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Sample records for male infertility patients

  1. Leukocytospermia in male infertility patients in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, A W; Politch, J; Anderson, D

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a high prevalence of leukocytospermia (> 1 x 10(6) white blood cells ml-1 semen) in male infertility patients in the USA and certain European countries, and have implicated white blood cells as a cause of infertility. Since leukocytospermia may often be attributed to male genital-tract infections, its prevalence could vary widely in different populations depending on factors such as sexual practices and the prevalence of sexually transmitted pathogens. In the study described here the incidence of leukocytospermia was determined in a group of 101 male infertility patients and a small reference group of normal fertile men in Beijing, China. Seminal white blood cells (WBC) and WBC sub-populations were enumerated by peroxidase staining and immunohistological assay. Eight out of 101 (7.9%) samples from infertility patients and 0/10 samples from fertile donors were leukocytospermic. The incidence of leukocytospermia in the Chinese infertility patients was considerably lower than the 23% incidence observed in a recent study of infertility patients in the USA using a similar technique. All but one of the patients with leukocytospermia had a poor sperm count and/or poor sperm motility. However, due to the low incidence of leukocytospermia and the small number of patients in this group, a statistically significant association between leukocytospermia and poor semen quality was not attained. The simple peroxidase test correlated well with the more expensive and technically demanding immunohistological assay for detection of white blood cells in semen.

  2. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis.

  3. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  4. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  5. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility.

  6. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  7. [Ultrastructure of immotile spermatozoa obtained from infertile male patients].

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Hayashi, A; Tanaka, H; Fujisawa, M; Matsumoto, O; Kamidono, S; Ohya, K

    1993-10-01

    We sometimes experienced infertile patients whose sperms had no motility but were not stained by Eosin Y. In this paper we report five cases of so-called "immotile spermatozoa". The ultrastructure of sperm tails was examined by transmission electrone microscope (TEM). These cases were selected from the out-patient population who attended infertility clinic of our department. The semen analyses showed that all the cases had sperm motility below 1% and more than 90% of the spermatozoa were proven alive. Family history revealed that one case had an infertile sibling. None of them had situs inversus, bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis which are classic trias of Kartagener's syndrome. They had no symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection which was caused by the abnormality in the flagella of the respiratory tract. The TEM pictures of sperm tails showed partial deletion of inner dynein arms in two cases, lack of central microtubular doublets (so-called 9 + 0) in two cases and disarrangement of microtubular doublets in one case. For the treatment of these cases there is no effective means but AID. However, the rapid progress of IVF-ET techniques and a report that the spermatozoa from Kartagener's syndrome had showed penetration into eggs encouraged us to think the micromanipulation of spermatozoa with IVF-ET as a hopeful option of the treatment in the near future.

  8. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  9. Male infertility: biomolecular aspects.

    PubMed

    Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Foresta, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    Male infertility is a problem that faces increasing interest, and the continuous development of assisted reproduction techniques solicits attempts to identify a precise diagnosis, in particular for idiopathic infertile couples and those undergoing assisted reproductive technique cycles. To date, diagnosis of male infertility is commonly based on standard semen analysis, but in many cases, this is not enough to detect any sperm abnormality. A better understanding of biomolecular issues and mechanism of damaged spermatogenesis and the refinement of the molecular techniques for sperm evaluation and selection are important advances that can lead to the optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic management of male and couple infertility. Faced with a growing number of new proposed techniques and diagnostic tests, it is fundamental to know which tests are already routinely used in the clinical practice and those that are likely to be used in the near future. This review focuses on the main molecular diagnostic techniques for male infertility and on newly developed methods that will probably be part of routine sperm analysis in the near future.

  10. Endocrine causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P

    2003-02-01

    Although endocrinopathies are not often seen in infertile men, these disorders are clinically significant; they often have potentially serious medical significance, regardless of fertility issues. Correction of these disorders represents a possible way to restore normal fertility for the male partner. Male fertility is critically dependent upon a normal hormonal milieu. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is quite sensitive to disruption by endocrine disorders and other generalized medical disorders. Thus, male infertility is occasionally the presenting sign for significant underlying medical disease; it is important to properly evaluate these patients.

  11. Lycopene and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  12. Y chromosome and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Krausz, C; McElreavey, K

    1999-01-15

    Male factor infertility accounts for about half the cases of couple infertility. In more than 60% of cases the origin of reduced testicular function is unknown but they may have an unidentified genetic anomaly. Microdeletions of the long arm of the human Y chromosome are associated with spermatogenic failure and have been used to define three regions of Yq (AZFa, AZFb and AZFc) that are recurrently deleted in infertile males. Several genes have been identified within this region and have been proposed as candidates for infertility. Many of these genes encode proteins involved in post-transcriptional gene expression and therefore could participate in the sperm maturation process. About 10-15% of azoospermic and about 5-10% of severely oligozoospermic men have Yq microdeletions. The deletions are associated with a wide range of histological pictures ranging from Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS) to spermatogenic arrest and severe hypospermatogenesis. Assisted reproduction techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) alone, or in association with testicular sperm retrieval, represent an efficient therapy for these patients. However the potential of these techniques to transmit genetic defects causing male infertility raises the need for a systematic genetic screening and genetic counselling of these patients.

  13. Male infertility. 3. Endocrine causes.

    PubMed

    McNally, M R

    1987-02-01

    Endocrine causes of male infertility range from easily manageable disorders such as hypothyroidism to complex problems such as pituitary tumors. Proper management requires a thorough understanding of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Hormonal evaluation is performed only when the patient's history and results of physical examination indicate an endocrine problem. With proper identification and treatment, most of these problems can be successfully managed.

  14. Analysis of inter-examination differences in sperm nuclear vacuoles among male patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Akira; Watanabe, Akihiko; Kawauchi, Yoko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the inter-examination differences in sperm nuclear vacuoles among male patients with infertility. We enrolled 56 male patients with infertility who underwent multiple semen analyses and high-magnification observation of the sperm head. A total of 162 ejaculates were evaluated. The average patient age was 34.5 years. Following the conventional semen analysis, the nuclear vacuoles in motile spermatozoa were evaluated at 3700-6150 × magnification on an inverted microscope equipped with differential interference contrast optics. A large sperm nuclear vacuole (LNV) was defined as one or more vacuoles with a maximum diameter exhibiting > 50% width of the sperm head. We compared the differences in the proportion of spermatozoa with LNVs between two consecutive semen samples before treatment. Treatment-related differences in the number of LNVs were also analyzed. Student's t-test was used to perform the statistical analyses. No differences were observed in any semen parameters between the first and second ejaculates. On high-magnification microscopy, the proportion of spermatozoa with LNVs was 23.5% and 29.4% (p = 0.0220) in the first and second ejaculates, respectively in 33 patients. Among the 18 patients who underwent varicocele repair using a microsurgical subinguinal approach, the proportion of spermatozoa with LNVs at baseline, three, and six months after surgery was 27.7%, 12.0% (p = 0.0132 versus baseline), and 10.3% (p = 0.0226 versus baseline), respectively. After three months of medical treatment for male infertility in 28 patients, the proportion of spermatozoa with LNVs slightly decreased from 33.3% to 28.6% (p = 0.1276); however, it was not statistically significant. In conclusion, when multiple ejaculates were obtained, in the subset of male patients with infertility, the proportion of spermatozoa with LNVs could be different. The number of LNVs decreased following varicocele repair.

  15. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  16. The conventional management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Lenzi, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    Although the male reproductive function is impaired in about half of infertile couples, the evaluation of male infertility is underrated or neglected even today. In addition to a physical examination and imaging techniques, semen analysis as well as endocrine and genetic analyses should be part of the routine investigation. Few disorders have become subjects of rational treatment of the infertile male, even though, as examples, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is treatable by gonadotropins and obstructive azoospermia by reconstructive surgery. Early treatment of maldescended testes and sexually transmitted diseases can prevent infertility. Similar pregnancy rates from patients with varicocele following surgery or counseling demonstrate the important role of the physician in the treatment of infertility. In the age of evidence-based medicine, most empirical treatments have been demonstrated to be ineffective. Instead, symptomatic treatment by assisted reproductive techniques has become a central tool to overcome otherwise untreatable male infertility.

  17. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects.

  18. Prevalence of sexually transmissible pathogens in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia

    PubMed Central

    Bezold, Guntram; Politch, Joseph A.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Kuypers, Jane M.; Wolff, Hans; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia (LCS), and associations between STIs, inflammatory markers and other semen variables. Design Retrospective, controlled study. Setting Center for Reproductive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Patient(s) 241 male infertility patients undergoing routine semen analysis; 132 with LCS, and 109 without LCS. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) DNA from STI pathogens [human papillomavirus (HPV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)], routine semen parameters and markers of accessory gland and epididymal function and inflammation. Results STI DNA was detected in 45/241 (18.7%) of the samples (CMV 8.7%, HPV 4.5%, HHV-6 3.7%, HSV 3.7%, CT 2.5%, EBV 0.4%, and HBV 0%), with no difference in prevalence between LCS and non-LCS groups. STI DNA in semen was associated with a decrease in sperm concentration, motile sperm concentration, total sperm count and neutral α-glucosidase concentration, whereas LCS was associated with a decrease in total sperm count, % normal forms and fructose concentration. Conclusion(s) STI pathogen DNA was detected in semen from a high percentage of asymptomatic male infertility patients and was associated with poor semen quality. Efforts to diagnose and treat subclinical genital tract infections should be intensified. PMID:17433312

  19. Medical treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Dabaja, Ali A; Schlegel, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    The majority of male infertility is idiopathic. However, there are multiple known causes of male infertility, and some of these causes can be treated medically with high success rates. In cases of idiopathic or genetic causes of male infertility, medical management is typically empirical; in most instances medical therapy represents off-label use that is not specifically approved by the FDA. Understanding the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the effect of estrogen excess is critical for the assessment and treatment of male infertility. The use of certain medical treatment has been associated with an increase in sperm production or motility, and primarily focuses on optimizing testosterone (T) production from the Leydig cells, increasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels to stimulate Sertoli cells and spermatogenesis, and normalizing the T to estrogen ratio.

  20. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters.

  1. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  2. Clomiphene treatment in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schellen, T M

    1982-01-01

    After the discovery that Clomiphene-citrate (Clomid) increased the secretion of gonadotropins, it was first used to induce ovulation and later on it was also used in males in certain cases of infertility. The effects of Clomid on the hypothalamic-pituitary level made it also possible to use it for a dynamic evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis in both females and males. The results obtained with Clomid are reviewed. The results are widely divergent because of the fact that the selection of the patients, the dosage, and the length of the therapy are not always appropriate. However, the experience with Clomid appears to show sufficient effectiveness in oligozoospermic men, who have a low or normal FSH-level.

  3. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  4. Clomiphene for the treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Willets, Amy E; Corbo, Jason M; Brown, Jamie N

    2013-07-01

    Male infertility is a relatively common condition caused by low sperm production, immobile sperm, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. This condition can be caused by a variety of illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, other factors, or idiopathic, in which abnormal semen parameters occur without an identifiable cause. Medical management traditionally focuses on correcting endocrine abnormalities related to hormone deficiencies. Clomiphene citrate is an antiestrogen thought to increase sperm parameters in males attempting to conceive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate in the treatment of male patients with infertility. A literature search of MEDLINE (1966-June 2012) and EMBASE (1980-June 2012) was conducted using the medical terms clomiphene and male infertility and 9 clinical studies were identified. Overall, only 1 study detected a statistically significant benefit on the pregnancy rate in the clomiphene group; however, the majority of the studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in sperm concentrations. At doses used to treat male infertility, clomiphene was well tolerated with no identified serious adverse effects. Based on the reviewed studies there is insufficient evidence to indicate that clomiphene is effective for the treatment of male infertility.

  5. [Imaging of male infertility: techniques and results].

    PubMed

    Eiss, D; Cornud, F; Thiounn, N; Wolf, J-P; Amar, E; Ghouadni, M; Hélénon, O

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of male infertility includes clinical examination, laboratory tests (semen analysis, hormones dosage) and sonographic examination of the urogenital tract. Male infertility is due to testicular abnormalities (secretory type) or obstructive disorder (excretory type). Imaging should provide accurate definition of anatomical causes of infertility in order to deliver appropriate treatment. Testicular Doppler ultrasound with transrectal ultrasound is the gold standard imaging technique to explore male infertility. MRI, because of its high resolution, provides a multiplanar study especially in congenital and inflammatory abnormalities of the urogenital tract. This pictorial review illustrates the most frequent causes of male infertility.

  6. Emerging molecular methods for male infertility investigation.

    PubMed

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Montjean, Debbie; Belloc, Stephanie; Dalleac, Alain; Ducasse, Michel; Boyer, Pierre; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for approximately 50% of reproductive pathology. Different disorders, including urogenital and endocrine system development abnormalities, lead to testicular and gametogenesis defects. Parallely, studies have reported that somatic and germ cell genome decay are a major cause of male infertility. It has been shown that in somatic karyotype, there is a higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations in infertile men than neonatal population and significant chromosome Y microdeletion or specific gene alterations in affected spermatogenesis. Karyotyping and FISH application at somatic and germ cell levels are no longer sufficient to investigate the potential contribution of genome disorders on male infertility. A wide range of molecular methods are required for better understanding of male infertility causes. Molecular omes and omics techniques have become a great tool to investigate male infertility from chromosome to protein. This review reports different molecular tests and methods that can be offered for male infertility investigation.

  7. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility.

  8. Relevance of genetic investigation in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Asero, P; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Lanzafame, F; Crisci, R; La Vignera, S

    2014-05-01

    Genetic causes can be directly responsible for various clinical conditions of male infertility and spermatogenic impairment. With the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies our understanding of genetic basis of male infertility has large implications not only for understanding the causes of infertility but also in determining the prognosis and management of such couples. For these reasons, the genetic investigations represent today an essential and useful tool in the treatment of male infertility. Several evidences are available for the clinical practice regarding the diagnosis; however, there are less information relative to the treatment of the genetic causes of male infertility. Focus of this review is to discuss the main and more common genetic causes of male infertility to better direct the genetics investigation in the treatment of spermatogenic impairment.

  9. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  12. [Genetic risks of intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility].

    PubMed

    Shao, Fa-Ming; Zhu, Xiao-Bin; Li, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Recently, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been extremely successful in the treatment of male infertility. However, the consequent transmission of sperm cytogenetic defects and genetic defects to the offspring has aroused considerable concern. Among infertile men, those with severe spermatogenic defects, including oligozoospermia and azoospermia, are mostly the subjects for ICSI. Therefore it is very important to obtain cytogenetic and chromosomal information on these infertile patients and prevent the inheritance of these genetic defects. This review offers an analysis on the genetic defects among infertile men.

  13. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted.

  14. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  15. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  16. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  17. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  18. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed.

  19. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2014-09-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules. The most severe gonadal symptoms occur in patients with disorders of sexual development (DSDs) who have genetic mutations, in whom even sex reversal of individuals with a 46,XY DSD can occur. However, patients with severe DSDs might represent only a small proportion of DSD cases, with milder forms of testicular dysgenesis potentially induced by exposure to environmental and lifestyle factors. Interestingly, maternal smoking during pregnancy has a stronger effect on spermatogenesis than a man's own smoking. Other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and obesity might also have a role. However, increasing indirect evidence exists that exposure to ubiquitous endocrine disrupting chemicals, present at measurable concentrations in individuals, might affect development of human fetal testis. If confirmed, health policies to prevent male reproductive problems should not only target adult men, but also pregnant women and their children. PMID:24935122

  20. The relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase c.677TT genotype and oligozoospermia in infertile male patients living in the Trakya region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, H; Tozkır, H; Göncü, E; Ulusal, S; Yazar, M

    2015-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the key enzyme of the folate metabolic pathway, has been reported to be five times more active in the testicles compared to other organs in adult mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between MTHFR c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms and infertility in nonobstructive azoospermic and oligozoospermic male patients living in the Trakya region of Turkey. The study population included 75 nonobstructive azoospermic and 62 oligozoospermic, nonconsanguineous patients who were referred to the Department of Medical Genetics of Trakya University between 01.03.2012 and 01.06.2013 due to infertility and who had been diagnosed based on clinical examinations and spermiograms. All of the patients had a normal karyotype without a Y chromosome microdeletion. Melting curve analysis with labelled probes and primers that were designed by the manufacturers and the real-time polymerase chain reaction method were used. The MTHFR c.677TT genotype frequency in the oligozoospermic infertile male patient group was greater than that of the fertile control group [odds ratio (OR) = 2.675 (95% CI: 0.979-7.305), (P < 0.048)]. The MTHFR c.677TT genotype may be a genetic risk factor for oligozoospermic infertile male patients who live in the Trakya region of Turkey.

  1. Are human male patients with DAX1/NR0B1 mutations infertile?

    PubMed

    Ravel, Célia; Hyon, Capucine; Siffroi, Jean-Pierre; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    DAX-1 stands for Dosage sensitive sex-reversal, Adrenal hypoplasia congenital (AHC), on the X chromosome. DAX-1 mutations usually cause primary adrenal insufficiency or congenital adrenal hypoplasia in early childhood and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (MIM # 300200). DAX-1 protein is necessary to maintain normal spermatogenesis. In humans, male fertility has been studied in few patients carrying DAX-1 mutations. Cases of azoospermia have been reported, as well as unsuccessful gonadotropin treatments. The clinician should be informed that TESE-ICSI technique carries a potential hope to father non-affected children, as shown in this review. PMID:24751136

  2. Male-factor infertility and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Yates, C A; De Kretser, D M

    1987-06-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was developed primarily as a treatment for female and idiopathic infertility. However, with the discovery that relatively few sperm are required to achieve fertilization in vitro, it was proposed that IVF could be used also as an effective treatment for male-factor infertility. This review deals with the work that has been carried out by various groups in this area of male-factor infertility. As the standards of classification and the presentation of results vary from group to group, this also shows that there is a need for some standardization of how patient selection and the presentation of results are carried out in the area of male-factor infertility.

  3. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues. PMID:27061770

  4. [Causes and Factors of Male Infertility].

    PubMed

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Kurashova, N A; Bairova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The preservation of reproductive health of the population is an important factor of demographic policy of the state. According to some authors from 14 to 30% of couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility, malefactor in such marriages is detected in more than half of the cases. As you know, in recent years there has been a significant deterioration in the main indicators of reproductive function of men. Increased the number of andrological diseases, morphological disorders of the male reproductive system, almost halved the production of sperm in men of reproductive age. The reason probably lies behind a whole range ofstressfactors, such as medical ignorance, uncontrolled and inappropriate use of medication, metabolic disturbances, lack of vitamins and minerals, the impact of industrial pollutants, as well as the growth of addictive disorders (alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction). The forms of infertility differ according to its etiology and severity from minor changes to complete spermatogenesis dysfunction of the gonads, and can also occur due to genetic disorders. The lack of analysis of the relationship between clinical and genetic-biochemical components in men with infertility makes it impossible to understand the pathogenesis of infertility and to assess the risks of male infertility. High level of current medicine does not always guarantee an identification of the cause of male infertility. The article analyzes data from the review of specialized literature on the diagnosis and etiopathogenesis of male infertility. Frequency and clinical signs of pathology of the male reproductive system depend on the combinatorial effects of environmental influences, manifested most often in mutually reinforcing effect. A combination of several, seemed to be imperceptible factors makes the risk of development of male reproductive pathology very high. This situation compels specialists to conduct comprehensive studies on the men reproductive potential. PMID

  5. Estrogen promotes Leydig cell engulfment by macrophages in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wanpeng; Zheng, Han; Lin, Wei; Tajima, Astushi; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwen; Wu, Jihua; Han, Daishu; Rahman, Nafis A; Korach, Kenneth S; Gao, George Fu; Inoue, Ituro; Li, Xiangdong

    2014-06-01

    Male infertility accounts for almost half of infertility cases worldwide. A subset of infertile men exhibit reduced testosterone and enhanced levels of estradiol (E2), though it is unclear how increased E2 promotes deterioration of male fertility. Here, we utilized a transgenic mouse strain that overexpresses human CYP19, which encodes aromatase (AROM+ mice), and mice with knockout of Esr1, encoding estrogen receptor α (ERαKO mice), to analyze interactions between viable Leydig cells (LCs) and testicular macrophages that may lead to male infertility. In AROM+ males, enhanced E2 promoted LC hyperplasia and macrophage activation via ERα signaling. E2 stimulated LCs to produce growth arrest-specific 6 (GAS6), which mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by bridging cells with surface exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) to macrophage receptors, including the tyrosine kinases TYRO3, AXL, and MER. Overproduction of E2 increased apoptosis-independent extrusion of PS on LCs, which in turn promoted engulfment by E2/ERα-activated macrophages that was mediated by AXL-GAS6-PS interaction. We further confirmed E2-dependant engulfment of LCs by real-time 3D imaging. Furthermore, evaluation of molecular markers in the testes of patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) revealed enhanced expression of CYP19, GAS6, and AXL, which suggests that the AROM+ mouse model reflects human infertility. Together, these results suggest that GAS6 has a potential as a clinical biomarker and therapeutic target for male infertility.

  6. [Protamine gene polymorphisms and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-jun; Zhang, Jing; Xia, Xin-yi; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-12-01

    Protamine (PRM) is one of the most abundant arginine-rich nucleoproteins in sperm and plays an important role in spermatogenesis. In the late stage of spermatogenesis, the replacement of PRM by histone prompts the closer combination between the nuclear matrix of sperm and nucleoprotein in order for high enrichment and condensation of nuclear chromatin in addition to preventing the sperm genome from mutation induced by internal and external factors. With the development of DNA sequencing techniques, researches on the association between PRM polymorphisms and male fertility are surfacing as a hot field. Many studies show that rs2301365 polymorphism is a risk factor for male infertility and increases the risk of male infertility by 27 - 66%, that rs737008 polymorphism of PRM1 and rs1646022 polymorphism of PRM2 are protective factors against Asian infertility, and that the ratio of PRM1 to PRM2 is intensively associated with male infertility. This review presents an update on the association between PRM gene polymorphisms and male infertility.

  7. H19 gene methylation status is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIAO-PING; HAO, CHAO-LIANG; WANG, QIAN; YI, XIAO-MEI; JIANG, ZHI-SHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the H19 gene methylation status in male infertility. Between March 2013 and June 2014, semen samples were collected from 15 normal fertile males and 15 males experiencing infertility, and routine analysis and sperm morphological assessment were performed. The semen samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to separate the sperm fraction, and genomic DNA from the sperms was extracted and treated for bisulfite modification. Following in vitro amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the purified PCR products were cloned into pMD®18-T vectors and successful cloning was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion. Positive clones were sequenced and the DNA methylation status was analyzed. The overall methylation rate in the normal fertile group was 100% (270/270), whereas in the infertile group the methylation rate was lower at 94.1% (525/558), revealing a statistically significant decrease in overall methylation rate in the infertile patients compared with the control group (χ2=15.12; P<0.001). The average methylation rates of CpG 1, 3 and 6 in the infertile group were statistically different from those in the normal control group (all P<0.05). The abnormal methylation of imprinted gene H19 is associated with male infertility, suggesting that H19 may serve as a biomarker for the detection of defects in human spermiogenesis. PMID:27347077

  8. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  9. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  10. Studies on infertility in males.

    PubMed

    Fattah, A A; Azim, A A; Habeib, M; Rafik, M

    1980-02-01

    One hundred and fifteen infertile men were examined for circulating spermagglutinating antibodies by the Kibrick spermagglutination test; thirty-three (28%) were found to have positive agglutination titers--1:32 or more in thirteen samples. This high figure may be explained by the high incidence of genital tract infection and of urinary schistosomiasis in our study group. Of the 33 men who demonstrated autoantibodies in their sera, 21 had microscopic agglutination of more than 10%. There was a positive correlation between the serum autoantibody titer and spermagglutination. Eight cases (6.9%) of sperm-immobilizing antibodies were found.

  11. Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

    PubMed Central

    Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = −0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 μg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 μg/L in AID and 0.092 μg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = −0.201, P < 0.036 and r = −0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

  12. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  13. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  14. [Indication of varicocelectomy for the treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kazutoshi; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Okuno, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Osamu

    2004-08-01

    The most common and correctable known cause of male infertility is varicoceles, not all infertile patients with varicoceles present an improvement of fertility after surgical repair. In this study, we assessed preoperative factors predictive of improved fertility and/or semen parameters following varicocelectomy. We performed varicocelectomy on 148 consecutive infertile patients with varicocele between 1993 and 1999. Unassisted pregnancy was achieved in 38 (25.7%) patients. The patients with low grade varicocele, high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), severe asthenozoospermia preoperatively had significant lower unassisted pregnancy rates compared to the others, respectively. Patients who have at least one of these three factors had a significantly lower unassisted pregnancy rate compared to patients without all three factors (7.7%, and 39.8%, respectively). In conclusion, certain preoperative variables in the physical and laboratory analyses appeared to predict a greater surgical response.

  15. Clinical genetic testing for male factor infertility: current applications and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, J; Carrell, D T

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis involves the aggregated action of up to 2300 genes, any of which, could, potentially, provide targets for diagnostic tests of male factor infertility. Contrary to the previously proposed common variant hypothesis for common diseases such as male infertility, genome-wide association studies and targeted gene sequencing in cohorts of infertile men have identified only a few gene polymorphisms that are associated with male infertility. Unfortunately, the search for genetic variants associated with male infertility is further hampered by the lack of viable animal models of human spermatogenesis, difficulty in robustly phenotyping infertile men and the complexity of pedigree studies in male factor infertility. In this review, we describe basic genetic principles involved in understanding the genetic basis of male infertility and examine the utility and proper clinical use of the proven genetic assays of male factor infertility, specifically Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal translocations, karyotype, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation analysis and sperm genetic tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only able to diagnose the cause of about 20% of male factor infertility. The remainder of the review will be devoted to examining novel tests and diagnostic tools that have the potential to explain the other 80% of male factor infertility that is currently classified as idiopathic. Those tests include epigenetic analysis of the spermatozoa and the evaluation of rare genetic variants and copy number variations in patients. Success in advancing to the implementation of such areas is not only dependent on technological advances in the laboratory, but also improved phenotyping in the clinic.

  16. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD.

  17. Intrauterine insemination for treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Keck, C; Gerber-Schäfer, C; Wilhelm, C; Vogelgesang, D; Breckwoldt, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrauterine inseminations (IUI) have been performed since the beginning of this century for treatment of infertility. Despite its widespread use the clinical value of this technique remains unclear. Today, indications for IUI include male factor, cervical factor, immunological and unexplained infertility and infertility due to ejaculatory disorders. IUI is superior to intravaginal (IVI) or intracervical insemination (ICI). Before insemination, semen has to be processed using one of the established sperm preparation techniques. Different techniques seem to be equally effective in preparing a highly concentrated sperm fraction with progressively motile, morphologically normal sperm. Ovarian stimulation further improves pregnancy rates achieved by insemination. Human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG) stimulation seems to be superior to clomiphene citrate stimulation. Among other factors, timing and number of inseminations are crucial when influencing the outcome of IUI treatment. PMID:9466187

  18. Potential association between male infertility and occupational psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sheiner, Einat K; Sheiner, Eyal; Carel, Refael; Potashnik, Gad; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential reproductive toxic agents, and psychological stress on male fertility. The study population consisted of 202 consecutive male patients attending a fertility clinic. Of those, 106 patients had attended the clinic because of a male infertility problem (case group), 66 patients had attended the clinic because of a female infertility problem (control group), and 30 patients had a combined infertility problem (male and female). Male infertility was associated with working in industry and construction as compared with other occupations (78.6% vs 58.3%, P = 0.044). Industry and construction workers were of lower educational level than the other workers (mean: 12.1 vs 13.4 years, P = 0.021). These patients also tended to smoke more than the other workers (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.08 to 5.98), more often worked in shifts (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 1.19 to 8.13), reported physical exertion in work (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.44 to 7.80), and were more exposed to noise and welding (OR = 3.84, 95% CI = 1.63 to 9.14, OR = 4.40, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.76, respectively). Male infertility (case group) was found to be statistically related to higher marks in all four measures of burnout as compared with the controls. The largest difference was obtained in the measure of cognitive weariness (mean: 2.9 vs 2.1, P < 0.001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, industry and construction jobs (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7) and cognitive weariness (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.03 to 4.6) were found to be independent risk factors for male infertility problems. Male infertility was independently associated with industry and construction jobs as well as job burnout.

  19. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  20. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  1. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  2. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  3. Varicocele and male infertility in Northeast China: Y chromosome microdeletion as an underlying cause.

    PubMed

    Dai, R L; Hou, Y; Li, F B; Yue, J M; Xi, Q; Liu, R Z

    2015-06-12

    The prevalence of Y chromosome microdeletions among azoospermic, severe oligozoospermic, moderate oligozoospermic, and mild oligozoospermic patients with varicocele-related and idiopathic infertility shows conflicting data in Asian countries. We aimed to detect this frequency in Northeast China, and investigated spermatogenic defects whether associated with varicocele or Y chromosome microdeletions. All samples underwent a thorough physical examination, semen analysis, and PCR analyses for Y chromosome microdeletions. We randomly selected 150 infertile non-obstructive azoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 1), 150 idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermic infertility patients (Group 2), 150 infertile severe oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 3), 150 idiopathic severe oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 4), 150 infertile moderate oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 5), 150 idiopathic moderate oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 6), 150 infertile mild oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 7), 150 idiopathic mild oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 8), and 60 healthy unrelated men with proven fertility were recruited as control subjects (Group 9). We observed that our samples from Northeastern China had a higher frequency of microdeletions among the non-obstructive azoospermic individuals with varicocele, as compared with other Asian countries. Furthermore, the spermatogenic defect is due to the underlying Y chromosome microdeletion, and not the varicocele itself. Although varicocele is not the cause of male infertility, it may be associated with male infertility in the Northeastern Chinese population.

  4. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  5. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  6. Mechanisms linking obesity to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies. The current trend for decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by sexual dysfunction, endocrinopathy, aromatization activity, psychological and thermal effects, sleep apnea, leptin and minor toxins, and possibly the inflammatory and obstructive elements of epididymitis pathology. The variable degrees of certainty associated with these causes parallel the levels of supporting evidence. This search aims to shed lights on different conditions that obese men suffer from; as that makes the treatment of infertility more categorized. Material and methods A PubMed search was conducted to identify clinical and pathological mechanisms linking obesity to male infertility. Results Among the myriad of publications reviewed in this paper, impaired spermatogenesis and sexual dysfunction have been shown to drive other variables towards poor fertility potentials. The paper presented a new, detailed flow chart showing more factors and further interactions among conditions leading to infertility. Conclusions The prime hormonal defect in obese men is hypotestosteronaemia, which results in impaired spermatogenesis leading to poor fecundability. Studies have shown that most mechanisms accounting for reduced fertility potentials in overweight men are reversible. PMID:25914843

  7. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

  8. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Kartagener's syndrome (KS) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility. PMID:24369140

  9. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Yatsenko, Alexander N; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC(+)) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC(-)), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC(+) to sSMC(-) spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 - 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient's sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient.

  10. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%–60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  11. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naina; Singh, Amit Kant

    2015-01-01

    Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to “male factor” infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility. PMID:26752853

  12. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  13. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160382.html Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed 'We're ... California, San Francisco. Many studies have found that infertility patients often feel distressed. And, Pasch said, professional ...

  14. AB270. Surgical sperm retrieval, micro TESE, and What do I treat for patient with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction (mTESE) nowadays has been the major sperm retrieval method for patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in assisted reproduction technology (ART). However, there are still 40 to 50% chances that no sperm can be found after the procedure, and the ICSI cycles are then aborted. Therefore the couples need to take the significant physical, psychological and financial risks, including ovulation induction, eggs retrieval and costs for procedures. Design: we introduce the concept of diagnostic mTESE for men with NOA to determine the decision to initiate ovulation cycles. Methods From 2012 to 2014, 152 men received diagnostic mTESE procedures. This study had excluded patients with obstructive azoospermia and needle biopsy-confirmed hypospermatogenesis cases. Patients with undescended testis, Klinefelter’s syndrome, or Y microdeletion were included. The procedure was performed by Schlegel’s method, the testicular tissues were examined under operative microscope up to 24 X. The procedures were started from right testicle, if no sperm found from right side, then left side was opened consequently. The tubules larger than 300 m were sampled for immediate table side touch print smear examination and the tissues were transferred to Bouin’s fixatives for further pathological examination. The whole procedure was video-taped for future review. The location of sperm-positive areas was recorded in operation note. The testis wound at tunica albuginea was closed using intra-tunical zipper suture with 6-0 Prolene. Results Among the 152 patients, the mean sperm retrieval rate was 45.3%. If we included the patients with biopsy-confirmed hypospermatogenesis receiving only therapeutic mTESE, the overall sperm retrieval rate was about 61%. For the patients with positive results at diagnostic mTESE, the sperm retrieval rate at later therapeutic mTESE for ICSI cycle was 100%. For patients who had no sperm found at diagnostic m

  15. [The validation of the use of prostatilen and testilin for treating male infertility].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, M I

    1995-01-01

    The paper substantiates the use in clinical setting of medicinal preparations obtaining from prostate and tests, in male infertility. Using male rats for an experimental model of infertility it was shown that prostatilene and testilin exert a stimulating effect on spermatogenesis and androgenic functions of the testis. Those agents appear to correct androgenic-estrogenic balance in the animal organism as a model of infertility. The experiment permitted a conclusion to be drawn to the effect that prostatilene and testilin are liable to be of clinical benefit when used to stimulate spermatogenesis in infertility and hypoandrogenization; besides, the rise in androgens may stimulate copulative function in patients with sexual problems.

  16. Association between the JC polyomavirus infection and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Comar, Manola; Zanotta, Nunzia; Croci, Eleonora; Murru, Immacolata; Marci, Roberto; Pancaldi, Cecilia; Dolcet, Ornella; Luppi, Stefania; Martinelli, Monica; Giolo, Elena; Ricci, Giuseppe; Tognon, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the incidence of male infertility has increased. Many risk factors have been taken into consideration, including viral infections. Investigations into viral agents and male infertility have mainly been focused on human papillomaviruses, while no reports have been published on polyomaviruses and male infertility. The aim of this study was to verify whether JC virus and BK virus are associated with male infertility. Matched semen and urine samples from 106 infertile males and 100 fertile males, as controls, were analyzed. Specific PCR analyses were carried out to detect and quantify large T (Tag) coding sequences of JCV and BKV. DNA sequencing, carried out in Tag JCV-positive samples, was addressed to viral protein 1 (VP1) coding sequences. The prevalence of JCV Tag sequences in semen and urine samples from infertile males was 34% (72/212), whereas the BKV prevalence was 0.94% (2/212). Specifically, JCV Tag sequences were detected in 24.5% (26/106) of semen and 43.4% (46/106) of urine samples from infertile men. In semen and urine samples from controls the prevalence was 11% and 28%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in JCV prevalence was disclosed in semen and urine samples of cases vs. controls. A higher JC viral DNA load was detected in samples from infertile males than in controls. In samples from infertile males the JC virus type 2 strain, subtype 2b, was more prevalent than ubiquitous type 1. JCV type 2 strain infection has been found to be associated with male infertility. These data suggest that the JC virus should be taken into consideration as an infectious agent which is responsible for male infertility.

  17. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  18. Contemporary concepts in the evaluation and management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Walters, R. Chanc; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in men is a common condition. At the core of the medical evaluation of the male partner in a couple who are unable to conceive is the history and physical examination. Special attention should be directed to the patient’s developmental history and any use of testosterone products. The physical examination focuses on the genitals, and includes assessments of the size and consistency of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and presence of varicoceles. Although many sophisticated tests are available, semen analysis is still the most important diagnostic tool used to assess fertility, and includes parameters such as sperm count, motility and viability. Treatment of male factor infertility can involve targeted agents, in the case of specific conditions such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or it can be empirical—using medical therapy or assisted conception techniques—for patients in whom no underlying cause has been identified. Although an all-encompassing treatment for male factor infertility has not yet been developed, the field offers many promising avenues of research. PMID:21243017

  19. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC+) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC−), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC+ to sSMC− spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 − 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient’s sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient. PMID:26616419

  20. A potential tool for diagnosis of male infertility: Plasma metabolomics based on GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyi; Wang, Yang; Yun, Yonghuan; Xia, Zian; Lu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiekun; Liang, Yizeng

    2016-01-15

    Male infertility has become an important public health problem worldwide. Nowadays the diagnosis of male infertility frequently depends on the results of semen quality or requires more invasive surgical intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel approach for early diagnosis of male infertility. According to the presence or absence of normal sexual function, the male infertility is classified into two phenotypes, erectile dysfunction (ED) and semen abnormalities (SA). The aim of this study was to investigate the GC-MS plasma profiles of infertile male having erectile dysfunction (ED) and having semen abnormalities (SA) and discover the potential biomarkers. The plasma samples from healthy controls (HC) (n=61) and infertility patients with ED (n=26) or with SA (n=44) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for discrimination and screening potential biomarkers. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on GC-MS dataset. The results showed that HC could be discriminated from infertile cases having SA (AUC=86.96%, sensitivity=78.69%, specificity=84.09%, accuracy=80.95%) and infertile cases having ED (AUC=94.33%, sensitivity=80.33%, specificity=100%, accuracy=87.36%). Some potential biomarkers were successfully discovered by two commonly used variable selection methods, variable importance on projection (VIP) and original coefficients of PLS-DA (β). 1,5-Anhydro-sorbitol and α-hydroxyisovaleric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers for distinguishing HC from the male infertility patients. Meanwhile, lactate, glutamate and cholesterol were the found to be the important variables to distinguish between patients with erectile dysfunction from those with semen abnormalities. The plasma metabolomics may be developed as a novel approach for fast, noninvasive, and acceptable diagnosis and characterization of male infertility.

  1. Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bin Mohd Tambi, Mohd Ismail; Imran, M. Kamarul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies. PMID:20348942

  2. AB031. Challenge of microsurgery for male infertility in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yiming; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2016-01-01

    with a considerably lower cost per delivery and higher delivery rates. Sperm retrieval and ICSI must yield an 81% pregnancy rate per cycle to achieve equal costs to vasectomy reversal. For the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), microdissection TESE is a more effective approach than other TESE approaches for ICSI, with a patency rate 40–60%, which change the impossible to possible for NOA patients, who want their own inherent child. In our center, there are more than 4,000 cases of patients were treated by microsurgery, including microsurgical varicocelectomy/vasectomy reversal/epididymovasostomy/microdissection TESE, from 2006 to 2016. We think that microsurgical training is important for urologists and clinical. Up to now, in the recent decade, we have trained about 500 surgeons for microsurgery from 30 provinces in China. In summary, the excellent efficacies were noted by microsurgical approaches for male infertility on varicoceles and OA, with lower cost and risks of inherent and born defects compared to in assisted fertilization such as IVF and ICSI.

  3. Association between RsaI polymorphism in estrogen receptor β gene and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bordin, B M; Moura, K K V O

    2015-09-21

    The estrogen receptor β (ERβ) gene plays an important role in the regulation of fertility in both males and females. The RsaI polymorphism in ERβ is associated with male infertility in Caucasian patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of this polymorphism in the etiology of idiopathic male infertility and its correlation with smoking habits. We analyzed 287 Brazilian men, including 161 infertile and 126 fertile men, to evaluate the association between the RsaI polymorphism and male infertility. The RsaI variant alleles of all patients were determined by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Compared with a control group (normozoospermic men), the frequency of the RsaI AG-genotype was four times higher in infertile men (P = 0.01), five times higher in azoospermic men (P = 0.02), and seven times higher in teratozoospermic men (P = 0.001). The frequency of the RsaI AG-genotype was three times higher in infertile smokers (P = 0.038) compared with infertile nonsmokers, and nine times higher in azoospermic smokers (P = 0.035) compared with azoospermic nonsmokers. The RsaI polymorphism in ERβ may have modulating effects on human spermatogenesis. There seems to be a consistent association between RsaI polymorphism and smoking habits in infertile men.

  4. Association of exposure to phenols and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjian; Tang, Rong; Fu, Guangbo; Xu, Bin; Zhu, Pengfei; Qiao, Shanlei; Chen, Xiaojiao; Xu, Bo; Qin, Yufeng; Lu, Chuncheng; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2013-04-15

    Widespread human exposure to phenols has been documented recently, and some phenols which are potential endocrine disruptors have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal and in vitro studies. However, implications about exposure to phenols and male infertility are scarce in humans. Case-control study of 877 idiopathic infertile men and 713 fertile controls was conducted. Urinary levels of bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, pentachlorophenol, triclosan, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) and 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP) and semen parameters were measured. After multivariate adjustment, we found 4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was associated with idiopathic male infertility (p-value for trend: <0.0001, 0.014 and 0.001, respectively). Aside from these associations, 4-t-OP and 4-n-NP exposure was also associated with idiopathic male infertility with abnormal semen parameters. Moreover, we observed significant associations between sum alkylphenols (APs) exposure and idiopathic male infertility. There were no relationships between exposure to other phenols and idiopathic male infertility in the present study. Our study provides the first evidence that exposure to APs (4-t-OP, 4-n-OP and 4-n-NP) is associated with idiopathic male infertility.

  5. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-11-09

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility.

  6. [Evaluation of GPx1 Pro198Leu Polymorphism in Idiopathic Male Infertility].

    PubMed

    Mazjin, M A; Salehi, Z; Mashayekhi, F; Bahadori, M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is defined as failure to conceive a child after 1 year of unprotected regular sexual intercourse. Approximately half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male. In nearly 50% of infertile men it is not possible to determine the cause of infertility and this situation has been defined as unexplained or idiopathic. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of male infertility. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance in free radicals and antioxidant defense mechanisms of the body. Genetic variations in the antioxidant gene coding for GPx enzyme may lead to decreased or impaired regulation of its enzymatic activity and alter reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification. We have investigated the possible association between polymorphism GPx1 Pro198Leu and idiopathic male infertility. One hundred patients with idiopathic male infertility and one hundred fifty healthy volunteers were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples. Genotyping for the GPx1 Pro198Leu polymorphism was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) using ApaI. The genotype frequencies were 11% (Leu/Leu), 76% (Pro/Leu) and 13% (Pro/Pro) in the patient group and 8.7% (Leu/Leu), 67.3% (Pro/Leu) and 24% (Pro/Pro) in the control group. The genotype and allele frequencies of GPx1 Pro198Leu did not differ between the patient group and the control group (P = 0.09 and P = 0.1, respectively). In conclusion, there is no correlation between idiopathic male infertility and the GPx1 codon Pro198Leu polymorphism. Further studies are needed to investigate other genetic factors that influence the development of idiopathic male infertility.

  7. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  8. In vitro fertilization for male infertility: when and how?

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Fishel, S

    1997-12-01

    The first observation that in vitro fertilization (IVF) was useful for treating oligozoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia was reported by Fishel and Edwards in 1982. This was followed by a series of cases indicating the value of IVF in such cases. Conventional IVF has been modified and refined to achieve increased rates of conception in cases of male factor infertility. Methods such as high insemination concentration IVF for the treatment of teratozoospermia and microscopic IVF for the treatment of oligozoospermia have had some impact on fertilization and pregnancy rates; however, reports of success are varied. The recent advent of micromanipulation and, in particular, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has overshadowed the use of these modified IVF procedures. Because of the high fertilization and pregnancy rates achieved with ICSI, other micromanipulation techniques (subzonal insemination and partial zona dissection) have been abandoned; there have also been suggestions that other more conventional techniques, i.e. IVF, should also be abandoned and that ICSI become the sole technique for the treatment of infertility. The rapid increase in the number of centres using ICSI has led to extreme pressure for individual units to achieve high fertilization and pregnancy rates and there is a temptation to assign all patients to ICSI treatment. It is important that, in this highly competitive environment, new techniques are not applied haphazardly and reduced to the mere injection of gametes and achievement of pregnancy regardless of the cause of infertility. In his 1986 IVF--Historical Perspective, Fishel quoted Auguste Comte: 'to understand science it is necessary to know its history'. IVF has much recent history in animal and also human work. Although ICSI is the most significant therapeutic advance in male infertility treatment, its application to human IVF is only 4 years old, with a paucity of animal studies on which to rely. For this reason IVF still plays a

  9. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M.; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A.; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζH398P), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζH233L), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζH398P and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζH233L and PLCζH398P exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms. PMID:22095789

  10. The CAG repeat polymorphism of mitochondrial polymerase gamma (POLG) is associated with male infertility in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Baklouti-Gargouri, S; Ghorbel, M; Chakroun, N; Sellami, A; Fakhfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Male fertility largely depends on sperm quality, which may be affected by environmental and genetic factors. Recent data emphasised the implication of the polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) CAG repeats in male infertility. In this report, we explored a possible role of the (POLG) gene polymorphism in male infertility in Tunisian men. The polymorphic CAG repeat in the nuclear POLG gene was studied in 339 male subjects (216 patients with infertility (69 azoospermic, 115 oligoasthenoteratospermic and 32 normospermic) and 123 fertile) after DNA amplification by PCR, followed by genotyping using an automatic sequencer. The heterozygous and the homozygous mutant genotypes (10/ ≠ 10 and ≠ 10/ ≠ 10) were significantly more frequent among infertile patients than among fertile controls (11.2% versus 1.6%, P = 1.3 × 10(-3) and 4.6% versus 0.8%, P = 4.2 × 10(-7) respectively). We also found a significant difference between the frequencies of 10/ ≠ 10 genotype in azoospermic (4.4%) and in oligoasthenoteratospermic (15.6%) infertile patients (P = 2.6 × 10(-2) ). However, the homozygous mutant genotype (≠ 10/ ≠ 10) was seen at similar frequencies in azoospermic, normospermic and oligoasthenospermic men (4.4%, 3.1% and 5.2% respectively). Under our conditions, the findings showed an association between POLG CAG repeat polymorphism and male infertility in Tunisian population.

  11. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-11-27

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05-1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation.

  12. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05-1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06-1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01-1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  13. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05–1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06–1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01–1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  14. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  15. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  16. MicroRNA and Male Infertility: A Potential for Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Khazaie, Yahya; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the miRNAs' binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marcy E; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility.

  18. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  19. Absence of Sperm Rna Elements Correlates With Idopathic Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I.; Librach, Clifford L.; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P.; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Semen parameters have been used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions.. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next Generation Sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs has provided an objective measure of the paternal contribution that may be able to help guide the care of these couples. Spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility were assessed in the context of fertility treatment and final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status were identified. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability to achieve live birth by Timed Intercourse (TIC) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) from 73% to 27%. However, the absence of these same sperm RNA elements does not appear to be critical when assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with or without Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are employed. Approximately 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Similarly, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth when presented with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor was perhaps involved as confirmed by their diagnosis. The data presented from this study suggests that SRE analysis has the potential to inform on the individual success rate of different fertility treatments to reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  20. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  1. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  2. Causes of infertility among 1000 patients in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fiander, A

    1990-07-01

    Infertility is a serious problem in Africa; affecting large number of women and causing much suffering. To address this problem an infertility clinic was opened in an isolated District General Hospital in Ghana. Statistics were kept over an 18-month period to identify the numbers of patients involved and the main cause of infertility. 1000 patients were registered during the course of twice-weekly clinics over 18 months. 118 patients (11.8%) became pregnant during this time and in 482 (48.2%) others a definite diagnosis was reached. The remaining patients were still under investigation or lost to follow-up at the end of the study period. Of the 118 pregnancies 40% had suffered from primary and 60% from secondary infertility. The duration of infertility ranged from 1 to 10 years. As expected the "successful" patients tended to be young (65% under 25 years) and to have had subfertility of limited duration (77% 4 years). 113 patients had evidence of tubal damage (43% primary and 57% secondary infertility), 63% had a history of pelvic inflammatory disease and 37% had a history of abdominal or pelvic surgery. 219 male partners were subfertile: 38% were azoospermic; 33% severely oligospermic ( 5 x 10 to the 6th power/ml); 29% moderately oligospermic (20 x 10 tot he 6th power/ml); and 40% had never fathered a child. 61 patients were anovulatory as judged by amenorrhea or an irregular menstrual cycle. 10 of them were thought to be perimenopausal. 37 patients had uterine factors (27% primary and 73% secondary). 33 women had fibroids, 2 congenital abnormalities and 2 previous subtotal hysterectomies. 52 patients had unexplained infertility, although there were associated factors in 5; 3 men refused to have seminal analysis, 1 woman had unilateral tubal block on hysterosalpingogram and 1 required dilatation of a stenosed cervix early in the study. That infertility is a serious problem in Africa is shown by the large numbers of patients registering at the clinic during the

  3. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854

  4. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Decreasing male fertility has been observed for the past fifty years. Examples of affected reproductive parameters include decreases in sperm count and sperm quality and increases in testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Exposures to environmental toxicants during fetal development and early postnatal life have been shown to promote infertility. Environmental exposures inducing epigenetic changes related to male infertility range from life style, occupational exposures, environmental toxicants and nutrition. Exposures during fetal gonadal sex determination have been shown to alter the epigenetic programming of the germline that then can transmit this altered epigenetic information to subsequent generations in the absence of any exposures. This environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease will be a component of the etiology of male infertility.

  5. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Hu, Chao; Dai, Jican; Chen, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. PMID:25945117

  6. Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Harlev, Avi; Gunes, Sezgin Ozgur; Shetty, Amit; du Plessis, Stefan Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. PMID:26770934

  7. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  8. Infertility in spinal-cord injured male.

    PubMed

    Ver Voort, S M

    1987-02-01

    Sterility in spinal-cord injured (SCI) men is believed to be caused by ejaculatory dysfunction, genital ductal blockage secondary to infection, and/or impaired spermatogenesis. Semen from SCI men demonstrates diminished numbers of motile, morphologically normal sperm. Testicular biopsies demonstrate impaired spermatogenesis. Leydig and Sertoli cells appear to be normal. Endocrine evaluations reveal normal testosterone levels with an adequate Leydig cell reserve. Luteinizing hormone (LD) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are normal or high with normal or exaggerated stimulation responses. Acute depressions in testosterone, FSH, and LH levels can be seen following SCI, most markedly in quadriplegics. A normal hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis is implied by these findings, indicating a primary hypogonadism. Causes of impaired spermatogenesis may include local testicular temperature elevations, nondrainage of the reproductive tract, antisperm antibodies, and recurrent genitourinary infections. Treatment of infertility involves removal of these offending factors, and research is needed to correlate the impaired spermatogenesis with these factors.

  9. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  10. Medical management of male infertility in the absence of a specific etiology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic male infertility can be diagnosis in approximately one-third of infertile males. The empirical medical treatment with or without assisted reproductive techniques appears common in male infertility practice. This type of management can be classified as hormonal treatment including gonadotropins, antiestrogens, and aromatase inhibitors and support with antioxidant supplements such as carnitine, lycopene, glutathione, and vitamin E. This review investigates the evidence of commonly used empirical medical management of male infertility when there is no demonstrable diagnosis.

  11. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N.; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  12. Cigarette smoking and the risk of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Colagar, A Hosseinzadeh; Jorsaraee, G A; Marzony, E Tahmasbpour

    2007-11-01

    In this research we investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters both before and after swim-up. Semen sample provided from fertile smoker (n = 25), fertile nonsmoker (n = 21), infertile smoker (n = 23) and infertile nonsmoker men (n = 32). Semen analysis was performed manually according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards guidelines. Present research showed that sperm parameters quality in smoker men was approximately lower than nonsmoker men. As well as present research showed that cigarette smoking has dose dependent effect on sperm parameters, but this effect was not significant. Therefore, it appears that cigarette smoking is associated with reduced sperm quality and the risk of idiopathic male infertility in smoker men.

  13. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  14. Study of Three Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the SLC6A14 Gene in Association with Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Noveski, P; Mircevska, M; Plaseski, T; Peterlin, B; Plaseska-Karanfilska, D

    2014-12-01

    Although several genetic causes of male infertility are known, the condition in around 60.0-75.0% of infertile male patients appears to be idiopathic. In some, genetic causes may be polygenic and require several low-penetrance genes to produce a phenotype outcome. In others, pleiotropy, when a gene can produce several phenotypic traits, may be involved. We have investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SLC6A14 [solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14] gene are associated with male infertility. This gene has previously been linked with obesity and cystic fibrosis, which are associated with male infertility. It has a role in the transport of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin that are important for normal spermatogenesis and testicular function. We have analyzed three SNPs (rs2312054, rs2071877 and rs2011162) in 370 infertile men and 241 fertile controls from two different populations (Macedonian and Slovenian). We found that the rs2011162(G) allele and rs2312054(A)-rs2071877(C)-rs2011162(G) haplotype are present at lower frequencies in the infertile rather than the fertile men (p = 0.044 and p = 0.0144, respectively). We concluded that the SLC6A14 gene may be a population-specific, low-penetrance locus which confers susceptibility to male infertility/subfertility. Additional follow-up studies of a large number of infertile men of different ethnic backgrounds are needed to confirm such a susceptibility.

  15. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  16. Isolation and molecular identification of mycoplasma genitalium from the secretion of genital tract in infertile male and female

    PubMed Central

    Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Mirshekari, Toraj Reza; Fasihi Harandi, Majid; Tafsiri, Elham

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasmas can cause acute and chronic diseases at multiple sites with wide-range complications and have been implicated as cofactors in diseases. The infections influenced form genital mycoplasmas specifically Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium potentially affect reproductive disorders, and infertility. Objective: Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from the genital tract of infertile male and vaginal discharge of infertile female referred to Infertility Center of Kerman in 2013. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized, prospective study. We included 100 infertile male and 100 infertile female that were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman. Then for isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma genitalium from urethral and vaginal discharge polymerase chain reaction was performed on Mycoplasma genus and genitalium. Results: From a total of 100 semen samples 45 patients (45%) were mycoplasma-positive and 13 (28.8%) were genitalium species positive. Also, from a total of 100 women samples 43 women (43%) were mycoplasma-positive and 10 (23.2%) were genitalium species positive. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetic tree was drawn. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, a high percentage of infertile male and female were infected with the Mycoplasma genitalium. For prevention of harmful and significant consequences of this infection, we suggest a screening program in symptomatic infertile couples. PMID:25469132

  17. Utility of infertile male models for contraception and conservation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Trevor G; Barfield, Jennifer P

    2006-05-16

    Epididymal defects in infertile domestic species and transgenic mice demonstrate the role of the epididymis in influencing sperm function. Spermatozoa from these males cannot negotiate the female tract as they fail to regulate their volume. The latter is necessary to counter the osmotic stresses encountered in the female tract. Reduced epididymal provision of osmolytes or their premature loss is discussed as probable causes of failed volume regulation. Measuring cell volume regulation for diagnosis of male infertility and blocking it as a means to male contraception are briefly considered. Unchecked human population growth is destroying habitats supporting vulnerable and endangered species. Genome resource banks have been established to preserve spermatozoa of genetically valuable individuals. As cryopreservation stresses spermatozoa osmotically, this process could jeopardise volume regulation with consequences for fertility. Knowledge of sperm volume regulation and the uptake of organic solutes may permit improvement in sperm storage and prevent osmolyte-related cryodamage. PMID:16497433

  18. Combined effects of urinary phytoestrogens metabolites and polymorphisms in metabolic enzyme gene on idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yufeng; Du, Guizhen; Chen, Minjian; Hu, Weiyue; Lu, Chuncheng; Wu, Wei; Hang, Bo; Zhou, Zuomin; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2014-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may interact with estrogen receptors and mimic estrogenic effects. It remains unclear whether the individual variability in metabolizing phytoestrogens contributes to phytoestrogens-induced beneficial or detrimental effects. Our aim was to determine whether there is any interaction between metabolic rates (MR) of phytoestrogens and genetic polymorphisms in related xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. MR was used to assess phytoestrogen exposure and individual metabolic ability. The amount of phytoestrogens in urine was measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 600 idiopathic infertile male patients and 401 controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPstream platform combined with the Taqman method. Prototypes and metabolites of secoisolariciresinol (SEC) have inverse effects on male reproduction. It was found that low MR of SEC increased the risk of male infertility (OR 2.49, 95 % CI 1.78, 3.48, P trend = 8.00 × 10(-8)). Novel interactions were also observed between the MR of SEC and rs1042389 in CYP2B6, rs1048943 in CYP1A1, and rs1799931 in NAT2 on male infertility (P inter = 1.06 × 10(-4), 1.14 × 10(-3), 3.55 × 10(-3), respectively). By analyzing the relationships between urinary phytoestrogen concentrations, their metabolites and male infertility, we found that individual variability in metabolizing SEC contributed to the interpersonal differences in SEC's effects on male reproduction.

  19. Aneuploidies level in sperm nuclei in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Alchinbayev, Mirzakarim Karimovich; Aralbayeva, Araylyim Nugmanovna; Tuleyeva, Lazzat Namatullaevna; Duysenbayeva, Svetlana Melsovna; Makazhanov, Marat Abzalovich

    2016-09-01

    Male infertility is a relevant social and medical problem. Male infertility is mostly caused by genetic disorders. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of chromosome aberrations, as well as DNA fragmentation and various manifestations of spermatogenesis disorder. Sperm samples of 58 males with infertility and 23 conditionally healthy males were studied. All patients diagnosed with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and oligoteratozoospermia underwent subsequent analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation was examined with sperm chromatin dispersion test (sperm chromatin dispersion, Spermprocessor, India) with an Axioscope 40 fluorescent microscope. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with fluorescent probes (Vysis Multi Vysion PGT, Abbot Molecular) was used to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm nuclei with regard to X and Y chromosomes, as well as to chromosomes 18 and 21. It was found that the development of pathospermia was characterized by genetic discontinuity, which manifests as DNA fragmentation and disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis with spermatogenesis. It was also found that the prevailing type of pathospermia in men with infertility was oligozoospermia. In addition, this group also had the highest rate of numerical chromosome abnormalities. This was caused by the degeneration of spermatozoids with aneuploidies in chromosomes. PMID:27269280

  20. Aetiologic factors in male infertility: clinical, microbiological and hormonal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nalini, K; Sethi, B K; Sharma, M; Dash, R J

    1992-03-01

    Seventy two infertile men were studied. History of small pox and mumps infection was noted in 4 and 3 patients respectively. Seven patients had varicocele (9.2%), and small atrophic testes were found in 9 (12.5%). Azoospermia was reported in 41 (58.3%) and oligospermia in 17 (23.6%), and 14 patients (19.4%) had normal sperm counts. Mycoplasma were grown from urethral swabs in 25 (35%) patients. Mean LH and FSH were elevated in azoospermics (p less than 0.001), E2-17B in oligospermics (p less than 0.001) and FSH in normospermic (p less than 0.01) patients. Hypergonadotropism suggestive of primary testicular failure was recorded in 43 (59.7%) patients. Hypogonadotropism was noted in 3 (4%) and hyperprolactinemia due to pituitary microadenoma induced infertility in only one patient. No aetiology could be determined in 11 (16%) patients.

  1. Human catalase gene polymorphism (CAT C-262T) and risk of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sabouhi, S; Salehi, Z; Bahadori, M H; Mahdavi, M

    2015-02-01

    Infertility is the failure of a couple to engender after endeavouring at least one full year of unprotected intercourse. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species contributed to pathogenesis of various disease. To inactivate ROS cells biosynthesise several antioxidant enzymes, one of them is catalase which contributes H2 O2 to H2 O and O2 . This study set out to delineate the association of catalase C-262T polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. The study included 195 men with idiopathic infertility and 190 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and controls using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). The prevalence of genotype frequencies of the CAT CC/CT/TT was 31.79%, 65.12% and 3.07%, respectively, in infertile subjects, as against 24.73%, 55.26% and 20%, respectively, in healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis has emerged significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P < 0.05). Taking into accounts of results, the catalase C-262T polymorphism indicates that CAT-262T/T genotype confers less susceptibility to male infertility. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required for further evaluation and confirmation of our finding.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Marcy E.; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F.

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility. PMID:23943794

  3. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Mendeluk, Gabriela Ruth; Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10-15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia.

  4. Role of antioxidants in treatment of male infertility: an overview of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Nallella, Kiran P; Allamaneni, Shyam S R; Said, Tamer M

    2004-06-01

    Seminal oxidative stress in the male reproductive tract is known to result in peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of its DNA integrity. Normally, a balance exists between concentrations of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. One of the rational strategies to counteract the oxidative stress is to increase the scavenging capacity of seminal plasma. Numerous studies have evaluated the efficacy of antioxidants in male infertility. In this review, the results of different studies conducted have been analysed, and the evidence available to date is provided. It was found that although many clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antioxidants in selected cases of male infertility, some studies failed to demonstrate the same benefit. The majority of the studies suffer from a lack of placebo-controlled, double-blind design, making it difficult to reach a definite conclusion. In addition, investigators have used different antioxidants in different combinations and dosages for varying durations. Pregnancy, the most relevant outcome parameter of fertility, was reported in only a few studies. Most studies failed to examine the effect of antioxidants on a specific group of infertile patients with high oxidative stress. Multicentre, double-blind studies with statistically accepted sample size are still needed to provide conclusive evidence on the benefit of antioxidants as a treatment modality for patients with male infertility. PMID:15169573

  5. Case-control study of leatherwork and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kurinczuk, J; Clarke, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with male infertility mediated through the development of oligozoospermia. The basis of any association was postulated, at the outset, to be with exposure to the solvents used in leatherwork.
METHODS—All new referrals with infertility presenting in Leicestershire hospital clinics between November 1988 and September 1992 and Kettering District General Hospital from August 1990 were eligible to participate; 88.5% agreed to be interviewed. Exposure to leatherwork and work with solvents was defined by job title. Comparisons were made with fertile controls and in an analysis within men from infertile couples with oligozoospermia as the primary outcome. Effects on sperm motility and deformity were investigated secondarily. Analyses used logistic regression for binary outcomes and multilevel modelling for continuous outcomes.
RESULTS—1906 men were interviewed. Compared with the fertile controls the men from infertile couples were 1.10 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46 to 2.63; p=0.99) more likely to be leatherworkers and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.26 to 2.38; p<0.001) more likely to work with solvents. Compared with other men, leatherworkers were 1.20 times (95% CI 0.43 to 3.33; p=0.73) more likely to present with oligozoospermia and 1.65 times (95% CI 0.37 to 7.30; p=0.51) more likely to present with teratozoospermia. Being a leatherworker was associated with only a 6% reduction in sperm concentration; motility and deformity were similarly unaffected by this exposure. Work with solvents did not statistically, nor clinically, increase the risk of oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, or asthenozoospermia.
CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with an increased risk of presenting with infertility or oligozoospermia. There was limited evidence that leatherwork is a risk factor for teratozoospermia. Workers with solvents were at

  6. Cadmium toxicity: a possible cause of male infertility in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Shittu, Olayiwola B; Anetor, John I

    2006-03-01

    Serum and seminal plasma cadmium (Cd) concentrations were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 60 infertile adult male Nigerians (40 oligozoospermics and 20 azoospermics). The results were compared with Cd level in 40 normozoospermic subjects (matched age, with proven evidence of fertility). The relationship between Cd levels and spermatograms or the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) -axis was investigated by correlating serum and seminal plasma Cd levels with semen characteristics and hormone levels. The seminal plasma Cd level was significantly higher than those of serum in all studied groups (p<0.001). The serum and seminal plasma Cd levels were increased (p<0.001) in azoospermics in comparison to oligozoospermic and control subjects. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum Cd level and all examined biophysical semen characteristics except sperm volume. A positive correlation was also observed between seminal plasma Cd and FSH. Results of the study for the first time implicate cadmium as a cause of infertility in male Nigerians as well as extend and support previous findings concerning cadmium toxicity and male infertility. The strong deleterious effect of cadmium on spermatogenesis may be due to the systemic and cellular toxicity. A possible relationship between this element and the HPG axis is also suggested.

  7. Epigenetic alterations in sperm associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Akane; Miyauchi, Naoko; Hamada, Hirotaka; Hiura, Hitoshi; Chiba, Hatsune; Okae, Hiroaki; Sato, Akiko; John, Rosalind M; Arima, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    The most common form of male infertility is a low sperm count, known as oligozoospermia. Studies suggest that oligozoospermia is associated with epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic alterations in sperm, which may arise due to the exposure of gametes to environmental factors or those that pre-exist in the sperm of infertile individuals, may contribute to the increased incidence of normally rare imprinting disorders in babies conceived after assisted reproductive technology using the sperm of infertile men. Genomic imprinting is an important developmental process whereby the allelic activity of certain genes is regulated by DNA methylation established during gametogenesis. The aberrant expression of several imprinted genes has been linked to various diseases, malignant tumors, lifestyle and mental disorders in humans. Understanding how infertility and environmental factors such as reproductive toxicants, certain foods, and drug exposures during gametogenesis contribute to the origins of these disorders via defects in sperm is of paramount importance. In this review, we discuss the association of epigenetic alterations with abnormal spermatogenesis and the evidence that epigenetic processes, including those required for genomic imprinting, may be sensitive to environmental exposures during gametogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic development. In addition, we review imprinting diseases and their relationships with environmental factors. While the plasticity of epigenetic marks may make these more susceptible to modification by the environment, this also suggests that aberrant epigenetic marks may be reversible. A greater understanding of this process and the function of epidrugs may lead to the development of new treatment methods for many adult diseases in the future. PMID:26212350

  8. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  9. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  10. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Deemeh, Mohammad Reza; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Sekhavati, Mohammad Hadi; Gourabi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC)/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX) at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1). PMID:27441060

  11. Clomiphene citrate therapy for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Allag, I S; Alexander, N J

    1979-11-01

    We have summarized 697 reported cases of the use of clomiphene citrate for the improvement of semen quality. Basal levels of gonadotropins are useful criteria for the differential diagnosis of hypo- and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis are most likely to respond to clomiphene citrate. Twenty-five mg. per day, administered in a cyclic fashion for a period of six to nine months, caused the greatest improvement. A higher dose (50 mg. per day) may be effective in men who do not respond to 25 mg. During the course of therapy gonadotropin levels and semen samples should be analyzed periodically. This drug is not currently approved for use in men; the incidence of side effects, particularly with long-term treatment, is unknown.

  12. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship.

    PubMed

    Deepinder, Fnu; Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok

    2007-09-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the use of mobile phones in the past decade and concerns are growing about the possible hazardous effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by these devices on human health. Preliminary studies, though with limitations in study design, suggest a possible link between cell phone use and infertility. A recent study found that use of cell phones adversely affects the quality of semen by decreasing the sperm counts, motility, viability and morphology. Evidence of detrimental effect of mobile phones on male fertility is still equivocal as studies have revealed a wide spectrum of possible effects ranging from insignificant effects to variable degrees of testicular damage. Although previous studies suggested a role of cell phone use in male infertility, the mode of action of EMW emitted from cell phones on the male reproductive system is still unclear. EMW can affect the reproductive system via an EMW-specific effect, thermal molecular effect or combination of both. Studies performed on human males are scarce and therefore further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male-fertilizing potential.

  13. Genetic causes and workup of male and female infertility. 2. Abnormalities presenting between birth and adult life.

    PubMed

    Opitz, J M; Shapiro, S S; Uehling, D T

    1979-06-01

    At birth some 6/1,000 persons have chromosome abnormalities; in about 60% of cases these abnormalities cause death or infertility, and in one third fertility is reduced. Some 1.7% of persons (3.4% of couples) with recurrent spontaneous abortion, infertility, or both have a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities are far more common in men than in women with infertility; 15% to 20% of men with azoospermia have the Klinefelter syndrome. Meiotic defects explain 20% of male infertility in patients with apparently normal somatic chromosomes. Congenital malformations of the genitalia are more common in males than in females; about 0.82% of liveborn males have hypospadias. Almost one sixth of women with primary amenorrhea have some form of müllerian atresia, usually with associated renal anomalies.

  14. Association between periodontal status and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016). PMID:27349547

  15. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; Chen, Yao; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-03-01

    The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports.We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang. Data on sample size, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of AR-CAG repeat length were extracted independently by 3 investigators.Forty-four reports were selected based on criteria. The overall infertile patients and azoospermic patients were found to have longer AR-CAG repeat length (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.28, P < 0.01; SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.10-0.61, P < 0.01). AR-CAG repeat length was longer in infertile men in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43, P <0.01; SMD = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02-0.25, P <0.05; SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.15-0.63, P <0.01). The overall study shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility. The subgroup study on races shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races. Increased AR-CAG repeat length was also associated with azoospermia.This meta-analysis supports that increased androgen receptor CAG length is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility.

  16. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; Chen, Yao; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports. We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang. Data on sample size, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of AR-CAG repeat length were extracted independently by 3 investigators. Forty-four reports were selected based on criteria. The overall infertile patients and azoospermic patients were found to have longer AR-CAG repeat length (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10–0.28, P < 0.01; SMD = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.10–0.61, P < 0.01). AR-CAG repeat length was longer in infertile men in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08–0.43, P <0.01; SMD = 0.13, 95% CI: 0.02–0.25, P <0.05; SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.15–0.63, P <0.01). The overall study shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility. The subgroup study on races shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races. Increased AR-CAG repeat length was also associated with azoospermia. This meta-analysis supports that increased androgen receptor CAG length is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility. PMID:26962784

  17. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele.

  18. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    PubMed

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility. PMID:27294623

  19. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection for treatment of the infertile male.

    PubMed

    Kim, E D; Lamb, D J; Lipshultz, L I

    1997-07-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with in vitro fertilization represents one of the most significant advances in fertility technology. In this relatively new procedure, a single viable sperm is microinjected into an oocyte that has been extracted transvaginally. After fertilization occurs, the embryo is transferred into the uterus. This procedure now affords men who were previously thought to be irreversibly infertile the chance to initiate their own biologic pregnancy. However, because of the procedure's significant costs and its potential risk to the mother, careful selection of couples following a thorough male factor evaluation is mandatory.

  20. Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day x 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.

  1. Male factors in infertility--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, T A; Habib, F; Khanam, S T

    1981-06-01

    Findings in 325 consecutive primary seminal analysis done at the Infertility Treatment Centre of IPGMR, are discussed. The clinical profile of the infertile couples was recorded. Semen was examined for quantity, sperm density, motility and morphology. An attempt was also made to correlate past illnesses with the quality of semen. 65 patients (20%) showed azoospermia, while 29 (8.9%) showed sperm count of less than 10 million/ml. History of past illnesses which contribute to azoospermia/oligospermia was obtained in 46% of azoospermia cases compared to only 10% in subjects showing sperm count of over 10 million/ml. Commonest association between azoospermia and past illness was found in the case of small-pox, where out of 31 subjects with past history of small-pox, 15 showed complete azoospermia, one showed sperm density of less then 10 million/ml.

  2. Metabolomics: a state-of-the-art technology for better understanding of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Minai-Tehrani, A; Jafarzadeh, N; Gilany, K

    2016-08-01

    Male factor infertility affects approximately half of the infertile couples, in spite of many years of research on male infertility treatment and diagnosis; several outstanding questions remain to be addressed. In this regard, metabolomics as a novel field of omics has been suggested to be applied for male infertility problems. A variety of terms associated with metabolite quantity and quality have been established to demonstrate mixtures of metabolites. Despite metabolomics and metabolite analyses have been around more than decades, a limited number of studies concerning male infertility have been carried out. In this review, we summarised the latest finding in metabolomics techniques and metabolomics biomarkers correlated with male infertility. The rapid progress of a variety of metabolomics platforms, such as nonoptical and optical spectroscopy, could ease separation, recognition, classification and quantification of several metabolites and their metabolic pathways. Here, we recommend that the novel biomarkers determined in the course of metabolomics analysis may stand for potential application of treatment and future clinical practice.

  3. Correlation between chromosomal polymorphisms and male infertility in a Northeast Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, L L; Peng, D; Wang, R X; Zhu, H B; Wang, W J; Liu, R Z

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between chromosomal polymorphisms and male infertility. The patients were diagnosed with azoospermia or oligospermiaby a semen analysis. Chromosomal analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from the patients, with standard G-banding and C-banding. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The parents of 35 polymorphic probands were also subjected to chromosomal analysis, and their detailed reproductive histories were surveyed. The frequency of autosomal polymorphisms did not differ significantly among the infertile patients and fertile control individuals. The frequency of the Yqh-variant increased with the decrease in sperm count; this appeared at a significantly higher frequency in the azoospermia group (57.2 vs 24.3 vs 0%). The results of PCR amplification indicated that 32.14% of the patients with Yqh ± had microdeletions in the Y chromosome. The parents of the probands with the same chromosomal polymorphisms as the probands (among the 35 recalled families) did not show any adverse reproductive history. We observed no significant correlations between autosomal polymorphisms and male infertility. However, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of Yqh- in the azoospermic patients. This may be attributed to Y chromosome microdeletions, although the association between Y chromosome microdeletions and Y chromosome variants remains to be elucidated.

  4. Homozygous Mutation in SPATA16 Is Associated with Male Infertility in Human Globozoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Anika H. D. M. ; Koscinski, Isabelle ; Kremer, Jan A. M. ; Moutou, Céline ; Jaeger, Anne-Sophie ; Oudakker, Astrid R. ; Tournaye, Herman ; Charlet, Nicolas ; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde ; van Bokhoven, Hans ; Viville, Stéphane 

    2007-01-01

    Globozoospermia is a rare (incidence <0.1% in male infertile patients) form of teratozoospermia, mainly characterized by round-headed spermatozoa that lack an acrosome. It originates from a disturbed spermiogenesis, which is expected to be induced by a genetic factor. Several family cases and recessive mouse models with the same phenotype support this expectation. In this study, we present a consanguineous family with three affected brothers, in whom we have identified a homozygous mutation in the spermatogenesis-specific gene SPATA16. This is the first example of a nonsyndromic male infertility condition in humans caused by an autosomal gene defect, and it could also mean that the identification of other partners like SPATA16 could elucidate acrosome formation. PMID:17847006

  5. Surgical treatment of male infertility in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection - new insights.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Sandro C; Miyaoka, Ricardo; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility.

  6. Meiotic recombination and male infertility: from basic science to clinical reality?

    PubMed

    Hann, Michael C; Lau, Patricio E; Tempest, Helen G

    2011-03-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men. Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine. PMID:21297654

  7. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  8. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  9. An overview of male infertility in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, E D

    2001-02-01

    As a result of the technological advance provided by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 1992, the evaluation and treatment of the infertile male has changed significantly. Many men who were previously thought to be irreversibly infertile have the potential to initiate their own biologic pregnancy. However, not all men having impaired semen parameters are ideal candidates for ICSI for numerous reasons including a lack of addressing the underlying problem causing the male infertility, unknown genetic consequences, and cost-effectiveness issues. In this era of ICSI, the fundamental approach to the male with suspected subfertility is unchanged and is based on a history, physical examination, and focused laboratory testing. The urologist should approach the patient with an intent to identify remediable causes of subfertility given the specific clinical situation. For instance, should a gentleman have his varicocele repaired or vasectomy reversed, or should he proceed directly with ICSI? If no factors can be improved in a timely manner, then ICSI should be considered using the available sperm. Examples of recent advances include the diagnosis and treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction, indications and techniques for performing testis biopsy, and techniques for sperm harvesting. Potential genetic causes should be diagnosed and discussed with the patient. Cystic fibrosis gene mutations, karyotype abnormalities, and Y-chromosome microdeletions all have recently been identified as causative for male infertility in otherwise phenotypically normal men. While the long-term genetic consequences for these offspring are largely undefined, recent studies suggest that serious birth defects are not significantly increased in ICSI babies. An understanding of these advances by all physicians is important as we progress into the 21st century.

  10. [Microsurgical management of male infertility in china: 15-year development and prospects].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Zheng; Tu, Xiang-An; Tian, Long; Zhang, Yan; Hong, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Lian-Ming; Ping, Ping; Zhou, Li-Xin; Liu, Yi-Dong; Mao, Xiang-Ming; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Dong, Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Yi; Zhou, Tie; Liu, Zhi-yong; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Jiang, Tao; Philip, S Li

    2014-07-01

    Male infertility is a common and complex disease in urology and andrology, and for many years there has been no effective surgical treatment. With the emergence of microsurgery and assisted reproductive medicine (IVF/ICSI), rapid development has been achieved in the treatment of male infertility. The Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery at Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University has been playing an important leading role in developing microsurgical techniques for the management of male infertility. The development of microsurgical treatment of male infertility in China has experienced the 3 periods of emerging, making, and boosting ever since its systematic introduction from Weill Cornell Medical College 15 years ago. At present, many Chinese hospitals have adopted microsurgery in the management of male infertility, which has contributed to the initial establishment of a microsurgical treatment system for male infertility in China. However, some deficiencies do exist concerning microsurgical treatment of male infertility, as in normalized technical training programs for competent surgeons, unified criteria for evaluation of surgical outcomes, and detailed postoperative follow-up data. This article presents an overview on the 15-year development of microsurgical management of male infertility in China, points out the existing deficiencies, and offers some propositions for the promotion of its development.

  11. An Emerging Role of TEX101 Protein as a Male Infertility Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Schiza, Christina G; Jarv, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Drabovich, Andrei P

    2014-04-01

    Infertility is an important aspect of human reproduction. It affects up to 15% of couples, with the male factor contributing to approximately 50% of all cases. Azoospermia is one of the most severe forms of male infertility, which is characterized by the absence of sperm in semen. The mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unknown. Currently, clinicians rely on semen analysis to predict the reproductive potential of a male, and testicular biopsy is the only reliable method to diagnose different subtypes of azoospermia. Recently, advances in proteomics encouraged the search for novel male infertility biomarkers in seminal plasma. In this review, we focus on TEX101, a testicular germ cell-specific protein, one of the most promising male infertility biomarkers. We discuss its role in spermatogenesis and fertilization and summarize our current knowledge about this new potential biomarker.

  12. An Emerging Role of TEX101 Protein as a Male Infertility Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Schiza, Christina G.; Jarv, Keith; Diamandis, Eleftherios P.; Drabovich, Andrei P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Infertility is an important aspect of human reproduction. It affects up to 15% of couples, with the male factor contributing to approximately 50% of all cases. Azoospermia is one of the most severe forms of male infertility, which is characterized by the absence of sperm in semen. The mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unknown. Currently, clinicians rely on semen analysis to predict the reproductive potential of a male, and testicular biopsy is the only reliable method to diagnose different subtypes of azoospermia. Recently, advances in proteomics encouraged the search for novel male infertility biomarkers in seminal plasma. In this review, we focus on TEX101, a testicular germ cell-specific protein, one of the most promising male infertility biomarkers. We discuss its role in spermatogenesis and fertilization and summarize our current knowledge about this new potential biomarker.

  13. Relationship of seminal plasma antioxidants and serum male hormones with sperm chromatin status in male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Lakpour, Niknam; Mahfouz, Reda Z; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Agarwal, Ashok; Kharrazi, Hadi; Zeraati, Hojjat; Amirjannati, Naser; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    We explored the relationship between sperm chromatin integrity, hormone levels, seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and routine sperm parameters in men with male factor (MF, n = 81) and non-male factor (NMF, n = 52) infertility. Semen and blood were collected and examined from men undergoing evaluation for infertility in the Avicenna Infertility Clinic. We have examined each patient for serum hormones (LH, FSH, E2, DHEA), sperm chromatin damage, level of protamination and seminal plasma TAC. Levels of FSH, LH, sperm chromatin damage, and abnormal protamination were significantly higher in MF vs. NMF groups (p < 0.001). Sperm chromatin damage was correlated with percentage of CMA(3)- positive sperm (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and with sperm concentration (r = -0.36, p < 0.001), motility (r = -0.21, p < 0.05), and morphologically normal spermatozoa (r = -0.29, p < 0.001). Linear regression showed sperm chromatin damage was related to percentage of CMA(3)- positive sperm (p < 0.001) in ungrouped patients. It was related to both percentage of CMA(3)- positive sperm and serum DHEA in the MF group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin maturity assessed by CMA(3) test was inversely related to sperm chromatin damage assessed by the toludine blue assay. Male factor infertility associated with sperm chromatin damage may be related to sperm protamination and to serum DHEA.

  14. Parabens in male infertility-is there a mitochondrial connection?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Renata S; Martins, Fátima C; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ramalho-Santos, João; Peixoto, Francisco P

    2009-01-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in many foods, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals due to their relatively low toxicity profile and to a long history of safe use. Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and typically include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben and benzylparaben. These compounds are known to have a null or very weak estrogenic activity in estrogen receptor assays in vitro. In recent years, an increasing concern has emerged regarding possible adverse effects of chemicals in food and in cosmetics on human reproduction outcomes. In developed countries about 15% of human couples are affected by infertility, almost half of these cases attributed to men, through low sperm motility or/and sperm count. It is known that a significant number of cases of male infertility results from exposure to xenobiotics, and also that testis mitochondria are particularly affected by drug-induced toxicity. The present review discusses evidence that parabens may not be as safe as initially thought, and suggests that the interaction between parabens and mitochondrial function in the testis may be key in explaining the contribution of parabens for a decrease in reproductive potential.

  15. One-carbon metabolism, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Jaiswal, Deepika

    2013-06-01

    Balanced diet is the natural source of micronutrients, such as folate and vitamins, vital for proper functioning of the body. One-carbon metabolic pathway along with folate and other vitamins plays an important role in DNA synthesis and in the establishment of epigenetic modifications like DNA/histone methylation. Spermatogenesis involves distinct cellular, genetic, and chromatin changes during the course of production of male gamete sperm. Folate and normal activity of 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes are central to nucleotide synthesis, methylation, and maintenance of genomic integrity as well as protection from DNA damage. As a result, polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes affecting several physiological processes also have an impact on spermatogenesis and may affect directly or indirectly quality of sperm. Alterations in these processes may be a consequence of additive effect resulting from altered expression of 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes and/or inadequate folate/micronutrients supplementation. The present review provides an overview of different cellular and molecular events regulated by 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes and their impact on male reproductive health. It also summarizes the different studies where polymorphisms in the enzymes of 1-carbon metabolic pathway or folate deficiency are associated with male infertility and future prospects.

  16. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  17. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  18. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  19. Towards an understanding of the genetics of human male infertility: lessons from flies.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, J H; Hochstenbach, R; Pearson, P L

    2000-12-01

    It has been argued that about 4-5% of male adults suffer from infertility due to a genetic causation. From studies in the fruitfly Drosophila, there is evidence that up to 1500 recessive genes contribute to male fertility in that species. Here we suggest that the control of human male fertility is of at least comparable genetic complexity. However, because of small family size, conventional positional cloning methods for identifying human genes will have little impact on the dissection of male infertility. A critical selection of well-defined infertility phenotypes in model organisms, combined with identification of the genes involved and their orthologues in man, might reveal the genes that contribute to human male infertility.

  20. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  1. Quantitative ultramorphological (QUM) analysis of human sperm: diagnosis and management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bartoov, B; Eltes, F; Reichart, M; Langzam, J; Lederman, H; Zabludovsky, N

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of quantitative ultramorphological (QUM) sperm analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility are presented. QUM methodology is based on three elements: (1) complementary SEM and TEM observations of 7 sperm cell subcellular organelles: acrosome, postacrosomal lamina, nucleus, neck, axoneme, mitochondrial sheath, and outer dense fibers; (2) systematic classification of the specific ultramorphological malformations into 4 pathological and the normal categories, which indicate the morphological state of each subcellular organelle; and (3) comparison between well-defined reference groups with opposite fertility status or treatment conditions. QUM analysis has enabled the establishment of two indices that optimally express the in vivo and in vitro male fertility potential: The Natural Fertility Index (NFI), which allowed an accurate prediction (97% sensitivity and 90% specificity) of 80% of the naturally fertile and suspected infertile male patients, and the in vitro fertilization (IVF) score, which enabled prediction of 76% of the nonfertilizing and 90% of the fertilizing IVF groups. Validation tests confirmed these data. QUM also enabled assessment of ultramorphological indications for varicocele and radiation exposure: Both male factor etiologies indicated a persistent effect on the natural fertility potential, as expressed by structural changes in the nucleus. Varicocele was found to cause defects in the sperm head organelles related to early spermatid development, whereas ionizing radiation resulted in amorphous head shape. Criteria for specific non-in vitro therapeutic interventions such as varicocelectomy, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) administration, and acupuncture treatment were established. A varicocele index, which enabled the correct classification of 79 and 89% of the patients pre- and post-high ligation, respectively, was suggested to be a good indicator for varicocele which affects the fertility potential. Males

  2. Nature versus nurture--plant resources in management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao; Akhand, Pratap Singh; Rajender, Singh

    2010-01-01

    Male infertility, apart from being a multi-factorial disorder, has no defined etiology in almost half of the infertile men. The complex etiology demands a complex remedy which can heal several ailments together. Currently available specific treatments are largely inefficient in infertility treatment. Medicinal plants present a repertoire capable of providing varied constituents which could be helpful in infertility management. However, the literature on the same is scanty and we have not explored even 1 percent of the available plant resources. Herein, we present a systematic review of clinical and experimental data on the use of Indian medicinal herbs in the treatment of male infertility. Literature suggests that most of the medicinal herbs exhibit a three dimensional effect of reducing oxidative/psychological stress, fatigue and promoting libido. This review is oriented to identify and highlight aphrodisiac, adaptogenic, anti-oxidant and nutritional properties of these plants and aims at promoting exploration of these valuable medicinal resources. PMID:20515771

  3. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples.

  4. [Assessment of human sperm function and clinical management of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Liu, De Yi; Baker, H W Gordon

    2007-02-01

    In this article, we provide an update review on the implication of the assessment of human sperm function and the management of male infertility in clinical assisted reproductive technology (ART) known as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In most ART clinics, the assessment of male fertility is still mainly based on routine semen analysis but it is inaccurate in predicting sperm fertilizing ability. Thus it is often difficult to determine if IVF or ICSI will be an optimal treatment for patients in the initial cycle. Before introduction of ICSI, frequency of low ( <30%) fertilization rate in IVF was very high (20-35% of patients). Evidence suggests that sperm defects are the major contributors to complete failure of fertilization in IVF. Most common sperm defects are oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia and teratozoospermia though many of the patients are shown to be normal in routine semen analysis. In the literature, many new sperm function tests have been developed, including sperm DNA normalities assessed by Acridine Orange (AO), sperm-zona pellucida (ZP) binding, the ZP-induced acrosome reaction (AR) , sperm-ZP penetration and recently hyaluronan binding assay (HBA). For routine semen analysis, sperm morphology is one of the most useful values for the prediction of sperm function but is also the most difficult test to perform accurately and consistently. Oocytes that failed to fertilize in clinical IVF/ICSI are valuable biological materials for testing sperm function. The human ZP selectively binds sperm with normal morphology and an intact acrosome. The ZP-induced AR is highly correlated with sperm-ZP penetration and disordered ZP-induced AR causes infertility in about 25% men with unexplained infertility with normal semen analysis. Both oligozoospermic (sperm count < 20 x 10(6) /ml) and severe teratozoospermia (strict normal sperm morphology < or =5%) men have a very high ( >70%) frequency of defective sperm

  5. Joint effect of glutathione S-transferase genotypes and cigarette smoking on idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, S L; Kokhtenko, E V; Churnosov, M I; Solodilova, M A; Polonikov, A V

    2015-11-01

    Inconsistent results of association studies investigated the role of glutathione S-transferase genes in idiopathic male infertility may be explained by ethnical differences in gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. In this study, we investigated a joint contribution of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms and cigarette smoking to the risk of idiopathic infertility in Russian men. DNA samples from 203 infertile and 227 fertile men were genotyped by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (GSTP1 I105V) methods. The GSTP1 genotype 105IV was associated with increased risk of male infertility (OR = 1.50 95% CI 1.02-2.20 P = 0.04). Genotype combinations GSTP1 105II/GSTT1 del (G1), GSTM1 del/GSTT1 del (G2) and GSTM1 + /GSTT1 del (G3) were associated with decreased risk of male infertility (P ≤ 0.003), whereas a genotype combination GSTP1 105IV/GSTT1 + (G4) was associated with increased disease risk (P = 0.001). The genotype combinations G3 and G4 showed a significant association with infertility in smokers; however, nonsmokers carriers did show the disease risk. In conclusion, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genes are collectively involved in the development of idiopathic male infertility and their phenotypic effects on the disease risk are potentiated by cigarette smoking.

  6. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Judit; Estanyol, Josep Maria; Ballescà, Josep Lluis; Oliva, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo. PMID:25926607

  7. Recurrent Microdeletions at Xq27.3-Xq28 and Male Infertility: A Study in the Czech Population

    PubMed Central

    Chylíková, Blanka; Hrdlička, Ivan; Veselá, Kamila; Řežábek, Karel; Liška, František

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm) were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic. Methods 107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3), Xcnv67 (Xq28) and Xcnv69 (Xq28). The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C. Results We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively). There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043), Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452). We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort. Conclusion In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69) do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population. PMID:27257673

  8. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  9. Approach to Male Infertility and Induction of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Male subfertility is common, and it causes significant duress to couples. Although the most common cause of male subfertility is idiopathic failure of spermatogenesis, a significant percentage of male subfertility is medically treatable. Compared to reproductive specialists, endocrinologists may see a population of men that have a higher prevalence of treatable causes of subfertility including sexual disorders, endocrinopathies, obesity, drugs, and ejaculatory dysfunction. Seminal fluid analysis is the most important diagnostic study, and at least 2 samples should be analyzed. All patients with sperm concentrations < 10 million/mL due to idiopathic spermatogenic defects should be referred for genetic counseling and karyotyping; most experts also recommend that these patients be tested for Y chromosomal microdeletions. For most men with low sperm concentrations due to gonadotropin deficiency, gonadotropin therapy effectively increases spermatogenesis. The endocrinologist must recognize when to use medical therapy to stimulate spermatogenesis and when to refer for consideration of assisted reproductive technology. PMID:24014811

  10. Urinary phytoestrogen levels related to idiopathic male infertility in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yankai; Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Lu, Chuncheng; Fu, Guangbo; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Daozhen; Wang, Honghua; Hang, Bo; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2013-09-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring chemical constituents of certain plants. The internal PE exposures, mainly from diet, vary among different populations and in different regions due to various eating habits. To investigate the potential relationship between urinary PE levels and idiopathic male infertility and semen quality in Chinese adult males, 608 idiopathic infertile men and 469 fertile controls were recruited by eligibility screening procedures. Individual exposure to PEs was measured using UPLC-MS/MS as spot urinary concentrations of 6 PEs (daidzein, DAI; equol, EQU; genistein, GEN; naringenin, NAR; coumestrol, COU; and secoisolariciresinol, SEC), which were adjusted with urinary creatinine (CR). Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility. We found that exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility (P-value for trend=0.036; 0.002; and 0.0001, respectively), while these exposures had stronger association with infertile subjects with at least one abnormal semen parameter than those with all normal semen parameters. Exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were also related to idiopathic male infertility with abnormal sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility (P-value for trend<0.05), while these exposures had stronger association with the infertile men with abnormal sperm number per ejaculum. These findings provide the evidence that PE exposures are related to male reproductive function and raise a public health concern because that exposure to PEs is ubiquitous in China.

  11. Laparascopic ventrosuspension in infertile patients. A new technique.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Hefnawi, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Falope-Ring via laparascopy to the round ligaments in 86 infertile patients, for correction of retroversion of the uterus. Diagnostic laparascopy was performed on 2600 cases of infertility at Al-Azhar University Teaching Hospitals during a 3-year period. Laparascopy was performed as a primary mehtod of investigation of infertility, after clinical examination and semen analysis in 866 patients. These included long term cases of infertility, late marriage and cases where pelvic pathology was suspected on clinical grounds. Laparascopy was used as a final line of investigation of infertility in 1734 patients. In 86 patients with retroverted uterus as the only abnormality deteched, ventrosuspension was performed via the laparascope, by applying Falope-Rings to the round ligaments. These patients were followed up for periods varying from 6 months to 2 years. Pregnancy occurred in 24 patients and improvement of backache, deep dysparunea, congestive dysmenorrhea and leukorrhea occurred in 88.37%, 83.72%, 72.05% and 68.76%, respectively. The technique described in this paper is simple, easy to learn, can be performed under general or local anesthesia and is performed during the laparascopic investigation of the infertile cases and thus does not add an extra risk of operation or cost to the patient.

  12. Double versus single homologous intrauterine insemination for male factor infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zavos, Apostolos; Daponte, Alexandros; Garas, Antonios; Verykouki, Christina; Papanikolaou, Evangelos; Anifandis, Georgios; Polyzos, Nikolaos P

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility affects 30%–50% of infertile couples worldwide, and there is an increasing interest in the optimal management of these patients. In studies comparing double and single intrauterine insemination (IUI), a trend towards higher pregnancy rates in couples with male factor infertility was observed. Therefore, we set out to perform a meta-analysis to examine the superiority of double versus single IUI with the male partner's sperm in couples with male factor infertility. An odds ratio (OR) of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for the pregnancy rate. Outcomes were analysed by using the Mantel–Haesel or DerSimonian–Laird model according to the heterogeneity of the results. Overall, five trials involving 1125 IUI cycles were included in the meta-analysis. There was a two-fold increase in pregnancies after a cycle with a double IUI compared with a cycle with a single IUI (OR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.07–3.75; P<0.03). Nevertheless, this result was mainly attributed to the presence of a large trial that weighted as almost 50% in the overall analysis. Sensitivity analysis, excluding this large trial, revealed only a trend towards higher pregnancy rates among double IUI cycles (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.59–4.21), but without statistical significance (P=0.20). Our systematic review highlights that the available evidence regarding the use of double IUI in couples with male factor infertility is fragmentary and weak. Although there may be a trend towards higher pregnancy rates when the number of IUIs per cycle is increased, further large and well-designed randomized trials are needed to provide solid evidence to guide current clinical practice. PMID:23708457

  13. Synergism between the N-acetyltransferase 2 gene and oxidant exposure increases the risk of idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yarosh, Sergey L; Kokhtenko, Elena V; Churnosov, Mikhail I; Ataman, Alexander V; Solodilova, Maria A; Polonikov, Alexey V

    2014-09-01

    N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) is a phase-II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme participating in the detoxification of toxic arylamines, aromatic amines and hydrazines. The present study was designed to investigate whether two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the NAT2 gene (481C>T, rs1799929; 590G>A, rs1799930) are associated with susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility and to assess if the risk is modified by oxidant and antioxidant exposures. A total 430 DNA samples (203 infertile patients and 227 fertile men) were genotyped for the polymorphisms by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. No association was found between the NAT2 polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility. However, gene-environment interaction analysis revealed that a low-acetylation genotype, 590GA, was significantly associated with increased disease risk in men who had environmental risk factors such as cigarette smoking (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02-2.87, P = 0.042), alcohol abuse (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.08-4.27, P = 0.029) and low fruit/vegetable intake (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, P = 0.04). This pilot study found, as far as is known for the first time, that the polymorphism 590G>A of NAT2 is a novel genetic marker for susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility, but the risk is potentiated by exposure to various environmental oxidants.

  14. Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Zhu, H L; Xu, K R; Wang, S Y; Fan, L Q; Zhu, W B

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between mycoplasma and ureaplasma infection and male infertility has been studied widely; however, results remain controversial. This meta-analysis investigated the association between genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium), and risk of male infertility. Differences in prevalence of ureaplasma and mycoplasma infection between China and the rest of the world were also compared. Study data were collected from PubMed, Embase and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to assess the relationship. Heterogeneity testing and publication bias testing were also performed. A total of 14 studies were used: five case-control studies with 611 infertile cases and 506 controls featuring U. urealyticum infection, and nine case-control studies with 2410 cases and 1223 controls concerning M. hominis infection. Two other infection (U. parvum and M. genitalium) were featured in five and three studies, respectively. The meta-analysis results indicated that U. parvum and M. genitalium are not associated with male infertility. However, a significant relationship existed between U. urealyticum and M. hominis and male infertility. Comparing the global average with China, a significantly higher positive rate of U. urealyticum, but a significantly lower positive rate of M. hominis, was observed in both the infertile and control groups in China.

  15. Association of polymorphisms in ART3 gene with male infertility in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feiyan; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Haiyan; Yang, Xu; Wu, Jianbo; Huang, Xuefeng; Ni, Wuhua

    2015-01-01

    The ADP-ribosyltransferase 3 gene (ART3) has been reported to be associated with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) in the Japanese population. In this study, we aim to explore the possible association between the four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs11097230, rs17001385, rs14773 and rs6836703) in ART3 gene and male infertility with spermatogenesis impairment in the Chinese population. The study population included 321 idiopathic infertile males with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and 250 fertile males. Four SNPs of ART3 gene were genotyped using the method of SNaPshot. The results showed that an SNP (rs6836703) in the intron11 region of ART3 gene is significantly associated with male infertility (odds ratio: 0.632, 95% confidence interval: 0.440-0.910). No significant associations were found between any of the other three variants (rs11097230, rs17001385 and rs14773) in ART3 gene and male infertility. SNP rs6836703 in ART3 gene may contribute to male infertility risk in the Chinese population.

  16. Impact of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene mutations on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Elia, Jlenia; Mazzilli, Rossella; Delfino, Michele; Piane, Maria; Bozzao, Cristina; Spinosa, Vincenzo; Chessa, Luciana; Mazzilli, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of most common mutations and intron 8 5T (IVS8-5T) polymorphism of CFTR gene in Italian: a) azoospermic males; b) non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in assisted reproductive technology (ART) programs. Material and methods. We studied 242 subjects attending our Andrology Unit (44 azoospermic subjects and 198 non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in ART programs). Semen analysis, molecular analysis for CFTR gene mutations and genomic variant of IVS8-5T polymorphic tract, karyotype and chromosome Y microdeletions, hormonal profile (LH, FSH, Testosterone) and seminal biochemical markers (fructose, citric acid and L-carnitine) were carried out. Results. The prevalence of the common CFTR mutations and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 12.9% (4/31 cases) in secretory azoospermia, while in obstructive azoospermia was 84.6% (11/13 cases; in these, the most frequent mutations were the F508del, R117H and W1282X). Regarding the non azoospermic subjects, the prevalence of the CFTR and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 11.1% (11/99 cases) in severe dyspermia, 8.1% (6/74 cases) in moderate dyspermia and finally 4.0% (1/25 cases) in normospermic subjects. Conclusions. This study confirms the highly significant prevalence of CFTR mutations in males with bilateral absence of the vas deferens or ejaculatory ducts obstruction compared with subjects with secretory azoospermia. Moreover, the significant prevalence of mutations in severely dyspermic subjects may suggest the possible involvement of CFTR even in the spermatogenic process. This could explain the unsatisfactory recovery of sperm from testicular fine needle aspiration in patients affected by genital tract blockage. PMID:25308578

  17. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  18. Diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility in mammal: the focusing of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine proteins.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2014-11-01

    Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve a pregnancy in a fertile female. In more than one-third of cases, infertility arises due to the male factor. Therefore, developing strategies for the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility is critical. Simultaneously, a satisfactory model for the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal sperm function must be established. In this regard, tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the most common mechanisms through which several signal transduction pathways are adjusted in spermatozoa. It regulates the various aspects of sperm function, for example, motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, fertilization, and beyond. Several recent large-scale studies have identified the proteins that are phosphorylated in spermatozoa to acquire fertilization competence. However, most of these studies are basal and have not presented an overall mechanism through which tyrosine phosphorylation regulates male infertility. In this review, we focus of this mechanism, discussing most of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that have been identified to date. We categorized tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that regulate male infertility using MedScan Reader (v5.0) and Pathway Studio (v9.0).

  19. Usage and perceptions of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among the male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Suk; Shim, Sung Han; Lim, Jung Jin; Yang, Seung Choul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and the usage of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for ED treatment in infertile couples. Methods A total of 260 male partners in couples reporting infertility lasting at least 1 year were included in this study. In addition to an evaluation of infertility, all participants completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire to evaluate their sexual function. The participants were asked about their use of PDE5 inhibitors while trying to conceive during their partner's ovulatory period and about their concerns regarding the risks of PDE5 inhibitor use to any eventual pregnancy and/or the fetus. Results Based on the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 41.5% of the participants (108/260) were classified as having mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 17–21), while 10.4% of the participants (27/260) had greater than mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 16 or less). The majority (74.2%, 193/260) of male partners of infertile couples had a negative perception of the safety of using a PDE5 inhibitor while trying to conceive. Only 11.1% of men (15/135) with ED in infertile couples had used a PDE5 inhibitor when attempting conception. Conclusion ED was found to be common in the male partners of infertile couples, but the use of PDE5 inhibitors among these men was found to be very low. The majority of male partners were concerned about the risks of using PDE5 inhibitors when attempting to conceive. Appropriate counseling about this topic and treatment when necessary would likely be beneficial to infertile couples in which the male partner has ED. PMID:27104154

  20. Successful treatment of severe atopic dermatitis-complicated cataract and male infertility with a natural product antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Y; Tominaga, K; Yoshida, K

    1998-01-01

    There has been a recent dramatic change in the features of atopic dermatitis and male infertility, including a marked increased prevalence of severe and treatment-resistant atopic dermatitis; an increase in severe atopic dermatitis complicated by cataracts, especially in urban and industrial areas; and an increase in the number of infertile men with poor sperm motility. Previously we have attributed these changes to the increased free radicals produced by environmental toxicity. We have reported the increase in lipid peroxide levels and decrease in superoxide dismutase inducibility in severe atopic dermatitis patients, and shown that lipid peroxides attach to the stratum corneum, promoting loss of skin moisturization and resulting in the worsening of atopic dermatitis. Cataracts which occur with severe atopic dermatitis are also formed by the diffusing of lipid peroxides through the posterior lens. Regarding aspermia, the standard levels of sperm motility according to the World Health Organization Guidelines have been reduced to 50% from 60%, but nonetheless the prevalence of infertile men is increasing. It has been reported that antioxidants such as ascorbate, catalase and glutathione-Px can reverse the decrease in sperm motility in the seminal plasma of infertile men. We have developed an oral antioxidant, named AOA, which is produced from natural plants and seeds (e.g., soybean, sesame, wheat germ), treated by heating with far infrared rays (4-14 microns wavelength), brewed with Aspergillus oryzae, and lipophilized with similarly heated sesame oil. These procedures liberate low-molecular-weight antioxidants that exist naturally in an inactive form of repeating subunits of polymers, to produce free, activated forms of antioxidants. This natural medicinal product, AOA, has been applied to the treatment of both cataract complicated with atopic dermatitis and male infertility. Approximately half the patients tested have shown marked improvement.

  1. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE).

  2. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  3. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Mycoplasma Hominis in Infertile Female and Male Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Jamalizadeh Bahaabadi, Samaneh; Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Farsinejad, Alireza; Habibzadeh, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infection of urogenital system with Mycoplasma potentially affect reproductive system and increases infants mortalities. Therefore, detection of these organisms is an important issue that should be considered and appropriate diagnostic methods should be used to identify these microorganisms. In the female reproductive system, infection can affect different parts of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube. The extent of this infection in different diseases and its pathogenesis might be related to anatomic site of involvement. Some infections can lead to infertility in both males and females. Genital infection with Mycoplasmas have devastating effects on reproductive organs and cause fertility disorders and mortality in infants. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to isolate these pathogens; however, the isolates have not been identified so far. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from infertile female and male reproductive system in the Infertility Center of Kerman. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was performed purposefully on 100 infertile females and 100 infertile males who were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman during a six-month period. The collected samples of semen and vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of M. hominis by PCR. The samples with positive results in PCR were selected for molecular identification. Alignment of samples sequence was performed using MEGA 5 software through Neighbor-joining method. Results: Among 100 samples from infertile males, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 45 cases of which 15 cases were infected with M. hominis. Among 100 samples from infertile female, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 43 cases of which 18 case were infected with M. hominis. The positive samples were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was plotted. Conclusions: The results showed that 37.5% of

  4. An assessment of new sperm tests for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Natali, Alessandro; Turek, Paul J

    2011-05-01

    The routine semen analysis, although used for more than 50 years, fails to accurately distinguish between fertile and infertile men. As a consequence, many tests of sperm function (TSF) have been developed. This review discusses both older and newer diagnostic TSF. It outlines the principles underlying each assay and reviews aggregate clinical data to determine its current relevance and utility. It concludes that the relevance of many older TSF is questionable, with the wide acceptance of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Newer TSF have the potential to deliver more clinically relevant information but require more extensive study to better understand their predictive role in the ICSI era.

  5. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  6. Common variants in mismatch repair genes associated with increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mismatch repair (MMR) pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of the genome integrity, meiotic recombination and gametogenesis. This study investigated whether genetic variations in MMR genes are associated with an increased risk of sperm DNA damage and male infertility. Methods We selected and genotyped 21 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five MMR genes (MLH1, MLH3, PMS2, MSH4 and MSH5) using the SNPstream 12-plex platform in a case-control study of 1,292 idiopathic infertility patients and 480 fertile controls in a Chinese population. Sperm DNA damage levels were detected with the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay in 450 cases. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and co-immunoprecipitation techniques were employed to determine the effects of functional variants. Results One intronic SNP in MLH1 (rs4647269) and two non-synonymous SNPs in PMS2 (rs1059060, Ser775Asn) and MSH5 (rs2075789, Pro29Ser) seem to be risk factors for the development of azoospermia or oligozoospermia. Meanwhile, we also identified a possible contribution of PMS2 rs1059060 to the risk of male infertility with normal sperm count. Among patients with normal sperm count, MLH1 rs4647269 and PMS2 rs1059060 were associated with increased sperm DNA damage. Functional analysis revealed that the PMS2 rs1059060 can affect the interactions between MLH1 and PMS2. Conclusions Our results provide evidence supporting the involvement of genetic polymorphisms in MMR genes in the aetiology of male infertility. PMID:22594646

  7. Association of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility in a local Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Azhar Beg, M; Shabbir, A; Rashid Kayani, A; Kaukab Raja, G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study determined an association between idiopathic sperm disorders in a local Pakistani infertile male population and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. After ruling out non genetic factors, a total of 437 idiopathic infertile men including 57 azoospermic, 66 oligospermic, 44 asthenozoospermic, 29 teratozoospermic, 20 oligoasthenospermic and 221 infertile normospermic men were recruited. Furthermore, 218 normospermic fertile men, who had two children (or more) were included as controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to determine MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism. A significant association of the minor MTHFR 677T allele with male infertility was observed (p <0.05). In addition, men with MTHFR 677 CT and TT genotypes were at a greater risk [odds ratio (OR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.17-2.80, p = 0.008 and OR: 9.24, 95% CI: 1.20-70.92, p = 0.032, respectively] of infertility. All the subgroups of male infertility (azoospermic, oligospermic, asthenospermic, oligoasthenoteratospermic (OAT) and normospermic infertile) had significantly (p <0.05) higher frequencies of CT and TT genotypes when compared to fertile men. The combined genotypes (CT + TT) were also found significantly (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.31-3.08, p <0.001) associated with male infertility. The results suggest that the polymorphism might be a factor of male infertility in the Pakistani population. PMID:27785408

  8. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-05-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility.

  9. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-05-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility. PMID:25721098

  10. Evaluation of sperm retrieval rate with bilateral testicular sperm extraction in infertile patients with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Pourmasoumi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia, which could be obstructive or non-obstructive. Diagnostic biopsy from the testis and recently testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are the most precise investigations in these patients. Testicular biopsy can be done unilaterally or bilaterally. The worth of unilateral or bilateral testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the necessity of bilateral diagnostic biopsy from the testis in new era of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of testis biopsy in 419 azoospermic men, referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from 2009-2013. Patients with known obstructive azoospermia were excluded from the study. Results: In totally, 254 infertile men (60.6%) were underwent unilateral TESE, which in 175 patients (88.4%) sperm were extracted from their testes successfully. Bilateral testis biopsy was done in 165 patients (39.4%) which in 37 patients (22.4%), sperm were found in their testes tissues. Conclusion: Due to the low probability of positive bilateral TESE results especially when we can’t found sperm in the first side, we recommend that physicians re-evaluate the risk and benefit of this procedure in era of newer and more precise technique of sperm retrieval like micro TESE. PMID:26730246

  11. Assessment of chromosomal aneuploidies in sperm of infertile males by using FISH technique.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Nicoleta Ioana; Cosma, Mirela; Farcaş, Simona Sorina; Stoian, Monica; Amzăr, Daniela Georgiana; Puiu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive failure is one of the most important issues for the population at age of procreation and approximately 15% of the couples who try to conceive a baby encounter reproductive difficulties. In this study, we used multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y to evaluate the aneuploidy incidence in sperm cells. The study group included 35 males with infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) and 20 males with normal fertility and normal semen characteristics for which the conventional cytogenetic investigation using peripheral blood revealed a normal karyotype. The overall chromosome disomy and nulisomy in OAT group was higher than the one identified in the control group. By comparing the incidence of the disomy in the OAT group, the highest incidence was the sex chromosome disomy, followed by the disomy of chromosomes 13, 21 (equal values) and then 18. The nulisomy incidence in the OAT group was higher for sex chromosomes, followed by the nulisomy of autosomes 13, then 21 and 18. As in these days, for patients with OAT, intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is frequently used, it is important to inform the patients if they might have an increased risk of aneuploidies in embryos. PMID:27151704

  12. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  13. Experimental methods to preserve male fertility and treat male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families, and society, which extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for men with azoospermia.

  14. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Bin-Bin; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Tao; Ma, Ke; Jiang, Jian; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Li-Hua; Peng, Yi-Feng; Ma, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe, and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y, H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population. Two groups of Chinese men were recruited: 444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility. The HFE gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected. Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801, 95% confidence interval=0.452–1.421, χ2=0.577, P=0.448). The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896, P=0.404 and P=0.05, respectively). Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction. PMID:22504868

  15. [The making of a good male infertility microsurgeon: learning experience at Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fu-Jun; Peng, Jing; Li, Philip S; Lee, Richard; Goldstein, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Male infertility microsurgery represents the fastest growing sub-specialty in urology and clinical andrology over the past two decades. The importance of microsurgery for male infertility has risen as a part of the urologist's armamentarium in the medical and surgical management of male infertility. Despite the advances in male infertility microsurgery in China, the lack of standardized and well-organized training programs for male infertility microsurgery remains a serious problem affecting its development. In this article, Zhao and Peng have shared their experience with the learning curve of male infertility microsurgery at the Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, which centers on how to pay attention to the details and basic principles of microsurgery. Male infertility microsurgery is physically, technically and mentally challenging, and must be first learned in the laboratory. Clinical success depends heavily upon appropriate training in a microsurgical laboratory. Good training can significantly reduce operation time and surgical errors as well as improve the quality of outcomes.

  16. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Extreme Cases of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Patients and Methods In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. Result(s) The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001). Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. Conclusion(s) An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the scarce and unselected

  17. Structural variation of the human genome: mechanisms, assays, and role in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Genomic disorders are defined as diseases caused by rearrangements of the genome incited by a genomic architecture that conveys instability. Y-chromosome related dysfunctions such as male infertility are frequently associated with gross DNA rearrangements resulting from its peculiar genomic architecture. The Y-chromosome has evolved into a highly specialized chromosome to perform male functions, mainly spermatogenesis. Direct and inverted repeats, some of them palindromes with highly identical nucleotide sequences that can form DNA cruciform structures, characterize the genomic structure of the Y-chromosome long arm. Some particular Y chromosome genomic deletions can cause spermatogenic failure likely because of removal of one or more transcriptional units with a potential role in spermatogenesis. We describe mechanisms underlying the formation of human genomic rearrangements on autosomes and review Y-chromosome deletions associated with male infertility. PMID:21210740

  18. MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms and male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bingbing; Xu, Zhuoqun; Ruan, Jun; Zhu, Ming; Jin, Ke; Zhou, Deqi; Xu, Zeqiao; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhirong

    2012-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms and risk of male infertility. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these two MTHFR polymorphisms and male infertility risk are conflicting. To derive a more precise estimation of association between the MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of male infertility, we performed a meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of MTHFR polymorphisms and male infertility risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that both 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms were not significantly associated with male infertility risk. However, in stratified analysis by ethnicity, we found that the 677C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of male infertility in Asian population (TT vs. CC: OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.37, P = 0.03; TT vs. TC + CC: OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.05-1.86, P = 0.02; TT + TC vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.01-1.77, P = 0.04). Although some modest bias could not be eliminated, this meta-analysis suggested that the MTHFR 677T allele might be a low-penetrant risk factor for male infertility, especially in Asian population.

  19. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  20. Use of progestogens in pregnant and infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Ozlü, Tülay; Güngör, Ayşenur Cakır; Dönmez, Melahat Emine; Duran, Bülent

    2012-08-01

    Progesterone is an essential hormone in the occurence and maintenance of pregnancy. Natural or synthetic progestogens are commonly used in pregnant patients or patients undergoing infertility treatments for various indications. Most frequently put indications for the use of progestogens in these patient populations are the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth, the prevention of pregnancy loss in pregnancies with an unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and in patients with threatened abortion. It is also used in pregnant women undergoing nonobstetric surgery, for infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss that is thought to be due to luteal phase defect or as a luteal support in stimulated IVF cycles. We aimed to review the current evidence for the use of progestogens in each of these settings.

  1. Use of progestogens in pregnant and infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Ozlü, Tülay; Güngör, Ayşenur Cakır; Dönmez, Melahat Emine; Duran, Bülent

    2012-08-01

    Progesterone is an essential hormone in the occurence and maintenance of pregnancy. Natural or synthetic progestogens are commonly used in pregnant patients or patients undergoing infertility treatments for various indications. Most frequently put indications for the use of progestogens in these patient populations are the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth, the prevention of pregnancy loss in pregnancies with an unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss and in patients with threatened abortion. It is also used in pregnant women undergoing nonobstetric surgery, for infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss that is thought to be due to luteal phase defect or as a luteal support in stimulated IVF cycles. We aimed to review the current evidence for the use of progestogens in each of these settings. PMID:22543698

  2. Association of a miR-34b binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with susceptibility to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Lin, W-Q; Cao, H-F; Li, C-Y; Li, F

    2015-10-09

    This study aims to explore the possible associations between a genetic variation in the miR-34b binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (rs55763075) with male infertility in a Chinese population. Genotype distributions of the rs55763075 single nucleotide polymorphism were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in a Chinese cohort that included 464 infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia and 458 controls with normal fertility. Overall, no significant differences in the distributions of the genotypes of the MTHFR rs55763075 polymorphism were detected between the infertility and control groups. A statistically significant increased risk of male infertility was found for carriers of the rs55763075 AA genotype when compared with homozygous carriers of the rs55763075 GG genotype in the azoospermia subgroup (OR = 1.721; 95% CI = 1.055-2.807; P = 0.031). Furthermore, we found that rs55763075 was associated with folate and homocysteine levels in patients with idiopathic azoospermia. Our results indicated that the MTHFR 3'-UTR rs55763075 polymorphism might modify the susceptibility to male infertility with idiopathic azoospermia.

  3. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  4. Quantitative ultramorphological analysis of human sperm: fifteen years of experience in the diagnosis and management of male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Bartoov, B; Eltes, F; Reichart, M; Langzam, J; Lederman, H; Zabludovsky, N

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of quantitative ultramorphological (QUM) sperm analysis in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility are presented. The QUM methodology is based on three elements: complementary scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of 7 sperm cell subcellular organelles (acrosome, postacrosomal lamina, nucleus, neck, axoneme, mitochondrial sheath, and outer dense fibers); systematic classification of the specific ultramorphological malformations into 4 pathological and the normal categories, indicating the morphological state of each subcellular organelle; and comparison between well-defined reference groups with opposite fertility status or treatment conditions. QUM has established 2 indices for the in vivo and in vitro male fertility potential: (1) Natural Fertility Index (NFI), with accurate prediction (97% sensitivity and 90% specificity) of 80% of the male patients; and (2) IVF score, with prediction of 76% of the nonfertilizing and 90% of fertilizing IVF groups. QUM has enabled assessment of ultramorphological indications for varicocele and radiation exposure. Varicocele causes defects in sperm head organelles related to early spermatid development, whereas ionizing radiation causes amorphous head shape. QUM established criteria for specific non-in-vitro therapeutic interventions, including varicocelectomy, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) administration, and acupuncture. The varicocele index enabled correct classification of 79 and 89% of patients with and without varicocele. Males with idiopathic impairment of sperm acrosome and nucleus are potential responders to FSH treatment, whereas patients exhibiting low sperm activity are candidates for acupuncture treatment. Patients with a low Natural Fertility Index are recommended for an assisted reproduction technique (ART). based on the ultramorphology of the tail axoneme. Patients who achieved pregnancy following intrauterine insemination or in vitro

  5. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  6. 'At the hospital I learnt the truth': diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Fiona R

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of 'emergent masculinities' to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi.

  7. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  8. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-03-02

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

  9. A Critical Appraisal on the Role of Varicocele in Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Miyaoka, Ricardo; Esteves, Sandro C.

    2012-01-01

    Varicocele is a major cause of male infertility, as it may impair spermatogenesis through several distinct physiopathological mechanisms. With the recent advances in biomolecular techniques and the development of novel sperm functional tests, it has been possible to better understand the mechanisms involved in testicular damage provoked by varicocele and, therefore, propose optimized ways to prevent and/or reverse them. Up to now, there is still controversy involving the true benefit of varicocele repair in subfertile men as well as in certain specific situations such as concomitant contralateral subclinical varicocele or associated nonobstructive azoospermia. Also, with the continued development of assisted reproductive technology new issues and questions are emerging regarding the role of varicocelectomy in this context. This paper reviews the most recent data available on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of varicocele with regard to male infertility. PMID:22162682

  10. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  11. The effect of mahogunin gene mutant on reproduction in male mice: a new sight for infertility?

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Xiong, C; Li, J; Sui, C; Wang, S; Li, H; Jiang, X

    2014-03-01

    Mahogunin is an important mediator of chromogenesis and neurodegeneration. Mahoganoid is a mutation of the mahogunin gene, which causes a pleiotropic phenotype that includes suppression of obesity, spongiform neurodegeneration and improvement of insulin sensitivity. Our previous research found that mahoganoid widely expressed in the male rat reproductive system, and mahoganoid-deficient mice have reduced embryonic viability. But the reproductive change in mahogunin knockout (md(nc) ) male mice has not been reported previously. Here, we report that the mahogunin mRNA also widely exists in reproductive system of male mice, and its mRNA expression in the testis was in accordance with the first spermatogenesis wave cycle. Moreover, we find that md(nc) male mice were able to mate with females but no pups are delivered. Besides, the sperms' active progressive motility and hormone secretion (E2, FSH, LH, PRL) were obviously decreased while abnormal sperm rate showed no significant difference in md(nc) compared to wild-type (WT) male mice. This study indicates the mahogunin deficiency results in the infertility of male mice, disruption of hormones secretion and impaired active progressive motility, which may additionally illuminate the aetiology of male infertility in human.

  12. Ejaculatory physiology and pathophysiology: assessment and treatment in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Revenig, Louis; Leung, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Azoospermia is a heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies and a variety of treatments. In this chapter we present a summary of retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation, both of which are characterized by an absence of antegrade semen propulsion through the male reproductive tract. Each of these affects fertility, but is pathophysiologically distinct disorders with differing evaluation and treatment. Retrograde ejaculation has a myriad of well-characterized causes, from pharmacologic disruption to interference of neural mechanisms by surgical intervention for a variety of diseases. Medication is the mainstay of treatment, although only a minority responds and develops antegrade ejaculation. For the men who are not responders to medical therapy, but still have fertility goals, there are a variety of sperm retrieval techniques to assist their reproductive abilities. Failure of emission is characterized by an absence of the emission phase and no antegrade or retrograde expulsion of ejaculatory products. If fertility is desired, these men must rely on assisted ejaculatory procedures, and treatment choice is guided by etiology and response. Ultimately, retrograde ejaculation and failure of emission are in a spectrum of ejaculatory disorders which impair male fertility. PMID:26816751

  13. Socio-cultural perspectives on causes and intervention strategies of male infertility: a case study of Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Stanzia; Muhwati, Itai

    2013-06-01

    The subject of male infertility has, to a large extent, been broached from a western perspective that often insists on the biological factor. This approach has led to a narrowed and narrowing perception of male infertility in that it often neglects other possible crucial socio-cultural dimensions pertaining to the issue. The study is purely qualitative. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews (with males and females) are used to collect qualitative data. The study notes that, unlike in western inclined discourses, male infertility is an intricate condition that transcends biology. Witchcraft and punishment either from God or angry ancestors were avowed to be the determinants of male infertility. The study notes that the Shona people in Mhondoro-Ngezi exclusively rely on socio-cultural intervention strategies to solve the problem of male infertility. The study thus recommends a holistic approach to male infertility which integrates the socio-cultural perspectives in policy and programming, if progress is to be made in unearthing the underlying causes and treatment options.

  14. Socio-cultural perspectives on causes and intervention strategies of male infertility: a case study of Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Stanzia; Muhwati, Itai

    2013-06-01

    The subject of male infertility has, to a large extent, been broached from a western perspective that often insists on the biological factor. This approach has led to a narrowed and narrowing perception of male infertility in that it often neglects other possible crucial socio-cultural dimensions pertaining to the issue. The study is purely qualitative. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews (with males and females) are used to collect qualitative data. The study notes that, unlike in western inclined discourses, male infertility is an intricate condition that transcends biology. Witchcraft and punishment either from God or angry ancestors were avowed to be the determinants of male infertility. The study notes that the Shona people in Mhondoro-Ngezi exclusively rely on socio-cultural intervention strategies to solve the problem of male infertility. The study thus recommends a holistic approach to male infertility which integrates the socio-cultural perspectives in policy and programming, if progress is to be made in unearthing the underlying causes and treatment options. PMID:24069755

  15. The Cytochrome P4501A1 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jianzheng; Wang, Shangqian; Wang, Hainan; Zhang, Shengli; Su, Shifeng; Song, Zhen; Deng, Yunfei; Qian, Jian; Gu, Jinbao; Liu, Bianjiang; Cao, Jingyi; Wang, Zengjun

    2014-02-10

    Studies of the relationship between male infertility and CYP1A1 polymorphisms are inconclusive. To drive a more precise estimation, we performed a meta-analysis based on 1060 cases and 1225 controls from 7 published case-control studies. PubMed and CNKI literature search were conducted to identify all eligible studies investigating such a relationship. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model, and allele-frequency genetic model. In the overall analysis, the frequency of CYP1A12A genotype was significantly associated with susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility. Further stratified analysis by ethnicity showed notable association between the polymorphism and the risk of idiopathic male infertility in Asians. In conclusion, these results support that the CYP1A1 2A genotype polymorphism mainly contributes to idiopathic male infertility susceptibility in Asians but not in Caucasians.

  16. Robotic microsurgery in male infertility and urology—taking robotics to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reports of robotic assisted microsurgery began to appear in the early 1990s. Animal and early human studies were the initial publications. Larger series papers have recently been published from a few institutions. The field of robotic assisted microsurgery is still in evolution and so are adjunctive tools and instruments. It is clearly a different and unique skill set—is it microsurgery or is it robotic surgery, or both. It is clear from history that the art of surgery evolves over time to encompass new technology as long as the outcomes are better for the patient. Our current robotic platforms may not be ideal for microsurgery, however, the use of adjunctive tools and instrument refinement will further its future potential. This review article presents the current state of the art in various robotic assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and urology. Some novel applications of taking microsurgery to areas not classically accessible (intra-abdominal vasovasostomy) and adjunctive tools will also be presented. PMID:26816758

  17. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  18. The Desire for Multiple Pregnancy among Patients with Infertility and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Md Latar, Ida Lilywaty; Razali, Nuguelis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients. PMID:25763396

  19. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.

  20. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes. PMID:26067073

  1. TNF-α -308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α -308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions -308 G/A (four studies) where -308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378-0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211-0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk.

  2. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494

  3. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Singh, Aspinder; Hamada, Alaa; Kesari, Kavindra

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  4. No association of TP53 codon 72 SNP with male infertility: a study in a Chinese population and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying; Jiang, Hongguo; Ma, Lan; Chen, Jinbao; Li, Dongya; Meng, Yushi; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wenru

    2015-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms may affect human male fertility. Even though TP53 plays a role in spermatogenesis we know little about the association of the functional polymorphism at codon 72 of TP53 with respect to susceptibility to male infertility. We conducted a case-control study to investigate this association in a Chinese population and performed a meta-analysis in different populations to clarify this association. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of TP53 codon 72 (rs1042522 G>C) was genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 83 Chinese male infertility patients and 401 healthy controls. Meta-analysis was performed using the data from four currently available studies. The data from our study were overlayed using the v.9.0 STATA software package. We observed no association between the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and male infertility (p = 0.84, OR = 1.04, 95% CI, 0.74-1.45). Meta-analysis confirmed the case-control result that there was no significant association between the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 and male infertility (Pro vs. Arg; p = 0.31, OR = 0.86, 95% CI, 0.65-1.15; Pro/Pro vs. Arg-carriers; p = 0.65, OR = 0.91, 95% CI, 0.61-1.36; Pro-carriers vs. Arg/Arg: p = 0.15, OR = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.51-1.11). The data presented in this communication supports the view that the codon 72 polymorphism of TP53 may not contribute to male infertility susceptibility in the Chinese population.

  5. Treatment strategies for the infertile polycystic ovary syndrome patient.

    PubMed

    Tannus, Samer; Burke, Yechiel Z; Kol, Shahar

    2015-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age. Infertility is a prevalent presenting feature of PCOS, and approximately 75% of these women suffer infertility due to anovulation. Lifestyle modification is considered the first-line treatment and is associated with improved endocrine profile. Clomiphene citrate (CC) should be considered as the first line pharmacologic therapy for ovulation induction. In women who are CC resistant, second-line treatment should be considered, as adding metformin, laparoscopic ovarian drilling or treatment with gonadotropins. In CC treatment failure, Letrozole could be an alternative or treatment with gonadotropins. IVF is considered the third-line treatment; the 'short', antagonist-based protocol is the preferred option for PCOS patients, as it is associated with lower risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (specifically by using a gonadotropin--releasing hormone agonist as ovulation trigger), but with comparable outcomes as the long protocol.

  6. Male attitude towards masturbating: an impediment to infertility evaluation and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Carroll, K; Mason, G

    2016-09-01

    Male attitude about masturbation may influence early diagnosis and treatment of infertility and may be of particular burden in developing countries. We sought to explore attitude about masturbating and examine comfort/discomfort with masturbating and sexual history, pregnancy history and sperm quality in men investigating fertility potential. The study consisted of 83 male volunteers, 23-61 years, attending a fertility management unit in Kingston, Jamaica. Comfort with masturbation was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants also completed the unit's standard intake form for infertility investigations and produced a semen sample. T-tests, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square were used to compare differences in comfort level with outcome variables. We found 59% were comfortable masturbating although requiring external stimulation to produce a sample (48%); 6% (n = 5) failed to produce a sample after repeated attempts. A higher percentage of men uncomfortable with masturbating reported sexual problems (P < 0.05) and spending a longer time trying to have a baby (P < 0.05). Semen quality was not associated with masturbating comfort. Producing a sample by masturbation is standard for many assisted conception treatments. As comfort with masturbating may influence delay in infertility investigations and fertility outcome, efforts to improve men's comfort level with semen production should be considered in pre-treatment fertility counselling.

  7. An evolutionary perspective on Y-chromosomal variation and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation on the Y chromosome is one of the best-documented causes of male infertility, but the genes responsible have still not been identified. This review discusses how an evolutionary perspective may help with interpretation of the data available and suggest novel approaches to identify key genes. Comparison with the chimpanzee Y chromosome indicates that USP9Y is dispensable in apes, but that multiple copies of TSPY1 may have an important role. Comparisons between infertile and control groups in search of genetic susceptibility factors are more complex for the Y chromosome than for the rest of the genome because of population stratification and require unusual levels of confirmation. But the extreme population stratification exhibited by the Y also allows populations particularly suitable for some studies to be identified, such as the partial AZFc deletions common in Northern European populations where further dissection of this complex structural region would be facilitated. PMID:18399979

  8. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  9. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. PMID:11725334

  10. Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use among infertile patients in Lebanon: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for the treatment of infertility. While the Middle East and North Africa region has been shown to house one of the fastest growing markets of CAM products in the world, research describing the use of CAM therapies among Middle-Eastern infertile patients is minimal. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence, characteristics and determinants of CAM use among infertile patients in Lebanon. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used to carry out face-to-face interviews with 213 consecutive patients attending the Assisted Reproductive Unit at a major academic medical center in Beirut. The questionnaire comprised three sections: socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, infertility-related aspects and information on CAM use. The main outcome measure was the use of CAM modalities for infertility treatment. Determinants of CAM use were assessed through the logistic regression method. Results Overall, 41% of interviewed patients reported using a CAM modality at least once for their infertility. There was a differential by gender in the most commonly used CAM therapies; where males mostly used functional foods (e.g. honey & nuts) (82.9%) while females mostly relied on spiritual healing/prayer (56.5%). Factors associated with CAM use were higher household income (OR: 0.305, 95% CI: 0.132–0.703) and sex, with females using less CAM than males (OR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.051–0.278). The older patients were diagnosed with infertility, the lower the odds of CAM use (p for trend <0.05). Almost half of the participants (48%) were advised on CAM use by their friends, and only 13% reported CAM use to their physician. Conclusions The considerably high use of CAM modalities among Lebanese infertile patients, added to a poor CAM use disclosure to physicians, underscore the need to integrate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as enhance infertile patients' awareness

  11. A Prospective Study of Depression and Anxiety in Female Fertility Preservation and Infertility Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Angela K.; Klock, Susan C.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N.; Kazer, Ralph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess anxiety, depression, coping, and appraisal in female fertility preservation patients compared to infertile patients. Design Prospective pre- and post-treatment survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 47 women with cancer (FP) and 91 age-matched infertile patients. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures Depression, anxiety, coping, infertility–related stress, appraisal of treatment, and medical outcomes. Results FP patients reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression than infertile patients, but infertile patients’ symptoms worsened over time. 44% of FP and 14% of infertile patients’ scores exceeded the clinical cut-off for depression at pre-treatment. The interval between surveys and medical treatment data did not predict changes in mood symptoms. Coping strategies and infertility-related stress did not differ between groups and avoidant coping predicted higher depression and anxiety scores. Conclusion FP patients reported more anxiety and depression than infertile patients at enrollment in treatment, with more than one third of FP patients reporting clinically significant depressive symptoms. However, infertile patients’ anxiety and depressive symptoms increased across treatment. This increase was not related to time between registration for IVF and oocyte retrieval or the medical aspects of treatment. FP and infertile patients should be provided psychological consultation prior to treatment to identify mood and anxiety symptoms and to refer patients for counseling as needed to prevent worsening of symptoms. PMID:25154674

  12. Variants of the CLOCK gene affect the risk of idiopathic male infertility in the Han-Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ouxi; Ding, Xinliang; Nie, Jihua; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru; Tong, Jian; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental animal studies suggested that the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput protein gene (CLOCK) has been reported to play a critical role in sperm function and male fertility. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of the CLOCK gene are involved in idiopathic male infertility. The study included 478 idiopathic infertile men and 194 fertile controls who completed physical examinations. Each subject donated 5 ml of peripheral blood and a sample of semen in the ejaculate. An aliquot of each blood sample was used to separate the serum for the measurement of testosterone as well as follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) using the standard radioimmunoassay. The rest of the blood samples was used to extract the DNA for the assay of three tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CLOCK gene, viz., rs1801260, rs3817444 and rs3749474, using the real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. The ejaculate of each subject was used for semen analysis by computer-assisted semen analysis system. The results indicated: (a) the variant rs1801260 associated with normal semen parameters was linked to a significant increase in the risk of idiopathic infertility, (b) the variant rs3817444 associated with both normal and abnormal semen parameters also indicated an increased risk of idiopathic infertility, and (c) the variants rs3749474 associated with both normal and abnormal semen parameters, on the other hand, conferred no significant risk for male infertility. Furthermore, elevated serum testosterone and FSH levels were correlated with the three variants of CLOCK gene in idiopathic infertility. The findings demonstrate that the human subjects with variants of the CLOCK gene are associated with idiopathic male infertility and therefore may be applied as a risk factor of male infertility.

  13. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-10-16

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C > A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed.

  14. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C > A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed. PMID:26472740

  15. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside of the scrotum warmer and can reduce sperm production by the testicle on the same side. ... in a man’s reproductive system Certain medicines Low sperm count Sperm that are abnormally shaped or that ...

  16. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes with the susceptibility to male infertility: result from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Qi, Yue; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shuo-Ran; A, Zhou-Cun

    2013-07-01

    The deletion polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) genes were considered as candidates for genetic susceptibility factors of male infertility. Previous studies concerning the relationship between the null genotype of the two genes and male infertility have been reported in recent years. However, the results remain elusive. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate the relationship between the deletion polymorphism of the GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene, and male infertility in this study. Sixteen studies concerning the GSTM1 gene, including 2174 cases and 1861 controls, and 13 case-control studies on the GSTT1 gene with a total number of 1992 cases and 1617 controls were processed. The results showed that the null genotype of the GSTM1 gene was associated with male infertility in the overall populations (P=0.003, OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.12-1.75), especially in Caucasian (P=0.012, OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.09-2.07) as well as Chinese (P=0.001, OR=1.55, 95%CI=1.19-2.03). The null genotype of the GSTT1 gene was strongly related to male infertility only in Chinese (P=0.000, OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.34-2.14). These results indicated that the null genotype of the GSTM1 gene might contribute to the susceptibility of male infertility, whereas the null genotype of the GSTT1 gene may be a genetic susceptibility factor of male infertility for the Chinese.

  17. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  18. Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms and risk of male idiopathic infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Pan, Jinhong; Liu, Qigui; Xiong, Enqing; Chen, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhansong; Su, Yongping; Lu, Gensheng

    2013-03-01

    The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) polymorphisms have been implicated in susceptibility to male idiopathic infertility, but study results are still controversial. To investigate the genetic associations between GSTs polymorphisms and risk of male idiopathic infertility, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) form studies in electronic databases up to March 16, 2012. Glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM1) null genotype, Glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) null genotype, and dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 were analyzed independently. 14 eligible studies with a total of 1,845 idiopathic infertility males and 1,729 controls were included. There were 13 studies on GSTM1 polymorphism, 10 ones on GSTT1 polymorphism and 5 ones on GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analysis. Meta-analyses of total relevant studies showed GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of male idiopathic infertility (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.07-1.84, P OR = 0.015). The GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analysis showed dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 was also significantly associated with increased risk of male idiopathic infertility (OR = 1.85, 95 % CI 1.07-3.21, P OR = 0.028). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity showed the associations above were still statistically significant in Caucasians (For GSTM1, OR = 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11-2.05, P OR = 0.009; For GSTM1/GSTT1, OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.51-2.91, P OR < 0.001). This meta-analysis suggests GSTM1 null genotype contributes to increased risk of male idiopathic infertility in Caucasians, and males with dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 are particularly susceptible to developing idiopathic infertility.

  19. Relationships between personality traits, seminal parameters and hormones in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Conrad, R; Schilling, G; Haidl, G; Geiser, F; Imbierowicz, K; Liedtke, R

    2002-10-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between personality attitudes, psychopathological symptoms and biological parameters in male infertility. Eighty-four infertile men underwent a psychological and medical examination at our clinic. The psychological tests comprised the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Seminal parameters, gonadotrophins, sex steroids, cortisol and prolactin were analyzed to obtain biological data. Compared with questionnaires completed by normal populations those in the study group scored higher on the scales for 'conscientiousness', 'agreeableness', 'alexithymia' and 'somatization' and lower on the scale for 'neuroticism'. Regarding psychobiological correlations we found a negative correlation between seminal parameters and 'extraversion', 'anxiety' and 'psychoticism'. 'Alexithymia' was negatively correlated with stress hormones and 'conscientiousness' was correlated with sex steroids. The findings suggest above average social competence in the study group. The psychobiological correlations indicate a link between social-competence-related personality traits such as 'extraversion' and 'conscientiousness' and biological fertility characteristics. Implications of a higher alexithymia in infertile men, which is negatively correlated with stress hormones, are discussed.

  20. Patient evaluation of infertility management in an ISO 9001:2008-certified centre for reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Spiessens, Carl; Dancet, Eline; Bakelants, Els; Vrancken, Annelies; Demyttenaere, Koen; Enzlin, Paul; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Quality management according to ISO 9001:2008 guidelines includes infertility care quality assessment and improvement. This study aimed to describe the development process of a questionnaire for infertility management. A literature review, qualitative interviews with experts and patients resulted in a content-valid and face-valid questionnaire. Three cross-sectional surveys were performed in 2004, 2007 and 2008 in a tertiary university infertility centre. First (2004), the questionnaire – measuring eight a-priori dimensions of infertility management – was tested. Second (2007), improvement projects for infertility management were evaluated. Third (2008), factor analysis was performed and internal consistency was documented. The developed patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management and pre-set desired levels of agreement served to set targets for and assess quality improvement projects. The final patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management within an ISO framework was valid and reliable and contained 14 items covering four dimensions of infertility management: Telephone Access, Reception, Information and Patient-centeredness. ISO 9001:2008-certified infertility centres can evaluate infertility management with this 14-item questionnaire. This top-down approach to evaluate the patients’ perspective on quality aspects selected by health professionals can be complementary to the bottom-up approach evaluating the patients’ complete experiences of quality of care.

  1. The therapeutic effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in treating male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yang, B; Zhang, C; Du, L; Xue, W; Zou, P

    2001-06-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT [symbol: see text]) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P < 0.01). The results showed that the decoction could dual-directionally regulate the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolan B luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C).

  2. Evidence from enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 gene variants and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Liu, T; Mi, Y-J; Yue, L-D; Wang, J-M; Liu, D-W; Yan, J; Tian, Q B

    2015-03-01

    Do men who carry mutations in USP26 have an increased risk of infertility? The association between mutations in USP26 gene and male infertility has been studied intensively. However, the results from different groups are controversial. In particular, biological function of the mutant proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a USP cleavage assay and a meta-analysis of the published literature (up to 31 May 2013) to evaluate the impact of five frequent mutations (NM_031907.1: c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T, c.1090C>T, c.1737G>A) on enzymatic activity of the USP26 and to assess the strength of the association between those mutations and male infertility. The USP cleavage assay showed that those mutations do not affect USP26 enzymatic activity. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis of ten case-control studies (in total 1716 patients and 2597 controls) revealed no significant association (P > 0.05) between USP26 mutations and male infertility. The pooled ORs were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.10) for cluster mutations (c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T), 1.60 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.74) for c.1090 C>T and 2.64 (95% CI: 0.97, 7.20) for c.1737 G>A. Evidence from both enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 variants and male infertility. Further research is necessary to study the biological function of USP26, which may provide clues as to the regulation of androgen receptor signalling.

  3. Impact of CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene on male infertility - a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feifan; Lan, Aihua; Lin, Zhidi; Song, Jianfei; Zhang, Yuening; Li, Jiatong; Gu, Kailong; Lv, Baihao; Zhao, Dong; Zeng, Siping; Zhang, Ruoheng; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Zhengyan; Deng, Xiaozhen; Yang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    CAG repeats are polymorphic nucleotide repeats present in the androgen receptor gene. Many studies have estimated the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility, but the conclusions are controversial. Previous meta-analyses have come to different conclusions; however, new studies have been published. An updated meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, CBM, CNKI and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2015. Case-control studies on the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility using appropriate methodology were included. Forty studies were selected, including 3858 cases and 3161 controls. Results showed statistically significantly longer CAG repeat length among cases compared with controls (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.26). Shorter repeat length was associated with a lower risk of male infertility compared with a longer repeat length in the overall analysis (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95). Moreover, CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Caucasian populations, but not Asian or Egyptian populations. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in German populations, but CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in China and the USA. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia.

  4. Association between DAZL polymorphisms and susceptibility to male infertility: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Simin; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Beilei; Lu, Chuncheng; Xia, Yankai; Ding, Hongjuan; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2014-04-10

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in the Deleted in AZoospermia-Like (DAZL) gene and male infertility risk, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, therefore a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2556 cases and 1997 controls, were selected. Two polymorphisms in DAZL were investigated, namely T12A (Thr12 → Ala) and T54A (Thr54 → Ala). Our meta-analysis showed that A > G is a risk factor for male infertility (P = 0.047, OR = 1.262, 95%CI = 1.003-1.587). However, when using trial sequential analysis (TSA) to confirm, we found that A > G risk effect turned out to be false positive. In addition, significant association was found between the T54A polymorphism and male infertility under co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 4.364, 95%CI = 2.207-8.630, P < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 4.584, 95%CI = 2.320-9.058, P < 0.001). Stratified analysis showed that significantly strong association between T54A polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Further studies of T12A and T54A with their biological functions are needed to understand the role of these polymorphisms in the development of male infertility.

  5. Cocaine Use in the Infertile Male Population: A Marker for Conditions Resulting in Subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Samplaski, Mary K.; Bachir, Bassel G.; Lo, Kirk C.; Grober, Ethan D.; Lau, Susan; Jarvi, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to evaluate the incidence and effect of cocaine use in the infertile male population. Materials and Methods Men presenting for fertility evaluation reporting cocaine usage were identified via prospectively collected database. Data were analyzed for usage patterns, reproductive history, associated drug use and medical conditions, hormonal and semen parameters. Results Thirty-eight out of 4,400 (0.9%) men reported cocaine use. Most used cocaine every 3 months or less. Compared with non-cocaine using men, cocaine users reported more recreational drug use (89 vs. 9.2%), marijuana use (78.9 vs. 11.4%), chlamydia (10.5 vs. 3%), herpes (7.9 vs. 2.5%), and tobacco use (55.3 vs. 19.5%). After excluding men with causes for azoospermia, the mean semen parameters for cocaine users were: volume 2.47 ± 1.02 ml; concentration 53.55 ± 84.04 × 106/ml; motility 15.72 ± 12.26%; total motile sperm count 76.67 ± 180.30 × 106. Conclusions Few (< 1%) men in our infertile population reported the use of cocaine, and the frequency of use was low. Given the low use rates and limitations of reporting bias, it is difficult to determine the direct effect of cocaine use on male fertility. However, while infrequent cocaine use seems to have limited impact on semen parameters, men reporting cocaine use represent a different cohort of men than the overall infertile population, with higher rates of concurrent substance abuse, tobacco use and infections, all of which may negatively impact their fertility. Reported cocaine users should be screened for concurrent drug use and infections. PMID:26195962

  6. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  7. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors.

  8. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  9. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  10. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05-3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  11. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liška, František; Chylíková, Blanka; Janků, Michaela; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Zdeňka; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-09-01

    In the inbred SHR/OlaIpcv rat colony, we identified males with small testicles and inability to reproduce. By selectively breeding their parents, we revealed the infertility to segregate as an autosomal recessive Mendelian character. No other phenotype was observed in males, and females were completely normal. By linkage using a backcross with Brown Norway strain, we mapped the locus to a 1.2Mbp segment on chromosome 7, harboring 35 genes. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed a G to A substitution in a canonical 'AG' splice site of intron 37 in Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1, alias myotubularin-related protein 5). This leads to either skipping exon 38 or shifting splicing one base downstream, invariantly resulting in frameshift, premature stop codon and truncation of the protein. Western blotting using two anti-Sbf1 antibodies revealed absence of the full-length protein in the mutant testis. Testicles of the mutant males were significantly smaller compared with SHR from 4weeks, peaked at 84% wild-type weight at 6weeks and declined afterward to 28%, reflecting massive germ cell loss. Histological examination revealed lower germ cell number; latest observed germ cell stage were round spermatids, resulting in the absence of sperm in the epididymis (azoospermia). SBF1 is a member of a phosphatase family lacking the catalytical activity. It probably modulates the activity of a phosphoinositol phosphatase MTMR2. Human homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for missense SBF1 mutations exhibit Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (manifested mainly as progressive neuropathy), while a single mouse knockout reported in the literature identified male infertility as the only phenotype manifestation.

  12. Association of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene C677T polymorphism with the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xudong; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Maochen; Gong, Ruihong; Xu, Yajun; Wang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and male infertility susceptibility, but the results remain inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. In this meta-analysis, a total of 26 case-control studies including 5659 infertility cases and 5528 controls were selected to evaluate the possible association. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to assess the strength of association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model and allele-frequency genetic model. In the overall analysis, the frequency of the 677T allele was significantly associated with male infertility susceptibility (OR = 2.32, 95%CI = 2.04-2.65 for TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.00-1.19 for CT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.10-1.29 for CT/TT vs. CC genotype; OR = 1.54, 95%CI = 1.36-1.74 for TT vs. CC/TT genotype; OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.15-1.30 for T vs. C allele). A subgroup analysis of the subjects showed that significantly strong association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Additionally, MTHFR C677T was associated with a significant increase in the risk of azoospermia in all genetic models. Meanwhile, no significantly increased risks of oligoasthenotertozoospermia (OAT) were found in most of the genetic models. In conclusion, this meta-analysis is in favor that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility, especially in Asians and the subgroup of azoospermia.

  13. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  14. Association of the MTHFR A1298C Variant with Unexplained Severe Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eloualid, Abdelmajid; Abidi, Omar; Charif, Majida; El houate, Brahim; Benrahma, Houda; Louanjli, Noureddine; Chadli, Elbakkay; Ajjemami, Maria; Barakat, Abdelhamid; Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken; Rhaissi, Houria; Rouba, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is one of the main regulatory enzymes involved in folate metabolism, DNA synthesis and remethylation reactions. The influence of MTHFR variants on male infertility is not completely understood. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C variants using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) in a case group consisting of 344 men with unexplained reduced sperm counts compared to 617 ancestry-matched fertile or normozoospermic controls. The Chi square test was used to analyze the genotype distributions of MTHFR polymorphisms. Our data indicated a lack of association of the C677T variant with infertility. However, the homozygous (C/C) A1298C polymorphism of the MTHFR gene was present at a statistically high significance in severe oligozoospermia group compared with controls (OR = 3.372, 95% confidence interval CI = 1.27–8.238; p = 0.01431). The genotype distribution of the A1298C variants showed significant deviation from the expected Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, suggesting that purifying selection may be acting on the 1298CC genotype. Further studies are necessary to determine the influence of the environment, especially the consumption of diet folate on sperm counts of men with different MTHFR variants. PMID:22457816

  15. [Novel aspects of human infertility: the role of the male factor].

    PubMed

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentina; Nakonechnyyj, Andrij; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    In the article new aspects of the 'male factor' and its role in early stages of pregnancy are described. Among others, genetic and immunogenetic (KIR/KAR, HLA) factors are underlined as well as immunological ones (e.g. microchimerism). A significant part of this review is dedicated to infectious agents and semen inflammation as well as to the TORCH syndrome and chlamydiosis, concentrating on the male part, in which there are a lot of unclarified consequences. The problem of somatic diseases and general homeostasis of the male and its influence on pregnancy with particular emphasis on previous cryptorchidism is also discussed. The role of sperm DNA integrity in the fertilization process as well as genetic polymorphisms on the male side is emphasised. Particularly, molecular aspects of HLA-G and HLA-C in developmental biology are raised. There is a discussion of the individual approach to assisted reproductive techniques, which cannot be treated as a panacea for infertility treatment, particularly considering early stages of embryonal and fetal development. PMID:26561850

  16. Genetic variants in antioxidant genes are associated with sperm DNA damage and risk of male infertility in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua; Wang, Yubang; Huang, Cong; Hu, Fan; Zhou, Yong; Song, Ling; Wang, Xinru

    2012-02-15

    To test the hypothesis that polymorphisms in antioxidant genes are more susceptible to sperm DNA damage and male infertility, we examined 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from six antioxidant genes (GPX1, CAT, PON1, NQO1, SOD2/MnSOD, and SOD3) in 580 infertility cases and 580 controls from a Chinese population-based case-control study (NJMU Infertility Study). Genotypes were determined using the OpenArray platform. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in sperm DNA was measured using immunofluorescence. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The results indicated that the PON1 Arg192Glu (rs662) and SOD2 Val16Ala (rs4880) variant genotypes were associated with a significantly higher risk of male infertility. In addition, subjects carrying variant genotypes of both loci had a twofold (95% CI, 1.42-2.90) increase in the risk of male infertility, indicating a significant gene-gene interaction between these two loci (P for multiplicative interaction=0.045). Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that individuals carrying the PON1 Arg192Glu (rs662) or SOD2 Val16Ala (rs4880) variants have significantly higher levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and 8-OHdG. These data suggest that genetic variations in antioxidant genes may contribute to oxidative sperm DNA damage and male infertility.

  17. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  18. Male infertility, genetic analysis of the DAZ genes on the human Y chromosome and genetic analysis of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Fox, M S; Reijo Pera, R A

    2001-11-26

    Many genes that are required for fertility have been identified in model organisms (). Mutations in these genes cause infertility due to defects in development of the germ cell lineage, but the organism is otherwise healthy. Although human reproduction is undoubtedly as complex as that of other organisms, very few fertility loci have been mapped (). This is in spite of the prevalence of human infertility, the lack of effective treatments to remedy germ cell defects, and the cost to couples and society of assisted reproductive techniques. Fifteen percent of couples are infertile and half of all cases can be traced to the male partner. Aside from defects in sperm production, most infertile men are otherwise healthy. This review is divided into two distinct parts to discuss work that: (i) led to the identification of several genes on the Y chromosome that likely function in sperm production; and (ii) implicates DNA repair in male infertility via increased frequency of mutations in DNA from men with meiotic arrest. PMID:11694340

  19. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the T-786C and 4a4b loci were associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future.

  20. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on risk of male infertility: Focus on the metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiyue; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Wei; Lu, Jing; Zhao, Dan; Pan, Feng; Lu, Chuncheng; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-05-01

    Infertility affects about 17% couples, and males contribute to half of the cases. Compared with independent effects of genetic and environmental factors, interactions between them help in the understanding of the susceptibility to male infertility. Thus, we genotyped 25 polymorphisms, measured 16 urinary chemical concentrations and explored interactions between gene-gene and gene-environment in 1039 Han Chinese using metabolomic analysis. We first observed that GSTT1 might interact with GSTM1 (Pinter=6.33×10(-8)). Furthermore, an interaction between GSTM1 and 4-n-octylphenol (4-n-OP) was identified (Pinter=7.00×10(-3)), as well as a 2-order interaction among GSTT1, GSTM1 and 4-n-OP (Pinter=0.04). Subjects with GSTT1-present and GSTM1-null genotypes were susceptible to male infertility when exposed to 4-n-OP (OR=14.05, 95% CI=4.78-60.20, P=2.34×10(-5)). Most metabolites identified were involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In conclusion, it is a novel study of the interaction on male infertility from the aspect of metabolomics.

  1. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered Sertoli cell transcriptome and epigenome: molecular etiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina; Haque, Md Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease, including testis disease and male infertility. The current study was designed to determine the impact of an altered sperm epigenome on the subsequent development of an adult somatic cell (Sertoli cell) that influences the onset of a specific disease (male infertility). A gestating female rat (F0 generation) was exposed to the agriculture fungicide vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination and then the subsequent F3 generation progeny used for the isolation of Sertoli cells and assessment of testis disease. As previously observed, enhanced spermatogenic cell apoptosis was observed. The Sertoli cells provide the physical and nutritional support for the spermatogenic cells. Over 400 genes were differentially expressed in the F3 generation control versus vinclozolin lineage Sertoli cells. A number of specific cellular pathways were identified to be transgenerationally altered. One of the key metabolic processes affected was pyruvate/lactate production that is directly linked to spermatogenic cell viability. The Sertoli cell epigenome was also altered with over 100 promoter differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) modified. The genomic features and overlap with the sperm DMR were investigated. Observations demonstrate that the transgenerational sperm epigenetic alterations subsequently alters the development of a specific somatic cell (Sertoli cell) epigenome and transcriptome that correlates with adult onset disease (male infertility). The environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of testis disease appears to be a component of the molecular etiology of male infertility.

  2. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans
    John C. Rockett and David J. Dix
    Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  3. Methylation loss at H19 imprinted gene correlates with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene promoter hypermethylation in semen samples from infertile males.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, John C; Selvatici, Rita; Di Domenico, Maura; Marci, Roberto; Vesce, Fortunato; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

    2013-09-01

    Aberrant methylation at the H19 paternal imprinted gene has been identified in different cohorts of infertile males. The causes of H19 methylation errors are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of the H19 gene in semen DNA samples from infertile males affected by MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylation. DNA from normal and abnormal semen samples harbouring MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylated, hmMTHFR-nor and hmMTHFR-abn, and without MTHFR methylation, MTHFR-nor and MTHFR-abn, were investigated for methylation status in the H19 locus using bisulfite-treated DNA PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. The prevalence of H19 hypomethylated clones was 20% in hmMTHFR-nor and 0% in MTHFR-nor semen samples (p<0.05), and 28% in hmMTHFR-abn compared with 16% in MTHFR-abn semen samples (p>0.05). These results underscore the association between H19 methylation defects and hypermethylation of the MTHFR gene promoter in normal semen samples and suggest that aberrant methylation at H19 may occur in the normal sperm of infertile males affected by MTHFR gene dysfunction. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms causing abnormal methylation in imprinted genes and, in turn, male infertility.

  4. Prevalent false positives of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletions caused by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs72609647 in the sY84 screening of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qing; Chen, Guo-Wu; Yan, Tao-Fei; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yu-Ling; Li, Zheng; Duan, Shi-Wei; Sun, Fei; Feng, Yun; Shi, Hui-Juan

    2011-11-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions, which is one of the major causes of male infertility. Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility. In this study, a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males, including healthy semen donors (n=200), infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204), was performed. A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions. All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. An unusually high incidence (73/630, 11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening. Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer. These prevalent false positives, which were not only observed in infertile men, but also observed in donors, resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer. Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males. Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual, the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences. PMID:21765443

  5. Molecular detection of potential sexually transmitted pathogens in semen and urine specimens of infertile and fertile males.

    PubMed

    Abusarah, Eman A; Awwad, Ziad M; Charvalos, Ekatherina; Shehabi, Asem A

    2013-12-01

    A total of 93 infertile and 70 fertile men attending various urology and gynecology clinics in Jordan were investigated in this prospective study. First void urine and the corresponding semen specimens were collected from 96% of the patients. Presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) DNA in specimen was detected using polymerase chain reaction. The distribution of NG, CT, UU, and MG in semen and FVU specimens among infertile versus fertile men was 6.5% versus 0%, 4.3% versus 1.4%, 10.8% versus 5.7%, and 3.2% versus 1.4%, respectively. Two of infertile and 1 of fertile men harbored mixed pathogens. The highest number of positive potential pathogens was found among young men aged 20-29 years old. The present study found a very high concordance between the detection of CT, UU, and MG DNA in semen and the corresponding FVU specimens, while NG DNA found only in semen and not in the corresponding FVU specimens. This study also revealed that Ureaplasma parvum species is more prevalent than Ureaplasma urealyticum in specimens of infertile men (90%). The study demonstrates that infertile men have higher prevalence of NG, CT, UU, and MG compared with fertile men and NG as significantly associated with infertile men.

  6. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2012) Quick facts about infertility . ...

  7. Association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Nouri Emamzadeh, Fatemeh; Dehghanian, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility. PMID:27525322

  8. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  9. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Chidrawar, Vr; Chitme, Hr; Patel, Kn; Patel, Nj; Racharla, Vr; Dhoraji, Nc; Vadalia, Kr

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  10. [Y-autosome translocation associated with male infertility: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yumura, Yasushi; Murase, Mariko; Katayama, Kayo; Segino, Miwa; Aizawa, Yoshino; Kuroda, Shin-No-Suke; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2012-06-01

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital with a 12-year history of infertility. He was a well developed male weighing 78 kg with a height of 171 cm. Physical examinations revealed male habitus with normal adult pubic and axillary hair. The penis, epididymides, spermatic cords and prostate were normal. The right testis was about 15 ml in volume and left ne was approximately 12 ml, respectively. Repeated semen analyses showed azoospermia except for only one time when 4 immotile sperm were detected. The plasma levels of lactate hydrogenase, follicle stimulating hormone prolactin and testosterone were within normal limits. Chromosome analysis of peripheral lymphocytes revealed a balanced reciprocal translocation between the short arm of chromosome 12 and the long arm of the Y chromosome (46, X, t (Y ; 12) (q12 ; p13.3)). We performed microdissection testicular sperm extraction and retrieved 11 spermatozoa (10 progressive motile). Seminiferous epithelium showed maturation arrest at the stage of spermatid. Mean Johnsen's score count was 6. The etiology and clinical features of this rare disease were briefly discussed. PMID:22874512

  11. Impact of partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuening; Li, Muyan; Xiao, Feifan; Teng, Ruobing; Zhang, Chengdong; Lan, Aihua; Gu, Kailong; Li, Jiatong; Wang, Di; Li, Hongtao; Jiang, Li; Zeng, Siping; He, Min; Huang, Yi; Guo, Peifen; Zhang, Xinhua; Yang, Xiaoli

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility through a comprehensive literature search. All case-control studies related to partial DAZ1/2 and DAZ3/4 deletions and male infertility risk were included in our study. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and its precision, respectively. Eleven partial DAZ1/2 deletion and nine partial DAZ3/4 deletion studies were included. Partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the overall analysis (ORs=2.58, 95%CI: 1.60-4.18, I(2)=62.1%). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the East Asian populations under the random effect model (ORs=2.96, 95%CI: 1.87-4.71, I(2)=51.3%). Meanwhile, the analysis suggested that partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with male infertility risk in East-Asian ethnicity (ORs=1.02, 95%CI: 0.54-1.92, I(2)=71.3%), but not in Non-East Asian under the random effect model (ORs=3.56, 95%CI: 1.13-11.23, I(2)=0.0%,). More interestingly, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was associated with azoospermia (ORs=2.63, 95%CI: 1.19-5.81, I(2)=64.7%) and oligozoospermia (ORs=2.53, 95%CI: 1.40-4.57, I(2)=51.8%), but partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with azoospermia (ORs=0.71, 95%CI: 0.23-2.22, I(2)=71.7%,) and oligozoospermia (ORs=1.21, 95%CI: 0.65-2.24, I(2)=55.5%). In our meta-analysis, partial DAZ1/2 deletion is a risk factor for male infertility and different ethnicities have different influences, whereas partial DAZ3/4 deletion has no effect on fertility but partial DAZ3/4 deletion might have an impact on Non-East Asian male.

  12. Luteinizing hormone pulse frequency and in vitro bioactivity in male idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Bennet, A; Bujan, L; Plantavid, M; Barbe, P; Caron, P; Louvet, J P

    1991-03-01

    We investigated 51 patients with idiopathic oligospermia and 10 control subjects. Blood samples were collected every 20 minutes from 10 P.M. to 10 A.M. and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatility was analyzed. A pool of all samples obtained from each subject was used to measure bioactive LH in an in vitro mouse Leydig cell bioassay and immunoactive LH in an immunoradiometric assay. Mean immunoactive LH pulse frequency was higher and mean bioactive to immunoactive LH ratio was lower in infertile men than in controls. There was a significant negative correlation between bioactive LH to immunoreactive LH ratio and LH pulse frequency. These data indicate that the defect in the gonadal axis in oligospermic men resides not in the hypothalamic-pituitary function but rather in the testis itself.

  13. Sperm DNA damage caused by oxidative stress: modifiable clinical, lifestyle and nutritional factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Milne, S; Leeson, H

    2014-06-01

    DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is still debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high levels of DNA fragmentation will have significantly lower odds of conceiving naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be much more successful in this group, and couples may be counselled to proceed directly to

  14. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-01-01

    The Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2−/− males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2−/− cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20 × less than control. Bscl2−/− seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2+/+ testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2−/− testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2−/− round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2−/− spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2−/− spermatids. Bscl2−/− late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the

  15. Up-Regulation of microRNA-210 is Associated with Spermatogenesis by Targeting IGF2 in Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dongdong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) expression was up-regulated in the testes of sterile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-210 involved in the spermatogenesis in patients with NOA are unknown. Material/Methods Expression of miR-210 and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) in the testes of NOA cases (only including maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis) were detected in this study. We carried out in vitro experiments to determine if IGF2 was directly targeted by miR-210 in NT2 cells. Results Compared with obstructive azoospermia (OA) as normal control, our results suggest that miR-210 was significantly up-regulated in testis of patients with NOA (P<0.05), and IGF2 was down-regulated, but without a significant difference. The results also indicated that IGF2 was directly targeted by miR-210 in NT2 cells. Conclusions The results showed that miR-210 was involved in spermatogenesis by targeting IGF2 in male infertility. PMID:27535712

  16. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Smoking and infertility Can smoking affect my ability to have a ... smoke do not conceive as efficiently as nonsmokers. Infertility rates in both male and female smokers are ...

  17. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (p<0.05). The proportion of slow velocity sperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (p<0.05). However, fertility tests showed that no significant difference inaverage offspring amount (AOA), frequency of copulatory plug (FCP), and frequency of conception (FC). Furthermore, TDRP1 could interact with PRM2, which might be the molecular mechanism of its nuclear function in spermatozoa. In conclusion, these data collectively demonstrated that Tdrp deficiency impaired the sperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2. PMID:27069551

  18. Critical evaluation of the effectiveness of different modes of treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F; Zalata, A; Mahmoud, A

    1996-01-01

    Among cohorts of couples treated for infertility due to a male factor it is the effective cumulative rate of successful deliveries and the cost per delivery that must be considered in assessing the value of different modes of treatment. The 'wait and see', timed coitus, or counselling approach has a low success rate (about 15% in 12 months), and a relatively high cost per delivery because of the cost of control visits and of tests for the prediction of ovulation. The high success rate of varicocele treatment (35% in 12 months, between 60 and 80% after 24 months), and the moderate cost of retrograde venography and embolisation results in a low cost per delivery. This cost is the lowest in anti-oestrogen treatment of idiopathic oligozoospermia, with a 20-30% effective cumulative pregnancy rate in 6 months. Three months of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) of Percoll gradient selected spermatozoa has a higher effective cumulative success rate than conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) applied in cases with similar sperm characteristics, and the cost per successful delivery of the former is eight times lower than that of the latter. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection can successfully be applied in cases with more severe sperm deficiency; it has a higher success rate than conventional IVF, and is slightly more cost-efficient. However, the effective cumulative pregnancy rate remains relatively low (about 45% in 12 months) because of the high drop-out rate and long time interval between treatment cycles among unsuccessful couples.

  19. Seminal insulin-like growth factor-I may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele.

    PubMed

    Naderi, GholamHossein; Mohseni Rad, Hamed; Tabassomi, Firouzeh; Latif, AmirHossein

    2015-06-01

    Varicocele, the most common cause of male infertility, is defined as abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus. Although different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of infertility caused by varicocele, it is still open to debate. Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) on semen quality in animals and humans, but there are no studies on the probable role of seminal IGF-I in the pathophysiology of infertility among patients with clinical varicocele. We therefore aimed to examine the seminal IGF-I concentration in 49 patients with varicocele and primary infertility before and after varicocelectomy and compare the results with those of 50 healthy fertile men (in the control group). Mean seminal IGF-I level of patients before varicocelectomy (93.7 ± 67.2 ng/mL) was significantly different (P < 0.001) from that following varicocelectomy (58 ± 35.1 ng/mL) and from that of the controls (57.6 ± 22.1 ng/mL). However, mean seminal IGF-I levels of patients after varicocelectomy and the controls were not significantly different. Seminal IGF-I level was not correlated with grade and side of varicocele, and semen quality. We conclude that locally secreted IGF-I in the semen may be involved in the pathophysiology of infertility in patients with varicocele or semen.

  20. Low-level environmental arsenic exposure correlates with unexplained male infertility risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Weipan; Huang, Qingyu; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Xia, Yankai; Zhang, Weibing; Shen, Heqing

    2016-11-15

    Humans are exposed to arsenic via drinking water, dietary intake and inhaled particulates. Endemic chronic arsenic exposure related reproductive toxicity is well documented, but the effect of low-level general environmental arsenic exposure on unexplained male infertility (UMI) remains unclear. In this case-control study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between non-geogenic environmental arsenic exposure and UMI risk. One hundred and one infertile men with normal semen as cases and sixty one fertile men as controls were recruited. Five urinary arsenic species: pentavalent arsenate (Asi(V)), trivalent arsenite (Asi(III)), methylated to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), arsenobetaine (AsB) were quantitatively measured by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). To assess the semen quality, semen volume, sperm concentration, total motility, and progressive motility were measured. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the differences of arsenic species and index between the case and the control group; we observed that concentrations of Asi(V), AsB, MMA(V), DMA(V), total inorganic As and total As were significantly higher in the cases than the controls. The urine Asi(V) level increased more than twenty folds in case group. Moreover, higher redox index (Asi(V)/Asi(III)) and lower primary arsenic methylation index (PMI=MMA(V)/Asi) were observed for case group. Furthermore, through the logistic regression analysis, we observed that the urine Asi(V) level and PMI were most significantly associated with UMI risk among the observations. Specifically, in comparison to the first quartile, the subjects with higher Asi(V) levels were more likely to exhibit UMI with increasing adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (adjusted by age, body mass index, drinking status and smoking status) of 8.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.59-27.17], 13.12 (95% CI, 3.44-50.12) and 36.51 (95% CI, 8

  1. Zinc Levels in Seminal Fluid in Infertile Males and its Relation with Serum Free Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Ajay Rajeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The role of zinc is critical to reproduction potential. Seminal zinc is thought to be derived almost exclusively from prostatic secretions. Sperm motility is significantly influenced by zinc. Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and subfertility. Aim To assess the influence of seminal plasma zinc on seminogram characteristics and whether endogenous testosterone affects the seminal levels of zinc. Materials and Methods The semen samples were obtained from 150 male partners of infertile couples who attended the Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Physiology, within the age 21-50 years and semen samples were analysed for the routine seminogram parameters. All the subjects were classified into two main groups, A- the subjects with normal ejaculates (n=62) and B- the subjects with abnormal ejaculates, who were further sub divided into the following groups: i) Asthenoteratozoospermics (n=43); ii) Oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (n=24); and iii) Azoospermics (n=21). The seminal plasma zinc was measured spectrophotometrically. The sample for serum free testosterone was sent to Thyrocare laboratory. Results The seminal plasma zinc was found to be significantly lower in the abnormal ejaculates than in the normal ejaculates. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the seminal plasma zinc and serum free testosterone (p<0.05, r=0.449). Statistically significant correlation was also found between seminal plasma zinc and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology (p<0.05, r= 0.86, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively). Conclusion Low seminal plasma zinc might be a significant causative factor in impairing sperm functions and its dependence on endogenous free testosterone, is observed from a positive correlation between the two. PMID:27437207

  2. Association of infertile patients having polycystic ovarian syndrome with recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Fatima, P; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Ishrat, S; Deeba, F; Begum, S A

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has a pivotal role in the development of various complications during pregnancy. Polycystic ovarian syndrome women having elevated LH and hyper insulineuia may be at increased risk of miscarriage. The study was done to find out the recurrent pregnancy loss among the PCOS patient. This was a cross sectional case control study in total 100 infertile patients between age 20-40 years attending BSMMU out patient Department from July 2011 to June 2012, among them 50 infertile patients with PCOS regarding as a case and 50 infertile patients without PCOS selected as a control. Regarding case (infertile patients with PCOS) shows 20(40%) recurrent miscarriage and among control (infertile patients without PCOS) shows recurrent miscarriage 6(12%). And also among case group shows insulin resistance 8(16%) and control group insulin resistance 1(2%). Six (75%) abortion occur among PCOS with insulin resistance and 5(62.5%) abortion occur among PCOS with raised testosterone level. It is observed that recurrent miscarriage is higher in PCOS group. And also concluded that insulin resistance and raised testosterone level is responsible for this condition. So, further large scale study would be needed to reduce the chance of recurrent pregnancy loss by treatment with insulin sensitizer in case of obese PCOS with insulin resistance patient.

  3. AB100. Recovery of spermatogenesis of KH-465 herbal extracts mixture for LHRH agonist induced male infertility in rat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Koo, Yean Kyoung; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The development of new effective drug to stimulate the spermatogenesis on the patients with various causes of male infertility has been proposed in the clinical field. We studied the usefulness of the two herbal extract mixtures, KH-465, consisted of Epimedium Koreanum and Angelica Gigas as a spermatogenesis enhancer. Experimental spermatogenic failure was made by administrating leuprolide acetate (Leuprin®, Takeda Pharm.) 3.75 mg intramuscular injection in 12 weeks Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided to five groups of control group and experimental group I, II, III & IV with Leuprin only, Leuprin & depot testosterone 10.5 mg intramuscular injection, Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 400 mg/kg, and Leuprin & 4 weeks administration of KH-465 600 mg/kg, respectively. The weight changes of testis and epididymis, serum hormone levels of FSH, LH, T and free T, sperm count and motility within epididymis and the level of oxidative stress with SOD and 8-OHdG were estimated. The weight changes of testis and epididymis were not significant among control and all experimental groups. T, free T and epididymal seminal parameters were significantly increased in group III & IV, but FSH and LH not changed. Oxidative stress markers were improved significantly only in group IV. The enhancing effect of KH-465 herbal extract on spermatogenesis was suggested from this result. Additionally, the separation of pure effective components from herbal extract in this study and the mechanism of its effect would be performed in the future.

  4. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial. PMID:22499723

  5. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-02-17

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial.

  6. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  7. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  8. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. PMID:25046863

  9. A comparative study on interrelations among microelements, infection of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Han, X D; Wang, Y; Chen, J X

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the association among male infertility, infection of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), and microelements in semen fluid. Semen analysis and cultivation of Uu are carried out to 165 samples of semen fluid. Then the contents of microelements, such as Cu, Fe, Se, Cd, Mn, and Zn, in the samples are measured respectively by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Quantometer (ICP). The contents of Fe, Se, and Zn in seminal plasma of the normal spermatic quality group are obviously higher than those of the poor spermatic quality group (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma of the normal spermatic quality group is obviously lower than that of the poor spermatic quality group (p<.05), and the contents of Cu and Mn show no difference. The contents of Zn, Se, and Cu in seminal plasma infected with Uu are markedly lower than those of seminal plasma not infected with Uu (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma infected with Uu is obviously higher than that in samples not infected with Uu, and the contents of Fe and Mn show no statistic difference. The contents of Zn and Se in seminal plasma of the poor spermatic qualitative semen that were infected with Uu are obviously lower than those of seminal plasma not infected with Uu (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma of the poor spermatic qualitative semen with Uu infection is markedly higher than that of the normal seminal plasma (p<.05). Uu infection leads to the decrease of the contents of Zn and Se in semen fluid, and therefore causes spermatic quality decline. Lack of Fe or overdose of Cd may also contribute to spermatic quality decline.

  10. Increased Prevalence of Celiac Disease in Patients with Unexplained Infertility in the United States: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lebwohl, Benjamin; Wang, Jeffrey; Lee, Susie K.; Murray, Joseph A.; Sauer, Mark V.; Green, Peter H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder which can present with a variety of non-gastrointestinal manifestations. In women, it may manifest with an assortment of gynecologic or obstetric disorders. Some reports have linked female infertility with undiagnosed celiac disease. Though there are a number of studies from Europe and the Middle East, only two prior American studies have examined the prevalence of “silent” celiac disease in a female infertility population. We prospectively performed serologic screening for celiac disease in 188 infertile women (ages 25–39). While we did not demonstrate an increased prevalence of celiac disease in our overall infertile female population, we were able to detect a significantly increased prevalence (5.9%) of undiagnosed celiac disease among women presenting with unexplained infertility (n=51). Our findings suggest the importance of screening infertile female patients, particularly those with unexplained infertility, for celiac disease. PMID:21682114

  11. Stress and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Stress and infertility It is not clear how exactly stress impacts ... How can stress impact a fertility patient? Sometimes, infertility patients respond to the stress of being unable ...

  12. Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Hanen; Znazen, Abir; Sellami, Afifa; Mnif, Hela; Louati, Nour; Zarrouk, Soumaya Ben; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Gdoura, Radhouane; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis

  13. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex - Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-07-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis reveals microsurgical varicocele repair is superior to percutaneous embolization in the treatment of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Jason Ronald; Fantus, Jake; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Fischer, Marc Anthony; Klinghoffer, Zachery

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Varicoceles are a common cause of male infertility; repair can be accomplished using either surgical or radiological means. We compare the cost-effectiveness of the gold standard, the microsurgical varicocele repair (MV), to the options of a nonmicrosurgical approach (NMV) and percutaneous embolization (PE) to manage varicocele-associated infertility. Methods: A Markov decision-analysis model was developed to estimate costs and pregnancy rates. Within the model, recurrences following MV and NMV were re-treated with PE and recurrences following PE were treated with repeat PE, MV or NMV. Pregnancy and recurrence rates were based on the literature, while costs were obtained from institutional and government supplied data. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity-analyses were performed to determine the effects of the various parameters on model outcomes. Results: Primary treatment with MV was the most cost-effective strategy at $5402 CAD (Canadian)/pregnancy. Primary treatment with NMV was the least costly approach, but it also yielded the fewest pregnancies. Primary treatment with PE was the least cost-effective strategy costing about $7300 CAD/pregnancy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis reinforced MV as the most cost-effective strategy at a willingness-to-pay threshold of >$4100 CAD/pregnancy. Conclusions: MV yielded the most pregnancies at acceptable levels of incremental costs. As such, it is the preferred primary treatment strategy for varicocele-associated infertility. Treatment with PE was the least cost-effective approach and, as such, is best used only in cases of surgical failure. PMID:25295133

  15. Cytogenetic, molecular and testicular tissue studies in an infertile 45,X male carrying an unbalanced (Y;22) translocation: case report.

    PubMed

    Brisset, S; Izard, V; Misrahi, M; Aboura, A; Madoux, S; Ferlicot, S; Schoevaert, D; Soufir, J C; Frydman, R; Tachdjian, G

    2005-08-01

    (Y;autosome) translocations have been reported in association with male infertility. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the male infertility, such as deletion of the azoospermic factor (AZF) on the long arm of the Y chromosome, or meiosis impairment. We describe a new case with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;22) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. A 36 year old male with azoospermia was found to have a mosaic 45,X/46,X, + mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of a derivative Y chromosome containing the short arm, the centromere and a small proximal part of the long-arm euchromatin of the Y chromosome and the long arm of chromosome 22. The unstable small marker chromosome included the short arm and the centromere of chromosome 22. This unbalanced translocation t(Y;22)(q11.2;q11.1) generated the loss of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving a large part of AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. Testicular tissue analyses showed sperm in the wet preparation. Our case shows the importance of documenting (Y;autosome) translocations with molecular and testicular tissue analyses.

  16. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  17. Quebec public funding facilitates fertility preservation for male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, M.B.; García, A.; Buckett, W.; Tulandi, T.; Chan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August 2010, the Quebec government introduced provincial coverage of assisted reproductive technologies, with sperm cryopreservation included as a covered service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether and how such a program affects the behaviour of cancer patients with respect to sperm cryopreservation. Methods We analyzed the database derived from male patients undergoing sperm cryopreservation from August 2008 to August 2012 at our centre. The retrieved data included patient age, male infertility or oncologic diagnosis, sperm quality parameters, and details about the number of visits for sperm cryopreservation. Results The number of cancer patients who cryopreserved sperm before and after the policy change did not differ significantly, but a marked increase in the number of non-cancer patients was observed. Further analysis revealed that, after implementation of the public funding program, the total number of sperm cryopreservation sessions per patient increased significantly in cancer patients but not in non-cancer patients. Conclusions It appears that cancer patients who are willing to freeze sperm are keen to return for more sessions of sperm banking when no fees are associated with the service. Those findings suggest that cost reduction is an important factor for improving delivery of fertility preservation services to male cancer patients. PMID:26966400

  18. Genetic variants in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) and the risk of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lifeng; Wu, Shengmin; Zhang, Shenghu; Ji, Guixiang; Gu, Aihua

    2014-01-25

    Telomeres are critical in maintaining genomic stability and integrity, and telomerase expression in spermatogonial stem cells is responsible for the maintenance of telomere length in the human male germline. Genetic variants in telomere-associated pathway genes might affect telomere length and chromosomal stability, and subsequently disease susceptibility. Thus, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this pathway could contribute to male infertility risk. In a case-control study of 580 male infertility cases and 580 matched controls, 8 common SNPs in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1) were genotyped. Overall, we found that TERT rs2736100 was inversely associated with male infertility risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.92; Ptrend=0.011), whereas TEP1 rs1713449 was positively associated with risk of male infertility (adjusted OR=1.39, 95% CI: 1.20-1.62; Ptrend<0.001). In addition, subjects carrying risk genotypes of these both loci had a two-fold (95% CI: 1.34-3.15) increase in the risk of male infertility, indicating a significant gene-gene interaction between these two loci (P for multiplicative interaction=0.009). Moreover, linear regression analysis showed that individuals carrying the TEP1 rs1713419 variants have significantly higher levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (β=2.243, P=0.016). In conclusion, our results give the first evidence that genetic variations of TERT rs2736100 and TEP1 rs1713449 were associated with susceptibility to male infertility.

  19. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  20. [Hyperplasia of adrenal rests in the testicle: a rare cause of male infertility].

    PubMed

    san Miguel Fraile, P; Fernández Fernández, G; Meijide Rico, F; Antón Badiola, I; Ortiz-Rey, J A; Alvarez Alvarez, C; de la Fuente Buceta, A

    2003-03-01

    We report the case of a 37-year-old man with infertility caused by bilateral testicular masses secondary to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (21-hydroxylase deficiency). Testicular biopsy was done and its was initially interpreted as Leydig cell tumor but after clinical information was histologically reclassified as tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome. The differential diagnosis with Leydig cell tumor is discussed and it must be established through the clinical, biochemical, radiological and pathological features.

  1. Relationship of semen hyperviscosity with IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 and ROS production in seminal plasma of infertile patients with prostatitis and prostato-vesiculitis.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, R; Salemi, M; Vicari, L O; Vicari, E

    2014-12-01

    Changes in levels of oxidative damage products in semen and their relationship to seminal fluid viscosity (SFV) have recently received increasing research interest. We analysed whether SFV was associated with ROS generation, levels of cytokines TNF-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-10 and seminal leucocyte concentration, and whether ROS production was related to the extent of infections/inflammations at one (prostatitis) or two (prostato-vesiculitis) male accessory glands. We studied 169 infertile patients, with chronic bacterial prostatitis (PR, n = 74) and/or bilateral prostato-vesiculitis (PV, n = 95), as diagnosed by the ultrasound (US) criteria. Healthy fertile men (n = 42) served as controls. In the PV patient group, SFV, semen characteristics and ROS production had median values that were significantly higher than those found in PR patients and controls, although other sperm variables had values significantly lower than those found in PR patients or controls. In PV infertile patients, ROS generation and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were higher than those found in PR infertile patients and controls, although seminal IL-10 levels in PV and PR patients were lower than those found in the controls. In PR patients, the levels of SFV were positively related to TNF-α (r = 0.67; P < 0.01), fMLP-stimulated ROS production in the 45% Percoll fraction (r = 0.687, P < 0.01) and the 90% Percoll fraction in basal condition (r = 0.695, P < 0.01), and after fMLP-stimulation (r = 0.688, P < 0.01). Thus, our data indicated that seminal hyperviscosity is associated with increased oxidative stress in infertile men and increased pro-inflammatory interleukins in patients with male accessory gland infection, more when the infection was extended to the seminal vesicles.

  2. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and relationship with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants. PMID:25080930

  3. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility.

  4. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    PubMed

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  5. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) < 20 × 106/ejaculated, and unexplained infertility if spermiogram is normal with normal female factor. The aim: of this study was to determine the predictive value of TMSC for spontaneous pregnancy (ST) and pregnancy after treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with male factor and unexplained infertility. What is known already: According to the WHO qualification system abnormal spermiogram can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia (O), asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl <3 x 106 / ejaculate and pregnancy after IUI, plus couples who have not achieved SP with TMSC> 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p <0.05) in the group A compared to group B. Couples with TMSC 1-5 × 106 ejaculate had significantly lower (9.8% vs. 22.2%, p <0.0001) rate of spontaneous pregnancy in comparison to couples after IUI treatment. Couples with unexplained infertility had significantly higher (56.8% vs. 29.9%, p <0.01) spontaneous pregnancy rate compared to couples after IUI treatment. Infertile couples had significant pregnancy rate with TMSC 5-10 x 106 / ejaculate (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.26-1.78, <0

  6. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  7. The testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase HSLtes confers rescue of male infertility in HSL-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Erdtmann, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Mairal, Aline; Rieu, Cécile; Touzalin, Anne-Marie; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    Inactivation of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) confers male sterility with a major defect in spermatogenesis. Several forms of HSL are expressed in testis. HSLtes mRNA and protein are found in early and elongated spermatids, respectively. The other forms are expressed in diploid germ cells and interstitial cells of the testis. To determine whether the absence of the testis-specific form of HSL, HSLtes, was responsible for the infertility in HSL-null mice, we generated transgenic mice expressing HSLtes under the control of its own promoter. The transgenic animals were crossed with HSL-null mice to produce mice deficient in HSL in nongonadal tissues but expressing HSLtes in haploid germ cells. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity was almost completely blunted in HSL-deficient testis. Mice with one allele of the transgene showed an increase in enzymatic activity and a small elevation in the production of spermatozoa. The few fertile hemizygous male mice produced litters of very small to small size. The presence of the two alleles led to a doubling in cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity, which represented 25% of the wild type values associated with a qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and a partial restoration of sperm reserves. The fertility of these mice was totally restored with normal litter sizes. In line with the importance of the esterase activity, HSLtes transgene expression reversed the cholesteryl ester accumulation observed in HSL-null mice. Therefore, expression of HSLtes and cognate cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity leads to a rescue of the infertility observed in HSL-deficient male mice. PMID:15292223

  8. The testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase HSLtes confers rescue of male infertility in HSL-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Vallet-Erdtmann, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Mairal, Aline; Rieu, Cécile; Touzalin, Anne-Marie; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    Inactivation of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) confers male sterility with a major defect in spermatogenesis. Several forms of HSL are expressed in testis. HSLtes mRNA and protein are found in early and elongated spermatids, respectively. The other forms are expressed in diploid germ cells and interstitial cells of the testis. To determine whether the absence of the testis-specific form of HSL, HSLtes, was responsible for the infertility in HSL-null mice, we generated transgenic mice expressing HSLtes under the control of its own promoter. The transgenic animals were crossed with HSL-null mice to produce mice deficient in HSL in nongonadal tissues but expressing HSLtes in haploid germ cells. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity was almost completely blunted in HSL-deficient testis. Mice with one allele of the transgene showed an increase in enzymatic activity and a small elevation in the production of spermatozoa. The few fertile hemizygous male mice produced litters of very small to small size. The presence of the two alleles led to a doubling in cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity, which represented 25% of the wild type values associated with a qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and a partial restoration of sperm reserves. The fertility of these mice was totally restored with normal litter sizes. In line with the importance of the esterase activity, HSLtes transgene expression reversed the cholesteryl ester accumulation observed in HSL-null mice. Therefore, expression of HSLtes and cognate cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity leads to a rescue of the infertility observed in HSL-deficient male mice.

  9. The Impact of Letrozole Versus Clomiphene Citrate on Uterine Blood Flow in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Sakhavar, Nahid; Sadegi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) on uterine blood flow rate in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and methods In this randomized clinical trial 90 women with unexplained infertility referred to a university clinic from January 2011- December 2013 were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomized for letrozole, 30 patients for CC and 3o patients for control group. On the day 3 of cycle the patients were given letrozole 2.5mg/day or CC 100 mg /day orally or did not receive any treatment. Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of uterine artery were calculated and chemical pregnancy rate was evaluated. Results Mean age was 26.4±3.2 (20-33) and mean BMI was 26.3± 3.2. After treatment using ultrasonography the Resistance index (RI) and Pulsatility index (PI) showed no significant difference among three groups (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate in letrozole group (58%) was more in comparison to CC (53.6%) and control groups (46%) but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that letrozole and clomiphene citrate have comparable impact on uterine blood flow and pregnancy rate in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:24971126

  10. Assisted ejaculation combined with in vitro fertilisation: an effective technique treating male infertility due to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Hultling, C; Levi, R; Garoff, L; Nylund, L; Rosenborg, L; Sjöblom, P; Hillensjö, T

    1994-07-01

    Infertility due to spinal cord injury (SCI) in males has been identified for decades as an area of major concern and techniques for assisted ejaculation are available. There has not been an overall consensus regarding which type of assisted procreation is the most appropriate for these couples. We describe here our experience from a programme based on assisted ejaculation combined with in vitro fertilization (IVF). Twelve couples have been treated so far and altogether 22 cycles with ovum pick-up have been completed. Fertilisation of the oocytes was obtained in 18 of these cycles. The overall oocyte fertilisation rate was 49%. Embryo transfer took place in 17 cycles, leading to seven clinical pregnancies. Four of the pregnancies are delivered or are ongoing, whereas three ended in first trimester spontaneous abortion. Thus our initial experience suggests that assisted ejaculation in combination with IVF is an effective option for these couples.

  11. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-< 90 μg/dl blood lead and semen lead level was lowest 20.6 ± 8.60 μg/dl and 48.17 ± 51.33 μg/dl respectively and showed highest total count of sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-< 90 μg/dl and was 45.33 ± 26.62% and 36.67 ± 11.60% respectively and was statistically significant. At serum zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-< 80 μg/dl. Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-< 90 μg/dl. The results suggest that Serum zinc level of values 80-< 90 μg/dl is the optimum level to have the best impact on semen parameter as well it is the critical level at which the semen lead level is lowest. Serum zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  12. The "omics" of human male infertility: integrating big data in a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Carrell, D T; Aston, K I; Oliva, R; Emery, B R; De Jonge, C J

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process in which >2300 genes are temporally and spatially regulated to form a terminally differentiated sperm cell that must maintain the ability to contribute to a totipotent embryo which can successfully differentiate into a healthy individual. This process is dependent on fidelity of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome of the spermatogonia, supporting cells, and the resulting sperm cell. Infertility and/or disease risk may increase in the offspring if abnormalities are present. This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of these processes in light of the "omics revolution". We briefly review each of these areas, as well as highlight areas of future study and needs to advance further.

  13. Chromosome anomalies and Y chromosome microdeletions as causal factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Chandley, A C

    1998-04-01

    Among the 10% or so of men who are diagnosed as oligo- or azoospermic in the absence of any physical obstruction, research is now showing that between 8 and 15% carry a microdeletion in the long arm of the Y chromosome which, by loss of specific DNA segments, leads to loss of vital genes for sperm production. Chromosomal anomalies account for approximately 2% of all men who attend infertility clinics, rising to 15% among those with azoospermia. There are serious implications for couples seeking help by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), since chromosomal or gene defects which might normally be lost or eliminated by natural means could be transmitted in offspring. The need for genetic testing of ICSI donors and their offspring is raised, and a requirement for counselling is recommended. PMID:9663769

  14. Infertility due to congenital absence of vas deferens in mainly caused by variable exon 9 skipping of the CFTR gene in heterozygous males for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Nunes, V.

    1994-09-01

    About 65% or the individuals with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) have mutations in at least one of the CFTR alleles. We have studied the phenotypic effects of the CFTR gene intron 8 polyT tract 5T allele in 90 CBAVD subjects and in parents of CF patients. This group was compared with normal individuals, and with fathers and mothers of CF patients. Allele 5T was significantly associated with CBAVD (19.6%) when compared to the general population (5.2%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 33.3%; p<<0.0001). It was represented poorly in fathers of CF patients (1.3%). Mutations were identified in one (60%) or both CFTR alleles (8.9%) of CBAVD patients. Heterozygosity for the 5T allele was strongly associated with heterozygosity for CF mutations ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.9; p<0.0004). The strong correlation between allele 5T and CBAVD, together with the low frequency of this allele in fathers of CF patients, demonstrates that variable {Delta}exon 9 produces infertility in males if associated with a CF mutation on the other chromosome. The 30% of CBAVD cases with only one CFTR mutation and without a 5T-allele may be due to other molecular mechanisms involving CFTR, distinct from {Delta}exon 9. Since there is a relatively high proportion of CBAVD without CF mutations (25%), other gene(s), distinct from CFTR, may have a role in the CBAVD phenotype.

  15. Serum Bisphenol A Level in Boys with Cryptorchidism: A Step to Male Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Komarowska, Marta Diana; Hermanowicz, Adam; Czyzewska, Urszula; Milewski, Robert; Matuszczak, Ewa; Miltyk, Wojciech; Debek, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is the most common congenital birth defect in boys and affects about 2–4% full-term male neonates. Its etiology is multifactorial. Purpose. To evaluate the serum bisphenol A (BPA) levels in boys with cryptorchidism and healthy boys and to assess the risk of environmental exposure to BPA using the authors' questionnaire. The data were acquired from a study on boys with cryptorchidism (n = 98) and a control group (n = 57). Prior to surgery, all patients had BPA serum levels evaluated. The size, position, rigidity of the testis, and abnormality of the epididymis of the undescended testis were assessed. Parents also completed a questionnaire on the risks of exposure to BPA in everyday life. Results. The testes in both groups were similar in size. The turgor of the undescended testis in the group of boys with cryptorchidism was decreased. Free serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The conjugated serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). Total serum BPA level in cryptorchid boys and in the control group was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Serum total BPA level was related with a positive answer about problems with conception (p < 0.02). Conclusion. Our study indicated that high serum BPA was associated with cryptorchidism. PMID:26491444

  16. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  17. Obesity leads to higher risk of sperm DNA damage in infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Charlotte; Faure, Céline; Sermondade, Nathalie; Boubaya, Marouane; Eustache, Florence; Clément, Patrice; Briot, Pascal; Berthaut, Isabelle; Levy, Vincent; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Benzacken, Brigitte; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Levy, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    There has been a growing interest over the past few years in the impact of male nutrition on fertility. Infertility has been linked to male overweight or obesity, and conventional semen parameter values seem to be altered in case of high body mass index (BMI). A few studies assessing the impact of BMI on sperm DNA integrity have been published, but they did not lead to a strong consensus. Our objective was to explore further the relationship between sperm DNA integrity and BMI, through a 3-year multicentre study. Three hundred and thirty male partners in subfertile couples were included. Using the terminal uridine nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay, we observed an increased rate of sperm DNA damage in obese men (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.5 (1.2–5.1)). PMID:23792341

  18. Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Christopher L R; Mansell, Steven; Beaton, Catherine; Tardif, Steve; Oxenham, Senga K

    2011-01-01

    Sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of infertility, yet what is remarkable is that, there is no drug a man can take or add to his spermatozoa in vitro to improve fertility. One reason for the lack of progress in this area is that our understanding of the cellular and molecular workings of the mature spermatazoon is limited. However, over the last few years there has been considerable progress in our knowledge base and in addressing new methods to diagnose sperm dysfunction. We review the current state of the field and provide insights for further development. We conclude that: (i) there is little to be gained from more studies identifying/categorizing various populations of men using a basic semen assessment, where an effort is required in making sure the analysis is performed in an appropriate high quality way; (ii) technological development is likely to bring the reality of sperm function testing closer to implementation into the clinical pathways. In doing this, these assays must be robust, cheap (or more appropriately termed cost effective), easy to use and clinically useful; and (iii) clinical necessity, e.g., the need to identify the highest quality spermatozoon for injection is driving basic research forward. This is an exciting time to be an andrologist and, likely, a fruitful one.

  19. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Defining infertility What is infertility? Infertility is “the inability to conceive after 12 months ... to conceive after 6 months is generally considered infertility. How common is it? Infertility affects 10%-15% ...

  20. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST®System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Peivandi, Sepideh; Ebadi, Aghdas; Modanlu, Shila

    2015-01-01

    Background Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with intrauterine insemination (IUI) is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST) system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45) to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45) to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%), whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05). Conclusion FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility. PMID:25780519

  1. OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism interacts with cigarette smoking to increase oxidative DNA damage in human sperm and the risk of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Guixiang; Yan, Lifeng; Liu, Wei; Qu, Jianhua; Gu, Aihua

    2013-04-12

    8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) plays an important role in repairing oxidative DNA damage induced by chemical agents, such as tobacco. This study examined the effects of OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cigarette smoking, alone or combined, on sperm oxidative DNA damage and the risk of male infertility. A total of 620 idiopathic infertile subjects and 480 fertile controls were recruited in this study. Sperm 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OHdG) was measured by immunofluorescent assay using flow cytometry and genotypes were determined by OpenArray platform with a chip-based Taq-Man genotyping technology. Our results demonstrated that both cigarette smoking and OGG1 polymorphism can affect the sperm 8-OHdG levels. Individuals with variant Cys/Cys homozygote showed higher levels of sperm 8-OHdG than wide-type homozygote carriers (Ser/Ser). Stratified analysis found that the association between OGG1 polymorphism and sperm 8-OHdG levels was only observed among smokers with pack-years ≥5 but not among those subjects with pack-years<5 (pack-years=packs smoked per day×years as a smoker). Further analysis based on the case-control study revealed that variant allele (Cys) of OGG1 was significantly associated with male infertility risk in a dominant model (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.82; trend P<0.001). Furthermore, we found a significant gene-environment interaction between OGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and cigarette smoking in relation to male infertility risk (Pinteration=0.0003). These findings provided the first evidence about potential interactive effects of OGG1 polymorphism and cigarette smoking on male infertility risk.

  2. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  3. Targeted gene disruption of Hsp70-2 results in failed meiosis, germ cell apoptosis, and male infertility.

    PubMed Central

    Dix, D J; Allen, J W; Collins, B W; Mori, C; Nakamura, N; Poorman-Allen, P; Goulding, E H; Eddy, E M

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the five 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) common to germ cells and somatic tissues of mammals, spermatogenic cells synthesize HSP70-2 during meiosis. To determine if this unique stress protein has a critical role in meiosis, we used gene-targeting techniques to disrupt Hsp70-2 in mice. Male mice homozygous for the mutant allele (Hsp70-2 -/-) did not synthesize HSP70-2, lacked postmeiotic spermatids and mature sperm, and were infertile. However, neither meiosis nor fertility was affected in female Hsp70-2 -/- mice. We previously found that HSP70-2 is associated with synaptonemal complexes in the nucleus of meiotic spermatocytes from mice and hamsters. While synaptonemal complexes assembled in Hsp70-2 -/- spermatocytes, structural abnormalities became apparent in these cells by late prophase, and development rarely progressed to the meiotic divisions. Furthermore, analysis of nuclei and genomic DNA indicated that the failure of meiosis in Hsp70-2 -/- mice was coincident with a dramatic increase in spermatocyte apoptosis. These results suggest that HSP70-2 participates in synaptonemal complex function during meiosis in male germ cells and is linked to mechanisms that inhibit apoptosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622925

  4. Combined letrozole and clomiphene versus letrozole and clomiphene alone in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Dehghan, Meisam; Kiarang, Nazila; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahideh; Shayegh, Seyed Navid; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%), is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9%) and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%). The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to save time and expense. PMID:24348019

  5. Unilateral adrenal tumor, erectile dysfunction and infertility in a patient with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: effects of glucocorticoid treatment and surgery.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Favia, G; Lumachi, F; Opocher, G; Bonanni, G; Mantero, F; Armanini, D

    2003-02-01

    In untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHDS) the presence of adrenal and testicular tumors had been described; however little is known about the effect of the enzymatic defect on fertility in males. We studied a male adult patient affected by 21OHDS for infertility, after a long period of discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy and then during resumption of treatment and 8 months after monoadrenalectomy. The initial spermatic count revealed azoospermia and testicular needle aspiration showed a cytological picture consistent with prepuberty. The morphofunctional study revealed a right adrenal mass with reduced uptake at radioscan. Treatment was resumed with onset of impotency, which improved after reduction of the dose of glucocorticoids. The patient was monoadrenalectomised and his spermatic count increased. The patient shows that corticosteroid therapy in 21OHDS should be continued lifelong to avoid adrenal hyperplasia with possible areas of autonomy and to allow regular fertility. Impotence during treatment is probably due to a decrease of excessive adrenal androgens while testicular androgen production is still suppressed. PMID:12605349

  6. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  7. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  8. Mutations in DNAH1, which Encodes an Inner Arm Heavy Chain Dynein, Lead to Male Infertility from Multiple Morphological Abnormalities of the Sperm Flagella

    PubMed Central

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F.

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  9. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum. PMID:24360805

  10. Mutations in DNAH1, which encodes an inner arm heavy chain dynein, lead to male infertility from multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella.

    PubMed

    Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Coutton, Charles; Zouari, Raoudha; Karaouzène, Thomas; Rendu, John; Bidart, Marie; Yassine, Sandra; Pierre, Virginie; Delaroche, Julie; Hennebicq, Sylviane; Grunwald, Didier; Escalier, Denise; Pernet-Gallay, Karine; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Thierry-Mieg, Nicolas; Touré, Aminata; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre F

    2014-01-01

    Ten to fifteen percent of couples are confronted with infertility and a male factor is involved in approximately half the cases. A genetic etiology is likely in most cases yet only few genes have been formally correlated with male infertility. Homozygosity mapping was carried out on a cohort of 20 North African individuals, including 18 index cases, presenting with primary infertility resulting from impaired sperm motility caused by a mosaic of multiple morphological abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF) including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular flagella. Five unrelated subjects out of 18 (28%) carried a homozygous variant in DNAH1, which encodes an inner dynein heavy chain and is expressed in testis. RT-PCR, immunostaining, and electronic microscopy were carried out on samples from one of the subjects with a mutation located on a donor splice site. Neither the transcript nor the protein was observed in this individual, confirming the pathogenicity of this variant. A general axonemal disorganization including mislocalization of the microtubule doublets and loss of the inner dynein arms was observed. Although DNAH1 is also expressed in other ciliated cells, infertility was the only symptom of primary ciliary dyskinesia observed in affected subjects, suggesting that DNAH1 function in cilium is not as critical as in sperm flagellum.

  11. Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in Human Infertility.

    PubMed

    Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Liehr, Thomas; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by banding cytogenetics. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of sSMC frequency and characterization in a context of infertility and to review the literature describing sSMC in relation with male and female infertility. Therefore, a systematic literature review on sSMC associated with infertility was conducted by means of a PubMed literature and a sSMC database (http://ssmc-tl.com/sSMC.html) search. A total of 234 patients with infertility were identified as carriers of sSMC. All chromosomes, except chromosomes 10, 19 and the X, were involved in sSMC, and in 72% the sSMC originated from acrocentric chromosomes. Euchromatic imbalances were caused by the presence of sSMC in 30% of the cases. Putative genes have been identified in only 1.2% of sSMC associated with infertility. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to a partial trisomy of some genes but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Further precise molecular and interphase-architecture studies on sSMC are needed in the future to characterize the relationship between this chromosomal anomaly and human infertility.

  12. Targeted disruption of glycogen synthase kinase 3A (GSK3A) in mice affects sperm motility resulting in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Rahul; Goswami, Suranjana; Dudiki, Tejasvi; Popkie, Anthony P; Phiel, Christopher J; Kline, Douglas; Vijayaraghavan, Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    The signaling enzyme glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) exists as two isoforms-GSK3A and GSK3B. Protein phosphorylation by GSK3 has important signaling roles in several cells. In our past work, we found that both isoforms of GSK3 are present in mouse sperm and that catalytic GSK3 activity correlates with motility of sperm from several species. Here, we examined the role of Gsk3a in male fertility using a targeted gene knockout (KO) approach. The mutant mice are viable, but have a male infertility phenotype, while female fertility is unaffected. Testis weights of Gsk3a(-/-) mice are normal and sperm are produced in normal numbers. Although spermatogenesis is apparently unimpaired, sperm motility parameters in vitro are impaired. In addition, the flagellar waveform appears abnormal, characterized by low amplitude of flagellar beat. Sperm ATP levels were lower in Gsk3a(-/-) mice compared to wild-type animals. Protein phosphatase PP1 gamma2 protein levels were unaltered, but its catalytic activity was elevated in KO sperm. Remarkably, tyrosine phosphorylation of hexokinase and capacitation-associated changes in tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins are absent or significantly lower in Gsk3a(-/-) sperm. The GSK3B isoform was present and unaltered in testis and sperm of Gsk3a(-/-) mice, showing the inability of GSK3B to substitute for GSK3A in this context. Our studies show that sperm GSK3A is essential for male fertility. In addition, the GSK3A isoform, with its highly conserved glycine-rich N terminus in mammals, may have an isoform-specific role in its requirement for normal sperm motility and fertility.

  13. How to overcome male infertility after 40: Influence of paternal age on fertility.

    PubMed

    Belloc, Stephanie; Hazout, Andre; Zini, Armand; Merviel, Philippe; Cabry, Rosalie; Chahine, Hikmat; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2014-05-01

    The recent trend toward delayed parenthood raises major safety concerns because of the adverse effects of aging on couple fertility. Studies have demonstrated that aging clearly affects female fertility, but can also affect male fertility. Although several theories have been proposed, the exact mechanisms responsible for the observed age-related decline in male fertility remain to be elucidated. It has been shown that advanced paternal age (PA) is associated with reduced semen volume as well as, reduced sperm count, motility and morphology. Recent studies have also reported that paternal aging is associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of both genomic and epigenomic sperm defects. In the context of natural and intrauterine insemination (IUI) conception, advanced paternal age has been associated with lower pregnancy rates and increased rates of spontaneous abortion (independent of maternal age). In IVF and oocyte donation programs, a significant decrease in late blastocyst development has been seen in those cycles using spermatozoa of men older than 55. However, no significant relationship between paternal age and IVF or ICSI pregnancy rates has been observed. Although there are no treatments that can fully restore the age-related decline in male fertility, various measures have been shown to optimize male fertility potential. Specific therapies (e.g. varicocelectomy) and lifestyle changes (e.g. dietary antioxidant supplements) may help minimize some of the age-related deleterious effects on spermatogenesis, such as, oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities. PMID:24680129

  14. Male Infertility during Antihypertensive Therapy: Are We Addressing Correctly The Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Iaconianni, Paola; Gatti, Simona; Padula, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several “acute” pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s) which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials) on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent) of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient’s reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility. PMID:27695607

  15. Male infertility and copy number variants (CNVs) in the dog: a two-pronged approach using Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility affects ~10-15% of couples trying to have children, in which the rate of male fertility problems is approximately at 30-50%. Copy number variations (CNVs) are DNA sequences greater than or equal to 1 kb in length sharing a high level of similarity, and present at a variable number of copies in the genome; in our study, we used the canine species as an animal model to detect CNVs responsible for male infertility. We aim to identify CNVs associated with male infertility in the dog genome with a two-pronged approach: we performed a sperm analysis using the CASA system and a cytogenetic-targeted analysis on genes involved in male gonad development and spermatogenesis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using dog-specific clones. This analysis was carried out to evaluate possible correlations between CNVs on targeted genes and spermatogenesis impairments or infertility factors. Results We identified two genomic regions hybridized by BACs CH82-321J09 and CH82-509B23 showing duplication patterns in all samples except for an azoospermic dog. These two regions harbor two important genes for spermatogenesis: DNM2 and TEKT1. The genomic region encompassed by the BAC clone CH82-324I01 showed a single-copy pattern in all samples except for one dog, assessed with low-quality sperm, displaying a marked duplication pattern. This genomic region harbors SOX8, a key gene for testis development. Conclusion We present the first study involving functional and genetic analyses in male infertility. We set up an extremely reliable analysis on dog sperm cells with a highly consistent statistical significance, and we succeeded in conducting FISH experiments on sperm cells using BAC clones as probes. We found copy number differences in infertile compared with fertile dogs for genomic regions encompassing TEKT1, DNM2, and SOX8, suggesting those genes could have a role if deleted or duplicated with respect to the reference copy number in fertility biology

  16. STDs and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... literature review to support an infertility prevention social marketing campaign Male Chlamydia Screening Consultation - Review and guidance ( ... Health Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  17. Afterword to varicocele and male infertility: current concepts and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    We summarize and comment on the topics discussed by the contributors to this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. The scope of varicocele covers a wide spectrum, including proteomics and metabolomics, hormonal control, interventional therapy, and assisted reproductive technology (ART). The selection of topics demonstrates the exciting breadth of this thematic area and the opportunity research holds for both increasing the understanding and improving the reproductive health of males with varicocele. PMID:26780876

  18. Study of cytomegalovirus infection in idiopathic infertility men referred to Shariati hospital, Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Masoud; Bahrami, Alireza; Morteza, Afsaneh; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Ghadami, Mohsen; Choobineh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a prevalent infection in humans. Recent studies have shown the role of CMV infection in male infertility disorder. Aim: Here we aimed to study the role of CMV infection in men with idiopathic infertility. Materials and Methods: We performed a case-control study of CMV serology in 200 patients attending male infertility clinic of a university hospital. There were 154 men diagnosed with infertility and 46 men without infertility. The patients were asked to donate their sperm, blood, and urine. The presence of CMV infection was studied using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: CMV infection was present in 25 of all the studied participants. Controls had a higher sperm count and sperm motility and sperm morphology compared to patients. There were no significant differences in the studied variables between those with and without CMV infection, nor in patients, neither in controls. Sperm morphology was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (r=-0.15; p<0.03). Even though the prevalence of CMV infection was higher in patients with infertility in control and patient (5/46 vs. 20/154) respectively, this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: We did not show a significant role for CMV infection in male infertility. Based on the previous studies, it could be assumed that CMV infection is an important part of the male infertility and its treatment would improve the sperm quality, however this was not confirmed by the present study. PMID:24799874

  19. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  20. Decline of semen quality among 10 932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine; Loundou, Anderson Dieudonné; Romain, Fanny; Achard, Vincent; Courbière, Blandine; Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Durand, Philippe; Guichaoua, Marie-Roberte

    2012-07-01

    Semen from 10 932 male partners of infertile couples was analysed and sperm parameter trends were evaluated at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007. After 3-6 days of abstinence, semen samples were collected. Measurements of seminal fluid volume, pH, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility and detailed morphology of spermatozoa were performed. Sperm parameters were analysed on the entire population and in men with normal total numeration (≥40 million per ejaculate). The whole population demonstrated declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5% per year), total sperm count (1.6% per year), total motility (0.4% per year), rapid motility (5.5% per year) and normal morphology (2.2% per year). In the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count, the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed. Our results clearly indicate that the quality of semen decreased in this population over the study period.

  1. Mutations in DNAJB13, Encoding an HSP40 Family Member, Cause Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    El Khouri, Elma; Thomas, Lucie; Jeanson, Ludovic; Bequignon, Emilie; Vallette, Benoit; Duquesnoy, Philippe; Montantin, Guy; Copin, Bruno; Dastot-Le Moal, Florence; Blanchon, Sylvain; Papon, Jean François; Lorès, Patrick; Yuan, Li; Collot, Nathalie; Tissier, Sylvie; Faucon, Catherine; Gacon, Gérard; Patrat, Catherine; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Dulioust, Emmanuel; Crestani, Bruno; Escudier, Estelle; Coste, André; Legendre, Marie; Touré, Aminata; Amselem, Serge

    2016-08-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disease due to functional or ultra-structural defects of motile cilia. Affected individuals display recurrent respiratory-tract infections; most males are infertile as a result of sperm flagellar dysfunction. The great majority of the PCD-associated genes identified so far encode either components of dynein arms (DAs), which are multiprotein-ATPase complexes essential for ciliary motility, or proteins involved in DA assembly. To identify the molecular basis of a PCD phenotype characterized by central complex (CC) defects but normal DA structure, a phenotype found in ∼15% of cases, we performed whole-exome sequencing in a male individual with PCD and unexplained CC defects. This analysis, combined with whole-genome SNP genotyping, identified a homozygous mutation in DNAJB13 (c.833T>G), a gene encoding a HSP40 co-chaperone whose ortholog in the flagellated alga Chlamydomonas localizes to the radial spokes. In vitro studies showed that this missense substitution (p.Met278Arg), which involves a highly conserved residue of several HSP40 family members, leads to protein instability and triggers proteasomal degradation, a result confirmed by the absence of endogenous DNAJB13 in cilia and sperm from this individual. Subsequent DNAJB13 analyses identified another homozygous mutation in a second family; the study of DNAJB13 transcripts obtained from airway cells showed that this mutation (c.68+1G>C) results in a splicing defect consistent with a loss-of-function mutation. Overall, this study, which establishes mutations in DNAJB13 as a cause of PCD, unveils the key role played by DNAJB13 in the proper formation and function of ciliary and flagellar axonemes in humans. PMID:27486783

  2. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice.

    PubMed

    Geister, Krista A; Brinkmeier, Michelle L; Cheung, Leonard Y; Wendt, Jennifer; Oatley, Melissa J; Burgess, Daniel L; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Cavalcoli, James D; Oatley, Jon M; Camper, Sally A

    2015-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility.

  3. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Cheung, Leonard Y.; Wendt, Jennifer; Oatley, Melissa J.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Oatley, Jon M.; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility. PMID:26496357

  4. Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xiao, Heng-Jun; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-Ling; Long, He-Ming; Liu, Song-Hao

    2015-02-01

    The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly.

  5. Evaluation and treatment of infertility.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Tammy J; Vitrikas, Kristen R

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization. PMID:25822387

  6. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  7. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  8. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  9. MTHFR-Ala222Val and male infertility: a study in Iranian men, an updated meta-analysis and an in silico-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, Hossein; Karimian, Mohammad; Sareban, Kobra; Khoshsokhan, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2015-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) functions as a main regulatory enzyme in folate metabolism. The association of MTHFR gene Ala222Val polymorphism with male infertility in an Iranian population was investigated by undertaking a meta-analysis and in-silico approach. A genetic association study included 497 men; 242 had unexplained infertility and 255 were healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genotyping MTHFR-Ala222Val. OpenMeta[Analyst] software was used to conduct the analysis; 22 studies were identified by searching PubMed and the currently reported genetic association study. A novel in-silico approach was used to analyse the effects of Ala222Val substitution on the structure of mRNA and protein. Genetic association study revealed a significant association of MTHFR-222Val/Val genotype with oligozoospermia (OR 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.78; P = 0.0451) and azoospermia (OR 2.59; 95% CI 1.09 to 6.17; P = 0.0314). Meta-analysis for allelic, dominant and codominant models showed a significant association between Ala222Val polymorphism and the risk of male infertility (P < 0.001). In silico-analysis showed MTHFR-Ala222Val affects enzyme structure and could also change the mRNA properties (P = 0.1641; P < 0.2 is significant). The meta-analysis suggested significant association of MTHFR-Ala222Val with risk of male infertility, especially in Asian populations.

  10. Impact of extensive laparoscopic venous disconnection on the recurrence rate and sperm DNA quality in infertile varicocele patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Burham, Waleed Ahmed; Aboelsaad, Ahmed Yosef; Badran, Yaser Ali; Ahmed, Abul-Fotouh Abdel-Maguid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although there are many literature examining the possible effects of varicocelectomy on classic semen parameters and recurrence rate, few published articles have examined the effect of conventional laparoscopic varicocelectomy on sperm DNA integrity. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the effect of extensive laparoscopic venous disconnections on the recurrence rate and sperm DNA damage in varicocele patients. Methods: Totally, 54 patients with varicocele underwent extensive laparoscopic venous disconnections were assessed by clinical evaluation, duplex scan, semen analysis, and sperm DNA fragmentation assay before surgery and after 6 and 12 months following surgery. Results: No intra- or post-operative complications were observed and out of 54 patients preoperatively complained from varicocele 2 (3.7%) patients' have recurrence during the follow-up period for 12 months. Out of 54 patients complaining from male infertility, 14 patients success to get pregnancy after 6 months with pregnancy rates of 25.92% and 22 (40.74%) after 12 months, and 28 patients (51.85%) had a preoperative DNA fragmentation index (DFI) >30%, decreased following surgery below 30% in 19 (35.18%) patients after 6 months, and 11 (20.37%) after 12 months, and the percentage of sperm with DFI > 30% was significantly decreased after 6 and 12 months, respectively (38.4 ± 10.6 vs. 31.3 ± 12.4, [P < 0.001] at 6 months, and 22.9 ± 13.2, [P < 0.001] after 1-year). Other spermatic parameter was significantly improved. Conclusions: An extensive laparoscopic venous disconnection was significantly decreasing the recurrence rate, DFI and improving normal semen parameters and fertility. PMID:26692670

  11. Y chromosome b2/b3 deletions and male infertility: A comprehensive meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of Y-chromosome b2/b3 partial deletions with spermatogenic failure remains dubious. We undertook a systematic review of the literature followed by meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses in order to compare the frequency of b2/b3 deletions between oligo/azoospermic infertile and normozoospermicmen. Out of twenty-four studies reviewed for meta-analysis, twenty reported no correlation between this deletion and male infertility and two studies each reported a direct and inverse correlation. In the collective analysis, 241 out of 8892 (2.71%) oligo/azoospermic individuals and 118 out of 5842 (2.02%) normozoospermic controls had a b2/b3 deletion, suggesting a relatively higher frequency of deletions in the cases. Eventually, meta-analysis showed a significant correlation between b2/b3 deletions and the risk of spermatogenic loss/infertility (Fixed model: OR=1.313, 95% CI=1.04-1.65, p=0.02; Random model: OR=1.315, 95% CI=1.02-1.70, p=0.037). Further meta-analysis on studies grouped by ethnicity and geographic regions showed that the b2/b3 deletions are significantly associated with spermatogenic loss/infertility in Mongolians, Nigro-Caucasians, East Asians and Africans, but not in Caucasians, Europeans, South Asians and Dravidians. In summary, the Y-chromosome b2/b3 deletions increase infertility risk; however, it may be significant only in the Mongolian populations and the East Asian region.

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses of de novo translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) in an infertile male

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole arm t(9;13)(p11;p12) translocations are rare and have been described only a few times; all of the previously reported cases were familial. Results We present here an infertile male carrier with a whole-arm reciprocal translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) revealed by GTG-, C-, and NOR-banding karyotypes with no mature sperm cells in his ejaculate. FISH and genome-wide 400 K CGH microarray (Agilent) analyses demonstrated a balanced chromosome complement and further characterised the abnormality as a dicentric chromosome (9;13): dic(9;13)(pter→p11.2::p12→qter),neo(9)(pter→p12→neo→p11.2). An analysis of the patient’s ejaculated cells identified immature germ cells at different phases of spermatogenesis but no mature spermatozoa. Most (82.5%) of the germ cells were recognised as spermatocytes at stage I, and the cell nuclei were most frequently found in pachytene I (41.8%). We have also undertaken FISH analysis and documented an increased rate of aneuploidy of chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y in the peripheral blood leukocytes of our patient. To study the aneuploidy risk in leukocytes, we have additionally included 9 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia with normal karyotypes. Conclusions We propose that the azoospermia observed in the patient with the dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) translocation was most likely a consequence of a very high proportion (90%) of association between XY bivalents and quadrivalent formations in prophase I. PMID:24559467

  13. gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b deletion is a high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Myriam; Baklouti-Gargouri, Siwar; Keskes, Rim; Chakroun, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ammar-Keskes, Leila

    2016-10-30

    The azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region harbors multi-copy genes that are expressed in the testis. Deletions of this region lead to reduced copy numbers of these genes. In this present study we aimed to determine the frequency of AZFc subdeletion in infertile and fertile men from Tunisia and to identify whether deletions of DAZ and CDY1 gene copies are deleterious on spermatogenesis and on semen quality. We studied a group of 241 infertile men and 115 fertile healthy males using a sequence tagged site (STS)±method. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the heterogeneous phenotype observed in men with the deletion we defined the type of DAZ and CDY1 genes deleted. We reported in the present study and for the first time a new type of AZFc deletion (gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b) and hypothesis that this new deletion is the result of two successive events. We also demonstrated that this deletion constitutes a relative high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population. PMID:27457284

  14. Effect of Pertubation on Pregnancy Rates before Intrauterine Insemination Treatment in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Funda; Bozkurt, Nuray; Erdem, Ahmet; Erdem, Mehmet; Oktem, Mesut; Onur Karabacak, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: In this prospective randomized study, a total of 180 patients were included in the study. Amongst these, pertubation of the uterine cavity was carried out in 79 patients prior to insemination. One patient in the pertubation group was later excluded because insemination could not be performed due to cycle cancellation. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the study and control groups. When the pregnancy rates of both groups were evaluated, 14(17.8%) patients in the study group achieved pregancy. Three (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 1(1.3%) miscarried and 10(12.7%) had live births. In the control group, a total of 24(23.8%) pregnancies were achieved, amongst which one (1%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 3(3%) miscarried and 20(19.8%) resulted in live births. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of total pregnancy and live birth rates (p>0.05). There was a 21% total pregnancy loss rate. There was no significant difference between the control and study groups in terms of pregnancy loss rates (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study on a homogenous group of unexplained infertile patients determined that the addition of pertubation to a controlled ovarian hyperstimulation plus intrauterine insemination (COH+IUI) treatment protocol did not affect pregnancy rates (Registration Number: NCT01999959). PMID:24695882

  15. Laparoscopic ovarian treatment in infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): endocrine changes and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Tolino, A; Moccia, G; Scognamiglio, G; Nappi, C

    1996-08-01

    During the years 1991-1994, 97 anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were treated with laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovarian surface after they had failed to ovulate under ovarian stimulation. To assess the endocrinological and clinical outcome and in an attempt to determine the mechanism of action, the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined before and after laparoscopic ovarian cautery. Fifty regularly cycling women undergoing laparoscopy for investigation of infertility or tubal ligation served as controls. In patients with PCOS but not in controls, the reduction of androgen levels and normalization of cycle length were highly significant. In contrast, LH and FSH levels rose during the first 2 days after the operation. These results resemble those reported after ovarian wedge resection. Ovulation was obtained in 90% (81 of 90) and pregnancy in 81.1% (73 of 90) of the patients; that increased to 84.4%, including the non-responders (nine patients) treated with clomiphene citrate (CC), after electrocautery. The response to ovarian electrocautery was influenced by body weight, with an ovulation rate of 95-96% in the slim and moderately obese women, decreasing to 81-82% in the really obese ones. When ovulation was established, the pregnancy rate was independent of body weight. However, a striking relationship was detected between smoking habits and pregnancy rate subsequent to ovarian electrocautery, ranging from 24% in smokers to 92% in non-smoking couples. In 30 second-look operations, de novo adhesions were found in 23.3% of the patients (7 of 30). Therefore, ovarian electrocautery is an effective procedure to improve the intraovarian mechanism of selecting a dominant follicle for patients with PCOS in whom initial medical management fails, and it appears to be one of the possible treatments for this

  16. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Results Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. Conclusions The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety. PMID:26484531

  17. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Elena; Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function. PMID:27594886

  18. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function.

  19. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function. PMID:27594886

  20. The role of impairment of adrenal mineraloglucocorticoid function in the development of infertility in varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Mazo, E B; Koryakin, M V; Kudryavtsev JuV; Evseev, L P; Akopyan, A S

    1989-01-01

    The study was aimed at the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of the impairment of spermatogenesis in varicocele patients. The crucial role of tension increase in the venous plexus of the spermatic cord in spermatogenesis damage in the testis on the varicocele side and absence of any effect of haemodynamic abnormalities on spermatogenesis in the complementary testis has been determined. Retrograde blood flow through the central vein of the left adrenal gland in varicocele has been evidenced by X-ray examination. The role of this phenomenon in the changes of functional activity of the adrenal gland is discussed. Results of the study of functional status of adrenal glands revealed their tendency to provide hyperactivity in synthesis of mineraloglucocorticoids. Correlation between cortisol level in peripheral blood and percentage of abnormal sperm in ejaculate was shown. This fact supported the idea about the existence of a causal interrelationship between abnormalities in the functional status of adrenal glands and development of infertility in varicocele patients.

  1. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  2. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men.

    PubMed

    Ounis, Leyla; Zoghmar, Abdelali; Coutton, Charles; Rouabah, Leila; Hachemi, Maroua; Martinez, Delphine; Martinez, Guillaume; Bellil, Ines; Khelifi, Douadi; Arnoult, Christophe; Fauré, Julien; Benbouhedja, Sebti; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Ray, Pierre F

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC) and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%), corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5), corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions. PMID:25219909

  3. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men

    PubMed Central

    Ounis, Leyla; Zoghmar, Abdelali; Coutton, Charles; Rouabah, Leila; Hachemi, Maroua; Martinez, Delphine; Martinez, Guillaume; Bellil, Ines; Khelifi, Douadi; Arnoult, Christophe; Fauré, Julien; Benbouhedja, Sebti; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Ray, Pierre F

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC) and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%), corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5), corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions. PMID:25219909

  4. Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Risk of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Farland, Leslie V; Grodstein, Francine; Srouji, Serene S; Forman, John P; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Chavarro, Jorge E; Missmer, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between infertility and fertility treatments on subsequent risk of hypertension. Design Cohort Study Setting Nurses’ Health Study II Patients 116,430 female nurses followed from 1993 to June 2011 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Intervention None Main Outcome Measures Self-reported, physician diagnosed hypertension Results Compared to women who never reported infertility, infertile women were at no greater risk of hypertension (multi-variable adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.01 95% confidence interval [0.94–1.07]). Infertility due to tubal disease was associated with a higher risk of hypertension (RR=1.15 [1.01–1.31]) but all other diagnoses were not associated with hypertension risk compared to women who did not report infertility (ovulatory disorder: RR=1.03 [0.94–1.13], cervical: RR=0.88 [0.70–1.10], male factor: RR= 1.05 [0.95–1.15], other reason: RR=1.02 [0.94–1.11], reason not found: RR=1.02 [0.95–1.10]). Among infertile women there were 5,070 cases of hypertension. No clear pattern between use of fertility treatment and hypertension was found among infertile women (Clomiphene: RR =0.97 [0.90–1.04], Gonadotropin alone: RR=0.97 [0.87–1.08], IUI: RR=0.86 [0.71–1.03], IVF: RR=0.86 [0.73–1.01]). Conclusion Among this relatively young cohort of women, there was no apparent increase in hypertension risk among infertile women or among women who underwent fertility treatment in the past. PMID:26049054

  5. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  6. Development of dimethandrolone 17beta-undecanoate (DMAU) as an oral male hormonal contraceptive: induction of infertility and recovery of fertility in adult male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Attardi, Barbara J; Engbring, Jean A; Gropp, David; Hild, Sheri Ann

    2011-01-01

    Dimethandrolone undecanoate (DMAU: 7α,11β-dimethyl-19-nortestosterone 17β-undecanoate) is a potent orally active androgen with progestational activity that is in development for therapeutic uses in men. We hypothesized that because of its dual activity, DMAU might have potential as a single-agent oral hormonal contraceptive. To test this possibility, adult male rabbits (5/group) of proven fertility were treated orally with vehicle or DMAU at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 mg/kg/d for 12 or 13 weeks. Semen and blood samples were collected every other week through week 30. Sperm were decreased (P < .05) in semen samples from DMAU-treated rabbits at 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d at weeks 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 compared to week 0 (prior to treatment). The percentage of forward progressive motile sperm in those rabbits that still had measurable sperm was also reduced by DMAU treatment at 2.5 mg/kg/d at weeks 14, 16, 18, and 20 and at 5.0 mg/kg/d at week 18 (P < .05). At 1.0 mg/kg/d only 1 rabbit had reduced sperm numbers and motility. A mating trial was performed at week 15. The number of bred males that were fertile was 4 of 4 in the vehicle-treated group and 4 of 5, 0 of 4, and 2 of 5 in the 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg/d DMAU treatment groups. By week 22, sperm numbers and forward progressive motility increased, and they returned to pretreatment levels in all DMAU-treated rabbits by week 30. All bred males were fertile at week 31. Serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly suppressed in DMAU (1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/d)-treated rabbits during the 12-week dosing interval, but were comparable to pretreatment levels after cessation of dosing. These data indicate that DMAU suppressed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in severe oligospermia in the majority of rabbits in the 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg/d dosing groups. Infertility was observed when sperm numbers decreased to about 10% of pretreatment levels. In

  7. Fertility defects in mice expressing the L68Q variant of human cystatin C: a role for amyloid in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Whelly, Sandra; Serobian, Gaiane; Borchardt, Clinton; Powell, Jonathan; Johnson, Seethal; Hakansson, Katarina; Lindstrom, Veronica; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders; Cornwall, Gail A

    2014-03-14

    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, suggesting the presence of L68Q cystatin C amyloid affected sperm function. In vitro studies showed that epididymal spermatozoa from L68Q mice were unable to fertilize oocytes and exhibited poor sperm motility. Furthermore, spermatozoa from L68Q mice exhibited reduced cell viability compared with wild type (WT) spermatozoa and often were detected in large agglutinated clumps. Examination of the epididymal fluid and spermatozoa from L68Q mice showed increased levels and distinct forms of cystatin C amyloid that were not present in WT mice. The addition of epididymal fluid from L68Q mice to WT spermatozoa resulted in a recapitulation of the L68Q phenotype in that WT spermatozoa showed reduced cell viability and motility compared with WT spermatozoa incubated in epididymal fluid from WT mice. L68Q epididymal fluid that was depleted of cystatin C amyloids, however, did not impair the motility of WT spermatozoa. Taken together these studies suggest that amyloids in the epididymal fluid can be cytotoxic to the maturing spermatozoa resulting in male infertility.

  8. Pre-chemotherapy preservation of fertility in male patients with high-grade malignant bone and soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Manabu; Oebisu, Naoto; Takada, Jun; Iwai, Tadashi; Tsuruta, Rie; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-11-01

    Only a limited number of orthopedic oncologists make arrangements for pre-chemotherapy fertility preservation, such as sperm cryopreservation, for their patients. The purpose of this study was to offer fertility preservation to male patients with high-grade malignant bone and soft tissue tumors and assess the outcomes. The study included 14 male patients, aged <45 years, with high-grade bone and soft tissue tumors. The median age at diagnosis was 23.0±12.0 years (range, 8-42 years). Following pathological confirmation of high-grade malignant tumor, we informed all the patients and/or their guardians on the issue of chemotherapy-related male infertility. If the patients were interested in preserving fertility, they were referred to a team of reproductive specialists. We documented the patients' clinical characteristics and techniques used for fertility preservation. The majority of unmarried and childless patients were interested in fertility preservation. Four patients (28.5%) selected sperm cryopreservation and 1 patient (7.1%) selected hemi-testicular preservation, as he had developed erectile dysfunction following previous surgery for colon cancer. Married patients and those with children did not wish to preserve fertility. In conclusion, infertility following chemotherapy raises serious concerns for young male patients with high-grade bone and soft tissue tumors. Prior to initiating chemotherapy, the potential risks of chemotherapy should be explained, counseling should be provided and informed consent should be obtained from the patients, ideally without delaying commencement of cancer treatment. Prior to administering cancer chemotherapy, orthopedic oncologists are encouraged to offer sperm banking to young male patients at risk of infertility. PMID:25279207

  9. Uterine factors and infertility.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Barry

    2006-03-01

    A literature review was performed to explore the available information regarding the association of uterine factors--intrauterine adhesions, uterine septa, uterine myomas and endometrial polyps--with infertility and reproductive loss. The literature was reviewed also to ascertain evidence that treatment of these abnormalities improves fertility. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify the relevant publications in the English-language literature. There is minimal published evidence to demonstrate that intrauterine adhesions lead to infertility or pregnancy loss, but the literature does contain several observational series that demonstrate successful fertility, with term pregnancy rates ranging from 32% to 87% following hysteroscopic division of intrauterine adhesions. The evidence supporting a direct link between a septate uterus and reproductive loss/infertility is derived from the results of metroplasty. Several case series demonstrated a reduction in the spontaneous abortion rate, from 91% to 17%, on average, after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Furthermore, following metroplasty, the mean pregnancy rate in previously infertile patients is 47%. Little has been written regarding the association of endometrial polyps and infertility. One study did demonstrate a pregnancy rate of 78% after hysteroscopic polypectomy as compared to 42% in infertile patients with normal endometrial cavities. The literature that associates myomas with infertility/reproductive loss is more extensive but quite controversial. Evidence from the in vitro fertilization literature suggests that only those myomas that distort the endometrial cavity impair fertility. Pregnancy rates approximating 50% are achieved with myomectomy by laparotomy, laparoscopy or hysteroscopy.

  10. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  11. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  12. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology ... for Diseases That Cause Infertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Specific treatments for ...

  13. Extended letrozole regimen versus clomiphene citrate for superovulation in patients with unexplained infertility undergoing intrauterine insemination: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI). Methods Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles) or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles). Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration. Results Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76) and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = < 0.001) and the endometrial thickness was significantly greater in extended letrozole group (9.10 +/- 1.84 Vs 8.18 +/- 1.93 mm, P = < 0.001).The pregnancy rate per cycle and cumulative pregnancy rate were significantly greater in extended letrozole group (18.96% Vs 11.43% and 37.73% Vs 22.86%, respectively). Conclusion The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075 PMID:21693030

  14. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U. Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility. PMID:27034737

  15. Effect of different ultrasound contrast materials and temperatures on patient comfort during intrauterine and tubal assessment for infertility.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Vanja

    2012-12-01

    Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy) is safe and easy to perform outpatient method in the evaluation of female infertility. During this procedure a certain level of discomfort and pain are experienced by patients. On the basis of reducing avoidable pain inductors the aim of this study was to compare pain sensation due to different warmth of applied contrasts (sterile saline and Echovist(®)). Prospective and randomized study was performed on patients requiring tubal and uterine assessment during standard infertility work up. One group of patients was examined using both contrasts at room temperature and the other group using preheated contrasts at body temperature. Pain experience of the procedure was rated by patients for each contrast by numerical scale (0-10) immediately after the procedure. There was significant statistical difference between pain scores during application of two contrasts in each group; Echovist induces significantly less pain in comparison to sterile saline at the same temperature (P=0.002, 0.001). Between two groups there is also statistically significant difference in pain during introduction of the same contrast at different temperature (P<0.001). The most tolerable for the patient is body temperature of the applied contrasts although their structure and concentrations can be another factor associated with tolerability of the procedure. PMID:22542789

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta1 null mutation causes infertility in male mice associated with testosterone deficiency and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Robertson, Sarah A

    2007-08-01

    TGFbeta1 is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in gonad and secondary sex organ development, steroidogenesis, and spermatogenesis. To determine the physiological requirement for TGFbeta1 in male reproduction, Tgfb1 null mutant mice on a Prkdc(scid) immunodeficient background were studied. TGFbeta1-deficient males did not deposit sperm or induce pseudopregnancy in females, despite an intact reproductive tract with morphologically normal penis, seminal vesicles, and testes. Serum and intratesticular testosterone and serum androstenedione were severely diminished in TGFbeta1-deficient males. Testosterone deficiency was secondary to disrupted pituitary gonadotropin secretion because serum LH and to a lesser extent serum FSH were reduced, and exogenous LH replacement with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced serum testosterone to control levels. In the majority of TGFbeta1-deficient males, spermatogenesis was normal and sperm were developmentally competent as assessed by in vitro fertilization. Analysis of sexual behavior revealed that although TGFbeta1 null males showed avid interest in females and engaged in mounting activity, intromission was infrequent and brief, and ejaculation was not attained. Administration of testosterone to adult males, even after neonatal androgenization, was ineffective in restoring sexual function; however, erectile reflexes and ejaculation could be induced by electrical stimulation. These studies demonstrate the profound effect of genetic deficiency in TGFbeta1 on male fertility, implicating this cytokine in essential roles in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and in testosterone-independent regulation of mating competence.

  17. Injectables and fillers in male patients.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Jess; Friedman, Oren

    2008-08-01

    Traditionally, in facial plastic surgery, male patients were known to focus on function over form. Men typically did not consider rejuvenation surgery until they had advanced changes associated with aging, and it was often coupled with a functional concern. However, over the last several years, the number of men seeking minimally invasive cosmetic products, such as dermal fillers and injectables, has increased significantly. Motives include the desire to be more competitive and youthful in the workforce, the growing social acceptability of cosmetic procedures, and increased awareness of nonsurgical options. The optimal use of these products and procedures requires appropriate patient selection, knowledge of the products, and a thorough understanding of the regional anatomy and clinical applications.

  18. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  19. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  20. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A

    2013-12-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in rat testes in a dose-dependent manner. MDA induced by the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the leachate from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

  1. Use of recombinant luteinizing hormone for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Maia, Mônica C S; Approbato, Mário S; da Silva, Tatiana M; Fleury, Eliamar A B; Sanchez, Eliane G M; Sasaki, Reinaldo S A

    2016-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation has become an integral part of a high complexity infertility treatment. Treatment options with recombinant gonadotrophins add more to knowledge on folliculogenesis and ovarian steroidogenesis. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in the following data bases: Medline, Scielo and PubMed. The descriptors/ key words used were ovarian stimulation, in vitro fertilization, recombinant luteinizing hormone, supplementation LH. The aim of this study was to review the available literature and to assess the benefits of using recombinant luteinizing hormone associated with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone in different populations who have undergone assisted reproduction procedures. PMID:27244766

  2. The Production of Interleukin-11 and Decidualization Are Compromised in Endometrial Stromal Cells Derived from Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Karpovich, Natalia; Klemmt, Petra; McVeigh, J. Enda; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.; Hwang, Jung Hye; Heath, John K.

    2006-01-01

    IL-11 signaling is critical for decidualization of the endometrial stroma in early pregnancy in the mouse. In this study, we investigate the function of IL-11 signaling in cAMP-induced decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. We show that treatment of endometrial stromal cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) results in an increase in the levels of secreted IL-11, whereas levels of cell surface IL-11 receptor α are similar with or without 8-Br-cAMP treatment. The production of IL-11 correlates with the production of molecular markers of decidualization, prolactin and IGF-binding protein-1. The expression of these markers is inhibited when IL-11 signaling is specifically blocked in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells by the IL-11 antagonist W147A. We demonstrate that 8-Br-cAMP-induced endometrial stromal cells derived from patients with primary infertility produce lower levels of prolactin, IGF-binding protein-1, and IL-11 than cells derived from fertile women. Our results suggest that IL-11 expression is critically important during decidualization in the human endometrium, and that aberrant regulation of endometrial IL-11 production may be associated with some types of infertility. PMID:15613426

  3. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  4. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Koji; Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-08-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  5. Contemporary and future insights into fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chloe; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, survival rates of cancer patients have increased, resulting in a shift of focus from quantity to quality of life. A key aspect of quality of life is fertility potential; patients suffering from iatrogenic infertility often become depressed. Since many cancer therapies—chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or surgery—and even cancer itself have detrimental effects on the male reproductive system, it is important to preserve fertility before any treatment commences. Currently, the only reliable method of male fertility preservation is sperm banking. For patients who are unable to provide semen samples by the conventional method of masturbation, there are other techniques such as electroejaculation, microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration and testicular sperm extraction that can be employed. Unfortunately, it is presently impossible to preserve the fertility potential of pre-pubertal patients. Due to the increasing numbers of adolescent cancer patients surviving treatment, extensive research is being conducted into several possible methods such as testicular tissue cryopreservation, xenografting, in vitro gamete maturation and even the creation of artificial gametes. However, in spite of its ease, safety, convenience and many accompanying benefits, sperm banking remains underutilized in cancer patients. There are several barriers involved such as the lack of information and the urgency to begin treatment, but various measures can be put in place to overcome these barriers so that sperm banking can be more widely utilized. PMID:26816750

  6. Pregnancy established in an infertile patient after transfer of a donated embryo fertilised in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Trounson, A; Leeton, J; Besanko, M; Wood, C; Conti, A

    1983-01-01

    In vitro fertilisation after stimulation of the ovulatory cycle has led to successful pregnancy. If more oocytes are recovered than are needed they may be left unfertilised, preserved, or donated to a recipient couple from whom oocytes cannot be obtained. A case of human pregnancy initiated by transfer of a donated embryo fertilised in vitro is reported. The donor was a 42 year old woman with primary infertility from whom six follicles were aspirated after stimulation of the ovulatory cycle. The recipient was a 38 year old infertile woman who had undergone several unsuccessful attempts for artificial insemination from a donor. Five oocytes were recovered from the donor's six follicles, four of which were inseminated with spermatozoa of the donor's husband and the fifth with a frozen sample of semen. Three of the four embryos fertilised by her husband were returned to the donor and the fifth was transferred to the recipient. No pregnancy was recorded in the donor, but pregnancy was confirmed in the recipient, though spontaneous abortion occurred after 10 weeks. This case will give useful information for further study of in vitro fertilisation, but also raises many ethical issues. PMID:6403104

  7. [Cytological, etiological and prognostic aspects of male infertility. Attempt at classification apropos of 1,303 cases].

    PubMed

    Alexandre, C

    Study of 1303 cases of male sub-fertility led to a certain number of practical conclusions: - From a diagnostic viewpoint, the "fertility" of an individual, which is difficult to assess, depends more on the motility than the number of spermatozoa. This is most faithfully reflected in the crossed penetration test which defines the quality of penetration of a control mucus. The value of electron microscopic cytological study in the case of total asthenospermia or major monomorphous teratospermia, reflecting an irreversible constitutional abnormality of the ultrastructure of the spermatozoon, is emphasised. - From a therapeutic viewpoint, recent progress has involved the technique of surgical treatment for varicocoele as well as hormone therapy. It is essential not to neglect empirical "minor aids" indicated in the case of unexplained abnormalities (homologous artifical insemination in the case of abnormalities in the volume of the ejaculate, retard androgen therapy in the case of polyzoospermia). - From a prognostic viewpoint. The distinction must be drawn between aetiologies of good prognosis (80% of our success) responsible for transient abnormalities in spermatogenesis (infections, metabolic disturbances, varicocoele) and aetiologies with an unfavourable prognosis since they cause tubulopathies of greater or lesser severity with a lesional impairment of spermatogenesis.

  8. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  9. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  10. Circulating sperm antibodies: indications for testing in infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Badawy, S Z; el Shaykh, M; Shulman, S; Cittadino, R

    1984-01-01

    Sperm antibody titers were evaluated in the serum of 73 infertile couples by the F-D and Kibrick agglutination tests, to study the relationship of the quality of post-coital tests and semen analysis. Thirty-eight couples had poor post-coital tests, fifteen couples had normal post-coital tests, and twenty couples revealed abnormal semen pictures of the males. In the first two groups, semen analysis was normal. The incidence of sperm antibodies was 10.5%, 6.6% in men, and 18.4%, 20.0% in women, with poor and normal post-coital tests, respectively. This suggests that sperm antibody testing is equally indicated in infertile couples with poor post-coital tests. In addition, there was no difference in the incidence of sperm antibodies in men with poor semen pictures and those with normal semen analysis in this infertile population. This suggests the significance of sperm antibody testing in infertile men with abnormal and normal semen pictures after correcting other infertility factors, in order to detect those patients who could benefit from treatment of such immunologic problems.

  11. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

  12. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient.

  13. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection results in improved clinical outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures or male factor infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Setti, Amanda S; Braga, Daniela P A F; Figueira, Rita C S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the first meta-analysis to compare conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures (IF) or male factor infertility (MF). A systematic review was performed by searching Medline database to identify articles reporting on the comparison between ICSI and IMSI outcomes in couples with IF or MF. The main outcome measures were the implantation, pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Thirteen studies fulfilled our predetermined criteria. The overall results of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 2.88; CI: 2.13-3.89), pregnancy (OR: 2.07; CI: 1.22-3.50) and miscarriage rates (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.14-0.67) were in favor of IMSI in couples with IF. Additionally, the overall result of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 1.56; CI: 1.11-2.18) and pregnancy rate (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.17-2.23) were in favor of IMSI in couples with MF. IMSI increases the odds of implantation by 50% and pregnancy by 60% in couples with MF. In light of improved clinical outcomes, we recommend promoting the IMSI method in couples with MF. Moreover, IMSI results in a 3-fold increase in implantation rate, a 2-fold increase in pregnancy rate and a 70% decrease in miscarriage rate as compared to ICSI in couples with IF, however, as no randomized evidence exists, randomized studies are needed to confirm the IMSI benefits in couples with IF. PMID:25461360

  14. Intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection results in improved clinical outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures or male factor infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Setti, Amanda S; Braga, Daniela P A F; Figueira, Rita C S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to perform the first meta-analysis to compare conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) outcomes in couples with previous ICSI failures (IF) or male factor infertility (MF). A systematic review was performed by searching Medline database to identify articles reporting on the comparison between ICSI and IMSI outcomes in couples with IF or MF. The main outcome measures were the implantation, pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Thirteen studies fulfilled our predetermined criteria. The overall results of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 2.88; CI: 2.13-3.89), pregnancy (OR: 2.07; CI: 1.22-3.50) and miscarriage rates (OR: 0.31; CI: 0.14-0.67) were in favor of IMSI in couples with IF. Additionally, the overall result of meta-analysis for implantation (OR: 1.56; CI: 1.11-2.18) and pregnancy rate (OR: 1.61; CI: 1.17-2.23) were in favor of IMSI in couples with MF. IMSI increases the odds of implantation by 50% and pregnancy by 60% in couples with MF. In light of improved clinical outcomes, we recommend promoting the IMSI method in couples with MF. Moreover, IMSI results in a 3-fold increase in implantation rate, a 2-fold increase in pregnancy rate and a 70% decrease in miscarriage rate as compared to ICSI in couples with IF, however, as no randomized evidence exists, randomized studies are needed to confirm the IMSI benefits in couples with IF.

  15. Disruption of a Spermatogenic Cell-Specific Mouse Enolase 4 (Eno4) Gene Causes Sperm Structural Defects and Male Infertility1

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Noriko; Dai, Qunsheng; Williams, Jason; Goulding, Eugenia H.; Willis, William D.; Brown, Paula R.; Eddy, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sperm utilize glycolysis to generate ATP required for motility, and several spermatogenic cell-specific glycolytic isozymes are associated with the fibrous sheath (FS) in the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. We used proteomics and molecular biology approaches to confirm earlier reports that a novel enolase is present in mouse sperm. We then found that a pan-enolase antibody, but not antibodies to ENO2 and ENO3, recognized a protein in the principal piece of the mouse sperm flagellum. Database analyses identified two previously uncharacterized enolase family-like candidate genes, 64306537H0Rik and Gm5506. Northern analysis indicated that 64306537H0Rik (renamed Eno4) was transcribed in testes of mice by Postnatal Day 12. To determine the role of ENO4, we generated mice using embryonic stem cells in which an Eno4 allele was disrupted by a gene trap containing a beta galactosidase (beta-gal) reporter (Eno4+/Gt). Expression of beta-gal occurred in the testis, and male mice homozygous for the gene trap allele (Eno4Gt/Gt) were infertile. Epididymal sperm numbers were 2-fold lower and sperm motility was reduced substantially in Eno4Gt/Gt mice compared to wild-type mice. Sperm from Eno4Gt/Gt mice had a coiled flagellum and a disorganized FS. The Gm5506 gene encodes a protein identical to ENO1 and also is transcribed at a low level in testis. We conclude that ENO4 is required for normal assembly of the FS and provides most of the enolase activity in sperm and that Eno1 and/or Gm5506 may encode a minor portion of the enolase activity in sperm. PMID:23446454

  16. Tysnd1 Deficiency in Mice Interferes with the Peroxisomal Localization of PTS2 Enzymes, Causing Lipid Metabolic Abnormalities and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Yumi; Ninomiya, Yuichi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Iseki, Mioko; Iwasa, Hiroyasu; Akita, Masumi; Tsukui, Tohru; Shimozawa, Nobuyuki; Ito, Chizuru; Toshimori, Kiyotaka; Nishimukai, Megumi; Hara, Hiroshi; Maeba, Ryouta; Okazaki, Tomoki; Alodaib, Ali Nasser Ali; Amoudi, Mohammed Al; Jacob, Minnie; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.; Horai, Yasushi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Motegi, Hiromi; Wakana, Shigeharu; Noda, Tetsuo; Kurochkin, Igor V.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Schönbach, Christian; Okazaki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles involved in lipid metabolic processes, including those of very-long-chain fatty acids and branched-chain fatty acids, among others. Peroxisome matrix proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm. Targeting signals (PTS or peroxisomal targeting signal) at the C-terminus (PTS1) or N-terminus (PTS2) of peroxisomal matrix proteins mediate their import into the organelle. In the case of PTS2-containing proteins, the PTS2 signal is cleaved from the protein when transported into peroxisomes. The functional mechanism of PTS2 processing, however, is poorly understood. Previously we identified Tysnd1 (Trypsin domain containing 1) and biochemically characterized it as a peroxisomal cysteine endopeptidase that directly processes PTS2-containing prethiolase Acaa1 and PTS1-containing Acox1, Hsd17b4, and ScpX. The latter three enzymes are crucial components of the very-long-chain fatty acids β-oxidation pathway. To clarify the in vivo functions and physiological role of Tysnd1, we analyzed the phenotype of Tysnd1−/− mice. Male Tysnd1−/− mice are infertile, and the epididymal sperms lack the acrosomal cap. These phenotypic features are most likely the result of changes in the molecular species composition of choline and ethanolamine plasmalogens. Tysnd1−/− mice also developed liver dysfunctions when the phytanic acid precursor phytol was orally administered. Phyh and Agps are known PTS2-containing proteins, but were identified as novel Tysnd1 substrates. Loss of Tysnd1 interferes with the peroxisomal localization of Acaa1, Phyh, and Agps, which might cause the mild Zellweger syndrome spectrum-resembling phenotypes. Our data established that peroxisomal processing protease Tysnd1 is necessary to mediate the physiological functions of PTS2-containing substrates. PMID:23459139

  17. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

  18. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine discusses the various methods to evaluate infertility. Causes of ... Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine discusses various methods of coping with infertility. Infertility Treatments ...

  19. [ANTIOXIDANT THERAPY FOR INFERTILE COUPLES].

    PubMed

    Nashivochnikova, N A; Krupin, V N; Selivanova, S A

    2015-01-01

    This study presents results of 113 infertile couples treated with supplements speroton and pregnoton containing folic acid, L-carnitine, vitamin E, zinc, and other vitamins and minerals. Infertility in couples was due to both the pathology of spermatogenesis, and female genital diseases. It has been demonstrated that intake of Speroton restores impaired motility in the ejaculate of patients with several forms of pathospermia, and Pregnoton ensure its preservation in vaginal secretions. PMID:26390564

  20. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men Referred to Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Center

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoubi, Frouzandeh; Soleimani, Saeideh; Mantegy, Sanaz

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of somatic chromosomal abnormalities in infertile male individuals has been reported to vary in different literatures. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of chromosomal aberrations among infertile men referred to the Cytogenetic Laboratory of Iran Blood Transfusion Organization Research Centre (IBTO). Materials and Methods Chromosomal analysis was performed on phytohemag-glutinin (PHA)-stimulated peripheral lymphocyte cultures of 1052 infertile men using standard cytogenetic methods. The study took place during 1997 to 2007. Results Total chromosome alterations were revealed in 161 (15.30%) infertile men. The most prevalent chromosomal abnormality in the infertile men was 47, XXY, that was seen in 94 (58.38%) men while one of them had a mosaic karyotype: mos 47, XX[54]/47,XXY[18]/46,XY[9]. In 37 (22.98%) cases, structural aberrations were detected. There were 30 (18.63%) cases of sex reversal. Conclusion Cytogenetic studies of these patients showed increased chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men in comparison with that of the normal population, justifying the need for cytogenetic analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. PMID:23926486

  1. Clinical outcome after IMSI procedure in an unselected infertile population: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To date the IMSI procedure represents the only real-time and unstained method available to discard spermatozoa with ultrastructural defects. Several studies demonstrated that IMSI provides positive results in couples with severe male factor infertility or repeated ICSI failures. Aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the differences between IMSI and ICSI in terms of IVF outcomes in an unselected infertile patient population. Methods Three hundred and thirty-two couples were analyzed: 281 couples underwent conventional ICSI procedure and 51 underwent IMSI technique. Results No statistically significant differences were found between implantation rate (ICSI: 16,83%; IMSI: 16,67%), fertilization rate (ICSI: 77,27%; IMSI: 80,00%) and pregnancy rate (ICSI: 25,30%; IMSI: 23,50%). Both groups were comparable when considering live birth rate (ICSI: 11,39%; IMSI:13,72%), ongoing pregnancy rate (ICSI: 7,47%; IMSI: 5,88%) and miscarriage rate (ICSI: 17,78; IMSI: 5,26%). The subgroup analyses did not show a statistical difference between ICSI and IMSI neither in male factor infertility subgroup nor in patients with more than one previous ICSI attempt. A trend towards better laboratory and clinical outcomes was detected in the male factor infertility subgroup when IMSI was applied. Conclusions Our preliminary results show that the IMSI technique does not significantly improve IVF outcomes in an unselected infertile population. PMID:23521828

  2. "Now we feel like we did everything we could": A qualitative study into the experiences of Dutch patients who travelled to Belgium for infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, W; De Sutter, P; Pennings, G

    2014-01-01

    Many Dutch infertility patients go to Belgium for treatment every year. This is the first qualitative interview study looking into the experiences and perspectives of Dutch patients who travel to Belgium for infertility treatment. We recruited 16 heterosexual couples and one single woman to ensure maximal diversity in age, distance to the clinic, type of treatment and number of previously failed cycles. The interview data was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The central theme in the data was that going to Belgium was the next step. The Dutch patients believed that the quality of care was very high in Belgium and that in taking this step, they did everything they could to achieve a pregnancy. PMID:25593693

  3. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  4. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options.

  5. Use of Diagnostic Testing to Detect Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Lipshultz, Larry I.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the infertile male continues to be a clinical challenge of increasing significance with considerable emotional and financial burdens. Many physiological, environmental and genetic factors are implicated; however, the etiology of suboptimal semen quality is poorly understood. This review focuses on the diagnostic testing currently available, as well as future directions that will be helpful for the practicing urologist and other clinicians to fully evaluate the infertile male. PMID:21088937

  6. [New methods for the ambulatory evaluation of female infertility].

    PubMed

    Török, Péter; Major, Tamás

    2013-08-18

    Incidence of infertility increased in the past years and it affects 15% of couples. Female and male factors are responsible in 40% and 40% of the cases, respectively, while factors present in both females and males can be found in 20% of cases. Female factors can be further divided into organic and functional ones. Function of the female organs can be evaluated in an outpatient setting by well-developed laboratory techniques but evaluation of the uterine cavity and inspection of the tubal patency have been traditionally carried out in one-day surgery. However, the latter can be performed under ambulatory setting with the use of office hysteroscopy, so that the use of operating theatre and staff costs can be saved. Using selective pertubation for the evaluation of tubal patency via office hysteroscopy can reduce cost further. The new methods in infertility workup which can be performed in ambulatory setting have several advantages for the patients.

  7. Super Infection of An Ovarian Dermoid Cyst with Actinomyces in An Infertile Woman

    PubMed Central

    Salehpour, Saghar; Akbari Sene, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    We present super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst with actinomyces in an infertile patient. This is a case-report study for evaluation a couple with male factor infertility, who was a good candidate for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), while a 10 cm dermoid cyst was found in the woman’s right ovary. Patient complained of pelvic pain, intermittent fever, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. The cyst was extracted using laparoscopy, whilst in histopathological examination, an actinomycosis super infection was reported. Actinomyc super infection of an ovarian dermoid cyst is a very rare incident which can also occur in women with no history of intrauterine device (IUD) usage or previous fertility. PMID:24520476

  8. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  9. Ethical and Psychosocial Impact of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Temple, Jeff R.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reviews research from the past year on the ethical and psychosocial impact of infertility on women and men. We discuss several issues surrounding ovarian stimulation, particularly high-order multiple births, egg banking (especially for research purposes), and diminished ovarian reserve. We also present recent work on distress and counseling, which includes greater attention to subgroups of infertile women. More research on issues confronting men has emerged recently, and we outline these with regard to their relationships with infertile women, or as the infertility patient. Last, we outline some ethical issues posed by newer procedures of fertility preservation and uterine transplant. PMID:23336092

  10. Hyaluronic acid fillers for the male patient.

    PubMed

    Monheit, Gary D; Prather, Chad L

    2007-01-01

    The male cosmetic population has been more timid over the years for procedures for facial rejuvenation. Only with the advent of minimally invasive procedures such as Botox and fillers have men begun to participate in cosmetic treatments. Men come with esthetic needs and areas of treatment different from women and require a different array of injectable fillers for each of these problems. Wrinkle ablation, volumization, and sculpting facial contours are procedures with the various agents available.

  11. A private matter: how patients decide what to do with cryopreserved embryos after infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Provoost, Veerle; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra; Dhont, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This study describes patients' satisfaction with the information they received regarding the disposition of supernumerary embryos in the context of their decision making, as well as partners' roles and the involvement of others. An anonymous mail questionnaire was sent to 412 female patients from the Department of Reproductive Medicine (Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium). The questionnaire had a response rate of 79%. The majority of patients who did not want to continue the storage of their embryos (87.9%) thought the information provided was sufficient to make a decision. Patients who were not satisfied more often failed to reach a decision compared to other patients (4/25 vs. 6/173, p = 0.0248). The majority of couples (81.7%) reached a decision jointly between partners. Nonetheless, in 15.6% of couples, one of the partners had made the decision alone, mostly after consulting their partners. Only a minority of the couples (13.2%) consulted others (mostly family members or close friends), suggesting that patients view these decisions as a private matter. Only 1.1% of all patients had talked to someone at the centre about their decision. To conclude, for most patients, the information provided was adequate in light of their disposition decision making. Overall, patients' decision making appears to be a private matter which happens out of sight from medical staff, making it hard to assist patients who face difficulties. PMID:23121255

  12. PCDH19-related epilepsy in two mosaic male patients.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Alessandra; Trivisano, Marina; Cusmai, Raffaella; De Palma, Luca; Fusco, Lucia; Compagnucci, Claudia; Bertini, Enrico; Vigevano, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19 gene mutations have been recently associated with an epileptic syndrome characterized by focal and generalized seizures. The PCDH19 gene (Xq22.1) has an unusual X-linked inheritance with a selective involvement for female subjects. A cellular interference mechanism has been hypothesized and male patients can manifest epilepsy only in the case of a mosaicism. So far about 100 female patients, and only one symptomatic male have been described. Using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach we found a PCDH19 point mutation in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. The system allowed us to verify that the two c.1352 C>T; p.(Pro451Leu) and c.918C>G; p.(Tyr306*) variants occurred in mosaic status. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Up to now, the traditional molecular screening for PCDH19-related epilepsy has been targeted to all females with early onset epilepsy with or without cognitive impairment. Male patients were generally excluded. We describe for the first time two mosaic PCDH19 point mutations in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. This finding opens new opportunities for the molecular diagnoses in patients with a peculiar type of epilepsy that remains undiagnosed in male patients.

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup. PMID:27630933

  14. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup.

  15. Sexual, Marital, and Social Impact of a Man’s Perceived Infertility Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Shindel, Alan W.; Turek, Paul J.; Wing, Holly; Pasch, Lauri; Katz, Patricia P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Male factor infertility is a relatively common problem. This diagnosis may increase sexual, marital, and relationship strain in male partners of infertile couples. Aim To measure the personal, social, sexual, and marital impacts of a male factor infertility diagnosis among men in couples evaluated for infertility. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 357 men in infertile couples from eight academic and community-based fertility clinics. Participants completed written surveys and face-to-face and telephone interviews at study enrollment. This interview queried each participant’s perception of their infertility etiology to determine the primary study exposure (i.e., male factor only, male and female factors, female factor only, unknown). Main Outcome Measures Personal Impact, Social Impact, Marital Impact, and Sexual Impact scales. Results Among the 357 men, no male factor was reported in 47%, isolated male factor was present in 12%, combined male and female factors were present in 16%, and unexplained infertility was present in 25% of couples. Male factor infertility was independently associated with worse Sexual (mean 39 vs. 30, standard deviation [SD] 2.7, P = 0.004) and Personal (mean 37 vs. 29, SD 3.8, P = 0.04) Impact scores relative to men in couples without male factor infertility. These differences remained statistically significant after controlling for male age, partner age, race, religion, educational level, employment status, prior pregnancy, duration of infertility, and prior paternity. Conclusions Male partners in couples who perceive isolated male factor infertility have a lower sexual and personal quality of life compared with male partners of couples without perceived male factor infertility. Social strain is highest among couples without a clear etiology for infertility. These findings highlight the clinically significant negative sexual, personal, and social strains of a perceived infertility diagnosis for men. PMID:19619144

  16. Relevance of semen polymerase chain reaction positive for tuberculosis in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Subodh Kumar; Singh, Urvashi B.; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male partners of infertile women with genital tuberculosis (TB) are often screened for genital TB. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of a positive screening semen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis test (TB-PCR) in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation and determine the need for a detailed investigation and treatment for TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2012 and January 2013, male partners of 15 infertile women with a diagnosis of genitourinary TB (GUTB) as the cause of infertility, tested positive either on semen PCR for TB (13 cases), or Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube-960 test (2 cases). These asymptomatic men underwent infertility evaluation along with evaluation for GUTB. Diagnosis of GUTB was based on standard clinical criteria, which included a high index of suspicion along with clinical, laboratory, and/or radiological evidence of GUTB. Men who had no clinical evidence of GUTB were followed up with clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and repeat semen PCR for TB after 6 months. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects consented for inclusion in the study. One had a history of pulmonary TB 20 years earlier. Another patient was found to have mediastinal lymphadenopathy (tubercular). All except one had a normal semen analysis. None of the patients met the standard clinical criteria for GUTB diagnosis. 8 patients followed up at 6 months with repeat semen analysis, which was similar to the baseline values and no clinical evidence of TB. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic men with positive screening semen PCR for TB do not have clinical evidence of TB. Male partners of women with infertility and GUTB should not be screened if they have no symptoms. PMID:26538860

  17. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation – psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings’ offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  18. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation--psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings' offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  19. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Brackett, Nancy L; Lynne, Charles M; Ibrahim, Emad; Ohl, Dana A; Sønksen, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses, and vacuum constriction devices. In anejaculatory patients who wish to father children, semen retrieval is necessary. Penile vibratory stimulation is recommended as the first line of treatment. Patients who fail penile vibratory stimulation can be referred for electroejaculation. If this approach is not possible, prostate massage is an alternative. Surgical sperm retrieval should be considered as a last resort when other methods fail. Most men with SCI have a unique semen profile characterized by normal sperm count but abnormally low sperm motility. Scientific investigations indicate that accessory gland dysfunction and abnormal semen constituents contribute to the problem. Despite abnormalities, sperm from men with SCI can successfully induce pregnancy. In selected couples, the simple method of intravaginal insemination is a viable option. Another option is intrauterine insemination. The efficacy of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male factor infertility. PMID:20157304

  20. WDR45 mutations in three male patients with West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Mitsuko; Takano, Kyoko; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Yoshitomi, Shinsaku; Shimono, Masayuki; Aoki, Yoshihiro; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Aida, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Miyatake, Satoko; Miyake, Noriko; Osaka, Hitoshi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2016-07-01

    West syndrome is an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by clustered spasms with hypsarrhythmia seen on electroencephalogram (EEG). West syndrome is genetically heterogeneous, and its genetic causes have not been fully elucidated. WD Repeat Domain 45 (WDR45) resides on Xp11.23, and encodes a member of the WD repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides (WIPI) family, which is crucial in the macroautophagy pathway. De novo mutations in WDR45 cause beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing of individuals with West syndrome and identified three WDR45 mutations in three independent males (patients 1, 2 and 3). Two novel mutations occurred de novo (patients 1 and 2) and the remaining mutation detected in a male patient (patient 3) and his affected sister was inherited from the mother, harboring the somatic mutation. The three male patients showed early-onset intractable seizures, profound intellectual disability and developmental delay. Their brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed cerebral atrophy. We found no evidence of somatic mosaicism in the three male patients. Our findings indicate that hemizygous WDR45 mutations in males lead to severe epileptic encephalopathy.

  1. Improving the reporting of clinical trials of infertility treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement†‡.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiaoke; Barnhart, Kurt T; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, Bart C J M; Mol, Ben

    2014-10-10

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ≥20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and

  2. Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which creates a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant after ≥20 weeks' gestation) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and couples.

  3. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sexual dysfunction and infertility What is sexual dysfunction and how common is ... and 40% of women. For couples dealing with infertility, it is even more common. Often, people ignore ...

  4. Primary infertility (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  5. History of infertility.

    PubMed

    Morice, P; Josset, P; Chapron, C; Dubuisson, J B

    1995-09-01

    Infertility has always been a constant preoccupation. The problems it raises today on medical, social, ethical, political and religious levels bear witness to this emphasis, but also to how complicated infertility is to deal with and understand. This study not only examines the history of infertility and the treatments applied but also the repercussions for infertile women socially. As we look through history, we find that the attitudes of physicians have often reflected the role of the woman and her image in society.

  6. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as

  7. Infertility as a psychological problem.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation. PMID:21469521

  8. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  9. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-x; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  10. Anti-GAPDHS antibodies: a biomarker of immune infertility.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-04-01

    Numerous investigations have focused on the detection of antisperm antibodies, which have a naturally occurring impact on male and female fertility. In this study, spermatogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS) was considered to be a candidate biomarker of immune infertility. The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies in the sera of sterile individuals and fertile couples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera were collected from immune infertile (n = 175) and fertile (n = 237) individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT). Infertile sera were further divided into two groups according to the serum titers obtained by TAT (titers ≤ 1:8, n = 58; titers > 1:8, n = 117). The concentrations of anti-GAPDHS antibodies were significantly higher in the immune infertile group than in the fertile group and were much higher with regard to the increased degrees of sperm agglutination (titers > 1:8). Surprisingly, we found statistically significantly higher concentrations of antibodies in the sera of infertile men than in those of infertile women, and a similar statistical result was obtained in the sera when primary infertility was compared with secondary infertility. Thus, anti-GAPDHS antibodies seem to be a sensitive parameter in immune infertile detection and might be one of the main factors causing immune infertility. This factor might be valuable as an indicator in the clinical diagnosis and monitoring treatment of infertility. PMID:26846113

  11. Antibodies to the chlamydial 60 kilodalton heat shock protein in women with tubal factor infertility.

    PubMed Central

    Ault, K A; Statland, B D; King, M M; Dozier, D I; Joachims, M L; Gunter, J

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fallopian tube damage and subsequent infertility are common sequelae of upper genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. This fallopian tube damage is thought to be immune mediated. The 60 kilodalton chlamydial heat shock protein (hsp) may be the key antigen associated with this pathogenic response. Our objective was to study the relationship between antibody response to 60 kilodalton chlamydial hsp and tubal factor infertility (TFI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-three women with TFI and 33 women with male factor infertility (controls) were studied. Tubal factor infertility was defined as infertility for one year with hydrosalpinx or distal tubal occlusion. Patients' sera were tested for antibodies to the chlamydial hsp using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A stepwise logistic regression was performed by each patient's age, race/ethnicity, self-reported history of chlamydia infection, gonorrhea, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), history of ectopic pregnancy, and antibodies to the chlamydial hsp. RESULTS: Eighteen of the 23 women with TFI had a positive result on the hsp ELISA (78.6%) versus 23.4% of controls. Risk factors for TFI were a history of PID (P = 0.022), "nonwhite" race (P = 0.004), history of ectopic pregnancy (P = 0.027), and antibodies to the 60 kilodalton chlamydial hsp (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Antibodies to 60 kilodalton chlamydial hsp are strongly associated with TFI. PMID:9812248

  12. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  13. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in infertile men with low-grade varicocele: an open, uncontrolled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Festa, R; Giacchi, E; Raimondo, S; Tiano, L; Zuccarelli, P; Silvestrini, A; Meucci, E; Littarru, G P; Mancini, A

    2014-09-01

    Many conditions associated with male infertility are inducers of oxidative stress, including varicocele. Antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, may be useful in this case. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma of infertile men with varicocele before and after an oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 , 38 patients were recruited from a pilot clinical trial. A standard semen analysis was also performed at baseline and 3 months after an oral supplementation with exogenous coenzyme Q10 100 mg per die. Seminal plasma antioxidant capacity was measured using a spectroscopic method. Coenzyme Q10 therapy improved semen parameters and antioxidant status. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of male infertility, namely in varicocele, and strengthens the possibility of the usefulness of the antioxidant therapy.

  14. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART.

  15. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART. PMID:26298813

  16. Counseling and diagnostic evaluation for the infertile couple.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Educating couples about natural means to improve fertility should include a discussion about appropriate timing to initiate a diagnostic evaluation for infertility. Complete infertility testing for both male and female factors allows directed care for all abnormalities to optimize chances for conception.

  17. Birdshot chorioretinopathy in a male patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Evangelia; Lobo, Ann-Marie

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of birdshot chorioretinopathy (BSCR) in a patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). A 40-year-old male with history of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy with significant facial diplegia and lagophthalmos presents for an evaluation of bilateral choroiditis with vasculitis and optic disc edema. Clinical examination included fundus and autofluorescence photographs, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. To our knowledge, this patient represents the first reported case of birdshot chorioretinopathy with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Patients with FSHD can present with ocular findings and should be screened with dilated fundus examinations for retinal vascular changes and posterior uveitis. PMID:25861398

  18. Evaluating Estradiol Levels in Male Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Shashi; Arora, Kanchan; Verma, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background: Globally more than 1 million people suffer from colorectal cancer (CRC) per annum, resulting in about 0.5 million deaths. The role of estrogen in CRC is being researched with great interest; expression of estrogen receptors (alfa and beta) is being explored. Aims and Objective: Our objective was to compare the serum estradiol levels in diagnosed male patients of CRC, with age-matched controls; and to study the estradiol levels across the different stages of CRC. Setting and design: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January, 2012 to March, 2013 at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Materials and Methods: Fifty one male preoperative CRC patients were enrolled along with 50 age-matched male controls. Ethical approval and informed written consent from each participant were duly obtained. CRC patients were staged as per TNM (T- Tumour, N- Node, M- Metastasis; I, II, III and IV) criteria. Serum estradiol level was measured by Chemiimmunofluroscence method (normal = 11.6 - 41.2 pg/ml). Statistical analysis used: We used student’s t test and ANOVA (analysis of variance) to analyse the data (SPSS version 17.0, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois) Result: The mean serum estradiol level among CRC patients (43.4, sd=27.1) was significantly more than that among controls (mean=24.7, sd=17.5), (p<0.0001). Across the four TNM stages of CRC patients, mean estradiol level was highest in Stage II (55.9, sd=15.5); followed by Stages III (44.1, sd=24.9), IV (36.3, sd=30.0) and I (26.4, sd=38.8). However, significant difference was obtained only between Stages I and II. Conclusion: Our study revealed increased levels of serum estradiol in Indian male CRC patients. Further research is warranted to corroborate this finding, and to understand the role of estradiol across different TNM stages of CRC. PMID:25737973

  19. Dioxins in the semen of men with infertility.

    PubMed

    Galimova, E F; Amirova, Z K; Galimov, Sh N

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess ejaculate contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in male infertility. The database of 168 infertile and 49 fertile men was included in the study. Dioxin content was determined using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). In the ejaculate of infertile men, the content of dioxins and furans was 2.2-2.3 times higher than in fertile donors. The maximum level of the most toxic dioxin congener was detected in pathospermia. Contamination of semen of infertile men by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans supports the hypothesis about the relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health.

  20. Prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in High Vaginal Swab Samples of Infertile Females

    PubMed Central

    Seifoleslami, Mehri; Safari, Aghdas; Khayyat Khameneie, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are important causative agents of vaginitis, cervicitis, postpartum sepsis, reproductive infections and infertility in both males and females. Objectives: According to the uncertain prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in Iranian infertile females, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in high vaginal swab samples of fertile and infertile females. Patients and Methods: A total of 350 high vaginal swab specimens were taken from fertile and infertile females. Samples were cultured and those that were positive for bacteria were subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for further confirmation. Results: Of the 350 collected samples, eleven were positive for M. hominis (3.14%), fifteen were positive for U. urealyticum (4.28%) and five were positive for both of them (1.42%). Prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis in the high vaginal parts of infertile females was higher than fertile females (P < 0.05). The results of traditional method were also confirmed, using the PCR amplification of urease gene of U. urealyticum and 16SrRNA gene of the M. hominis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and M. hominis had a higher prevalence in the high vaginal samples collected during the summer season. Conclusions: Considerable prevalence of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in the high vaginal swab samples of infertile females compared to the low prevalence in fertile females may suggest that these two pathogens can be cause infertility. Application of the PCR method is recommended for rapid and sensitive detection of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in high vaginal swab samples. PMID:26756000

  1. Predictive Factor of Surgical Efficacy in Male Patients with Prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-08-01

    Objective To analyze the predictive factor of surgical efficacy in male patients with prolactinoma. Method The clinical data of 184 male patients with prolactinoma who had undergone surgery were retrospectively analyzed.Results Before the surgery,the serum prolactin level from 150 to 204 952 ng/ml,the tumors sized 6 to 70 mm. Macroadenoma was seen in 152 cases (82.6%) and suprasellar adenoma with visual deficitsin 75 cases (40.7%). Complete resection was achieved in 149 patients. After surgical therapy,postoperative immediate prolactin level declined in 182 patients (98.4%);57 patients (31.0%)achieved initial remission,while the disease recurred in 26 patients (45.6%).Larger tumor had significantly lower rate of complete resection (P<0.05). The recurrence rate was significantly higher in the group with higher Ki-67 index (P<0.001). The recurrence rate was significantly lower in patients with intrasellar adenoma (P<0.001).No significant relationship was found between preoperative prolactin level and complete resection (P=0.306). Conclusions Tumor size can predictthe degree of surgical resection. The prognostic factors include tumor size,preoperative growth pattern of prolactinoma,and Ki-67 index.

  2. Association between infertility factors and non-physical partner abuse in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Gandomani, Sedighe Jamali; Nilforoushan, Parisa; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility predisposes the couples to mental and psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, anger, and partner abuse. This study aimed to investigate the association between infertility factors and the non-physical abuse between infertile spouses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 262 infertile couples (131 female and 131 male), selected through convenient sampling, who referred to infertility centers in Isfahan. Data were collected by Partner Abuse Scale: Non-physical (PASNP), designed to measure the non-physical abuse experienced in relationship with partner and Non-physical Abuse of Partner Scale (NPAPS), designed to measure the non-physical abuse delivered upon the partner. All data were analyzed through SPSS version 16. Results: Mean scores of NPAPS were 23.1% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively. Mean scores of PASNP were 13.8% and 20.3% among men and women, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse between men and women (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse and factor of infertility (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Perceived non-physical abuse and delivered non-physical abuse upon the partner were low among infertile couples. Women had a higher perception of abuse when the cause of infertility was female factor, compared to men. However, special attention should be paid to infertile couples. Marital counseling, besides infertility counseling, should be conducted for these couples. PMID:27563319

  3. Emoting infertility online: A qualitative analysis of men's forum posts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little research on infertility focuses exclusively or significantly on men's experiences, particularly in relation to emotional aspects. Evidence that does exist around male infertility suggests that it is a distressing experience for men, due to stigma, threats to masculinity and the perceived need to suppress emotions, and that men and women experience infertility differently. Using thematic analysis, this article examines the online emoting of men in relation to infertility via forum posts from a men-only infertility discussion board. It was noted that men 'talked' to each other about the emotional burdens of infertility, personal coping strategies and relationships with others. Three major themes were identified following in-depth analysis: 'the emotional rollercoaster', 'the tyranny of infertility' and 'infertility paranoia'. This article then offers insights into how men experience infertility emotionally, negotiate the emotional challenges involved (especially pertaining to diagnosis, treatment outcomes and their intimate relationships) and how they share (and find value in doing so) with other men the lived experience of infertility. PMID:27246813

  4. Evaluation of the general health of the infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Baghiani Moghadam, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Amir Hosein; Abdoli, Ali Mohammad; Seighal, Najmeh; Falahzadeh, Hosein; Ghasemi, Nasrin

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction. Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software. Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001) on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001), social dysfunction (p=0.0001) and severe depression (p=0.0001). GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples. PMID:26396581

  5. Effect of sesame on sperm quality of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Khani, Behnaz; Bidgoli, Soroor Rabbani; Moattar, Fariborz; Hassani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background: High level of semen reactive oxygen species is considered as an important factor in male infertility. Sesame has antioxidant properties, which could be effective on improvement of semen parameters. This study was designed to determine the effects of sesame on sperm quality. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five infertile men entered this clinical trial. They were treated with a 3-months course of taking 0.5 mg/kg sesame. The pre intervention sperm analysis (sperm count, motile sperm percentage and normal morphology sperm percentage) was compared with post treatment sperm analysis. Based on the post intervention seamen analysis, patients were advised to undergo either IVF or ICSI to assess their fertility status. Results: There was significant improvement in the sperm count (10.56 ± 5.25 vs. 22.71 ± 30.14 million per ml) and motility (15.32 ± 13.58 vs. 23.32 ± 20.61 percent) after treatment with sesame (P value: 0.04 and <0.0001 respectively), but there was no significant improvement in sperm morphology after the treatment (10.72 ± 6.66 vs. 13.20 ± 11.14 percent, P value: 0.10). Three patients (12%) underwent IUI, which resulted in 1 successful pregnancy. Two patients (8%) underwent ICSI, which was not successful; however 2 (8%) patients had spontaneous pregnancy. Fortunately, all pregnancies led to live birth. Except 1 case of diarrhea, no other major side effect was reported. Conclusion: Sesame improved sperm count and motility, and can be prescribed as an effective and safe method for male factor infertility. PMID:23930112

  6. Infertility and Reproductive Function in Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pathophysiology, Advances in Management, and Recent Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lekarev, Oksana; Lin-Su, Karen; Vogiatzi, Maria G

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia have reduced fertility. However, reproductive outcomes have improved over the years. This review provides an update on the multiple pathologic processes that contribute to reduced fertility in both sexes, from alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis to the direct effect on gonadal function by elevated circulating adrenal androgens. In addition, elevated serum progesterone concentrations may hinder ovulation and embryo implantation in women, whereas in men testicular adrenal rest tumors can be a major cause of infertility. Suppression of adrenal androgen secretion represents the first line of therapy toward spontaneous conception in both sexes.

  7. Current practices in fertility preservation in male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Masson, Puneet; Brannigan, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of a cancer diagnosis in children and young adolescents is increasing. With better treatments, the number of young cancer survivors living through reproductive age is increasing. Fertility preservation of these men and women has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. Here we review the current guidelines for male oncofertility patients and highlight some of the important gonadotoxic effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Options for fertility preservation are also discussed along with resources that should be made available to all patients. PMID:24669115

  8. Prevalence of Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile Tunisian men.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Wajih; Kilani, Olfa; Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Ayed, Wiem; Abdelhak, Sonia; Bouzouita, Abderrezzak; Zhioua, Fethi; Amouri, Ahlem

    2014-01-01

    Yq microdeletions are the leading genetic cause of male infertility and its detection in clinically relevant for appropriate genetic counseling. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of Y microdeletion in a group of Tunisian infertile men and to compare the prevalence of these abnormalities with other countries and other Tunisian reported series. Totally, 105 Tunisian idiopathic infertile men (74 azoospermic and 31 severe oligozoospermic) were screened for the presence of Y chromosome microdeletions. The screening of Yq microdeletions was performed by two multiplex PCRs using six STS markers recommended by the EAA/EMQN. No microdeletions were detected in the men with severe oligozoospermia. In the azoospermic group, 2/74 (2.7%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions. Both had complete deletion of the AZFc region. No microdeletion was identified in the AZFa region or in the AZFb region. The estimated frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions in the present survey was similar to some other reports but lower than that of previous reports in Tunisian populations.

  9. Frequency and outcome of treatment in polycystic ovaries related infertility

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Farzana; Arif, Nesreen; Halepota, Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as inability of couple to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21.9%. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). This study was conducted to see the frequency and outcome of treatment in PCOs related infertility in infertile couples coming to Mohammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas, Sindh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College for three years from 2005 to 2008. Total 1289 infertile couples were included in this study. Result: The frequency of PCOs in female related infertility was 38.5%. Other causes of female infertility were in the frequency of 44% pelvic inflammatory disease, 12.3% endometriosis, 2.9% hyperprolactenemia, and 1.35% hypothyroidism. Patients with PCOS were given different treatment modalities. One hundred fifty patients with PCO were given ovulation induction with clomephene citrate and out of them 109 (72%) conceived. Sixty three women were given combination of clomephene citrate and Metformin. Out of them 50 (79%) conceived. Five patients were given gonadotrophins, Out of them 2 (40%) patients conceived. Five patients had laparoscopic drilling out of them 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: In contrast to the literature review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome turned out to be the second most common cause of female related infertility. But as the international literature shows it had very good out come after medical and /or surgical treatment. PMID:26150870

  10. A survey on depression among infertile women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent

  11. Precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri in infertile women.

    PubMed

    Holst, N; Abyholm, T

    1983-10-01

    A study of 318 patients with tubal infertility and a control group of 200 unselected infertile women yielded 14 (4.4%) and 1 (0.5%), respectively, with precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri. The one patient in the control group with severe dysplasia was later shown to have tubal infertility. The overall incidence of premalignant lesions of the cervix uteri as reported to the National Cancer Registry of Norway was 0.1% for the age group and period studied. Women with tubal infertility represent a small but comparatively high risk group for the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri.

  12. Smoking and survival in male breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Padron-Monedero, Alicia; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Miao, Feng; Hansra, Damien; Lee, David J; Byrne, Margaret M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the article was to assess whether smoking affects survival in male breast cancer patients for the overall population and when stratified by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Data were obtained by linking the 1996-2007 Florida Cancer Data System, the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, and the US Census. Inclusion criteria were males ≥18 years, diagnosed with breast cancer and residing in Florida (n = 1573). To analyze the association between smoking and survival, we performed sequential multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models with progressive adjustment for main confounders. Compared to never smokers, worse survival was found in current (hazard ratio = 1.63; 95 % CI = 1.23-2.16) but not in former smokers (1.26; 0.99-1.59). Those who smoked ≥1 packs/day had worse survival (2.48; 1.59-3.87) than never smokers with a significant dose-response (P for linear trend <0.001). Race-ethnic stratified models comparing current and former smokers with never smokers found significant differences among Whites [(1.88; 1.44-2.44) and (1.31; 1.04-1.65, respectively)] and non-Hispanics, [(1.73; 1.31-2.28) and (1.31; 1.04-1.66, respectively)]. Overall, current smokers were found to have significantly reduced survival, which was worse by intensity of smoking. Also, any smoking history is associated with worse survival in White and non-Hispanic male breast cancer patients compared to never smokers. Thus, male breast cancer patients should be advised to quit smoking.

  13. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  14. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib) by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS), and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians. PMID:20205744

  15. Treatment of Infertility in Men with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Method of Intrauterine Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Elezaj, Shkelzen; Gashi, Zafer; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shllaku, Anton; Gruda, Bujar; Musaj, Vesel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of PTSD on changing the quality of sperm in veterans with PTSD, and the percentage of successful procedures intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a first-line treatment of male infertility patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and methods: The study is designed as a prospective observational study. The study was started from February 2013 until May of 2014. Our study included a total of 51 patients who were treatment for infertility in private Hospital for gynecology, endocrinology and infertility, IVF Center in Peja, and those who were outpatients treated for chronic PTSD in the Polyclinic, Biolab-Zafi, in Klina the Republic of Kosovo. All subjects divide into two groups; The first, consisting of 21 respondents to the participants of the war in Kosovo, which was established diagnosis of PTSD. The second group of 30 who have not lived in Kosovo for the time War, and without signs of PTSD. Results: Subjects with PTSD were somewhat older than the control group (p = 0.235) but it was not a significant difference (44.5 ± 5.6 vs 43.8 ± 2.3). When the question of type of infertility, secondary infertility is significantly higher in patients with PTSD (62% vs 20%). The total number of sperm and semen volume no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Sperm motility showed a significant reduction in cases of PTSD (p <0.0001), from observation semen parameters were found more abnormal forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate cases with PSD (p < 0.0001) (Table 2). The percentage of pregnancies IUI procedure was slightly higher in patients with PTSD than the control group without PTSD (19% vs. 16.6%). Conclusion: A combination of analytical oriented psychotherapy techniques and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IUI procedures, increases the chances for healing infertility in patients with PTSD. PMID:26622087

  16. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  17. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jane RW; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  18. Yoga: an adjunct to infertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Hari Kaur

    2003-10-01

    Yoga and meditation can help women experiencing the challenges of infertility. The practice of meditation and relaxation can help increase the clarity of the mind, maintain healthy body chemistry, and give patients the patience to undergo the rigors of infertility treatments. When one understands and can attain physical relaxation, one tends to feel better about the body itself, and begins to treat the body with more respect. This understanding can lead to healthier lifestyle habits as well as increased sensitivity regarding symptoms and body processes. This is beneficial to both doctor and patient as the patient can report with more clarity and sense cycles and physical issues more readily.

  19. Masculinity, infertility, stigma and media reports.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Kenneth; Glover, Lesley; Abel, Paul

    2004-09-01

    There is growing concern about the health of men in the developed West. Compared with women they have higher rates of morbidity and mortality and are less likely to seek out and employ medical services. Several authors have drawn on social constructionist models, such as the concept of hegemonic masculinity, to account for these gender differences in risk and behaviour. One might anticipate that certain conditions, such as male infertility, would be perceived as posing a particular threat to conventional views of masculinity. There is some support for this, although there is little research into the social construction of male infertility. In this study Discourse Analysis was employed to analyse newspaper accounts of a reported decline in sperm counts in order to study the way in which infertility and masculinity were represented and constructed in the media. The results indicate a construction of fertility as being in crisis and of male infertility as conflated with impotence. Men were positioned as vulnerable and threatened by forces outside their control. The accounts drew on a range of stereotypically masculine reference points, such as warfare and mechanical analogies. These results are consistent with concepts of hegemonic masculinity and suggest that men are offered a highly restricted set of options in terms of perceiving and representing their bodies and their health.

  20. Hormonal evaluation of female infertility and reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Scott, M G; Ladenson, J H; Green, E D; Gast, M J

    1989-04-01

    Performance of the male and female reproductive systems reflects the orderly operation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Aberrant operation of this axis can result in many different reproductive disorders, including various forms of infertility. Proper evaluation of these disorders involves a multifaceted diagnostic approach, which includes a critical contribution from the clinical laboratory. This adjunctive testing, involving the measurements of peptide and sex-steroid hormone concentrations, allows the clinician to biochemically "dissect" the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and ascertain the presence as well as location of the specific defect. In practice, the specific tests utilized during the evaluation of a patient depend upon the underlying disorder. Typically, in evaluating the reproductive disorders discussed in this review, a primary battery of tests is obtained that reflects the initial clinical presentation and physical examination. The results of these initial studies then dictate any secondary testing required to complete the evaluation. Such an approach, in use at our institution, is provided in Table 5. Although this discussion has concentrated on the laboratory assessment of the female reproductive system, it is important to remember the special case of infertility, where couples, in general, are evaluated together by the clinician. The cause of infertility can reside with the female, the male, or, in the cases of immunological "incompatibilities," a combination of the male and the female. As such, rigorous schemes for evaluating male reproductive disorders (1, 3, 89-94) and immunological incompatibilities (95-98) have been developed, and the information derived from such testing represents a critical contribution to establishing the etiology of a couple's infertility. Although the laboratory assessment of peptide and sex-steroid hormone concentrations clearly plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of reproductive disorders, these

  1. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  2. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  3. Serum hormones in male epileptic patients receiving anticonvulsant medication.

    PubMed

    Isojärvi, J I; Pakarinen, A J; Ylipalosaari, P J; Myllylä, V V

    1990-06-01

    Circulating sex and thyroid hormones, as well as the pituitary function, were assessed in 63 male patients with epilepsy receiving either a single medication of carbamazepine, phenytoin, or valproate or a combination of carbamazepine plus phenytoin or carbamazepine plus valproate. All therapeutic regimens, including carbamazepine and/or phenytoin were associated with low levels of circulating thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and with low values for the free androgen index, and phenytoin and carbamazepine plus phenytoin were associated with high serum concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin. These hormone parameters were unaffected by valproate monotherapy. It seems probable that accelerated hormone metabolism is responsible for the hormonal changes found in patients treated with carbamazepine and/or phenytoin. However, every drug regimen studied also had depressant and/or stimulatory effects on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The diverse endocrine effects of different antiepileptic drug regimens should be considered when starting antiepileptic drug therapy.

  4. GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION IN PREGNANCIES SUPPORTED BY INFERTILITY TREATMENTS. ROLE OF INFERTILITY, TREATMENTS, AND MULTIPLE GESTATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Werler, Martha M.; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between infertility treatments and gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Design Retrospective observational cohort. Setting General population, United States and Canada. Patients 5151 women with non-malformed infants participating in the Slone Epidemiology Center Birth Defects Study between 1998 and 2006. Interventions Women were interviewed within six months after delivery about sociodemographic and medical factors, the onset of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, and about infertility treatments. Main Outcome Measures We estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals using unconditional logistic regression. Results The incidence of gestationa