation asymmetry seems to be confirmed by the use of HDAC inhibitors as well as by the abnormal distribution of the enzyme between the two PN in IVM zygotes. Collectively, these data demonstrated that some pig IVM oocytes fail to acquire full remodelling competence which is independent from their ooplasmic ability to morphologically reorganize the sperm nucleus into PN. PMID:15985629

  1. Negative biomarker-based male fertility evaluation: sperm phenotypes associated with molecular-level anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Sutovsky, Peter; Aarabi, Mahmoud; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio; Oko, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biomarker-based sperm analysis elevates the treatment of human infertility and ameliorates reproductive performance in livestock. The negative biomarker-based approach focuses on proteins and ligands unique to defective spermatozoa, regardless of their morphological phenotype, lending itself to analysis by flow cytometry (FC). A prime example is the spermatid specific thioredoxin SPTRX3/TXNDC8, retained in the nuclear vacuoles and superfluous cytoplasm of defective human spermatozoa. Infertile couples with high semen SPTRX3 are less likely to conceive by assisted reproductive therapies (ART) and more prone to recurrent miscarriage while low SPTRX3 has been associated with multiple ART births. Ubiquitin, a small, proteolysis-promoting covalent posttranslational protein modifier is found on the surface of defective posttesticular spermatozoa and in the damaged protein aggregates, the aggresomes of spermiogenic origin. Semen ubiquitin content correlates negatively with fertility and conventional semen parameters, and with sperm binding of lectins LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin; reveals altered sperm surface) and PNA (Arachis hypogaea/peanut agglutinin; reveals acrosomal malformation or damage). The Postacrosomal Sheath WWI Domain Binding Protein (PAWP), implicated in oocyte activation during fertilization, is ectopic or absent from defective human and animal spermatozoa. Consequently, FC-parameters of PAWP correlate with ART outcomes in infertile couples and with fertility in bulls. Assays based on the above biomarkers have been combined into multiplex FC semen screening protocols, and the surface expression of lectins and ubiquitin has been utilized to develop nanoparticle-based bull semen purification method validated by field artificial insemination trials. These advances go hand-in-hand with the innovation of FC-technology and genomics/proteomics-based biomarker discovery. PMID:25999356

  2. Identification of Genes Potentially Associated with the Fertility Instability of S-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize via Bulked Segregant RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhang, Ruyang; Li, Chunhui; Duan, Minxiao; Luo, Meijie; Shi, Zi; Zhao, Jiuran

    2016-01-01

    S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) is the largest group among the three major types of CMS in maize. CMS-S exhibits fertility instability as a partial fertility restoration in a specific nuclear genetic background, which impedes its commercial application in hybrid breeding programs. The fertility instability phenomenon of CMS-S is controlled by several minor quantitative trait locus (QTLs), but not the major nuclear fertility restorer (Rf3). However, the gene mapping of these minor QTLs and the molecular mechanism of the genetic modifications are still unclear. Using completely sterile and partially rescued plants of fertility instable line (FIL)-B, we performed bulk segregant RNA-Seq and identified six potential associated genes in minor effect QTLs contributing to fertility instability. Analyses demonstrate that these potential associated genes may be involved in biological processes, such as floral organ differentiation and development regulation, energy metabolism and carbohydrates biosynthesis, which results in a partial anther exsertion and pollen fertility restoration in the partially rescued plants. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in two potential associated genes were validated to be related to the fertility restoration phenotype by KASP marker assays. This novel knowledge contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the partial fertility restoration of CMS-S in maize and thus helps to guide the breeding programs. PMID:27669430

  3. Do males time their mate-guarding effort with the fertile phase in order to secure fertilisation in Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques?

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Constance; Muniz, Laura; Heistermann, Michael; Widdig, Anja; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-05-01

    In contrast to most mammalian species, female sexual activity is not limited to the fertile phase of the ovarian cycle in anthropoid primates, which has long been proposed to conceal the timing of ovulation to males. It is now generally believed that females are still most attractive during the fertile phase, leading to high-ranking males successfully mate-guarding them specifically during this period. While studies conducted in species exhibiting exaggerated sexual swellings (probabilistic signal of the fertile phase) have generally supported this hypothesis, mixed support comes from others. Here, we investigated whether high-ranking males timed mate-guarding effort towards female fertile phases in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In this species, adult females do not exhibit sexual swellings, but undergo facial skin colour variation, an alternative oestrogen-dependent graded-signal of female reproductive status. We collected behavioural, hormonal and genetic paternity data during two mating seasons for one group of the free-ranging population of Cayo Santiago. Our results show that mate-guarding by top-ranking males did not completely cover the entire female fertile phase and that this tactic accounted for only 30-40% of all fertilisations observed. Males tended to prolong mate-guarding into the luteal phase (null probability of fertilisation), which mirrors the pattern of male attraction to female facial colour reported in an earlier study. These findings suggest that males may have limited knowledge regarding the exact timing of females' fertile phase in rhesus macaques, which presumably allows females to gain more control over reproduction relative to other anthropoid primate species.

  4. The importance of the one carbon cycle nutritional support in human male fertility: a preliminary clinical report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sperm chromatin structure is often impaired; mainly due to oxidative damage. Antioxidant treatments do not consistently produce fertility improvements and, when given at high doses, they might block essential oxidative processes such as chromatin compaction. This study was intended to assess the effect on male sub-fertility of a pure one carbon cycle nutritional support without strong antioxidants. Methods Male partners of couples resistant to at least 2 assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts, with no evidence of organic causes of infertility and with either DNA fragmentation index (DFI) measured by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) or nuclear decondensation index (SDI) measured by aniline blue staining exceeding 20%, were invited to take part in a trial of a nutritional support in preparation for a further ART attempt. The treatment consisted of a combination of B vitamins, zinc, a proprietary opuntia fig extract and small amounts of N-acetyl-cysteine and Vitamin E (Condensyl™), all effectors of the one carbon cycle. Results 84 patients were enrolled, they took 1 or 2 Condensyl™ tablets per day for 2 to 12 months. Positive response rates were 64.3% for SDI, 71.4% for DFI and 47.6% for both SDI and DFI. Eighteen couples (21%) experienced a spontaneous pregnancy before the planned ART cycle, all ended with a live birth. The remaining 66 couples underwent a new ART attempt (4 IUI; 18 IVF; 44 ICSI) resulting in 22 further clinical pregnancies and 15 live births. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and the live birth rate (LBR) were 47.6% and 39.3% respectively. The full responders, i.e. the 40 patients achieving an improvement of both SDI and DFI, reported a CPR of 70% and a LBR of 57.5% (p < 0.001). Conclusions Nutritional support of the one carbon cycle without strong antioxidants improves both the SDI and the DFI in ART resistant male partners and results in high pregnancy rates suggesting a positive

  5. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-10-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control.

  6. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  7. Mating behavior and fertility of broiler breeder males reared on shortened growth cycles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more difficult tasks when raising broiler breeder cockerels is controlling weight gain in the rearing house without inflicting excess stress. This is a period of time for the young male when many portions of reproductive system are in the formative stages and, if neglected, can have lif...

  8. Decreased in vitro fertility in male rats exposed to fluoride-induced oxidative stress damage and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss

    SciTech Connect

    Izquierdo-Vega, Jeannett A.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Manuel; Razo, Luz Maria del

    2008-08-01

    Fluorosis, caused by drinking water contamination with inorganic fluoride, is a public health problem in many areas around the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally relevant doses of fluoride on in vitro fertilization (IVF) capacity of spermatozoa, and its relationship to spermatozoa mitochondrial transmembrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Male Wistar rats were administered at 5 mg fluoride/kg body mass/24 h, or deionized water orally for 8 weeks. We evaluated several spermatozoa parameters in treated and untreated rats: i) standard quality analysis, ii) superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, iii) the generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -}), iv) lipid peroxidation concentration, v) ultrastructural analyses of spermatozoa using transmission electron microscopy, vi) {delta}{psi}{sub m}, vii) acrosome reaction, and viii) IVF capability. Spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited a significant decrease in SOD activity ({approx} 33%), accompanied with a significant increase in the generation of O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}} ({approx} 40%), a significant decrease in {delta}{psi}{sub m} ({approx} 33%), and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation concentration ({approx} 50%), relative to spermatozoa from the control group. Consistent with this finding, spermatozoa from fluoride-treated rats exhibited altered plasmatic membrane. In addition, the percentage of fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of undergoing the acrosome reaction was decreased relative to control spermatozoa (34 vs. 55%), while the percentage fluoride-treated spermatozoa capable of oocyte fertilization was also significantly lower than the control group (13 vs. 71%). These observations suggest that subchronic exposure to fluoride causes oxidative stress damage and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, resulting in reduced fertility.

  9. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    PubMed

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars.

  10. Sequencing and annotation of the chloroplast DNAs and identification of polymorphisms distinguishing normal male-fertile and male-sterile cytoplasms of onion.

    PubMed

    von Kohn, Christopher; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Havey, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Male-sterile (S) cytoplasm of onion is an alien cytoplasm introgressed into onion in antiquity and is widely used for hybrid seed production. Owing to the biennial generation time of onion, classical crossing takes at least 4 years to classify cytoplasms as S or normal (N) male-fertile. Molecular markers in the organellar DNAs that distinguish N and S cytoplasms are useful to reduce the time required to classify onion cytoplasms. In this research, we completed next-generation sequencing of the chloroplast DNAs of N- and S-cytoplasmic onions; we assembled and annotated the genomes in addition to identifying polymorphisms that distinguish these cytoplasms. The sizes (153 538 and 153 355 base pairs) and GC contents (36.8%) were very similar for the chloroplast DNAs of N and S cytoplasms, respectively, as expected given their close phylogenetic relationship. The size difference was primarily due to small indels in intergenic regions and a deletion in the accD gene of N-cytoplasmic onion. The structures of the onion chloroplast DNAs were similar to those of most land plants with large and small single copy regions separated by inverted repeats. Twenty-eight single nucleotide polymorphisms, two polymorphic restriction-enzyme sites, and one indel distributed across 20 chloroplast genes in the large and small single copy regions were selected and validated using diverse onion populations previously classified as N or S cytoplasmic using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Although cytoplasmic male sterility is likely associated with the mitochondrial DNA, maternal transmission of the mitochondrial and chloroplast DNAs allows for polymorphisms in either genome to be useful for classifying onion cytoplasms to aid the development of hybrid onion cultivars. PMID:24433209

  11. Evaluation of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (L.) on Fertility of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, L. Dinithi. C.; Dhanushka, M. A. T.; Jayathilake, T. A. H. D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight of aqueous leaf extract (ALE) of Cardiospermum halicacabum for 30 days produced a significant dose dependent increase in the sperm counts and sperm motility in both caput and cauda regions. Further, significant increase in serum testosterone level was evident at all applied doses. However, no significant changes in the weight of sex organs were observed. Aqueous leaf extract also increased the number of females impregnated, number of implantations, and number of viable fetuses while decreasing the total number of resorption sites in the pregnant females. However, the total cholesterol level in the serum remained unchanged and there were no records on renotoxicity; nevertheless ALE exhibited a hepatoprotective effect. It was concluded that aqueous leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum enhanced sperm concentration, motility, and testosterone, leading to positive results in fertility. PMID:26064883

  12. Fertility in the aging male: molecular pathways in the anthropology of aging.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulou, Roxani; Lavranos, Giagkos; Manolakou, Panagiota; Katsiki, Evangelia

    2013-06-01

    The aging process is a normal stage in development characterized by the gradual deterioration of all life functions. As far as reproduction is concerned, aging is characterized by a significant limitation of fertility in both sexes. This process is, at least partially, attributed to the action (or loss of action) of sex steroids, coinciding with low activity of the pituitary-gonad axis. From an anthropological point of view, the study of reproductive aging is a unique opportunity to investigate various environmental and endogenous factors influencing sexual behavior and, thus, playing a significant role in human biology. Various techniques are now widely available to allow the detailed examination of reproductive hazards using only minor samples of genetic material. These methods are highly sensitive and specific and allow the characterization of distortions at subcellular and even molecular level. This short review briefly summarizes the current understanding of reproductive aging, as well as its potential clinical and anthropological impact.

  13. Understanding the Role of Heat Shock Protein Isoforms in Male Fertility, Aging and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Purandhar, Kaveri; Jena, Prasant Kumar; Prajapati, Bhumika; Rajput, Parth

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a role in the homeostasis, apoptosis regulation and the maintenance of the various other physiological processes. Aging is accompanied by a decrease in the resistance to environmental stress, while mitochondria are primary targets in the process of aging, their expression decreasing with age. Mitochondrion also plays a significant role in the process of spermatogenesis. HSPs have been shown to be involved in apoptosis with some of acting as apoptotic inhibitors and are involved in cytoprotection. In this review we discuss the roles of Hsp 27, 60, 70, and 90 in aging and male infertility and have concluded that these particular HSPs can be used as a molecular markers for mitochondrially- mediated apoptosis, aging and male infertility. PMID:25606560

  14. Basic concepts and recent advancements in the study of male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason R; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-01-01

    Many controversial topics regarding Andrology in general, and male infertility more specifically have been discussed and debated for decades. Numerous manuscripts and entire journals have been dedicated to the dissemination of standardized information with multiple reviews covering similar topics. This massive amount of data leads to difficulty identifying pertinent clinical practice guidelines. Furthermore, detailed instructions on how to manage common clinical conditions tend to be diluted by copious amounts of text and superfluous information. PMID:27048783

  15. Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jutta M; Lesmono, Kristiani

    2009-09-01

    Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

  16. Courtship raises male fertilization success through post-mating sexual selection in a spider

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jutta M.; Lesmono, Kristiani

    2009-01-01

    Courtship is well known for its positive effects on mating success. However, in polyandrous species, sexual selection continues to operate after copulation. Cryptic female choice is expected under unpredictable mating rates in combination with sequential mate encounters. However, there are very few accounts of the effects of courtship on cryptic female choice, and the available evidence is often correlative. Mature Argiope bruennichi females are always receptive and never attack or reject males before mating, although sexual cannibalism after mating occurs regularly. Still, males usually perform an energetic vibratory display prior to copulation. We tested the hypothesis that beneficial effects of courtship arise cryptically, during or after mating, resulting in increased paternity success under polyandry. Manipulating courtship duration experimentally, we found that males that mated without display had a reduced paternity share even though no differences in post-copulatory cannibalism or copulation duration were detected. This suggests that the paternity advantage associated with courtship arose through female-mediated processes after intromission, meeting the definition of cryptic female choice. PMID:19515667

  17. LRGUK-1 Is Required for Basal Body and Manchette Function during Spermatogenesis and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; DeBoer, Kathleen; de Kretser, David M.; O’Donnell, Liza; O’Connor, Anne E.; Merriner, D. Jo; Okuda, Hidenobu; Whittle, Belinda; Jans, David A.; Efthymiadis, Athina; McLachlan, Robert I.; Ormandy, Christopher J.; Goodnow, Chris C.; Jamsai, Duangporn; O’Bryan, Moira K.

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility affects at least 5% of reproductive age males. The most common pathology is a complex presentation of decreased sperm output and abnormal sperm shape and motility referred to as oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT). For the majority of OAT men a precise diagnosis cannot be provided. Here we demonstrate that leucine-rich repeats and guanylate kinase-domain containing isoform 1 (LRGUK-1) is required for multiple aspects of sperm assembly, including acrosome attachment, sperm head shaping and the initiation of the axoneme growth to form the core of the sperm tail. Specifically, LRGUK-1 is required for basal body attachment to the plasma membrane, the appropriate formation of the sub-distal appendages, the extension of axoneme microtubules and for microtubule movement and organisation within the manchette. Manchette dysfunction leads to abnormal sperm head shaping. Several of these functions may be achieved in association with the LRGUK-1 binding partner HOOK2. Collectively, these data establish LRGUK-1 as a major determinant of microtubule structure within the male germ line. PMID:25781171

  18. Occupational exposure to pesticides and consequences on male semen and fertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Karrari, Parissa; Zamani, Nasim; Tsatsakis, Aristides M; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2014-10-15

    Exposure to pesticides affects many body organs including reproductive system. Disorder of the reproductive system leads to infertility and therefore has been in the center of attention within the recent decades. Pesticides are one of the compounds that might reduce the semen quality in the exposed workers according to current knowledge. Although many underlying mechanisms have been proposed, the mechanisms of action are not clarified yet. The object of the present review was to criticize all the results of studies which evaluated the pesticide effects on male reproductive system. Results indicate that semen changes are multifactorial in the workers exposed to pesticides as there are numerous factors affecting sperm quality in occupational exposures. Majority of pesticides including organophosphoruses affect the male reproductive system by mechanisms such as reduction of sperm density and motility, inhibition of spermatogenesis, reduction of testis weights, reduction of sperm counts, motility, viability and density, and inducing sperm DNA damage, and increasing abnormal sperm morphology. Reduced weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and ventral prostate, seminiferous tubule degeneration, change in plasma levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), decreased level and activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes, and inhibited testicular steroidogenesis are other possible mechanisms. Moreover, DDT and its metabolites have estrogenic effects on males. Although effect of pesticides on sperm quality is undeniable, well-designed long-term studies are needed to elucidate all the possible affecting variables such as socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, occupational, physical, and clinical characteristics alongside pesticides.

  19. CTCF contributes in a critical way to spermatogenesis and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan; Lilienthal, Ingrid; Fukuda, Nanaho; Galjart, Niels; Höög, Christer

    2016-01-01

    The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an architectural protein that governs chromatin organization and gene expression in somatic cells. Here, we show that CTCF regulates chromatin compaction necessary for packaging of the paternal genome into mature sperm. Inactivation of Ctcf in male germ cells in mice (Ctcf-cKO mice) resulted in impaired spermiogenesis and infertility. Residual spermatozoa in Ctcf-cKO mice displayed abnormal head morphology, aberrant chromatin compaction, impaired protamine 1 incorporation into chromatin and accelerated histone depletion. Thus, CTCF regulates chromatin organization during spermiogenesis, contributing to the functional organization of mature sperm. PMID:27345455

  20. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  1. [Study of male mating behavior in some Drosophila melanogaster strains in experiments with fertilized females].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2004-07-01

    Male courtship ritual is among the main behavioral characteristics of Drosophila. This is a complex, genetically determined process consisting of four general stages: orientation, vibration, licking, and attempts at copulation (or successful copulation). Several genes are known that control some stages of this behavior. Most of them have pleiotropic effects and are involved in other biological processes. Earlier, we have shown that a mutation in locus flamenco (20A1-3), which controls transposition and infectivity of retrotransposon gypsy (MDG4), is involved in the genetic control of behavior. In strains mutant for this locus, the male mating activity is decreased and the structure of courtship ritual is changed. To understand the mechanisms of these changes, it is important to study all behavioral stages in genetically identical strains. For this purpose, the normal allele of gene flamenco from the X chromosome of the wild-type strain (stock) Canton S was introduced into strain SS carrying flamMS. This offers new opportunities in studying the role of gene flamenco in the control of mating behavior in Drosophila. PMID:15458200

  2. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  3. Differential mitochondrial electron transport through the cyanide-sensitive and cyanide-insensitive pathways in isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile, male fertile, and restored petunia. [Petunia parodii L. S. M

    SciTech Connect

    Connett, M.B.; Hanson, M.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Three pairs of isonuclear lines of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) and fertile Petunia cells (Petunia hybrida (Hook) Vilm. and Petunia parodii L.S.M.) grown in suspension culture were examined for sensitivity to inhibitors of respiratory electron transport at time-points after transfer into fresh media. Cells from CMS lines differed from cells of fertile lines in their utilization of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase pathway. Under our culture regime, after approximately 3 days of culture cells from the CMS lines exhibited much lower cyanide-insensitive, salicylhydoxamic acid-sensitive respiration than cells from the fertile lines. This respiratory difference was shown to be specific to the mitochondrial alternative oxidase pathway by using other characteristic inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport in experiments with isolated mitochondria. Immature anthers from CMS plants also showed lower alternative oxidase activity relative to anthers from male fertile plants, but no such difference was detected in leaf tissue, ovary or perianth tissue, or anthers collected just prior to anthesis. A cell line from a fertile plant carrying a nuclear fertility restorer gene and the CMS cytoplasm exhibited increased activity of the alternative pathway compared with the CMS lines.

  4. Overexpressing the Multiple-Stress Responsive Gene At1g74450 Reduces Plant Height and Male Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Anne M.; Belfield, Eric J.; Vlad, Daniela; Irani, Niloufer; Moore, Ian; Harberd, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of genes in Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be up-regulated in response to a wide range of different environmental stress factors. However, not all of these genes are characterized as yet with respect to their functions. In this study, we used transgenic knockout, overexpression and reporter gene approaches to try to elucidate the biological roles of five unknown multiple-stress responsive genes in Arabidopsis. The selected genes have the following locus identifiers: At1g18740, At1g74450, At4g27652, At4g29780 and At5g12010. Firstly, T-DNA insertion knockout lines were identified for each locus and screened for altered phenotypes. None of the lines were found to be visually different from wildtype Col-0. Secondly, 35S-driven overexpression lines were generated for each open reading frame. Analysis of these transgenic lines showed altered phenotypes for lines overexpressing the At1g74450 ORF. Plants overexpressing the multiple-stress responsive gene At1g74450 are stunted in height and have reduced male fertility. Alexander staining of anthers from flowers at developmental stage 12–13 showed either an absence or a reduction in viable pollen compared to wildtype Col-0 and At1g74450 knockout lines. Interestingly, the effects of stress on crop productivity are most severe at developmental stages such as male gametophyte development. However, the molecular factors and regulatory networks underlying environmental stress-induced male gametophytic alterations are still largely unknown. Our results indicate that the At1g74450 gene provides a potential link between multiple environmental stresses, plant height and pollen development. In addition, ruthenium red staining analysis showed that At1g74450 may affect the composition of the inner seed coat mucilage layer. Finally, C-terminal GFP fusion proteins for At1g74450 were shown to localise to the cytosol. PMID:26485022

  5. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase β subunit is essential for male fertility and tip growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gutkowska, Malgorzata; Wnuk, Marta; Nowakowska, Julita; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Stronkowski, Michal M; Swiezewska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins, key players in vesicular transport in all eukaryotic cells, are post-translationally modified by lipid moieties. Two geranylgeranyl groups are attached to the Rab protein by the heterodimeric enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGT) αβ. Partial impairment in this enzyme activity in Arabidopsis, by disruption of the AtRGTB1 gene, is known to influence plant stature and disturb gravitropic and light responses. Here it is shown that mutations in each of the RGTB genes cause a tip growth defect, visible as root hair and pollen tube deformations. Moreover, FM 1-43 styryl dye endocytosis and recycling are affected in the mutant root hairs. Finally, it is demonstrated that the double mutant, with both AtRGTB genes disrupted, is non-viable due to absolute male sterility. Doubly mutated pollen is shrunken, has an abnormal exine structure, and shows strong disorganization of internal membranes, particularly of the endoplasmic reticulum system.

  6. The endocannabinoid system: an ancient signaling involved in the control of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Silvia; Meccariello, Rosaria; Cobellis, Gilda; Chianese, Rosanna; Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Pierantoni, Riccardo

    2009-04-01

    The effects of cannabinoids on human health have been known since the antiquities when the extract of the plant Cannabis sativa was used because of its psychoactivity. The scientific story of the cannabinoids started in the 1960s with the isolation and characterization of the active component of the plant. After the synthesis of cannabinoid analogues, the analysis of structure-effect relationships was implemented, and this had a similar effect to a positive "Pandora's box" opening. To date, numerous roles have been ascribed to the "endocannabinoid system." Here we describe its involvement in the control of male reproduction, taking into consideration possible evolutionary speculations. Indeed, the endocannabinoid system is a very ancient signaling system, being clearly present from the divergence of the protostomian/deuterostomian.

  7. Critical Roles of Vacuolar Invertase in Floral Organ Development and Male and Female Fertilities Are Revealed through Characterization of GhVIN1-RNAi Cotton Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Seed number and quality are key traits determining plant fitness and crop yield and rely on combined competence in male and female fertilities. Sucrose metabolism is central to reproductive success. It remains elusive, though, how individual sucrose metabolic enzymes may regulate the complex reproductive processes. Here, by silencing vacuolar invertase (VIN) genes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) reproductive organs, we revealed diverse roles that VIN plays in multiple reproductive processes. A set of phenotypic and genetic studies showed significant reductions of viable seeds in GhVIN1-RNAi plants, attributed to pollination failure and impaired male and female fertilities. The former was largely owing to the spatial mismatch between style and stamen and delayed pollen release from the anthers, whereas male defects came from poor pollen viability. The transgenic stamen exhibited altered expression of the genes responsible for starch metabolism and auxin and jasmonic acid signaling. Further analyses identified the reduction of GhVIN expression in the seed coat as the major cause for the reduced female fertility, which appeared to disrupt the expression of some key genes involved in trehalose and auxin metabolism and signaling, leading to programmed cell death or growth repression in the filial tissues. Together, the data provide an unprecedented example of how VIN is required to synchronize style and stamen development and the formation of male and female fertilities for seed development in a crop species, cotton. PMID:26969720

  8. What is harmful for male fertility: cell phone or the wireless Internet?

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Mehmet Erol; Kaynar, Mehmet; Badem, Huseyin; Cavis, Mucahıt; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Cimentepe, Ersın

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless Internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results.

  9. What is harmful for male fertility: cell phone or the wireless Internet?

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Mehmet Erol; Kaynar, Mehmet; Badem, Huseyin; Cavis, Mucahıt; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Cimentepe, Ersın

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless Internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results. PMID:26362961

  10. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly on In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in Male Mice Treated with Oxymetholone

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Ensieh; Najafi, Gholamreza; Nejati, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on catalase, total antioxidant capacity and embryo development in adult mice treated with oxymetholone (OXM). Materials and Methods In this exprimental study, 32 male and 96 female adult Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (7-9 weeks of age) with a ratio of 1:3 for fertili- zation purposes were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: i. Control group (n=8) receiving 0.1 ml/mice saline daily by gavage for 30 day, ii. RJ group (n=8) treated with RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days, iii. OXM group (n=8) receiving OXM at the dose of 5 mg/kg daily by gavage for 30 days and iv. RJ+OXM group (n=8) receiving RJ at the dose of 100 mg/kg daily by gavage concomitant with 100 mg/kg OXM adminis- tration for 30 days. Results Analysis revealed a significant reduction in catalase, total antioxidant, as well as embryo development in OXM group (P<0.05). However, RJ group showed a salient recovery in the all of the above mentioned parameters and embryo toxicity. Conclusion The results of this study indicated a partially protective effect of RJ against OXM-induced embryo toxicity. PMID:26464831

  11. Stoichiometric shifts in the common bean mitochondrial genome leading to male sterility and spontaneous reversion to fertility

    PubMed Central

    Janska, H; Sarria, R; Woloszynska, M; Arrieta-Montiel, M; Mackenzie, SA

    1998-01-01

    The plant mitochondrial genome is characterized by a complex, multipartite structure. In cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) common bean, the sterility-inducing mitochondrial configuration maps as three autonomous DNA molecules, one containing the sterility-associated sequence pvs-or f 239. We constructed a physical map of the mitochondrial genome from the direct progenitors to the CMS cytoplasm and have shown that it maps as a single, circular master configuration. With long-exposure autoradiography of DNA gel blots and polymerase chain reaction analysis, we demonstrate that the three-molecule CMS-associated configuration was present at unusually low copy number within the progenitor genome and that the progenitor form was present substoichiometrically within the genome of the CMS line. Furthermore, upon spontaneous reversion to fertility, the progenitor genomic configuration as well as the molecule containing the pvs-or f 239 sterility-associated sequence were both maintained at substoichiometric levels within the revertant genome. In vitro mitochondrial incubation results demonstrated that the genomic shift of the pvs-or f 239-containing molecule to substoichiometric levels upon spontaneous reversion was a reversible phenomenon. Moreover, we demonstrate that substoichiometric forms, apparently silent with regard to gene expression, are transcriptionally and translationally active once amplified. Thus, copy number suppression may serve as an effective means of regulating gene expression in plant mitochondria. PMID:9668135

  12. Paternal obesity negatively affects male fertility and assisted reproduction outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jared M; Lane, Michelle; Owens, Julie A; Bakos, Hassan W

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review investigated the effect of paternal obesity on reproductive potential. Databases searched were Pubmed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, Cinahl and Embase. Papers were critically appraised by two reviewers, and data were extracted using a standardized tool. Outcomes were: likelihood of infertility, embryo development, clinical pregnancy, live birth, pregnancy viability, infant development, sperm; concentration, morphology, motility, volume, DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and seminal plasma factors. Thirty papers were included, with a total participant number of 115,158. Obese men were more likely to experience infertility (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.53-1.79), their rate of live birth per cycle of assisted reproduction technology (ART) was reduced (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97) and they had a 10% absolute risk increase of pregnancy non-viability. Additionally, obese men had an increased percentage of sperm with low MMP, DNA fragmentation, and abnormal morphology. Clinically significant differences were not found for conventional semen parameters. From these findings it can be concluded that male obesity is associated with reduced reproductive potential. Furthermore, it may be informative to incorporate DNA fragmentation analysis and MMP assessment into semen testing, especially for obese men whose results suggest they should have normal fertility. PMID:26380863

  13. [Isolation and identification of specific sequences correlated to cytoplasmic male sterility and fertile maintenance in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Guo; Chen, Xiao Qiang; Li, Hui; Zhao, Qian Cheng; Sun, De Ling; Song, Wen Qin

    2008-02-01

    significant information to investigate the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertile maintenance in cauliflower.

  14. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet.

  15. Optimizing Male Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about the amount, movement, and shape of sperm. If the sperm count is normal and the sperm are of normal shape and moving normally, the ... likely normal. If the results are abnormal, the sperm should be examined. Illness or medications three months ...

  16. Diet-Induced Obesity in Male C57BL/6 Mice Decreases Fertility as a Consequence of Disrupted Blood-Testis Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yong; Liu, Yue; Xue, Ke; Gu, Guobao; Fan, Weimin; Xu, Yali; Ding, Zhide

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex metabolic disease that is a serious detriment to both children and adult health, which induces a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, hypertension and cancer. Although adverse effects of obesity on female reproduction or oocyte development have been well recognized, its harmfulness to male fertility is still unclear because of reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine whether diet-induced obesity impairs male fertility and furthermore to uncover its underlying mechanisms. Thus, male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks served as a model of diet-induced obesity. The results clearly show that the percentage of sperm motility and progressive motility significantly decreased, whereas the proportion of teratozoospermia dramatically increased in HFD mice compared to those in normal diet fed controls. Besides, the sperm acrosome reaction fell accompanied by a decline in testosterone level and an increase in estradiol level in the HFD group. This alteration of sperm function parameters strongly indicated that the fertility of HFD mice was indeed impaired, which was also validated by a low pregnancy rate in their mated normal female. Moreover, testicular morphological analyses revealed that seminiferous epithelia were severely atrophic, and cell adhesions between spermatogenic cells and Sertoli cells were loosely arranged in HFD mice. Meanwhile, the integrity of the blood-testis barrier was severely interrupted consistent with declines in the tight junction related proteins, occludin, ZO-1 and androgen receptor, but instead endocytic vesicle-associated protein, clathrin rose. Taken together, obesity can impair male fertility through declines in the sperm function parameters, sex hormone level, whereas during spermatogenesis damage to the blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity may be one of the crucial underlying factors accounting for this change. PMID:25886196

  17. A Combined Approach to Heat Stress Effect on Male Fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: From the Physiological Consequences on Spermatogenesis to the Reproductive Adjustment of Females Mated with Stressed Males

    PubMed Central

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:25807005

  18. A combined approach to heat stress effect on male fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: from the physiological consequences on spermatogenesis to the reproductive adjustment of females mated with stressed males.

    PubMed

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude; Bressac, Christophe; Lécureuil, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates.

  19. Isolation of fertility-related genes of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis by cDNA-AFLP.

    PubMed

    Ji, R Q; Song, Q; Xin, X F; Zhou, X; Feng, H

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of multiple-allele-inherited male sterility in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp pekinensis), differentially expressed genes in fertile and sterile plants must be isolated. We used cDNA-AFLP analysis to isolate differentially expressed genes in fertile and sterile buds of the two-type line, AB01. Sixteen high-quality sequences were generated, 11 of which were up-regulated in fertile buds, and five of which were up-regulated in sterile buds. Based on BLAST screening and functional annotation, these genes have homology with genes encoding known flower- or bud-specific proteins, metabolism-related proteins and cell-structure proteins. In addition, the full-length cDNA sequences of the actin gene were cloned from the cabbage plants by RACE and used as an internal standard for semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Expression of three flower- or bud-specific differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments in fertile and sterile buds was examined using RT-PCR; the expression patterns of these genes were similar to the patterns observed in the cDNA-AFLP analysis.

  20. Identification of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) Markers Tightly Associated with Drought Stress Gene in Male Sterile and Fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Guo, Lijun; Shu, Zhiming; Sun, Yiyue; Chen, Yuanyuan; Liang, Zongsuo; Guo, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    Consistent grain yield in drought environment has attracted wide attention due to global climate change. However, the important drought-related traits/genes in crops have been rarely reported. Many near-isogenic lines (NILs) of male sterile and fertile Salvia miltiorrhiza have been obtained in our previous work through testcross and backcross in continuous field experiments conducted in 2006–2009. Both segregating sterile and fertile populations were subjected to bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with 384 and 170 primer combinations, respectively. One out of 14 AFLP markers (E9/M3246) was identified in treated fertile population as tightly linked to the drought stress gene with a recombination frequency of 6.98% and at a distance of 7.02 cM. One of 15 other markers (E2/M5357) was identified in a treated sterile population that is closely associated with the drought stress gene. It had a recombination frequency of 4.65% and at a distance of 4.66 cM. Interestingly, the E9/M3246 fragment was found to be identical to another AFLP fragment E11/M4208 that was tightly linked to the male sterile gene of S. miltiorrhiza with 95% identity and e-value 4 × 10−93. Blastn analysis suggested that the drought stress gene sequence showed higher identity with nucleotides in Arabidopsis chromosome 1–5. PMID:23525049

  1. The evolution of polyandry: patterns of genotypic variation in female mating frequency, male fertilization success and a test of the sexy-sperm hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Simmons, L W

    2003-07-01

    The sexy-sperm hypothesis predicts that females obtain indirect benefits for their offspring via polyandy, in the form of increased fertilization success for their sons. I use a quantitative genetic approach to test the sexy-sperm hypothesis using the field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. Previous studies of this species have shown considerable phenotypic variation in fertilization success when two or more males compete. There were high broad-sense heritabilities for both paternity and polyandry. Patterns of genotypic variance were consistent with X-linked inheritance and/or maternal effects on these traits. The genetic architecture therefore precludes the evolution of polyandry via a sexy-sperm process. Thus the positive genetic correlation between paternity in sons and polyandry in daughters predicted by the sexy-sperm hypothesis was absent. There was significant heritable variation in the investment by females in ovaries and by males in the accessory gland. Surprisingly there was a very strong genetic correlation between these two traits. The significance of this genetic correlation for the coevolution of male seminal products and polyandry is discussed.

  2. Effect of male hepatitis B virus infection on outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment: insights from couples undergoing oocyte donation.

    PubMed

    Bu, Zhiqin; Kong, Huijuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Fang; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    It is common to see HBV infected couple seeking fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. However, it is still unclear whether HBV infection has any relationship with IVF outcome. To assess the impact of male HVB infection on the outcomes of IVF, we retrospectively analyzed data from two hundred and seventy-seven subfertile couples undergoing oocyte donation cycles in our center. Twenty men (7.2%) were HBV seropositive in 277 couples. 20 couples with seropositive husbands had similar semen parameters and fertilization rate when compared with their controls. Among the 215 couples undergoing their first oocyte donation cycles, 19 couples with seropositive husbands/seronegative wives had lower implantation rate (26.7% vs. 40.6%; P > 0.05), and lower clinical pregnancy rate (42.1% vs. 63.8%; P > 0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant. In binary regression model, male HBV infection had no association with clinical pregnancy. Our study shows that male HBV infection has little impact on IVF outcomes. PMID:25126191

  3. Effect of male hepatitis B virus infection on outcomes of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer treatment: insights from couples undergoing oocyte donation

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Zhiqin; Kong, Huijuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Fang; Guo, Yihong; Su, Yingchun; Zhai, Jun; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-01-01

    It is common to see HBV infected couple seeking fertility treatment in reproductive medical centers. However, it is still unclear whether HBV infection has any relationship with IVF outcome. To assess the impact of male HVB infection on the outcomes of IVF, we retrospectively analyzed data from two hundred and seventy-seven subfertile couples undergoing oocyte donation cycles in our center. Twenty men (7.2%) were HBV seropositive in 277 couples. 20 couples with seropositive husbands had similar semen parameters and fertilization rate when compared with their controls. Among the 215 couples undergoing their first oocyte donation cycles, 19 couples with seropositive husbands/seronegative wives had lower implantation rate (26.7% vs. 40.6%; P > 0.05), and lower clinical pregnancy rate (42.1% vs. 63.8%; P > 0.05), but the difference was not statistically significant. In binary regression model, male HBV infection had no association with clinical pregnancy. Our study shows that male HBV infection has little impact on IVF outcomes. PMID:25126191

  4. [Progresses of study on the DNA locus related to cytoplasmic male sterility and restorer gene for fertility in rapeseed].

    PubMed

    Ma, San-Mei; Wang, Yong-Fei

    2005-04-01

    CMS in rapeseed is of tremendous importance in its commercial application in hybrid seed production. This review focuses on the progresses of study on CMS in rapeseed from four aspects: (1) the mitochondrial DNA locus found to be associated with CMS, (2) the effects of restorer gene for fertility on the expression of the locus associated with CMS, (3) the mapping with molecular marker and (4) cloning of restorer genes of fertility of the CMS in rapeseed. The prospects of further studies on this subject are discussed.

  5. Comparative Transcript Profiling of a Male Sterile Cybrid Pummelo and Its Fertile Type Revealed Altered Gene Expression Related to Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Bei-Bei; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Ge, Xiao-Xia; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Grosser, Jude W.; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Male sterile and seedless characters are highly desired for citrus cultivar improvement. In our breeding program, a male sterile cybrid pummelo, which could be considered as a variant of male fertile pummelo, was produced by protoplast fusion. Herein, ecotopic stamen primordia initiation and development were detected in this male sterile cybrid pummelo. Histological studies revealed that the cybrid showed reduced petal development in size and width, and retarded stamen primordia development. Additionally, disorganized cell proliferation was also detected in stamen-like structures (fused to petals and/or carpel). To gain new insight into the underlying mechanism, we compared, by RNA-Seq analysis, the nuclear gene expression profiles of floral buds of the cybrid with that of fertile pummelo. Gene expression profiles which identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two lines were captured at both petal primordia and stamen primordia distinguishable stages. For example, nuclear genes involved in nucleic acid binding and response to hormone synthesis and metabolism, genes required for floral bud identification and expressed in particular floral whorls. Furthermore, in accordance with flower morphology of the cybrid, expression of PISTILLATA (PI) was reduced in stamen-like structures, even though it was restricted to correct floral whorls. Down-regulated expression of APETALA3 (AP3) coincided with that of PI. These finding indicated that, due to their whorl specific effects in flower development, citrus class-B MADS-box genes likely constituted ‘perfect targets’ for CMS retrograde signaling, and that dysfunctional mitochondria seemed to cause male sterile phenotype in the cybrid pummelo. PMID:22952758

  6. Expression of a Catalytically Inactive Mutant Form of Glutathione Peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) Confers a Dominant-negative Effect in Male Fertility*

    PubMed Central

    Ingold, Irina; Aichler, Michaela; Yefremova, Elena; Roveri, Antonella; Buday, Katalin; Doll, Sebastian; Tasdemir, Adrianne; Hoffard, Nils; Wurst, Wolfgang; Walch, Axel; Ursini, Fulvio; Friedmann Angeli, José Pedro; Conrad, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    The selenoenzyme Gpx4 is essential for early embryogenesis and cell viability for its unique function to prevent phospholipid oxidation. Recently, the cytosolic form of Gpx4 was identified as an upstream regulator of a novel form of non-apoptotic cell death, called ferroptosis, whereas the mitochondrial isoform of Gpx4 was previously shown to be crucial for male fertility. Here, we generated and analyzed mice with a targeted mutation of the active site selenocysteine of Gpx4 (Gpx4_U46S). Mice homozygous for Gpx4_U46S died at the same embryonic stage (E7.5) as Gpx4−/− embryos as expected. Surprisingly, male mice heterozygous for Gpx4_U46S presented subfertility. Subfertility was manifested in a reduced number of litters from heterozygous breeding and an impairment of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes in vitro. Morphologically, sperm isolated from heterozygous Gpx4_U46S mice revealed many structural abnormalities particularly in the spermatozoa midpiece due to improper oxidation and polymerization of sperm capsular proteins and malformation of the mitochondrial capsule surrounding and stabilizing sperm mitochondria. These findings are reminiscent of sperm isolated from selenium-deprived rodents or from mice specifically lacking mitochondrial Gpx4. Due to a strongly facilitated incorporation of Ser in the polypeptide chain as compared with selenocysteine at the UGA codon, expression of the catalytically inactive Gpx4_U46S was found to be strongly increased. Because the stability of the mitochondrial capsule of mature spermatozoa depends on the moonlighting function of Gpx4 both as an enzyme oxidizing capsular protein thiols and as a structural protein, tightly controlled expression of functional Gpx4 emerges as a key for full male fertility. PMID:25922076

  7. Rhox8 Ablation in the Sertoli Cells Using a Tissue-Specific RNAi Approach Results in Impaired Male Fertility in Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Welborn, Joshua P.; Davis, Matthew G.; Ebers, Steven D.; Stodden, Genna R.; Hayashi, Kanako; Cheatwood, Joseph L.; Rao, Manjeet K.; MacLean, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The reproductive homeobox X-linked, Rhox, genes encode transcription factors that are selectively expressed in reproductive tissues. While there are 33 Rhox genes in mice, only Rhox and Rhox8 are expressed in Sertoli cells, suggesting that they may regulate the expression of somatic-cell gene products crucial for germ cell development. We previously characterized Rhox5-null mice, which are subfertile, exhibiting excessive germ cell apoptosis and compromised sperm motility. To assess the role of Rhox8 in Sertoli cells, we used a tissue-specific RNAi approach to knockdown RHOX8 in vivo, in which the Rhox5 promoter was used to drive Rhox8-siRNA transgene expression in the postnatal Sertoli cells. Western and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed Sertoli-specific knockdown of RHOX8. However, other Sertoli markers, Gata1 and Rhox5, maintained normal expression patterns, suggesting that the knockdown was specific. Interestingly, male RHOX8-knockdown animals showed significantly reduced spermatogenic output, increased germ cell apoptosis, and compromised sperm motility, leading to impaired fertility. Importantly, our results revealed that while some RHOX5-dependent factors were also misregulated in Sertoli cells of RHOX8-knockdown animals, the majority were not, and novel putative RHOX8-regulated genes were identified. This suggests that while reduction in levels of RHOX5 and RHOX8 in Sertoli cells elicits similar phenotypes, these genes are not entirely redundant. Taken together, our study underscores the importance of Rhox genes in male fertility and suggests that Sertoli cell-specific expression of Rhox5 and Rhox8 is critical for complete male fertility. PMID:25972016

  8. [Comparison of the ability to fertilize females by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum males irradiated with gamma radiation from caesium 137 with non-irradiated males].

    PubMed

    Karaer, Zafer; Kar, Sirri; Düzgün, Ali; Güven, Esin; Cakmak, Ayşe; Emre, Zişan; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil; Saribaş, Taner; Akçay, Aytaç

    2009-01-01

    In this study, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum male ticks were subjected to gamma radiation with a dose of 10 Gy emitted by a gamma-ray source of Caesium 137. Female ticks were divided into 3 groups and placed in rabbit ears to feed. In the first group, the females fed with normal and irradiated males, in the second group females fed only with irradiated males and in last group females fed with normal males. Biological parameters such as the feeding period, weights, period of time from dropping until egg-laying began, the number of eggs and the number of larva hatching from eggs were recorded. With the results of statistical analysis it was found that the average egg laying period of females in the second group was clearly less (22.77 days) than other groups and the difference between these groups was statistically important (P < 0.05). After evaluation of numbers of larva, also there was a statistically important difference between the groups and the average number of larva was clearly higher (2519.30) in third group than other groups. In conclusion, in this study it was found that irradiated males could not compete with normal males in mating with females and because of this they couldn't affect the feeding and reproductivity of females.

  9. Molecular detection of potential sexually transmitted pathogens in semen and urine specimens of infertile and fertile males.

    PubMed

    Abusarah, Eman A; Awwad, Ziad M; Charvalos, Ekatherina; Shehabi, Asem A

    2013-12-01

    A total of 93 infertile and 70 fertile men attending various urology and gynecology clinics in Jordan were investigated in this prospective study. First void urine and the corresponding semen specimens were collected from 96% of the patients. Presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) DNA in specimen was detected using polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of NG, CT, UU, and MG in semen and FVU specimens among infertile versus fertile men was 6.5% versus 0%, 4.3% versus 1.4%, 10.8% versus 5.7%, and 3.2% versus 1.4%, respectively. Two of infertile and 1 of fertile men harbored mixed pathogens. The highest number of positive potential pathogens was found among young men aged 20-29 years old. The present study found a very high concordance between the detection of CT, UU, and MG DNA in semen and the corresponding FVU specimens, while NG DNA found only in semen and not in the corresponding FVU specimens. This study also revealed that Ureaplasma parvum species is more prevalent than Ureaplasma urealyticum in specimens of infertile men (90%). The study demonstrates that infertile men have higher prevalence of NG, CT, UU, and MG compared with fertile men and NG as significantly associated with infertile men.

  10. Effects of x-ray irradiation on male navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on mating, fecundity, fertility, and inherited sterility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male adult navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella, were irradiated using a laboratory x-ray emitter to determine the dose needed to achieve complete egg sterility of mated female moths and inherited egg sterility of F1 generation. Adult male A. transitella were irradiated in a series of two experime...

  11. Surrogate Endpoints in Suicide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortzel, Hal S.; Gutierrez, Peter M.; Homaifar, Beeta Y.; Breshears, Ryan E.; Harwood, Jeri E.

    2010-01-01

    Surrogate endpoints frequently substitute for rare outcomes in research. The ability to learn about completed suicides by investigating more readily available and proximate outcomes, such as suicide attempts, has obvious appeal. However, concerns with surrogates from the statistical science perspective exist, and mounting evidence from…

  12. Wildlife toxicity extrapolations: Measurement endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Berg, M. van den

    1995-12-31

    Ecotoxicological assessments must rely on the extrapolation of toxicity data from a few indicator species to many species of concern. Data are available from laboratory studies (e.g., quail, mallards, rainbow trout, fathead minnow) and some planned or serendipitous field studies of a broader, but by no means comprehensive, suite of species. Yet all ecological risk assessments begin with an estimate of risk based on information gleaned from the literature. One is then confronted with the necessity of extrapolating toxicity information from a limited number of indicator species to ail organisms of interest. This is a particularly acute problem when trying to estimate hazard to wildlife in terrestrial systems as there is an extreme paucity of data for most chemicals in all but a handful of species. This section continues the debate by six panelists of the ``correct`` approach for determining wildlife toxicity thresholds by examining which are the appropriate measurement endpoints. Should only mortality, growth, or reproductive endpoints be used? Since toxicity threshold values may be used to make management decisions, should values related to each measurement endpoint be presented to allow the risk assessor to choose the measurement endpoint most relevant to the assessment questions being asked, or is a standard approach that uses the lowest value that causes a toxicologic response in any system of the animal a more appropriate, conservative estimate?

  13. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization.

  14. ECHIDNA protein impacts on male fertility in Arabidopsis by mediating trans-Golgi network secretory trafficking during anther and pollen development.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A

    2014-03-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-yellow fluorescent protein) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization. PMID:24424320

  15. Establishing a group of endpoints to support collective operations without specifying unique identifiers for any endpoints

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksom, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanghon

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  16. Efficient plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nuclear migration is important for eukaryotic development. Although nuclear migration is conserved in plants, its importance for plant development has not yet been established. The most extraordinary plant nuclear migration events involve plant fertilization, which is starkly different from that of animals. Instead of evolving self-propelled sperm cells (SCs), plants use pollen tubes to deliver SCs, in which the pollen vegetative nucleus (VN) and the SCs migrate as a unit toward the ovules, a fundamental but barely understood process. Here, we report that WPP domain-interacting proteins (WIPs) and their binding partners the WPP domain-interacting tail-anchored proteins (WITs) are essential for pollen nuclear migration. Loss-of-function mutations in WIT and/or WIP gene families resulted in impaired VN movement, inefficient SC delivery, and defects in pollen tube reception. WIPs are Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 Homology (KASH) analogs in plants. KASH proteins are key players in animal nuclear migration. Thus, this study not only reveals an important nuclear migration mechanism in plant fertilization but also, suggests that similar nuclear migration machinery is conserved between plants and animals. PMID:25074908

  17. Obesity is associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin alongside reduced fertility parameters in a controlled male cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity appears to be associated with male reproductive dysfunction and infertility, although this has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Insulin and leptin are known mediators and modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testes axis, contributing to the regulation of male reproductive potential and overall wellbeing. These hormones are also present in semen influencing sperm functions. Although abdominal obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia), hyperleptinaemia and glucose dysfunction, changes in seminal plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese males has not previously been investigated. Methods This small case controlled study assessed serum and seminal concentrations of insulin, leptin and glucose in obese (BMI > =30; n = 23) and non-obese (BMI < 30; n = 19) males. Following a detailed medical history and examination, participants meeting the inclusion criteria were entered for data analysis. Body parameters such as BMI, waist and hip circumference and the waist hip ratio were measured. Serum and semen samples were collected and assayed for insulin, leptin and glucose. Semen samples also underwent a standard semen analysis, with sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA fragmentation (DF). Results Obesity was associated with increased serum and seminal insulin and leptin, with no significant difference in seminal glucose. Serum and seminal concentrations of insulin and leptin were positively correlated. Furthermore, obesity was associated with decreased sperm concentration, sperm vitality and increased MMP and DF, with a non-significant impact on motility and morphology. Conclusions Hyperinsulinaemia and hyperleptinaemia are associated with increased seminal insulin and leptin concentrations, which may negatively impact male reproductive function in obesity. Insulin was also found to be highly concentrated in the seminal plasma of both groups. This data will contribute

  18. Human X-linked Intellectual Disability Factor CUL4B Is Required for Post-meiotic Sperm Development and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yu; Yu, Chih-Hsiang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Rung; Wu, June-Tai; Lin, Ying-Hung; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Wu, Jui-Ching; Lin, Shu-Wha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that an E3-ubiquitin ligase associated with human X-linked intellectual disability, CUL4B, plays a crucial role in post-meiotic sperm development. Initially, Cul4bΔ/Y male mice were found to be sterile and exhibited a progressive loss in germ cells, thereby leading to oligoasthenospermia. Adult Cul4b mutant epididymides also contained very low numbers of mature spermatozoa, and these spermatazoa exhibited pronounced morphological abnormalities. In post-meiotic spermatids, CUL4B was dynamically expressed and mitosis of spermatogonia and meiosis of spermatocytes both appeared unaffected. However, the spermatids exhibited significantly higher levels of apoptosis during spermiogenesis, particularly during the acrosome phase through the cap phase. Comparative proteomic analyses identified a large-scale shift between wild-type and Cul4b mutant testes during early post-meiotic sperm development. Ultrastructural pathology studies further detected aberrant acrosomes in spermatids and nuclear morphology. The protein levels of both canonical and non-canonical histones were also affected in an early spermatid stage in the absence of Cul4b. Thus, X-linked CUL4B appears to play a critical role in acrosomal formation, nuclear condensation, and in regulating histone dynamics during haploid male germ cell differentiation in relation to male fertility in mice. Thus, it is possible that CUL4B-selective substrates are required for post-meiotic sperm morphogenesis. PMID:26832838

  19. Male and Couple Fertility Impairment due to HPV-DNA Sperm Infection: Update on Molecular Mechanism and Clinical Impact—Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Ferrari, Bruno; Noventa, Marco; Ferrari, Emanuele; Patrelli, Tito Silvio; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences identify Human Papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection as a possible cause of male and couple infertility. It acts through different mechanisms at various steps of human conception and early gestational development. We performed a systematic review to assess the role of HPV semen infection on male and couple infertility. Analysis of available and eligible data does not permit us to fund clear evidences about clinical impact of HPV infection on fertility, although sperm parameters impairment is the most widely recognized effect. Regarding biomolecular implications, the available data are often conflicting. More studies are required to define the role of HPV sperm infection in clinical practice. The great majority of evidences are obtained by in vitro studies and this fact represents a limitation for the clinical management of HPVDNA sperm infection. Understanding the biological significance of HPV-DNA semen infection could permit us to explain most of the idiopathic male and couple infertility, leading to a better management of infertile men and a better timing for sperm banking storage before ART cycles. PMID:24783196

  20. Genetic Ablation of the CDP/Cux Protein C Terminus Results in Hair Cycle Defects and Reduced Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Luong, Mai X.; van der Meijden, Caroline M.; Xing, DongXia; Hesselton, Ruth; Monuki, Edwin S.; Jones, Stephen N.; Lian, Jane B.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; van Wijnen, Andre J.

    2002-01-01

    Murine CDP/Cux, a homologue of the Drosophila Cut homeoprotein, modulates the promoter activity of cell cycle-related and cell-type-specific genes. CDP/Cux interacts with histone gene promoters as the DNA binding subunit of a large nuclear complex (HiNF-D). CDP/Cux is a ubiquitous protein containing four conserved DNA binding domains: three Cut repeats and a homeodomain. In this study, we analyzed genetically targeted mice (Cutl1tm2Ejn, referred to as ΔC) that express a mutant CDP/Cux protein with a deletion of the C terminus, including the homeodomain. In comparison to the wild-type protein, indirect immunofluorescence showed that the mutant protein exhibited significantly reduced nuclear localization. Consistent with these data, DNA binding activity of HiNF-D was lost in nuclear extracts derived from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) or adult tissues of homozygous mutant (ΔC−/−) mice, indicating the functional loss of CDP/Cux protein in the nucleus. No significant difference in growth characteristics or total histone H4 mRNA levels was observed between wild-type and ΔC−/− MEFs in culture. However, specific histone genes (H4.1 and H1) containing CDP/Cux binding sites have reduced expression levels in homozygous mutant MEFs. Stringent control of growth and differentiation appears to be compromised in vivo. Homozygous mutant mice have stunted growth (20 to 50% weight reduction), a high postnatal death rate of 60 to 70%, sparse abnormal coat hair, and severely reduced fertility. The deregulated hair cycle and severely diminished fertility in Cutl1tm2Ejn/tm2Ejn mice suggest that CDP/Cux is required for the developmental control of dermal and reproductive functions. PMID:11839809

  1. [BcMF4 gene, encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein, plays a role in male fertility in Chinese cabbage-pak-choi].

    PubMed

    Liu, Le-Cheng; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jia-Shu

    2006-11-01

    The BcMF4 (Brassica campestris Male Fertility 4) gene was previously isolated from the fertile B line of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis, syn. B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. communis). In the present paper, based on the cDNA sequence of BcMF4, primers were designed and used to amplify two fragments from the cDNA of flower buds of Chinese cabbage-pak-choi. Two produced fragments were introduced separately into binary vector pBI121 in antisense and sense orientations. The generated RNA interference (RNAi) vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The A. tumefaciens harboring the BcMF4 fragments was transformed to flowering Chinese cabbage (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. parachinensis) via tissue culture. Approximately 45.8% of the pollen grains from 72.2% of RNAi plants exhibited abnormal in their shapes, and only 23.7% of the pollen grains from these plants germinated normally. Northern blotting demonstrated that the phenotypic change of pollen grains resulted from the inhibition of expression of the BcMF4 due to the insertion of the transgene. This indicates that functional interrupting of BcMF4 by RNAi resulted in partial pollen abortion in flowering Chinese cabbage, suggesting that the product of BcMF4 gene plays an important role during pollen development of Chinese cabbage such as Chinese cabbage-pak-choi and flowering Chinese cabbage.

  2. Transposon Tagging of a Male-Sterility, Female-Sterility Gene, St8, Revealed that the Meiotic MER3 DNA Helicase Activity Is Essential for Fertility in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Jordan; Pudake, Ramesh N.; Johnson, Callie; Kleinhans, Kaylin; Ollhoff, Alexandrea; Palmer, Reid G.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder

    2016-01-01

    The W4 locus in soybean encodes a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR2) that regulates pigmentation patterns in flowers and hypocotyl. The mutable w4-m allele that governs variegated flowers has arisen through insertion of a CACTA-type transposable element, Tgm9, in DFR2. In the w4-m line, reversion from variegated to purple flower indicates excision of Tgm9, and its insertion at a new locus. Previously, we have identified a male-sterile, female-sterile mutant among the selfed progenies of a revertant plant carrying only purple flowers. Co-segregation between Tgm9 and the sterility phenotype suggested that the mutant was generated by insertion of Tgm9 at the St8 locus. The transposon was localized to exon 10 of Glyma.16G072300 that shows high identity to the MER3 DNA helicase involved in crossing over. Molecular analysis of fertile branches from two independent revertant plants confirmed precise excision of Tgm9 from the st8 allele, which restored fertility. In soybean, the gene is expressed in flower-buds, trifoliate leaves and stem. Phylogenetic analysis placed St8 in a clade with the Arabidopsis and rice MER3 suggesting that St8 is most likely the orthologous MER3 soybean gene. This study established the utility of Tgm9 in gene identification as well as in forward and reverse genetics studies. PMID:26930200

  3. Transposon Tagging of a Male-Sterility, Female-Sterility Gene, St8, Revealed that the Meiotic MER3 DNA Helicase Activity Is Essential for Fertility in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Baumbach, Jordan; Pudake, Ramesh N; Johnson, Callie; Kleinhans, Kaylin; Ollhoff, Alexandrea; Palmer, Reid G; Bhattacharyya, Madan K; Sandhu, Devinder

    2016-01-01

    The W4 locus in soybean encodes a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR2) that regulates pigmentation patterns in flowers and hypocotyl. The mutable w4-m allele that governs variegated flowers has arisen through insertion of a CACTA-type transposable element, Tgm9, in DFR2. In the w4-m line, reversion from variegated to purple flower indicates excision of Tgm9, and its insertion at a new locus. Previously, we have identified a male-sterile, female-sterile mutant among the selfed progenies of a revertant plant carrying only purple flowers. Co-segregation between Tgm9 and the sterility phenotype suggested that the mutant was generated by insertion of Tgm9 at the St8 locus. The transposon was localized to exon 10 of Glyma.16G072300 that shows high identity to the MER3 DNA helicase involved in crossing over. Molecular analysis of fertile branches from two independent revertant plants confirmed precise excision of Tgm9 from the st8 allele, which restored fertility. In soybean, the gene is expressed in flower-buds, trifoliate leaves and stem. Phylogenetic analysis placed St8 in a clade with the Arabidopsis and rice MER3 suggesting that St8 is most likely the orthologous MER3 soybean gene. This study established the utility of Tgm9 in gene identification as well as in forward and reverse genetics studies. PMID:26930200

  4. Fertility and Markers of Male Reproductive Function in Inuit and European Populations Spanning Large Contrasts in Blood Levels of Persistent Organochlorines

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Giwercman, Aleksander; Spano, Marcello; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Ludwicki, Jan K.; Zvyezday, Valentina; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C.; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Thulstrup, Ane Marie

    2008-01-01

    Objective We synthesized the main findings from an international epidemiologic study on the impact of biopersistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human reproductive function. Data sources and extraction We used a database with interview and biological data from 2,269 women and their spouses, and 18 published core papers. Data synthesis The study did not provide direct evidence of hormone-like activity of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 and the main dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p′-DDE), as serum concentrations of these compounds were not consistently related to either endogenous or exogenous hormone activity in serum. Nevertheless several links bewteen POP exposure and biomarkers of male reproductive function were identified. First, an association between high CB-153 serum levels and low sperm counts was detected within a subgroup of men with short androgen receptor CAG repeat length. Second, a relationship between increased CB-153 serum concentrations and decreased sperm motility was seen in all four studied regions, and indications of reduced neutral α-glucosidase activity in seminal plasma point to a post-testicular effect. Third, damage of sperm chromatin integrity was considerably less frequent in Greenlandic Inuits compared with that in European groups, and only in the latter was impairment of sperm chromatin integrity related to POPs. Despite these effects, fertility in terms of time taken to conceive was not related to POPs except in Inuits. A likely explanation of the latter was not identified. Conclusions POPs may interfere with male reproductive function without major impact on fertility. The data do not provide direct evidence for endocrine disruption, hence other mechanisms should also be considered. PMID:18335090

  5. Relationships between fertility and some parameters in male broiler breeders (body and testicular weight, histology and immunohistochemistry of testes, spermatogenesis and hormonal levels).

    PubMed

    Sarabia Fragoso, J; Pizarro Díaz, M; Abad Moreno, J C; Casanovas Infesta, P; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Barger, K

    2013-04-01

    In a farm of grandparent broiler breeder chickens, we followed the development of 350 roosters from 6 to 55 weeks of age. Data collected and evaluated from these males included body weight, testicular weight, histologic and immunohistochemistry studies of the testes, hormone levels (testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone) and sperm production. The objective was to understand the factors that affect or influence hatch loss that is commonly observed after 45 weeks of age in breeder flocksare often correlated to broiler breeder male chickens. The results of this study showed that in conjunction with the weight of the rooster, the testicle weight increases quickly after the rooster receives light stimulation. At an older age, the study showed that there is a process of testicular shrinkage, and the same effect is seen in sperm production and testosterone levels in broiler breeder roosters. From the histology evaluation, we defined 5 histologic phases that illustrate the evolution of the testicular tissue: perinatal, infantile, puberty, adult and senile. We observed that the adult males with a body weight <3800 g were infertile or had subfertile levels and also had low levels of testosterone and high levels of corticosterone. In contrast, the heaviest males showed correct testicular vitality, high levels of testosterone and low levels of corticosterone. However, the roosters that had acquired this high body weight were also at risk of having less complete copulations because of their physical mass. The loss of uniformity of the males and the appearance of hierarchies within the flock accompany a decline in the percentages of hatches as a consequence of the poor confirmation of the males for copulation or the restriction to the access to the females. Results of this study show that the decrease in fertility from 45 weeks of age has been associated with a decline in testicular weight, sperm production and the testosterone levels in animals with a sub-par weight

  6. Drosophila mitoferrin is essential for male fertility: evidence for a role of mitochondrial iron metabolism during spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammals and Drosophila melanogaster share some striking similarities in spermatogenesis. Mitochondria in spermatids undergo dramatic morphological changes and syncytial spermatids are stripped from their cytoplasm and then individually wrapped by single membranes in an individualization process. In mammalian and fruit fly testis, components of the mitochondrial iron metabolism are expressed, but so far their function during spermatogenesis is unknown. Here we investigate the role of Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), which is a mitochondrial carrier protein with an established role in the mitochondrial iron metabolism, during spermatogenesis. Results We found that P-element insertions into the 5'-untranslated region of the dmfrn gene cause recessive male sterility, which was rescued by a fluorescently tagged transgenic dmfrn genomic construct (dmfrnvenus). Testes of mutant homozygous dmfrnSH115 flies were either small with unorganized content or contained some partially elongated spermatids, or testes were of normal size but lacked mature sperm. Testis squashes indicated that spermatid elongation was defective and electron micrographs showed mitochondrial defects in elongated spermatids and indicated failed individualization. Using a LacZ reporter and the dmfrnvenus transgene, we found that dmfrn expression in testes was highest in spermatids, coinciding with the stages that showed defects in the mutants. Dmfrn-venus protein accumulated in mitochondrial derivatives of spermatids, where it remained until most of it was stripped off during individualization and disposed of in waste bags. Male sterility in flies with the hypomorph alleles dmfrnBG00456 and dmfrnEY01302 over the deletion Df(3R)ED6277 was increased by dietary iron chelation and suppressed by iron supplementation of the food, while male sterility of dmfrnSH115/Df(3R)ED6277 flies was not affected by food iron levels. Conclusions In this work, we show that mutations in the Drosophila mitoferrin gene

  7. The combined use of vibrostimulation and in vitro fertilization: successful pregnancy outcome from a retrograde specimen obtained from a spinal cord-injured male.

    PubMed

    Elliot, S; Szasz, G; Zouves, C

    1991-12-01

    While pregnancies have been documented through the independent use of the vibrator method, from other methods of procuring ejaculate from spinal cord injured men, and from artificial insemination using a retrograde specimen, we believe that this is the first case report of a live birth resulting from a retrograde ejaculate obtained by vibration from a spinal cord-injured male whose partner underwent in vitro fertilization. Vibrostimulation may well be successful in the two-thirds of men whose spinal cord lesions are at the T10 neurological level and above, who have an intact bulbocavernosus reflex and anal tone but no pain or temperature sensation of the genitalia. Blood pressure monitoring, prevention of autonomic dysreflexia, alkalinization, dilution and infection control of urine, and retrograde specimen retrieval are all important techniques to ensure patient safety and optimal ejaculates. The timing of ovulation and insemination is the crucial factor for the partner of a SCI male whose sperm quality is poor. A complete gynecological workup, including studies of tubal patency, should be done before embarking on a series of artificial inseminations. Stimulation of ovulation and well-timed inseminations should optimize the chance of conception. Depending on semen analysis, female partner factors, and emotional and financial costs, IVF can appropriately be either an early or a final option.

  8. Coiled-coil domain containing 42 (Ccdc42) is necessary for proper sperm development and male fertility in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Pasek, Raymond C; Malarkey, Erik; Berbari, Nicolas F; Sharma, Neeraj; Kesterson, Robert A; Tres, Laura L; Kierszenbaum, Abraham L; Yoder, Bradley K

    2016-04-15

    Spermiogenesis is the differentiation of spermatids into motile sperm consisting of a head and a tail. The head harbors a condensed elongated nucleus partially covered by the acrosome-acroplaxome complex. Defects in the acrosome-acroplaxome complex are associated with abnormalities in sperm head shaping. The head-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), a complex structure consisting of two cylindrical microtubule-based centrioles and associated components, connects the tail or flagellum to the sperm head. Defects in the development of the HTCA cause sperm decapitation and disrupt sperm motility, two major contributors to male infertility. Here, we provide data indicating that mutations in the gene Coiled-coil domain containing 42 (Ccdc42) is associated with malformation of the mouse sperm flagella. In contrast to many other flagella and motile cilia genes, Ccdc42 expression is only observed in the brain and developing sperm. Male mice homozygous for a loss-of-function Ccdc42 allele (Ccdc42(KO)) display defects in the number and location of the HTCA, lack flagellated sperm, and are sterile. The testes enriched expression of Ccdc42 and lack of other phenotypes in mutant mice make it an ideal candidate for screening cases of azoospermia in humans. PMID:26945718

  9. Physical mapping of male fertility and meiotic drive quantitative trait loci in the mouse t complex using chromosome deficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Planchart, A; You, Y; Schimenti, J C

    2000-01-01

    The t complex spans 20 cM of the proximal region of mouse chromosome 17. A variant form, the t haplotype (t), exists at significant frequencies in wild mouse populations and is characterized by the presence of inversions that suppress recombination with wild-type (+) chromosomes. Transmission ratio distortion and sterility are associated with t and affect males only. It is hypothesized that these phenomena are caused by trans-acting distorter/sterility factors that interact with a responder locus (Tcr(t)) and that the distorter and sterility factors are the same because homozygosity of the distorters causes male sterility. One factor, Tcd1, was previously shown to be amorphic using a chromosome deletion. To overcome limitations imposed by recombination suppression, we used a series of deletions within the t complex in trans to t chromosomes to characterize the Tcd1 region. We find that the distorter activity of Tcd1 is distinct from a linked sterility factor, originally called tcs1. YACs mapped with respect to deletion breakpoints localize tcs1 to a 1.1-Mb interval flanked by D17Aus9 and Tctex1. We present evidence for the existence of multiple proximal t complex regions that exhibit distorter activity. These studies demonstrate the utility of chromosome deletions for complex trait analysis. PMID:10835401

  10. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334

  11. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  12. Behavioral endpoints for radiation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.; Hunt, W. A.; Dalton, T. B.; Kandasamy, S. B.; Harris, A. H.; Ludewig, B.

    1994-10-01

    The relative behavioral effectiveness of heavy particles was evaluated. Using the taste aversion paradigm in rats, the behavioral toxicity of most types of radiation (including 20Ne and 40Ar) was similar to that of 60Co photons. Only 56Fe and 93Nb particles and fission neutrons were significantly more effective. Using emesis in ferrets as the behavioral endpoint, 56Fe particles and neutrons were again the most effective; however, 60Co photons were significantly more effective than 18 MeV electrons. These results suggest that LET does not completely predict behavioral effectiveness. Additionally, exposing rats to 10 cGy of 56Fe particles attenuated amphetamine-induced taste aversion learning. This behavior is one of a broad class of behaviors which depends on the integrity of the dopaminergic system and suggests the possibility of alterations in these behaviors following exposure to heavy particles in a space radiation environment.

  13. Fertility defects in mice expressing the L68Q variant of human cystatin C: a role for amyloid in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Whelly, Sandra; Serobian, Gaiane; Borchardt, Clinton; Powell, Jonathan; Johnson, Seethal; Hakansson, Katarina; Lindstrom, Veronica; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders; Cornwall, Gail A

    2014-03-14

    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, suggesting the presence of L68Q cystatin C amyloid affected sperm function. In vitro studies showed that epididymal spermatozoa from L68Q mice were unable to fertilize oocytes and exhibited poor sperm motility. Furthermore, spermatozoa from L68Q mice exhibited reduced cell viability compared with wild type (WT) spermatozoa and often were detected in large agglutinated clumps. Examination of the epididymal fluid and spermatozoa from L68Q mice showed increased levels and distinct forms of cystatin C amyloid that were not present in WT mice. The addition of epididymal fluid from L68Q mice to WT spermatozoa resulted in a recapitulation of the L68Q phenotype in that WT spermatozoa showed reduced cell viability and motility compared with WT spermatozoa incubated in epididymal fluid from WT mice. L68Q epididymal fluid that was depleted of cystatin C amyloids, however, did not impair the motility of WT spermatozoa. Taken together these studies suggest that amyloids in the epididymal fluid can be cytotoxic to the maturing spermatozoa resulting in male infertility.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-06

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Profile of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Fertile Floral Buds of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Mei, Shiyong; Liu, Touming; Wang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Radish cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been widely used for breeding in Raphanus and Brassica genera. However, the detailed regulation network of the male sterility remains to be determined. Our previous work has shown that the abnormalities in a CMS radish appeared shortly after the tetrad stage when microspores were malformed and the tapetal cells grew abnormally large. In this work, histological analysis shows that anthers are at the tetrad stage when the radish buds are about 1.5 mm in length. Furthermore, a high throughput RNA sequencing technology was employed to characterize the transcriptome of radish buds with length about 1.5 mm from two CMS lines possessing the CMS-inducing orf138 gene and corresponding near-isogenic maintainer lines. A total of 67,140 unigenes were functionally annotated. Functional terms for these genes are significantly enriched in 55 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 323 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. The transcriptome detected transcripts for 72 out of a total of 79 protein genes encoded in the chloroplast genome from radish. In contrast, the radish mitochondrial genome contains 34 protein genes, but only 16 protein transcripts were detected from the transcriptome. The transcriptome comparison between CMS and near-isogenic maintainer lines revealed 539 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), indicating that the false positive rate for comparative transcriptome profiling was clearly decreased using two groups of CMS/maintainer lines with different nuclear background. The level of 127 transcripts was increased and 412 transcripts were decreased in the CMS lines. No change in levels of transcripts except CMS-inducing orf138 was identified from the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. Some DEGs which would be associated with the CMS, encoding MYB and bHLH transcription factors, pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) and heat shock proteins (HSPs), are discussed. The

  17. Functional analysis of a novel male fertility CYP86MF gene in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis makino).

    PubMed

    Cao, J S; Yu, X L; Ye, W Z; Lu, G; Xiang, X

    2006-01-01

    In our earlier work, a cytochrome P450 CYP86MF gene was isolated from floral bud of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino, syn. B. rapa L.) by mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). To unravel the biological function of CYP86MF gene, the antisense fragment from the CYP86MF gene was transferred into Chinese cabbage pak-choi (B. campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee). Out of 22 plants transformed with the antisense gene constructed from the CYP86MF, 20 reached to flowering stage. Morphological investigations showed that the transgenic plants developed the normal floral organ. However, they remained self-infertile, even when artificial self-pollination was performed in the bud stage. Pollen germination test indicated that the pollen from the transgenic line TB-2 could not germinate normally. Further physiological, biochemical and cytological analyses showed that only significant difference was detectable in contents of the endogenous hormones, and a layer of unknown material adhered to the surface of microspore. The present studies thus provided valuable clues for understanding the biological function of the CYP86C subfamily genes. Furthermore, our studies also demonstrate a novel method for obtaining artificial male sterility line of Chinese cabbage.

  18. PiggyBac Transposon-Mediated Mutagenesis in Rats Reveals a Crucial Role of Bbx in Growth and Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chieh-Ying; Tang, Ming-Chu; Chang, Wen-Chi; Furushima, Kenryo; Jang, Chuan-Wei; Behringer, Richard R; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-01

    Bobby sox homolog (Bbx) is an evolutionally conserved gene, but its biological function remains elusive. Here, we characterized defects of Bbx mutant rats that were created by PiggyBac-mediated insertional mutagenesis. Smaller body size and male infertility were the two major phenotypes of homozygous Bbx mutants. Bbx expression profile analysis showed that Bbx was more highly expressed in the testis and pituitary gland than in other organs. Histology and hormonal gene expression analysis of control and Bbx-null pituitary glands showed that loss of Bbx appeared to be dispensable for pituitary histogenesis and the expression of major hormones. BBX was localized in the nuclei of postmeiotic spermatids and Sertoli cells in wild-type testes, but absent in mutant testes. An increased presence of aberrant multinuclear giant cells and apoptotic cells was observed in mutant seminiferous tubules. TUNEL-positive cells costained with CREM (round spermatid marker), but not PLZF (spermatogonia marker), gammaH2Ax (meiotic spermatocyte marker), or GATA4 (Sertoli cell marker). Finally, there were drastically reduced numbers and motility of epididymal sperm from Bbx-null rats. These results suggest that loss of BBX induces apoptosis of postmeiotic spermatids and results in spermiogenesis defects and infertility. PMID:27465138

  19. Role of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Testicular Function and Male Fertility: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Administration in Experimental Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Salvatore; Antonuccio, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo; Bitto, Alessandra; Magno, Carlo; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Micali, Antonio; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Marini, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and survivin might play an important role in testicular function. We investigated the effect of PDRN, an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, on testicular NAIP and survivin expression in an experimental model of varicocele. After the creation of experimental varicocele (28 days), adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the following treatments lasting 21 days: vehicle, PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily), PDRN + 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX, a specific adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist, 0.1 mg/kg i.p., daily), varicocelectomy, and varicocelectomy + PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. Animals were then euthanized and testis expression of NAIP and survivin was evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Spermatogenetic activity was also assessed. NAIP and survivin expressions were significantly reduced following varicocele induction when compared to sham animals whereas PDRN-treated rats showed an increase in NAIP and survivin levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed an enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization following PDRN treatment. Moreover, administration of PDRN significantly restored spermatogenic function in varicocele rats. PDRN may represent a rational therapeutic option for accelerating recovery from depressed testicular function through a strategic modulation of apoptosis in experimental varicocele. PMID:26347229

  20. Dose-dependent effects of caffeine in human Sertoli cells metabolism and oxidative profile: relevance for male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Bernardino, Raquel L; Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Joaquina; Barros, Alberto; Sousa, Mário; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-02-01

    Caffeine is a widely consumed substance present in several beverages. There is an increasing consumption of energetic drinks, rich in caffeine, among young individuals in reproductive age. Caffeine has been described as a modulator of cellular metabolism. Hence, we hypothesized that it alters human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolism and oxidative profile, which are essential for spermatogenesis. For that purpose, hSCs were cultured with increasing doses of caffeine (5, 50, 500 μM). Caffeine at the lowest concentrations (5 and 50 μM) stimulated lactate production, but only hSCs exposed to 50 μM showed increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). At the highest concentration (500 μM), caffeine stimulated LDH activity to sustain lactate production. Notably, the antioxidant capacity of hSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner and SCs exposed to 500 μM caffeine presented a pro-oxidant potential, with a concurrent increase of protein oxidative damage. Hence, moderate consumption of caffeine appears to be safe to male reproductive health since it stimulates lactate production by SCs, which can promote germ cells survival. Nevertheless, caution should be taken by heavy consumers of energetic beverages and food supplemented with caffeine to avoid deleterious effects in hSCs functioning and thus, abnormal spermatogenesis.

  1. Role of Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins in Testicular Function and Male Fertility: Effects of Polydeoxyribonucleotide Administration in Experimental Varicocele.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Salvatore; Antonuccio, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo; Bitto, Alessandra; Magno, Carlo; Rinaldi, Mariagrazia; Micali, Antonio; Irrera, Natasha; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Marini, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and survivin might play an important role in testicular function. We investigated the effect of PDRN, an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, on testicular NAIP and survivin expression in an experimental model of varicocele. After the creation of experimental varicocele (28 days), adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to one of the following treatments lasting 21 days: vehicle, PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily), PDRN + 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX, a specific adenosine A2A-receptor antagonist, 0.1 mg/kg i.p., daily), varicocelectomy, and varicocelectomy + PDRN (8 mg/kg i.p., daily). Sham-operated animals were used as controls. Animals were then euthanized and testis expression of NAIP and survivin was evaluated through qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemical analysis. Spermatogenetic activity was also assessed. NAIP and survivin expressions were significantly reduced following varicocele induction when compared to sham animals whereas PDRN-treated rats showed an increase in NAIP and survivin levels. Immunohistochemistry revealed an enhanced expression of NAIP and survivin with a characteristic pattern of cellular localization following PDRN treatment. Moreover, administration of PDRN significantly restored spermatogenic function in varicocele rats. PDRN may represent a rational therapeutic option for accelerating recovery from depressed testicular function through a strategic modulation of apoptosis in experimental varicocele.

  2. Endpoint matrix: a conceptual tool to promote consideration of the multiple dimensions of humane endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ashall, Vanessa; Millar, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to support appropriate application of endpoints in animal experiments. It is recommended that unpredicted endpoints should be explicitly considered alongside scientific endpoints and justifiable endpoints as the three types of endpoint which comprise the "humane." We suggest there is a need for clear identification of each type of endpoint and an understanding of the interactions between these types. The use of an "endpoint matrix" during study planning is proposed to promote methodically sound and consistent definition, determination, and detection of unpredicted, scientific, and justifiable endpoints in animal experiments. It is claimed that the further development and use of this tool will support a more effective and harmonized practical application of humane endpoints for all animal use in line with best practice recommendations.

  3. Exact relativistic {beta} decay endpoint spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, S. S.; Nasri, S.; Schechter, J.; Tortola, M. A.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2007-10-15

    The exact relativistic form for the {beta} decay endpoint spectrum is derived and presented in a simple factorized form. We show that our exact formula can be well approximated to yield the endpoint form used in the fit method of the KATRIN Collaboration. We also discuss the three-neutrino case and how information from neutrino oscillation experiments may be useful in analyzing future {beta} decay endpoint experiments.

  4. Neofunctionalization of Duplicated Tic40 Genes Caused a Gain-of-Function Variation Related to Male Fertility in Brassica oleracea Lineages1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes. PMID:25185122

  5. Neofunctionalization of duplicated Tic40 genes caused a gain-of-function variation related to male fertility in Brassica oleracea lineages.

    PubMed

    Dun, Xiaoling; Shen, Wenhao; Hu, Kaining; Zhou, Zhengfu; Xia, Shengqian; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-11-01

    Gene duplication followed by functional divergence in the event of polyploidization is a major contributor to evolutionary novelties. The Brassica genus evolved from a common ancestor after whole-genome triplication. Here, we studied the evolutionary and functional features of Brassica spp. homologs to Tic40 (for translocon at the inner membrane of chloroplasts with 40 kDa). Four Tic40 loci were identified in allotetraploid Brassica napus and two loci in each of three basic diploid Brassica spp. Although these Tic40 homologs share high sequence identities and similar expression patterns, they exhibit altered functional features. Complementation assays conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana tic40 and the B. napus male-sterile line 7365A suggested that all Brassica spp. Tic40 homologs retain an ancestral function similar to that of AtTic40, whereas BolC9.Tic40 in Brassica oleracea and its ortholog in B. napus, BnaC9.Tic40, in addition, evolved a novel function that can rescue the fertility of 7365A. A homologous chromosomal rearrangement placed bnac9.tic40 originating from the A genome (BraA10.Tic40) as an allele of BnaC9.Tic40 in the C genome, resulting in phenotypic variation for male sterility in the B. napus near-isogenic two-type line 7365AB. Assessment of the complementation activity of chimeric B. napus Tic40 domain-swapping constructs in 7365A suggested that amino acid replacements in the carboxyl terminus of BnaC9.Tic40 cause this functional divergence. The distribution of these amino acid replacements in 59 diverse Brassica spp. accessions demonstrated that the neofunctionalization of Tic40 is restricted to B. oleracea and its derivatives and thus occurred after the divergence of the Brassica spp. A, B, and C genomes.

  6. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract. PMID:25010066

  7. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    MedlinePlus

    ... endometriosis Have uterine fibroids Have polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) Have been treated for cancer Have been treated ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  8. Genetics and mapping of the R₁₁ gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Qi, L L; Seiler, G J; Vick, B A; Gulya, T J

    2012-09-01

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes to a 20 % yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an 'HA 89' backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), was identified as resistant to the newly emerged rust races. The aim of this study was to elucidate the inheritance of rust resistance and male fertility restoration and identify the chromosome location of the underlying genes in Rf ANN-1742. Chi-squared analysis of the segregation of rust response and male fertility in F(2) and F(3) populations revealed that both traits are controlled by single dominant genes, and that the rust resistance gene is closely linked to the restorer gene in the coupling phase. The two genes were designated as R ( 11 ) and Rf5, respectively. A set of 723 mapped SSR markers of sunflower was used to screen the polymorphism between HA 89 and the resistant plant. Bulked segregant analysis subsequently located R ( 11 ) on linkage group (LG) 13 of sunflower. Based on the SSR analyses of 192 F(2) individuals, R ( 11 ) and Rf5 both mapped to the lower end of LG13 at a genetic distance of 1.6 cM, and shared a common marker, ORS728, which was mapped 1.3 cM proximal to Rf5 and 0.3 cM distal to R ( 11 ) (Rf5/ORS728/R ( 11 )). Two additional SSRs were linked to Rf5 and R ( 11 ): ORS995 was 4.5 cM distal to Rf5 and ORS45 was 1.0 cM proximal to R ( 11 ). The advantage of such an introduced alien segment harboring two genes is its large phenotypic effect and simple inheritance, thereby facilitating their rapid deployment in sunflower breeding programs. Suppressed recombination was observed in LGs 2, 9

  9. [Immunological surrogate endpoints to evaluate vaccine efficacy].

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jingxin; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Fengcai

    2015-12-01

    An immunological surrogate endpoints is a vaccine-induced immune response (either humoral or cellular immune) that predicts protection against clinical endpoints (infection or disease), and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in clinical vaccine trials. Compared with field efficacy trials observing clinical endpoints, immunological vaccine trials could reduce the sample size or shorten the duration of a trial, which promote the license and development of new candidate vaccines. For these reasons, establishing immunological surrogate endpoints is one of 14 Grand Challenges of Global Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. From two parts of definition and statistical methods for evaluation of surrogate endpoints, this review provides a more comprehensive description. PMID:26887309

  10. Characterization of null and hypomorphic alleles of the Drosophila l(2)dtl/cdt2 gene: Larval lethality and male fertility.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Roketa S; Swanson, Christina I; Gavilano, Lily; Smith, Kristen N; Malek, Pamela Y; Snow-Smith, Mayronne; Duronio, Robert J; Key, S Catherine Silver

    2012-01-01

    The Drosophila lethal(2)denticleless (l(2)dtl) gene was originally reported as essential for embryogenesis and formation of the rows of tiny hairs on the larval ventral cuticle known as denticle belts. It is now well-established that l(2)dtl (also called cdt2) encodes a subunit of a Cullin 4-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets a number of key cell cycle regulatory proteins, including p21, Cdt1, E2F1 and Set8, to prevent replication defects and maintain cell cycle control. To investigate the role of l(2)dtl/cdt2 during development, we characterized existing l(2)dtl/cdt2 mutants and generated new deletion alleles, using P-element excision mutagenesis. Surprisingly, homozygous l(2)dtl/cdt2 mutant embryos developed beyond embryogenesis, had intact denticle belts, and lacked an observable embryonic replication defect. These mutants died during larval stages, affirming that loss of l(2)dtl/cdt2 function is lethal. Our data show that L(2)dtl/Cdt2 is maternally deposited, remains nuclear throughout the cell cycle, and has a previously unreported, elevated expression in the developing gonads. We also find that E2f1 regulates l(2)dtl/cdt2 expression during embryogenesis, possibly via several highly conserved putative E2f1 binding sites near the l(2)dtl/cdt2 promoter. Finally, hypomorphic allele combinations of the l(2)dtl/cdt2 gene result in a novel phenotype: viable, low-fertility males. We conclude that "denticleless" is a misnomer, but that l(2)dtl/cdt2 is an essential gene for Drosophila development.

  11. The roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in S-Type male-sterile maize. Progress report, April 1, 1985--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Laughnan, J.R.

    1995-03-01

    This is a progress report/renewal request for work of the roles played by mitochondrial DNA and nuclear genes in reversion to fertility in s-type male sterile maize. Information is included for the following major catagories of research on this project: molecular basis for nuclear reversion; molecular characterization of cytoplasmic revertants; nuclear control over cytoplasmic reversion and over replication of S1 and S2; developmental studies; transposition of nuclear restorer elements.

  12. Vitellogenin detection and chick pathology are useful endpoints to evaluate endocrine-disrupting effects in avian one-generation reproduction study.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Kazumoto; Wada, Masaru; Mizutani, Makoto; Sato, Kazuo; Itabashi, Masafumi; Sakamoto, Tamami

    2005-07-01

    To investigate additional endpoints for screening of endocrine disruptors in birds, effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on one-generation reproduction in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were assessed. Pairs of the 10-week-old Japanese quail were fed a low-phytoestrogen diet containing E2 at 0 (control), 10, 100, and 1,000 ppm for six weeks. In the E2 100- and 1,000-ppm groups, the parental quail represented marked toxic changes including high mortality, decreased food consumption, decreased gonad weights, gross and histologic toxic changes in the reproductive and other organs, and inhibition of the reproduction. However, no adverse effects were observed in the parental quail from the E2 10-ppm group. In the parental males, serum vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were increased significantly in the E2 10-ppm group, disclosing that serum VTG concentration is one of the highly sensitive endpoints for evaluating estrogenic endocrine activities. In the E2 10-ppm group, number of eggs laid, number of eggs with abnormalities, eggshell strength and thickness, fertility, early and late viabilities of embryos, normal hatchling rate, and clinical signs, mortality, viability, and body weight of chicks at 14 d of age were not affected. However, histopathology of the chicks in the E2 10-ppm group revealed meaningful morphological changes in the reproductive organs, such as cystic dilatation of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial cells in the testis, and decreased theca cells in the ovary. The present study suggests that serum VTG concentration in the parental quail and histopathology of reproductive organs in the offspring are sensitive endpoints and are useful as additional endpoints in the avian one-generation reproduction test using the Japanese quail for evaluating estrogenic endocrine-disrupting effects.

  13. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Classification of Studies Employing Psychological Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Stephanie A.; Litvak, Margarita; Robbins, Natashia M.; Sandberg, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Psychological outcomes in persons with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have received substantial attention. The objectives of this paper were to (1) catalog psychological endpoints assessed in CAH outcome studies and (2) classify the conceptual/theoretical model shaping the research design and interpretation of CAH-related psychological effects. A total of 98 original research studies, published between 1955 and 2009, were categorized based on psychological endpoints examined as well as the research design and conceptual model guiding analysis and interpretation of data. The majority of studies (68%) investigated endpoints related to psychosexual differentiation. The preponderance of studies (76%) examined a direct relationship (i.e., inferring causality) between prenatal androgen exposure and psychological outcomes. Findings are discussed in relation to the observed imbalance between theoretical interest in the role of prenatal androgens in shaping psychosexual differentiation and a broader conceptual model that examines the role of other potential factors in mediating or moderating the influence of CAH pathophysiology on psychological outcomes in both affected females and males. The latter approach offers to identify factors amenable to clinical intervention that enhance both health and quality of life outcomes in CAH as well as other disorders of sex development. PMID:20976294

  14. Establishing a group of endpoints in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.; Xue, Hanhong

    2016-02-02

    A parallel computer executes a number of tasks, each task includes a number of endpoints and the endpoints are configured to support collective operations. In such a parallel computer, establishing a group of endpoints receiving a user specification of a set of endpoints included in a global collection of endpoints, where the user specification defines the set in accordance with a predefined virtual representation of the endpoints, the predefined virtual representation is a data structure setting forth an organization of tasks and endpoints included in the global collection of endpoints and the user specification defines the set of endpoints without a user specification of a particular endpoint; and defining a group of endpoints in dependence upon the predefined virtual representation of the endpoints and the user specification.

  15. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using DNA-Fragmented Sperm in Mice Negatively Affects Embryo-Derived Embryonic Stem Cells, Reduces the Fertility of Male Offspring and Induces Heritable Changes in Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Raúl; Laguna-Barraza, Ricardo; Pericuesta, Eva; Calero, Antonia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in mice using DNA-fragmented sperm (DFS) has been linked to an increased risk of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities both in embryos and offspring. This study examines: whether embryonic stem cells (ESCs) derived from DFS-ICSI embryos reflect the abnormalities observed in the DFS-ICSI progeny; the effect of DFS-ICSI on male fertility; and whether DFS-ICSI induces epigenetic changes that lead to a modified heritable phenotype. DFS-ICSI-produced embryos showed a low potential to generate ESC lines. However, these lines had normal karyotype accompanied by early gene expression alterations, though a normal expression pattern was observed after several passages. The fertility of males in the DFS-ICSI and control groups was compared by mating test. Sperm quantity, vaginal plug and pregnancy rates were significantly lower for the DFS-ICSI-produced males compared to in vivo-produced mice, while the number of females showing resorptions was higher. The epigenetic effects of DFS-ICSI were assessed by analyzing the phenotype rendered by the Axin1Fu allele, a locus that is highly sensitive to epigenetic perturbations. Oocytes were injected with spermatozoa from Axin1Fu/+ mice and the DFS-ICSI-generated embryos were transferred to females. A significantly higher proportion of pups expressed the active kinky-tail epiallele in the DFS-ICSI group than the controls. In conclusion: 1) ESCs cannot be used as a model of DFS-ICSI; 2) DFS-ICSI reduces sperm production and fertility in the male progeny; and 3) DFS-ICSI affects the postnatal expression of a defined epigenetically sensitive allele and this modification may be inherited across generations. PMID:24743851

  16. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  17. Population growth rate determinants for Arbacia: Evaluating ecological relevance of toxicity test endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Nacci, D.; Gleason, T.; Munns, W.R. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A population dynamics model for the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, was recently developed incorporating life stage endpoints frequently measured in acute and chronic toxicity studies. Model elasticity analysis was used to demonstrate that population growth rate was influenced most by adult survival and least by early life stage success, calling into question the ecological relevance of results from standardized Arbacia fertilization and larval development toxicity tests. Two approaches were used to continue this evaluation. Actual and hypothetical dose-response curves for toxicant exposures over multiple life stages were used to evaluate contributions to population growth rate of stage-specific toxicant effects. Additionally, relationships between critical life stages were developed from laboratory data for Arbacia. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of understanding both endpoint sensitivity to toxicants and sensitivity of population growth rate to test endpoints in determining the ecological relevance of toxicity tests results.

  18. Strengths and limitations of using repeat-dose toxicity studies to predict effects on fertility.

    PubMed

    Dent, M P

    2007-08-01

    The upcoming European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals) will require the risk assessment of many thousands of chemicals. It is therefore necessary to develop intelligent testing strategies to ensure that chemicals of concern are identified whilst minimising the testing of chemicals using animals. Xenobiotics may perturb the reproductive cycle, and for this reason several reproductive studies are recommended under REACH. One of the endpoints assessed in this battery of tests is mating performance and fertility. Animal tests that address this endpoint use a relatively large number of animals and are also costly in terms of resource, time, and money. If it can be shown that data from non-reproductive studies such as in-vitro or repeat-dose toxicity tests are capable of generating reliable alerts for effects on fertility then some animal testing may be avoided. Available rat sub-chronic and fertility data for 44 chemicals that have been classified by the European Union as toxic to fertility were therefore analysed for concordance of effects. Because it was considered appropriate to read across data for some chemicals these data sets were considered relevant for 73 of the 102 chemicals currently classified as toxic to reproduction (fertility) under this system. For all but 5 of these chemicals it was considered that a well-performed sub-chronic toxicity study would have detected pathology in the male, and in some cases, the female reproductive tract. Three showed evidence of direct interaction with oestrogen or androgen receptors (linuron, nonylphenol, and fenarimol). The remaining chemicals (quinomethionate and azafenidin) act by modes of action that do not require direct interaction with steroid receptors. However, both these materials caused in-utero deaths in pre-natal developmental toxicity studies, and the relatively low NOAELs and the nature of the hazard identified in the sub-chronic tests provides an alert

  19. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  20. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  1. Identification of a third haplotype of the sequence linked to the Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene and its implications for male-sterility phenotypes in peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Min, Woong-ki; Lim, Heerae; Lee, Young-Pyo; Sung, Soon-Kee; Kim, Byung-Dong; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-02-29

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), one of the most important traits in crop breeding, has been used for commercial seed production by F1 hybrid cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). To develop reliable molecular markers for allelic selection of the Restorer-of-fertility (Rf) gene, which is known to be a major determinant of pollen fertility restoration in peppers, a sequence of approximately 10 kb flanking an RAPD fragment closely linked to the Rf locus was obtained by genome walking. A homology search revealed that this sequence contained an LTR retrotransposon and a non-LTR LINE-like retrotransposon. Sequencing of this Rf-linked region to search for polymorphisms between a dominant and recessive allele revealed 98% nucleotide sequence identity between them. A third polymorphic haplotype of the Rf-linked sequence, which has 94-96% nucleotide sequence identity with the two previously isolated haplotypes, was identified among a large number of breeding lines. Utilizing polymorphic sequences in the haplotypes, PCR markers were developed for selection of particular haplotypes and used to examine the distribution of the haplotypes in diverse breeding lines, cultivars, and C. annuum germplasms. Surprisingly, the third haplotype was the predominant type in C. annuum germplasms, while its frequency in F1 hybrid cultivars was relatively low. Meanwhile, analysis of breeding lines whose Rf allele genotypes and male-sterility phenotypes were already known revealed that the third haplotype was mainly present in exotic breeding lines that cause unstable male-sterility when combined with sterile cytoplasms.

  2. Colonisation endpoints in Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Auranen, Kari; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Goldblatt, David; Nohynek, Hanna; O'Brien, Katherine L; Satzke, Catherine; Simell, Birgit; Tanskanen, Antti; Käyhty, Helena

    2013-12-17

    Evaluating vaccine efficacy for protection against colonisation (VEcol) with bacterial pathogens is an area of growing interest. In this article, we consider estimation of VEcol for colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). Colonisation is a common, recurrent and multi-type endpoint that requires both careful definition of the vaccine efficacy parameter and the corresponding method of estimation. We review recent developments in the area and provide practical guidelines for choosing the estimand and the estimation method in trials with a colonisation endpoint. We concentrate on methods that are based on a cross-sectional study design, in which only one nasopharyngeal sample is obtained per study subject.

  3. Estimation of endpoints in biological systems.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, G

    1984-01-01

    A program, written in BASIC, has been developed to estimate rapidly endpoints from a small number of experimental data. The computational method is based on the work of Reed and Muench (Am. J. Hyg. 27, 493 1938). Several endpoints may be estimated in the same run. A subroutine allows the saving of experimental data in disk file and a printout subroutine permits different types of printout (tabular or graphical). Estimation of several infectious doses (ID) of a guinea-pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) Chlamydia psittaci strain is given as sample run.

  4. LIFE CYCLE IMPACT ASSESSMENT - MIDPOINTS VS. ENDPOINTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of whether to use midpoints or endpoints or both in an LCIA framework is often dependent upon the goal and scope and the decision that is being supported by the LCIA. LCIAs for Enlightenment may not require an aggregation of impact categories and may be most useful ...

  5. IPF clinical trial design and endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Steven D.; Meyer, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review There remains a dire need for therapies that impact the clinical course of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Indeed, there is a surge of interest in IPF therapeutics, with many candidate agents in various stages of development. Optimal design and implementation of the appropriate prospective clinical trials are essential to demonstrate clinical efficacy of promising drugs for the treatment of IPF. A key element in the success of such clinical trials is the choice of the best endpoint(s) to match the design of the study. Recent findings Although the results of many IPF clinical trials have been disappointing, these trials have provided valuable insights into the epidemiology and natural history of the disease and have sparked debate into the best clinical trial designs and endpoints. Summary This review will discuss the various clinical trial endpoints that have been used or proposed with a focus on their potential utility, as well as possible pitfalls that investigators should consider in the design of such studies. Video abstract http://links.lww.com/COPM/A13 PMID:25022315

  6. SPACA7 is a novel male germ cell-specific protein localized to the sperm acrosome that is involved in fertilization in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Edward B; Westmuckett, Andrew D; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Sperm acrosome associated 7 (SPACA7) is a novel protein of unknown function with no homology to any known protein. Spaca7 transcripts are detected only in testis and predict a 158-residue mature polypeptide with one potential N-glycosylation site and no cysteines. Orthologs are present in various species, including mice and humans. We developed a polyclonal antibody to mouse SPACA7 to study its expression and function. Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy detected SPACA7 only in testis, and it was detected in testis starting at Postnatal Day 21 and into adulthood. Immunofluorescence staining of testicular germ cells detected weak SPACA7 expression as early as zygotene spermatocytes. Higher expression was observed in round spermatids, where SPACA7 was localized to a perinuclear spot adjacent to the Golgi and to the acrosome of elongating spermatids and spermatozoa. Immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that SPACA7 is localized within the proacrosomal granule of round spermatids and the acrosome of spermatozoa. Finally, we showed that SPACA7 was retained within the acrosome of epididymal sperm and was released upon the acrosome reaction. To assess if SPACA7 was involved in fertilization, in vitro fertilization assays in the presence of anti-SPACA7 IgG were performed. Anti-SPACA7 inhibited fertilization of cumulus-intact eggs and prominently delayed cumulus dispersal. However, anti-SPACA7 did not inhibit fertilization of cumulus-free eggs. Our findings indicate that release of SPACA7 from the acrosome accelerates cumulus dispersal and facilitates fertilization via unknown mechanisms. This study is the first to document the expression of endogenous SPACA7 and a function for this novel acrosomal protein.

  7. Shift endpoint trace selection algorithm and wavelet analysis to detect the endpoint using optical emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Zakour, Sihem; Taleb, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    Endpoint detection (EPD) is very important undertaking on the side of getting a good understanding and figuring out if a plasma etching process is done on the right way. It is truly a crucial part of supplying repeatable effects in every single wafer. When the film to be etched has been completely erased, the endpoint is reached. In order to ensure the desired device performance on the produced integrated circuit, many sensors are used to detect the endpoint, such as the optical, electrical, acoustical/vibrational, thermal, and frictional. But, except the optical sensor, the other ones show their weaknesses due to the environmental conditions which affect the exactness of reaching endpoint. Unfortunately, some exposed area to the film to be etched is very low (<0.5%), reflecting low signal and showing the incapacity of the traditional endpoint detection method to determine the wind-up of the etch process. This work has provided a means to improve the endpoint detection sensitivity by collecting a huge numbers of full spectral data containing 1201 spectra for each run, then a new unsophisticated algorithm is proposed to select the important endpoint traces named shift endpoint trace selection (SETS). Then, a sensitivity analysis of linear methods named principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), and the nonlinear method called wavelet analysis (WA) for both approximation and details will be studied to compare performances of the methods mentioned above. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) is not only computed based on the main etch (ME) period but also the over etch (OE) period. Moreover, a new unused statistic for EPD, coefficient of variation (CV), is proposed to reach the endpoint in plasma etches process.

  8. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  9. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  10. A specific endpoint assay for ubiquitin.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, I A; Warms, J V

    1987-01-01

    Simple endpoint assays for free ubiquitin (Ub) and for the Ub-activating enzyme are described. The method for measuring Ub makes use of the reaction of iodoacetamide-treated Ub-activating enzyme (E): [3H]ATP + Ub + E----E X [3H]AMP-Ub + PPi and PPi----2Pi (in the presence of pyrophosphatase). The Ub is then measured by determining the acid-insoluble radioactivity. The reaction is accompanied by a slow enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of the complex to AMP plus Ub. The presence of ubiquitin-activating enzyme in excess of Ub by approximately equal to 0.1 microM assures that the steady state will be close to the endpoint for total Ub. A preparation of the activating enzyme from human erythrocytes that does not depend on affinity chromatography is described. Several applications of the assay are presented. PMID:3031643

  11. Scaling for interfacial tensions near critical endpoints.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Shun-Yong; Fisher, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Parametric scaling representations are obtained and studied for the asymptotic behavior of interfacial tensions in the full neighborhood of a fluid (or Ising-type) critical endpoint, i.e., as a function both of temperature and of density/order parameter or chemical potential/ordering field. Accurate nonclassical critical exponents and reliable estimates for the universal amplitude ratios are included naturally on the basis of the "extended de Gennes-Fisher" local-functional theory. Serious defects in previous scaling treatments are rectified and complete wetting behavior is represented; however, quantitatively small, but unphysical residual nonanalyticities on the wetting side of the critical isotherm are smoothed out "manually." Comparisons with the limited available observations are presented elsewhere but the theory invites new, searching experiments and simulations, e.g., for the vapor-liquid interfacial tension on the two sides of the critical endpoint isotherm for which an amplitude ratio -3.25+/-0.05 is predicted.

  12. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  13. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy. PMID:27451497

  14. Improved Endpoints for Cancer Immunotherapy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Janetzki, Sylvia; Hodi, F. Stephen; Ibrahim, Ramy; Anderson, Aparna; Humphrey, Rachel; Blumenstein, Brent; Wolchok, Jedd

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development paradigm that includes reconsideration of established endpoints. Between 2004 and 2009, several initiatives facilitated by the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute and partner organizations systematically evaluated an immunotherapy-focused clinical development paradigm and created the principles for redefining trial endpoints. On this basis, a body of clinical and laboratory data was generated that supports three novel endpoint recommendations. First, cellular immune response assays generate highly variable results. Assay harmonization in multicenter trials may minimize variability and help to establish cellular immune response as a reproducible biomarker, thus allowing investigation of its relationship with clinical outcomes. Second, immunotherapy may induce novel patterns of antitumor response not captured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or World Health Organization criteria. New immune-related response criteria were defined to more comprehensively capture all response patterns. Third, delayed separation of Kaplan–Meier curves in randomized immunotherapy trials can affect results. Altered statistical models describing hazard ratios as a function of time and recognizing differences before and after separation of curves may allow improved planning of phase III trials. These recommendations may improve our tools for cancer immunotherapy trials and may offer a more realistic and useful model for clinical investigation. PMID:20826737

  15. Protein patterns as endpoints in environmental remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.; Brown, D.

    1995-12-31

    Biological endpoints can complement chemical analyses in monitoring environmental remediation. In some cases the levels of chemical detection are so low that the costs of clean-up to no detection would be prohibitive. And chemical tests do not indicate the availability of the contaminants to the biota. On the other hand many if not most biological tests lack specificity. The authors have investigated a protein expression assay to establish an endpoint for clean-up of sulfur mustard and breakdown products. Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) were exposed to sulfur mustard (SM), a breakdown product thiodiethanol (TDE), and ethylene glycol, the solvent for the two chemicals. Tissue from the lining of the coelomic cavity was taken from each of 6 worms in each treatment class. Soluble proteins were extracted and separated on one and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) gels. The 1 D gels showed no difference by eye but the patterns from control and solvent control worms on 2D gels differed from those of worms exposed to TDE and SM. The 1D gel data were digitized and analyzed by pattern recognition using artificial neural networks. The protein patterns under the two treatments and the two controls were learned in one set of data and successfully recognized in a second. This indicated that what was learned was useful in recognizing patterns induced by SM and TDE. Thus a possible endpoint for remediation would be the protein pattern at no effect levels of chemicals of interest.

  16. Construction of a high-resolution linkage map of Rfd1, a restorer-of-fertility locus for cytoplasmic male sterility conferred by DCGMS cytoplasm in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using synteny between radish and Arabidopsis genomes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Youngcho; Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Beom-Seok; Han, Tae-Ho; Kim, Sunggil

    2012-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility caused by Dongbu cytoplasmic and genic male-sterility (DCGMS) cytoplasm and its nuclear restorer-of-fertility locus (Rfd1) with a linked molecular marker (A137) have been reported in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). To construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus, linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were screened using bulked segregant analysis. A 220-bp linked AFLP fragment sequence from radish showed homology with an Arabidopsis coding sequence. Using this Arabidopsis gene sequence, a simple PCR marker (A220) was developed. The A137 and A220 markers flanked the Rfd1 locus. Two homologous Arabidopsis genes with both marker sequences were positioned on Arabidopsis chromosome-3 with an interval of 2.4 Mb. To integrate the Rfd1 locus into a previously reported expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeat (SSR) linkage map, the radish EST sequences located in three syntenic blocks within the 2.4-Mb interval were used to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for tagging each block. The SNP marker in linkage group-2 co-segregated with male fertility in an F(2) population. Using radish ESTs positioned in linkage group-2, five intron length polymorphism (ILP) markers and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker were developed and used to construct a linkage map of the Rfd1 locus. Two closely linked markers delimited the Rfd1 locus within a 985-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3. Synteny between the radish and Arabidopsis genomes in the 985-kb interval were used to develop three ILP and three CAPS markers. Two ILP markers further delimited the Rfd1 locus to a 220-kb interval of Arabidopsis chromosome-3.

  17. Evaluation of a two-generation reproduction toxicity study adding endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity using lindane.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Ikuo; Saitoh, Tetsuji; Tani, Einosuke; Wako, Yumi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Toyota, Naoto; Ishizuka, Yoshihito; Namiki, Masato; Hoshino, Nobuhito; Tsuchitani, Minoru; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2005-12-01

    A two-generation reproduction toxicity study in rats adding extra endpoints to detect endocrine disrupting activity was conducted using lindane by dietary administration at 0, 10, 60, and 300 ppm, for investigation of its utility. The extra endpoints included anogenital distance (AGD), nipple development, sexual maturation (vaginal opening and preputial separation), estrous cycle, spermatogenesis, sex organ weights, and blood hormone concentrations (thyroid and sex hormones). F1 offspring were examined for emotionality (open field test), motor coordination (rotarod test), as well as learning and memory (pole-climbing test). Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activities were also measured. The results revealed general toxicological effects on parental animals, influence on reproductive function, and altered development of offspring; however, they did not demonstrate any distinct changes in the extra endpoints for detection of endocrine disrupting activity. Adult toxicity was observed in both F0 and F1 animals, including suppressed body weight gain and reduced food consumption in both sexes, and deaths of females at 300 ppm. Convulsions and irritability were observed during the perinatal period in pregnant F1 females given 300 ppm. Pathological examination revealed increased liver weights and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy in both sexes and generations at 10 or 60 ppm and above; in addition, increased kidney weights and increased hyaline droplets in the proximal tubule epithelium, and basophilic renal tubules in males were noted at 10 ppm and above. Pituitary weights were decreased in F0 females and in F1 males and females and adrenal weights were increased in F1 males and females at 300 ppm; however, no histological changes were observed, and manifestations suggesting endocrine disrupting activity related to these changes were lacking. Hypertrophy of the thyroid follicular epithelium in F0 females at 300 ppm and in F1 males at 60 and 300 ppm, and decreases

  18. Ecosystem Services as Assessment Endpoints in Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of ecological risk assessment (ERA) is on assessment endpoints, explicit expressions of environmental values to be protected. Traditionally, the ecological entities identified in assessment endpoints have been components of ecosystems deemed by risk assessors to be impo...

  19. Some Endpoint Results for β-Generalized Weak Contractive Multifunctions

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, H.; Gopal, D.; Miandaragh, M. A.; Rezapour, Sh.; Shahzad, N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce β-generalized weak contractive multifunctions and give some results about endpoints of the multifunctions. Also, we give some results about role of a point in the existence of endpoints. PMID:24348197

  20. A search for immunocontraceptive agent from marine sources--role of antispermatheca globulin of Telescopium telescopium on fertility regulation in male rat.

    PubMed

    Pakrashi, A; Datta, U; Choudhury, A

    1992-11-01

    Polyclonal antisera were developed in rabbits against 'spermatheca', the reproductive gland of T. telescopium, a marine mollusc. The gland contains spermatozoa. Antisera and its IgG fraction (ASTG) indicated common antigenic determinants by immunodiffusion and had titer values 81920 and 1280 against crude antigen extract. Cycling female rats when exposed to passively immunized male rats with different doses of ASTG, had reduction in implantation sites and litter size. Females had pseudopregnancy when exposed to higher doses of immunized males and had normal cycle after 20 days in average. ASTG in male rats caused decrease in weight of the reproductive glands, alteration in sperm concentration, motility and morphology, formation of multinucleated giant cells and vacuoles leading to arrest of spermatogenesis and reduction in seminiferous tubular diameter. The effects were dose dependent with reversible infertility. The results indicate presence of a common antigenic determinants which cross-react with vertebrates and existence of common relation through phylogenetic evolution and their immune responses. PMID:1284054

  1. The Role of Ecological Endpoints in Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape change and pollution in watersheds affect ecological endpoints in receiving water bodies. Therefore, these endpoints are useful in watershed management. Fish and benthic macro invertebrates are often used as endpoints, since they are easily measured in the field and int...

  2. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  3. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Queenie V.; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described. PMID:24290744

  4. Understanding fertilization through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    PubMed

    Neri, Queenie V; Lee, Bora; Rosenwaks, Zev; Machaca, Khaled; Palermo, Gianpiero D

    2014-01-01

    Since the establishment of in vitro fertilization, it became evident that almost half of the couples failed to achieve fertilization and this phenomenon was attributed to a male gamete dysfunction. The adoption of assisted fertilization techniques particularly ICSI has been able to alleviate male factor infertility by granting the consistent ability of a viable spermatozoon to activate an oocyte. Single sperm injection, by pinpointing the beginning of fertilization, has been an invaluable tool in clarifying the different aspects of early fertilization and syngamy. However, even with ICSI some couples fail to fertilize due to ooplasmic dysmaturity in relation to the achieved nuclear maturation marked by the extrusion of the first polar body. More uncommon are cases where the spermatozoa partially or completely lack the specific oocyte activating factor. In this work, we review the most relevant aspects of fertilization and its failure through assisted reproductive technologies. Attempts at diagnosing and treating clinical fertilization failure are described.

  5. Clinical trial endpoints in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Billings, Frederic T; Shaw, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    The development and use of consensus criteria for acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis and the inclusion of recently identified markers of renal parenchymal damage as endpoints in clinical trials have improved the ability of physicians to compare the incidence and severity of AKI across patient populations, provided targets for testing new treatments, and may increase insight into the mechanisms of AKI. To date, these markers have not consistently translated into important clinical outcomes. Is that because these markers of renal injury/dysfunction are measurements of process of care (and not indicative of persistently impaired renal function), or is it because patients do actually recover from AKI? Physicians currently have limited ability to measure renal function reserve, and the ultimate consequence of a case of AKI on long-term morbidity remains unclear. There is little doubt that groups of patients who develop AKI have worse outcomes than groups of patients who do not, but investigators are now realizing the value of measuring clinically meaningful renal endpoints in all subjects enrolled in AKI clinical trials. Important examples of these outcomes include persistently impaired renal function, new hemodialysis, and death. We propose that these major adverse kidney events (MAKE) be included in all effectiveness clinical trials. Adaptation of the MAKE composite assessed 30, 60, or 90 days following AKI (i.e., MAKE30 or MAKE90) will improve our capacity to understand and treat AKI and may also provide a consensus composite to allow comparison of different interventions. Primary endpoints for phase I and II clinical trials, on the other hand, should continue to use continuous markers of renal injury/dysfunction as well as 'hard' clinical outcomes in order to generate meaningful data with limited subject exposure to untested treatments. By doing so, investigators may assess safety without requiring large sample sizes, demonstrate treatment effect of an unknown

  6. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P < 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P < 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.005). Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15-17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  7. Daily exposure to summer temperatures affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M

    2015-08-01

    High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a daily constant temperature of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high temperatures (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high temperatures are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high temperatures, especially by altering female reproduction. PMID:25944779

  8. Daily exposure to summer temperatures affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M

    2015-08-01

    High temperatures have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a daily constant temperature of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high temperatures (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high temperatures are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high temperatures, especially by altering female reproduction.

  9. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J.; Martinez, Emilio A.; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P < 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P < 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.005). Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15–17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  10. Prediction of bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Utt, Matthew D

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of male fertility is an often sought-after endeavor for many species of domestic animals. This review will primarily focus on providing some examples of dependent and independent variables to stimulate thought about the approach and methodology of identifying the most appropriate of those variables to predict bull (bovine) fertility. Although the list of variables will continue to grow with advancements in science, the principles behind making predictions will likely not change significantly. The basic principle of prediction requires identifying a dependent variable that is an estimate of fertility and an independent variable or variables that may be useful in predicting the fertility estimate. Fertility estimates vary in which parts of the process leading to conception that they infer about and the amount of variation that influences the estimate and the uncertainty thereof. The list of potential independent variables can be divided into competence of sperm based on their performance in bioassays or direct measurement of sperm attributes. A good prediction will use a sample population of bulls that is representative of the population to which an inference will be made. Both dependent and independent variables should have a dynamic range in their values. Careful selection of independent variables includes reasonable measurement repeatability and minimal correlation among variables. Proper estimation and having an appreciation of the degree of uncertainty of dependent and independent variables are crucial for using predictions to make decisions regarding bull fertility. PMID:26791329

  11. Natural fertility in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Aquino, E G

    1982-01-01

    increased by about 7.5% between 1953-72. The major increase occurred during the post war years. All of these occurred during the time period when the Philippines underwent major socioeconomic changes. Data on changes in socioeconomic indicators during the time period under observation were presented. For example, between 1948-70, the literacy rate increased from 62.8%-84.6% for males and from 56.9%-82.2% for females. The infant mortality rate declined from 125.5-67.3 between 1948-70, and breastfeeding declined from 64.2%-26.5% between 1958-74. The increase in the natural fertility level tapered off during the last few years, and in the future the impact of fertility control on the fertility rate should become stronger.

  12. Strategies and Endpoints of Antifibrotic Drug Trials

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie; Dranoff, Jonathan A.; Schuppan, Detlef; Friedman, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop antifibrotic therapies for chronic liver disease, and to clarify which endpoints in antifibrotic trials will be acceptable to regulatory agencies. AASLD sponsored an endpoints conference to help accelerate the efficient testing of antifibrotic agents and to develop recommendations on clinical trial design for liver fibrosis. In this review we summarize the salient and novel elements of this conference and provide directions for future clinical trial design. The paper follows the structure of the conference and is organized into five areas: I) Antifibrotic trial design; II) Preclinical proof of concept studies; III) Pharmacologic targets: rationale and lessons to learn; IV) Rational drug design and development; V) Consensus and recommendations on design of clinical trials in liver fibrosis. Expert overviews and collaborative discussions helped to summarize the key unmet needs and directions for the future, including: 1) Greater clarification of at-risk populations and study groups; 2) Standardization of all elements of drug discovery and testing; 3) Standardization of clinical trial approaches; 4) Accelerated development of improved non-invasive markers; 5) Need for exploration of potential off-target toxicities of future antifibrotic drugs. PMID:25626988

  13. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  14. Effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints for environmental research.

    PubMed

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  15. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  16. Male fertility versus sterility, cytotype, and DNA quantitative variation in seed production in diploid and tetraploid sea lavenders (Limonium sp., Plumbaginaceae) reveal diversity in reproduction modes.

    PubMed

    Róis, Ana Sofia; Teixeira, Generosa; Sharbel, Timothy F; Fuchs, Jörg; Martins, Sérgio; Espírito-Santo, Dalila; Caperta, Ana D

    2012-12-01

    The genus Limonium Miller, a complex taxonomic group, comprises annuals and perennials that can produce sexual and/or asexual seeds (apomixis). In this study, we used diverse cytogenetic and cytometric approaches to analyze male sporogenesis and gametogenesis for characterizing male reproductive output on seed production in Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium multiflorum. We showed here that the first species is mostly composed of diploid cytotypes with 2n = 16 chromosomes and the latter species by tetraploid cytotypes with 2n = 32, 34, 35, 36 chromosomes and had a genome roughly twice as big as the former one. In both species, euploid and aneuploid cytotypes with large metacentric chromosomes having decondensed interstitial sites were found within and among populations, possibly involved in chromosomal reconstructions. L. ovalifolium diploids showed regular meiosis resulting in normal tetrads, while diverse chromosome pairing and segregation irregularities leading to the formation of abnormal meiotic products are found in balanced and non-balanced L. multiflorum tetraploids. Before anther dehiscence, the characteristic unicellular, bicellular, or tricellular pollen grains showing the typical Limonium micro- or macro-reticulate exine ornamentation patterns were observed in L. ovalifolium using scanning electron microscopy. Most of these grains were viable and able to produce pollen tubes in vitro. In both balanced and unbalanced L. multiflorum tetraploids, microspores only developed until the "ring-vacuolate stage" with a collapsed morphology without the typical exine patterns, pointing to a sporophytic defect. These microspores were unviable and therefore never germinated in vitro. L. ovalifolium individuals presented larger pollen grains than those of L. multiflorum, indicating that pollen size and ploidy levels are not correlated in the Limonium system. Cytohistological studies in mature seeds from both species revealed that an embryo and a residual endosperm

  17. Novel Role for p110β PI 3-Kinase in Male Fertility through Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity in Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Smith, Lee B.; Halet, Guillaume; Whitehead, Maria A.; Pearce, Wayne; Rebourcet, Diane; León, Kelly; Crépieux, Pascale; Nock, Gemma; Strömstedt, Maria; Enerback, Malin; Chelala, Claude; Graupera, Mariona; Carroll, John; Cosulich, Sabina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The organismal roles of the ubiquitously expressed class I PI3K isoform p110β remain largely unknown. Using a new kinase-dead knockin mouse model that mimics constitutive pharmacological inactivation of p110β, we document that full inactivation of p110β leads to embryonic lethality in a substantial fraction of mice. Interestingly, the homozygous p110β kinase-dead mice that survive into adulthood (maximum ~26% on a mixed genetic background) have no apparent phenotypes, other than subfertility in females and complete infertility in males. Systemic inhibition of p110β results in a highly specific blockade in the maturation of spermatogonia to spermatocytes. p110β was previously suggested to signal downstream of the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor in germ cells to regulate their proliferation and survival. We now report that p110β also plays a germ cell-extrinsic role in the Sertoli cells (SCs) that support the developing sperm, with p110β inactivation dampening expression of the SC-specific Androgen Receptor (AR) target gene Rhox5, a homeobox gene critical for spermatogenesis. All extragonadal androgen-dependent functions remain unaffected by global p110β inactivation. In line with a crucial role for p110β in SCs, selective inactivation of p110β in these cells results in male infertility. Our study is the first documentation of the involvement of a signalling enzyme, PI3K, in the regulation of AR activity during spermatogenesis. This developmental pathway may become active in prostate cancer where p110β and AR have previously been reported to functionally interact. PMID:26132308

  18. Kin recognition and cannibalistic behaviours by adult male fathead minnows ( Pimephales promelas)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Warren W.; Mirza, Reehan S.; Pyle, Greg G.

    2008-03-01

    Parental care is an energetically demanding activity that ensures genes are efficiently passed from one generation to the next. According to evolutionary theory, the greatest energetic investment should be directed towards offspring that are most closely related to the parent. Male fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, provide this parental investment to developing embryos but not newly hatched larvae. Therefore, selection should favour recognition of embryonic kin to ensure energetic expenditure is optimally invested. In this study, adult male fathead minnows were tested using behavioural assays, with egg cannibalism as an endpoint, to determine whether adult males could discriminate between related and unrelated embryos. Egg cannibalism was highest when adult male fathead minnows were presented with unrelated eggs and lowest when presented with eggs fertilized by the test subject (related eggs). The degree of cannibalism was also a function of breeding status. Unrelated males in breeding condition showed an intermediate response between the low cannibalism demonstrated by related males and the high cannibalism demonstrated by unrelated males in a nonbreeding condition. These results suggest that although male fathead minnows can discriminate between unrelated and related embryos, at least some component of parental investment is a simple function of breeding status.

  19. Mammalian Sperm Fertility Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafzadeh, Ali; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Nathan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins. PMID:24151436

  20. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  1. Ecosystem services as assessment endpoints for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Rea, Anne W; Suter, Glenn W; Martin, Lawrence; Blake-Hedges, Lynne; Crk, Tanja; Davis, Christine; Ferreira, Gina; Jordan, Steve; Mahoney, Michele; Barron, Mace G

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the outputs of ecological processes that contribute to human welfare or have the potential to do so in the future. Those outputs include food and drinking water, clean air and water, and pollinated crops. The need to protect the services provided by natural systems has been recognized previously, but ecosystem services have not been formally incorporated into ecological risk assessment practice in a general way in the United States. Endpoints used conventionally in ecological risk assessment, derived directly from the state of the ecosystem (e.g., biophysical structure and processes), and endpoints based on ecosystem services serve different purposes. Conventional endpoints are ecologically important and susceptible entities and attributes that are protected under US laws and regulations. Ecosystem service endpoints are a conceptual and analytical step beyond conventional endpoints and are intended to complement conventional endpoints by linking and extending endpoints to goods and services with more obvious benefit to humans. Conventional endpoints can be related to ecosystem services even when the latter are not considered explicitly during problem formulation. To advance the use of ecosystem service endpoints in ecological risk assessment, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Risk Assessment Forum has added generic endpoints based on ecosystem services (ES-GEAE) to the original 2003 set of generic ecological assessment endpoints (GEAEs). Like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are defined by an entity and an attribute. Also like conventional GEAEs, ES-GEAEs are broadly described and will need to be made specific when applied to individual assessments. Adoption of ecosystem services as a type of assessment endpoint is intended to improve the value of risk assessment to environmental decision making, linking ecological risk to human well-being, and providing an improved means of communicating those risks. Integr Environ Assess Manag

  2. Genetic damage and the expression of behavioral abnormalities in the progeny of male rats exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lowery, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the possible genetic nature of behavioral anomalies, an identifiable genetic endpoint, inherited chromosome translocations in the offspring, was selected to evaluate the relationship to behavior. Young adult male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 50-300 rads of ionizing radiation. Two weeks following their irradiation, the males were mated with four virgin females for one week. During this time, fertilizing sperm were derived from post-meiotic spermatids, the stage of the spermatogenic cycle most sensitive to the mutagenic effects of radiation. Behavioral analyses of the resulting 390 offspring consisted of both motor reflex and motor coordination measurements as well as learning and retention parameters. Significant differences in performance were seen in several of the motor reflex measurements in progeny of males exposed to some of the higher doses of irradiation. A similar phenomenon was observed in the performance of a single learned behavior.

  3. Endocrine causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P

    2003-02-01

    Although endocrinopathies are not often seen in infertile men, these disorders are clinically significant; they often have potentially serious medical significance, regardless of fertility issues. Correction of these disorders represents a possible way to restore normal fertility for the male partner. Male fertility is critically dependent upon a normal hormonal milieu. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is quite sensitive to disruption by endocrine disorders and other generalized medical disorders. Thus, male infertility is occasionally the presenting sign for significant underlying medical disease; it is important to properly evaluate these patients.

  4. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  5. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells.

  6. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Meena, Ramovatar; Kumari, Kajal; Kumar, Jitendra; Rajamani, Paulraj; Verma, H N; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Microwave (MW) radiation produced by wireless telecommunications and a number of electrical devices used in household or in healthcare institutions may adversely affects the reproductive pattern. Present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin (is well known antioxidant that protects DNA, lipids and proteins from free radical damage) against oxidative stress-mediated testicular impairment due to long-term exposure of MWs. For this, 70-day-old male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 6/group): Sham exposed, Melatonin (Mel) treated (2 mg/kg), 2.45 GHz MWs exposed and MWs + Mel treated. Exposure took place in Plexiglas cages for 2 h a day for 45 days where, power density (0.21 mW/cm(2)) and specific absorption rate (SAR 0.14 W/Kg) were estimated. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and various stress related parameters, that is LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme) activity, xanthine oxidase (XO), ROS (reactive oxygen species), protein carbonyl content, DNA damage and MDA (malondialdehyde) were performed. Result shows that melatonin prevent oxidative damage biochemically by significant increase (p < 0.001) in the levels of testicular LDH-X, decreased (p < 0.001) levels of MDA and ROS in testis (p < 0.01). Meanwhile, it reversed the effects of MWs on XO, protein carbonyl content, sperm count, testosterone level and DNA fragmentation in testicular cells. These results concluded that the melatonin has strong antioxidative potential against MW induced oxidative stress mediated DNA damage in testicular cells. PMID:23676079

  7. Endpoint distinctiveness facilitates analogical mapping in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Carl Erick; Cook, Robert G

    2015-03-01

    Analogical thinking necessitates mapping shared relations across two separate domains. We investigated whether pigeons could learn faster with ordinal mapping of relations across two physical dimensions (circle size & choice spatial position) relative to random mapping of these relations. Pigeons were trained to relate six circular samples of different sizes to horizontally positioned choice locations in a six alternative matching-to-sample task. Three pigeons were trained in a mapped condition in which circle size mapped directly onto choice spatial position. Three other pigeons were trained in a random condition in which the relations between size and choice position were arbitrarily assigned. The mapped group showed an advantage over the random group in acquiring this task. In a subsequent second phase, relations between the dimensions were ordinally reversed for the mapped group and re-randomized for the random group. There was no difference in how quickly matching accuracy re-emerged in the two groups, although the mapped group eventually performed more accurately. Analyses suggested this mapped advantage was likely due to endpoint distinctiveness and the benefits of proximity errors during choice responding rather than a conceptual or relational advantage attributable to the common or ordinal mapping of the two dimensions. This potential difficulty in mapping relations across dimensions may limit the pigeons' capacity for more advanced types of analogical reasoning. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tribute to Tom Zentall.

  8. Holographic endpoint of spatially modulated phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Ooguri, Hirosi; Park, Chang-Soon

    2010-12-15

    In a previous paper [S. Nakamura, H. Ooguri, and C. S. Park, Phys. Rev. D 81, 044018 (2010)], we showed that the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space coupled to the Maxwell theory with the Chern-Simons term is unstable when the Chern-Simons coupling is sufficiently large. In the dual conformal field theory, the instability suggests a spatially modulated phase transition. In this paper, we construct and analyze nonlinear solutions which describe the endpoint of this phase transition. In the limit where the Chern-Simons coupling is large, we find that the phase transition is of the second order with the mean field critical exponent. However, the dispersion relation with the Van Hove singularity enhances quantum corrections in the bulk, and we argue that this changes the order of the phase transition from the second to the first. We compute linear response functions in the nonlinear solution and find an infinite off-diagonal DC conductivity in the new phase.

  9. Transgenic Pearl Millet Male Fertility Restorer Line (ICMP451) and Hybrid (ICMH451) Expressing Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1 (BjNPR1) Exhibit Resistance to Downy Mildew Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khareedu, Venkateswara Rao; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Brassica juncea Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (BjNPR1) has been introduced into pearl millet male fertility restorer line ICMP451 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Transgenic pearl millet plants were regenerated from the phosphinothricin-resistant calli obtained after co-cultivation with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring Ti plasmid pSB111-bar-BjNPR1. Molecular analyses confirmed the stable integration and expression of BjNPR1 in transgenic pearl millet lines. Transgenes BjNPR1 and bar were stably inherited and disclosed co-segregation in subsequent generations in a Mendelian fashion. Transgenic pearl millet hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 was developed by crossing male-sterile line 81A X homozygous transgenic line ICMP451-BjNPR1. T3 and T4 homozygous lines of ICMP451-BjNPR1 and hybrid ICMH451-BjNPR1 exhibited resistance to three strains of downy mildew pathogen, while the untransformed ICMP451 and the isogenic hybrid ICMH451 plants were found susceptible. Following infection with S. graminicola, differential expression of systemic acquired resistance pathway genes, UDP-glucose salicylic acid glucosyl transferase and pathogenesis related gene 1 was observed in transgenic ICMP451-BjNPR1 and untransformed plants indicating the activation of systemic acquired resistance pathway contributing to the transgene-mediated resistance against downy mildew. The transgenic pearl millet expressing BjNPR1 showed resistance to multiple strains of S. graminicola and, as such, seems promising for the development of durable downy mildew resistant hybrids. PMID:24603762

  10. Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Dechlorination and Biodegradation Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

    1999-04-19

    Mathematical modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformation served as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation, thus allowing evaluation of several of the most common transformation patterns. Correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0).

  11. Effects of simulated weightlessness on meiosis. Fertilization, and early development in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The initial goal was to construct a clinostat which could support mammalian cell culture. The clinostat was selected as a means by which to simulate microgravity conditions within the laboratory, by constant re-orientation of cells with respect to the gravity vector. The effects of this simulated microgravity on in-vitro meiotic maturation of oocytes, using mouse as the model system, was investigated. The effects of clinostat rotation on fertilization in-vitro was then examined. Specific endpoints included examining the timely appearance of male and female pronuclei (indicating fertilization) and the efficiency of extrusion of the second polar body. Particular attention was paid to detecting anomalies of fertilization, including parthenogenetic activation and multiple pronuclei. Finally, for the preliminary studies on mouse embryogenesis, a key feature of the clinostat was modified, that of the position of the cells during rotation. A means was found to immobilize the cells during the clinostat reotation, permitting the cells to remain at the axis of rotation yet not interfering with cellular development.

  12. [Stress and fertility].

    PubMed

    Ősapay, György; Ősapay, Klára

    2015-08-30

    In Western countries, sperm quality and fertility of men significantly worsened. Female infertility does not show a better trend either. Subtle defects in the reproductive functions can not be explained by the current methods, and "unexplained infertility" is becoming a more common diagnosis. Every year 1 million couples seek expensive and time consuming fertility treatment in the world. Deeper understanding of an unhealthy lifestyle and the environmental damages may lead to personalized treatments to increase the chance of conception.The effects of various stressors on the male and female reproductive performance were scientifically substantiated by Selye and coworkers in 1976. Cognitive therapy methods can be applied against emotional stressors, supplementation by antioxidants against reactive oxygen compounds, and administration of vitamins and trace elements, especially when deficiency is found, may help before medical intervention on a rational and economical way in the fight against infertility.

  13. Fear of Death and Fertility Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinlaw, Bonnie J. R.; Dixon, Richard D.

    1980-01-01

    Fear of death was found to be positively and significantly correlated with fertility experiences, desires, and intentions, but only among respondents whose formal education did not exceed the completion of high school. Males demonstrated megadeath fear with respect to desired and intended fertility. (Author)

  14. Sperm macromolecules associated with bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Abdullah; Memili, Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Bull fertility, ability of the sperm to fertilize and activate the egg that sustain embryo development, is vitally important for effective and efficient production of cattle. Fertility is a complex trait with low heritability. Despite recent advances in genomic selection and possibility of enormous paternal benefits to profitable cattle production, there exist no reliable tests for evaluating semen quality and predicting bull fertility. This review focuses on sperm macromolecules such as transcripts, proteins and the epigenome, i.e., the functional genome that are associated with bull fertility. Generating new information in these systems is important beyond agriculture because such progress advances the fundamental science of the mammalian male gamete while at the same time introduces biotechnology into livestock production. Sperm macromolecules and epigenome markers associated with bull fertility can be used alone or in combination with the current SNP microarrays to determine sperm quality and to indicate bull fertility.

  15. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure Diabetes Thyroid disease Infection in the uterus PCOS Antiphospholipid syndrome, an autoimmune disorder caused when immune ... male fertility, NIH study suggests Some women with PCOS may have adrenal disorder, NIH researchers suggest Weight ...

  16. Exactly solvable model for the QCD tricritical endpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A.

    2008-09-15

    An inclusion of temperature and chemical-potential-dependent surface-tension in the gas of quark-gluon bags model resolves a long-standing problem of a unified description of the first-and second-order phase transition with the crossover. The suggested model has an exact analytical solution and allows one to rigorously study the vicinity of the critical endpoint of the deconfinement phase transition. It is found that, at the curve of a zero surface-tension coefficient, there must exist the surface-induced phase transition of the seond or higher order. The present model predicts that the critical endpoint of quantum chromodynamics is the tricritical endpoint.

  17. Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul

    2010-11-01

    In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.

  18. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  19. Location of end-points in high-precision coulometry.

    PubMed

    Koch, W F; Poe, D P; Diehl, H

    1975-07-01

    A computer has been used to fit a cubic equation to experimental data obtained in the region of the end-point in high-precision coulometric titrations of 4-aminopyridine and tris(hydroxy-methyl) aminomethane. For these weak bases, the two end-points (points of inflexion calculated by setting the second derivative equal to zero) obtained by choosing first time, and secondly pH, as the independent variable, are in good agreement.

  20. Accurate measurement method for tube's endpoints based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaoli; Jin, Peng; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Tubes are used widely in aerospace vehicles, and their accurate assembly can directly affect the assembling reliability and the quality of products. It is important to measure the processed tube's endpoints and then fix any geometric errors correspondingly. However, the traditional tube inspection method is time-consuming and complex operations. Therefore, a new measurement method for a tube's endpoints based on machine vision is proposed. First, reflected light on tube's surface can be removed by using photometric linearization. Then, based on the optimization model for the tube's endpoint measurements and the principle of stereo matching, the global coordinates and the relative distance of the tube's endpoint are obtained. To confirm the feasibility, 11 tubes are processed to remove the reflected light and then the endpoint's positions of tubes are measured. The experiment results show that the measurement repeatability accuracy is 0.167 mm, and the absolute accuracy is 0.328 mm. The measurement takes less than 1 min. The proposed method based on machine vision can measure the tube's endpoints without any surface treatment or any tools and can realize on line measurement.

  1. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values.

  2. Gender attitudes and fertility aspirations among young men in five high fertility East African countries.

    PubMed

    Snow, Rachel C; Winter, Rebecca A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between women's attitudes toward gender equality and their fertility aspirations has been researched extensively, but few studies have explored the same associations among men. Using recent Demographic and Health Survey data from five high fertility East African countries, we examine the association between young men's gender attitudes and their ideal family size. Whereas several DHS gender attitude responses were associated with fertility aspirations in select countries, men's greater tolerance of wife beating was consistently associated with higher fertility aspirations across all countries, independent of education, income, or religion. Our findings highlight the overlapping values of male authority within marriage and aspirations for large families among young adult males in East Africa. Total lifetime fertility in East Africa remains among the highest worldwide: thus, governments in the region seeking to reduce fertility may need to explicitly scrutinize and address the reproduction of prevailing masculine values. PMID:23512871

  3. Efficient estimation of the distribution of time to composite endpoint when some endpoints are only partially observed.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rhian M; Tsiatis, Anastasios A

    2013-10-01

    Two common features of clinical trials, and other longitudinal studies, are (1) a primary interest in composite endpoints, and (2) the problem of subjects withdrawing prematurely from the study. In some settings, withdrawal may only affect observation of some components of the composite endpoint, for example when another component is death, information on which may be available from a national registry. In this paper, we use the theory of augmented inverse probability weighted estimating equations to show how such partial information on the composite endpoint for subjects who withdraw from the study can be incorporated in a principled way into the estimation of the distribution of time to composite endpoint, typically leading to increased efficiency without relying on additional assumptions above those that would be made by standard approaches. We describe our proposed approach theoretically, and demonstrate its properties in a simulation study. PMID:23722304

  4. Efficient estimation of the distribution of time to composite endpoint when some endpoints are only partially observed

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Rhian M.; Tsiatis, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    Two common features of clinical trials, and other longitudinal studies, are (1) a primary interest in composite endpoints, and (2) the problem of subjects withdrawing prematurely from the study. In some settings, withdrawal may only affect observation of some components of the composite endpoint, for example when another component is death, information on which may be available from a national registry. In this paper, we use the theory of augmented inverse probability weighted estimating equations to show how such partial information on the composite endpoint for subjects who withdraw from the study can be incorporated in a principled way into the estimation of the distribution of time to composite endpoint, typically leading to increased efficiency without relying on additional assumptions above those that would be made by standard approaches. We describe our proposed approach theoretically, and demonstrate its properties in a simulation study. PMID:23722304

  5. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  6. AB008. Management of fertility post cancer

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James

    2016-01-01

    The successful treatment of males with cancer has led to increasing numbers of men and boys interested in life after cancer. One of the top priorities for many of these males is the opportunity to have a family. Most cancer treatments used for common malignancies in men and boys are associated with impaired fertility; for patients receiving alkylating agents or total body irradiation, severe fertility impairment occurs in most patients. While sperm banking for males, even those as young as 12, facing sterilizing cancer treatment can be effective, this approach requires subsequent use of reproductive procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intrauterine insemination to achieve a pregnancy. Most males would prefer to restore their natural ability to father children and avoid these expensive and invasive approaches. No proven method for human male fertility restoration has yet been demonstrated; however, work in many mammalian species and recently in primates has demonstrated that autologous testicular cell transplant (TCT) can restore spermatogenesis after cancer treatment. Promising work in non-primate species has demonstrated the feasibility of in vitro development of mature sperm from neonatal testicular tissue. The safety and efficacy of either approach has not been established in humans. The objective of this lecture is to explore current and future fertility preservation and restoration techniques for males at risk of sterility from medical and surgical treatment.

  7. Origin of electrical signals for plasma etching endpoint detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewski, Mark A.

    2011-11-14

    Electrical signals are used for endpoint detection in plasma etching, but the origin of the electrical changes observed at endpoint is not known. They may be caused by changes in the gas-phase densities of etch products and reactants or by changes in substrate surface properties such as photoemitted or ion-induced electron yield. To investigate these effects, experiments were performed in an inductively coupled, rf-biased reactor, during CF{sub 4}/Ar etches of SiO{sub 2} films on Si wafers. The rf bias impedance was measured vs. time during etching, simultaneous with Langmuir probe measurements. At endpoint, a decrease in impedance coincided with increases in ion current and electron energy. The data, analyzed by a numerical model of the discharge, indicate that changes in electron emission yield were relatively insignificant or entirely absent. Thus the impedance change is not a surface effect but is, instead, predominantly or entirely a gas-phase phenomenon.

  8. Accuracy of the endpoint assay for virus titration.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L K; Smyth, G K; Greenfield, P F

    1992-01-01

    The statistics of estimators used with the endpoint assay for virus titration were investigated. For a standard assay with 10 wells/dilution, the graphical estimator traditionally used was found to produce estimates with significant positive bias and a relatively low accuracy. Furthermore, the graphical estimator was found to be inconsistent. A superior estimator based on the maximum likelihood principle was developed. The results are discussed in relation to the choice between the endpoint titration assay and the plaque assay, and an alternative two-stage assay is presented.

  9. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. 314.510 Section 314.510 Food... a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. FDA may grant marketing approval... an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. Approval under...

  10. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. 314.510 Section 314.510 Food... a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. FDA may grant marketing approval... an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. Approval under...

  11. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. 314.510 Section 314.510 Food... a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. FDA may grant marketing approval... an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. Approval under...

  12. 21 CFR 314.510 - Approval based on a surrogate endpoint or on an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. 314.510 Section 314.510 Food... a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. FDA may grant marketing approval... an effect on a clinical endpoint other than survival or irreversible morbidity. Approval under...

  13. Comparison and Evaluation of Laboratory and Field Measured Bioaccumulation Endpoints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of bioaccumulation endpoints on a fugacity basis allows provides a framework to assess the biomagnification potential of a chemical and assess data deficiencies, i.e., uncertainties and lack of data. In addition, it is suggested that additional guidance is needed in o...

  14. Digit mechanics in relation to endpoint compliance during precision pinch.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Li, Zong-Ming

    2015-02-26

    This study investigates the mechanics of the thumb and index finger in relation to compliant endpoint forces during precision pinch. The objective was to gain insight into how individuals modulate motor output at the digit endpoints and joints according to compliance-related sensory feedback across the digits. Thirteen able-bodied subjects performed precision pinch upon elastic resistance bands of a customized apparatus instrumented with six degree-of-freedom load-cells. Compliance levels were discretely adjusted according to the number of bands connected. Subjects were provided visual feedback to control the rate of force application. Fifteen repetitions of low-to-moderate force (<20N) pinches were analyzed at each of five compliance levels, during which force and motion data were collected. Joint angles and moments normalized by pinch force magnitude were computed. Second-order polynomials were used to characterize joint mechanics as a function of compliance. The joint degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) at the finger showed greater dependence on compliance for angular position while the thumb joint DOFs demonstrated greater dependence for normalized joint moment. The digits also adjusted coordination of their endpoint forces according to compliance. Overall, the finger may be altering its position to increase load to the joints of the thumb with changing compliance. These findings describe naturally emergent changes in digit mechanics for compliant precision pinch, which involves motor execution in response to endpoint sensory feedback. Identifying and understanding these motor patterns may provide theoretical basis for restoring and rehabilitating sensorimotor pathologies of the hand.

  15. ECOLOGICAL ENDPOINT MODELING: EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT ON FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment is one of the main stressors of concern for TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) for streams, and often it is a concern because of its impact on biological endpoints. The National Research Council (NRC) has recommended that the EPA promote the development of models that ca...

  16. Is Suicide Ideation a Surrogate Endpoint for Geriatric Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Links, Paul S.; Heisel, Marnin J.; Quastel, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The present study explored the validity of treating suicide ideation as a surrogate endpoint that can serve as a proxy for suicide in clinical intervention research with suicidal seniors. Two criteria; that suicide ideation is modulated by the proposed intervention and that modulation of suicide ideation leads to a quantitative reduction in…

  17. Defining response in migraine: which endpoints are important?

    PubMed

    Edmeads, John

    2005-01-01

    The primary endpoint traditionally measured in clinical trials of triptans for acute migraine therapy has been 2-hour pain relief, a decrease in pain intensity from moderate/severe to mild/none. Although harder to achieve, endpoints such as 2-hour pain free and the composite measure sustained pain free are now preferred as they better reflect what patients desire from medication, namely rapid onset of action, and complete and lasting relief of pain. A comprehensive meta-analysis has shown that oral triptans differ in their ability to achieve these endpoints, with almotriptan 12.5 mg, eletriptan 80 mg and rizatriptan 10 mg providing the highest likelihood of success. Although all triptans have simple and consistent pharmacokinetic features, they also have specific differences that may play a part in their differing clinical attributes. Incorporating tolerability to generate a more stringent endpoint, sustained pain free with no adverse events (SNAE), may provide an even better representation of patients' expectations. Comparison of SNAE rates using data from the meta-analysis of oral triptans indicates that almotriptan 12.5 mg has the best balance of high efficacy and good tolerability. PMID:15920334

  18. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  19. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused.

  20. Automatic endpoint detection to support the systematic review process.

    PubMed

    Blake, Catherine; Lucic, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Preparing a systematic review can take hundreds of hours to complete, but the process of reconciling different results from multiple studies is the bedrock of evidence-based medicine. We introduce a two-step approach to automatically extract three facets - two entities (the agent and object) and the way in which the entities are compared (the endpoint) - from direct comparative sentences in full-text articles. The system does not require a user to predefine entities in advance and thus can be used in domains where entity recognition is difficult or unavailable. As with a systematic review, the tabular summary produced using the automatically extracted facets shows how experimental results differ between studies. Experiments were conducted using a collection of more than 2million sentences from three journals Diabetes, Carcinogenesis and Endocrinology and two machine learning algorithms, support vector machines (SVM) and a general linear model (GLM). F1 and accuracy measures for the SVM and GLM differed by only 0.01 across all three comparison facets in a randomly selected set of test sentences. The system achieved the best performance of 92% for objects, whereas the accuracy for both agent and endpoints was 73%. F1 scores were higher for objects (0.77) than for endpoints (0.51) or agents (0.47). A situated evaluation of Metformin, a drug to treat diabetes, showed system accuracy of 95%, 83% and 79% for the object, endpoint and agent respectively. The situated evaluation had higher F1 scores of 0.88, 0.64 and 0.62 for object, endpoint, and agent respectively. On average, only 5.31% of the sentences in a full-text article are direct comparisons, but the tabular summaries suggest that these sentences provide a rich source of currently underutilized information that can be used to accelerate the systematic review process and identify gaps where future research should be focused. PMID:26003938

  1. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters.

  2. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  3. Sperm chemotaxis promotes individual fertilization success in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Yasmeen H; Guasto, Jeffrey S; Zimmer, Richard K; Stocker, Roman; Riffell, Jeffrey A

    2016-05-15

    Reproductive success fundamentally shapes an organism's ecology and evolution, and gamete traits mediate fertilization, which is a critical juncture in reproduction. Individual male fertilization success is dependent on the ability of sperm from one male to outcompete the sperm of other males when searching for a conspecific egg. Sperm chemotaxis, the ability of sperm to navigate towards eggs using chemical signals, has been studied for over a century, but such studies have long assumed that this phenomenon improves individual male fitness without explicit evidence to support this claim. Here, we assessed fertilization changes in the presence of a chemoattractant-digesting peptidase and used a microfluidic device coupled with a fertilization assay to determine the effect of sperm chemotaxis on individual male fertilization success in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus We show that removing chemoattractant from the gametic environment decreases fertilization success. We further found that individual male differences in chemotaxis to a well-defined gradient of attractant correlate with individual male differences in fertilization success. These results demonstrate that sperm chemotaxis is an important contributor to individual reproductive success. PMID:26994183

  4. Genetic evaluation of beef carcass data using different endpoint adjustments.

    PubMed

    Rumph, J M; Shafer, W R; Crews, D H; Enns, R M; Lipsey, R J; Quaas, R L; Pollak, E J

    2007-05-01

    Carcass data from 6,795 Simmental-sired animals born from 1992 to 2001 were used to determine whether adjustment to a constant age, back-fat, HCW, or marbling score would result in differences in heritability of the carcass traits and, correspondingly, if EPD calculated using those variance components and adjustments would result in sire reranking. The endpoints were age (EPA), backfat (EPF), HCW (EPC), or marbling (EPM). The traits analyzed were 12th-rib backfat (FAT), HCW, marbling (MRB), LM area (LMA), and percentage retail cuts (PRC). The data were analyzed using an animal model, where contemporary group was included as a fixed effect and was composed of slaughter date, sex, and herd. Random effects included in the model were direct genetic and residual. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.12 to 0.14, 0.32 to 0.34, and 0.26 to 0.27 for FAT, HCW, and LMA, respectively, for the corresponding endpoints. Heritability for MRB was estimated to be 0.27 at all endpoints. For PRC, estimates of heritability were more variable, with estimates of 0.23 +/- 0.05, 0.32 +/- 0.05, 0.21 +/- 0.05, and 0.20 +/- 0.04 for EPA, EPF, EPC, and EPM, respectively. However, because the EPF and EPC adjustments adjust for a component trait of PRC (FAT and HCW, respectively), they may be altering the trait to one different from PRC. Spearman rank correlations between EPD within a trait using EPA compared with the other endpoints were >0.90 (P < 0.01) for FAT, HCW, MRB, and LMA. For PRC, Spearman rank correlations with EPA EPD were 0.73 (P < 0.01), 0.93 (P < 0.01), and 0.95 (P < 0.01) for EPF, EPC, and EPM, respectively. For most traits and endpoints, there was little reranking among sires when alternative endpoints were used. However, adjusting PRC to EPF appears to result in a greater heritability and substantial re-ranking of sires, potentially due to the adjustment changing the trait to one other than PRC. PMID:17224467

  5. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Suzanne H; Stiver, Kelly A; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible. PMID:27529581

  6. Ovarian fluid allows directional cryptic female choice despite external fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Suzanne H.; Stiver, Kelly A.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    In species with internal fertilization, females can favour certain males over others, not only before mating but also within the female's reproductive tract after mating. Here, we ask whether such directional post-mating (that is, cryptic) female mate choice can also occur in species with external fertilization. Using an in vitro sperm competition experiment, we demonstrate that female ovarian fluid (ovarian fluid) changes the outcome of sperm competition by decreasing the importance of sperm number thereby increasing the relative importance of sperm velocity. We further show that ovarian fluid does not differentially affect sperm from alternative male phenotypes, but generally enhances sperm velocity, motility, straightness and chemoattraction. Under natural conditions, female ovarian fluid likely increases the paternity of the preferred parental male phenotype, as these males release fewer but faster sperm. These results imply females have greater control over fertilization and potential to exert selection on males in species with external fertilization than previously thought possible. PMID:27529581

  7. Fertilizer summary data 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

  8. Arsenic Exposure and Subclinical Endpoints of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Molinaro, Peter; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic evidence suggests that arsenic exposure from drinking water increases the production of reactive oxygen species and influences inflammatory responses and endothelial nitric oxide homeostasis. These arsenic-induced events may lead to endothelial dysfunction that increases the risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We reviewed accumulating epidemiologic evidence that evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and intermediate markers and subclinical measures that predict future cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional studies have indicated positive associations between high or low-to-moderate levels of arsenic exposure with indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, QT interval prolongation, and circulating markers of endothelial dysfunction. The evidence is limited for other intermediate endpoints such as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, QT dispersion, and lipid profiles. Prospective studies are needed to enhance the causal inferences of arsenic's effects on subclinical endpoints of cardiovascular disease, especially at lower arsenic exposure levels. PMID:25013752

  9. Endpoints for Mouse Abdominal Tumor Models: Refinement of Current Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Paster, Eden V; Villines, Kimberly A; Hickman, Debra L

    2009-01-01

    Accurate, rapid, and noninvasive health assessments are required to establish more appropriate endpoints in mouse cancer models where tumor size is not easily measured. We evaluated potential endpoints in mice with experimentally induced peritoneal lymphoma, an abdominal tumor model, by comparing body weight, body condition, and behavior with those of a control group of mice not developing lymphoma. Our hypothesis was that body weight would increase or plateau, whereas body condition and behavioral scores would decrease, as disease progressed. Results indicated that body weight did not differ significantly between the control and experimental groups, but the experimental group experienced significant decreases in both body condition and behavioral scores. Our results support the use of body condition and behavioral scoring as adjunctive assessment methods for mice involved in abdominal lymphoma tumor studies in which health may decline despite an increase or plateau in body weight. PMID:19619413

  10. Impaired fertilizing ability of superoxide dismutase 1-deficient mouse sperm during in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Kimura, Naoko; Fujii, Junichi

    2012-11-01

    The oxidative modification of gametes by a reactive oxygen species is a major deleterious factor that decreases the successful rate of in vitro fertilization. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) plays a pivotal role in antioxidation by scavenging the superoxide anion, and its deficiency causes infertility in female mice, but the significance of the enzyme in male mice remains unclear. In the present study, we characterized Sod1(-/-) (Sod1-KO) male reproductive organs and compiled the first report of the impaired fertilizing ability of Sod1-KO sperm in in vitro fertilization. Insemination of wild-type oocytes with Sod1-KO sperm exhibited lower rates of fertility compared with insemination by wild-type sperm. The low fertilizing ability found for Sod1-KO sperm was partially rescued by reductant 2-mercaptoethanol, which suggested the oxidative modification of sperm components. The numbers of motile and progressive sperm decreased during the in vitro fertilization process, and a decline in ATP content and elevation in lipid peroxidation occurred in the Sod1-KO sperm in an incubation time-dependent manner. Tyrosine phosphorylation, which is a hallmark for sperm capacitation, was also impaired in the Sod1-KO sperm. These results collectively suggest that machinery involved in sperm capacitation and motility are vulnerable to oxidative damage during the in vitro fertilization process, which could increase the rate of inefficient fertilization.

  11. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  12. Comparative toxicity based on similar asymptotic endpoints (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Shirazi, M.A.; Lowrie, L.

    1988-01-01

    Results of the laboratory tests are used in assessing the environmental risk of exposure to industrial chemicals. The combined effects of dose-level exposure and time-duration exposure are tested in the laboratory, but only a single endpoint reflecting the dose-level exposure at the end of the test period is routinely reported and used. At times, this might be sufficient, or the data otherwise inappropriate for calculation of more than a single endpoint. Nevertheless, an approach that makes a more complete use of existing sufficient test information is needed. One method is presented in this paper, the focus of which is the evaluation of an LC50 endpoint at a calculated exposure time. This calculation determines a condition for the toxicity curve to become established along the time axis. The authors refer to this condition of the dose-response curve as an asymptotic state and the LC50 calculated from it as the asymptotic LC50. An analysis of 152 toxicity tests using fathead minnows show that the 96-hr LC50 is 25% more conservative than the asymptotic LC50. The calculation of LC50 under asymptotic conditions better enables comparing toxicities of different chemicals on the basis of comparable dose-level and time-duration exposures.

  13. Challenges assessing clinical endpoints in early Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Jane S.; Wang, Chiachi; Duff, Kevin; Barker, Roger; Nance, Martha; Beglinger, Leigh; Moser, David; Williams, Janet K.; Simpson, Sheila; Langbehn, Douglas; van Kammen, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the current accepted standard clinical endpoint for the earliest-studied HD participants likely to be recruited into clinical trials. Since the advent of genetic testing for HD, it is possible to identify gene carriers prior to the diagnosis of disease, which opens up the possibility of clinical trials of disease-modifying treatments in clinically asymptomatic persons. Current accepted standard clinical endpoints were examined as part of a multi-national, 32-site, longitudinal, observational study of 786 research participants currently in the HD prodrome (gene-positive but not clinically diagnosed). Clinical signs and symptoms were used to prospectively predict functional loss as assessed by current accepted standard endpoints over 8 years of follow up. Functional capacity measures were not sensitive for HD in the prodrome; over 88% scored at ceiling. Prospective evaluation revealed that the first functional loss was in their accustomed work. In a survival analysis, motor, cognitive, and psychiatric measures were all predictors of job change. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study ever conducted on the emergence of functional loss secondary to brain disease. We conclude that future clinical trials designed for very early disease will require the development of new and more sensitive measures of real-life function. PMID:20623772

  14. Visual information throughout a reach determines endpoint precision.

    PubMed

    Ma-Wyatt, Anna; McKee, Suzanne P

    2007-05-01

    People make rapid, goal-directed movements to interact with their environment. Because these movements have consequences, it is important to be able to control them with a high level of precision and accuracy. Our hypothesis is that vision guides rapid hand movements, thereby enhancing their accuracy and precision. To test this idea, we asked observers to point to a briefly presented target (110 ms). We measured the impact of visual information on endpoint precision by using a shutter to close off view of the hand 50, 110 and 250 ms into the reach. We found that precision was degraded if the view of the hand was restricted at any time during the reach, despite the fact that the target disappeared long before the reach was completed. We therefore conclude that vision keeps the hand on the planned trajectory. We then investigated the effects of a perturbation of target position during the reach. For these experiments, the target remained visible until the reach was completed. The target position was shifted at 110, 180 or 250 ms into the reach. Early shifts in target position were easily compensated for, but late shifts led to a shift in the mean position of the endpoints; observers pointed to the center of the two locations, as a kind of best bet on the position of the target. Visual information is used to guide the hand throughout a reach and has a significant impact on endpoint precision.

  15. Barriers to Managing Fertility: Findings From the Understanding Fertility Management in Contemporary Australia Facebook Discussion Group

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background As part of research investigating the complexities of managing fertility in Australia, public opinions about how Australians manage their fertility were sought from women and men. Objective To identify public opinion about sexual and reproductive health in Australia. Methods To ensure access to a diverse group of people throughout Australia, an online group was advertised and convened on Facebook from October through December 2013. In a closed-group moderated discussion, participants responded to questions about how people in Australia attempt to manage three aspects of fertility: avoiding pregnancy, achieving pregnancy, and difficulties conceiving. Nonidentifiable demographic information was sought; no personal accounts of fertility management were requested. The discussion transcript was analyzed thematically. Results There were 61 female and 2 male Facebook users aged 18 to 50 years living in Australia participating in the study. Four main themes about fertility management were identified: access, geographical location, knowledge, and cost. Participants reported that young people and people from rural areas face barriers accessing contraception and fertility services. Limited knowledge about sex and reproduction and the cost of fertility services and contraception were also said to impede effective fertility management. Conclusions Reasons for inequalities in effective fertility management that are amenable to change were identified. Facebook is an effective method for gaining insights into public opinion about sexual and reproductive health. PMID:26878865

  16. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2014-08-12

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface (`PAMI`) of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective operation through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  17. Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-02-11

    Endpoint-based parallel data processing in a parallel active messaging interface ('PAMI') of a parallel computer, the PAMI composed of data communications endpoints, each endpoint including a specification of data communications parameters for a thread of execution on a compute node, including specifications of a client, a context, and a task, the compute nodes coupled for data communications through the PAMI, including establishing a data communications geometry, the geometry specifying, for tasks representing processes of execution of the parallel application, a set of endpoints that are used in collective operations of the PAMI including a plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks; receiving in endpoints of the geometry an instruction for a collective operation; and executing the instruction for a collective opeartion through the endpoints in dependence upon the geometry, including dividing data communications operations among the plurality of endpoints for one of the tasks.

  18. Clinical research and methodology: What usage and what hierarchical order for secondary endpoints?

    PubMed

    Laporte, Silvy; Diviné, Marine; Girault, Danièle

    2016-02-01

    In a randomised clinical trial, when the result of the primary endpoint shows a significant benefit, the secondary endpoints are scrutinised to identify additional effects of the treatment. However, this approach entails a risk of concluding that there is a benefit for one of these endpoints when such benefit does not exist (inflation of type I error risk). There are mainly two methods used to control the risk of drawing erroneous conclusions for secondary endpoints. The first method consists of distributing the risk over several co-primary endpoints, so as to maintain an overall risk of 5%. The second is the hierarchical test procedure, which consists of first establishing a hierarchy of the endpoints, then evaluating each endpoint in succession according to this hierarchy while the endpoints continue to show statistical significance. This simple method makes it possible to show the additional advantages of treatments and to identify the factors that differentiate them.

  19. [Fertility and youth].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Vasquez, L

    1981-01-01

    This work examines the history and current characteristics of fertility among Cuban women aged 15-24 and speculates on the determinants of fertility patterns among them. Cuban fertility has tended in different periods to peak at an early age, with the modal age of giving birth in the 20-24 group. The level of fertility was high from 1955-59, increasing slightly in the 1st years after the Revolution and beginning to decline again in the mid 1960s. Age specific fertility rates still showed peak fertility at the younger cohorts. Cuba remains unique among low fertility countries in having such a high fertility rate among young women aged 15-19. The fertility of women aged 20-24 began to decline in the late 1960s but that of women 15-20 continued to increase until the early 1970s. Age specific fertility rates for the cohort aged 20-24 declined by 45.5% between 1975-78 while that for women aged 15-19 years declined by 71.1%. The proportion of births to women under 20 has increased due to the fertility decline at older cohorts despite the reduced rate of early fertility. The basic causes of early marriage and elevated fertility among the young have been the greater freedom of youths and the strengthening of matrimony and parental responsibility in conjunction with persistent false moralistic concepts within families and a lack of sex education. PMID:12311914

  20. Challenges in translating endpoints from trials to observational cohort studies in oncology.

    PubMed

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Acquavella, John; Rørth, Mikael; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues - including previously unrecognized concerns - by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once. In contrast to clinical trials, observational cohort studies typically do not exclude real-world patients from clinical practice, such as old and frail patients with comorbidity. The observational cohort study complements the clinical trial by examining the effectiveness of interventions applied in clinical practice and by providing evidence on long-term clinical outcomes, which are often not feasible to study in a clinical trial. Various endpoints can be included in clinical trials, such as hard endpoints, soft endpoints, surrogate endpoints, and patient-reported endpoints. Each endpoint has it strengths and limitations for use in research studies. Endpoints used in oncology trials are often not applicable in observational cohort studies which are limited by the setting of standard clinical practice and by non-standardized endpoint determination. Observational studies can be more helpful moving research forward if they restrict focus to appropriate and valid endpoints. PMID:27354827

  1. Challenges in translating endpoints from trials to observational cohort studies in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Acquavella, John; Rørth, Mikael; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues – including previously unrecognized concerns – by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once. In contrast to clinical trials, observational cohort studies typically do not exclude real-world patients from clinical practice, such as old and frail patients with comorbidity. The observational cohort study complements the clinical trial by examining the effectiveness of interventions applied in clinical practice and by providing evidence on long-term clinical outcomes, which are often not feasible to study in a clinical trial. Various endpoints can be included in clinical trials, such as hard endpoints, soft endpoints, surrogate endpoints, and patient-reported endpoints. Each endpoint has it strengths and limitations for use in research studies. Endpoints used in oncology trials are often not applicable in observational cohort studies which are limited by the setting of standard clinical practice and by non-standardized endpoint determination. Observational studies can be more helpful moving research forward if they restrict focus to appropriate and valid endpoints. PMID:27354827

  2. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER CLINICAL ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: RELIABILITY, CONCURRENT VALIDITY, AND MINIMAL CLINICALLY IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ≥5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate–determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints. Results: The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods. Conclusions: The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression. Muscle Nerve 48: 357–368, 2013 PMID:23674289

  3. Commercial Fertilizers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, J.T.

    1994-12-01

    This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

  4. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  5. A unique mechanism of successful fertilization in a domestic bird.

    PubMed

    Sasanami, Tomohiro; Izumi, Shunsuke; Sakurai, Naoki; Hirata, Toshifumi; Mizushima, Shusei; Matsuzaki, Mei; Hiyama, Gen; Yorinaga, Eriko; Yoshimura, Takashi; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-09

    Fertilization is an indispensable step for formation of a zygote in sexual reproduction, leading to species survival. When mating occurs, sperm is transported to the female reproductive tracts via the seminal plasma (SP). SP is derived from male accessory sex glands and it plays pivotal roles for fertilization in animals. However, molecular mechanisms of SP or a fluid derived from male accessory sex glands for successful fertilization remain unclear. Here, we report that in male quail the cloacal gland (CG) produces prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) that contributes to successful fertilization. PGF2α, as well as the secretion of CG (CGS), induced vaginal contractions and caused the opening of the entrance of the sperm storage tubules, the structures responsible for the long-term sperm storage and fertilization. The removal of CGS from the male before mating reduced the fertility, but the supplementation of CGS or PGF2α rescued the subfertility. We further showed that male CG contains glucose that is utilized as energy source for the intrinsic sperm mobility after transportation to female vagina. This mechanism, in concert with the excitatory effects of PGF2α enables successful fertilization in the domestic bird.

  6. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell-cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  7. The molecular basis of fertilization (Review).

    PubMed

    Georgadaki, Katerina; Khoury, Nikolas; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Zoumpourlis, Vasilis

    2016-10-01

    Fertilization is the fusion of the male and female gamete. The process involves the fusion of an oocyte with a sperm, creating a single diploid cell, the zygote, from which a new individual organism will develop. The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of fertilization has fascinated researchers for many years. In this review, we focus on this intriguing process at the molecular level. Several molecules have been identified to play a key role in each step of this intriguing process (the sperm attraction from the oocyte, the sperm maturation, the sperm and oocyte fusion and the two gamete pronuclei fusion leading to the zygote). Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the cell‑cell interactions will provide a better understanding of the causes of fertility issues due to fertilization defects. PMID:27599669

  8. Directional constraint of endpoint force emerges from hindlimb anatomy.

    PubMed

    Bunderson, Nathan E; McKay, J Lucas; Ting, Lena H; Burkholder, Thomas J

    2010-06-15

    Postural control requires the coordination of force production at the limb endpoints to apply an appropriate force to the body. Subjected to horizontal plane perturbations, quadruped limbs stereotypically produce force constrained along a line that passes near the center of mass. This phenomenon, referred to as the force constraint strategy, may reflect mechanical constraints on the limb or body, a specific neural control strategy or an interaction among neural controls and mechanical constraints. We used a neuromuscular model of the cat hindlimb to test the hypothesis that the anatomical constraints restrict the mechanical action of individual muscles during stance and constrain the response to perturbations to a line independent of perturbation direction. In a linearized neuromuscular model of the cat hindlimb, muscle lengthening directions were highly conserved across 10,000 different muscle activation patterns, each of which produced an identical, stance-like endpoint force. These lengthening directions were closely aligned with the sagittal plane and reveal an anatomical structure for directionally constrained force responses. Each of the 10,000 activation patterns was predicted to produce stable stance based on Lyapunov stability analysis. In forward simulations of the nonlinear, seven degree of freedom model under the action of 200 random muscle activation patterns, displacement of the endpoint from its equilibrium position produced restoring forces, which were also biased toward the sagittal plane. The single exception was an activation pattern based on minimum muscle stress optimization, which produced destabilizing force responses in some perturbation directions. The sagittal force constraint increased during simulations as the system shifted from an inertial response during the acceleration phase to a viscoelastic response as peak velocity was obtained. These results qualitatively match similar experimental observations and suggest that the force

  9. The continuing fertility decline in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, D F

    1980-01-01

    The continued decline in fertility in Sri Lanka which began in 1960 is analyzed and documented. Data from recent consuses, the 1st report of the World Fertility Survey, and from vital statistics registration are used. The data are tabulated along with similar data from Taiwan to provide a basis of comparison. The birth rate in Sri Lanka has declined steadily since 1960, reaching an almost static level in 1974-76. During the 1970's there was a dramatic upward move in the age at marriage for women in both Sri Lanka and Taiwan. This factor, combined with a changing female age structure, had been responsible for fertility decline during the 1953-63 period. During 1963-68, female marriage postponement continued to influence fertility decline while the change in the female age structure retarded it. Declines in marital fertility began to have an effect by 1963 in the over 25 age groups. The Sri Lankan Family Planning Program began in 1965. The year 1972 is considered a turning point for the program with increasing use of modern contraceptive methods, especially the IUD and female sterilization. Even male sterilization began to increase substantially in 1974. All the fertility figures are higher for Sri Lanka than for Taiwan, but Sri Lanka is making extremely good progress. The decline in marital fertility is concentrated in the over-30 group, and attributed to increased practice of contraception.

  10. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  11. SPERMATOZOAL RNA PROFILES OF NORMAL FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    What Constitutes the Normal Fertile Male?

    G. Charles Ostermeier1, David J. Dix2, David Miller3, Purvesh Khatri4, and Stephen A. Krawetz1.

    1Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, & Institute for Scientific Computing, Wa...

  12. ASPREE Cancer Endpoints Study | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The ASPREE Cancer Endpoint Study (ACES), an ancillary study of the ASPirin in the Prevention of Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) Study, will allow for the examination of the effect of daily low-dose aspirin (100 mg) compared to placebo, on specific DNA biomarkers and selected specific incident and recurrent cancer and metastases. The establishment of this ACES biobank will allow for the exploration of DNA-related molecular mechanisms of aspirin's protective effect against cancer, cancer associated mortality and metastases, using blood or saliva DNA specimens, urine, and tumor tissue. |

  13. Exploring a possible origin of the QCD critical endpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, K. A. Petrov, V. K. Zinovjev, G. M.

    2013-03-15

    We develop a new model of the QCD critical endpoint by matching the deconfinement phase transition line of quark-gluon bags with the similar line at which the bag surface tension coefficient vanishes. Unlike all previous studies of such models the deconfined phase in our approach is defined not by an essential singularity of the isobaric partition function but its simple pole. As an unexpected result we find out that the first-order phase transition which is usually defined by a discontinuity of the first derivative of the bag system pressure results from a discontinuity of the derivative of surface tension coefficient of quark-gluon bags.

  14. Evaluating endocrine endpoints relative to reproductive success in Japanese quail exposed to estrogenic chemicals [poster

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, P.F.P.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Casey, C.S.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The standard US EPA guidelines for avian reproductive testing may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect effects of sublethal and chronic exposure to endocrine disrupting toxins. There is a need to evaluate endocrine endpoints as potential markers for contaminant effects, and to determine their effectiveness and sensitivity when applied to wildlife. To this end, a three generational test was conducted using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and a proven estrogenic PCB. Birds were exposed during embryonic development via maternal deposition and/or direct egg injection at day 4. Standard measures of reproductive success and productivity used in toxicological studies, as well as multiple measures of physiological and behavioral responses used in endocrine studies were collected. Long term effects on growth and apparent development were similar between treated and control offspring. Fertility of treated eggs decreased from 75%+ 4.4 (x + se) for P1, to 59% + 12.5 for F1 and 54% + 14.2 for F2. All paired control birds mated to produce viable eggs, whereas 27 % of the F1 and 41 % of the F2 treated pairs failed to produce at least 1 viable egg. Although some decreases in productivity can be related to direct toxic exposure, the response from one generation to the next was not linear with treatment, indicating a potential effect from behavioral or other endocrine alterations.

  15. Immediate skin responses to laser and light treatments: Warning endpoints: How to avoid side effects.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Avram, Mathew M; Anderson, R Rox

    2016-05-01

    Lasers are versatile, commonly used treatment tools in dermatology. While it is tempting to follow manufacturer's guidelines or other "recipes" for laser treatment, this approach alone can be a recipe for disaster. Specific and immediate skin responses or endpoints exist and are clinically useful because they correlate with underlying mechanisms that are either desirable (ie, therapeutic), undesirable (ie, warning signs of injury or side effects), or incidental. The observation of clinical endpoints is a safe and reliable guide for appropriate treatment. This article presents the warning endpoints during specific dermatologic laser treatments, and the accompanying article presents the therapeutic endpoints, their underlying mechanisms, and the utility of these endpoints. PMID:27085227

  16. Local lymph node assay with non-radioisotope alternative endpoints.

    PubMed

    Suda, Akiko; Yamashita, Masahiro; Tabei, Mitsuyuki; Taguchi, Kazuhiko; Vohr, Hans-Werner; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suzuki, Ritsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Katsuaki; Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Mochizuki, Kouki; Nakamura, Kazuichi

    2002-08-01

    The local lymph node assay has recently been accepted by regulatory agencies as a stand-alone alternate method for predicting allergic contact dermatitis. To compare the sensitivity of non-radioisotope methods with that of the standard assay, we determined if these modified methods would affect evaluation of sensitization potency. For this reason, we used 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and benzocaine for different sensitizing criteria. Female CBA mice were treated for 3 days with a test compound or vehicle applied to each side of both ears. Bilateral auricular lymph node proliferative activity was assessed by the following endpoints with incorporation of 3H-methyl thymidine (3H-TdR), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in vivo, and BrdU ex vivo, IL-2 production, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression. Ear thickness was also tested. The strong sensitizer DNCB was detectable by any of the non-radioisotope endpoints as well as by radioisotope-dependent standard assay. On the other hand, when evaluating the weak sensitizer benzocaine, significant changes were evident in BrdU incorporation ex vivo and in vivo, and IL-2 production. We believe that these non-radioisotope methods can assess allergic contact dermatitis caused by chemicals even in the laboratory, where it can be difficult to handle radioisotopes.

  17. From Neuromuscular Activation to End-point Locomotion: An Artificial Neural Network-based Technique for Neural Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Lin; Jin, Zhanpeng; Chang, Hou-Cheng; Cheng, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroprostheses, implantable or non-invasive ones, are promising techniques to enable paralyzed individuals with conditions, such as spinal cord injury or spina bifida (SB), to control their limbs voluntarily. Direct cortical control of invasive neuroprosthetic devices and robotic arms have recently become feasible for primates. However, little is known about designing non-invasive, closed-loop neuromuscular control strategies for neural prostheses. Our goal was to investigate if an Artificial Neural Network-based (ANN-based) model for closed-loop controlled neural prostheses could use neuromuscular activation recorded from individuals with impaired spinal cord to predict their end-point gait parameters (such as stride length and step width). We recruited 12 persons with SB (5 females and 7 males) and collected their neuromuscular activation and end-point gait parameters during overground walking. Our results show that the proposed ANN-based technique can achieve a highly accurate prediction (e.g., R-values of 0.92 – 0.97, ANN (tansig+tansig) for single composition of data sets) for altered end-point locomotion. Compared to traditional robust regression, this technique can provide up to 80% more accurate prediction. Our results suggest that more precise control of complex neural prostheses during locomotion can be achieved by engaging neuromuscular activity as intrinsic feedback to generate end-point leg movement. This ANN-based model allows a seamless incorporation of neuromuscular activity, detected from paralyzed individuals, to adaptively predict their altered gait patterns, which can be employed to provide closed-loop feedback information for neural prostheses. PMID:19389678

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene Effects on Reproductive Endpoints in Fundulus heteroclitus

    PubMed Central

    Booc, Frank; Thornton, Cammi; Lister, Andrea; MacLatchy, Deborah; Willett, Kristine L.

    2014-01-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that has been implicated in modulating aromatase enzyme function with the potential to interrupt normal reproductive function. The aim of this study was to use a fish model, Fundulus heteroclitus, to assess whether BaP exposure adversely impacts reproduction. Adult fish were exposed to waterborne BaP nominal concentrations of (0, 1, or 10 μg/l) for 28 days. Males and females were combined for the second half of the exposure (days 14–28) in order to quantitate egg production and fertilization success. Egg fertilization and subsequent hatching success of F1 embryos was significantly decreased by the high dose of BaP. In males, both gonad weight and plasma testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced compared to controls by 10 μg/l BaP. Histopathological examination of testes including spermatogonia, spermatocyte and spermatid cyst areas, percentage of cysts per phase, and area of spermatozoa per seminiferous tubule were not significantly affected. Other biomarkers, including male liver weight, liver vitellogenin (vtg) mRNA expression and sperm concentrations, were also not affected. In females, estradiol concentrations were significantly reduced after BaP exposure, but egg production, gonad weight, liver weight, vtg expression and oocyte maturation were not altered. Steroid concentrations in Fundulus larvae from exposed parents at 1 and 3 weeks posthatch were not significantly changed. BaP exposure at these environmentally relevant concentrations caused negative alterations particularly in male fish to both biochemical and phenotypic biomarkers associated with reproduction and multigenerational embryo survival. PMID:24747980

  19. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment. Part 1: Reflections of stakeholder values.

    PubMed

    Landis, Wayne G

    2006-01-01

    The selection of appropriate assessment endpoints is a basic element of an ecological risk assessment, especially at regional or watershed scales. Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and feature of ecological risk assessments. The first item is a discussion of the replacement of population-level risk assessment with the construct of a population-scale assessment endpoint. Next, the criteria that are currently used for assessment endpoints are reviewed and evaluated for utility in an ecological risk assessment. Following this examination, assessment endpoints from a number of regional-scale ecological risk assessments are compared. The outcome of this evaluation is that population-scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. Finally, a few recommendations for the selection of assessment endpoints at a population scale are listed. PMID:16640323

  20. Fertility differentials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogum, G E

    1980-01-01

    A review of the numerous fertility studies carried out in Nigeria during the last 3 decades. Evidence of differences in fertility among subgroups of the population is gleaned from these studies, as very few have addressed this issue specifically. Results still need to be evaluated. The only strong indication of possible geographic fertility differentials remains Van de Walle's analysis of age data from the census of 1952-53. 2 studies among populations of southwestern Nigeria yielded conflicting results with regard to urban-rural differentials, 1 finding lower fertility among urban residents while the other found no differences. Similarly, 2 studies with regard to religious differences yielded somewhat conflicting results, 1 showing Moslems and traditional worshippers having higher fertility than Christians, the other showing Moslems with lower fertility than traditional believers. There is some consensus among researchers that education has some depressing effect on fertility.

  1. Trends in Utilization of Surrogate Endpoints in Contemporary Cardiovascular Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi B; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki V; Fonarow, Gregg C; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Butler, Javed

    2016-06-01

    Surrogate endpoints facilitate trial efficiency but are variably linked to clinical outcomes, and limited data are available exploring their utilization in cardiovascular clinical trials over time. We abstracted data regarding primary clinical, intermediate, and surrogate endpoints from all phase II to IV cardiovascular clinical trials from 2001 to 2012 published in the 8 highest Web of Science impact factor journals. Two investigators independently classified the type of primary endpoint. Of the 1,224 trials evaluated, 677 (55.3%) primary endpoints were clinical, 165 (13.5%) intermediate, and 382 (31.2%) surrogate. The relative proportions of these endpoints remained constant over time (p = 0.98). Trials using surrogate endpoints were smaller (187 vs 1,028 patients) and enrolled patients more expeditiously (1.4 vs 0.9 patients per site per month) compared with trials using clinical endpoints (p <0.001 for both comparisons). Surrogate endpoint trials were independently more likely to meet their primary endpoint compared to trials with clinical endpoints (adjusted odds ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34; p = 0.03). Rates of positive results in clinical endpoint trials have decreased over time from 66.1% in 2001 to 2003 to 47.2% in 2010 to 2012 (p = 0.001), whereas these rates have remained stable over the same period for surrogate (72.0% to 69.3%, p = 0.27) and intermediate endpoints (74.4% to 71.4%, p = 0.98). In conclusion, approximately a third of contemporary cardiovascular trials use surrogate endpoints. These trials are completed more expeditiously and are more likely to meet their primary outcomes. The overall scientific contribution of these surrogate endpoint trials requires further attention given their variable association with definitive outcomes. PMID:27085935

  2. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  3. Endpoint Refinement for Total Body Irradiation of C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Artwohl, James E; Anderson, Robert J; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome is a life-threatening condition that has the potential to affect large populations of humans. Although several animal models of this syndrome are available, the total-body–irradiated mouse has emerged as an important tool to evaluate the efficacy of prospective prophylaxis, mitigation, and treatment compounds. Despite the widespread use of this model, humane endpoints have not been clearly identified. To address this issue, we developed a cageside observation-based scoring system specifically for total-body–irradiated mice to assess the progression of clinical signs associated with acute radiation syndrome. Male C57BL/6 mice (n = 175; age, 8 to 9 wk) received an anticipated LD50 dose of radiation and were observed for progression of clinical signs of acute radiation syndrome for 30 d. All mice were scored individually through cageside observation of their body posture (score, 0 to 3), eye appearance (0 to 3), and activity level (0 to 3). Retrospective analysis of the score data indicated that death could be predicted accurately by using increasing cumulative scores (0 to 9). Total scores of 6, 7, 8, and 9 were associated with mortality rates of 78.6%, 86.4%, 93.3%, and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, scores of 6, 7, and 8 predicted death within 3, 1.5, and 0.5 d, respectively. The use of this scoring system provides investigators and IACUCs with predictive humane, surrogate endpoints for total-body–irradiated mice. This system allows preemptive euthanasia of mice before they become moribund, thereby minimizing pain and distress associated with acute radiation syndrome and improving animal welfare. PMID:23561934

  4. Effects of ivermectin on Danio rerio: a multiple endpoint approach: behaviour, weight and subcellular markers.

    PubMed

    Domingues, I; Oliveira, R; Soares, A M V M; Amorim, M J B

    2016-04-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is a broad acting antihelmintic used in various veterinary pharmaceuticals. It has been shown that IVM enters the aquatic compartment and adversely affects organisms including fish. This study is based on the hypothesis that long term exposure to IVM affects fish and thus, the main objective was to assess the chronic effects of 0.25 and 25 µg IVM/L to zebrafish using multiple endpoints representative of several levels of biological organization: weight, behaviour (swimming and feeding) and subcellular markers including biomarkers for oestrogenicity (vitellogenin-VTG), oxidative stress (catalase-CAT and glutathione-S-transferase-GST) and neurotransmission (cholinesterase-ChE). Concentrations as low as 0.25 µg IVM/L disrupted the swimming behaviour, causing fish to spend more time at the bottom of aquaria. Such reduction of the swimming performance affected the feeding ability which is likely responsible for the weight loss. The effects on weight were gender differentiated, being more pronounced in males (0.25 µg IVM/L) than in females (25 µg IVM/L). Fish exposed to 25 µg/L exhibited darker coloration and mild curvature of the spine. No effects on VTG and AChE were observed, but a reduction on CAT and GST levels was observed in fish exposed to 25 µg IVM/L, although these alterations probably only reflect the general condition of the fish which was significantly compromised at this concentration. Despite that predicted environmental concentrations of IVM are below 0.25 µg/L, the behavioural effects may be translated into important ecological impacts, e.g. at predator-prey interactions where fish competitive advantage can be decreased. Future work should address the link between behaviour disruption and population fitness. The current study was based on a one experiment and multiple endpoint (anchored) approach, allowing the results to be integrated and linked towards a mechanistic understanding.

  5. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Koch, Amory; Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6-14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2-4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies.

  6. Correlation of Hip Fracture with Other Fracture Types: Toward a Rational Composite Hip Fracture Endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F.; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Adler, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Methods Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between1999-2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics, were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regards to the timing of the events. Results 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, p<0.0001), femur (0.15, p<0.0001), and shoulder (0.11, p<0.0001). Conclusions Pelvic, acetabular, femur, and shoulder fractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. PMID:26151123

  7. Establishment of Early Endpoints in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gulani, Jatinder; King, Gregory; Hieber, Kevin; Chappell, Mark; Ossetrova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation sickness (ARS) following exposure to ionizing irradiation is characterized by radiation-induced multiorgan dysfunction/failure that refers to progressive dysfunction of two or more organ systems, the etiological agent being radiation damage to cells and tissues over time. Radiation sensitivity data on humans and animals has made it possible to describe the signs associated with ARS. A mouse model of total-body irradiation (TBI) has previously been developed that represents the likely scenario of exposure in the human population. Herein, we present the Mouse Intervention Scoring System (MISS) developed at the Veterinary Sciences Department (VSD) of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) to identify moribund mice and decrease the numbers of mice found dead, which is therefore a more humane refinement to death as the endpoint. Survival rates were compared to changes in body weights and temperatures in the mouse (CD2F1 male) TBI model (6–14 Gy, 60Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min-1), which informed improvements to the Scoring System. Individual tracking of animals via implanted microchips allowed for assessment of criteria based on individuals rather than by group averages. From a total of 132 mice (92 irradiated), 51 mice were euthanized versus only four mice that were found dead (7% of non-survivors). In this case, all four mice were found dead after overnight periods between observations. Weight loss alone was indicative of imminent succumbing to radiation injury, however mice did not always become moribund within 24 hours while having weight loss >30%. Only one survivor had a weight loss of greater than 30%. Temperature significantly dropped only 2–4 days before death/euthanasia in 10 and 14 Gy animals. The score system demonstrates a significant refinement as compared to using subjective assessment of morbidity or death as the endpoint for these survival studies. PMID:27579862

  8. An analytical framework for estimating fertilization bias and the fertilization set from multiple sperm-storage organs.

    PubMed

    Manier, Mollie K; Lüpold, Stefan; Pitnick, Scott; Starmer, William T

    2013-10-01

    How sperm from competing males are used to fertilize eggs is poorly understood yet has important implications for postcopulatory sexual selection. Sperm may be used in direct proportion to their numerical representation within the fertilization set or with a bias toward one male over another. Previous theoretical treatments have assumed a single sperm-storage organ, but many taxa possess multiple organs or store sperm within multiple regions of the reproductive tract. In Drosophila, females store sperm in two distinct storage organ types: the seminal receptacle (SR) and the paired spermathecae. Here, we expand previous "raffle" models to describe "fertilization bias" independently for sperm within the SR and the spermathecae and estimate the fertilization set based on the relative contribution of sperm from the different sperm-storage organ types. We apply this model to three closely related species to reveal rapid divergence in the fertilization set and the potential for female sperm choice.

  9. Semi-inclusive hadronic B decays in the endpoint region

    SciTech Connect

    Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul; Leibovich, Adam K.; Zupan, Jure

    2006-10-01

    We consider in the soft-collinear effective theory semi-inclusive hadronic B decays, B{yields}XM, in which an energetic light meson M near the endpoint recoils against an inclusive jet X. We focus on a subset of decays where the spectator quark from the B meson ends up in the jet. The branching ratios and direct CP asymmetries are computed to next-to-leading order accuracy in {alpha}{sub s} and to leading order in 1/m{sub b}. The contribution of charming penguins is extensively discussed, and a method to extract it in semi-inclusive decays is suggested. Subleading 1/m{sub b} corrections and SU(3) breaking effects are discussed.

  10. [Endpoints in clinical trials and their relevance for patients].

    PubMed

    Faber, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Patient participation, which has been established since 2004, has brought more attention to patients' concerns in healthcare. More and more endpoints in clinical trials are defined with respect to their relevance for patients. But this development has still been found wanting. For important drugs, no evidence-based benefit has been demonstrated in the benefit assessment, which also has become possible since 2004. Furthermore, this assessment has arrived too late for patients who have been medicated for a long time. Healthcare policies, applicants and stakeholders have contributed a lot to the patients' scepticism towards benefit assessments, though, in principle, patients are interested in high evidence levels and reasonable pricing. New drugs are often licensed under less ambitious conditions. Whether this is in the patients' interest needs to be put up for a large-scale, and societal, discussion. PMID:20608257

  11. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  12. A lunar effect on fertility.

    PubMed

    Criss, T B; Marcum, J P

    1981-01-01

    Data from individual birth records for 140,000 live births occurring in New York City in 1968 provide evidence that the folkloric beliefs in the moon's influence on human reproduction found in many societies may have a factual basis. Records were arranged sequentially by day of occurrence and time series were constructed for total births and for 5 categories of spontaneous births: total, female, male, black, and white. A Fourier spectrum was calculated for each time series. Cross amplitude spectra were computed for 2 pairs of independent time series, male and female and black and white births, to minimize the effects of weekly variation, and cross correlations were calculated between a time series generated for the study a sine wave at exactly the frequency of the lunar cycle with its maximum value assigned to the 3rd quarter) and each of the other 6 series. A small but systematic variation of births over a period of 29.53 days, the length of the lunar cycle, with peak fertility at 3rd quarter, was found in the 4 independent time series and remained after weekly variation was removed. The finding itself provides little guidance as to the timing or nature of the moon's influence, but recent research suggests a connection between menstrual regularity and light. The timing of the fertility peak at 3rd quarter suggests that the period of decreasing illumination immediately after full moon may precipitate ovulation.

  13. Mexican plants and human fertility.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, P

    1979-07-01

    Synthetic steroids are obtainable cheaply and in abundance from sapogenins, substances originating from plants of the Discorea family. Some 40 years ago, Russell Marker, an American chemist, discovered this source, which grows abundantly in Mexican jungles and is now exploited and cultivated commercially. Today synthetic steroids prepared from extracts from a wide range of vegetable sources are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, inflammatory diseases, sterility, and various heart conditions, and form the basis of modern oral contraceptives. Nevertheless, oral contraceptives in current use are still fairly costly, and women have to be educated in their use. What is needed urgently is a cheaper contraceptive pill with a long-term effect, and research is continuing. For example, scientists from the People's Republic of China have reported significant anti-fertility effects associated with 2 substances, anordin and dinordin, prepared with steroids derived from the sisal plants Agave sisilana and Agave americana. These agents, whose anti-fertility properties have been confirmed by scientists in Sweden and the United States, constitute a new family of contraceptives with the great advantage of having to be taken only once or twice instead of 20 times per month necessary with the ordinary pill. Also from China, scientists have reported the effectiveness of gossypol as an orally administered male contraceptive, although gossypol is not a steroid. It may become, however, a leading candidate for a male contraceptive.

  14. The effects of semen collection on fertility in captive, naturally fertile, sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested to see if semen collection interferes with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile, Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had previously produced fertile eggs. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection had minimal effect on semen quality and semen quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation. Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we did not observe differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no statistically significant differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. However, 4 eggs were broken by adults during the disturbance associated with capturing birds for semen collection. We found that females with mates from which we consistently gathered better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than females with sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60). We interpret these results to mean that males that were successfully breeding with their mates had little left at the time of our collection.

  15. Laboratory semen assessment and prediction of fertility: still utopia?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2003-08-01

    Finding a laboratory test reliable enough to predict the potential fertility of a given semen sample or a given sire for artificial insemination (AI) is still considered utopian, as indicated by the modest correlations seen between results obtained in vitro and field fertility. Male fertility is complex, and depends upon a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa interacting at various levels of the female genital tract, the vestments of the oocyte, and the oocyte itself. For this reason, laboratory assessment of semen must include the testing of most sperm attributes relevant for fertilization and embryo development, not only in individual spermatozoa but within a large sperm population as well. Strategies for the discovery of in vitro predictors of semen fertility require evaluations of low sperm doses for AI, so that differences in innate in vivo fertility can be accurately detected.

  16. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions. PMID:12307194

  17. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  18. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  19. Fertility Issues in Disorders of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Guercio, Gabriela; Costanzo, Mariana; Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2015-12-01

    Fertility potential should be considered by the multidisciplinary team when addressing gender assignment, surgical management, and patient and family counselling of individuals with disorders of sex development. In 46,XY individuals, defects of gonadal differentiation or androgen or anti-Müllerian hormone synthesis or action result in incomplete or absent masculinization. In severe forms, raised as females, motherhood is possible with oocyte donation if Müllerian ducts have developed. In milder forms, raised as males, azoospermia or oligospermia are frequently found, however paternity has been reported. Most 46,XX patients with normal ovarian organogenesis are raised as females, and fertility might be possible after treatment.

  20. The fertility revolution in China.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, C; Shah, I

    1990-10-01

    As a result of a concerted government effort, China has undergone one of the most rapid fertility transitions in history. At present, the 1- child family is the norm in urban areas such as Beijing and Shanghai, while there are an average of 2 children per family in rural areas. There is now concern that this urban-rural discrepancy will lead to serious labor shortages and inadequate family resources to care for the elderly in Chinese cities. Stricter enforcement of the 1-child policy is rural areas, combined with relaxation of fertility disincentives in the cities, may be required. Another concern is the failure of modernization and intensive education to reduce the traditional preference for male children. Over 50% of respondents in fertility surveys express a desire for their first child to be a boy; only 5% prefer a girl. On the other hand, impressive progress has been made in introducing family planning programs in ways that do not assault traditional values. Although the average age at marriage in China--well over 20 years--is similar to that in developed countries, traditional marriage customs, such as co-residence with parents after marriage, remain intact. Similarly, while young people now have greater freedom of choice in the selection of a marriage partner and arranged marriages are now illegal, parents remain an important part of family decision making. Finally, China has not followed the pattern observed in other countries where declining fertility and increased women's status have reduced the extent and duration of breastfeeding. Rather, it appears that the 1 child norm has actually increased the duration of breastfeeding since the last child tends to be nursed for longer periods.