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Sample records for male infertility patients

  1. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis.

  2. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  3. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  4. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  5. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. PMID:22046184

  6. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Info Booklets FAQs Educational Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Infographic Gallery Protect Your Fertility Infertility and Smoking Cessation Resources Overview Find a Healthcare Professional Fact ...

  7. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  8. Molecular biology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Feng, H L

    2003-01-01

    About 15% of couples have reduced fertility and in approximately one-half of all cases the reason is male infertility, usually of genetic origin. Thus, in the context of research in genes involved in reproduction and sex determination, genetic anomalies in gametogenesis are being extensively studied. The most frequent pathogenic causes of male infertility are Y-chromosomal microdeletions (8-15%) in the long arm of the Y chromosome, which, by loss of specific DNA segments, leads to loss of vital genes for sperm production. Infertile men, who attend infertility clinics, rise to 15% among those with azoospermia or spermatogenesis problem. The new technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection has allowed many infertile men to achieve their dreams of fatherhood. However, the spermatogenic defect is genetic anomalies, which might be a potential risk of transmitting this defect to future offspring. Therefore, genetic counseling of all couples with the diagnosis of male infertility is recommended before their enrolment in intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The important role of genetic abnormalities in the causation of human male infertility is increasingly recognized. While much remains to be learned in this fast-moving field, considerable progress has been made in the clinical delineation of genetic forms of male infertility and in the characterization of the responsible genes and their mutations or deletions. This review should provide insight into the understanding of parthenogenesis of male infertility in the human.

  9. [Overweight and secretory male infertility].

    PubMed

    Oshakbaev, K P; Abylaĭuly, Zh; Dukenbaeva, B A

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a trial with participation of 60 males aged 23-52. Of them, 30 had secretory male iufertility (SMI) and obesity. The control 30 patients were healthy volunteers. The protocol was performed by two stages. Stage 1 included: investigation of a clinico-laboratory status, of correlation between a sorption function of erythrocytes, endogenic metabolic intoxication (EMI) and spermogram parameters, concentration of serum testosterone in SMI patients. Stage 2 consisted in treatment of the intoxication by reducing body mass. All the infertile men were obese; 30% of them had low glucose tolerance, 46.7% had stage 2 hypertension, 23.3%--seasonal allergic symptoms. The level of organic substances on the surface of erythrocytes in infertile men was higher than in the controls (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was seen between spermogram parameters and organic substances content on erythrocytic surface (p < 0/05), concentration of serum testosterone and the above substances (p < 0.01). The loss of fat tissue by 7-14 kg by infertile men resulted in a positive trend in spermogram parameters and the level of serum testosterone (p < 0.01).

  10. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  11. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    PubMed Central

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most

  12. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.

  13. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  14. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  16. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  17. Are oxidative stress markers associated with unexplained male infertility?

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Torres, B J M; Camargo, M; Cadavid, Á P; du Plessis, S S; Cardona Maya, W D

    2016-08-10

    Male infertility can be responsible for up to 20% of the cases attending fertility consultation facilities; nonetheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms that could explain it are still elusive. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate conventional and functional parameters of semen samples from patients who presented with male infertility of unknown origin. Conventional semen parameters and functional parameters (i.e. intracellular reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm chromatin structure assay, sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma) were evaluated on semen samples from 54 healthy donors, 23 patients with idiopathic infertility and 34 fertile controls. No significant differences were observed in the conventional seminal parameters between the fertile and infertile men. However, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation were observed in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Alterations in intracellular ROS production and DNA fragmentation could be associated with male idiopathic infertility. These parameters could eventually distinguish both groups more accurately than the conventional parameters. Our current results are encouraging, and the efficacy of these parameters in the clinical settings needs to be further assessed to establish their predictive potential as a marker of unexplained male infertility.

  18. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  19. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues.

  20. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  1. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  2. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  3. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  4. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Nonmosaic 47,XYY syndrome presenting with male infertility: case series.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razic, M M; Abdel-Hamid, I A; ElSobky, E S

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we describe nine patients with 47,XYY presenting with male infertility. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the scrotum, endocrinological investigations and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes. Two patients tried intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Our results showed that seven patients were oligospermic and two patients were azoospermic. Bilateral varicocele was detected in seven patients. The hormonal levels in the majority of the patients were within normal range. Two patients showed improvement after varicocelectomy. The wife of one of the oligospermic patients became successfully pregnant after the first trial of ICSI. In conclusion, this report suggests that patients with XYY may present with primary infertility and may show oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. Careful clinical, ultrasonographic, endocrinological and cytogenetic examinations should be a part of their diagnostic work-up for the proper management of these patients. In addition, ICSI may be a hope for some of these patients.

  6. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  7. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  8. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  9. The hormonal response to HCG stimulation in patients with male infertility before and after treatment with hochuekkito.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Manabe, F; Zhongtao, H; Yoshii, S; Koiso, K

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the changes in responsiveness to hCG stimulation, and the effects on sperm qualities and basal hormone levels, 63 infertile men received 7.5qr of Hochuekkito daily for 3 months (1). Sperm density (p less than 0.01) and motility (p less than 0.01) were significantly increased after the treatment (2). Serum prolactin (p less than 0.01) and estradiol (p less than 0.01) levels were significantly decreased after the treatment (3). Enhanced responsiveness of testosterone (p less than 0.05) and estradiol (p less than 0.05) excretion to hCG injection were observed in patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. These results suggested that Hochuekkito corrected Leydig cell dysfunctions in some infertile men, resulting in improvements in sperm qualities.

  10. Analysis of seminal plasma from patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and identification of candidate biomarkers of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Batruch, Ihor; Smith, Christopher R; Mullen, Brendan J; Grober, Ethan; Lo, Kirk C; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Jarvi, Keith A

    2012-03-02

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples with equivalent male and female contribution. Absence of sperm in semen, referred to as azoospermia, accounts for 5-20% of male infertility cases and can result from pretesticular azoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), and obstructive azoospermia (OA). The current clinical methods of differentiating NOA cases from OA ones are indeterminate and often require surgical intervention for a conclusive diagnosis. We catalogued 2048 proteins in seminal plasma from men presented with NOA. Using spectral-counting, we compared the NOA proteome to our previously published proteomes of fertile control men and postvasectomy (PV) men and identified proteins at differential abundance levels among these clinical groups. To verify spectral counting ratios for candidate proteins, extracted ion current (XIC) intensities were also used to calculate abundance ratios. The Pearson correlation coefficient between spectral counting and XIC ratios for the Control-NOA and NOA-PV data sets is 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Proteins that showed inconsistent spectral counting and XIC ratios were removed from analysis. There are 34 proteins elevated in Control relative to NOA, 18 decreased in Control relative to NOA, 59 elevated in NOA relative to PV, and 16 decreased in NOA relative to PV. Many of these proteins have expression in the testis and the epididymis and are linked to fertility. Some of these proteins may be useful as noninvasive biomarkers in discriminating NOA cases from OA.

  11. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who ...

  12. Management of male-factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, Herman J; Cohlen, Ben J

    2012-12-01

    For many years, the management of male-factor infertility has been empirical rather than evidence-based. In current clinical practice, assisted reproductive techniques are the most successful methods of alleviating male-factor infertility. To date, it remains unclear what adjuvant actions can be taken to improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques for male-factor infertility. Evidence shows that smoking adversely affects sperm quality to some extent, and the genetic make-up of sperm to a greater extent; however, because of the scarcity and heterogeneity of studies, its effect on in-vitro fertilisation outcome remains largely unknown. Although smoking cessation should be part of the assisted reproductive techniques treatment plan, the benefit of antioxidant treatment in either smokers or non-smokers undergoing assisted reproductive techniques is still under scrutiny. Other lifestyle modifications in subfertile men, such as refraining from moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption, are even more controversial. When embarking on assisted reproductive techniques to alleviate male-factor infertility, intrauterine insemination may be considered as a first-line treatment for couples in whom the female partner has a normal fertility status, and at least 0.8 × 10(6) progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation. If no pregnancy is achieved after three to six cycles of intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilisation can be proposed. When too few progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after sperm processing for in-vitro fertilisation, or when surgically retrieved sperm are to be used, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is preferable. Although the outcome of no other assisted reproductive techniques has been scrutinised so much, and no large-scale 'macro-problems' have yet been observed after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, malformation rates are reported to be higher compared with the general population. Therefore, candidates

  13. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  14. Obesity and male infertility: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Meikle, A Wayne; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Gibson, Mark; Peterson, C Matthew; Carrell, Douglas T

    2012-12-01

    Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. This spectrum of expression of hypogonadism among obese men originates from multiple interacting factors including reduced levels of gonadotropins and testosterone, altered androgen-to-estrogen ratios, insulin resistance, and sleep apnea. No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. Interventions associated with improvement of intermediate outcomes that include the endocrine profile, semen parameters, and sexual function may be appropriately selected based on history, physical findings, as well as endocrine and metabolic evaluation. Among these interventions are weight loss through lifestyle change, relief from sleep apnea, use of aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin administration, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and insulin-sensitizing agents.

  15. Male infertility and varicocele: myths and reality

    PubMed Central

    Kantartzi, P D; Goulis, Ch D; Goulis, G D; Papadimas, I

    2007-01-01

    Varicocele is among the most common causes of male infertility. It is also one of the most controversial issues in the field of Andrology, especially regarding why, when and to whom varicocelectomy should be applied. Many experts believe that the surgical repair of varicocele should be applied only in a meticulously selected group of infertile men, although there are no generally accepted criteria. Up to now, the only confirmed prognostic factor for achievement of pregnancy after varicocelectomy is the age of the female partner. Given the wide application of intra - cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) during the last few years, the modern research approaches should compare the benefits of varicocelectomy and ICSI, taking under consideration both the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of the methods. PMID:19582201

  16. Profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I; Ahamed, R S

    2012-07-01

    A cross sectional study was done to determine the important etiological profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city. A total of eighty seven patients of male infertility were selected purposively. Among them, highest percentage of patients, 44(50.6%) were in between the 21-30 years old, 36(41.4%) had 6-10 years of post- marriage duration, 56(64.4%) patients stated that they stayed with their wife interruptedly, 54(62.1%) had primary infertility and 33(37.9%) had secondary infertility. It was found that among the patients 6(5.50%) had anti-sperm antibody, 45(40.9%) had sexually transmitted disease (STD), 41(37.3%) had varicocele, 2(1.80%) had loss of libido, 4(3.6%) had premature ejaculation and 12(10.9%) had hydrocele. It was observed that 14(12.7%) were tobacco user, 26(23.6%) were obese, 12(10.9%) had malnutrition, 7(6.4%) had exposure to heat etc and it was found that 61(70.1%) had free testosterone below the normal level and 51(58.6%) had prolactin level above the normal level. The semen analysis revealed that 48(55.2 %) had abnormal morphology of sperm, 26(29.9%) had feebly motile sperm and 27(31%) had non-motile sperm, 36(41.4%) had oligospermia, 6(6.9%) had azoospermia and 17(19.5%) had oligoasthenozoospermia.

  17. Effect of Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang on seminal plasma cytokine levels in patients with idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two idiopathic infertile patients were treated with Oriental herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Hochu-ekki-to). Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after herb administration. There was an inverse correlation between seminal plasma IL-6 level and sperm concentration before treatment. After the administration of herb seminal plasma, sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. Seminal plasma IL-8 level did not change. Certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play some role in improving semen quality with treatment.

  18. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  19. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%–60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  20. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement.

  1. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naina; Singh, Amit Kant

    2015-01-01

    Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to “male factor” infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility. PMID:26752853

  2. Occupation-related male infertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; Baker, H W; Hanna, P J

    1986-04-01

    Male infertility is a significant health problem for which few aetiological factors have been identified. The role of occupational exposure is largely unknown but certain substances such as 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, oestrogen, heat, lead and microwaves have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in workers. Other agents which interfere with reproductive performance in experimental animals such as cadmium, manganese, organophosphates and some solvents have not been studied sufficiently for their occupational risks to be fully known. Some occupational exposures, extensively studied, appear to convey little or no risk to male fertility including radiological exposure, anaesthetic gases and Agent Orange. It is clear that the range of substances potentially hazardous to male reproduction is great but the number of agents for which the evidence is unequivocal is very small.

  3. Recent advances in understanding & managing male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M.; Lo, Kirk C.

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility remains a struggle to definitively diagnose and treat with many men labelled as “idiopathic infertility” and eventually requiring assisted reproductive techniques.  Along those lines, research groups are continuing to explore current social and environmental factors, including the obesity epidemic, and their effects on male fertility potential.  Novel biomarkers of natural fertility status and azoospermia etiology have additionally seen recent attention with ACRV1 and TEX101/ECM1 assays either currently or soon to be commercially available.  Despite these advancements, however, medical treatment options have seen little progress.  Though surgical therapies have similarly seen little transformation, groups are exploring the use of testicular sperm for couples with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation and either planned or previously failed IVF/ICSI.  Concerted collaborative efforts will be needed as we move forward to better understand the challenges men face when struggling to conceive. PMID:27990271

  4. The experience of infertility treatment: the male perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Shafali Talisa; Dibb, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current research surrounding infertility is focused primarily on women alone, thus removing men from the fertility equation. However, alternative research has indicated that, although men also experience infertility, there is a paucity of research on men. Therefore, very little is understood about the experiences of infertility from the male perspective. This study adopted a qualitative approach in an attempt to explore the infertility experience from the perspective of men. Fifteen men who had experienced infertility were interviewed to explore their experiences. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Five superordinate themes were developed, and these included: (1) the influence of society on infertility; (2) feeling unacknowledged; (3) natural verses assisted conception; (4) emotional reactions; and (5) improving the infertility experience. The findings of this research indicated that men experience infertility as a mentally, physically and socially demanding condition. Comparisons to previous research have been made, and future research is proposed. PMID:27563936

  5. Cytokines in the blood and semen of infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Havrylyuk, Anna; Chopyak, Valentyna; Boyko, Yaryna; Kril, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines have been important mediators of the immunity and can be involved in numerous processes in the male genital tract including acting as immunomodulatory elements within the male gonad. The aims of this study were: 1) to detect pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in the control group and subgroups of infertile men; and 2) to set up the practical recommendations concerning determination of cytokine levels for the male infertility diagnosis. Observations were performed in a group of 82 men: healthy controls (n = 27) and infertile patients (n = 55). The male infertility group was further subdivided into patients with: varicocele (n = 22), idiopathic infertility (n = 13) and partners of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA; n = 20). Semen analysis was determined following WHO criteria. The cytokine interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, IL-18; tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon g (IFN-g) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) contents in serum and seminal plasma were determined by quantitative ELISA. An interesting marker of male infertility appears to be TGF-β1 (blood) significantly elevated in idiopathically infertile males and in the RSA group. Besides elevated TGF-β1 in a group of idiopathic infertility significantly elevated IL-10, IL-18, IFN-g (blood) and statistically decreased IL-1β while increased IFN-g were revealed in seminal plasma compared to healthy controls. We may postulate novel cytokine micropatterns for patients with different background of infertility. Therefore, circulating cytokines: IL-1β, IL-10, IL-18, TGF-β1, IFN-g and IL-1β, IFN-g and TGF-β1 in seminal plasma should be extended in evaluation of specific types of male infertility. PMID:26648778

  6. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  7. Contemporary concepts in the evaluation and management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Walters, R. Chanc; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in men is a common condition. At the core of the medical evaluation of the male partner in a couple who are unable to conceive is the history and physical examination. Special attention should be directed to the patient’s developmental history and any use of testosterone products. The physical examination focuses on the genitals, and includes assessments of the size and consistency of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and presence of varicoceles. Although many sophisticated tests are available, semen analysis is still the most important diagnostic tool used to assess fertility, and includes parameters such as sperm count, motility and viability. Treatment of male factor infertility can involve targeted agents, in the case of specific conditions such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or it can be empirical—using medical therapy or assisted conception techniques—for patients in whom no underlying cause has been identified. Although an all-encompassing treatment for male factor infertility has not yet been developed, the field offers many promising avenues of research. PMID:21243017

  8. Chronic orchitis: a neglected cause of male infertility?

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Meinhardt, A; Allam, J P; Bergmann, M; Weidner, W; Haidl, G

    2008-04-01

    Infection and inflammation of the male reproductive tract are accepted as important aetiological factors of infertility. With regard to their impact on male reproductive function, orchitis and epididymo-orchitis due to local or systemic infection as well as noninfectious aetiological factors are of particular concern. There is clinical and pathological evidence that chronic inflammatory conditions of the testes can disrupt spermatogenesis and irreversibly alter both sperm number and quality. In the majority of patients, however, diagnosis is hampered by an asymptomatic course of the disease and unspecific clinical signs. Hence, respective epidemiological data are scarce. On the other hand, systematic histopathological work-up of testicular biopsies from infertile men indicates a high prevalence of inflammatory reactions. A characteristic pattern of inflammatory lesions with focal or multifocal, predominantly peritubular lymphocyte infiltration and concomitant damage of seminiferous tubules is seen in chronic orchitis of various origins. This supports the concept that induction of testicular inflammation is associated with a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response, i.e. disruption of the immune privilege. Moreover, despite the patchy distribution of the lesions, testicular volume and score counts for spermatogenesis may be significantly reduced. In conclusion, asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in the testis should not be neglected as an underlying cause or co-factor of male infertility. However, definitive diagnosis of chronic asymptomatic orchitis still requires testicular biopsy and guidelines for the therapeutic management are not yet available.

  9. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  10. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC+) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC−), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC+ to sSMC− spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 − 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient’s sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient. PMID:26616419

  11. Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tambi, Mohd Ismail Bin Mohd; Imran, M Kamarul

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies.

  12. Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bin Mohd Tambi, Mohd Ismail; Imran, M. Kamarul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies. PMID:20348942

  13. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    PubMed

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  14. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of

  15. AB146. Development of a new micro straw for cryopreservation of few sperm for severe male factor infertility patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Can; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Shan S.; Shi, Wen B.; Zhu, Jing J.; Huang, Yong H.; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new mirco-straw (named as LSL straw) for cryopreservation of few sperm retrieved from severe oligozoospermia and testicular biopsy samples. Methods We developed a new micro-straw with max volume of 50 µL. The same sperm samples were cryopreserved using new mirco-straw and conventional 0.2 and 0.5 mL straws and post thaw motility, acrosomal integrity and sperm DNA fragmentation were compared. Total of 32 semen samples were used in this study and each sample was diluted to sperm concentration 10×106/mL. The diluted semen was mixed with cryoprotectant in ratio of 1:1 before transferring to micro-straw and 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws. Then place all the three straws containing sperm directly to liquid nitrogen vapor at –140 for 3 hours before plunge it to liquid nitrogen for storage at –196 °C. In post thaw sample, total and progressive motility, sperm morphology, acrosome integrity (FITC-PSA) and DNA fragmentation index (sperm chromatin diffusion, SCD) were assessed in the same samples before and after freezing. Results While post thaw motility (25.6% vs. 27.4% vs. 38.5% vs. 54.4%, P<0.001) and acrosomal integrity (65.08% vs. 66.61% vs. 68.84% vs. 77.8%, P<0.001) were all significantly lower in all straws compared with fresh semen, new micro-straws had significantly higher motility recovery than conventional 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws (38.5%, 25.6%, 27.4%, P<0.003). There was significantly correlation between speed of temperature and motility recovery: the faster temperature declines, the better motility recovery in post thaw samples. However, there was no significantly different in morphology, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between the three types of straws. Conclusions New micro-straw for sperm cryopreservation has significant higher motility recovery than conventional 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws. This micro-straw may be benefit for cryopreservation of few sperm storage and easy to be recovered for ICSI treatment in several male factor

  16. Initiative for standardization of reporting genetics of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Traven, Eva; Ogrinc, Ana; Kunej, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    The number of publications on research of male infertility is increasing. Technologies used in research of male infertility generate complex results and various types of data that need to be appropriately managed, arranged, and made available to other researchers for further use. In our previous study, we collected over 800 candidate loci for male fertility in seven mammalian species. However, the continuation of the work towards a comprehensive database of candidate genes associated with different types of idiopathic human male infertility is challenging due to fragmented information, obtained from a variety of technologies and various omics approaches. Results are published in different forms and usually need to be excavated from the text, which hinders the gathering of information. Standardized reporting of genetic anomalies as well as causative and risk factors of male infertility therefore presents an important issue. The aim of the study was to collect examples of diverse genomic loci published in association with human male infertility and to propose a standardized format for reporting genetic causes of male infertility. From the currently available data we have selected 75 studies reporting 186 representative genomic loci which have been proposed as genetic risk factors for male infertility. Based on collected and formatted data, we suggested a first step towards unification of reporting the genetics of male infertility in original and review studies. The proposed initiative consists of five relevant data types: 1) genetic locus, 2) race/ethnicity, number of participants (infertile/controls), 3) methodology, 4) phenotype (clinical data, disease ontology, and disease comorbidity), and 5) reference. The proposed form for standardized reporting presents a baseline for further optimization with additional genetic and clinical information. This data standardization initiative will enable faster multi-omics data integration, database development and sharing

  17. Male genital tract chlamydial infection: implications for pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kelly A; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research, screening, and treatment are focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. The prevalence of chlamydial infection, however, is similar in males and females. Furthermore, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. The role of Chlamydia in the development of prostatitis is controversial, but we suggest that Chlamydia is an etiological agent, with incidences of up to 39.5% reported in patients with prostatitis. Infection of the testis and prostate is implicated in a deterioration of sperm, possibly affecting fertility. Chlamydia infections also may affect male fertility by directly damaging the sperm, because sperm parameters, proportion of DNA fragmentation, and acrosome reaction capacity are impaired with chlamydial infection. Furthermore, the proportion of male partners of infertile couples with evidence of a Chlamydia infection is greater than that documented in the general population. An effect of male chlamydial infection on the fertility of the female partner also has been reported. Thus, the need for a vaccine to protect both males and females is proposed. The difficulty arises because the male reproductive tract is an immune-privileged site that can be disrupted, potentially affecting spermatogenesis, if inappropriate inflammatory responses are provoked. Examination of responses to infection in humans and in experimental animal models suggest that an immunoglobulin A-inducing vaccine will be able to target the male reproductive tract effectively while avoiding harmful inflammatory responses that may impair fertility.

  18. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-11-09

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility.

  19. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  20. Gonadal dysfunction and infertility in kidney transplant patients receiving sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Boobes, Yousef; Bernieh, Bassam; Saadi, Hussein; Raafat Al Hakim, M; Abouchacra, Samra

    2010-06-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were receiving sirolimus. Follow-up data for two male patients were not available. The one unmarried female patient developed amenorrhea post-transplantation and had resumption of her menstrual cycles after discontinuation of sirolimus. The remaining six married patients (four males and two females), who all had fathered or conceived children in the pre-transplantation period, developed gonadal dysfunction and infertility on average 5-12 months after transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in all four male patients with full recovery of the oligo/azospermia and restoration of fertility. Both married female patients developed amenorrhea post-transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in one female patient with resumption of her menstrual cycles. In this small population of patients treated with sirolimus, the prevalence rate of reversible gonadal dysfunction and infertility was significant in both males and females. Infertility secondary to sirolimus is under-diagnosed and should be studied further.

  1. The future of male infertility management and assisted reproduction technology.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    2000-12-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is undoubtedly a powerful, and sometimes the only effective, form of infertility treatment. Nonetheless, it is a non-specific treatment that, combined with increasingly heroic techniques to recover male germinal cells, has led to perceptions of men as just providers of gametes in the infertility equation. In response to this nihilist attitude, where women are investigated extensively and scant attention is paid to men, there is a re-emerging awareness of andrology--particularly in countries with limited healthcare resources. Structured management strategies, using diagnostic information to recognize causative factors amenable to simpler, even systemic, therapies with reasonable chances of pregnancy rather than resorting prematurely to assisted reproduction technology, represent rational, cost-effective approaches to infertility management. Furthermore, genetic testing (particularly cystic fibrosis gene defects and Y-chromosome microdeletions) is essential for couples to make fully informed decisions on their options. Recognition that free radical-induced damage to the sperm genome (e.g. from smoking or in-vitro sperm manipulation) underlies deleterious paternal effects on preimplantation development promotes further synergy between andrology and embryology. Although societies strike different balances between considerations of affordability and cost-effectiveness of assisted reproduction technology, ICSI represents a last resort, to be used when less-invasive, lower-cost treatments have been deemed inappropriate or have failed. Consequently, rather than assisted reproduction technology eliminating the need for andrology, the future will see increasingly tighter integration of multidisciplinary infertility care, embracing careful diagnosis and patient education before obtaining truly informed consent and embarking upon cost-effective treatment.

  2. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05–1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06–1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01–1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  3. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  4. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  5. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  6. Investigation of male infertility using quantitative comparative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Légaré, Christine; Droit, Arnaud; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Force, André; Cloutier, Francine; Tremblay, Roland; Sullivan, Robert

    2014-12-05

    Male factors account for 40% of infertility cases. The identification of differentially expressed proteins on spermatozoa from fertile and infertile men can help in the elucidation of the molecular basis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to compare sperm proteomes from 3 different groups: fertile men, normozoospermic men consulting for infertility, and normozoospermic men with an impaired capacity for fertilization (IVF-failure). We used differential proteomics with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and LC-MS analysis to identify proteins that are differentially expressed. A total of 348 unique proteins were identified and quantified. The analysis identified 33 proteins that were differentially expressed in the IVF-failure group vs the fertile group. Comparison of the infertile and fertile groups revealed that 18 proteins appeared to be differentially expressed. Four proteins were similarly altered in the IVF-failure and infertile groups: semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), prolactin-induced protein (PIP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS), and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2). These protein markers were selected for validation using multiple reactions monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) and further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Overall, these results suggest that a panel of proteins may be used as biomarkers for future studies of infertility.

  7. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  8. Absence of Sperm Rna Elements Correlates With Idopathic Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I.; Librach, Clifford L.; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P.; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Semen parameters have been used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions.. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next Generation Sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs has provided an objective measure of the paternal contribution that may be able to help guide the care of these couples. Spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility were assessed in the context of fertility treatment and final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status were identified. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability to achieve live birth by Timed Intercourse (TIC) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) from 73% to 27%. However, the absence of these same sperm RNA elements does not appear to be critical when assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with or without Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are employed. Approximately 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Similarly, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth when presented with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor was perhaps involved as confirmed by their diagnosis. The data presented from this study suggests that SRE analysis has the potential to inform on the individual success rate of different fertility treatments to reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  9. The effect of obesity on sperm disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Stefan S; Cabler, Stephanie; McAlister, Debra A; Sabanegh, Edmund; Agarwal, Ashok

    2010-03-01

    The results of several studies point to an increased likelihood of abnormal semen parameters among overweight men, and an elevated risk for subfertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. Obesity is, therefore, associated with a higher incidence of male factor infertility. Several mechanisms might account for the effect of obesity on male infertility, both directly and indirectly, by inducing sleep apnea, alterations in hormonal profiles (reduced inhibin B and androgen levels accompanied by elevated estrogen levels) and increased scrotal temperatures, ultimately manifesting as impaired semen parameters (decreased total sperm count, concentration and motility; increased DNA fragmentation index). Neither the reversibility of obesity-associated male infertility with weight loss nor effective therapeutic interventions have been studied in-depth. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its effects on fertility, better understanding of underlying mechanisms, and exploration into avenues of treatment.

  10. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marcy E; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility.

  11. Experimental Methods to Preserve Male Fertility and Treat Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families and society that extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments and assisted reproductive technologies are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for azoospermic men. PMID:26746133

  12. Treatment of Leukocytospermia in Male Infertility: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Myung Ha; Kim, Jiye; Baik, Soon Koo; Koh, Sang-Baek; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Male factors account for 20% to 50% of infertility cases, and infection in the genitourinary tract may play a contributing role in up to 15% of male infertility. Leukocytospermia is a well-known indicator of infection or inflammation in the male sex glands and the urogenital tract. Although great deal of effort has been expended to elucidate definite management strategies in infertile men with leukocytospermia, the gold standard of treatment remains unclear. Until recently, broad spectrum antibiotics and antioxidants have been used in the treatment of leukocytospermia for male infertility to eliminate infection and reduce reactive oxygen free radicals produced inside cellular mitochondria as a result of inflammation. The present review reveals that antibiotics might improve sperm parameters, the rate of resolution of leukocytospermia, the bacteriologic cure rate, and even the pregnancy rate, although some reports conflict. Antioxidants might also have clinical benefits for sperm function as shown by in vitro studies. However, the data are insufficient to conclude whether antibiotics and antioxidants for the treatment of infertile men with leukocytospermia are effective or not. Better designed investigations into leukocytospermia are needed. PMID:28053945

  13. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854

  14. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  15. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Decreasing male fertility has been observed for the past fifty years. Examples of affected reproductive parameters include decreases in sperm count and sperm quality and increases in testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Exposures to environmental toxicants during fetal development and early postnatal life have been shown to promote infertility. Environmental exposures inducing epigenetic changes related to male infertility range from life style, occupational exposures, environmental toxicants and nutrition. Exposures during fetal gonadal sex determination have been shown to alter the epigenetic programming of the germline that then can transmit this altered epigenetic information to subsequent generations in the absence of any exposures. This environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease will be a component of the etiology of male infertility.

  16. [Application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2013-05-01

    The study on stem cells is a hot field in biomedical science in recent years, and has furthered from laboratory to clinical application. Stem cells, according to their developmental stage and differential properties, can be divided into embryonic stem cells, induced PS cells and adult stem cells, among which, adult stem cells have already been applied to the clinical treatment of many systemic diseases. Currently, the study of spermatogonial stem cells and adult stem cells is in the front of the basic researches on the treatment of male infertility, but the time has not yet arrived for their clinical application. This paper outlines the application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility.

  17. [L-arginine and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F

    1994-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects.

  18. Screening for Y-chromosome microdeletions in a population of infertile males in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Shaqalaih, Ashraf J.; Abu Halima, Masood S.; Ashour, Mohammed J.; Sharif, Fadel A.

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is an extraordinary public health problem in the Arab world, as it affects about 15% of couples seeking children. The male partner is responsible for infertility in approximately half of these cases. Classic microdeletions of the Y-chromosome involving the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions are known to be associated with spermatogenic impairment, and non-obstructive azoospermia must be differentiated on the basis of endocrine evaluation and testicular biopsy. Partial AZFc deletions remain controversial because there is no clear agreement regarding their role in spermatogenic failure. In the current study, 50 fertile males (controls) and 125 patients with primary idiopathic male infertility were studied in order to describe the frequency of Y-chromosome mirodeletions among male infertility patients in the Gaza Strip-Palestine area. No Y chromosome classical microdeletions could be detected in any of the 125 infertile men, suggesting that ethnic factors, genetic background, and Y chromosome haplogroups are key factors in such deletions. On the other hand, six gr/gr and one b1/b3 AZFc partial deletions were detected in the infertile population. The gr/gr deletion was also noted in relatives of four of the six patients with this deletion, and in one of the fertile controls. In conclusion, our study shows that the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in our population is rare; these data suggest that other genetic, epigenetic, nutritional and/or local factors are responsible for impairments in semen parameters observed in this Gazan population. We further hypothesise that the gr/gr deletion is not associated with male infertility, at least in this sub-group. PMID:20485582

  19. Phylogenetic and population-based approaches to mitogenome variation do not support association with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Salas, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Infertility has a complex multifactorial etiology and a high prevalence worldwide. Several studies have pointed to variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule as a factor responsible for the different disease phenotypes related to infertility. We analyzed 53 mitogenomes of infertile males from Galicia (northwest Spain), and these haplotypes were meta-analyzed phylogenetically with 43 previously reported from Portugal. Taking advantage of the large amount of information available, we additionally carried out association tests between patient mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) and haplogroups against Iberian matched controls retrieved from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature. Phylogenetic and association analyses did not reveal evidence of association between mtSNPs/haplogroups and infertility. Ratios and patterns in patients of nonsynonymous/synonymous changes, and variation at homoplasmic, heteroplasmic and private variants, fall within expected values for healthy individuals. Moreover, the haplogroup background of patients was variable and fits well with patterns typically observed in healthy western Europeans. We did not find evidence of association of mtSNPs or haplogroups pointing to a role for mtDNA in male infertility. A thorough review of the literature on mtDNA variation and infertility revealed contradictory findings and methodological and theoretical problems that overall undermine previous positive findings.

  20. Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Harlev, Avi; Gunes, Sezgin Ozgur; Shetty, Amit; du Plessis, Stefan Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. PMID:26770934

  1. "Wash leather scrotum" (scrotal dermatitis): a treatable cause of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hendry, W F; Munro, D D

    1990-02-01

    A group of 16 male patients with infertility had dermatitis of the scrotum and groins giving lichenified oedematous skin; the resulting thickening and loss of rugosity produced a characteristic appearance that we have termed wash leather scrotum. Treatment of the dermatosis resulted in an improvement in sperm count and motility in most patients, and 5 couples produced one or more pregnancies.

  2. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  3. Genetic variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shuo-Ran; A, Zhou-Cun

    2013-08-01

    In testis, eNOS is responsible for synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) which is an essential gas message regulator in spermatogenesis, suggesting that eNOS gene plays a role in normal spermatogenesis and the genetic variants of eNOS gene may be potential genetic risk factors of spermatogenesis impairment. In this study, the polymorphic distributions of three common polymorphism loci including T-786C, 4A4B and G894T in eNOS gene were investigated in 355 Chinese infertile patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and 246 healthy fertile men and a meta-analysis was carried in order to explore the possible relationship between the three loci of eNOS gene and male infertility with spermatogenesis impairment. As a result, allele -786C of T-786C (11.4% versus 6.5%, p = 0.004) and 4A of 4A4B (11.0% versus 6.3%, p = 0.005) as well as genotype TC of T-786C (22.8% versus 13.0%, p = 0.002) and AB of 4A4B (18% versus 11%, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility. The haplotypes T-4A-G (7.4% versus 4.1%, p = 0.015) and C-4B-G (7.6% versus 4.4%, p = 0.028) could increase the susceptibility to male infertility, whereas haplotype T-4B-G (67.0% versus 75.2%, p = 0.002) might be a protective factor for male infertility. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the polymorphism of T-786C was associated with male infertility. These findings suggested that the variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to male infertility with impaired spermatogenesis.

  4. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  5. Genetic and epigenetic factors: Role in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, M. B.; Kumar, K.; Dada, R.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute upto 15%–30% cases of male infertility. Formation of spermatozoa occurs in a sequential manner with mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic differentiation phases each of which is controlled by an intricate genetic program. Genes control a variety of physiologic processes, such as hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis, germ cell development, and differentiation. In the era of assisted reproduction technology, it is important to understand the genetic basis of infertility to provide maximum adapted therapeutics and counseling to the couple. PMID:21716934

  6. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N.; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  7. Varicocele as a source of male infertility – current treatment techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dobroński, Piotr Artur; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    To establish the extent of varicocele as the cause of infertility in men and compare the various techniques of treatment. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library database using varicocele, male infertility, varicocelectomy as keywords. Varicocele seems to be a growing problem considered to be one of the most common causes of male infertility in recent times. Nevertheless, its role remains unclear. The best treatment option seems to be microscopic surgery – the most effective and linked to rare surgical complications. But the greatest clinical problem remains the selection of patients to treat – recently it is believed that varicocelectomy is a possibly advisable option in patients with clinical varicocele and seminal parameter impairment [1]. More high-quality, multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT's) are required to verify the findings. PMID:26568883

  8. [Treatment of traditional Chinese medicine for idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Fuse, Hideki

    2004-08-01

    Several Chinese herbal medicines have been used to treat patients with idiopathic male infertility and have been reported to improve semen quality. The clinical efficacy of these medicines was reviewed. The therapeutic effect of Hochu-ekki-to based on the pretreatment traditional diagnosis (Sho) was examined. Three months after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, the semen count and motility significantly increased in comparison with pretreatment values. When the patients were classified into 3 categories based on "Sho", Hochu-ekki-to was effective in semen motility in patients with vacuity pattern (Kyo-Sho). Seminal plasma soluble Fas (sFas) levels before and three months after the administration of drug were analyzed. Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to. After the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, seminal plasma sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. To make the best use of traditional medicine, it is important to give medication according to the traditional diagnosis (Sho).

  9. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuela; Förster, Heidi; Boersma, Auke; Seiler, Alexander; Wehnes, Helga; Sinowatz, Fred; Neumüller, Christine; Deutsch, Manuel J; Walch, Axel; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Ursini, Fulvio; Roveri, Antonella; Maleszewski, Marek; Maiorino, Matilde; Conrad, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is linked to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), first described as an antioxidant enzyme, is the predominant selenoenzyme in testis and has been suspected of being vital for spermatogenesis. Cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoforms are all encoded by the same gene. While disruption of entire GPx4 causes early embryonic lethality in mice, inactivation of nuclear GPx4 does not impair embryonic development or fertility. Here, we show that deletion of mitochondrial GPx4 (mGPx4) allows both normal embryogenesis and postnatal development, but causes male infertility. Infertility was associated with impaired sperm quality and severe structural abnormalities in the midpiece of spermatozoa. Knockout sperm display higher protein thiol content and recapitulate features typical of severe selenodeficiency. Interestingly, male infertility induced by mGPx4 depletion could be bypassed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We also show for the first time that mGPx4 is the prevailing GPx4 product in male germ cells and that mGPx4 disruption has no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of germinal or somatic tissue. Our study finally establishes that mitochondrial GPx4 confers the vital role of selenium in mammalian male fertility and identifies cytosolic GPx4 as the only GPx4 isoform being essential for embryonic development and apoptosis regulation.

  10. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  11. Conservative Nonhormonal Options for the Treatment of Male Infertility: Antibiotics, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.

    2017-01-01

    The nonhormonal medical treatment can be divided into empirical, when the cause has not been identified, and nonempirical, if the pathogenic mechanism causing male infertility can be solved or ameliorated. The empirical nonhormonal medical treatment has been proposed for patients with idiopathic or noncurable oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and for normozoospermic infertile patients. Anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, and antioxidant compounds, oligo elements, and vitamin supplementation may be prescribed. Infection, inflammation, and/or increased oxidative stress often require a specific treatment with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or antioxidants. Combined therapies can contribute to improve sperm quality. PMID:28164122

  12. Case-control study of leatherwork and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kurinczuk, J; Clarke, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with male infertility mediated through the development of oligozoospermia. The basis of any association was postulated, at the outset, to be with exposure to the solvents used in leatherwork.
METHODS—All new referrals with infertility presenting in Leicestershire hospital clinics between November 1988 and September 1992 and Kettering District General Hospital from August 1990 were eligible to participate; 88.5% agreed to be interviewed. Exposure to leatherwork and work with solvents was defined by job title. Comparisons were made with fertile controls and in an analysis within men from infertile couples with oligozoospermia as the primary outcome. Effects on sperm motility and deformity were investigated secondarily. Analyses used logistic regression for binary outcomes and multilevel modelling for continuous outcomes.
RESULTS—1906 men were interviewed. Compared with the fertile controls the men from infertile couples were 1.10 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46 to 2.63; p=0.99) more likely to be leatherworkers and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.26 to 2.38; p<0.001) more likely to work with solvents. Compared with other men, leatherworkers were 1.20 times (95% CI 0.43 to 3.33; p=0.73) more likely to present with oligozoospermia and 1.65 times (95% CI 0.37 to 7.30; p=0.51) more likely to present with teratozoospermia. Being a leatherworker was associated with only a 6% reduction in sperm concentration; motility and deformity were similarly unaffected by this exposure. Work with solvents did not statistically, nor clinically, increase the risk of oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, or asthenozoospermia.
CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with an increased risk of presenting with infertility or oligozoospermia. There was limited evidence that leatherwork is a risk factor for teratozoospermia. Workers with solvents were at

  13. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  14. Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? Results of a 7 year observational study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccà, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (χ(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ≥ 0.05). Linear regression analyses showed that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ≥ 0.05), whereas partners' age (β = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (β = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These results showed a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame.

  15. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  16. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship.

    PubMed

    Deepinder, Fnu; Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok

    2007-09-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the use of mobile phones in the past decade and concerns are growing about the possible hazardous effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by these devices on human health. Preliminary studies, though with limitations in study design, suggest a possible link between cell phone use and infertility. A recent study found that use of cell phones adversely affects the quality of semen by decreasing the sperm counts, motility, viability and morphology. Evidence of detrimental effect of mobile phones on male fertility is still equivocal as studies have revealed a wide spectrum of possible effects ranging from insignificant effects to variable degrees of testicular damage. Although previous studies suggested a role of cell phone use in male infertility, the mode of action of EMW emitted from cell phones on the male reproductive system is still unclear. EMW can affect the reproductive system via an EMW-specific effect, thermal molecular effect or combination of both. Studies performed on human males are scarce and therefore further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male-fertilizing potential.

  17. Proteins involved in meiotic recombination: a role in male infertility?

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Matthew L; Hassold, Terry J; Carrell, Douglas T

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of crossovers, by which genetic information is exchanged between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Recombination is a complex process involving many proteins. Alterations in the genes involved in recombination may result in infertility. Molecular studies have improved our understanding of the roles and mechanisms of the proteins and protein complexes involved in recombination, some of which have function in mitotic cells as well as meiotic cells. Human gene sequencing studies have been performed for some of these genes and have provided further information on the phenotypes observed in some infertile individuals. However, further studies are needed to help elucidate the particular role(s) of a given protein and to increase our understanding of these protein systems. This review will focus on our current understanding of proteins involved in meiotic recombination from a genomic perspective, summarizing our current understanding of known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms that may affect male fertility by altering meiotic recombination.

  18. Genetic Variation in Circadian Rhythm Genes CLOCK and ARNTL as Risk Factor for Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hodžić, Alenka; Ristanović, Momčilo; Zorn, Branko; Tulić, Cane; Maver, Aleš; Novaković, Ivana; Peterlin, Borut

    2013-01-01

    Background The circadian system has a major role in maintaining homeostasis and proper body functions including reproductive capacity. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between genetic variability in the primary clock genes CLOCK and ARNTL and male infertility in humans. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a case-control study, where we searched for an association between polymorphisms of CLOCK and ARNTL genes and male infertility in 961 Slovenian and Serbian Caucasian men. The study group consisted of 517 patients with idiopathic infertility and a control group of 444 fertile men. A statistically significant difference was found in genotype distribution between the two groups in the CLOCK gene: rs11932595 (p = 6·10−5, q = 4·10−4, OR equaled 1.9 with 95% CI 1.4–2.7), rs6811520 (p = 2·10−3, q = 8·10−3, OR = 1.7 with 95% CI 1.2–2.2) and rs6850524 (p = 0.01, q = 0.02, OR = 1.4 with 95% CI 1.1–1.9). Further analyses of haplotypes were consistent with genotyping results. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence that genetic variability in the CLOCK gene might be associated with male infertility warranting further confirmation and mechanistic investigations. PMID:23527142

  19. Association between periodontal status and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016).

  20. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 female primary infertility patients and 1100 female secondary infertility patients were included in this study, as well as 627 healthy female controls. The above autoantibodies were tested and the positive rates in each group were calculated. Results: the positive rate of ASAb were significantly higher in primary infertility female than that in male, further analysis revealed that primary infertility population all exhibit significant higher positive rate of EMAb, AOAb, AZP and ACA compared with control group. Furthermore, the positive rates of all the antibodies in primary infertility female were significantly higher than those in secondary infertility female. Conclusions: Our study thus indicates that these autoantibodies might be associated with immunological related primary infertility and may have clinical significance in its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26550366

  1. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele.

  2. Differential clustering of sperm subpopulations in infertile males with clinical varicocele and carriers of rearranged genomes.

    PubMed

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Some methods for determining sperm DNA fragmentation, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD), provide additional information about particular subgroups of spermatozoa with specific irregularities. Thus, SCSA recognizes a specific sperm subpopulation, the high-DNA stainability sperm subpopulation (HDS), and SCD recognizes the so-called DNA-degraded sperm (DDS) subpopulation. Although some studies associate the presence of these subpopulations with specific aspects related to infertility, the relationship between both sperm subpopulations and their preponderance in specific clinical groups of infertile males has not been extensively investigated. In this study, HDS and DDS subpopulations were determined in a total of 37 human males: 8 males with proven fertility, 9 infertile males with asthenoteratozoospermia, 10 carriers of chromosomal reorganizations, and 10 infertile males with clinical varicocele. Results showed a significant increase of the DDS subpopulation (P < .001) in both the varicocele patient (16.85 ± 7.24) and carrier of rearranged genome (11.6 ± 5.23) groups, but not in patients with asthenoteratozoospermia (3.88 ± 1.55) or fertile donors (2.62 ± 1.68). No statistical differences were detected for the HDS subpopulation (P = .542), but the highest values were found in the varicocele and rearranged-genome groups. However, no correlation between the HDS and DDS subpopulations were found (r = 0.196; P = .244), suggesting that both represent a different class of sperm subpopulation in the ejaculate. A significant increase in HDS, and especially DDS, can be associated with the presence of varicocele or the rearrangement of chromosomes. Specific diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis must be performed in patients with increased DDS and HDS values.

  3. Proteome analysis for profiling infertility markers in male mouse sperm after carbon ion radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2013-04-05

    Ion radiation or radiotherapy is used to treat male patients with oligozoospermia, azoospermia, temporarily infertility, or even permanent infertility. The present study aims to investigate the potential infertility mechanism of sperm in mice after carbon ion radiation (CIR). The caudal epididymal sperm of male mice whole-body irradiated with carbon ion beam (0.5Gy and 4Gy) were used 7 days after irradiation. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach was employed to investigate the changes in protein expression in the caudal edididymal sperm. Spot detection and matching were performed using the PDQuest 8.0 software. The criteria used to select spots for the analysis were more than a threefold difference in protein quantities (normalized spot volume), which allowed the detection of six differentially expressed proteins. Protein identification was performed using MALDI-TOF-TOF. Six specific proteins were identified by searching the NCBI protein sequence database. Among these proteins, HSP 70-2, PLC, GPX4, β-tubulin, and GAPDHS were associated with sperm motility, which can affect fertility. β-tubulin is important in axoneme migration flagellar movement and regulation, and GAPDHS is related to sperm energy supply. We analyzed their expressions using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The changes in sperm protein expression after CIR are mainly associated with motility. These proteins are potential markers for the mechanisms of infertility in space or radiotherapy.

  4. Ethanol-induced male infertility: impairment of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Willis, B R; Oswald, C; Zaneveld, L J

    1983-05-01

    Ethanol is generally regarded as a reproductive toxin. However, the mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced infertility remain poorly understood. As male fertility depends upon the ability of spermatozoa to fertilize ova, it was the purpose of the present study to examine the effects of chronic ethanol treatment on several parameters related to sperm fertility. Male C57Bl/6J mice of proven fertility were administered liquid diets as follows: 5% (v/v) ethanol for either 1) 5 weeks; 2) 10 weeks; 3) 20 weeks; or 4) 6% (v/v) ethanol for 5 weeks. After each treatment, epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated with respect to quantity, motility, morphology and the ability to fertilize. A biphasic effect on sperm content was noted: 5- and 10-week treatments with 5% ethanol increased content by 80 and 65%, respectively, whereas 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol decreased content by 52 and 71%, respectively. Although the proportion of motile spermatozoa was unaffected by ethanol, average forward progression velocity was reduced, the effect being dependent on ethanol dose and duration of exposure. Similarly, the frequency of abnormal spermatozoa was increased; 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol increased the frequency of sperm morphological anomalies by 50 and 40%, respectively. Fertility of spermatozoa was reduced as a function of ethanol dose and duration of exposure. The ability of sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro was reduced by 34% (P less than .02) and 62% (P less than .001) subsequent to 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol, respectively. An animal model has been developed which describes ethanol-induced male infertility. The degree of reproductive impairment varies with the amount of ethanol ingested, and the duration of ethanol exposure. The continuum of effects should make possible the evaluation of putative mechanisms of male sterility resulting from chronic ethanol

  5. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  6. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  7. Parabens in male infertility-is there a mitochondrial connection?

    PubMed

    Tavares, Renata S; Martins, Fátima C; Oliveira, Paulo J; Ramalho-Santos, João; Peixoto, Francisco P

    2009-01-01

    Parabens are widely used as preservatives in many foods, cosmetics, toiletries, and pharmaceuticals due to their relatively low toxicity profile and to a long history of safe use. Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and typically include methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben, isopropylparaben and benzylparaben. These compounds are known to have a null or very weak estrogenic activity in estrogen receptor assays in vitro. In recent years, an increasing concern has emerged regarding possible adverse effects of chemicals in food and in cosmetics on human reproduction outcomes. In developed countries about 15% of human couples are affected by infertility, almost half of these cases attributed to men, through low sperm motility or/and sperm count. It is known that a significant number of cases of male infertility results from exposure to xenobiotics, and also that testis mitochondria are particularly affected by drug-induced toxicity. The present review discusses evidence that parabens may not be as safe as initially thought, and suggests that the interaction between parabens and mitochondrial function in the testis may be key in explaining the contribution of parabens for a decrease in reproductive potential.

  8. Chromosomal Aberrations and Polymorphic Evaluation in Males with Primary Infertility from Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pokale, Yamini S.; Jadhav, Ajinkya M.; Gangane, Suresh D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. Materials and Methods: The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Results: Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. Interpretation and Conclusion: The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:25478430

  9. From spermatocytes to spermatozoa in an infertile XYY male.

    PubMed

    Rives, Nathalie; Milazzo, Jean Pierre; Miraux, Ludivine; North, Marie-Odile; Sibert, Louis; Macé, Bertrand

    2005-10-01

    Sex chromosome distribution and aneuploidy as well as germ cell degeneration were evaluated in meiotic and post-meiotic cells from an infertile XYY male. Sex chromosome distribution was assessed by multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization on meiotic preparations. Post-meiotic cell aneuploidy was characterized by a method combining multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry using the proacrosin-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 4D4). TUNEL assay was carried out on seminiferous tubules to evaluate germ cell degeneration. At the prophase stage of the first meiotic division, 63.64% of cells at the pachytene stage carried three sex chromosomes. The ratio of X-bearing to Y-bearing spermatids and spermatozoa differed significantly from 1 : 1 with an excess of Y-bearing spermatids and spermatozoa. The frequency of hyperhaploid XY spermatids was increased in the XYY male, as well as the incidence of YY, XY and disomic 18 ejaculated spermatozoa. A preferential elimination of germ cells by apoptosis occurred in spermatocytes I. The persistence of the extra Y chromosome during meiosis of an XYY male is associated with a high rate of spermatocyte I degeneration and a low rate of aneuploid spermatozoa.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  11. One-carbon metabolism, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Jaiswal, Deepika

    2013-06-01

    Balanced diet is the natural source of micronutrients, such as folate and vitamins, vital for proper functioning of the body. One-carbon metabolic pathway along with folate and other vitamins plays an important role in DNA synthesis and in the establishment of epigenetic modifications like DNA/histone methylation. Spermatogenesis involves distinct cellular, genetic, and chromatin changes during the course of production of male gamete sperm. Folate and normal activity of 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes are central to nucleotide synthesis, methylation, and maintenance of genomic integrity as well as protection from DNA damage. As a result, polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes affecting several physiological processes also have an impact on spermatogenesis and may affect directly or indirectly quality of sperm. Alterations in these processes may be a consequence of additive effect resulting from altered expression of 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes and/or inadequate folate/micronutrients supplementation. The present review provides an overview of different cellular and molecular events regulated by 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes and their impact on male reproductive health. It also summarizes the different studies where polymorphisms in the enzymes of 1-carbon metabolic pathway or folate deficiency are associated with male infertility and future prospects.

  12. Sperm viral infection and male infertility: focus on HBV, HCV, HIV, HPV, HSV, HCMV, and AAV.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Barzon, Luisa; Foresta, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral infections can infect sperm and are considered a risk factor in male infertility. Recent studies have shown that the presence of HIV, HBV or HCV in semen impairs sperm parameters, DNA integrity, and in particular reduces forward motility. In contrast, very little is known about semen infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpesviruses (HSV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). At present, EU directives for the viral screening of couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques require only the evaluation of HIV, HBV, and HCV. However, growing evidence suggests that HPV, HSV, and HCMV might play a major role in male infertility and it has been demonstrated that HPV semen infection has a negative influence on sperm parameters, fertilization, and the abortion rate. Besides the risk of horizontal or vertical transmission, the negative impact of any viral sperm infection on male reproductive function seems to be dramatic. In addition, treatment with antiviral and antiretroviral therapies may further affect sperm parameters. In this review we attempted to focus on the interactions between defined sperm viral infections and their association with male fertility disorders. All viruses considered in this article have a potentially negative effect on male reproductive function and dangerous infections can be transmitted to partners and newborns. In light of this evidence, we suggest performing targeted sperm washing procedures for each sperm infection and to strongly consider screening male patients seeking fertility for HPV, HSV, and HCMV, both to avoid viral transmission and to improve assisted or even spontaneous fertility outcome.

  13. Management of endometriosis in the infertile patient.

    PubMed

    Kistner, R W

    1975-12-01

    Infertility has a 30-40% incidence in women with endometriosis. However, conservative surgical procedures can result in pregnancy for 40-90% of these patients. The pregnancy rate is influenced by 5 factors: 1) extent of the disease, 2) age, 3) history of previous surgery for endometriosis, 4) duration of infertility before surgery, and 5) length of postsurgical follow-up. The factor responsible for infertility among women with endometriosis is believed to be an inadequacy of the tubo-ovarian motility secondary to fibrosis and scarring, which results in imperfect ovum acceptance by the fimbriae. Therapy encompasses 4 approaches: 1) prophylaxis, 2) observation and analgesia, 3) suppression of ovulation, and 4) surgical treatment. Pregnancy is suggested as the optimal prophylactic treatment for endometriosis since the symptoms and signs regress during gestation and for varying periods thereafter. This regression is probably due to a combination of anovulation and amenorrhea caused by adenohypophyseal suppression. It may also be due to a transformation of functioning endometriotic tissue into decidua by increasing levels of chorionic estrogen and progesterone. If pregnancy is not desired, anovulation can be secured by the administration of sex hormones. Pseudopregnancy for 6 months, induced by norgestrel plus ethinyl estradiol or norethynodrel plus mestranol, can lead to pregnancy in 50% of patients whose only abnormality is surface ovarian endometriosis within 1 year of cessation of therapy. Short periods of pseudopregnancy are also advocated after conservative surgery if all areas of endometriosis cannot be excised. 40-50% of these patients can expect to become pregnant within 24 months. The incidence of postoperative tubo-ovarian adhesions may be diminished by use of dexamethasone and promethazine.

  14. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  15. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility.

  16. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Chia; Hsieh, Kung-Chen; Lin, Pi-Mei; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, and antral follicle count (AFC), as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women < 35 years of age or infertile couples with male factors. Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility. PMID:19761617

  17. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by: Autoimmune disorders , such as antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) Birth defects that affect the reproductive tract Cancer ... to their provider. Infertility testing involves a medical history and physical exam for both partners. Blood and ...

  18. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P < 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in controls. Within cases, follicle-stimulating hormone treatment allowed to perform intrauterine insemination in 35 patients with a pregnancy rate of 23.2 %. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed in all controls and in 49 patients from cases, with pregnancy rates of 23.2 and 40.8 %, respectively (P < 0.05). After 3 months (T0 vs. T1) of follicle-stimulating hormone therapy, cases with positive outcome had reduced DNA fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 vs. negative outcome, respectively).In this observational study, we showed that follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  19. Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in infertile European males carrying Y-microdeletions.

    PubMed

    Paracchini, S; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Palka, G; Moro, E; Foresta, C; Mengua, L; Oliva, R; Ballescà, J L; Kremer, J A; van Golde, R J; Tuerlings, J H; Hargreave, T; Ross, A; Cooke, H; Huellen, K; Vogt, P H; Tyler-Smith, C

    2000-11-01

    We have determined Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in 73 infertile European males carrying Y microdeletions and compared them with the haplotypes of 299 infertile males lacking microdeletions. Chromosomes were typed with a set of 11 binary Y markers, which identified 8 haplogroups in the sample. Haplogroup frequencies were compared between 3 microdeletion classes and the non-deleted infertile males. Deletions arise on many different haplotypic backgrounds. No statistically significant differences in frequency were seen, although the small number of AZFa deletions lay predominantly on one branch of the Y haplotype tree.

  20. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  1. (Male) infertility: what does it mean to men? New evidence from quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2013-09-01

    Scientific knowledge of the emotional repercussions of infertility on men remains limited and has only recently become the focus of social science research. Firstly, the current developments in research on the psychosocial impact of infertility on men through a search of the literature over the last 10 years are outlined in this paper. In the second section, issues raised in pretreatment counselling for men and their partner who consider donor insemination are described as this treatment typically raises many emotional issues. The results of more recent studies with sophisticated methodological design show that the emotional impact of infertility may be nearly balanced, suggesting that men do suffer as well and that they have to be addressed in infertility counselling too. The emotional and clinical aspects of donor insemination support the hypothesis that the emotional repercussions of infertility affect both sexes. In general, male factor infertility seems to be more stigmatized than other infertility diagnoses. Forthcoming studies have to differentiate between the psychological impact of infertility on women and men and their respective abilities to communicate easily about this distress. More studies on infertile men in non-Western societies need to be conducted in order to understand the cultural impact on infertility.

  2. Male infertility-related molecules involved in sperm-oocyte fusion

    PubMed Central

    MOU, Lisha; XIE, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility has become a very serious problem in the human reproduction system, but the molecular mechanism of infertility remains largely unknown. Fertilization is the phenomenon in which a sperm and oocyte find each other, interact, and fuse. Sperm-oocyte fusion-related factors on the sperm side play crucial roles in male infertility. For example, IZUMO1 is well-known as a sperm protein essential for fusion of a sperm and oocyte, but its dysfunction or mutation can result in male infertility. Recent studies showed a novel sperm protein named Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which takes part in the sperm-oocyte fusion process. The complexity and expected redundancy of the factors involved makes the process intricate, with a still poorly understood mechanism, which is difficult to comprehend in full detail. This review summarizes the known molecules involved in the process of sperm-oocyte fusion, mainly focusing on the relevant factors on the sperm side, whose dysregulation may potentially be associated with male infertility. New insights may come from these molecules in this review, can facilitate the development of new treatments of male infertility, and may have a diagnostic value in infertility. PMID:27904014

  3. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  4. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  5. Distress in Infertile Males in Manipal-India: A Clinic Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ansha; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha; Narayan, Pratapkumar; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Narayanakurup, Dinesh; Pai, Praveena Joglekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Being infertile comes as an overwhelming realization for couples trying to conceive. In consideration of rising rates of infertility worldwide, clinicians in India have also begun exploring this field for new possibilities, development and research. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and predictors of infertility specific stress in males diagnosed with primary infertility. Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted in an assisted reproduction center, Manipal, India, on 300 infertile married males. The tools were “semi-structured questionnaire” compiled by the authors, “ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines) and” Psychological Evaluation Test for infertility. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out on data with p-value fixed as 0.05. Results: The presence of stress was reported in 72% of male participants. The predictors of stress were nature and severity of their infertility diagnosis, sperm defects, urological condition and experience of corrective surgery undergone for it. Psychological stress in men was also predicted by present and past history of significant psychiatric morbidity and coping difficulties associated with it. Conclusion: The stress is both a common experience and at times a clinical condition associated with deteriorating mental and physical health in men seeking fertility treatments. As a prerequisite, Indian fertility clinics need to treat stress as an identifiable condition and devise ways of addressing it at all stages of assisted conception and reproductive treatments. PMID:27921000

  6. Urinary phytoestrogen levels related to idiopathic male infertility in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yankai; Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Lu, Chuncheng; Fu, Guangbo; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Daozhen; Wang, Honghua; Hang, Bo; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2013-09-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring chemical constituents of certain plants. The internal PE exposures, mainly from diet, vary among different populations and in different regions due to various eating habits. To investigate the potential relationship between urinary PE levels and idiopathic male infertility and semen quality in Chinese adult males, 608 idiopathic infertile men and 469 fertile controls were recruited by eligibility screening procedures. Individual exposure to PEs was measured using UPLC-MS/MS as spot urinary concentrations of 6 PEs (daidzein, DAI; equol, EQU; genistein, GEN; naringenin, NAR; coumestrol, COU; and secoisolariciresinol, SEC), which were adjusted with urinary creatinine (CR). Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility. We found that exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility (P-value for trend=0.036; 0.002; and 0.0001, respectively), while these exposures had stronger association with infertile subjects with at least one abnormal semen parameter than those with all normal semen parameters. Exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were also related to idiopathic male infertility with abnormal sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility (P-value for trend<0.05), while these exposures had stronger association with the infertile men with abnormal sperm number per ejaculum. These findings provide the evidence that PE exposures are related to male reproductive function and raise a public health concern because that exposure to PEs is ubiquitous in China.

  7. Recurrent Microdeletions at Xq27.3-Xq28 and Male Infertility: A Study in the Czech Population

    PubMed Central

    Chylíková, Blanka; Hrdlička, Ivan; Veselá, Kamila; Řežábek, Karel; Liška, František

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm) were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic. Methods 107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3), Xcnv67 (Xq28) and Xcnv69 (Xq28). The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C. Results We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively). There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043), Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452). We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort. Conclusion In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69) do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population. PMID:27257673

  8. Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqiang; Li, Shihua; Ma, Shuoqian; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wong, Gary; Zhang, Shanshan; Lu, Xuancheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Jinghua; Li, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Han, Daishu; Qin, Chengfeng; Wang, Na; Li, Xiangdong; Gao, George Fu

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility.

  9. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C.; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7−/−) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7−/− mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down−regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia. PMID:26878912

  10. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-02-16

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7(-/-)) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7(-/-) mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia.

  11. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0–100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal plasma

  12. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-11-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0‑100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal

  13. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of idiopathic male infertility in a secondary referral center in India.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shadaan; Maitra, Anurupa; Meherji, Pervin; Patel, Zareen; Kadam, Seema; Shah, Jatin; Shah, Rupin; Kulkarni, Vijay; Baburao, V; Gokral, Jyotsna

    2008-01-01

    The genetic basis of infertility has received increasing recognition in recent years, particularly with the advent of assisted reproductive technology. It is now becoming obvious that genetic etiology for infertility is an important cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Y-chromosome microdeletions and abnormal karyotype are the two major causes of altered spermatogenesis. To achieve biological fatherhood, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is performed in cases of severe infertility with or without genetic abnormalities. There is a concern that these genetic abnormalities can be transmitted to the male progeny, who may subsequently have a more severe phenotype of infertility. A total of 200 men were recruited for clinical examinations, spermiograms, hormonal profiles, and cytogenetic and Yq microdeletion profiles. Testicular biopsy was also performed whenever possible and histologically evaluated. Genetic abnormalities were seen in 7.1% of cases, of which 4.1% had chromosomal aberrations, namely Klinefelter's mosaic (47XXY) and Robertsonian translocation, and 3.0% had Yq microdeletions, which is very low as compared to other populations. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly increased in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) as compared to severe oligoasthenozoospermia (P<0.0001), whereas testosterone levels were significantly decreased in men with microdeletions as compared to men with no microdeletions (P<0.0083). Low levels of androgen in men with microdeletions indicate a need to follow-up for early andropause. Patients with microdeletions had more severe testicular histology as compared to subjects without deletions. Our studies showed a significant decrease (P<0.002) in the serum inhibin B values in men with NOA, whereas FSH was seen to be significantly higher as compared to men with severe oligoasthenozoospermia (SOAS), indicating that both the Sertoli cells as well the germ cells were significantly

  14. High Resolution X Chromosome-Specific Array-CGH Detects New CNVs in Infertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Csilla; Giachini, Claudia; Lo Giacco, Deborah; Daguin, Fabrice; Chianese, Chiara; Ars, Elisabet; Ruiz-Castane, Eduard; Forti, Gianni; Rossi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Context The role of CNVs in male infertility is poorly defined, and only those linked to the Y chromosome have been the object of extensive research. Although it has been predicted that the X chromosome is also enriched in spermatogenesis genes, no clinically relevant gene mutations have been identified so far. Objectives In order to advance our understanding of the role of X-linked genetic factors in male infertility, we applied high resolution X chromosome specific array-CGH in 199 men with different sperm count followed by the analysis of selected, patient-specific deletions in large groups of cases and normozoospermic controls. Results We identified 73 CNVs, among which 55 are novel, providing the largest collection of X-linked CNVs in relation to spermatogenesis. We found 12 patient-specific deletions with potential clinical implication. Cancer Testis Antigen gene family members were the most frequently affected genes, and represent new genetic targets in relationship with altered spermatogenesis. One of the most relevant findings of our study is the significantly higher global burden of deletions in patients compared to controls due to an excessive rate of deletions/person (0.57 versus 0.21, respectively; p = 8.785×10−6) and to a higher mean sequence loss/person (11.79 Kb and 8.13 Kb, respectively; p = 3.435×10−4). Conclusions By the analysis of the X chromosome at the highest resolution available to date, in a large group of subjects with known sperm count we observed a deletion burden in relation to spermatogenic impairment and the lack of highly recurrent deletions on the X chromosome. We identified a number of potentially important patient-specific CNVs and candidate spermatogenesis genes, which represent novel targets for future investigations. PMID:23056185

  15. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  16. Infertility resulting from transgenic I-PpoI male Anopheles gambiae in large cage trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271

  17. Prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in Indian infertile patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Broor, Shobha; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in patients with infertility by PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing. Prevalence of other etiological agents (viz., Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis) were also assessed. Endocervical swabs were collected from 477 women and urine was collected from 151 men attending the Infertility Clinic. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by cryptic plasmid, ompA gene and nested ompA gene PCR. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Samples were screened for Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and their male partners were 15.7% (75 of 477) and 10.0% (15 of 151) respectively. Secondary infertility was significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Genovar E was the most prevalent followed by genovar D and F. Twenty-four C. trachomatis strains were selected for ompA gene sequencing. No mixed infection was picked. Variability in ompA sequences was seen in 50.0%. Both PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing showed concordant results. High prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile couples warrants routine screening for C. trachomatis infection in all infertile couples. Genotyping of the ompA gene of C. trachomatis may be a valuable tool in understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  18. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE).

  19. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  20. Seminal, ultrasound and psychobiological parameters correlate with metabolic syndrome in male members of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Degli Innocenti, S; Filimberti, E; Scognamiglio, V; Vignozzi, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a diagnostic category which identifies subjects at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED) and male hypogonadism. However, MetS impact on male infertility has been poorly studied. We systematically evaluated possible associations between MetS and clinical characteristics in men with couple infertility. Out of 367 consecutive subjects, 351 men without genetic abnormalities were studied. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation&American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute classification. All men underwent physical, hormonal, seminal and scrotal ultrasound evaluation. Erectile and ejaculatory functions were assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD) and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), respectively, while psychological symptoms by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Out of 351 patients, 27 (7.7%) fulfilled MetS criteria. Among ultrasound features, in an age-adjusted logistic model, only testis inhomogeneity was significantly associated with increasing MetS factors (HR = 1.36 [1.09-1.70]; p < 0.01). In an age-adjusted model, MetS was associated with a stepwise decline in total testosterone (TT) (B = -1.25 ± 0.33; p < 0.0001), without a concomitant rise in gonadotropins. At univariate analysis, progressive motility and normal morphology were negatively related to the number of MetS components (both p < 0.0001), but when age and TT were introduced in a multivariate model, only sperm morphology retained a significant association (B = -1.418 ± 0.42; p = 0.001). The risk of ED (IIEF-15-EFD score <26) increased as a function of the number of MetS factors, even after adjusting for age and TT (HR = 1.45[1.08-1.95]; p < 0.02). No association between PEDT score and MetS was observed. Finally, after adjusting for age and TT, somatization and depressive symptoms were associated with increasing Met

  1. Association of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility in a local Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Azhar Beg, M; Shabbir, A; Rashid Kayani, A; Kaukab Raja, G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study determined an association between idiopathic sperm disorders in a local Pakistani infertile male population and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. After ruling out non genetic factors, a total of 437 idiopathic infertile men including 57 azoospermic, 66 oligospermic, 44 asthenozoospermic, 29 teratozoospermic, 20 oligoasthenospermic and 221 infertile normospermic men were recruited. Furthermore, 218 normospermic fertile men, who had two children (or more) were included as controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to determine MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism. A significant association of the minor MTHFR 677T allele with male infertility was observed (p <0.05). In addition, men with MTHFR 677 CT and TT genotypes were at a greater risk [odds ratio (OR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.17-2.80, p = 0.008 and OR: 9.24, 95% CI: 1.20-70.92, p = 0.032, respectively] of infertility. All the subgroups of male infertility (azoospermic, oligospermic, asthenospermic, oligoasthenoteratospermic (OAT) and normospermic infertile) had significantly (p <0.05) higher frequencies of CT and TT genotypes when compared to fertile men. The combined genotypes (CT + TT) were also found significantly (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.31-3.08, p <0.001) associated with male infertility. The results suggest that the polymorphism might be a factor of male infertility in the Pakistani population. PMID:27785408

  2. The SPO11-C631T gene polymorphism and male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng-Ju; Ren, Peng-Wei; Yang, Bo; Liao, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Zhuo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shang-Qing; Liu, Liang-Ren; Dong, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association between the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. We conducted a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature database (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature database (Wan Fang) on 31 March 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. A total of five studies including 542 cases and 510 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 2.48-6.89; CT vs. CC: OR = 4.34, 95%CI = 2.56-7.34; T vs. C: OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 2.58-7.34). Subgroup analysis of different countries proved the relationship between SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and male infertility risk in Chinese, but not in Iranian peoples. In conclusion, this study suggested that SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism may contribute as a genetic factor susceptible to cause male infertility. Furthermore, more large sample and representative population-based cases and well-matched controls are needed to validate our results.

  3. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  4. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Extreme Cases of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Patients and Methods In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. Result(s) The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001). Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. Conclusion(s) An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the scarce and unselected

  5. Prospective Analysis on the Effect of Botanical Medicine (Tribulus terrestris) on Serum Testosterone Level and Semen Parameters in Males with Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Roaiah, Mohamed Farid; Elkhayat, Yasser Ibrahim; Saleh, Sameh Fayek GamalEl Din; Abd El Salam, Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-06-23

    We evaluated the role of Tribulus terrestris in males with unexplained infertility and its effect on serum testosterone and semen parameters. Thirty randomized male patients presenting to Andrology outpatient clinic complaining of idiopathic infertility were selected. They were given Tribulus terrestris (750 mg) in three divided doses for three months. The effect of Tribulus terrestris on serum testosterone (total and free) and luteinizing hormone (LH), as well as its impact on semen parameters in those patients, was studied. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of testosterone (total and free) and LH and semen parameters (sperm concentration or motility, or abnormal forms) before and after the treatment. In addition, no statistically significant correlations were observed between testosterone (free and total) and LH and semen parameters before and after the treatment. Tribulus terrestris was ineffective in the treatment of idiopathic infertility.

  6. [Evolution and mutation of human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Sha, Yan-Wei

    2009-04-01

    The Y chromosome evolves from euchromosome and accumulates a variety of male-specific genes, including SRY and many others that are related with spermatogenesis. The Y chromosome is distinguished from euchromosome by its characteristics of multiple copies of gene, multiple DNA sequences and high polymorphism. A lot of gene rearrangements occur during its evolution due to the specific gene structure in the Y chromosome. It has been discovered that one subset of such gene rearrangements induces Y-chromosome microdeletions that are involved in male infertility. Spermatogenesis is actually controlled by a network of genes, which may be located on the Y chromosome, euchromosomes or even the X chromosome. Further studies on the genomics and genes in the Y chromosome between sex chromosomes and/or between sex chromosome and euchromosomes will helps us to gain deeper insights into the molecular mechanism of male infertility.

  7. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  8. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  9. Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ≥8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases.

  10. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  11. Ejaculatory physiology and pathophysiology: assessment and treatment in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Revenig, Louis; Leung, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Azoospermia is a heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies and a variety of treatments. In this chapter we present a summary of retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation, both of which are characterized by an absence of antegrade semen propulsion through the male reproductive tract. Each of these affects fertility, but is pathophysiologically distinct disorders with differing evaluation and treatment. Retrograde ejaculation has a myriad of well-characterized causes, from pharmacologic disruption to interference of neural mechanisms by surgical intervention for a variety of diseases. Medication is the mainstay of treatment, although only a minority responds and develops antegrade ejaculation. For the men who are not responders to medical therapy, but still have fertility goals, there are a variety of sperm retrieval techniques to assist their reproductive abilities. Failure of emission is characterized by an absence of the emission phase and no antegrade or retrograde expulsion of ejaculatory products. If fertility is desired, these men must rely on assisted ejaculatory procedures, and treatment choice is guided by etiology and response. Ultimately, retrograde ejaculation and failure of emission are in a spectrum of ejaculatory disorders which impair male fertility. PMID:26816751

  12. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  13. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  14. The effect of mahogunin gene mutant on reproduction in male mice: a new sight for infertility?

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Xiong, C; Li, J; Sui, C; Wang, S; Li, H; Jiang, X

    2014-03-01

    Mahogunin is an important mediator of chromogenesis and neurodegeneration. Mahoganoid is a mutation of the mahogunin gene, which causes a pleiotropic phenotype that includes suppression of obesity, spongiform neurodegeneration and improvement of insulin sensitivity. Our previous research found that mahoganoid widely expressed in the male rat reproductive system, and mahoganoid-deficient mice have reduced embryonic viability. But the reproductive change in mahogunin knockout (md(nc) ) male mice has not been reported previously. Here, we report that the mahogunin mRNA also widely exists in reproductive system of male mice, and its mRNA expression in the testis was in accordance with the first spermatogenesis wave cycle. Moreover, we find that md(nc) male mice were able to mate with females but no pups are delivered. Besides, the sperms' active progressive motility and hormone secretion (E2, FSH, LH, PRL) were obviously decreased while abnormal sperm rate showed no significant difference in md(nc) compared to wild-type (WT) male mice. This study indicates the mahogunin deficiency results in the infertility of male mice, disruption of hormones secretion and impaired active progressive motility, which may additionally illuminate the aetiology of male infertility in human.

  15. Role of reactive nitrogen species in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a subset of free oxygen radicals called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physiological levels of ROS are necessary to maintain the reproductive functions such as cell signaling, tight junction regulation, production of hormones, capacitation, acrosomal reaction, sperm motility, and zona pellucida binding. However, an excess of RNS can adversely affect reproductive potential by causing testicular dysfunction, decreased gonadotropin secretion, and abnormal semen parameters. Because such levels of RNS have been demonstrated in males with fertility problems and routine semen analysis has not been able to accurately predict IVF outcomes, it is imperative that novel strategies be developed in order to both assess and treat oxidative stress. This article describes both physiological and pathological roles of this unique subset of ROS. PMID:23241221

  16. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  17. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  18. Robotic microsurgery in male infertility and urology—taking robotics to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reports of robotic assisted microsurgery began to appear in the early 1990s. Animal and early human studies were the initial publications. Larger series papers have recently been published from a few institutions. The field of robotic assisted microsurgery is still in evolution and so are adjunctive tools and instruments. It is clearly a different and unique skill set—is it microsurgery or is it robotic surgery, or both. It is clear from history that the art of surgery evolves over time to encompass new technology as long as the outcomes are better for the patient. Our current robotic platforms may not be ideal for microsurgery, however, the use of adjunctive tools and instrument refinement will further its future potential. This review article presents the current state of the art in various robotic assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and urology. Some novel applications of taking microsurgery to areas not classically accessible (intra-abdominal vasovasostomy) and adjunctive tools will also be presented. PMID:26816758

  19. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494

  20. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Singh, Aspinder; Hamada, Alaa; Kesari, Kavindra

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  1. Male attitude towards masturbating: an impediment to infertility evaluation and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Carroll, K; Mason, G

    2016-09-01

    Male attitude about masturbation may influence early diagnosis and treatment of infertility and may be of particular burden in developing countries. We sought to explore attitude about masturbating and examine comfort/discomfort with masturbating and sexual history, pregnancy history and sperm quality in men investigating fertility potential. The study consisted of 83 male volunteers, 23-61 years, attending a fertility management unit in Kingston, Jamaica. Comfort with masturbation was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants also completed the unit's standard intake form for infertility investigations and produced a semen sample. T-tests, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square were used to compare differences in comfort level with outcome variables. We found 59% were comfortable masturbating although requiring external stimulation to produce a sample (48%); 6% (n = 5) failed to produce a sample after repeated attempts. A higher percentage of men uncomfortable with masturbating reported sexual problems (P < 0.05) and spending a longer time trying to have a baby (P < 0.05). Semen quality was not associated with masturbating comfort. Producing a sample by masturbation is standard for many assisted conception treatments. As comfort with masturbating may influence delay in infertility investigations and fertility outcome, efforts to improve men's comfort level with semen production should be considered in pre-treatment fertility counselling.

  2. Nutritional modifications in male infertility: a systematic review covering 2 decades

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Javidan, Aida; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Context: Studies suggest that appropriate nutritional modifications can improve the natural conception rate of infertile couples. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to review the human trials that investigated the relation between nutrition and male infertility. Data Sources: A comprehensive systematic review of published human studies was carried out by searching scientific databases. Article selection was carried out in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The American Dietetic Association Research Design and Implementation Checklist was also used for quality assessment. Data Extraction: A total of 502 articles were identified, of which 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Synthesis: Results indicated that a healthy diet improves at least one measure of semen quality, while diets high in lipophilic foods, soy isoflavones, and sweets lower semen quality. Conclusion: The role of daily nutrient exposure and dietary quality needs to be highlighted in male infertility. Mechanistic studies addressing the responsible underlying mechanisms of action of dietary modifications are highly warranted. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013005953. Available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42013005953. PMID:26705308

  3. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.

  4. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.

  5. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  6. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... unknown, it may be related to abnormal testicular temperature regulation. Varicoceles result in reduced quality of the ... can be permanently reduced. Overheating the testicles. Elevated temperatures impair sperm production and function. Although studies are ...

  7. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... may suggest other options to make a baby. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments can include:Intrauterine insemination (IUI). A man’s ... it is implanted back in the woman’s uterus.ART treatments often are effective, but are not a ...

  8. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C > A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed. PMID:26472740

  9. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Aliye; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Yousefzadeh, Solmaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Hamdi, Kobra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. Materials and Methods: In this observer-blinded clinical trial, semen samples of 25 infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males were collected in Alzahra Educational Medical Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from August 2010 to August 2012. After the isolation of spermatozoa by the swim-up method, they were randomized into four groups in ISM1 environment: The controls treated normally: Group 1 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 50 μg/ml, Group 2 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 100 μg/ml, and Group 3 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 200 μg/ml. Sperm viability and motility were compared among the groups on 45 min, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h intervals. Results: Mean percentages of live sperms were 98.40%, 51.40%, 20.60%, and 6.00% in control group and 98.40%, 69.20%, 38.60%, and 14.60% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. This mean percentage decrease of live sperms was significantly lower in Group 3 comparing with that of other groups (P = 0.01). Mean percentages of motile sperms were 54%, 8.40%, 2.80%, and 0% in control group; and 54%, 16%, 4.80%, and 1.40% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. There was not a significant difference between the four groups in this regard (P = 0.19). Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can enhance the viability of sperm of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males with no significant effect on its motility. PMID:27942099

  10. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    PubMed

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  11. Association between DAZL polymorphisms and susceptibility to male infertility: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Simin; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Beilei; Lu, Chuncheng; Xia, Yankai; Ding, Hongjuan; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in the Deleted in AZoospermia-Like (DAZL) gene and male infertility risk, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, therefore a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2556 cases and 1997 controls, were selected. Two polymorphisms in DAZL were investigated, namely T12A (Thr12 → Ala) and T54A (Thr54 → Ala). Our meta-analysis showed that A > G is a risk factor for male infertility (P = 0.047, OR = 1.262, 95%CI = 1.003–1.587). However, when using trial sequential analysis (TSA) to confirm, we found that A > G risk effect turned out to be false positive. In addition, significant association was found between the T54A polymorphism and male infertility under co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 4.364, 95%CI = 2.207–8.630, P < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 4.584, 95%CI = 2.320–9.058, P < 0.001). Stratified analysis showed that significantly strong association between T54A polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Further studies of T12A and T54A with their biological functions are needed to understand the role of these polymorphisms in the development of male infertility. PMID:24717865

  12. Patient evaluation of infertility management in an ISO 9001:2008-certified centre for reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Spiessens, Carl; Dancet, Eline; Bakelants, Els; Vrancken, Annelies; Demyttenaere, Koen; Enzlin, Paul; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Quality management according to ISO 9001:2008 guidelines includes infertility care quality assessment and improvement. This study aimed to describe the development process of a questionnaire for infertility management. A literature review, qualitative interviews with experts and patients resulted in a content-valid and face-valid questionnaire. Three cross-sectional surveys were performed in 2004, 2007 and 2008 in a tertiary university infertility centre. First (2004), the questionnaire – measuring eight a-priori dimensions of infertility management – was tested. Second (2007), improvement projects for infertility management were evaluated. Third (2008), factor analysis was performed and internal consistency was documented. The developed patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management and pre-set desired levels of agreement served to set targets for and assess quality improvement projects. The final patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management within an ISO framework was valid and reliable and contained 14 items covering four dimensions of infertility management: Telephone Access, Reception, Information and Patient-centeredness. ISO 9001:2008-certified infertility centres can evaluate infertility management with this 14-item questionnaire. This top-down approach to evaluate the patients’ perspective on quality aspects selected by health professionals can be complementary to the bottom-up approach evaluating the patients’ complete experiences of quality of care.

  13. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Waghmare, Jwalant E.; Chaudhari, Ajay R.; Wankhede, Vandana R.; Tarnekar, Aaditya M.; Shende, Moreshwar R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. Aim To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. Materials and Methods The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Results Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Conclusion Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal

  14. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  15. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  16. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05–3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P < 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate

  17. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05-3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  18. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liška, František; Chylíková, Blanka; Janků, Michaela; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Zdeňka; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-09-01

    In the inbred SHR/OlaIpcv rat colony, we identified males with small testicles and inability to reproduce. By selectively breeding their parents, we revealed the infertility to segregate as an autosomal recessive Mendelian character. No other phenotype was observed in males, and females were completely normal. By linkage using a backcross with Brown Norway strain, we mapped the locus to a 1.2Mbp segment on chromosome 7, harboring 35 genes. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed a G to A substitution in a canonical 'AG' splice site of intron 37 in Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1, alias myotubularin-related protein 5). This leads to either skipping exon 38 or shifting splicing one base downstream, invariantly resulting in frameshift, premature stop codon and truncation of the protein. Western blotting using two anti-Sbf1 antibodies revealed absence of the full-length protein in the mutant testis. Testicles of the mutant males were significantly smaller compared with SHR from 4weeks, peaked at 84% wild-type weight at 6weeks and declined afterward to 28%, reflecting massive germ cell loss. Histological examination revealed lower germ cell number; latest observed germ cell stage were round spermatids, resulting in the absence of sperm in the epididymis (azoospermia). SBF1 is a member of a phosphatase family lacking the catalytical activity. It probably modulates the activity of a phosphoinositol phosphatase MTMR2. Human homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for missense SBF1 mutations exhibit Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (manifested mainly as progressive neuropathy), while a single mouse knockout reported in the literature identified male infertility as the only phenotype manifestation.

  19. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  20. Impact of microwave at X-band in the aetiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, J; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of environmental and occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the aetiology of human infertility. Testicular functions are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic fields. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of 10-GHz EMF on male albino rat's reproductive system and to investigate the possible causative factor for such effect of exposure. The study was carried out in two groups of 70-day old adult male albino rats: a sham-exposed and a 10-GHz-exposed group (2 h a day for 45 days). Immediately after completion of the exposure, animals were sacrificed and sperms were extracted from the cauda and caput part of testis for the analysis of MDA, melatonin, and creatine kinase. Creatine kinase results revealed an increased level of phosphorylation that converts creatine to creatine phosphate in sperms after EMF exposure. EMF exposure also reduced the level of melatonin and MDA. It is concluded that microwave exposure could adversely affect male fertility by reducing availability of the above parameters. These results are indications of deleterious effects of these radiations on reproductive pattern of male rats.

  1. A proposed mouse model to study male infertility provoked by genital serovar E, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hanen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Mabrouk, Imed; Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Keskes, Leila; Mallek, Zohair; Aouni, Mahjoub; Hammami, Adnane

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen. The impact of chlamydial infection on male infertility is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of C trachomatis human genital serovar E on sperm function, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and reproductive performance, using the Swiss male mice model. Fertile mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with 10(6) C trachomatis inclusion-forming units at day 0. The studied parameters were evaluated 7, 15, 21, and 30 days postinoculation (pi) in infected and sham-infected controls. Semen parameters of the infected mice groups were significantly lower than those of the control groups at the different days pi. DNA fragmentation study indicated that the mean percentages of apoptotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups 7 and 15 days pi, whereas the mean percentages of necrotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control group on the 30th day pi. A decrease in reproductive performance was observed at different days pi in infected male mice groups when compared to the control groups. Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of infant mice was observed at 21 and 30 days pi. In conclusion, our data showed that inoculation of fertile male Swiss mice in the meatus urethra with C trachomatis could lead to alteration of semen parameters, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and decrease of the reproductive performance of male mice.

  2. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 10(6) was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration < 15 × 10(6) (830.3 ± 350 μM and 268.3 ± 220 μM, resp., p < 0.001). Polyphenols concentration did not differ between the groups of sperm concentration above and below 15 × 10(6) (178.7 ± 121 μM and 161.7 ± 61 μM, resp., p-NS). No difference was found between fertilization rates and antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility.

  3. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 106 was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration < 15 × 106 (830.3 ± 350 μM and 268.3 ± 220 μM, resp., p < 0.001). Polyphenols concentration did not differ between the groups of sperm concentration above and below 15 × 106 (178.7 ± 121 μM and 161.7 ± 61 μM, resp., p-NS). No difference was found between fertilization rates and antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility. PMID:27293518

  4. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  5. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  6. Expression profiles of NPHP1 in the germ cells in the semen of men with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Devi, A N; Anil Kumar, T R; Pillai, S M; Jayakrishnan, K; Kumar, P G

    2015-07-01

    NPHP1, the gene that encodes the protein nephrocystin-1 has been identified to be mutated in Juvenile Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disorder which is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children and young adults. Nphp1-targeted mutant mice studies have shown that it did not express renal manifestations of nephronophthisis; instead male mice were infertile with oligoteratozoospermia signifying the crucial role of Nphp1 in relation to murine spermatogenesis. Whether an aberrant expression of NPHP1 in testis might lead to spermatogenic defects in human and ultimately male factor infertility is a possibility that have not been investigated so far. In this regard, characterization of NPHP1 in spermatozoa from fertile and infertile males was carried out by employing RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. In all the 23 normozoospermic samples we screened, NPHP1 was significantly expressed at the target message and protein level and also prominent localization pattern of NPHP1 was observed at the head, midpiece, and tail segments of spermatozoa. Conversely, in majority of the 103 infertile samples we screened, aberrant pattern of NPHP1 expression was detected at the transcript and protein level and abnormal localization pattern of expression was observed in spermatozoa. Anomalies detected in infertile cases when compared with the normozoospermic controls points to the indispensable role of NPHP1 in relation to spermatogenesis. Thus, besides the decisive association with juvenile nephronophthisis, our study provides the first direct evidence that NPHP1 is associated with male factor infertility and also could be a possible biomarker for the assessment of male fertility status. GENBANK NM_000272.3

  7. Depression, anxiety and stress among female patients of infertility; A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Infertility, in many ways, is a very distressing condition that can have its impact on social and marital life of a couple. Depression, anxiety and stress associated with infertility may affect treatment and outcomes for such couples. The purpose of this study was to find out prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among females suffering from infertility. Methods: One hundred females suffering from infertility as study subjects and 100 females accompanying them as controls were randomly selected from infertility clinic at Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Females with diagnosed mental health issues and those from couples having male factor infertility were not included. Validated Urdu version of Depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS) was used for assessment of depression, anxiety and stress scores. Results from both groups were compared and independent sample t-test was used to analyze the results. Results: There was high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among females suffering from infertility compared to females in control group (p < 0.05). Level of education did not appear to have any positive effect on these scores. Similarly, results did not appear to change when occupations of infertile females were used for stratified analysis. Conclusion: Depression, anxiety and stress are very common among females suffering from infertility. Healthcare professionals should consider psychological counseling, and psychiatric help if required, when they offer fertility treatment for such females. PMID:28083022

  8. Is Coasting Valuable in All Patients with Any Cause of Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Tahereh; Jahangiri, Nadia; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Akhoond, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of coasting duration on the number and quality of oocytes and fertilization rate in male factor infertile women and those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods In this prospective observational follow-up study, 114 patients undergoing coasting (53 women with male factor infertility and 61 women with PCOS) were evaluated at the Royan Institute Research Center, Iran, between 2010 and 2012. Results The results were analyzed according to the coasting periods of 1–4 days. In normal females, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced after the second day (p = 0.004). In addition, a statistically significant drop was observed in the number of metaphase II oocytes and fertilization rate after the third day (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number and quality of oocytes retrieved and fertilization rate with regard to coasting days in PCOS patients. Conclusion Coasting with duration of more than three days should be performed with caution in normal females who are at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:27974954

  9. Online Health Information Regarding Male Infertility: An Evaluation of Readability, Suitability, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Stephanie; Barr, Helena J; Idelson, Rachel; Lambert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries. The following categories of websites were considered: (1) Canadian fertility clinics, (2) North American organizations related to fertility, and (3) the first 20 results of Google searches using the terms “male infertility” and “male fertility preservation” set to the search locations worldwide, English Canada, and French Canada. Websites that met inclusion criteria (N=85) were assessed using readability indices, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), and the DISCERN tool. The associations between website affiliation (government, university/medical, non-profit organization, commercial/corporate, private practice) and Google placement to readability, suitability, and quality were also examined. Results None of the sampled websites met recommended levels of readability. Across all websites, the mean SAM score for suitability was 45.37% (SD 11.21), or “adequate”, while the DISCERN mean score for quality was 43.19 (SD 10.46) or “fair”. Websites that placed higher in Google obtained a higher overall score for quality with an r (58) value of -.328 and a P value of .012, but this position was not related to readability or suitability. In addition, 20% of fertility clinic websites did not include fertility information for men. Conclusions There is a lack of high quality online sources of information on male fertility. Many websites target their information to women, or fail to meet established

  10. Molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in diabetes-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alves, M G; Martins, A D; Rato, L; Moreira, P I; Socorro, S; Oliveira, P F

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest public health threats in modern societies. Although during a few years it was suggested that DM had no significant effect in male reproductive function, this view has been challenged in recent years. The increasing incidence of DM worldwide will inevitably result in a higher prevalence of this pathology in men of reproductive age and subfertility or infertility associated with DM is expected to dramatically rise in upcoming years. From a clinical perspective, the evaluation of semen parameters, as well as spermatozoa deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity, are often studied due to their direct implications in natural and assisted conception. Nevertheless, recent studies based on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in testicular cells provide new insights in DM-induced alterations in male reproductive health. Testicular cells have their own glucose sensing machinery that react to hormonal fluctuations and have several mechanisms to counteract hyper- and hypoglycemic events. Moreover, the metabolic cooperation between testicular cells is crucial for normal spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the main components of blood-testis barrier, are not only responsible for the physical support of germ cells but also for lactate production that is then metabolized by the developing germ cells. Any alteration in this tied metabolic cooperation may have a dramatic consequence in male fertility potential. Therefore, we present an overview of the clinical significance of DM in the male reproductive health with emphasis on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose fluctuation and transport in testicular cells.

  11. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  12. Influence of spermatogenic profile and meiotic abnormalities on reproductive outcome of infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Barri, Pedro N; Vendrell, Jose M; Martinez, Francisca; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Arán, Begoña; Veiga, Anna

    2005-06-01

    Genetic aspects of male infertility and the possible risks of new assisted reproduction and their influence on the development of zygotes and children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) need further research. These patients have an increased risk of diploidy, and disomies are frequent in their spermatozoa. Meiotic disorders are more common in testicular biopsies of patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermia. For these reasons, a detailed andrological study is absolutely mandatory before accepting a couple with these characteristics into an IVF-ICSI programme. When an andrological patient has plasma FSH values >10 IU/l and/or very low total motile sperm count <1 x 10(6), despite a normal karyotype, they clearly need a testicular biopsy and a meiotic study in order to rule out meiotic arrest or synaptic anomalies. Another important aspect to be considered is the possible benefit of applying preimplantation genetic diagnosis in these cases because they normally have a high percentage of chromosomally abnormal embryos, although in the present study this was not evident. All studies agree on the necessity of conducting follow-up studies in the population of children born after IVF-ICSI. In this way, it will be possible to find out if these infertile patients and their offspring have a higher risk of suffering epigenetic errors and imprinting disorders.

  13. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans
    John C. Rockett and David J. Dix
    Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  14. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered Sertoli cell transcriptome and epigenome: molecular etiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina; Haque, Md Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease, including testis disease and male infertility. The current study was designed to determine the impact of an altered sperm epigenome on the subsequent development of an adult somatic cell (Sertoli cell) that influences the onset of a specific disease (male infertility). A gestating female rat (F0 generation) was exposed to the agriculture fungicide vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination and then the subsequent F3 generation progeny used for the isolation of Sertoli cells and assessment of testis disease. As previously observed, enhanced spermatogenic cell apoptosis was observed. The Sertoli cells provide the physical and nutritional support for the spermatogenic cells. Over 400 genes were differentially expressed in the F3 generation control versus vinclozolin lineage Sertoli cells. A number of specific cellular pathways were identified to be transgenerationally altered. One of the key metabolic processes affected was pyruvate/lactate production that is directly linked to spermatogenic cell viability. The Sertoli cell epigenome was also altered with over 100 promoter differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) modified. The genomic features and overlap with the sperm DMR were investigated. Observations demonstrate that the transgenerational sperm epigenetic alterations subsequently alters the development of a specific somatic cell (Sertoli cell) epigenome and transcriptome that correlates with adult onset disease (male infertility). The environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of testis disease appears to be a component of the molecular etiology of male infertility.

  15. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the T-786C and 4a4b loci were associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future.

  16. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection.

  17. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  18. Association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Nouri Emamzadeh, Fatemeh; Dehghanian, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility. PMID:27525322

  19. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  20. Semen characteristics and diabetes mellitus: significance of insulin in male infertility.

    PubMed

    García-Díez, L C; Corrales Hernandez, J J; Hernandez-Diaz, J; Pedraz, M J; Miralles, J M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of semen quality and serum hormonal profiles (FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone) of patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Semen parameters and levels of prolactin and testosterone were significantly altered in the diabetic state. The concentration of insulin in serum and seminal plasma and the serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in 80 men classified in the following groups: fertile subjects, infertile normoglycemic subjects, subjects with carbohydrate intolerance, and excretory and secretory azoospermic subjects. In all groups, seminal insulin concentrations were higher than those obtained in serum. The hormone appears to freely cross the blood-testis barrier, there to be concentrated in the semen. The levels of insulin in serum and seminal plasma did not correlate with semen parameters and are not suitable markers of seminal quality. For unknown reasons, the concentrations of insulin in seminal plasma were lower in the subjects suffering from carbohydrate intolerance.

  1. Impact of partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuening; Li, Muyan; Xiao, Feifan; Teng, Ruobing; Zhang, Chengdong; Lan, Aihua; Gu, Kailong; Li, Jiatong; Wang, Di; Li, Hongtao; Jiang, Li; Zeng, Siping; He, Min; Huang, Yi; Guo, Peifen; Zhang, Xinhua; Yang, Xiaoli

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility through a comprehensive literature search. All case-control studies related to partial DAZ1/2 and DAZ3/4 deletions and male infertility risk were included in our study. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and its precision, respectively. Eleven partial DAZ1/2 deletion and nine partial DAZ3/4 deletion studies were included. Partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the overall analysis (ORs=2.58, 95%CI: 1.60-4.18, I(2)=62.1%). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the East Asian populations under the random effect model (ORs=2.96, 95%CI: 1.87-4.71, I(2)=51.3%). Meanwhile, the analysis suggested that partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with male infertility risk in East-Asian ethnicity (ORs=1.02, 95%CI: 0.54-1.92, I(2)=71.3%), but not in Non-East Asian under the random effect model (ORs=3.56, 95%CI: 1.13-11.23, I(2)=0.0%,). More interestingly, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was associated with azoospermia (ORs=2.63, 95%CI: 1.19-5.81, I(2)=64.7%) and oligozoospermia (ORs=2.53, 95%CI: 1.40-4.57, I(2)=51.8%), but partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with azoospermia (ORs=0.71, 95%CI: 0.23-2.22, I(2)=71.7%,) and oligozoospermia (ORs=1.21, 95%CI: 0.65-2.24, I(2)=55.5%). In our meta-analysis, partial DAZ1/2 deletion is a risk factor for male infertility and different ethnicities have different influences, whereas partial DAZ3/4 deletion has no effect on fertility but partial DAZ3/4 deletion might have an impact on Non-East Asian male.

  2. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-01-01

    The Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2−/− males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2−/− cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20 × less than control. Bscl2−/− seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2+/+ testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2−/− testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2−/− round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2−/− spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2−/− spermatids. Bscl2−/− late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the

  3. Major spliceosome defects cause male infertility and are associated with nonobstructive azoospermia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Liwei; Wen, Yang; Liu, Yujuan; Yu, Jun; Mao, Feiyu; Wang, Ya; Tong, Chao; Hu, Zhibin; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Mingxi; Xia, Laixin

    2016-01-01

    Processing of pre-mRNA into mRNA is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes that is mediated by the spliceosome, a huge and dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex. Splicing defects are implicated in a spectrum of human disease, but the underlying mechanistic links remain largely unresolved. Using a genome-wide association approach, we have recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans that associate with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), a common cause of male infertility. Here, using genetic manipulation of corresponding candidate loci in Drosophila, we show that the spliceosome component SNRPA1/U2A is essential for male fertility. Loss of U2A in germ cells of the Drosophila testis does not affect germline stem cells, but does result in the accumulation of mitotic spermatogonia that fail to differentiate into spermatocytes and mature sperm. Lack of U2A causes insufficient splicing of mRNAs required for the transition of germ cells from proliferation to differentiation. We show that germ cell-specific disruption of other components of the major spliceosome manifests with the same phenotype, demonstrating that mRNA processing is required for the differentiation of spermatogonia. This requirement is conserved, and expression of human SNRPA1 fully restores spermatogenesis in U2A mutant flies. We further report that several missense mutations in human SNRPA1 that inhibit the assembly of the major spliceosome dominantly disrupt spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Collectively, our findings uncover a conserved and specific requirement for the major spliceosome during the transition from spermatogonial proliferation to differentiation in the male testis, suggesting that spliceosome defects affecting the differentiation of human spermatogonia contribute to NOA. PMID:27035939

  4. What age-related factors may be involved with infertility in females and males?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  5. Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2003-12-01

    In Great Britain, married couples were reported to have between 1.9 and 2.1 children, while men with Crohn's disease had a mean of 1.2 and of 0.4 children before and after diagnosis, respectively. The role of zinc for male fertility is essential. Although lack of zinc in Crohn's disease is well established in up to 70% of patients, a possible relation between zinc deficiency and male subfertility in Crohn's disease remains unclear. This study is aimed at examining a possible link between zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease and male subfertility in this group of patients.

  6. Abnormal spermatogenesis and male infertility in testicular zinc finger protein Zfp318-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masamichi; Ohtsuka, Eri; Inoue, Atsuto; Odaka, Mirei; Ohshima, Hirotaka; Tamura, Norihisa; Yoshida, Kaoru; Sako, Norihisa; Baba, Tadashi; Kashiwabara, Shin-Ichi; Okabe, Masaru; Noguchi, Junko; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility. ZFP318 was expressed during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, from spermatocytes to round spermatids. The nuclei of secondary spermatocytes showed high levels of expression. Histological analysis and quantitative analysis of DNA content showed decreased numbers of both spermatids in the seminiferous tubules and mature spermatozoa in the epididymides of Zfp318-null mice. These results suggest that Zfp318 is expressed as a functional protein in testicular germ cells and plays an important role in meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  7. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (p<0.05). The proportion of slow velocity sperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (p<0.05). However, fertility tests showed that no significant difference inaverage offspring amount (AOA), frequency of copulatory plug (FCP), and frequency of conception (FC). Furthermore, TDRP1 could interact with PRM2, which might be the molecular mechanism of its nuclear function in spermatozoa. In conclusion, these data collectively demonstrated that Tdrp deficiency impaired the sperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2. PMID:27069551

  8. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-02-17

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial.

  9. Embryo quality before and after surgical treatment of endometriosis in infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Richard O.; Behr, Barry; Milki, Amin A.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Lathi, Ruth B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that surgical treatment of endometriosis in infertile patients may improve pregnancy rates by improving embryo quality. Methods We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 30 infertile patients treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) before and after surgery for endometriosis. Patients served as their own controls and only cycles with similar stimulation protocols were compared. Results Using standard visual evaluation, embryo quality on day 3 was similar before and after surgical treatment of endometriosis. Fifty seven percent of patients had stage I–II endometriosis and 43% had stage III–IV disease. No patients had a live birth after the first IVF cycle and 43% of patients had a live birth with the IVF cycle after surgery. Conclusions Surgical treatment of endometriosis does not alter embryo quality in patients with infertility treated with IVF. PMID:19214735

  10. TNF-α −308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α −308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions −308 G/A (four studies) where −308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378–0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211–0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  11. Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Testes of Infertile Male Rats and New Germ Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammad; Batavani, Roozali; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sayahpour, Foroughazam

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been suggested as a potential choice for treatment of male infertility. Yet, the effects of MSCs on regeneration of germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules and recovery of spermatogenesis have remained controversial. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the fate of autologous bone marrow (BM)-MSCs during three different periods of time- 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation into the testes of busulfan-induced infertile male rats. Methods Rats BM samples were collected from tibia bone under anesthesia. The samples were directly cultured in culture medium. Isolated, characterized and purified BM-MSCs were labeled with PKH26, and transplanted into the testes of infertile rats. After 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the testes were removed and underwent histological evaluations. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed that transplanted BM-MSCs survived in all three groups. Some of the cells homed at the germinal epithelium and expressed spermatogonia markers (Dazl and Stella). The number of homed spermatogonia-like cells in 4-week testes, was more than the 6-week testes. The 8-week testes had the least numbers of homed cells (p<0.05). Immunostaining for vimentin showed that BM-MSCs did not differentiate into the sertoli cells in the testes. Conclusions From our results, it could be concluded that, autologous BM-MSCs could survive in the testis, migrate onto the seminiferous tubules basement membrane and differentiate into spermatogonia. Although, no more differentiation was observed in the produced spermatogonia, generation of such endogenous GCs would be a really promising achievement for treatment of male infertility using autologous stem cells. PMID:27430978

  12. Association of infertile patients having polycystic ovarian syndrome with recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Fatima, P; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Ishrat, S; Deeba, F; Begum, S A

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has a pivotal role in the development of various complications during pregnancy. Polycystic ovarian syndrome women having elevated LH and hyper insulineuia may be at increased risk of miscarriage. The study was done to find out the recurrent pregnancy loss among the PCOS patient. This was a cross sectional case control study in total 100 infertile patients between age 20-40 years attending BSMMU out patient Department from July 2011 to June 2012, among them 50 infertile patients with PCOS regarding as a case and 50 infertile patients without PCOS selected as a control. Regarding case (infertile patients with PCOS) shows 20(40%) recurrent miscarriage and among control (infertile patients without PCOS) shows recurrent miscarriage 6(12%). And also among case group shows insulin resistance 8(16%) and control group insulin resistance 1(2%). Six (75%) abortion occur among PCOS with insulin resistance and 5(62.5%) abortion occur among PCOS with raised testosterone level. It is observed that recurrent miscarriage is higher in PCOS group. And also concluded that insulin resistance and raised testosterone level is responsible for this condition. So, further large scale study would be needed to reduce the chance of recurrent pregnancy loss by treatment with insulin sensitizer in case of obese PCOS with insulin resistance patient.

  13. Post-laparoscopy predictive factors of achieving pregnancy in patients treated for infertility

    PubMed Central

    Wdowiak, Edyta; Stec, Magdalena; Bojar, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopy is a long-established diagnostic and therapeutic method for treating women suffering from infertility. The application of this method of treatment can help achieve pregnancy only if there is correct classification of patients and evaluation of their partner’s reproductive capacity. The main predictors of achieving pregnancy in a couple treated for infertility are the woman’s age, her ovarian reserve, tubal patency, the presence of endometriosis and quality of sperm parameters. Aim To evaluate the effect of endometriosis, ovarian reserve and selected parameters of semen on the effect of achieving pregnancy in patients undergoing laparoscopy. Material and methods The most significant predictor of pregnancy in patients undergoing laparoscopy due to infertility was found to be anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level after laparoscopy, and the main parameters of semen partners were density, motility and morphology. The number of achieved pregnancies after the laparoscopic treatment of infertility was lower in patients diagnosed with endometriosis, and depended on the severity of the condition. Results As a result of laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis, we found a decrease in ovarian reserve measured by means of AMH. Conclusions The most important predictors of pregnancy in patients who underwent laparoscopy due to infertility are post-laparoscopy AMH levels and the main parameters of the partner’s semen: density, motility and morphology. The number of pregnancies after laparoscopic treatment is lower in patients diagnosed with endometriosis, and depends on the severity of the conditio. PMID:28194245

  14. Cervical cytology profile of infertility patients in Abakaliki, South-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbazor, J O; Umeora, O U J; Egwuatu, V E

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is of public health importance in developing countries. High risk sexual behaviour is a risk factor. This cross-sectional study aimed at establishing the cervical cytology profile of infertile women in Abakaliki, Nigeria. It involved 200 infertility patients and 200 general gynaecological patients. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire and screened for pre-malignant cervical changes. A total of 28 infertility patients (14.9%) and 34 general gynaecological patients (17.7%) had epithelial cell abnormalities. A total of 21 infertility patients had cytology positive for pre-malignant changes, comprising: seven with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) (3.7%); eight with a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) (4.3%); and six with a high-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) (3.2%). There were 25 general gynaecological patients who had cytology positive for pre-malignant changes, comprising: eight ASCUS (4.2%); seven LSIL (3.5%); and ten HSIL (5.2%). The distribution did not attain statistical significance. Infertility did not increase the risk of development of cervical pre-malignant changes.

  15. Associations of Y-chromosome subdeletion gr/gr with the prevalence of Y-chromosome haplogroups in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Mohammad; Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Khalil, Hesham Saleh; Sexana, Anubha; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Microdeletions in azoospermia factor (AZF) region on distal Yq are associated with male infertility and spermatogenic failure due to intra-chromosomal homologous recombination between large nearly identical repeat amplicons and are found in ∼10% of azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic cases. Although AZFc is deleted in azoospermia or oligozoospermia, no definitive conclusion has been drawn for the role of partial AZFc deletions to spermatogenic failure. Therefore, this study is planned to investigate the role of gr/gr subdeletions in individuals with spermatogenic failure and to find its relationship with Y chromosome haplogroups (HGs) in infertile men from Indian population. It is a case-control study involving 236 azoospermic, 182 oligospermic and 240 healthy normozoospermic men. We found 18 gr/gr, 11 b1/b3 and 2 b2/b3 subdeletions in azoospermic patients and 12 gr/gr, 5 b1/b3 and 4 b2/b3 subdeletions in oligospermic patients. However, we also found seven gr/gr deletions in normozoospermic men. Seven patients each with spermatogenic arrest and oligospermia who carry gr/gr subdeletions have deleted DAZ3/DAZ4 genes. A total of 11 patients with sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 5 oligospermic patients with gr/gr subdeletions also have DAZ1/DAZ2 genes deleted indicating that deletions of DAZ genes contributed differently to damage to spermatogenic process. L1 HG is found in patients showing b1/b3 subdeletions, whereas HG H1a2 and H1b were found in normozoospermic individuals with gr/gr subdeletions. Our results provide evidence of association between the occurrence of subdeletions and male infertility as well as the severity of the spermatogenic failure.

  16. Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Hanen; Znazen, Abir; Sellami, Afifa; Mnif, Hela; Louati, Nour; Zarrouk, Soumaya Ben; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Gdoura, Radhouane; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis

  17. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex – Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. PMID:23998093

  18. Persistence of infertility in GnRH immunized male rats treated with subdermal implants of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, C A; Hurst, B S; Reece, M S; Kim, W K; Schlaff, W D

    1996-10-01

    Male hormonal contraception has been limited to date because two fundamental requirements have not been concurrently satisfied, these are, consistent and dependable azoospermia and infertility coupled with maintenance of libido. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which implants of potent androgen (DHT) will restore androgenization and spermatogenesis in hypogonadotropic infertile male rats. Twenty-five sexually mature male rats of proven fertility were actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce azoospermia. After azoospermia was achieved, GnRH immunized rats received subdermal DHT-filled Silastic implants of 2, 4, 6, or 8 cm, or empty implants (n=5/group). Five untreated control rats received empty capsules. Eight weeks later, fertility was evaluated, sperm number was obtained from the testis, and weights of androgen-dependent organs were measured. The results indicate that immunoneutralization of GnRH induced complete azoospermia, and subsequent treatment with DHT implants of 2 or 4 cm for 8 wk restored accessory organ weights, but did not restore spermatogenesis or fertility. In addition, DHT implants of 6 to 8 cm partially restored spermatogenesis, but not fertility. We conclude that low-dose DHT supplementation of GnRH-immunized rats may be a suitable alternate therapy able to maintain androgenization in the face of persistent azoospermia in the rat. This may be an effective model for development of a male contraceptive.

  19. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions.

  20. Sterile inflammation as a factor in human male infertility: Involvement of Toll like receptor 2, biglycan and peritubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, C.; Adam, M.; Glashauser, L.; Dietrich, K.; Schwarzer, J.U.; Köhn, F.-M.; Strauss, L.; Welter, H.; Poutanen, M.; Mayerhofer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the wall of seminiferous tubules in men with impaired spermatogenesis imply sterile inflammation of the testis. We tested the hypothesis that the cells forming the wall of seminiferous tubules, human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), orchestrate inflammatory events and that Toll like receptors (TLRs) and danger signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of this wall are involved. In cultured HTPCs we detected TLRs, including TLR2. A TLR-2 ligand (PAM) augmented interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in HTPCs. The ECM-derived proteoglycan biglycan (BGN) is secreted by HTPCs and may be a TLR2-ligand at HTPCs. In support, recombinant human BGN increased PTX3, MCP-1 and IL-6 in HTPCs. Variable endogenous BGN levels in HTPCs derived from different men and differences in BGN levels in the tubular wall in infertile men were observed. In testes of a systemic mouse model for male infertility, testicular sterile inflammation and elevated estradiol (E2) levels, BGN was also elevated. Hence we studied the role of E2 in HTPCs and observed that E2 elevated the levels of BGN. The anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 blocked this action. We conclude that TLR2 and BGN contribute to sterile inflammation and infertility in man. PMID:27849015

  1. Don't Give Up! A Cyber-ethnography and Discourse Analysis of an Online Infertility Patient Forum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mihan

    2017-01-06

    Infertility affects women across the socioeconomic spectrum; however, it is by no means egalitarian in its distribution, nor uniform in its lived experience. Evidence shows striking disparities by income, race, and education in infertility prevalence, access to infertility services, and success rates after receiving infertility treatments. However, few studies so far have investigated disparities in patients' access to psychological support during the infertility journey. This paper undertakes a cyber-ethnography of the online patient forum, "Finding a Resolution for Infertility," hosted by RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association. It also draws from interviews with 54 infertility patients recruited from the forum. Our aim was to examine how social support operates within this virtual realm, by examining how the forum's language, norms, and values create and enforce categories of deserving and belonging among site users. We find that the forum's discourse privileges an infertility narrative we term the "persistent patient," in which a patient exhaustively researches treatment options, undergoes multiple cycles of treatment despite repeated failures, and ultimately achieves success (a healthy baby). Meanwhile, there is little to no discursive space for discussion of the financial and social resources necessary to act in accordance with this script. Thus, women without such resources can be alienated, silenced, and denied mental health support by this online community.

  2. Clinical relevance of Y-linked CNV screening in male infertility: new insights based on the 8-year experience of a diagnostic genetic laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giacco, Deborah; Chianese, Chiara; Sánchez-Curbelo, Josvany; Bassas, Lluis; Ruiz, Patricia; Rajmil, Osvaldo; Sarquella, Joaquim; Vives, Alvaro; Ruiz-Castañé, Eduard; Oliva, Rafael; Ars, Elisabet; Krausz, Csilla

    2014-01-01

    AZF microdeletion screening is routinely performed in the diagnostic work-up for male infertility; however, some issues remain debated. In this study, we provide insights into the sperm concentration cutoff value for routine testing, the predictive value of AZFc deletion for testicular sperm retrieval and the Y-background contribution to the interpopulation variability of deletion frequencies. In the Spanish population, partial AZFc rearrangements have been poorly explored and no data exist on partial duplications. In our study, 27/806 (3.3%) patients carried complete AZF deletions. All were azoo/cryptozoospermic, except for one whose sperm concentration was 2 × 106/ml. In AZFc-deleted men, we observed a lower sperm recovery rate upon conventional TESE (9.1%) compared with the literature (60–80% with microTESE). Haplogroup E was the most represented among non-Spanish and hgr P among Spanish AZF deletion carriers. The analysis of AZFc partial rearrangements included 330 idiopathic infertile patients and 385 controls of Spanish origin. Gr/gr deletion, but not AZFc partial duplications, was significantly associated with spermatogenic impairment. Our data integrated with the literature suggest that: (1) routine AZF microdeletion testing could eventually include only men with ≤2 × 106/ml; (2) classical TESE is associated with low sperm recovery rate in azoospermic AZFc-deleted men, and therefore microTESE should be preferred; (3) Y background could partially explain the differences in deletion frequencies among populations. Finally, our data on gr/gr deletion further support the inclusion of this genetic test in the work-up of infertile men, whereas partial AZFc duplications do not represent a risk for spermatogenic failure in the Spanish population. PMID:24193344

  3. Male infertility-linked point mutation disrupts the Ca2+ oscillation-inducing and PIP2 hydrolysis activity of sperm PLCζ

    PubMed Central

    Nomikos, Michail; Elgmati, Khalil; Theodoridou, Maria; Calver, Brian L.; Cumbes, Bevan; Nounesis, Georg; Swann, Karl; Lai, F. Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A male infertility-linked human PLCζ (phospholipase Cζ) mutation introduced into mouse PLCζ completely abolishes both in vitro PIP2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) hydrolysis activity and the ability to trigger in vivo Ca2+ oscillations in mouse eggs. Wild-type PLCζ initiated a normal pattern of Ca2+ oscillations in eggs in the presence of 10-fold higher mutant PLCζ, suggesting that infertility is not mediated by a dominant-negative mechanism. PMID:21204786

  4. Combined deletion of DAZ2 and DAZ4 copies of Y chromosome DAZ gene is associated with male infertility in Tunisian men.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Myriam; Baklouti-Gargouri, Siwar; Keskes, Rim; Chakroun, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ammar-Keskes, Leila

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between male infertility and AZFc micro-deletions that remove multiple genes of the Y chromosome varies among countries and populations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence and the characteristics of different Deleted in azoospermia (DAZ) gene copy deletions and their association with spermatogenic failure and male infertility in Tunisian men. 241 infertile men (30.7% azoospermic (n=74), 31.5% oligozoospermic (n=76) and 37.7% normozoospermic (n=91)) and 115 fertile healthy males who fathered at least one child were included in the study. Three DAZ-specific single nucleotide variant loci and six bi-allelic DAZ-SNVs (I-VI) were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and PCR. Our findings showed high frequencies of infertile men (73.85%) and controls (78.26%) having only three DAZ gene copies (DAZ1/DAZ2/DAZ3 or DAZ1/DAZ3/DAZ4 variants); so deletion of DAZ2 or DAZ4 were frequent both in infertile (36.5% and 37.3%, respectively) and fertile groups (33.9% and 44.3%, respectively) and removing DAZ4 copy was significantly more frequent in oligospermic than in normospermic men (p=0.04) in infertile group. We also report for the first time that simultaneous deletion of both DAZ2 and DAZ4 copies was significantly more common in infertile men (12.4%) than in fertile men (4.3%) (p=0.01). However, deletions of DAZ1/DAZ2 and DAZ3/DAZ4 clusters were very rare. Analysis of DAZ gene copies in Tunisian population, suggested that the simultaneous deletion of DAZ2 and DAZ4 gene copies is associated with male infertility, and that oligospermia seems to be promoted by removing DAZ4 copy.

  5. Prospective Changes in Infertile Patients using Nonlinear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuko; Tomiyama, Tatsuhiro; Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Tsukamoto, Asami; Oyama-Higa, Mayumi

    2011-06-01

    We measured pulse waves in 22 infertile women from the beginning of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) through to pregnancy testing. The largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) and autonomic nerve balance in the pregnancy group were significantly lower than that in the non-pregnancy group. In this study, we measured plethysmograms of four women who became pregnant and 18 who did not, ten times from each. We calculated LLE and a value for the autonomic nerve balance; from this analysis, we conclude that a mental state that allows for the possibility of becoming pregnant is necessary for a successful pregnancy.

  6. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  7. Defining Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  8. Methionine synthase A2756G transition might be a risk factor for male infertility: Evidences from seven case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2016-04-15

    Methionine synthase (MTR) has a crucial role in DNA synthesis and methylation reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the MTR-A2756G polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. Blood samples were collected from 217 idiopathic infertile- and 233 healthy-men, and MTR-A2756G genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP. Meta-analysis was conducted by pooling our data with the data obtained from 6 previous studies. Also, the effects of this substitution on protein structure were evaluated by bioinformatics tools. Our study revealed the association of AG-genotype, GG-genotype, and G-allele with male infertility. Meta-analysis showed a significant association between A2756G transition and male infertility. In addition, structural analysis of the transition effect on protein revealed a significant influence on MTR function (with score: 38; expected accuracy: 66%). These findings suggest that the A2756G substitution might be a genetic risk factor and a potential biomarker for idiopathic male infertility.

  9. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters.

    PubMed

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants.

  10. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) < 20 × 106/ejaculated, and unexplained infertility if spermiogram is normal with normal female factor. The aim: of this study was to determine the predictive value of TMSC for spontaneous pregnancy (ST) and pregnancy after treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with male factor and unexplained infertility. What is known already: According to the WHO qualification system abnormal spermiogram can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia (O), asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl <3 x 106 / ejaculate and pregnancy after IUI, plus couples who have not achieved SP with TMSC> 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p <0.05) in the group A compared to group B. Couples with TMSC 1-5 × 106 ejaculate had significantly lower (9.8% vs. 22.2%, p <0.0001) rate of spontaneous pregnancy in comparison to couples after IUI treatment. Couples with unexplained infertility had significantly higher (56.8% vs. 29.9%, p <0.01) spontaneous pregnancy rate compared to couples after IUI treatment. Infertile couples had significant pregnancy rate with TMSC 5-10 x 106 / ejaculate (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.26-1.78, <0

  11. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    PubMed

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  12. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, G.E.; Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  13. Assessment of Chromatin Maturity in Human Spermatozoa: Useful Aniline Blue Assay for Routine Diagnosis of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chakroun, Nozha; Ben Zarrouk, Soumaya; Sellami, Hanen; Kebaili, Sahbi; Rebai, Tarek; Keskes, Leila

    2013-01-01

    During spermatogenesis, sperm chromatin undergoes structural changes and results in a high condensation. This nuclear compaction would be useful as a predictor of sperm fertilization capacity and pregnancy outcome. We purpose to evaluate firstly the relationship among chromatin maturity assessed by aniline blue staining (AB) and the semen parameters in infertile men. Secondly, we analyzed whether the sperm gradient density centrifugation is effective to select mature spermatozoa. Fifty-one ejaculates were investigated by semen analysis and stained for chromatin condensation with AB to distinguish between unstained mature sperm and stained immature sperm. AB was applied also on 12 ejaculates which proceeded by density gradient centrifugation to compare the rates of immature sperm before and after selection. Neat semen were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 31): immature sperm <20% and G2 (n = 20): immature sperm ≥20%. No significant differences were detected in sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology between G1 and G2. However, the rates of some morphology abnormalities were higher in G2: head abnormalities (P = 0.01) and microcephalic sperm (P = 0.02). We founded significant correlation between sperm immaturity and acrosome abnormalities (r = 0.292; P = 0.03). Sperm selection has significantly reduced the rates of immature sperm. A better understanding of chromatin structure and its impact on the sperm potential is needed to explore male infertility. PMID:24198830

  14. Correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    He, M; Tan, L

    2015-12-15

    This study explored the correlation between sperm ultrastructure in infertile patients with abnormal sperm morphology and DNA damage. Three unusual sperm morphologies were selected for the experimental group namely case 1 (95% headless sperm), case 2 (98% headless sperm), and case 3 (100% headless sperm), and the control group consisted of 2 subjects (20 and 15% headless sperm). For case 1, the patient was negative for sexually transmitted diseases and had normal semen plasma biochemistry, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes, and azoospermia factor (AZF). The aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.6%, and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 84.4%. The partner of this patient did not get pregnant after artificial reproductive technology assistance. For case 2, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.8% and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei was 95%. This patient and his spouse did not choose assisted reproduction. For case 3, reproductive hormones, peripheral blood chromosomes and AZF were normal and the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes was 0.2%. The wife of this patient gave birth to a healthy baby after ova removal, fertilization and transplantation. For the control group, the aneuploid rate of sperm chromosomes and DNA damage index of sperm nuclei were approximately 0.3 and 30%, respectively. To sum up, sperm ultrastructure of infertile patients suffering from unusual sperm morphology is associated with DNA damage to some extent and can cause infertility. However, pregnancy is still possible through intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  15. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-06-01

    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p < 0.05) among three monitored groups. Ni and Cd concentrations in the seminal plasma were negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.26, -0.29) and motility (r = -0.33, -0.37), respectively. This study suggested that exposure of Ni and Cd is mainly related with the consumption of contaminated dietary items, including ghee (cooking oil), flour and other agri-products. In some semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan.

  16. Infertility due to congenital absence of vas deferens in mainly caused by variable exon 9 skipping of the CFTR gene in heterozygous males for cystic fibrosis mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Chillon, M.; Casals, T.; Nunes, V.

    1994-09-01

    About 65% or the individuals with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD) have mutations in at least one of the CFTR alleles. We have studied the phenotypic effects of the CFTR gene intron 8 polyT tract 5T allele in 90 CBAVD subjects and in parents of CF patients. This group was compared with normal individuals, and with fathers and mothers of CF patients. Allele 5T was significantly associated with CBAVD (19.6%) when compared to the general population (5.2%) ({chi}{sup 2} = 33.3%; p<<0.0001). It was represented poorly in fathers of CF patients (1.3%). Mutations were identified in one (60%) or both CFTR alleles (8.9%) of CBAVD patients. Heterozygosity for the 5T allele was strongly associated with heterozygosity for CF mutations ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.9; p<0.0004). The strong correlation between allele 5T and CBAVD, together with the low frequency of this allele in fathers of CF patients, demonstrates that variable {Delta}exon 9 produces infertility in males if associated with a CF mutation on the other chromosome. The 30% of CBAVD cases with only one CFTR mutation and without a 5T-allele may be due to other molecular mechanisms involving CFTR, distinct from {Delta}exon 9. Since there is a relatively high proportion of CBAVD without CF mutations (25%), other gene(s), distinct from CFTR, may have a role in the CBAVD phenotype.

  17. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39–2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations.

  18. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-02-15

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39-2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations.

  19. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39–2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations. PMID:26876364

  20. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  1. Low Birth Weight Is Associated with a Decreased Overall Adult Health Status and Reproductive Capability – Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Primary Infertile Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Luca; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ippolito, Silvia; Pecoraro, Angela; Paciotti, Marco; Scano, Roberta; Galdini, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Luca; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) risk cardiometabolic complications later in life. However the impact of LBW on general health status and male reproductive function has been scantly analysed. We investigated the clinical and seminal impact of different birth weights (BW) in white-European men presenting for primary couple’s infertility. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 827 primary infertile men were compared with those of 373 consecutive fertile men. Patients with BW ≤2500, 2500–4200, and ≥4200gr were classified as having LBW, normal (NBW), and high BW (HBW), respectively. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Semen analysis values were assessed based on 2010 WHO reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested associations between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and BW categories. LBW, NBW and HBW were found in 71 (8.6%), 651 (78.7%) and 105 (12.7%) infertile men, respectively. LBW was more frequent in infertile patients than fertile men (p = 0.002). Infertile patients with LBW had a higher rate of comorbidities (p = 0.003), lower mean testicular volume (p = 0.007), higher FSH (p = 0.02) and lower tT levels (p = 0.04) compared to other BW groups. Higher rates of asthenozoospermia (p = 0.02) and teratozoospermia (p = 0.03) were also found in LBW men. At logistic regression models, LBW was univariably associated with pathologic progressive motility (p≤0.02) and pathologic sperm morphology (p<0.005). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, LBW achieved independent predictor status for both lower sperm motility and pathologic sperm morphology (all p≤0.04). Only LBW independently predicted higher CCI values (p<0.001). In conclusion, we found that LBW was more frequent in infertile than in fertile men. Infertile individuals with LBW showed a higher rate of comorbidities and

  2. Infertility - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  3. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options.

  4. Male Infertility during Antihypertensive Therapy: Are We Addressing Correctly The Problem?

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Iaconianni, Paola; Gatti, Simona; Padula, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several “acute” pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s) which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials) on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent) of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient’s reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility. PMID:27695607

  5. Phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil induces male infertility in the estuarine meiobenthic crustacean Amphiascus tenuiremis.

    PubMed

    Cary, Tawnya L; Chandler, G Thomas; Volz, David C; Walse, Spencer S; Ferry, John L

    2004-01-15

    Copepods are the most abundant arthropods on earth and are often the most important secondary producers in estuarine/marine food webs. The new GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-disrupting insecticide fipronil (FP) induces unique sex-specific reproductive dysfunction in male meiobenthic copepods, leading to trans-generational population depression at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.63 microg/L). Using a newly developed 96-well microplate lifecycle bioassay, more than 700 individual Stage-I juveniles were reared to adulthood in as short as 12 days in only 200 microL of control (CTL) or 0.63 microg-FP/L seawater solution. Individual virgin male: female pairs were then cross-mated for all possible combinations within and across rearing treatments and allowed to mate for an additional 12 days in CTL or 0.63 microg-FP/L solution. FP at 0.63 microg/L caused no significant lethality to any mating combinations but evoked 73% or 89% inhibition of reproduction when FP-reared males were mated with either a control- or FP-reared female in FP solution, respectively. In contrast, when CTL-reared males were mated with FP-reared females in FP solution, there was no difference in reproductive success compared to FP-free controls. When FP-reared males were mated with either female group in FP-free solution, these mating pairs displayed a 3-day delay in time to brood sac extrusion but ultimately did reproduce. As fipronil (1) has a high K(ow), (2) is persistent in sediments where meiobenthic copepods live, and (3) has been detected in estuarine waters >0.7 microg/L, it may pose high risk to copepod production in estuarine systems.

  6. Combined letrozole and clomiphene versus letrozole and clomiphene alone in infertile patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hajishafiha, Masomeh; Dehghan, Meisam; Kiarang, Nazila; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahideh; Shayegh, Seyed Navid; Ghasemi-Rad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women of childbearing age (6.8%–18%), is among the most common causes of infertility due to ovulation factors, and accounts for 55%–70% of infertility cases caused by chronic anovulation. In this study, we used a combination of letrozole and clomiphene in patients resistant to both drugs individually, and studied the effects of this combination in ovulation and pregnancy in resistant PCOS patients. Methods The study population included infertile couples diagnosed as PCOS in the wife. The women used clomiphene for at least six cycles in order to ovulate after failure to form the dominant follicle, and were then put on letrozole for four cycles. Patients who were unable to form the dominant follicle were enrolled on letrozole and clomiphene combination therapy. Results One hundred enrolled patients underwent 257 cycles of a combination of letrozole and clomiphene, in which 213 were able to form the dominant follicle (82.9%) and 44 were unable to do so (17.1%). The number of mature follicles was 2.3±1.1. The mean endometrial thickness in patients on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration was 8.17±1.3 mm. The pregnancy rate was 42%. Conclusion According to the results of this study, it can be proposed that in PCOS patients resistant to clomiphene and letrozole used as single agents, a combination of the two drugs can be administered before using more aggressive treatment that may have severe complications or surgery. This combination may also be used as a first-line therapy to induce ovulation in severe cases of PCOS in order to save time and expense. PMID:24348019

  7. Unilateral adrenal tumor, erectile dysfunction and infertility in a patient with 21-hydroxylase deficiency: effects of glucocorticoid treatment and surgery.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, C; Favia, G; Lumachi, F; Opocher, G; Bonanni, G; Mantero, F; Armanini, D

    2003-02-01

    In untreated congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHDS) the presence of adrenal and testicular tumors had been described; however little is known about the effect of the enzymatic defect on fertility in males. We studied a male adult patient affected by 21OHDS for infertility, after a long period of discontinuation of glucocorticoid therapy and then during resumption of treatment and 8 months after monoadrenalectomy. The initial spermatic count revealed azoospermia and testicular needle aspiration showed a cytological picture consistent with prepuberty. The morphofunctional study revealed a right adrenal mass with reduced uptake at radioscan. Treatment was resumed with onset of impotency, which improved after reduction of the dose of glucocorticoids. The patient was monoadrenalectomised and his spermatic count increased. The patient shows that corticosteroid therapy in 21OHDS should be continued lifelong to avoid adrenal hyperplasia with possible areas of autonomy and to allow regular fertility. Impotence during treatment is probably due to a decrease of excessive adrenal androgens while testicular androgen production is still suppressed.

  8. Afterword to varicocele and male infertility: current concepts and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    We summarize and comment on the topics discussed by the contributors to this Special Issue of Asian Journal of Andrology. The scope of varicocele covers a wide spectrum, including proteomics and metabolomics, hormonal control, interventional therapy, and assisted reproductive technology (ART). The selection of topics demonstrates the exciting breadth of this thematic area and the opportunity research holds for both increasing the understanding and improving the reproductive health of males with varicocele. PMID:26780876

  9. Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis activity, spermatogenesis, and sperm function promote infertility in males with lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jason; Hernandez, Rafael J; Chen, Andrew; Smith, Noel L; Sheynkin, Yefim R; Joshi, Gargi; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-02-10

    Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development. Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species due to lead-associated oxidative stress can potentially affect sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation, membrane lipid peroxidation, capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and chemotaxis for sperm-oocyte fusion, all of which can contribute to deter fertilization. Reproductive toxicity has been tested through cross-sectional analysis studies in humans as well as in vivo and in vitro studies in animals.

  10. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  11. Association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Luo, Y Y; Wu, S; Tang, Y D; Rao, X D; Xiong, L; Tan, M; Deng, M Z; Liu, H

    2016-04-26

    Published studies on the association between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and male infertility risk are controversial. To obtain a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis based on published case-control studies. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and male infertility risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive, and additive models. Statistical heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 13.0). Overall, 21 studies of C677T (4505 cases and 4024 controls) and 13 studies of A1298C (2785 cases and 3094 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. For C677T, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.629, 95%CI (1.215- 2.184), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.462 (1.155- 1.850). For A1298C, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.289 (1.029-1.616), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.288 (1.034-1.604). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased male infertility risk in the Asian and overall populations, but not in the Caucasian population, and there was a significant association between the A1298C polymorphism and male infertility risk in the Asian, Caucasian, and overall groups.

  12. Rare earths exposure and male infertility: the injury mechanism study of rare earths on male mice and human sperm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Xiao, Heng-Jun; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-Ling; Long, He-Ming; Liu, Song-Hao

    2015-02-01

    The weight; testis/body coefficient; levels of LDH, SDH, SODH, G-6PD, and testosterone; cell cycle; and cell apoptosis of the male mice were influenced after being treated with 200 mg/[kg/day] of rare earths suspension for 3 weeks. The "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA exposed to 0.040 mg/ml CeCl3 were very different from those of the untreated; the Raman bands at 789 cm(-1) (backbone phosphodiester), PO4 backbone at 1,094 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,221 cm(-1), methylene deformation mode at 1,485 cm(-1), and amide II at 1,612 cm(-1), of which intensities and shifts were changed, might be the diagnostic biomarkers or potential therapeutic targets. The injury mechanism might be that the rare earths influence the oxidative stress and blood testosterone barrier, tangle the big biomolecule concurrently, which might cause the testicular cells and vascular system disorder and/or dysfunction, and at the same time change the physical and chemical properties of the sperm directly.

  13. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A) Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geister, Krista A.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Cheung, Leonard Y.; Wendt, Jennifer; Oatley, Melissa J.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Cavalcoli, James D.; Oatley, Jon M.; Camper, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility. PMID:26496357

  14. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands’ sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P < 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P < 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P < 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P < 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes. PMID:25652630

  15. ICSI treatment of severe male infertility can achieve prospective embryo quality compared with IVF of fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ju-Fen; Chen, Xiao-Bao; Zhao, Lei-Wen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Peng, Jie; Qu, Xian-Qin; Shi, Hui-Juan; Jin, Xing-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Azoospermia, cryptozoospermia and necrospermia can markedly decrease the ability of males to achieve pregnancy in fertile females. However, patients with these severe conditions still have the option to be treated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to become biological fathers. This study analyzed the fertilization ability and the developmental viabilities of the derived embryos after ICSI treatment of the sperm from these patients compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment of the proven-fertile donor sperm on sibling oocytes as a control. On the day of oocyte retrieval, the number of sperm suitable for ICSI collected from two ejaculates or testicular sperm extraction was lower than the oocytes, and therefore, excess sibling oocytes were treated by IVF with donor sperm. From 72 couples (73 cycles), 1117 metaphase II oocytes were divided into 512 for ICSI and 605 for IVF. Compared with the control, husbands' sperm produced a lower fertilization rate in nonobstructive azoospermia (65.4% vs 83.2%; P< 0.001), crytozoospermia (68.8% vs 75.5%; P< 0.05) and necrospermia (65.0% vs 85.2%; P< 0.05). The zygotes derived in nonobstructive azoospermia had a lower cleavage rate (96.4% vs 99.4%; P< 0.05), but the rate of resultant good-quality embryos was not different. Analysis of the rates of cleaved and good-quality embryos in crytozoospermia and necrospermia did not exhibit a significant difference from the control. In conclusion, although the sperm from severe male infertility reduced the fertilization ability, the derived embryos had potential developmental viabilities that might be predictive for the expected clinical outcomes.

  16. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  17. Re-visiting the Protamine-2 locus: deletion, but not haploinsufficiency, renders male mice infertile

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Simon; Balbach, Melanie; Jan F. Jikeli, J F J; Fietz, Daniela; Nettersheim, Daniel; Jostes, Sina; Schmidt, Rovenna; Kressin, Monika; Bergmann, Martin; Wachten, Dagmar; Steger, Klaus; Schorle, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are arginine-rich DNA-binding proteins that replace histones in elongating spermatids. This leads to hypercondensation of chromatin and ensures physiological sperm morphology, thereby protecting DNA integrity. In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio. In humans, alterations of this PRM1/PRM2 ratio is associated with subfertility. By applying CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene-editing in oocytes, we established Prm2-deficient mice. Surprisingly, heterozygous males remained fertile with sperm displaying normal head morphology and motility. In Prm2-deficient sperm, however, DNA-hypercondensation and acrosome formation was severely impaired. Further, the sperm displayed severe membrane defects resulting in immotility. Thus, lack of Prm2 leads not only to impaired histone to protamine exchange and disturbed DNA-hypercondensation, but also to severe membrane defects resulting in immotility. Interestingly, previous attempts using a regular gene-targeting approach failed to establish Prm2-deficient mice. This was due to the fact that already chimeric animals generated with Prm2+/− ES cells were sterile. However, the Prm2-deficient mouse lines established here clearly demonstrate that mice tolerate loss of one Prm2 allele. As such they present an ideal model for further studies on protamine function and chromatin organization in murine sperm. PMID:27833122

  18. Ultrasound characterization of the infertile male testis with rf power spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Jonathan A.; Silverman, Ronald H.; Rondeau, Mark; Coleman, D. J.; Schlegel, Peter

    2002-04-01

    Objective: To investigate and diagnose testicular pathology in patients with testicular dysfunction using the technique of ultrasound power spectrum analysis. Methods: Testicular ultrasound studies with power spectrum tissue characterization analysis were performed on men with testicular abnormalities as well as normal controls. Semen analysis, biopsy data, microscopic intra-operative findings and data pertaining to testicular function were collected for each surgically evaluated subject. Ultrasound data were analyzed for power spectrum characteristics of microscopic scatterer size and concentration within discrete areas of testicular tissue. Results: Patients with varicoceles and greater than 2x106 sperm/ml on semen analysis had larger average scatterer size (107.7 micrometers ) and lower scatterer concentration (-15.02 dB) than non-obstructed, azoospermic patients with varicoceles (92.4 micrometers and -11.41 dB, respectively). Subjects with obstructed azoospermia had slightly larger average tissue scatterer size (108.1 micrometers ) and lower concentration (-15.73 dB) while normal control data revealed intermediate values of size (102.3 micrometers ) and concentration (-13.1 dB) of scatterers. Spectral data from pure testicular seminoma lesions had the lowest average scatterer size (82.3 micrometers ) with low relative concentration (-14.7 dB). Summary: Ultrasound tissue characterization based on RF spectrum analysis may distinguish different types of testicular pathology including obstructed and non-obstructed azoospermia and tissue changes due to varicocele and tumor.

  19. Gonadal effect of radiation from 131I in male patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Krassas, G E; Pontikides, N

    2005-01-01

    The role of iodine-131 therapy in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is well established. Because the spermatogonia are very sensitive to radiation, there is concern that large doses of the latter could result in azoospermia and permanent infertility. For patients treated with a single ablation dose, testicular function recovers within months and the risk of infertility is diminished. Gonadal damage may be cumulative in those requiring multiple administrations. In all young male patients, but especially in those with metastatic or pelvic disease or both, the long-term storage of semen should be addressed prior to therapy. Sperm banking should be considered in patients likely to be given cumulative doses greater than 14 GBq of 131I. However, the patient's threshold for sperm banking might be even lower than that.

  20. MTHFR-Ala222Val and male infertility: a study in Iranian men, an updated meta-analysis and an in silico-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikzad, Hossein; Karimian, Mohammad; Sareban, Kobra; Khoshsokhan, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt

    2015-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) functions as a main regulatory enzyme in folate metabolism. The association of MTHFR gene Ala222Val polymorphism with male infertility in an Iranian population was investigated by undertaking a meta-analysis and in-silico approach. A genetic association study included 497 men; 242 had unexplained infertility and 255 were healthy controls. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for genotyping MTHFR-Ala222Val. OpenMeta[Analyst] software was used to conduct the analysis; 22 studies were identified by searching PubMed and the currently reported genetic association study. A novel in-silico approach was used to analyse the effects of Ala222Val substitution on the structure of mRNA and protein. Genetic association study revealed a significant association of MTHFR-222Val/Val genotype with oligozoospermia (OR 2.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 4.78; P = 0.0451) and azoospermia (OR 2.59; 95% CI 1.09 to 6.17; P = 0.0314). Meta-analysis for allelic, dominant and codominant models showed a significant association between Ala222Val polymorphism and the risk of male infertility (P < 0.001). In silico-analysis showed MTHFR-Ala222Val affects enzyme structure and could also change the mRNA properties (P = 0.1641; P < 0.2 is significant). The meta-analysis suggested significant association of MTHFR-Ala222Val with risk of male infertility, especially in Asian populations.

  1. MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MS A2756G Gene Polymorphisms and Male Infertility Risk in a Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shangqing; Liao, Jian; Liu, Shengzhuo; Liu, Liangren; Peng, Zhufeng; Dong, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase gene (MS A2756G) polymorphisms have shown an association with male infertility risk in several ethnic populations. Although several studies have evaluated these associations in Chinese populations, their small sample sizes and inconsistent outcomes have prevented strong conclusions. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was performed with published studies to evaluate the associations of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and male infertility in a Chinese population. Methods We conducted a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature (Wan Fang) databases up to May 31, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations with a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model based on the heterogeneity analysis results. Sensitivity analysis was used to confirm the reliability and stability of the meta-analysis. Results A total of nine studies, including 1,713 cases and 1,104 controls, were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility in the Chinese population in the allele model (T vs. C: OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.32–1.63), the dominant model (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.30–1.77), the additive model (TT vs. CC: OR = 2.08, 95%CI = 1.68–2.58) and the recessive model (TT vs. CT+CC: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.31–1.90), whereas the MTHFR A1298C and MS A2756G polymorphisms were not risk factors. There was no significant heterogeneity in any genotype contrasts among the studies. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the results of this meta-analysis were relatively stable. Conclusion This study suggests that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism may contribute to the genetic

  2. gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b deletion is a high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel, Myriam; Baklouti-Gargouri, Siwar; Keskes, Rim; Chakroun, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ammar-Keskes, Leila

    2016-10-30

    The azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region harbors multi-copy genes that are expressed in the testis. Deletions of this region lead to reduced copy numbers of these genes. In this present study we aimed to determine the frequency of AZFc subdeletion in infertile and fertile men from Tunisia and to identify whether deletions of DAZ and CDY1 gene copies are deleterious on spermatogenesis and on semen quality. We studied a group of 241 infertile men and 115 fertile healthy males using a sequence tagged site (STS)±method. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the heterogeneous phenotype observed in men with the deletion we defined the type of DAZ and CDY1 genes deleted. We reported in the present study and for the first time a new type of AZFc deletion (gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b) and hypothesis that this new deletion is the result of two successive events. We also demonstrated that this deletion constitutes a relative high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population.

  3. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses of de novo translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) in an infertile male

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole arm t(9;13)(p11;p12) translocations are rare and have been described only a few times; all of the previously reported cases were familial. Results We present here an infertile male carrier with a whole-arm reciprocal translocation dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) revealed by GTG-, C-, and NOR-banding karyotypes with no mature sperm cells in his ejaculate. FISH and genome-wide 400 K CGH microarray (Agilent) analyses demonstrated a balanced chromosome complement and further characterised the abnormality as a dicentric chromosome (9;13): dic(9;13)(pter→p11.2::p12→qter),neo(9)(pter→p12→neo→p11.2). An analysis of the patient’s ejaculated cells identified immature germ cells at different phases of spermatogenesis but no mature spermatozoa. Most (82.5%) of the germ cells were recognised as spermatocytes at stage I, and the cell nuclei were most frequently found in pachytene I (41.8%). We have also undertaken FISH analysis and documented an increased rate of aneuploidy of chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y in the peripheral blood leukocytes of our patient. To study the aneuploidy risk in leukocytes, we have additionally included 9 patients with non-obstructive azoospermia with normal karyotypes. Conclusions We propose that the azoospermia observed in the patient with the dic(9;13)(p11.2;p12) translocation was most likely a consequence of a very high proportion (90%) of association between XY bivalents and quadrivalent formations in prophase I. PMID:24559467

  4. Ultrasonographic and clinical correlates of seminal plasma interleukin-8 levels in patients attending an andrology clinic for infertility.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mancini, M; Filimberti, E; Degli Innocenti, S; Colpi, G M; Baldi, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Adorini, L; Maggi, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the association between seminal plasma interleukin-8 (sIL-8) and colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics of the male genital tract in a series of patients fulfilling the criteria of male accessory gland infections (MAGI). Of 250 subjects seeking medical care for couple infertility, 79 (mean age: 36.4 ± 7.5 years) met the criteria of MAGI and scored higher than the rest of the sample on the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index score. All patients underwent simultaneous hormone evaluation and seminal analysis (including sIL-8), along with scrotal and transrectal CDU before and after ejaculation. After adjusting for age, sIL-8 in patients with MAGI was significantly related to several abnormal semen and CDU parameters. In particular, leucocytospermia was closely associated with sIL-8. Ejaculate volume, unlike other semen or hormonal parameters, was negatively associated with sIL-8. When scrotal CDU was performed, sIL-8 was positively related to CDU inhomogeneous, hypo-echoic, hyper-echoic epididymis and to epididymal calcifications. In addition, a positive correlation among sIL-8, hyperaemic epididymis and an increased size of epididymal tail was found. When transrectal CDU was performed, an association among sIL-8 and hyper-echoic seminal vesicles, dilated ejaculatory ducts and duct calcifications was also observed. Finally, sIL-8 was positively related to prostate CDU abnormalities such as calcifications, inhomogeneous/hypo-echoic texture, hyperaemia and high arterial blood flow. No association was found with testis parameters. In conclusion, sIL-8 levels in patients with MAGI are associated with several parameters and CDU abnormalities of epididymis, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts and prostate, but not of the testis. Furthermore, sIL-8 positively correlates with CDU signs of ejaculatory duct inflammatory subobstruction.

  5. Laparoscopic ovarian treatment in infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): endocrine changes and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Tolino, A; Moccia, G; Scognamiglio, G; Nappi, C

    1996-08-01

    During the years 1991-1994, 97 anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) were treated with laparoscopic electrocautery of the ovarian surface after they had failed to ovulate under ovarian stimulation. To assess the endocrinological and clinical outcome and in an attempt to determine the mechanism of action, the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), androstenedione, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) were determined before and after laparoscopic ovarian cautery. Fifty regularly cycling women undergoing laparoscopy for investigation of infertility or tubal ligation served as controls. In patients with PCOS but not in controls, the reduction of androgen levels and normalization of cycle length were highly significant. In contrast, LH and FSH levels rose during the first 2 days after the operation. These results resemble those reported after ovarian wedge resection. Ovulation was obtained in 90% (81 of 90) and pregnancy in 81.1% (73 of 90) of the patients; that increased to 84.4%, including the non-responders (nine patients) treated with clomiphene citrate (CC), after electrocautery. The response to ovarian electrocautery was influenced by body weight, with an ovulation rate of 95-96% in the slim and moderately obese women, decreasing to 81-82% in the really obese ones. When ovulation was established, the pregnancy rate was independent of body weight. However, a striking relationship was detected between smoking habits and pregnancy rate subsequent to ovarian electrocautery, ranging from 24% in smokers to 92% in non-smoking couples. In 30 second-look operations, de novo adhesions were found in 23.3% of the patients (7 of 30). Therefore, ovarian electrocautery is an effective procedure to improve the intraovarian mechanism of selecting a dominant follicle for patients with PCOS in whom initial medical management fails, and it appears to be one of the possible treatments for this

  6. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Results Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. Conclusions The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety. PMID:26484531

  7. Mutations of the aurora kinase C gene causing macrozoospermia are the most frequent genetic cause of male infertility in Algerian men.

    PubMed

    Ounis, Leyla; Zoghmar, Abdelali; Coutton, Charles; Rouabah, Leila; Hachemi, Maroua; Martinez, Delphine; Martinez, Guillaume; Bellil, Ines; Khelifi, Douadi; Arnoult, Christophe; Fauré, Julien; Benbouhedja, Sebti; Rouabah, Abdelkader; Ray, Pierre F

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analyses were once the only two genetic tests offered to infertile men. Analyses of aurora kinase C (AURKC) and DPY19L2 are now recommended for patients presenting macrozoospermia and globozoospermia, respectively, two rare forms of teratozoospermia particularly frequent among North African men. We carried out genetic analyses on Algerian patients, to evaluate the prevalence of these syndromes in this population and to compare it with the expected frequency of Klinefelter syndrome and Y-microdeletions. We carried out a retrospective study on 599 consecutive patients consulting for couple infertility at the assisted reproduction unit of the Ibn Rochd Clinique, Constantine, Algeria. Abnormal sperm parameters were observed in 404 men. Fourteen and seven men had typical macrozoospermia and globozoospermia profiles, respectively. Molecular diagnosis was carried out for these patients, for the AURKC and DPY19L2 genes. Eleven men with macrozoospermia had a homozygous AURKC mutation (79%), corresponding to 2.7% of all patients with abnormal spermograms. All the men with globozoospermia studied (n = 5), corresponding to 1.2% of all infertile men, presented a homozygous DPY19L2 deletion. By comparison, we would expect 1.6% of the patients in this cohort to have Klinefelter syndrome and 0.23% to have Y-microdeletion. Our findings thus indicate that AURKC mutations are more frequent than Klinefelter syndrome and constitute the leading genetic cause of infertility in North African men. Furthermore, we estimate that AURKC and DPY19L2 molecular defects are 10 and 5 times more frequent, respectively, than Y-microdeletions.

  8. Ulipristal Acetate in Myomectomy Optimization in an Infertile Patient with Giant Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Borrás, María Dolores; Rubio, Miriam; Abril, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    The use of ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been recently introduced in the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. This drug has proven useful to control menometrorrhagia and to reduce myoma size. In the case presented here, we show the benefits of UPA treatment in facilitating surgical removal of giant myomas in an infertile patient. In addition to myoma reduction and a better control of preoperative bleeding, the treatment with UPA reduced the duration and complexity of the surgery, as well as the area of uterine wall involved and the resulting scar. No side effects were observed and the patient became pregnant 6 months after the surgery and had a normal pregnancy and delivery. This case report shows the beneficial effects of UPA in the preoperative treatment of myomas which affect uterus function. PMID:27594886

  9. A case control study of active genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients with tubal infertility in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Shittu, S O; Abdul, A M

    2006-01-01

    A case-controlled study of the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 120 patients with tubal infertility (study group) and 120 clients of the family planning clinic (control group) attending the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria in northern Nigeria is reported. The prevalence was 38.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) (29.6-47.6%) in the study group and 13.3%, 95% CI (7.8-20.7%) in the control group. There was a fourfold risk of having genital Chlamydial infection among the cases compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.04, 95% CI (2.04 < OR < 8.09). Tubal infertility was found to be significantly associated with genital C. trachomatis infection (P < 0.001). Out of the 58 cases of primary infertility, 22(37.9%) tested positive for genital C. trachomatis compared with 24 of the 62 (38.7%) that had secondary infertility. The infection was not found to be significantly associated with a particular type of infertility (primary or secondary), number of sexual partners or previous sexually transmitted disease (P < 0.05). There is need for provision of facilities to enable screening for genital C. trachomatis infection in view of its high prevalence in the study population.

  10. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  11. Female Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ovulation Pelvic laparoscopy Pelvic laparoscopy - slideshow Prolactin blood test Serum progesterone Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Male Infertility National Institutes of Health The ...

  12. Nurse practice issues regarding sperm banking in adolescent male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Reebals, Jeri F; Brown, Richard; Buckner, Ellen B

    2006-01-01

    The impressive increase in the survival rate of childhood cancer patients has produced increased interest in quality of life issues. This research addresses nurse practice issues in determining whether the newly diagnosed adolescent male patient is offered the option of sperm banking before undergoing chemotherapy treatment. Questionnaires were distributed to nurses and nurse practitioners on 3 inpatient and outpatient units who care for adolescent male cancer patients at the time of diagnosis, during chemotherapy, and during follow-up care. Findings indicate that 96.3% of respondents agreed that all male patients undergoing cancer treatment with infertility as a potential side effect should be offered sperm banking. Respondents viewed oncologists and nurse practitioners as appropriate professionals to discuss the option. Lack of knowledge regarding sperm banking could be limiting nurses' willingness to introduce the topic, and education regarding cryopreservation may improve their knowledge and practice.

  13. Renal aplastic dysplasia and ipsilateral ectopic ureter obstructing the seminal via: a possible cause of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Antonio; Palleschi, Giovanni; Tomiselli, Giulio; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Rago, Rocco; Lenzi, Andrea; Pastore, Antonio Luigi

    2007-07-01

    Few cases of unilateral renal agenesis associated with ipsilateral seminal vesicle ectasia or cyst have been reported. Two cases of unilateral renal aplastic dysplasia and ipsilateral ectopic ureter opening in the ejaculatory ducts associated with infertility secondary to bilateral obstruction of the seminal via are reported. Clinical and physical assessment including transrectal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are proposed as a comprehensive algorithm for the diagnostic evaluation of the pelvic cystic masses.

  14. Cumulative success rates following mild IVF in unselected infertile patients: a 3-year, single-centre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bodri, Daniel; Kawachiya, Satoshi; De Brucker, Michaël; Tournaye, Herman; Kondo, Masae; Kato, Ryutaro; Matsumoto, Tsunekazu

    2014-05-01

    A 3-year, retrospective, single-centre cohort study was conducted in a private infertility centre to determine cumulative live birth rates (LBR) per scheduled oocyte retrieval following minimal ovarian stimulation/natural-cycle IVF in unselected infertile patients. A total of 727 consecutive infertile patients were analysed who underwent 2876 (median 4) cycles with scheduled oocyte retrieval from November 2008 to December 2011. Natural-cycle IVF or clomiphene-based minimal ovarian stimulation was coupled with single-embryo transfer and increased use of delayed vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer. Main outcome measures were crude and expected age-specific cumulative LBR per scheduled oocyte retrieval. Crude cumulative LBR were 65%, 60%, 39%, 15% and 5% in patients aged 26-34, 35-37, 38-40, 41-42 and 43-44 years, respectively. No live births occurred in patients aged ⩾ 45 years. Dropout rates per cycle were 13-25%. Success rates gradually reached a plateau, with few additional live births after six cycles. Most of the expected success rate was reached within 6 months with almost maximal rates within 15 months of the first oocyte retrieval. Acceptable cumulative LBR are reached with an exclusive minimal ovarian stimulation/single-embryo transfer policy especially in patients aged <38 years but also in intermediate aged patients (38-40 years).

  15. Loss of PI3K p110α in the Adipose Tissue Results in Infertility and Delayed Puberty Onset in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Victoria L Boughton; Negrón, Ariel L; Reid, Inefta; Thomas, Justin A; Yang, Leon; Lin, Richard Z; Acosta-Martínez, Maricedes

    2017-01-01

    Deletion of PI3K catalytic subunit p110α in adipose tissue (aP2-Cre/p110α(flx/flx), α-/- hereafter) results in increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, and liver steatosis. Because this endocrine organ releases hormones like leptin, which are important in reproductive physiology, we investigated the reproductive phenotype of α-/- males. Compared to controls, α-/- males displayed delayed onset of puberty accompanied by a reduction in plasma LH levels and testicular weight. At postnatal day 30, α-/- mice exhibited normal body weight but elevated fasted plasma leptin levels. Testicular leptin gene expression was increased, whereas expression of the cholesterol transporter StAR and of P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme was decreased. Adult α-/- males were infertile and exhibited hyperandrogenemia with normal basal LH, FSH, and estradiol levels. However, neither sperm counts nor sperm motility was different between genotypes. The mRNA levels of leptin and of 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3, and enzyme important for testosterone production, were significantly higher in the testis of adult α-/- males. The mRNA levels of ERα, an important regulator of intratesticular steroidogenesis, were lower in the testis of adult and peripubertal α-/- males. We propose that chronic hyperleptinemia contributes to the negative impact that disrupting PI3K signaling in adipocytes has on puberty onset, steroidogenesis, and fertility in males.

  16. Loss of PI3K p110α in the Adipose Tissue Results in Infertility and Delayed Puberty Onset in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Victoria L. Boughton; Negrón, Ariel L.; Reid, Inefta; Thomas, Justin A.; Yang, Leon; Lin, Richard Z.

    2017-01-01

    Deletion of PI3K catalytic subunit p110α in adipose tissue (aP2-Cre/p110αflx/flx, α−/− hereafter) results in increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, and liver steatosis. Because this endocrine organ releases hormones like leptin, which are important in reproductive physiology, we investigated the reproductive phenotype of α−/− males. Compared to controls, α−/− males displayed delayed onset of puberty accompanied by a reduction in plasma LH levels and testicular weight. At postnatal day 30, α−/− mice exhibited normal body weight but elevated fasted plasma leptin levels. Testicular leptin gene expression was increased, whereas expression of the cholesterol transporter StAR and of P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme was decreased. Adult α−/− males were infertile and exhibited hyperandrogenemia with normal basal LH, FSH, and estradiol levels. However, neither sperm counts nor sperm motility was different between genotypes. The mRNA levels of leptin and of 17-beta-dehydrogenase 3, and enzyme important for testosterone production, were significantly higher in the testis of adult α−/− males. The mRNA levels of ERα, an important regulator of intratesticular steroidogenesis, were lower in the testis of adult and peripubertal α−/− males. We propose that chronic hyperleptinemia contributes to the negative impact that disrupting PI3K signaling in adipocytes has on puberty onset, steroidogenesis, and fertility in males. PMID:28357399

  17. Human sperm protein encyclopedia and alloantigen index: mining novel allo-antigens using sera from ASA-positive infertile patients and vasectomized men.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jagathpala; Bronson, Richard A; Herr, John C

    2008-01-01

    Anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) are an important cause of immunological infertility. The objective of this study was to identify immunodominant sperm antigens recognized by anti-sperm antibodies (ASA) in serum samples of infertile men, women and vasectomized men. High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was employed to separate human sperm proteins using isoelectric focusing (IEF) or nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis (NEPHGE), followed by PAGE and Western blotting. Serum samples from five infertile male and five infertile female subjects that contained ASA as assayed by the immunobead binding test (IBT), were analyzed by Western blotting using NEPHGE gels followed by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) to identify the basic sperm antigens reactive to the sera. Serum samples from five fertile male and five fertile female subjects that were ASA-negative by IBT were used as controls. Serum samples from six vasectomized men collected before vasectomy and at different time intervals until 6 months after vasectomy were analyzed by Western blotting using IEF gels. The ECL blots were analyzed to compare immunoreactivity between serum samples from fertile and infertile subjects and identify antigens unique to sera of the infertile subjects. Similarly, immunoreactivity between serum samples from pre- and post-vasectomy was compared to identify antigens unique to sera collected following vasectomy. Five allo-antigenic basic protein spots were recognized by sera from infertile males but not from fertile subjects. Five sperm iso-antigenic basic spots were recognized by infertile female subjects. Two among six of the vasectomized men's sera showed a difference in the Western blot profile 6 months after vasectomy, recognizing at least one new protein spot in each case when compared to pre-vasectomy sera. The acrosomal protein SP-10 was identified as an alloantigen recognized by a post-vasectomy serum. Molecular identities of the known allo- and iso

  18. Gender differences in perception of psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Bukhari, Mujahid; Altuwirqi, Maram; Habous, Mohamad; Madbouly, Khaled; Abotalib, Zeinab; Binsaleh, Saleh

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the differences in psychosocial distress and coping mechanisms among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia (SA). We performed a cross-sectional study of infertile patients (206 women and 200 men) attending infertility clinics in three referral hospitals in Riyadh, SA. A semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables. Infertility-related psychosocial pressures were reported in 79 (39.7%) male and 97 (47.3%) female participants (p = 0.123). Males suffered more from intrusive questions and pressure to conceive, remarry or get divorced, while females were stressed more from psychological and emotional exhaustion, marital discord, attitudes of mothers-in-law or society, and persistent desire by the husband to have children. To cope with infertility, females engaged more in religious activities (p < 0.001) and spoke more to someone regarding their problems (p < 0.001). To solve their infertility problems, 50% tried to find solutions via the internet, and 38.5% of males and 51% of females reported using alternative medicines (p = 0.012). The patients with infertility in SA face multiple psychosocial stressors related to their infertility, and cope differently based on the gender and culture-specific knowledge of infertility. The female participants were significantly more affected from psychosocial stressors and the persistent desire by their spouse to have children.

  19. Further evidence of the clinical, hormonal, and genetic heterogeneity of Klinefelter syndrome: a study of 216 infertile Egyptian patients.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razic, Moheb M; Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A; Elsobky, Ezzat; El-Dahtory, Faeza

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to provide further insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) by presenting clinical, hormonal, and genetic data from a large series of Egyptian infertile patients with KS. A retrospective case series of KS patients was studied over a period from January 2003 to April 2010. All patients underwent a complete history and physical examination; color duplex examination; semen analysis; measurement of total testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL); and chromosomal typing. Mosaic KS diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The series included 216 KS patients (198 nonmosaic, 16 mosaic, and 2 KS variants). Typical clinical signs of hypoandrogenism were observed in 86% of patients. Gynecomastia affected 20.8% of the patients. Eunuchoidal body proportions, with arm span exceeding height and lower segment length exceeding upper segment length, were detected in 43.9% and 64.4% of the patients, respectively. In all patients, a reduction in testicular size and azoospermia were detected. Normal levels of T, FSH, LH, E2, and PRL were detected in 44.5%, 3.7%, 3.3%, 93.5%, and 91.2% of patients, respectively. Differences were not significant between patients with classic KS and those with mosaic KS in terms of the frequency of clinical signs of hypoandrogenism, gynecomastia, low T concentrations, or high concentrations of FSH, LH, E2, and PRL (all P > .05). The results of the current study emphasize the heterogeneous clinical, hormonal, and genetic phenotype of infertile KS patients. Our findings support the usefulness of cytogenetic studies in infertile patients showing small testicular size and azoospermia, regardless of the presence of other clinical or endocrine findings.

  20. Quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Ishrat, S; Rahman, D; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Hossain, H B

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is an important health issue which has been neglected in the developing countries. First test-tube babies (triplet) in Bangladesh were born on 30th May, 2001. Although there is no tertiary level infertility center in the public sector, several private centers have come up with the facilities. The objective of the study was to find i) the quality and quantity of infertility care in Bangladesh and ii) the cause of infertility in the attending patients iii) the treatment seeking behaviors iv) and the reasons for not taking treatment among the attending patients. There are now 10 tertiary level Infertility centers in Bangladesh. The information was collected in a preformed datasheet about the facilities and the profile of the patients and the treatment seeking behavior of the attending patients. Out of the ten centers two centers refused to respond and did not disclose their data. Around 16700 new patients are enrolled in a year in the responsive clinics. Five percent (5%) of the patients underwent ART, 7% of the patients gave only one visit, 84% of the patients completed their evaluation, 76% of the patients took treatment. Causes of infertility in the patients taking treatment were male factor in 36.4%, bilateral tubal block in 20.2%, PCOS and anovulation in 31.7%, endometriosis in 19.6%, unexplained in 10.95, combined in 3.5%, ovarian failure in 1.4%, testicular failure in 0.33%, congenital anomaly in 0.3%. The main reason for not taking treatment was financial constrainment. The quality and quantity of infertility care is dependent on the available resources and on the use of the resources by the patients. In developing countries the resources are merging and confined to specified areas which cannot meet the demand of their population. The study gives us the idea of the need and the demand of the services in the country.

  1. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility.

  2. Screening of Two Neighboring CFTR Mutations in Iranian Infertile Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Somayeh; Hojati, Zohreh; Motovali-Bashi, Majid

    2017-01-01

    The genetic association between cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations and male infertility due to congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is well established. Mutant CFTR, however may also be involved in the etiology of male infertility in non-CBAVD cases. The present study was conducted to estimate the frequency of ∆I507 and ∆F508 CFTR gene mutations in Iranian infertile males. We undertook the first study of association between these CFTR mutations and non-obstructive azoospermia in Iran. In this case-control study, 100 fertile healthy fathers and 100 non-obstructive azoospermia’s men were recruited from Isfahan Infertility Center (IIC) and Sari Saint Mary’s Infertility Center, between 2008 and 2009. Screening of F508del and I507del mutations was carried out by the multiplex-ARMS-PCR. Significance of differences in mutation frequencies between the patient and control groups was assessed by Fisher’s exact test. The ΔF508 was detected in three patients. However there are no significant association was found between the presence of this mutated allele and infertility [OR=9.2 (allele-based) and 7.2 (individual-based), P=0.179]. None of the samples carried the ΔI507 mutation. Altogether, we show that neither ΔI507 nor ΔF508 is involved in this population of Iranian infertile males with non-obstructive azoospermia. PMID:28042420

  3. [Polymorphisms of KITLG, SPRY4, and BAK1 genes in patients with testicular germ cell tumors and individuals with infertility associated with AZFc deletion of the Y chromosome].

    PubMed

    Nemtsova, M V; Ivkin, E V; Simonova, O A; Rudenko, V V; Chernykh, V B; Mikhaylenko, D S; Loran, O B

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common form of solid cancer in young men. Testicular cancer is represented by testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) derived from embryonic stem cells with different degrees of differentiation in about 95% of cases. The development of these tumors is related to the formation of a pool of male germ cells and gametogenesis. Clinical factors that are predisposed to the development of germ-cell tumors include cryptorchidism and testicular microlithiasis, as well as infertility associated with the gr/gr deletion within the AZFс locus. KITLG, SPRY4, and BAK1 genes affect the development of the testes and gametogenesis; mutations and polymorphisms of these genes lead to a significant increase in the risk of the TGCT development. To determine the relationship between gene polymorphisms and the development of TGCTs, we developed a system for detection and studied the allele and genotype frequencies of the KITLG (rs995030, rs1508595), SPRY4 (rs4624820, rs6897876), and BAK1 (rs210138) genes in fertile men, patients with TGCTs, and patients with infertility that have the AZFс deletion. A significant association of rs995030 of the KITLG gene with the development of TGCTs (p = 0.029 for the allele G, p = 0.0124 for the genotype GG) was revealed. Significant differences in the frequencies of the studied polymorphisms in patients with the AZFc deletion and the control group of fertile men were not found. We showed significant differences in the frequencies for the combination of all high-risk polymorphisms in the control group, patients with the AZFc deletion and patients with TGCTs (p (TGCTs-AZF-control) = 0.0207). A fivefold increase in the frequency of the combination of all genotypes in the TGCT group (p = 0.0116; OR = 5.25 [1.44-19.15]) and 3.7-fold increase was identified in patients with the AZFc deletion (p = 0.045; OR = 3.69 [1.11-12.29]) were revealed. The genotyping of patients with infertility caused by the AZFc deletion can be used to

  4. Female obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review.

  5. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  6. The Genetics of Infertility: Current Status of the Field

    PubMed Central

    Zorrilla, Michelle; Yatsenko, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is a relatively common health condition, affecting nearly 7% of all couples. Clinically, it is a highly heterogeneous pathology with a complex etiology that includes environmental and genetic factors. It has been estimated that nearly 50% of infertility cases are due to genetic defects. Hundreds of studies with animal knockout models convincingly showed infertility to be caused by gene defects, single or multiple. However, despite enormous efforts, progress in translating basic research findings into clinical studies has been challenging. The genetic causes remain unexplained for the vast majority of male or female infertility patients. A particular difficulty is the huge number of candidate genes to be studied; there are more than 2,300 genes expressed in the testis alone, and hundreds of those genes influence reproductive function in humans and could contribute to male infertility. At present, there are only a handful of genes or genetic defects that have been shown to cause, or to be strongly associated with, primary infertility. Yet, with completion of the human genome and progress in personalized medicine, the situation is rapidly changing. Indeed, there are 10-15 new gene tests, on average, being added to the clinical genetic testing list annually. PMID:24416713

  7. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    PubMed

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.

  8. Semen alterations and flow-citometry evaluation in patients with male accessory gland infections.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R; D'Agata, R; Vicari, E; Calogero, A E

    2012-02-01

    Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) represent a major cause of male infertility mainly through the secretory dysfunction of the prostate, seminal vesicles, and epididymis. This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and nonconventional sperm parameters in these patients, therefore 150 patients with MAGI were selected. Each of them underwent to two sperm analyses and evaluation of DNA fragmentation mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization, chromatin compactness, by flow cytometry. Results showed that patients with MAGI had a lower sperm progressive motility (11.4 ± 5.0 vs 34.0 ± 7.0%), and percentage of normal forms (9.0 ± 3.7 vs 33.0 ± 13.0%) compared to controls, instead, these patients showed higher number of seminal white blood cells (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 0.4 ± 0.6 106/ml). Patients with MAGI showed a higher number of spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation compared to controls (8.2 ± 3.0 vs 1.0 ± 1.0%). In addition, they have also a higher percentage of spermatozoa with low MMP (28.0 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 2.0%). Patients with MAGI, showed a higher percentage of spermatozoa with PS externalization (8.0 ± 4.0 vs 3.0 ± 3.0%), an early sign of apoptosis, and lower percentage of viable spermatozoa (64.5 ± 12.0 vs 88.0 ± 10.0%). An increased percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal chromatin compactness (18.0 ± 4.0 vs 5.0 ± 3.0%) was found in patients with MAGI. In conclusion, patients with MAGI show alterations of conventional and biofunctional sperm parameters compared to controls. These results suggest to consider the flow cytometry evaluation among the diagnostic tools for male infertility.

  9. Peritoneal carcinoma in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Jermann, Monika; Vogt, Peter; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2003-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinoma is a rare primary tumor, described in the literature almost exclusively in women. This report describes our clinicopathological findings in a 51-year-old male patient with peritoneal carcinoma and ascites. Pathologic studies included routine histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy on biopsy and autopsy tumor tissue. After chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission twice, lasting for 14 months and 8 months, respectively, and died after 3 years. His clinical course was similar to that of female patients with peritoneal carcinoma or advanced ovarian cancer. Our case confirms the existence of primary peritoneal carcinoma in males. In addition, it shows that this entity responds to the same chemotherapy as used for ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinoma in females.

  10. The effect of the 2004 Italian law on outcomes of assisted reproduction technology in severe male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    La Sala, G B; Nicoli, A; Capodanno, F; Rondini, I; Villani, M T; Iannotti, F

    2010-01-01

    The Italian law regulating assisted reproductive technologies that came into force in 2004 restricts the number of fertilized oocytes per cycle to three, obliges the subsequent transfer of all resulting embryos and prohibits the freezing of surplus embryos. This study evaluates the impact of the law on severe oligozoospermic, cryptozoospermic, obstructive azoospermic and non-obstructive azoospermic patients. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes of 1066 cycles performed in the 4years before the passing of the law were compared with 804 cycles performed in the 4years after the law came to pass. Globally, analysis of clinical and obstetric outcomes showed a significant decrease in terms of pregnancy and delivery rates per cycle (17.8% versus 10.9% and 14.2% versus 8.5%, respectively) and per embryo transfer (18.8% versus 13.8% and 15.0% versus 10.7%, respectively), and a significant drop in multiple deliveries (35.1% versus 17.6%) in the post-law period. Cryptozoospermic and azoospermic couples were affected by the Italian law more than severe oligozoospermic couples. The results showed that the Italian law limits the efficiency of assisted reproduction treatment in couples with severe male factor. It is hoped that the Italian assisted reproductive technologies law is altered as soon as possible, allowing the insemination of more than three oocytes.

  11. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  12. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  13. Smoking and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  14. Stress and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  15. Ovarian Drilling for Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  16. Testicular Shear Wave Elastography in Normal and Infertile Men: A Prospective Study on 601 Patients.

    PubMed

    Rocher, Laurence; Criton, Aline; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Izard, Vincent; Ferlicot, Sophie; Tanter, Mickael; Benoit, Gerard; Bellin, Marie France; Correas, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim in the study described here was to prospectively establish the feasibility of using and reproducibility of testicular shear-wave elastography in the assessment of testicular stiffness in 62 normal patients and 539 infertile men with obstructive azoospermia (OA), non-Klinefelter syndrome non-obstructive azoospermia (non-KS NOA), Klinefelter syndrome NOA (KS NOA), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) or a left varicocele. The feasibility rate was 96.9%, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-0.88). Median stiffness (interquartile range) values were 2.4 kPa (2.0, 2.9), 2.1 kPa (1.8, 2.5), 2.4 kPa (2.0, 2.7), 2.0 kPa (1.7, 2.4), 2.6 kPa (2, 3.2) and 2.2 kPa (1.8, 2.6) for men with a normal testis (n = 108), OAT (n = 689), OA (n = 119), non-KS NOA (n = 183), KS NOA (n = 70) and varicocele (n = 132), respectively. Testicular shear wave elastography is a feasible and reproducible technique. A significant positive association was found between stiffness and testis volume (p = 0.001). Testicular stiffness was higher in OA than in non-KS NOA populations (p = 1.e-10) and in KS NOA than in NOA populations (p = 2.0e-8), but the substantial number of overlapping values limited the clinical impact.

  17. Microbiota of the seminal fluid from healthy and infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dongsheng; Zhou, Xia; Zhong, Xue; Settles, Matt; Herring, Jessica; Wang, Li; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Xu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore potential causes of male infertility by determining the composition and structure of commensal bacterial communities in seminal fluids. Design: Microscopy of gram stained semen samples and classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences to determine the species composition of semen bacterial communities. Setting(s): Clinical andrology laboratory and academic research laboratories. Patient(s): 19 sperm donors and 58 infertility patients. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Classification of 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustering of seminal microbial communities, and multiple statistical tests. Result(s): High numbers of diverse kinds of bacteria were present in most samples of both sperm donors and infertility patients. The bacterial communities varied widely between subjects, but they could be clustered into six groups based on similarities in composition and the rank abundances of taxa. Overall there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients. However, multiple statistical tests showed a significant negative association between sperm quality and the presence of Anaerococcus. The results also indicated that many of the bacterial taxa identified in semen also occur in the vaginal communities of some women, especially those with bacterial vaginosis, which suggests heterosexual sex partners may share bacteria. Conclusion(s): Diverse kinds of bacteria were present in the human semen, there were no significant differences between sperm donors and infertility patients, The presence of Anaerococcus might be a biomarker for low sperm quality. PMID:23993888

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta1 null mutation causes infertility in male mice associated with testosterone deficiency and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Robertson, Sarah A

    2007-08-01

    TGFbeta1 is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in gonad and secondary sex organ development, steroidogenesis, and spermatogenesis. To determine the physiological requirement for TGFbeta1 in male reproduction, Tgfb1 null mutant mice on a Prkdc(scid) immunodeficient background were studied. TGFbeta1-deficient males did not deposit sperm or induce pseudopregnancy in females, despite an intact reproductive tract with morphologically normal penis, seminal vesicles, and testes. Serum and intratesticular testosterone and serum androstenedione were severely diminished in TGFbeta1-deficient males. Testosterone deficiency was secondary to disrupted pituitary gonadotropin secretion because serum LH and to a lesser extent serum FSH were reduced, and exogenous LH replacement with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced serum testosterone to control levels. In the majority of TGFbeta1-deficient males, spermatogenesis was normal and sperm were developmentally competent as assessed by in vitro fertilization. Analysis of sexual behavior revealed that although TGFbeta1 null males showed avid interest in females and engaged in mounting activity, intromission was infrequent and brief, and ejaculation was not attained. Administration of testosterone to adult males, even after neonatal androgenization, was ineffective in restoring sexual function; however, erectile reflexes and ejaculation could be induced by electrical stimulation. These studies demonstrate the profound effect of genetic deficiency in TGFbeta1 on male fertility, implicating this cytokine in essential roles in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and in testosterone-independent regulation of mating competence.

  19. Heterozygous mutation of eEF1A1b resulted in spermatogenesis arrest and infertility in male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinlin; Jiang, Dongneng; Tan, Dejie; Fan, Zheng; Wei, Yingying; Li, Minghui; Wang, Deshou

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is an essential component of the translational apparatus. In the present study, eEF1A1b was isolated from the Nile tilapia. Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that eEF1A1b was expressed highly in the testis from 90 dah (days after hatching) onwards. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that eEF1A1b was highly expressed in the spermatogonia of the testis. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated mutation of eEF1A1b resulted in spermatogenesis arrest and infertility in the F0 XY fish. Consistently, heterozygous mutation of eEF1A1b (eEF1A1b+/−) resulted in an absence of spermatocytes at 90 dah, very few spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa at 180 dah, and decreased Cyp11b2 and serum 11-ketotestosterone level at both stages. Further examination of the fertilization capacity of the sperm indicated that the eEF1A1b+/− XY fish were infertile due to abnormal spermiogenesis. Transcriptomic analyses of the eEF1A1b+/− testis from 180 dah XY fish revealed that key elements involved in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and sperm motility were significantly down-regulated compared with the control XY. Transgenic overexpression of eEF1A1b rescued the spermatogenesis arrest phenotype of the eEF1A1b+/− testis. Taken together, our data suggested that eEF1A1b is crucial for spermatogenesis and male fertility in the Nile tilapia. PMID:28266557

  20. Infertility: psychotherapeutic issues.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M B

    1992-01-01

    In supportive therapy with infertility patients, the clinician tries to relieve dysphoria and enhance self-esteem. Dynamically informed supportive interventions are designed to decrease guilt that may relate to past sexual activities, sexually related diseases, or abortions. These interventions should also be empathetic, promote optimism and reality testing, help with problem solving, allow catharsis and ventilation, decrease feelings of isolation and loneliness, educate and clarify, and praise and encourage where appropriate. Mental health clinicians have an important role to play in the treatment of these patients, provided they learn enough about the psychology of the experience of infertility and about the technology utilized in its treatment. As the number of people seeking treatment for infertility grows, the need for skilled therapists for this population will grow at a parallel rate.

  1. Tissue-specific inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in the testes of mice by inducible lentiviral RNA interference causes male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Xiong, Zhe; Hu, Lian; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2017-03-16

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is involved in many physiological processes, including male infertility. To explore the effects of uPA in male reproduction, we constructed an inducible uPA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system expressed by lentiviral vectors. After proving inhibition of uPA expression in the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 by 1μgmL-1 doxycycline (Dox), two lentivirus (pLenti4-shRNA and pLenti6/TR) were co-microinjected into mouse testes to produce TetR&shuPA mice model. Though oral gavage by 0.75mgmL-1 Dox each day for 1 week, the Plau mRNA expression, uPA protein level and uPA enzyme activity in mice testis decreased significantly in TetR&shuPA mice model. After Dox induction of 1 week, the TetR&shuPA mice mated with female mice. Our results show that the pregnancy rate was reduced by approximately 40% and the sperm motility also decreased significantly. These data indicated that downregulation of uPA could decrease the fertility of male mice, which may be caused by a reduction in sperm motility. To investigate the reversible effect and safety of the inducible uPA shRNA system, we withdraw Dox and found the mating rate and sperm motility gradually recovered after 2 weeks. The histopathology structure of the testis, epididymis, and main organs was not altered significantly. The results of the present study indicating that uPA may be regarded as a novel target for the regulation of male fertility.

  2. Patient counselling on the risk of infertility and its impact on childhood cancer survivors: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Borgmann-Staudt, Anja; Rendtorff, Rosa; Reinmuth, Simone; Holzhausen, Steve; Willich, Stefan N; Henze, Guenter; Goldbeck, Lutz; Keil, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Fertility can be impaired by radiation and chemotherapy among childhood cancer survivors. Therefore, timely and adequate patient counselling about the risk of infertility and preservation methods is needed. The primary study objective was to assess remembered counselling among childhood cancer survivors. As a second objective, the impact of lacking patient counselling on offspring-related attitudes and behaviour was examined. Counselling regarding the late effects of gonadotoxicity that could be recalled by patients was assessed using a questionnaire sent by the German Childhood Cancer Registry. The questionnaire was answered by 2754 adult childhood cancer survivors (53.1% female, mean = 25.7 years). The proportion of patients who could not remember patient counselling about the late effects of chemo-/radiotherapy on fertility decreased significantly over time. In 1980 to 1984 67%, in 2000 to 2004 50% of the patients reported no memories of counselling (p < .001). Counselled patients feared significantly less that their children may have an increased cancer risk (4.4% vs. 6.7%, p = .03). They were also more likely to undergo fertility testing than patients who could not recall counselling (odds ratio = 2.91, 95% confidence interval [2.12, 3.99]). Patients reported an increased memory of patient counselling over the past 25 years. Still, a 50% rate of recalled counselling shows an ongoing need for adequate and especially sustainable counselling of paediatric cancer patients about infertility and other long-term adverse treatment effects. Those who reported a lack of counselling had offspring-related fears more frequently, which stopped them from having children.

  3. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility.

    PubMed

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  4. New insights for male infertility revealed by alterations in spermatic function and differential testicular expression of thyroid-related genes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Renata Marino; Gomes, Samantha Nascimento; Cardoso, Nathalia Carolina Scandolara; Schiessl, Larissa; Romano, Marco Aurelio; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga

    2017-02-01

    The impact of thyroid hormone (TH) disorders on male reproductive biology has been a controversial issue for many years. Recently, we reported that hypothyroid male rats have a disruption of the seminiferous epithelium, which may compromise spermatogenesis. To improve the understanding of the reproductive pathogenesis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, male Wistar rats that developed these dysfunctions in adulthood were used as an experimental model. We evaluated the sperm production, reserves, transit time, morphology, and functionality (acrosome integrity, plasma membrane integrity, and mitochondrial activity), and the testicular expression of the TH receptors (Thra1 and Thra2, Thrb1, and Thrb2), deiodinases (Dio2 and Dio3), and the Mct8 transporter (Slc16a2) were assessed by reverse transcription followed by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results were evaluated statistically by ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (P < 0.05). Hypothyroidism decreased the total and daily sperm productions and increased the sperm transit time through the epididymis, while the sperm functionality was reduced in both thyroid dysfunctions. Regarding the modulation of gene expression in the testis, hypothyroidism increased the expression of Thra1 and decreased the expression of Dio3, and hyperthyroidism increased the expression of Slc16a2. The observed alterations in spermatic production and function and in the expression of the TH receptor, deiodinase, and the TH transporter are suggestive of TH participation in spermatogenesis in adulthood.

  5. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  6. The Genetic and Phenotypic Basis of Infertility in Men with Pediatric Urologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Michael H.; Hollander, Adam; Lamb, Dolores J.; Turek, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Of infertile couples, approximately one-third feature male factor issues. A subset of male factor infertility is attributable to congenital or acquired pediatric urologic conditions, and patients with these disorders are often challenging to treat. Prior to the development of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the 1970s and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in 1992 [1], many forms of infertility due to pediatric urologic conditions were untreatable. These technologies have enabled many previously infertile men to father children, but the effectiveness of these techniques in men with pediatric urologic disorders has never been systematically examined. In this review we provide a contemporary survey of the fertility status of men with pediatric urologic disorders in light of advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We examine currently available treatments as well as developing technologies and discoveries that may apply to pediatric urologic disorders. PMID:20451977

  7. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A.

    2013-01-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in rat testes in a dose-dependent manner. MDA induced by the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the leachate from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility. PMID:24678257

  8. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A

    2013-12-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in rat testes in a dose-dependent manner. MDA induced by the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the leachate from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

  9. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients' semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men. PMID:27574593

  10. Androgen receptor roles in spermatogenesis and infertility.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Laura; Smith, Lee B

    2015-08-01

    Androgens such as testosterone are steroid hormones essential for normal male reproductive development and function. Mutations of androgen receptors (AR) are often found in patients with disorders of male reproductive development, and milder mutations may be responsible for some cases of male infertility. Androgens exert their action through AR and its signalling in the testis is essential for spermatogenesis. AR is not expressed in the developing germ cell lineage so is thought to exert its effects through testicular Sertoli and peri-tubular myoid (PTM) cells. AR signalling in spermatogenesis has been investigated in rodent models where testosterone levels are chemically supressed or models with transgenic disruption of AR. These models have pinpointed the steps of spermatogenesis that require AR signalling, specifically maintenance of spermatogonial numbers, blood-testis barrier integrity, completion of meiosis, adhesion of spermatids and spermiation, together these studies detail the essential nature of androgens in the promotion of male fertility.

  11. Genetic Polymorphism of CYP2D6 and Clomiphene Concentrations in Infertile Patients with Ovulatory Dysfunction Treated with Clomiphene Citrate.

    PubMed

    Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kwang-Rae; Lee, Woochang; Choe, Wonho; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2016-02-01

    CYP2D6 is primarily responsible for the metabolism of clomiphene citrate (CC). The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between CYP2D6 genotypes, concentrations of CC and its major metabolites and drug response in infertility patients. We studied 42 patients with ovulatory dysfunction treated with only CC. Patients received a dose of 100 mg/day CC on days 3-7 of the menstrual cycle. CYP2D6 genotyping and measurement of CC and the major metabolite concentrations were performed. Patients were categorized into CC responders or non-responders according to one cycle response for the ovulation. Thirty-two patients were CC responders and 10 patients were non-responders with 1 cycle treatment. The CC concentrations were highly variable within the same group, but non-responders revealed significantly lower (E)-clomiphene concentration and a trend of decreased concentrations of active metabolites compared to the responders. Nine patients with intermediate metabolizer phenotype were all responders. We confirmed that the CC and the metabolite concentrations were different according to the ovulation status. However, our results do not provide evidence for the contribution of CYP2D6 polymorphism to either drug response or CC concentrations.

  12. Awareness of and attitudes towards infertility and its treatment: a cross-sectional survey of men in a United States primary care population.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Robert S; Ritenour, Chad W M; Goodman, Michael; Vashi, Dipak; Hsiao, Wayland

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have described racial and socioeconomic disparities in the treatment of infertility. Patient factors such as attitudes and awareness may be contributing factors. Since primary care is often the setting that serves as an entry into other areas of medicine, we sought to evaluate men's attitudes and awareness of male infertility in the primary care setting. To do this, we performed a cross-sectional survey of men's attitudes toward men's health issues in 210 men from two primary care clinic waiting rooms in Atlanta, Georgia. The survey was self-administered with closed-ended question items and was approximately 20 min in length. Of the 310 men approached, 210 agreed to participate and returned completed surveys. Overall, 52% of men said they were "very" or "somewhat" familiar with infertility and 25% were familiar with treatments for infertility. Some men had heard of surgery (21%) and medication (35%) as treatments for male infertility. Awareness and familiarity with the condition was greater in high socioeconomic status men (i.e. college graduates or those with income >$100 k per year) but did not differ by race on multivariate analysis. Attitudes toward infertility varied by race with non-Caucasian men being more likely to indicate that infertility is a serious condition, to be concerned about infertility, and to believe it decreases a man's quality-of-life. Therefore, a lack of awareness, but not negative attitudes, may contribute to previously-described disparities in the treatment of infertility.

  13. [The epidemiology of infertility in families].

    PubMed

    Aĭlamazian, E K; Ustinkina, T I; Balasanian, I G

    1990-09-01

    This study of epidemiology of infertility in families has employed the guidelines of the WHO Program on Human Reproduction. The study involved 1976 infertile couples. It elucidated major diagnosis-related groups in the female and male population and data sets of the couples. The basis of infertility remained uncertain in only 2.1% of the families. Infertility was underlied only by a female reproductive disease in 44.4% of the families, with about half of these cases being endocrine disorders. Diseases of husbands, primarily varicocele and primary testicular lesions, accounted for infertility in 19.3% of the families. Determinants of infertility in both spouses were identified in 34.2% of the families, mostly genital inflammatory diseases.

  14. [Infertility over forty: Pros and cons of IVF].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, J; Maget, V; Mayenga, J-M; Grefenstette, I; Chouraqui, A; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O

    2015-09-01

    The population attempting pregnancy and having babies is ageing. The declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood are increasing significantly the number of patients over forty consulting infertility specialists. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) cannot compensate the natural decline in fertility with age. In France, in public hospital, ART is free of charge for women until 43 years, over 43, social insurance does not reimburse ART. Hence, 43 years is the usual limit, but between 40 and 42 is ART useful? The answer varies according to physicians, couples or society. On medical level, the etiology of the infertility must be taken into account. If there is an explanation to infertility (male or tubal infertility) ART is better than abstention. If the infertility is only due to age the question is raised. In France, the reimbursement by the society of a technique with very low results is discussed. However efficacy is not absolutely compulsory in Medicine. On the opposite to give false hopes may be discussed too. To obtain a reasonable consensus is rather difficult.

  15. Infertility evaluation and management. Strategies for family physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Case, Allison M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review family physicians' role in investigation and management of infertile couples. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE and PubMed were searched using the MeSH headings infertility, advanced maternal age, polycystic ovarian syndrome, clomiphene citrate, and insulin sensitizers. Bibliographies of review articles and textbooks were also searched. Review articles, randomized trials, observational studies, and case series are cited. MAIN MESSAGE: Approximately 8% of Canadian couples have difficulty conceiving. Mother's age significantly affects ability to conceive. Infertility assessment focuses on ovulatory dysfunction, tubal factors, sexual factors, and male factors. Women older than 35 years more than 12 months infertile; women younger than 35 more than 18 months infertile; women likely to have such problems as anovulation, tubal disease, or endometriosis; women whose partners' semen tests abnormal; and women who request referral should be referred. Patients treated with clomiphene citrate should be aware of its potential side effects. CONCLUSION: Family physicians have an important role in preconception counseling. Detailed and focused assessment facilitates initial investigations and treatment and can identify couples who could benefit from referral for further assessment. PMID:14649985

  16. The biology of infertility: research advances and clinical challenges

    PubMed Central

    Matzuk, Martin M; Lamb, Dolores J

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction is required for the survival of all mammalian species, and thousands of essential ‘sex’ genes are conserved through evolution. Basic research helps to define these genes and the mechanisms responsible for the development, function and regulation of the male and female reproductive systems. However, many infertile couples continue to be labeled with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility or given descriptive diagnoses that do not provide a cause for their defect. For other individuals with a known etiology, effective cures are lacking, although their infertility is often bypassed with assisted reproductive technologies (ART), some accompanied by safety or ethical concerns. Certainly, progress in the field of reproduction has been realized in the twenty-first century with advances in the understanding of the regulation of fertility, with the production of over 400 mutant mouse models with a reproductive phenotype and with the promise of regenerative gonadal stem cells. Indeed, the past six years have witnessed a virtual explosion in the identification of gene mutations or polymorphisms that cause or are linked to human infertility. Translation of these findings to the clinic remains slow, however, as do new methods to diagnose and treat infertile couples. Additionally, new approaches to contraception remain elusive. Nevertheless, the basic and clinical advances in the understanding of the molecular controls of reproduction are impressive and will ultimately improve patient care. PMID:18989307

  17. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  18. Oxidative DNA Damage to Sperm Cells and Peripheral Blood Leukocytes in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Taken, Kerem; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Eryilmaz, Recep; Donmez, Muhammet Irfan; Demir, Murat; Gunes, Mustafa; Aslan, Rahmi; Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxidative DNA damage is associated with male infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage of sperm cells and blood leukocytes and to determine the levels of MDA and NO levels in seminal and blood plasma of idiopathic infertile men. Material/Methods The study enrolled 52 patients, including 30 infertile and 22 fertile men. MDA, NO, and 8-OHdG/106dG were estimated using spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based methods in seminal and blood plasma. The association with the sperm parameters was assessed, particularly sperm counts and motility. Results The mean sperm concentration and sperm motility of the fertile men were significantly higher than that of the infertile men. The mean MDA and NO concentration in the seminal and blood samples of the infertile men were higher than that of fertile men. Also, the mean numbers of sperm cells and leukocytes 8-OHdG/106dG of the infertile men were significantly higher than that of fertile men (p=0.04 and p<0.001, respectively). Sperm motility and sperm count were negatively correlated with leukocyte and sperm cell 8-OHdG/106dG ratio. However, progressive motility was significantly negatively correlated with sperm cell and leukocyte 8-OHdG/106dG ratio (R=−0.357, p=0.026; R=−0.388, p=0.024, respectively). Conclusions Oxidative stress is an important factor in male infertility. Therefore, biochemical detection of 8-OHdG/106dG in sperm cells and blood leukocytes may be an additional tool in the diagnosis of male infertility. PMID:27837200

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deletions" of the human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility. J Genet Genomics. 2008 Apr; ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  20. [Sophrology: a different tool for infertile couples].

    PubMed

    Heymès, O; Forges, T; Guillet-May, F; Zaccabri, A; Dandachi, N; Monnier, P

    2006-12-01

    Because of the high degree of complexity of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), the human and conscious dimensions of infertility problems are often neglected. Different strategies may help infertile couples coping with infertility and related treatments; among these, Caycedian sophrology relies on the cognitive, emotional, and somatic aspects of consciousness. In the present article, the authors report on their experience with sophrologic support for infertile patients by a midwife qualified in caycedian sophrology. Overall, since 1988, 310 couples have benefied from this kind of support, with an average of 10 sophrologic trainings per patient. Whereas some couples consider sophrology as a short time training to better cope with any particular aspect of their infertility treatment, others want to undertake more profound work on their body scheme. The authors wish to call the attention of ART professionals to this kind of medical support for infertile couples, and also to the particular role of midwives with sophrologic competence in an ART center.

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men from Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Jaganathan; Kujur, Smita B; Selvaraj, Kamala; Suruli, Muthiah S.; Haripriya, Geetha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Male infertility has been associated with aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletions and specific gene mutations and/or polymorphisms. Besides genetic factors, any block in sperm delivery, endocrine disorders, testicular tumours, infectious diseases, medications, lifestyle factors and environmental toxins can also play a causative role. This study aimed to determine the constitutional karyotype in infertile males having normal female partners in a south Indian population. Materials and Methods A total of 180 men with a complaint of primary infertility ranging from 1 to 25 years were screened for chromosomal abnormalities through conventional analysis of GTG-banded metaphases from cultured lymphocytes. Results Four individuals were diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome. Two cases exhibited reciprocal translocations and one showed a maternally inherited insertion. Polymorphisms were seen in sixty-seven patients (37.2%). Conclusion The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 4.6% and variants involving the heterochromatic regions of Y, chromosome 9 and the acrocentric chromosomes in 38.2% of the infertile men with an abnormal seminogram strongly reiterates the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing and counselling in the diagnostic work-up prior to the use of assisted reproduction technologies. PMID:26393143

  2. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  3. Role of 677C→T polymorphism a single substitution in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in North Indian infertile men.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Hena; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Mahdi, Farzana; Jaiswar, Shyam Pyari; Shankhwar, Satya Narayain; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2014-02-01

    Failure or severe difficulty in conceiving a child is surprisingly common, worldwide problem. Half of these cases are due to male factors with defects in sperm (1 in 15 men) being the single most common cause. Also about 60-75 % of male infertility cases are idiopathic, since the molecular mechanisms underlying the defects remain unknown. DNA methylation is crucial for spermatogenesis and high methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) activity in adult testis than other organs in mouse, signifies its critical role in spermatogenesis. According to recent findings there is a correlation of epigenetic regulation of several imprinted genes with disturbed spermatogenesis and fertility. Consequently any change in the MTHFR gene sequence can modify the spermatogenesis including transmission of infertility to the carriers. The aim of the study is to analyze the distribution of the single nucleotide polymorphism C677T in the MTHFR gene in 637 North Indian infertile patients and 364 fertile North Indian men as controls by using PCR-RFLP technique and Chi Square test for statistical analysis. The average MTHFR 677CC, 677CT, 677TT genotype frequencies of total infertile men were 70.17, 24.17, 5.65 % in infertile men and 75.27, 21.7, 2.74 % in controls, respectively. The average frequency of the MTHFR 677T allele was 17.73 % in infertile men as compared to 13.59 % in controls. The statistical difference was significant. Disease risk was found 2.27-folds increased in patients who were carrying T allele. We found an association of C677T polymorphism with male infertility and that it may be a genetic risk factor for male infertility in North Indian population.

  4. Extensive analysis of 40 infertile patients with congenital absence of the vas deferens: in 50% of cases only one CFTR allele could be detected.

    PubMed

    Casals, T; Bassas, L; Ruiz-Romero, J; Chillón, M; Giménez, J; Ramos, M D; Tapia, G; Narváez, H; Nunes, V; Estivill, X

    1995-02-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis (CF) conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene have been detected in patients with CF and in males with infertility attributable to congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Thirty individuals with CBAVD and 10 with congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens (CUAVD) were analyzed by single-strand conformation analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for mutations in most of the CFTR gene. All 40 individuals were pancreatic sufficient, but twenty patients had recurrent or sporadic respiratory infections, asthma/asthmatic bronchitis, and/or rhino-sinusitis. Agenesia or displasia of one or both seminal vesicles was detected in 30 men and other urogenital malformations were present in six subjects. Among the 40 samples, we identified 13 different CFTR mutations, two of which were previously unknown. One new mutation in exon 4 was the deletion of glutamic acid at codon 115 (delta E115). A second new mutation was found in exon 17b, viz., an A --> C substitution at position 3311, changing lysine to threonine at codon 1060 (K1060T). CFTR mutations were detected in 22 out of 30 (73.3%) CBAVD patients and in one out of 10 (10%) CUAVD individuals, showing a significantly lower incidence of CFTR mutations in CBAVD/CUAVD patients (P < 0.0001), compared with that found in the CF patient population. Only three CBAVD patients were found with more than one CFTR mutation (delta F508/L206W, delta F508/R74W + D1270N, R117H/712-1G --> T), highlighting L206W, R74W/D1270N, and R117H as benign CF mutations. Sweat electrolyte values were increased in 76.6% of CBAVD patients, but three individuals without CFTR mutations had normal sweat electrolyte levels (10% of the total CBAVD patients), suggesting that factors other than CFTR mutations are involved in CBAVD. The failure to identify a second mutation in exons and their flanking regions of the CFTR gene suggests that these mutations could be located in introns or in

  5. Psychopathology, emotional aspects and psychological counselling in infertility: a review.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, D; Mazza, M; Marini, S; Del Nibletto, L; Serroni, N; Pino, M C; Valchera, A; Ortolani, C; Ciarrocchi, F; Martinotti, G; Di Giannantonio, M

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, infertility has been variably defined. Infertility affects approximately 80 million people from all parts of the world. An important area of discussion has been represented by the possible causal link between psychopathology and infertility. In the past, the prevalence of psychiatric problems among infertile couples was estimated to be 25-60%. The incidence of depression and anxiety in infertile couples is significantly high than in fertile controls and in the general population respectively. Infertility has been linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, psychoticism, substance abuse and eating disorders. Psychological impact of infertility is greater in women than in men. Additionally, authors found that infertile patients were more alexithymic than healthy controls. In relation to the different needs, different psychological therapeutic interventions may be indicated. Psychological counseling can provide valuable assistance in dealing with infertility treatments and their eventual failures.

  6. Tarlov Cyst and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Background/Objective: Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Methods: Case report and literature review. Results: A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Conclusions: Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients. PMID:19569467

  7. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  8. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  9. Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  10. Infertility: an approach to management in a district hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fiander, A

    1990-07-01

    Up to 1/3 of women of child bearing age are infertile in certain African areas. Over 1000 patients registered at Bawku Hospital, Upper East Region, Ghana during an 18-month period, where a scheme for the investigation and treatment of infertile patients was established. The 5 main causes of infertility are: 1) tubal damage; 2) male factor; 3) anovulation; 4) uterine factor; and 5) unexplained. Special clinics are set up for infertility; outpatient staff are recruited. A preprinted questionnaire should be used for a uniform approach. The one used in Bawku is shown in the appendix. Health talks should be given. They should use the local language be at the right level, and use visual aids. In large clinics, numbers should be used to insure a 1st come, 1st served basis. A treatment protocol is important. When the patient 1st walks in, the infertility form is completed; appropriate investigations are done--hemoglobin, VDRL, seminal analysis, and cervical or high vagina swabs, and others--and the results are reviewed. The patient is encouraged to keep a menstrual calendar for 3 months. At the 2nd visit, the menstrual calendar is reviewed. A pelvic examination and a tubal patency test (TPT) are done. At the 3rd visit, abdominal and pelvic examinations are done and a TPT. Then patients can be diagnosed and counselled accordingly. At the last visit, further explanation is given, further TPTs are done if necessary, and anovulation is treated with clomiphene. The visits are spread out over 6 months. In unexplained fertility cases, the couple is told there is nothing wrong, they should keep trying. The idea that the man may be causing the infertility is foreign to many communities. This needs changing. 20% of infertility is due to male factor in Bawku. Male infertility is hard to cure. Cultural considerations prevent the clinician from telling the patient that her partner is infertile. They will tell her that there is nothing wrong with her. Approximately 15% become pregnant

  11. PCDH19-related epilepsy in two mosaic male patients.

    PubMed

    Terracciano, Alessandra; Trivisano, Marina; Cusmai, Raffaella; De Palma, Luca; Fusco, Lucia; Compagnucci, Claudia; Bertini, Enrico; Vigevano, Federico; Specchio, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19 gene mutations have been recently associated with an epileptic syndrome characterized by focal and generalized seizures. The PCDH19 gene (Xq22.1) has an unusual X-linked inheritance with a selective involvement for female subjects. A cellular interference mechanism has been hypothesized and male patients can manifest epilepsy only in the case of a mosaicism. So far about 100 female patients, and only one symptomatic male have been described. Using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach we found a PCDH19 point mutation in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. The system allowed us to verify that the two c.1352 C>T; p.(Pro451Leu) and c.918C>G; p.(Tyr306*) variants occurred in mosaic status. Mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Up to now, the traditional molecular screening for PCDH19-related epilepsy has been targeted to all females with early onset epilepsy with or without cognitive impairment. Male patients were generally excluded. We describe for the first time two mosaic PCDH19 point mutations in two male patients with a clinical picture suggestive of PCDH19-related epilepsy. This finding opens new opportunities for the molecular diagnoses in patients with a peculiar type of epilepsy that remains undiagnosed in male patients.

  12. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup. PMID:27630933

  13. Sperm mitochondrial DNA deletion in Iranian infertiles with asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Bahrehmand Namaghi, I; Vaziri, H

    2017-04-01

    Asthenozoospermia is an important cause of male infertility. The mutations in sperm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) result in either functionless or malfunctioning some proteins, subsequently affecting sperm motility leading to asthenozoospermia. The purpose of this study was to investigate sperm mtDNA 4,977-bp deletion in infertile men with low sperm motility/immotile spermatozoa compared to healthy subjects with high sperm motility. Semen samples of 256 asthenozoospermic infertiles and 200 controls from northern Iran were collected. After extraction of spermatozoa total DNA, Gap-polymerase chain reaction (Gap-PCR) was performed. The deletion was observed in 85.93% of patients with asthenozoospermia compared with 14% in controls [OR = 37.5397, 95% confidence interval = 12.937-108.9276, p < .0001]. It is concluded that there is a strong association between sperm mtDNA 4,977-bp deletion and asthenozoospermia-induced infertility in the population examined. Large-scale mtDNA deletions in spermatozoa may induce bioenergetic disorders. Nevertheless, to validate our results broader research may be needed.

  14. SNaPshot Assay for the Detection of the Most Common CFTR Mutations in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751

  15. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 – 21). Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes) were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation. PMID:23226638

  16. Primary infertility (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  17. Caring for female patients: The experiences of male nurses.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Brian; Gleeson, Madeline

    This article presents the results of two small qualitative studies, which examined the experiences of six male registered psychiatric nurses (RPN) and five male registered general nurses (RGN) when caring for patients of the opposite sex. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect the data. The focus of the interviews was an attempt to describe the male nurses' experiences of caring for women with a particular emphasis on interventions that involved physical touch. Themes were generated from both studies and the common themes are presented here. Male nurses in this study were often apprehensive about using physical touch and they used coping strategies in response to their fears of being accused of using touch inappropriately. Several factors also influenced the male nurses when using physical touch as an intervention. These findings suggest that learning about caring for female patients needs to be included in the undergraduate curriculum and that further research on the experience of men as nurses is required.

  18. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation – psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings’ offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile. PMID:26924280

  19. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation--psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik; Johnson, Thomas W; Wassersug, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1) men who seek vasectomy, (2) individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs), (3) most gay men, and (4) men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients) or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria). Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings' offspring's welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile.

  20. [Testicular microlithiasis: echographic diagnosis of a new cause for orchialgia and infertility].

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, J

    1990-03-01

    We report five patients who consulted for orchialgia in whom the diagnosis of testicular microlithiasis was made by means of scrotal sonography. Four showed oligo or azzosperm and 4 had their testis diminished in size. The echographic findings were characteristic and consisted of multiple small echogenic nonshadowing images, scattered in both testis. Atrophy of the germinal epithelium and impairment of spermiogenesis associated to intratubular calcic microspheres were demonstrated in 3 cases. Testicular microlithiasis is not generally recognized as a cause for infertility and we proposed that scrotal sonography should be used in workup for male infertility.

  1. Improving the reporting of clinical trials of infertility treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement†‡.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiaoke; Barnhart, Kurt T; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, Bart C J M; Mol, Ben

    2014-10-10

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ≥20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and

  2. Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement.

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which creates a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant after ≥20 weeks' gestation) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and couples.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and infertility in men.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher D; Brannigan, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a compilation of symptoms including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Initially used to predict cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that the molecular and physiologic abnormalities seen in metabolic syndrome extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Growing evidence has linked metabolic syndrome and its individual symptoms to the increasing prevalence of male infertility. This manuscript reviews the recent evidence connecting metabolic syndrome to male infertility as well as the underlying pathophysiology. Currently, there are limited prospective studies examining the effects of treating metabolic syndrome on male reproduction and these relationships will need to be a focus of further investigation.

  4. Infertility as a psychological problem.

    PubMed

    Podolska, Magdalena Z; Bidzan, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been enormous progress in couple infertility treatment and diagnostics. Some couples cannot conceive despite the fact that there seems to be no objective somatic or immunologic reasons. In such situations gynaecologists are helpless and couples may be overwhelmed by a sense of defeat and hopelessness. Thus, consulting a psychologist or therapist on how to cope better with the problem may be a good solution. The objective of the following paper is to discuss the dilemmas of couples undergoing infertility treatment, related psychological problems, and to determine the need for psychological and therapeutic support. The study demonstrates numerous infertility causes and concludes that there is no universal method of dealing with them. Very frequently psychological and somatic problems overlap. Psychological causes are often the primary factors, but sometimes they are secondary derivatives of the therapeutic process. A wide scope of factors must be considered to attempt psychological analysis of patients treated for infertility including the influence of the family and relations within, reaction to the diagnosis and suggested treatment, the influence of religion on the treatment, the evaluation of the relations in the family of procreation, sexual life assessment, the sense of a woman's self-esteem and self-acceptance. Basing on empirical analysis it was concluded that all women treated for infertility want to create a full family. They have problems in coping with emotional liability during treatment and a sense of fear and failure. Understanding the psychological mechanisms observed in patients treated for infertility might help to diagnose the causes of their problems with facing the new, extremely difficult situation.

  5. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari, Fatemeh; Ghahiri, Ataollah; Habibi, Mojtaba; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis ap- proach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women) and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives) as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their medical treatments as

  6. Downregulation of miR-320a/383-sponge-like long non-coding RNA NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes) is associated with male infertility and promotes testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lü, M; Tian, H; Cao, Y-x; He, X; Chen, L; Song, X; Ping, P; Huang, H; Sun, F

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are extensively transcribed from the genome, have been proposed to be key regulators of diverse biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in regulating spermatogenesis in human males. Here, using microarray technology, we show altered expression of lncRNAs in the testes of infertile men with maturation arrest (MA) or hypospermatogenesis (Hypo), with 757 and 2370 differentially down-regulated and 475 and 163 up-regulated lncRNAs in MA and Hypo, respectively. These findings were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays on select lncRNAs, including HOTTIP, imsrna320, imsrna292 and NLC1-C (narcolepsy candidate-region 1 genes). Interestingly, NLC1-C, also known as long intergenic non-protein-coding RNA162 (LINC00162), was down-regulated in the cytoplasm and accumulated in the nucleus of spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes in the testes of infertile men with mixed patterns of MA compared with normal control. The accumulation of NLC1-C in the nucleus repressed miR-320a and miR-383 transcript and promoted testicular embryonal carcinoma cell proliferation by binding to Nucleolin. Here, we define a novel mechanism by which lncRNAs modulate miRNA expression at the transcriptional level by binding to RNA-binding proteins to regulate human spermatogenesis. PMID:26539909

  7. Implications of Blood Type for Ovarian Reserve and Infertility - Impact on Oocyte Yield in IVF Patients.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, D; Corn, C; Stadler, J; Wirleitner, B; Schuff, M; Vanderzwalmen, P; Grabher, F; Zech, N H

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) has been linked to certain subpopulations and distinct gene polymorphisms. It has even been hypothesized that the AB0 blood group system could be linked to ovarian reserve (OR) as reflected by early follicular phase follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Although estimation of OR is routinely done using levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), FSH, estradiol or inhibin B, the diagnostic accuracy of these markers is often limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is any correlation between IVF patients' AB0 blood group system and ART outcome. Methods: In this retrospective observational single-center study we investigated the outcome of 1889 IVF cycles carried out between 2005 and 2012 with regard to blood type and OR in different age groups (21-36 years and 37-43 years). The number of cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) and metaphase II oocytes obtained after ovarian stimulation, fertilization rate (FR), pregnancy rate (PR) and birth rate (BR) were evaluated with respect to maternal age (21-36 and 37-43 years, respectively). Results: We found no significant differences in the average number of COCs after ovum pick-up in either of the age groups. Moreover, the mean number of MII oocytes and 2PN stages were similar for all blood type groups. As regards IVF outcome measured in terms of PR and BR, no significant differences were observed between the different blood groups. In conclusion, no correlation was found between blood type and female fertility. Discussion: The most precise definition of OR is determining the number of competent oocytes. Based on the finding of our study, the hypothesis that there is a correlation between OR and AB0 blood group system can be dismissed for Caucasian IVF patients.

  8. Primary medulla oblongata germinoma in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Shuto, Takashi; Ohtake, Makoto; Matsunaga, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Germinoma mainly occurs in the pituitary stalk, pineal region, and basal ganglia. Sex predominance of the tumor in males in the pineal region and basal ganglia is well known. Primary germinoma of the medulla oblongata is rare, with only eight reports, mostly in females. We report the second male patient with primary medulla oblongata germinoma, without chromosomal abnormality, who was successfully treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.

  9. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  10. Health Concerns (excluding AIDS) for Male Homosexual Patients

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Brian C.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1981, the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has emerged as the major infectious epidemic of our time and has focused much attention on the male homosexual community. While AIDS is the most serious of gay-related health concerns, it is only one of several infectious diseases that have particular relevance for this group of patients. In addition, the mere acknowledgement of homosexuality by a male patient evokes unique psychosocial concerns that are important considerations for the primary health-care provider. The author of this article describes an approach to gay male patients for those who provide health care to such men and provides a review of specific infectious diseases (excluding AIDS) for which they are at risk. PMID:21253077

  11. Risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes after high technology infertility treatment: a comprehensive systematic review.

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Homburg, Roy; Santagni, Susanna; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Orvieto, Raoul

    2016-11-04

    In the literature, there is growing evidence that subfertile patients who conceived after infertility treatments have an increased risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications and this is particularly true for patients who conceived through use of high technology infertility treatments. Moreover, high technology infertility treatments include many concomitant clinical and biological risk factors. This review aims to summarize in a systematic fashion the current evidence regarding the relative effect of the different procedures for high technology infertility treatments on the risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcome. A literature search up to August 2016 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar and an evidence-based hierarchy was used to determine which articles to include and analyze. Data on prepregnancy maternal factors, low technology interventions, specific procedures for male factor, ovarian tissue/ovary and uterus transplantation, and chromosomal abnormalities and malformations of the offspring were excluded. The available evidences were analyzed assessing the level and the quality of evidence according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system, respectively. Current review highlights that every single procedure of high technology infertility treatments can play a crucial role in increasing the risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications. Due to the suboptimal level and quality of the current evidence, further well-designed studies are needed.

  12. Corynebacterium seminale sp. nov., a new species associated with genital infections in male patients.

    PubMed

    Riegel, P; Ruimy, R; de Briel, D; Prévost, G; Jehl, F; Bimet, F; Christen, R; Monteil, H

    1995-09-01

    We studied 12 coryneform isolates having similar biochemical profiles which did not permit their assignment to any recognized taxa. Human semen was the source for seven of these strains, whereas the other strains were isolated from urethra, urine, and blood specimens of adult male patients. These bacteria were found in significant quantities (10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml) in semen specimens from infertile male patients with the diagnosis of prostatitis. These strains had characteristics of the genus Corynebacterium, such as 60 mol% G + C in the DNA and corynemycolic acids, meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose, and galactose in the cell wall. Quantitative DNA-DNA hybridizations (S1 nuclease procedure) and phylogenies based on comparisons of almost-complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences confirmed that these strains constitute a single new species within the genus Corynebacterium. All 12 strains showed similar phenotypic features, i.e., good growth on sheep blood agar in contrast with poor growth on the same medium supplemented with 1% Tween 80, a positive CAMP test in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, glucose and sucrose fermentation, and the presence of beta-glucuronidase. Some strains reduced nitrate and hydrolyzed urea or esculin. These features allowed us to distinguish these strains from members of any other coryneform taxon, and the proposed name is Corynebacterium seminale with strain IBS B12915 (CIP 104297) as the type strain. The description and delineation of these strains as a new species should be useful for further studies, including evaluations of their prevalence among the normal flora and their clinical implications.

  13. HPV-DNA sperm infection and infertility: from a systematic literature review to a possible clinical management proposal.

    PubMed

    Foresta, C; Noventa, M; De Toni, L; Gizzo, S; Garolla, A

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the implications of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection on male fertility, impairment of sperm parameters, and possible alteration of sperm nuclear status and to identify a possible effective management of infertile men with HPV sperm infection. We employed a systematic review and clinical management proposal at the Centers for Reproductive and Health care for treating infertile male patients with HPV infection. Literature search was carried out in electronic databases in the last two decades. We focused our attention on: (i) HPV sperm prevalence (ii) HPV-related alteration of sperm parameters; (iii) molecular mechanisms of HPV semen infection and infertility. The main outcome measures were HPV prevalence in infertile male patients and semen parameters. The prevalence of HPV sperm infection ranges between 2 and 31% in men from general population and between 10 and 35.7% in men affected by unexplained infertility. The presence of HPV in semen is associated with an impairment of sperm motility and the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. The molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of sperm motility apparatus need further evaluations. A greater attention should be applied to assess HPV sperm infection, particularly in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques cycle for male infertility or sperm banking. It would be useful to perform HPV test and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for HPV in semen from these patients both at first admission, to define the possible presence and localization of semen infection, and after 6 months, to assess the possible virus clearance retrieval on normal sperm parameters.

  14. Update in the evaluation of the azoospermic male

    PubMed Central

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1% of all men in the general population suffer from azoospermia, and azoospermic men constitute approximately 10 to 15% of all infertile men. Thus, this group of patients represents a significant population in the field of male infertility. A thorough medical history, physical examination and hormonal profile are essential in the evaluation of azoospermic males. Imaging studies, a genetic workup and a testicular biopsy (with cryopreservation) may augment the workup and evaluation. Men with nonobstructive azoospermia should be offered genetic counseling before their spermatozoa are used for assisted reproductive techniques. This article provides a contemporary review of the evaluation of the azoospermic male. PMID:23503952

  15. [Circulating nucleic acids and infertility].

    PubMed

    Scalici, E; Mullet, T; Ferrières Hoa, A; Gala, A; Loup, V; Anahory, T; Belloc, S; Hamamah, S

    2015-09-01

    Circulating nucleic acids (cell-free DNA and microRNAs) have for particularity to be easily detectable in the biological fluids of the body. Therefore, they constitute biomarkers of interest in female and male infertility care. Indeed, in female, they can be used to detect ovarian reserve disorders (polycystic ovary syndrome and low functional ovarian reserve) as well as to assess follicular microenvironment quality. Moreover, in men, their expression levels can vary in case of spermatogenesis abnormalities. Finally, circulating nucleic acids have also the ability to predict successfully the quality of in vitro embryo development. Their multiple contributions during assisted reproductive technology (ART) make of them biomarkers of interest, for the development of new diagnostic and/or prognostic tests, applied to our specialty. Circulating nucleic acids would so offer the possibility of personalized medical care for infertile couples in ART.

  16. Dysregulation of male sex hormones in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.

  17. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in infertile men with low-grade varicocele: an open, uncontrolled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Festa, R; Giacchi, E; Raimondo, S; Tiano, L; Zuccarelli, P; Silvestrini, A; Meucci, E; Littarru, G P; Mancini, A

    2014-09-01

    Many conditions associated with male infertility are inducers of oxidative stress, including varicocele. Antioxidants, such as coenzyme Q10, may be useful in this case. To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma of infertile men with varicocele before and after an oral supplementation with coenzyme Q10 , 38 patients were recruited from a pilot clinical trial. A standard semen analysis was also performed at baseline and 3 months after an oral supplementation with exogenous coenzyme Q10 100 mg per die. Seminal plasma antioxidant capacity was measured using a spectroscopic method. Coenzyme Q10 therapy improved semen parameters and antioxidant status. This study highlights the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of male infertility, namely in varicocele, and strengthens the possibility of the usefulness of the antioxidant therapy.

  18. Dioxins in the semen of men with infertility.

    PubMed

    Galimova, E F; Amirova, Z K; Galimov, Sh N

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess ejaculate contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in male infertility. The database of 168 infertile and 49 fertile men was included in the study. Dioxin content was determined using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). In the ejaculate of infertile men, the content of dioxins and furans was 2.2-2.3 times higher than in fertile donors. The maximum level of the most toxic dioxin congener was detected in pathospermia. Contamination of semen of infertile men by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans supports the hypothesis about the relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health.

  19. Association between infertility factors and non-physical partner abuse in infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Taebi, Mahboubeh; Gandomani, Sedighe Jamali; Nilforoushan, Parisa; GholamiDehaghi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility predisposes the couples to mental and psychological problems such as anxiety, depression, anger, and partner abuse. This study aimed to investigate the association between infertility factors and the non-physical abuse between infertile spouses. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted on 262 infertile couples (131 female and 131 male), selected through convenient sampling, who referred to infertility centers in Isfahan. Data were collected by Partner Abuse Scale: Non-physical (PASNP), designed to measure the non-physical abuse experienced in relationship with partner and Non-physical Abuse of Partner Scale (NPAPS), designed to measure the non-physical abuse delivered upon the partner. All data were analyzed through SPSS version 16. Results: Mean scores of NPAPS were 23.1% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively. Mean scores of PASNP were 13.8% and 20.3% among men and women, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse between men and women (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in the mean scores of perceived non-physical partner abuse and factor of infertility (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Perceived non-physical abuse and delivered non-physical abuse upon the partner were low among infertile couples. Women had a higher perception of abuse when the cause of infertility was female factor, compared to men. However, special attention should be paid to infertile couples. Marital counseling, besides infertility counseling, should be conducted for these couples. PMID:27563319

  20. Emoting infertility online: A qualitative analysis of men's forum posts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little research on infertility focuses exclusively or significantly on men's experiences, particularly in relation to emotional aspects. Evidence that does exist around male infertility suggests that it is a distressing experience for men, due to stigma, threats to masculinity and the perceived need to suppress emotions, and that men and women experience infertility differently. Using thematic analysis, this article examines the online emoting of men in relation to infertility via forum posts from a men-only infertility discussion board. It was noted that men 'talked' to each other about the emotional burdens of infertility, personal coping strategies and relationships with others. Three major themes were identified following in-depth analysis: 'the emotional rollercoaster', 'the tyranny of infertility' and 'infertility paranoia'. This article then offers insights into how men experience infertility emotionally, negotiate the emotional challenges involved (especially pertaining to diagnosis, treatment outcomes and their intimate relationships) and how they share (and find value in doing so) with other men the lived experience of infertility.

  1. Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Rajender, Singh; Shankhwar, Satya Narain; Singh, Vishwajeet; Dalela, Deepansh

    2009-09-29

    Stress has been reported to be a causative factor for male infertility. Withania somnifera has been documented in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system for its stress-combating properties. However, limited scientific literature is available on this aspect of W. somnifera. We undertook the present study to understand the role of stress in male infertility, and to test the ability of W. somnifera to combat stress and treat male infertility. We selected normozoospermic but infertile individuals (N = 60), further categorized in three groups: normozoospermic heavy smokers (N = 20), normozoospermics under psychological stress (N = 20) and normozoospermics with infertility of unknown etiology (N = 20). Normozoospermic fertile men (N = 60) were recruited as controls. The subjects were given root powder of W. somnifera at a rate of 5 g/day for 3 months. Measuring various biochemical and stress parameters before and after treatment, suggested a definite role of stress in male infertility and the ability of W. somnifera to treat stress-related infertility. Treatment resulted in a decrease in stress, improved the level of anti-oxidants and improved overall semen quality in a significant number of individuals. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients.

  2. Withania somnifera Improves Semen Quality in Stress-Related Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Rajender, Singh; Shankhwar, Satya Narain; Singh, Vishwajeet; Dalela, Deepansh

    2011-01-01

    Stress has been reported to be a causative factor for male infertility. Withania somnifera has been documented in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system for its stress-combating properties. However, limited scientific literature is available on this aspect of W. somnifera. We undertook the present study to understand the role of stress in male infertility, and to test the ability of W. somnifera to combat stress and treat male infertility. We selected normozoospermic but infertile individuals (N = 60), further categorized in three groups: normozoospermic heavy smokers (N = 20), normozoospermics under psychological stress (N = 20) and normozoospermics with infertility of unknown etiology (N = 20). Normozoospermic fertile men (N = 60) were recruited as controls. The subjects were given root powder of W. somnifera at a rate of 5 g/day for 3 months. Measuring various biochemical and stress parameters before and after treatment, suggested a definite role of stress in male infertility and the ability of W. somnifera to treat stress-related infertility. Treatment resulted in a decrease in stress, improved the level of anti-oxidants and improved overall semen quality in a significant number of individuals. The treatment resulted in pregnancy in the partners of 14% of the patients. PMID:19789214

  3. Sexual function in male patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ozkorumak, E; Karkucak, M; Civil, F; Tiryaki, A; Ozden, G

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality is an important part of healthy life. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) may be vulnerable to sexual problems because of disease activity and comorbid emotional problems. However, sexuality is a scarcely studied subject in AS. The aim of this study is to compare patients with AS with healthy control. A total of 43 male patients, who referred to the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of the Karadeniz Technical University Farabi Hospital between May 2010 and July 2010, and were diagnosed as AS according to modified New York criteria, were included in the study. Control group consisted of healthy 43 age- and sex-matched male individuals with normal inflammatory levels. The AS patients were compared in means of sociodemographic variables and sexual function with Glombok-Rust Sexual Satisfaction Scale (GRSSS) and clinical interview. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to determine anxiety and depression levels, respectively. The disease activity and functional conditions were evaluated with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDI). A total of 43 patients with AS and 43 healthy heterosexual male were included in the study. The total GRSSS score was significantly higher in patients with AS, whereas they also had significantly higher sexual complaint than healthy control. The diagnosis of sexual dysfunction according to DSM-IV was significantly higher in the patients with AS as well as depression and anxiety. In study group, GRSSS total score was modestly correlated with disease activity. The psychological status had close relation with sexual functions in AS. Overall assessment is required for complete evaluation in patients with AS.

  4. The management of hypogonadism in aging male patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishwamitra; Perros, Petros

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the evaluation and management of hypogonadism in aging male patients in the light of recent guidelines. The benefits of treating severe hypogonadism resulting from identifiable pituitary or primary gonadal disease are well established. Milder forms of hypogonadism in the aging male, known as andropause, are common, and constitute an expanding area of clinical interest and research. Several studies indicate that testosterone replacement therapy may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism, including improvement in libido, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, and cognition. Currently available data are insufficient to permit a definitive verdict on the balance between risks and benefits of testosterone replacement therapy in aging males.

  5. How Is Infertility Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  6. Infertility and Fertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  7. A survey on depression among infertile women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The desire of many young women to become parents may be influenced by the premium placed on children by society. In Africa, children are highly valued for social, cultural and economic reasons. Infertile and childless women in Africa are therefore confronted with a series of societal discrimination and stigmatization which may lead to psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression. Even though some research has been done on the prevalence of infertility in Ghana, very little is known about the psychological impact of childlessness among infertile women. The present study aimed to examine prevalence and severity of depression in relation to age, type of infertility and duration of infertility in Ghanaian infertile women. Methods A total of 100 infertile women who met the selection criteria and had agreed to participate in the study were interviewed using the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire from December 2012 to April 2013 at the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Tamale/Ghana. Data concerning socio-demographic characteristics such as age, monthly income, duration of infertility, marital status, educational level, number of previous conception, number of previous children, religion, as well as occupation of the respondents were recorded. Results The prevalence of depression among the women was 62.0% with the level of depression showing a significant positive correlation with age of the women and the duration of infertility. The level of depression was significantly higher among subjects with low or no formal education and among the unemployed. Women with primary infertility also presented with high depression scores as measured by BDI. Conclusions In conclusion, the prevalence of depression among the infertile women is high, especially among infertile women age 26 and above, those who are less educated, those with primary infertility, as well as those who have been diagnosed as infertile for more than 3 years. Interventions to decrease and prevent

  8. Frequency and outcome of treatment in polycystic ovaries related infertility

    PubMed Central

    Arain, Farzana; Arif, Nesreen; Halepota, Hafeez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is defined as inability of couple to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. The prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21.9%. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCO). This study was conducted to see the frequency and outcome of treatment in PCOs related infertility in infertile couples coming to Mohammad Medical College Hospital, Mirpurkhas, Sindh. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted at Muhammad Medical College for three years from 2005 to 2008. Total 1289 infertile couples were included in this study. Result: The frequency of PCOs in female related infertility was 38.5%. Other causes of female infertility were in the frequency of 44% pelvic inflammatory disease, 12.3% endometriosis, 2.9% hyperprolactenemia, and 1.35% hypothyroidism. Patients with PCOS were given different treatment modalities. One hundred fifty patients with PCO were given ovulation induction with clomephene citrate and out of them 109 (72%) conceived. Sixty three women were given combination of clomephene citrate and Metformin. Out of them 50 (79%) conceived. Five patients were given gonadotrophins, Out of them 2 (40%) patients conceived. Five patients had laparoscopic drilling out of them 3 (60%) conceived. Conclusion: In contrast to the literature review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome turned out to be the second most common cause of female related infertility. But as the international literature shows it had very good out come after medical and /or surgical treatment. PMID:26150870

  9. Sleep Habits and Symptoms in Male Medical and Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Johns, M. W.; Egan, P.; Gay, T. J. A.; Masterton, J. P.

    1970-01-01

    A questionary survey of symptoms and sleep habits at home among 100 adult male medical and surgical patients showed that the duration of sleep at night was similar to that reported for the general population, decreasing with age from 20 to 50 years and increasing again after 60 years. The duration of daytime sleep increased with age. The degree of sleep disturbance in different patients was compared in terms of the total duration of sleep and the time spent lying awake in bed at night. Increasing age, ischaemic heart disease, and neurotic illness were the main factors associated with long-term disturbances. PMID:5428715

  10. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world.

  11. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib) by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS), and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG). Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians. PMID:20205744

  12. Iatrogenic causes of infertility.

    PubMed

    Schoysman, R; Segal, L

    1990-01-01

    The Authors review the list of the iatrogenic causes of infertility. In their opinion the more delicate the structure, the more heavy the price paid to clumsy or erroneous investigation. Such eventual incompetence may lead to further damage of the already existing situation. The Authors however look at the future with relative optimism: incidents become rarer, specialists in gynecology and infertility pay more attention to the delicacy of genital structures and there is an encouraging tendency to refer to infertility specialists those cases who need adequate work-up of their condition.

  13. [Sexuality and infertility].

    PubMed

    Salama, S; Boitrelle, F; Gauquelin, A; Jaoul, M; Albert, M; Bailly, M; Wainer, R; Veluire, M

    2012-12-01

    Following the recent medical innovations, it is now possible to disassociate sexuality and reproduction. With contraception, people can have free sexuality without the fear of an unexpected pregnancy. Frequently, Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART), with in vitro fertilization, can obtain a pregnancy without intercourse. There are three major problems concerning infertility and sexuality. Firstly, infertility because of a sexual disorder; secondly, sexual disorder induced by infertility diagnosis; thirdly, sexual disorder induced by ART. Praticians should be aware of possible existence of sexual problems to allow the couple to express them. Once diagnosed, these troubles can be treated by the pratician himself or the couple has to be referred to a psychologist or a sexologist.

  14. Masculinity, infertility, stigma and media reports.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Kenneth; Glover, Lesley; Abel, Paul

    2004-09-01

    There is growing concern about the health of men in the developed West. Compared with women they have higher rates of morbidity and mortality and are less likely to seek out and employ medical services. Several authors have drawn on social constructionist models, such as the concept of hegemonic masculinity, to account for these gender differences in risk and behaviour. One might anticipate that certain conditions, such as male infertility, would be perceived as posing a particular threat to conventional views of masculinity. There is some support for this, although there is little research into the social construction of male infertility. In this study Discourse Analysis was employed to analyse newspaper accounts of a reported decline in sperm counts in order to study the way in which infertility and masculinity were represented and constructed in the media. The results indicate a construction of fertility as being in crisis and of male infertility as conflated with impotence. Men were positioned as vulnerable and threatened by forces outside their control. The accounts drew on a range of stereotypically masculine reference points, such as warfare and mechanical analogies. These results are consistent with concepts of hegemonic masculinity and suggest that men are offered a highly restricted set of options in terms of perceiving and representing their bodies and their health.

  15. Primary cancer of the anterior urethra in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Wolski, Zbigniew; Tyloch, Janusz; Warsiński, Patryk

    2011-01-01

    We present a 76-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the distal part of the urethra. Transurethral resection of the tumor (TURT) of the urethra was conducted. After establishing local relapse, surgical removal of the distal part of the urethra was proposed to the patient. Due to no consent for an open surgery, another electroresection of the tumor was performed. When the second relapse occurred, the patient provided his consent for surgical removal of the part of the urethra with anastomosis of the remaining part of the urethra with the skin from the abdominal part of the penis. Postsurgical observation did not reveal any local relapse.

  16. Psychological and social aspects of infertility in men: an overview of the evidence and implications for psychologically informed clinical care and future research.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jane R W; Hammarberg, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Research concerning the psychosocial aspects of infertility and infertility treatment focuses more often on women than men. The aim of this review was to synthesize the English-language evidence related to the psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and discuss the implications of these reports for clinical care and future research. A structured search identified 73 studies that reported data concerning the desire for fatherhood and the psychological and social aspects of diagnosis, assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and unsuccessful treatment among men with fertility difficulties. The studies are diverse in conceptualisation, design, setting and data collection, but the findings were reasonably consistent. These studies indicated that fertile and infertile childless men of reproductive age have desires to experience parenthood that are similar to those of their female counterparts; in addition, diagnosis and initiation of treatment are associated with elevated infertility-specific anxiety, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness. However, rates of clinically significant mental health problems among this patient population are no higher than in the general population. Infertile men who are socially isolated, have an avoidant coping style and appraise stressful events as overwhelming, are more vulnerable to severe anxiety than men without these characteristics. Men prefer oral to written treatment information and prefer to receive emotional support from infertility clinicians rather than from mental health professionals, self-help support groups or friends. Nevertheless, structured, facilitated psycho-educational groups that are didactic but permit informal sharing of experiences might be beneficial. There are gaps in knowledge about factors governing seeking, persisting with and deciding to cease treatment; experiences of invasive procedures; parenting after assisted conception; adoption and infertility

  17. Treatment of Infertility in Men with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Method of Intrauterine Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Elezaj, Shkelzen; Gashi, Zafer; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shllaku, Anton; Gruda, Bujar; Musaj, Vesel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of PTSD on changing the quality of sperm in veterans with PTSD, and the percentage of successful procedures intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a first-line treatment of male infertility patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and methods: The study is designed as a prospective observational study. The study was started from February 2013 until May of 2014. Our study included a total of 51 patients who were treatment for infertility in private Hospital for gynecology, endocrinology and infertility, IVF Center in Peja, and those who were outpatients treated for chronic PTSD in the Polyclinic, Biolab-Zafi, in Klina the Republic of Kosovo. All subjects divide into two groups; The first, consisting of 21 respondents to the participants of the war in Kosovo, which was established diagnosis of PTSD. The second group of 30 who have not lived in Kosovo for the time War, and without signs of PTSD. Results: Subjects with PTSD were somewhat older than the control group (p = 0.235) but it was not a significant difference (44.5 ± 5.6 vs 43.8 ± 2.3). When the question of type of infertility, secondary infertility is significantly higher in patients with PTSD (62% vs 20%) (Table 2). The total number of sperm and semen volume no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Sperm motility showed a significant reduction in cases of PTSD (p <0.0001), from observation semen parameters were found more abnormal forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate cases with PTSD (p < 0.0001) (Table 2). The percentage of pregnancies IUI procedure was slightly higher in patients with PTSD than the control group without PTSD (19% vs. 16.6%). Conclusion: A combination of analytical oriented psychotherapy techniques and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IUI procedures, increases the chances for healing infertility in patients with PTSD. PMID:26543314

  18. Treatment of Infertility in Men with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with the Method of Intrauterine Insemination

    PubMed Central

    Elezaj, Shkelzen; Gashi, Zafer; Zeqiraj, Afrim; Grabanica, Driton; Shllaku, Anton; Gruda, Bujar; Musaj, Vesel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine the effect of PTSD on changing the quality of sperm in veterans with PTSD, and the percentage of successful procedures intrauterine insemination (IUI) as a first-line treatment of male infertility patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Patients and methods: The study is designed as a prospective observational study. The study was started from February 2013 until May of 2014. Our study included a total of 51 patients who were treatment for infertility in private Hospital for gynecology, endocrinology and infertility, IVF Center in Peja, and those who were outpatients treated for chronic PTSD in the Polyclinic, Biolab-Zafi, in Klina the Republic of Kosovo. All subjects divide into two groups; The first, consisting of 21 respondents to the participants of the war in Kosovo, which was established diagnosis of PTSD. The second group of 30 who have not lived in Kosovo for the time War, and without signs of PTSD. Results: Subjects with PTSD were somewhat older than the control group (p = 0.235) but it was not a significant difference (44.5 ± 5.6 vs 43.8 ± 2.3). When the question of type of infertility, secondary infertility is significantly higher in patients with PTSD (62% vs 20%). The total number of sperm and semen volume no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05). Sperm motility showed a significant reduction in cases of PTSD (p <0.0001), from observation semen parameters were found more abnormal forms of spermatozoa in the ejaculate cases with PSD (p < 0.0001) (Table 2). The percentage of pregnancies IUI procedure was slightly higher in patients with PTSD than the control group without PTSD (19% vs. 16.6%). Conclusion: A combination of analytical oriented psychotherapy techniques and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) such as IUI procedures, increases the chances for healing infertility in patients with PTSD. PMID:26622087

  19. Parenthood after Primary Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances-Fischer, Jana E.; Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the experience of parenting after primary infertility and describes construction and initial testing of an instrument for assessing characteristics of this understudied population. (Contains 52 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  20. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-03

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT(+) group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT(+) group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, P<.0001) was detected whereas lack of correlation between iNK T cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT(+) group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition.

  1. apo B gene knockout in mice results in embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube defects, male infertility, and reduced HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I transport rates in heterozygotes.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, L S; Voyiaziakis, E; Markenson, D F; Sokol, K A; Hayek, T; Breslow, J L

    1995-01-01

    apo B is a structural constituent of several classes of lipoprotein particles, including chylomicrons, VLDL, and LDL. To better understand the role of apo B in the body, we have used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to create a null apo B allele in the mouse. Homozygous apo B deficiency led to embryonic lethality, with resorption of all embryos by gestational day 9. Heterozygotes showed an increased tendency to intrauterine death with some fetuses having incomplete neural tube closure and some live-born heterozygotes developing hydrocephalus. The majority of male heterozygotes were sterile, although the genitourinary system and sperm were grossly normal. Viable heterozygotes had normal triglycerides, but total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased by 37, 37, and 39%, respectively. Hepatic and intestinal apo B mRNA levels were decreased in heterozygotes, presumably contributing to the decreased LDL levels through decreased synthesis of apo B-containing lipoproteins. Kinetic studies indicated that heterozygotes had decreased transport rates of HDL cholesterol ester and apo A-I. As liver and intestinal apo A-I mRNA levels were unchanged, the mechanism for decreased apo A-I transport must be posttranscriptional. Heterozygotes also had normal cholesterol absorption and a normal response of the plasma lipoprotein pattern to chronic consumption of a high fat, high cholesterol, Western-type diet. In summary, we report a mouse model for apo B deficiency with several phenotypic features that were unexpected based on clinical studies of apo B-deficient humans, such as embryonic lethality in homozygotes and neural tube closure defects, male infertility, and a major defect in HDL production in heterozygotes. This model presents an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes. Images PMID:7593600

  2. Diagnostic imaging of infertility

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, A.C.; Wentz, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    This text presents a review of all the imaging modalities available in the diagnosis of infertility. This book integrates the perspectives of experts in ob/gyn, radiology, reproductive endocrinology, and urology. It's a one-of-a-kind ''how to'' guide to hysterosalpinography and infertility evaluation, providing complete clinical information on the techniques, pitfalls, problems encountered and differential diagnosis. Detailed descriptions accompany numerous high-quality illustrations to help correlate findings and give meaning to the radiographic and ultrasound images.

  3. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  4. Assessment of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm of infertile men using sperm karyotyping and multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    SciTech Connect

    Moosani, N.; Martin, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    Individuals with male factor infertility resulting from idiopathic oligo-, astheno- or teratozoospermia are frequently offered IVF in an attempt to increase their chances of having a child. A concern remains whether these infertile males have an elevated risk of transmitting chromosomal abnormalities to their offspring. Sperm chromosomal complements from these men were assayed using the human sperm/hamster oocyte fusion system and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm nuclei. For each of 5 infertile patients, 100 sperm karyotypes were analyzed and multicolour FISH analysis was performed on a minimum of 10,000 sperm nuclei for each chromosome-specific DNA probe for chromosomes 1 (pUC1.77), 12 (D12Z3), X (XC) and Y (DYZ3). As a group, the infertile patients showed increased frequencies of both numerical ({chi}{sup 2}=17.26, {proportional_to} <0.001) and total abnormalities ({chi}{sup 2}=7.78, {proportional_to} <0.01) relative to control donors when assessed by sperm karyotypes. Analysis of sperm nuclei by FISH indicated a significant increase in the frequency of disomy for chromosome 1 in three of the five patients as compared to control donors ({chi}{sup 2}>8.35, {proportional_to} <0.005). In addition, the frequency of XY disomy was significantly higher in four of the five patients studied by FISH ({chi}{sup 2}>10.58, {proportional_to}<0.005), suggesting that mis-segregation caused by the failure of the XY bivalent to pair may play a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  5. Infertility and childlessness: a qualitative study of the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a global reproductive health issue that affects many individuals and couples. Despite the high prevalence of infertility in Ghana, no study has been done on the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana. This study therefore explored the experiences of infertile couples in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods We interviewed fifteen childless couples, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants using a semi-structured interview guide. We also carried out three focus group discussions; one for childless women, one for women with children and one for men with children. The data were transcribed, coded, arranged and analyzed for categories and themes. Results Infertile couples are socially stigmatised and excluded from leadership roles in their communities. Couples without children are denied membership in the ancestral world thereby losing the opportunity to live again. Both males and females are engaged in sex with multiple partners to prove their fertility. Conclusions Both men and women suffer from the social effects of childlessness. The desire to have biological children in a pronatalist society results in unhealthy practices. Health policy makers and gender advocates should be more concerned about infertility. PMID:23517021

  6. Hormonal and seminal parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Bruno, B; Francavilla, S; Properzi, G; Martini, M; Fabbrini, A

    1986-01-01

    500 infertile patients (250 with and 250 without left side varicocele) and 33 fertile men were evaluated as far as seminal parameters and the hormonal status were concerned. Sperm motility was constantly lower in infertile patients also when infertile group was compared to fertile one with the same sperm density. Serum testosterone levels were lower in infertile groups when compared to fertile men, and this confirms the existence of an androgenic deficit as a common finding in infertility associated or not to varicocele. FSH and LH increased (p less than 0.001) when sperm density dropped to less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. A negative correlation was found between both gonadotropins and sperm count (p less than 0.001), also after exclusion of azoo- and oligozoospermic (less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) patients (p less than 0.01). Gonadotropins were moreover tightly correlated between each other (p less than 0.001). Our data suggest that both gonadotropins are tightly tuned with sperm output and thus with the spermatogenic potential.

  7. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  8. Interpretation of multiple isolate urine cultures in adult male patients.

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, M. A.; Abdoh, A. A.; Silva, F. G.; Flournoy, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective analytical study examined the records of 220 adult males (mean age 64.9 years) to determine the relative probability that multiple urine culture isolates (MUI) represent urinary tract infection (UTI) versus contamination or colonization. Nonculture laboratory data were used to determine the likelihood of UTI. Patients were classified into three categories: group 1 (those with single isolate cultures; n = 110), group 2 (those with MUI and either symptomatic UTI or an underlying pathologic condition; n = 71) and group 3 (those with MUI and either surgically altered urinary passages or absence of UTI symptoms; n = 39). Nonculture laboratory data suggested UTI in 48.2% of patients in group 1, 46.5% in group 2, and 23.1% in group 3. Patients in groups 1 or 2 with cultures yielding isolate counts of 10(5) colony forming units/mL were 6.2 times more likely to be classified as having a UTI (by nonculture laboratory data) compared with patients having only one or more of these two criteria. This study proposes a more objective approach to interpretation of MUI cultures using the results of nonculture laboratory data, clinical profiles, and colony counts. PMID:7897687

  9. A modified ultra-long pituitary downregulation protocol improved endometrial receptivity and clinical outcome for infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GONG, FEI; LI, XIHONG; ZHANG, SHUNJI; MA, HAINAN; CAI, SUFEN; LI, JUAN; LIN, GE; LU, GUANGXIU

    2015-01-01

    There are currently various protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF). For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), an optimized protocol for the downregulation of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone via gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) remains a challenge. In the present study, the primary endpoint of an ultra-long and a conventional long GnRHa protocol for intracytoplasmic sperm injection/IVF treatments of patients with PCOS was retrospectively compared. In the modified ultra-long protocol group, endometrial thickness, morphology, and blood flow were significantly improved, as compared with in the conventional long protocol group. Furthermore, the serum progestogen (P) concentrations and P/estrogen (E2) [(Px1,000/E2)] ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration were significantly decreased in the modified ultra-long downregulation group, whereas the pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher. There were no significant differences in the average number of obtained oocytes, good quality embryo rates, cancel rates, fertilization rates, abortion rates, serious ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidences, ectopic pregnancy rates or gonadotropin (Gn) dosages between the two groups. These results suggest that the modified ultra-long protocol plus human menopausal Gn medication may be superior to the conventional long protocol, and may lead to improved implantation and pregnancy outcomes for infertile patients with PCOS. PMID:26640563

  10. A modified ultra-long pituitary downregulation protocol improved endometrial receptivity and clinical outcome for infertile patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, Fei; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Shunji; Ma, Hainan; Cai, Sufen; Li, Juan; Lin, G E; Lu, Guangxiu

    2015-11-01

    There are currently various protocols for in vitro fertilization (IVF). For patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), an optimized protocol for the downregulation of pituitary follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone via gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) remains a challenge. In the present study, the primary endpoint of an ultra-long and a conventional long GnRHa protocol for intracytoplasmic sperm injection/IVF treatments of patients with PCOS was retrospectively compared. In the modified ultra-long protocol group, endometrial thickness, morphology, and blood flow were significantly improved, as compared with in the conventional long protocol group. Furthermore, the serum progestogen (P) concentrations and P/estrogen (E2) [(Px1,000/E2)] ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration were significantly decreased in the modified ultra-long downregulation group, whereas the pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly higher. There were no significant differences in the average number of obtained oocytes, good quality embryo rates, cancel rates, fertilization rates, abortion rates, serious ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidences, ectopic pregnancy rates or gonadotropin (Gn) dosages between the two groups. These results suggest that the modified ultra-long protocol plus human menopausal Gn medication may be superior to the conventional long protocol, and may lead to improved implantation and pregnancy outcomes for infertile patients with PCOS.

  11. Infertility and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zepiridis, Leonidas I; Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women and their prevalence is higher in patients with infertility. At present, they are classified according to their anatomical location, as no classification system includes additional parameters such as their size or number. There is a general agreement that submucosal fibroids negatively affect fertility, when compared to women without fibroids. Intramural fibroids above a certain size (>4 cm), even without cavity distortion, may also negatively influence fertility. However, the presence of subserosal myomas has little or no effect on fertility. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain how fibroids impair fertility: mechanisms involving alteration of local anatomical location, others involving functional changes of the myometrium and endometrium, and finally endocrine and paracrine molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, any of the above mentioned mechanisms can cause reduced reproductive potential, thereby leading to impaired gamete transport, reduced ability for embryo implantation, and creation of a hostile environment. The published experience defines the best practice strategy, as not many large, well-designed, and properly powered studies are available. Myomectomy appears to have an effect in fertility improvement in certain cases. Excision of submucosal myomas seems to restore fertility with pregnancy rates after surgery similar to normal controls. Removal of intramural myomas affecting pregnancy outcome seems to be associated with higher pregnancy rates when compared to non-operated controls, although evidence is still nοt sufficient. Treatment of subserosal myomas of reasonable size is not necessary for fertility reasons. The results of endoscopic and open myomectomy are similar; thus, endoscopic treatment is the recommended approach due to its advantages in patient's postoperative course.

  12. Altered Antioxidant Status and Increased Lipid Per-Oxidation in Seminal Plasma of Tunisian Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Atig, Fatma; Raffa, Monia; Ali, Habib Ben; Abdelhamid, Kerkeni; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2012-01-01

    Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants that protect spermatozoa from oxidative damages. There is evidence in literature supports the fact that impairments in seminal antioxidant and lipid per-oxidation status play important roles in the physiopathology of male infertility. Our present study forms the first one which was carried out in Tunisia. We evaluated the antioxidant status in the seminal plasma of 120 infertile men programmed to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) for the first tentative. Patients were characterized by an idiopathic infertility. They were divided into three groups: normozoospermics who were considered as controls (n=40), asthenozoospermics (Astheno; n=45) and oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (OAT; n=35). Seminal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and the levels of glutathione (GSH), zinc (Zn) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. With the significant increase of the seminal activities of SOD and GPX in normozoospermics group, there were positive correlations observed between this enzymes and sperm quality. Also, significant elevated rates of seminal zinc and GSH were observed in control group, but there was contradictory associations reflecting the effects of these antioxidants on semen parameters. However, we noted significant increase of MDA levels in groups with abnormal seminogram. We showed negative associations between this per-oxidative marker and sperm parameters. These results obviously suggested that impairment on seminal antioxidants is an important risk factor for low sperm quality associated to idiopathic infertility and as a result can lead to poor IVF outcome. PMID:22211112

  13. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    PubMed

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies.

  14. Male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. 1: Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dorey, G

    Male lower urinary tract symptoms include frequency, nocturia, urgency, urge incontinence, stress incontinence, post-micturition dribble and post-prostatectomy incontinence. All of these symptoms can be treated conservatively. In this article, the first of two parts, a detailed subjective and objective assessment is provided based on a Delphi study undertaken by the author. The objective assessment includes a digital rectal examination to assess the pelvic floor muscle strength in order to provide a patient-specific exercise programme. The diagnosis of stress incontinence, urge incontinence, post-prostatectomy incontinence, post-micturition dribble and functional incontinence is made from the assessment. Men with lower urinary tract symptoms need a detailed subjective and objective assessment before a diagnosis is made and individual treatment is planned.

  15. The effect of intrauterine human chorionic gonadotropin injection before embryo transfer on the implantation and pregnancy rate in infertile patients: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Janati, Sima; Razi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implantation is one of the essential steps for the success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Their success depends on three main factors: embryo quality, endometrial receptivity (ER), and synchrony between embryo and endometrium. There are various factors that regulate the complex process of implantation. In this regard, one may refer to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as the most important factor. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of intrauterine hCG injection before embryo transfer (ET) on pregnancy outcome in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: A total of 159 patients undergone In vitro Fertilization/ Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (IVF/ICSI) with an antagonist protocol were evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups (n=53). Group 1 received 500 IU of hCG, group 2 received 1000 IU of hCG intrauterine injection before ET, and the control group underwent ET without hCG preceding intrauterine injection. Results: There was no significant difference among the groups. The implantation rates were 18.86%, 13.52%, and 14.37%, chemical pregnancy rates were 34%, 32.1%, and 35.3%, and clinical pregnancy rates were 34%, 32.1%, and 31.4% respectively. Conclusion: The pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI /ET cycles cannot be improved through hCG intrauterine injections before ET. PMID:27921090

  16. Cytogenetic Investigation in a Group of Ten Infertile Men with Non-Obstructive Azoospermia: First Algerian 46, XX Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    BAZIZ, Meriem; HAMOULI-SAID, Zohra; RATBI, Ilham; HABEL, Mohamed; GUAOUA, Soukaina; SBITI, Aziza; SEFIANI, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Algeria, the data on infertility and its various causes are rare. Recently, the introduction of assisted reproduction has allowed expecting that 300000 couples, which represent 7% of couples of reproductive age, face difficulty conceiving a child. Knowing that most idiopathic cases are likely to be due to chromosomal abnormalities, we aimed to investigate genetic defects by karyotype analysis in Algerian infertile men, using peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods: A cytogenetic study was conducted on 10 men from infertile couples by Karyotype analysis of R-banding performed by lymphocyte culture technique. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed and molecular abnormalities were investigated by polymerase chain reaction. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were evaluated by immunoradiometric method. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 30% of the patients. We identified a homogenous Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY karyotype, a mosaic Klinefelter syndrome patient with 47, XXY/46, XY karyotype and a 46, XX male. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the sex-determining region Y was translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome in patient with 46, XX chromosomal constitution and the presence of the SRY gene was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and electrophoresis. Conclusion: The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 30% of the infertile men strongly supports the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing for diagnostic establishment and suitable counseling for couples seeking for assisted reproduction technologies. PMID:27648416

  17. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  18. Acceptability of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Kim, Yoona

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary Medical Male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based, yet under-utilized biomedical HIV intervention in China. No study has investigated acceptability of VMMC among male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) who are at high risk of HIV transmission. A cross-sectional survey interviewed 350 HIV negative heterosexual MSTDP in Shenzhen, China; 12.0% (n = 42) of them were circumcised at the time of survey. When the uncircumcised participants (n = 308) were informed that VMMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection via heterosexual intercourse by 50%, the prevalence of acceptability of VMMC in the next six months was 46.1%. Adjusted for significant background variables, significant factors of acceptability of VMMC included: 1) emotional variables: the Emotional Representation Subscale (adjusted odds ratios, AOR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.06–1.18), 2) cognitive variables derived from Health Belief Model (HBM): perceived some chance of having sex with HIV positive women in the next 12 months (AOR = 2.48, 95%CI: 1.15–5.33) (perceived susceptibility), perceived severity of STD infection (AOR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.02–1.10), perceived benefit of VMMC in risk reduction (AOR = 1.29, 95%CI: 1.16–1.42) and sexual performance (AOR = 1.45, 95%CI: 1.26–1.71), perceived barriers against taking up VMMC (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.81–0.95), and perceived cue to action (AOR = 1.41, 95%CI: 1.23–1.61) and self-efficacy (AOR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.26–1.35) related to taking up VMMC. The association between perceived severity of STD infection and acceptability was fully mediated by emotional representation of STD infection. The relatively low prevalence of circumcision and high acceptability suggested that the situation was favorable for implementing VMMC as a means of HIV intervention among MSTDP in China. HBM is a potential suitable framework to guide the design of future VMMC promotion. Future implementation programs should be conducted in STD clinic settings, taking the

  19. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    PubMed Central

    Igberase, Gabriel O.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out. PMID:24765335

  20. Impact of obesity on infertility in women.

    PubMed

    Dağ, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients.

  1. Association of 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism of HLA-G gene with idiopathic recurrent miscarriages in infertility center patients in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, Fateme; Samadi, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    HLA-G is supposed to play a pivotal role in tolerance of the semi-allogeneic graft in pregnancy by inhibiting the cytotoxic functions of T and NK cells. A 14-bp insertion and/or deletion polymorphism in exon-8 has a possible role in HLA-G expression. The present study analyzed the 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in normal pregnancy and recurrent miscarriage patients in order to discover a possible correlation between the 14-bp polymorphism and recurrent miscarriage (RM). In this study, genomic DNA from 200 RM patients and 200 normal fertile control individuals using the routine salting out method were isolated. Exon-8 of HLA-G gene of the two groups were amplified using polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by electrophoresis on 10% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. HLA-G allele frequencies and genotypes in RM women and the fertile control group were compared using a Chi-square test. The results showed that there was a difference in allelic frequencies of 14-bp insertion polymorphism between fertile controls and RM patients; the frequency of +14 bp/-14 bp heterozygotes was significantly higher in RM patients as compared with fertile controls. Furthermore, the frequency of +14-bp insertion allele was significantly higher in those with RM as compared with normal fertile controls. From the findings here, it was concluded that a 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in exon 8 could play a possible role in recurrent miscarriages. These results might ultimately be of significance for clinicians and those involved in understanding infertility and RM.

  2. Infertility and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical conditions like kidney disease, liver disease, sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C How is infertility diagnosed? Your doctor will begin with a medical history about your menstrual cycle, past illnesses, sexually transmitted diseases, surgeries, and any ...

  3. Parenting after Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  4. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  5. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas in Young Male Patients: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Akira; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sudovykh, Irina; Ito, Tetsuhide; Nakamura, Masafumi; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Takizawa, Nobuyoshi; Oda, Yoshinao; Shimizu, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    A preoperative diagnosis of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) in young male patients is difficult to achieve using radiological images. We herein present three cases of young male patients with relatively small SPNs. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) showed well-encapsulated, smooth-surfaced, heterogeneous solid lesions in all patients, and all preoperative diagnoses were achieved by EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The final pathological diagnosis after surgery was an SPN with a Ki-67 labeling index of <2%. SPNs should be considered even in young male patients. EUS with EUS-FNA could be a useful diagnostic modality for SPNs even in young male patients. PMID:28255475

  6. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Analysis Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Testosterone Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Treatments and Therapies Assisted Reproductive Technology: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ...

  7. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students’ awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students’ awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women’s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2008 with a multi-ethnic sample of sixteen male and twenty-three female Ottawa university students, followed by qualitative data analysis to identify major themes. Interview topics included awareness of male and female infertility risk factors, infertility diagnosis/treatments and personal options in the event of future infertility. Results Participants were generally familiar with infertility as a biomedical health problem, could identify sex-specific risk factors but overestimated fertility of women in their thirties and ART success rates. Reproductive health knowledge gaps and confusion of the physiological life-stage of menopause with infertility were apparent. Most participants would pursue in vitro fertilization or international adoption in the event of personal infertility. Some participants wished to use a ‘natural’ approach and were concerned with potential side effects of ART-related medications. Conclusions The general awareness of infertility in young adults is promising and supports the potential uptake for health promotion of fertility preservation. This study underscores the continued need for comprehensive sexual and reproductive health education and promotion for adolescents and young adults. PMID:23962162

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility.

    PubMed

    Tsevat, Danielle G; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Parks, Caitlin; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-01-01

    Female infertility, including tubal factor infertility, is a major public health concern worldwide. Most cases of tubal factor infertility are attributable to untreated sexually transmitted diseases that ascend along the reproductive tract and are capable of causing tubal inflammation, damage, and scarring. Evidence has consistently demonstrated the effects of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as pathogenic bacteria involved in reproductive tract morbidities including tubal factor infertility and pelvic inflammatory disease. There is limited evidence in the medical literature that other sexually transmitted organisms, including Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, and other microorganisms within the vaginal microbiome, may be important factors involved in the pathology of infertility. Further investigation into the vaginal microbiome and other potential pathogens is necessary to identify preventable causes of tubal factor infertility. Improved clinical screening and prevention of ascending infection may provide a solution to the persistent burden of infertility.

  9. Evaluation and treatment of anovulatory and unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Propst, Anthony M; Bates, G Wright

    2012-12-01

    Anovulatory disorders are a primary cause of female infertility. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is the major cause of anovulation and is generally associated with obesity. Lifestyle changes to encourage weight loss are the initial therapy for overweight and obese patients, followed by clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction. For those patients who fail to ovulate on clomiphene citrate, alternatives, such as letrozole; gonadotropins; and complimentary agents to enhance clomiphene citrate, such as metformin and glucocorticoids, are reviewed. Women with unexplained infertility (no identifiable cause of infertility on a routine evaluation) may benefit from ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins.

  10. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis in patients with male meiotic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Aran, B; Veiga, A; Vidal, F; Parriego, M; Vendrell, J M; Santaló, J; Egozcue, J; Barri, P N

    2004-04-01

    Indications and candidates for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) have increased in recent years. This study evaluates whether IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) results could be improved by selecting embryos through PGD-AS (aneuploidy screening) in couples in whom the male partner presents meiotic abnormalities. Two hundred and fifty-six embryos were biopsied and 183 were suitable for analysis (73.2%). Ninety-two embryos showed normal chromosomal analysis (50.3% of the analysed embryos and 57.5% of the diagnosed embryos). Pregnancy, abortion and implantation rates were compared with 66 IVF-ICSI cycles performed in 44 patients with meiotic abnormalities without PGD (control group). No statistically significant differences in the pregnancy rate (52 versus 43.9%), implantation rate (32.1 versus 23.5%) and miscarriage rate (15.4 versus 10.3%) were observed between the groups. Although the embryos obtained from men with meiotic abnormalities showed a high frequency of chromosome abnormalities, no improvements in pregnancy and implantation rates were obtained after PGD-AS in the series analysed.

  11. Anovulatory and ovulatory infertility: results with simplified management.

    PubMed Central

    Hull, M G; Savage, P E; Bromham, D R

    1982-01-01

    A simplified scheme for the management of anovulatory and of ovulatory (usually called unexplained) infertility was evaluated in 244 women. Eighteen patients were excluded because of primary ovarian failure, 164 were treated for ovulatory failure, and 62 with ovulatory infertility remained untreated. Twenty-five patients had a properly validated negative postcoital test. In the remaining 201 patients the two-year conception rates were 96% in patients with amenorrhoea, 83% in those with oligomenorrhoea, 74% in those with luteal deficiency, and 88% in those with ovulatory infertility. Comparison with normal rates implied that amenorrhoea represents a pure form of ovulatory failure that is completely correctable whereas in other conditions unexplained factors also contribute to infertility though to a much smaller extent than was previously thought. PMID:6805656

  12. Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates

    2014-06-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (p<0.01, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). However, serum TAC, serum, and seminal plasma CoQ-10 levels did not differ between fertile and infertile groups. When the levels of the measured parameters were compared in serum and seminal plasma, serum levels of Se were found to be correlated positively with the semen levels in all subjects included into the study (N=59) (r=0.46, p<0.01). A relationship was found between neither serum and semen levels of TAC nor between serum and semen levels of CoQ-10. Correlations among measured serum and semen parameters with sperm parameters demonstrated that both the serum and semen levels of Se were correlated positively with spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Additionally, seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from

  13. Introduction: choosing the main outcome of an infertility trial is harder than you think.

    PubMed

    Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiaoke

    2014-05-01

    Clinical trials in infertility choose from a variety of outcomes including change in some surrogate marker of gamete quality to healthy live birth. Incomplete reporting of outcomes makes it difficult to compare studies and to determine the clinical impact of infertility treatments. In this Views and Reviews, we explore the merits of collecting various outcomes of interest in infertility trials from the vantage point of infertility specialists, an obstetrician, and a pediatrician. These articles support more complete reporting of maternal, paternal, fetal, and infant outcomes from infertility trials to improve patient care and ultimately public health.

  14. AB084. The fertility quality of life (FertiQol) in Chinese infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ming; Ji, Xingzhe; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve clinical pregnancy after twelve months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. In recent years, there is a rising trend of infertility in China, data shows that every eight couples have a pair of infertility, and the number of Chinese infertility patients has more than 50 million. Female infertility has various negative impacts on quality of life. In the past, various generic measurement tools were used for assessing Qol in infertile patients. Recently, a specifically Qol tool designed for infertile couples, has been developed and used internationally—The Fertility Quality of life(FertiQol)-questionaire. To the best of our knowledge, there was no published data regarding the general Qol in infertile women in mainland china. Our goal of this study is to understand the preliminary level of Qol in infertile women in mainland china, secondary aims was to compare Qol in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods The FertiQol tool, a self-report questionnaire, was distributed to our department of Reproductive Center for infertile women who undergoing the treatment of in vitro fertilization from 2015.1 to 2015.4. Patients with primary and secondary infertility were compared for Qol subscales, and other confounding factors were investigated using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 230 copies of eligible FertiQol questionnaires were collected, among them, 162 cases for primary infertility and 68 cases for Secondary infertility. The mean age of participants was 32.6±3.3 years and years of marriage was 4.2±1.3. Scores of mind-body (55.4), relational (57.4), environment (54.0), and tolerability (45.0) subscales in Chinese infertile women were lower than those (54.8, 68.7, 61.5 and 58.8) in western infertile women. According to the increase of infertility time, relational score (relation with husband) was decreased. Women with secondary infertility obtained higher scores in emotional

  15. Epidemiology of infertility: social problems of the infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Araoye, Margaret O

    2003-06-01

    Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations because of its high prevalence and especially due to its serious social implications. A review of the epidemiology of infertility in Nigeria and other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa is presented and socio-cultural issues including the social impact on couples are discussed. The major cause of infertility in Africa is infection--STDs, post-abortal and puerperal sepsis. Beliefs about causes, and failure of orthodox methods of treatment have led many couples to seek solution from traditional doctors and faith healers without success. Infertility causes marital disharmony, which often leads to divorce. Women are often blamed for the infertility and men engage in polygyny in an attempt to have children. The couple can also suffer stress from the management of the infertility. Adoption is not popular and assisted reproduction has medico-legal implications. Preventive measures are suggested, including counselling at every stage of the management.

  16. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  17. Outcome of IVF/ICSI referrals from the Royal Alexandra Hospital (level 2 infertility service) to Glasgow Royal Infirmary (level 3 infertility service).

    PubMed

    May, J; Gemmell, J; Crawford, J; Lyall, H

    2012-08-01

    In a 2-year period (2004 and 2005), 117 couples with infertility were referred from secondary care for IVF/ICSI treatment. This study describes the age, waiting times, diagnostic categories and outcomes for all couples referred. A total of 59% (69) of all couples referred conceived. Of these, 25% (29 couples) conceived spontaneously or as a result of simpler treatments and 34% (40 couples) conceived following IVF/ICSI treatment. The twin pregnancy rate following IVF/ICSI was 25% and the average waiting time from referral to treatment was 13-18 months. Couples with female factor infertility (excluding endometriosis) and couples with unexplained infertility experienced a higher spontaneous pregnancy rate while awaiting IVF/ICSI treatment, than those couples with male factor or combined infertility. However, couples with male factor or combined infertility achieved much higher success rates with IVF/ICSI treatment.

  18. Clinical relevance of polymorphonuclear (PMN-) elastase determination in semen and serum during infertility investigation.

    PubMed

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Zimmermann, K; Geissler, W; Ehrmann, A; Boit, R; Strowitzki, T

    2009-08-01

    The polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase is secreted by activated granulocytes and is widely used as a marker of male accessory gland infection. However, the clinical value of routine determination of seminal plasma (SP) PMN elastase in asymptomatic patients during infertility investigation has not clearly been established and not much is known about the significance of PMN-elastase levels in serum as a potential biochemical determinant associated with infection/inflammation of the male genital tract. This prospective study included a total of 221 asymptomatic males from unselected subfertile couples, to evaluate the relationship of (i) serum and (ii) same-day SP PMN elastase concentrations with established semen quality parameters, including sperm functional capacity, local antisperm antibodies (ASA), seminal leucocytes, and the outcome of semen cultures including typical sexually transmitted disease pathogens, and a potential association with patients' medical history and results of clinical andrological examination. Furthermore, couples were followed up for subsequent fertility (controlled for female infertility factors). The concentrations of PMN elastase in serum and in SP were not significantly related to semen quality [with regard to microscopic (e.g. count, motility, morphology) as well as biochemical parameters, and also to local ASA of the IgG- or IgA-class]. There was no strong relationship with sperm functional capacity. No significant relationship with the outcome of the microbial screening was found. PMN-elastase levels in serum and SP were not significantly correlated and there was no association with subsequent fertility. Therefore, the value of routine determination of PMN elastase in semen and/or serum samples, particularly when used as a single parameter to screen for subclinical infection/inflammation in males under infertility investigation is limited.

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in women with unexplained infertility

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Maryam; Pourmasumi, Soheila; Sabeti, Parvin; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Sheikhha, Mohammad Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genital tuberculosis (GTB) is an important cause of female infertility, especially in developing countries. The positive results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in endometrial GTB in the absence of tubal damage raise the possibility of the detection of sub-clinical or latent disease, with doubtful benefits of treatment. Objective: To evaluate the mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in endometrial biopsy samples collected from unexplained infertile women attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility by using PCR techniques. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 144 infertile women with unexplained infertility aged 20-35 years old and normal Histro-saplango graphy findings were enrolled. Endometrial biopsy samples from each participant were tested for mycobacterium tuberculosis detecting by PCR. In 93 patients, peritoneal fluid was also taken for culture and PCR. Results: The PCR results of endometrial specimens were negative in all cases, demonstrating that there was no GTB infection among our patients. Conclusion: Our results showed that GTB could not be considered as a major problem in women with unexplained infertility. Although, studies have indicated that PCR is a useful method in diagnosing early GTB disease in infertile women with no demonstrable evidence of tubal or endometrial involvement. PMID:27141534

  20. Infertility, infertility treatment and behavioural problems in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine B; Bech, Bodil H; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    Behavioural patterns in children of infertile couples may be influenced by both the underlying causes of infertility and stress in the couples. Treatment procedures, such as culture media and manipulation of gametes and embryos, may also result in developmental problems. We examined behavioural problems in children as a function of infertility and infertility treatment, using data from three population-based birth cohorts in Denmark (Aalborg-Odense Birth Cohort, Aarhus Birth Cohort and Danish National Birth Cohort). Information on time to pregnancy and infertility treatment was collected during pregnancy. Children aged between 7 and 21 years were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The SDQ was completed by mothers in all cohorts and, in addition, by teachers in the Aarhus cohort and by children themselves in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. Children born after a time to pregnancy of >12 months and no infertility treatment had a behavioural pattern similar to children of fertile parents. Teachers reported a higher total difficulties score for children born after infertility treatment, but no significant differences were seen on any subscales of the teachers' report, and neither the mothers nor the children reported any differences on the total difficulties score and the prosocial behaviour score. Our results are thus overall reassuring regarding behavioural problems in children born to infertile couples, regardless of infertility treatment.

  1. Robotic assisted excision of retrovesical angiomyxoma in a male patient

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Vipin; Dar, Tanveer Iqbal; Durani, Abdul Munan; Chada, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Angiomyxoma is a rare tumour found predominantly in pelvis of young females. Less than 150 cases have been reported, more than 90% in females and only few cases in males. Its surgical excision is a big challenge and usually leads to recurrence due to incomplete excision. We report a case of retrovesical Angiomyxoma in an elderly male. The aim of this report is to highlight the rarity of this disease, especially in males, and robotic assisted excision as an evolving option of treatment. PMID:24761083

  2. Need for accessible infertility care in Ghana: the patients’ voice

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Nana Yaw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract According to the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) infertility and childlessness are the most important reason for divorce in Ghana. The traditional Ghanaian society is pro-natal and voluntary childlessness is very uncommon. Patient groups are almost non-existent in Sub-Saharan Africa, aggravating the situation of childless couples. Due to the lack of enough and affordable high quality infertility services, many women resort to traditional healing, witchcraft and spiritual mediation. Considering the severe sociocultural and economic consequences of childlessness, especially for women, there is an urgent need for accessible and affordable high quality infertility care in Ghana. PMID:27909570

  3. Clinical management of infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C

    2015-01-01

    The clinical management of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) seeking fertility has been a challenge for andrologists, urologists, and reproductive medicine specialists alike. This review presents a personal perspective on the clinical management of NOA, including the lessons learned over 15 years dealing with this male infertility condition. A five-consecutive-step algorithm is proposed to manage such patients. First, a differential diagnosis of azoospermia is made to confirm/establish that NOA is due to spermatogenic failure. Second, genetic testing is carried out not only to detect the males in whom NOA is caused by microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome, but also to counsel the affected patients about their chances of having success in sperm retrieval. Third, it is determined whether any intervention prior to a surgical retrieval attempt may be used to increase sperm production. Fourth, the most effective and efficient retrieval method is selected to search for testicular sperm. Lastly, state-of-art laboratory techniques are applied in the handling of retrieved gametes and cultivating the embryos resulting from sperm injections. A coordinated multidisciplinary effort is key to offer the best possible chance of achieving a biological offspring to males with NOA. PMID:25677138

  4. Fertility Risk Assessment and Preservation in Male and Female Prepubertal and Adolescent Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zavras, Nikolaos; Siristatidis, Charalampos; Siatelis, Argyris; Koumarianou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents the second cause of death in prepubertal children and adolescents, although it is currently associated with an overall survival rate of 80%–85%. The annual incidence rate is 186.6 per 1 million children and adolescents aged up to 19 years. Both disease and treatment options are associated with life-altering, long-term effects that require monitoring. Infertility is a common issue, and as such, fertility preservation represents an essential part in the management of young patients with cancer who are at risk of premature gonadal failure. This review deals with the up-to-date available data on fertility risk assessment and preservation strategies that should be addressed prior to antineoplastic therapy in this vulnerable subgroup of cancer patients. PMID:27398041

  5. How patient-centered do female physicians need to be? Analogue patients' satisfaction with male and female physicians' identical behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Roter, Debra L; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Pitegoff, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient satisfaction for male than female physicians. Two male and two female actors portrayed physicians speaking to a patient using high or low patient-centered scripts while not varying their nonverbal cues. One hundred ninety-two students served as analogue patients by assuming the patient role while watching one of the videos and rating their satisfaction and other evaluative responses to the physician. Greater verbal patient-centeredness had a stronger positive effect on satisfaction and evaluations for male than for female physicians. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the different associations between patient-centeredness and patients' satisfaction for male versus female physicians occur because of the overlap between stereotypical female behavior and behaviors that comprise patient-centered medical care. If this is the case, high verbal patient-centered behavior by female physicians is not recognized as a marker of clinical competence, as it is for male physicians, but is rather seen as expected female behavior.

  6. Epididymal papillary cystadenocarcinoma metastasising to the testis in a patient with infertility managed with Onco-microTeSE

    PubMed Central

    Pindoria, Nisha; Miki, Yurina; Tay, Andrea; Chandra, Ashish; Anderson, Christopher; Zacharakis, Evangelos; Shabbir, Majed

    2016-01-01

    Papillary cystadenomas of the epididymis are known to occur in association with Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease. The development of a papillary cystadenocarcinoma, its malignant counterpart, is rare with only a few sporadic cases reported in the literature. Metastatic deposits are exceedingly uncommon; in fact, only a single case report has documented metastases to the paraureteral region, but metastases to the testis have never been reported. A 43-year-old gentleman with VHL disease presented with non-obstructive azoospermia, a right epididymal mass, and an atrophic surgically corrected undescended left testis. The epididymal mass was reported as a papillary cystadenocarcinoma on biopsy. The patient was managed with a radical inguinal orchidectomy and bench microTeSE with successful sperm retrieval. Metastatic papillary cystadenocarcinoma of the epididymis to the testis has never been previously reported. This case was managed by radical orchidectomy and subsequent onco-microTeSE, allowing safe oncological treatment and optimal fertility preservation. PMID:27887012

  7. Comparison of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions in female and male patients receiving female or male blood components

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, S; Araki, N; Shimada, E; Saigo, K; Nishimura, K; Nose, Y; Bouike, Y; Hashimoto, M; Mito, H; Okazaki, H

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between antibodies detected in patients’ and/or donors’ sera and the clinical features of acute non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (ANHTRs), and to determine any gender-related difference. ANHTRs range from urticaria to transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). Antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA), granulocytes, platelets, and/or plasma proteins are implicated in some of the ANHTRs. A higher antibody positivity is expected for females than for males. A comparative study of ANHTRs for antibody positivity and their clinical features between females and males for both patients and donors is helpful for characterizing ANHTRs including TRALI more clearly, but such studies are few and outdated. Two hundred and twenty-three ANHTR cases reported by 45 hospitals between October 2000 and July 2005 were analysed. The patients and 196 donors of suspect blood products were screened for antibodies to HLA Class I, HLA Class II, granulocytes, and platelets. The patients were also screened for anti-plasma protein antibodies. The types and severity of ANHTR did not differ significantly between female and male patients. The frequency of the anti-HLA antibodies, but not that of the non-HLA antibodies, was significantly higher in females. Non-HLA antibodies were significantly associated with severe reactions in females. All the TRALI cases had predisposing risk factors for acute lung injury, and 60% of the cases showed anti-leucocyte antibodies. Although the anti-HLA antibodies were detected more frequently in females than males, no significant association of ANHTRs including TRALI with gender, not only for patients, but also for donors, could be shown in this study. PMID:18067650

  8. Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarinara, Alireza; Zeraati, Hojjat; Kamali, Koorosh; Mohammad, Kazem; Shahnazari, Parisa; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertile couples are faced with problems that affect their marital life. Infertility treatment is expensive and time consuming and occasionally isn’t simply possible. Prediction models for infertility treatment have been proposed and prediction of treatment success is a new field in infertility treatment. Because prediction of treatment success is a new need for infertile couples, this paper reviewed previous studies for catching a general concept in applicability of the models. Methods: This study was conducted as a systematic review at Avicenna Research Institute in 2015. Six data bases were searched based on WHO definitions and MESH key words. Papers about prediction models in infertility were evaluated. Results: Eighty one papers were eligible for the study. Papers covered years after 1986 and studies were designed retrospectively and prospectively. IVF prediction models have more shares in papers. Most common predictors were age, duration of infertility, ovarian and tubal problems. Conclusion: Prediction model can be clinically applied if the model can be statistically evaluated and has a good validation for treatment success. To achieve better results, the physician and the couples’ needs estimation for treatment success rate were based on history, the examination and clinical tests. Models must be checked for theoretical approach and appropriate validation. The privileges for applying the prediction models are the decrease in the cost and time, avoiding painful treatment of patients, assessment of treatment approach for physicians and decision making for health managers. The selection of the approach for designing and using these models is inevitable. PMID:27141461

  9. Long term outcomes in 46, XX adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia reared as males.

    PubMed

    Khattab, A; Yau, M; Qamar, A; Gangishetti, P; Barhen, A; Al-Malki, S; Mistry, H; Anthony, W; Toralles, M B; New, Maria I

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and whose karyotype is 46, XX are usually assigned to the female gender. Reported herein are the long term outcomes in three patients with CAH whose karyotype is 46, XX and who were reared as males. A retrospective review of three CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype who were reared as males was conducted. Gender assignment, clinical and biochemical data, pre and post-genitoplasty genital examinations were reviewed. Gender identity was tested by an extensive questionnaire. Gender role, sexual preference, marital status and sexual satisfaction were evaluated by interview. The three patients were genotyped for the CYP21A2 gene confirming the diagnosis of CAH. Owing to genital virilization, cultural preferences for male gender and the lack of newborn screening programs the three patients reported herein were assigned to the male gender at birth before the diagnosis of CAH was established. In adulthood the patients remained significantly virilized. Thorough psychosexual assessments in adulthood revealed well established male gender identities compatible with their male gender assignments at birth. In all three patients, gender role and behavior were consistent with male gender identity including sexual intercourse with female partners. The three patients reported herein revealed that male gender assignment to CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype may have a successful outcome providing there is strong parental support and expert endocrine care. No standard guidelines have been published for the gender assignment of CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype and genital ambiguity. More studies concerning gender assignment in CAH patients with a 46, XX karyotype reared as males are needed.

  10. Sperm chromatin integrity in young men with no experiences of infertility and men from idiopathic infertility couples.

    PubMed

    Rybar, R; Markova, P; Veznik, Z; Faldikova, L; Kunetkova, M; Zajicova, A; Kopecka, V; Rubes, J

    2009-06-01

    Damage to the genetic component of spermatozoa seems to play the main role in a majority of cases where current approaches fail to reveal the specific cause of male infertility. In this study, we compared semen quality in men assigned to two defined groups: men from couples with unexplained infertility - idiopathic infertility (A) and young men with no experiences of infertility (B). All samples were examined by standard ejaculate analysis and sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Sperm chromatin damage was significantly higher in men from group A than in those from group B. Similar results were obtained by comparison of men from group A (all men were normozoospermic) with normozoospermic men from group B. According to these results, we can suppose that chromatin disorders may be the causal factor of subfertility or infertility in some of these men. No evidence for a strong association between chromatin disorders and standard parameters of ejaculates was found. We failed to confirm a relationship between smoking and sperm quality in men from any of the investigated groups. SCSA is a method that facilitates the identification of infertile men who otherwise show normal semen variables.

  11. What Infertility Treatments Are Available?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ... are some causes of infertility?​​​ What is fertility preservation? When should I consult a health care provider?​ ...

  12. Sexual dysfunction in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zahra; Amirian, Malihe; Golmakani, Nahid; Mazlom, Reza; Laal Ahangar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS. Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples. PMID:27200422

  13. Strategies for Counseling Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents specific intervention strategies that may serve to reinforce infertility experience as opportunity for personal and marital growth. Concludes through counseling clients may complete much of the emotional work required to reach a point of resolution and acceptance of their infertility. (Author/ABL)

  14. A Biopsychosocial Theory of Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2001-01-01

    Briefly reviews the literature on infertility and its emotional, physical, existential, and relational effects on individuals, couples, and families. Life crisis and biopsychosocial theories are discussed as they apply to persons struggling with infertility issues. In addition, stage models derived from a biopsychosocial perspective are presented.…

  15. Sperm oxidative stress and the effect of an oral vitamin E and selenium supplement on semen quality in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Keskes-Ammar, L; Feki-Chakroun, N; Rebai, T; Sahnoun, Z; Ghozzi, H; Hammami, S; Zghal, K; Fki, H; Damak, J; Bahloul, A

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported beneficial effects of antioxidant drugs on semen quality, but there is no well-defined therapeutical protocol in male infertility. This study aimed to test the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on lipid peroxidation and on sperm parameters. The study included 54 voluntary and infertile men who produced semen samples for spermiogram and for spectrophotometric measurement of a lipid peroxidation marker, the malondialdehyde (MDA), and produced blood samples for high-performance liquid chromatography assessment of serum vitamin E level. The trial was randomized and open. Twenty-eight men were supplemented daily by vitamin E (400 mg) and selenium (225 microg), during 3 months. The remaining 26 patients received vitamin B (4,5 g/day) for the same duration. Only 20 patients achieved their treatment and returned for control analysis. MDA concentrations in sperm were much less than in seminal plasma and motility and viability were inversely correlated with semen MDA levels. In contrast to vitamin B supplementation, vitamin E and selenium supplementation produced a significant decrease in MDA concentrations and an improvement of sperm motility. The results confirm the protective and beneficial effects of vitamin E and selenium on semen quality and advocate their use in male infertility treatment.

  16. Prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile couples in romania

    PubMed Central

    Mierla, D; Malageanu, M; Tulin, R; Albu, D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in one of the partners and infertility. This retrospective study was performed at the Department of Reproductive Medicine, Life Memorial Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, between August 2007 to December 2011. Two thousand, one hundred and ninety-five patients with reproductive problems were investigated, and the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was calculated. The control group consisting of 87 fertile persons who had two or more children, was investigated in this retrospective study. All the patients of this study were investigated by cytogenetic techniques and the results of the two groups were compared by a two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. In this study, 94.99% patients had a normal karyotype and 5.01% had chromosomal abnormalities (numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities). In the study group, numerical chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.14% of infertile men and 0.62% of infertile women, and structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 1.38% of infertile men and 1.87% of infertile women, respectively. The correlation between the incidence of chromosomal anomalies in the two sexes in couple with reproductive problems was not statistically significant. Recently, a possible association between infertility and chromosomal abnormalities with a significant statistical association has been reported. Our study shows that there is no association between chromosomal abnormalities and infertility, but this study needs to be confirmed with further investigations and a larger control group to establish the role of chromosomal abnormalities in the etiology of infertility. PMID:26929902

  17. Substantial prevalence of microdeletions of the Y-chromosome in infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia and oligozoospermia detected using a sequence-tagged site-based mapping strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Najmabadi, H.; Huang, V.; Bhasin, D.

    1996-04-01

    Genes on the long arm of Y (Yq), particularly within interval 6, are believed to play a critical role in human spermatogenesis. Cytogenetically detectable deletions of this region are associated with azoospermia in men, but are relatively uncommon. The objective of this study was to validate a sequence-tagged site (STS)-mapping strategy for the detection of Yq microdeletions and to use this method to determine the proportion of men with idiopathic azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia who carry microdeletions in Yq. STS mapping of a sufficiently large sample of infertile men should also help further localize the putative gene(s) involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes of 16 normal fertile men, 7 normal fertile women, 60 infertile men, and 15 patients with the X-linked disorder, ichthyosis. PCR primers were synthesized for 26 STSs that span Yq interval 6. None of the 16 normal men of known fertility had microdeletions. Seven normal fertile women failed to amplify any of the 26 STSs, providing evidence of their Y specificity. No microdeletions were detected in any of the 15 patients with ichthyosis. Of the 60 infertile men typed with 26 STSs, 11 (18%; 10 azoospermic and 1 oligozoospermic) failed to amplify 1 or more STS. Interestingly, 4 of the 11 patients had microdeletions in a region that is outside the Yq region from which the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia gene region) gene was cloned. In an additional 3 patients, microdeletions were present both inside and outside the DAZ region. The physical locations of these microdeletions provide further support for the concept that a gene(s) on Yq deletion interval 6 plays an important role in spermatogenesis. The presence of deletions that do not overlap with the DAZ region suggests that genes other than the DAZ gene may also be implicated in the pathogenesis of some subsets of male infertility. 48 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Ethical issues in infertility.

    PubMed

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  19. Inadequate cervical mucus--a cause of "idiopathic" infertility.

    PubMed

    Sher, G; Katz, M

    1976-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and treat a group of patients referred for "idiopathic" infertility in whom no apparent cause for infertility, apart from inadequate cervical mucus, was found. Hormone investigations revealed that these patients could be divided into two groups: those with low sex steroid profiles despite apparent ovulation, and a second group with normal sex steroid profiles. All patients were treated with ovulation-inducing agents in an attempt to produce "controlled" ovarian hyperstimulation and an improved cervical mucus. Four of six patients conceived. The rationale behind the use of ovulation-inducing agents in this situation is discussed.

  20. Testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy: relation to method of conception in an infertile population.

    PubMed

    Lathi, Ruth B; Moayeri, Sharon E; Reddy, Charitha D; Gebhardt, Janice; Behr, Barry; Westphal, Lynn M

    2012-03-01

    This prospective cohort study of infertility patients compared testosterone concentrations in early pregnancy in infertility patients who conceived naturally or after treatment. Although all groups demonstrated some increase in pregnancy testosterone from baseline concentrations, subjects who conceived following ovulation induction showed a significantly increased rise in testosterone as compared with controls (P<0.01).

  1. Infertility in Women: Hysterosalpingographic Assessment of the Fallopian Tubes in Lagos, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Fabamwo, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Tubal disease constitutes a major factor in infertility especially in developing countries. This study was undertaken to assess the hysterosalpingographic patterns seen in infertile patients in an urban centre in Lagos. Two hundred and twenty patients who reported from the gynaecology clinic to the radiology department of Lagos State University…

  2. Increased corneal temperature in drug-free male schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Roni; Portuguese, Shirley; Bodinger, Liron; Katz, Nachum; Sigler, Maianit; Hermesh, Haggai; Munitz, Hanan; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients may exhibit altered body temperature. We hypothesized that drug-free patients may have a higher corneal temperature than normal subjects. The corneal temperature of seven remitted drug-free schizophrenia outpatients and seven healthy volunteers was evaluated with a flir thermal imaging camera. A significantly higher corneal temperature was observed in the patient group (34.60+/-1.89 vs. 33.05+/-0.58 degrees C; P=0.005) and it correlated with their BPRS score (r=0.82; P=0.024). The relevance of these preliminary findings merit further investigation.

  3. The relation between serum leptin levels and max VO2 in male patients with type I diabetes and healthy sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mehmet; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Salman, Fatih; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating leptin levels in male diabetes type I patients who were on insulin treatment and also healthy sedentary males. The study included 10 male type I diabetes patients and 17 healthy sedentary males. Leptin levels of type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 were evaluated separately. The relation between serum leptin, max VO2, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise, and effort durations of participants were investigated. At the end of the tests, no difference was found between leptin levels, max VO2 values, lactic acid values before exercise, and test durations of male type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males (p > .05), whereas lactic acid levels after exercise were found to be lower in healthy sedentary males (p < .05). Leptin levels in the group with BMI above 25 kg/m2 were higher than those in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .001). It was also seen that max VO2 values and test durations were higher in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .05). In conclusion, leptin levels of male type I diabetes patients are close to those of healthy sedentary males. The increase in leptin levels in both groups is in proportion to the BMI of individuals.

  4. Molecular Dissection Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization and Clinical Evaluation of An Infertile Male Carrier of An Unbalanced Y;21 Translocation: A Case Report and Review of The Literature.

    PubMed

    Orrico, Alfredo; Marseglia, Giuseppina; Pescucci, Chiara; Cortesi, Ambra; Piomboni, Paola; Giansanti, Andrea; Gerundino, Francesca; Ponchietti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal defects are relatively frequent in infertile men however, translocations between the Y chromosome and autosomes are rare and less than 40 cases of Y-autosome translocation have been reported. In particular, only three individuals has been described with a Y;21 translocation, up to now. We report on an additional case of an infertile man in whom a Y;21 translocation was associated with the deletion of a large part of the Y chromosome long arm. Applying various techniques, including conventional cytogenetic procedures, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies, we identified a derivative chromosome originating from a fragment of the short arm of the chromosome Y translocated on the short arm of the 21 chromosome. The Y chromosome structural rearrangement resulted in the intactness of the entire short arm, including the sex-determining region Y (SRY) and the short stature homeobox (SHOX) loci, although translocated on the 21 chromosome, and the loss of a large part of the long arm of the Y chromosome, including azoospermia factor-a (AZFa), AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. This is the first case in which a (Yp;21p) translocation has been ascertained using an array-CGH approach, thus reporting details of such a rearrangement at higher resolution.

  5. [Retrospective evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity in fertile and infertile women].

    PubMed

    Aral Akarsu, Gülay; Elhan, Halil Atilla; Akarsu, Cem

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical pictures in man, changing from asymptomatic infection to severe central nervous system disease. It has been well documented that toxoplasmosis is of crucial importance especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. In addition to the risks of gestation complications and congenital infections, it has been suggested that toxoplasmosis has some unfavorable effects on reproductive capacity in both men and women. The data obtained from limited studies performed in animal models as well as in infertile couples, have supported the relationship between toxoplasma and infertility. The hypothesis concerning infertility mechanisms due to T.gondii in females include development of endometritis and fetal rejection due to local release of T.gondii from latently located cysts in endometrial tissue on stimulation during plansenta formation; impaired folliculogenesis in ovaries and uterine atrophy and reproductive failure due to hypothalamic dysfunction as a result of chronic toxoplasmosis. The aim of this retrospective study was the comparative evaluation of toxoplasma seropositivity rates of fertile and infertile female spouses who were admitted to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Ankara, between 2004-2009 period, from different geographical regions of Turkey. A total of 1314 women (mean age: 31.8 ± 5.6 years) were included to the study. In the study group, 376 (28.6%) were positive for T.gondii IgG, 5 (0.4%) were positive for IgG + IgM and 1 (%0.07) was positive only for IgM antibodies, while total toxoplasma seropositivity was 29.1% (382/1314). Of the 1117 evaluated couples, women with well-defined cause of infertility due to male factors have been grouped as fertile (n= 495) and the others were accepted as infertile (n= 622). Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was found in 145 (29.3%) of fertile and in 179 (28.8%) of infertile women and the difference between the seropositivity rates

  6. Chinese Herbal Products for Female Infertility in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu-Chiang; Kao, Chao-Wei; Lin, Che-Chen; Liao, Yen-Nung; Wu, Bei-Yu; Hung, I-Ling; Hu, Wen-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Female infertility and low birth rate are significant public health issues with profound social, psychological, and economic consequences. Some infertile women resort to conventional, complementary, or alternative therapies to conceive. The aim of this study was to identify the Chinese herbal products (CHPs) most commonly used for female infertility in Taiwan. The usage of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the frequency of CHP prescriptions to infertile women were determined based on a nationwide 1-million randomly sampled cohort of National Health Insurance Research Database beneficiaries. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for TCM usage and potential risk factors. In total, 8766 women with newly diagnosed infertility were included in this study. Of those, 8430 (96.17%) had sought TCM treatment in addition to visiting the gynecologist. We noted that female infertility patients with risk factors (e.g., endometriosis, uterine fibroids, or irregular menstrual cycle) were more likely to use TCM than those without TCM medication (aOR = 1.83, 1.87, and 1.79, respectively). The most commonly used formula and single CHP were Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San (17.25%) and Semen Cuscutae (27.40%), respectively. CHP formula combinations (e.g., Dang-Gui-Sha-Yao-San plus Wen-Jing-Tang 3.10%) or single Chinese herbal combinations (e.g., Semen Cuscutae plus Leonurus japonicus 6.31%) were also commonly used to treat female infertility. Further well-conducted, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHP combinations for female infertility. PMID:26986137

  7. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology.

  8. Increased regional gray matter atrophy and enhanced functional connectivity in male multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, C; Cruz-Gómez, A J; Belenguer, A; Fittipaldi Márquez, M S; Ávila, C; Forn, C

    2016-09-06

    Evidence suggests that sex/gender is an important factor for understanding multiple sclerosis (MS) and that some of its neuropathological consequences might manifest earlier in males. In the present study, we assessed gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity (FC) in a sample of female and male MS patients (MSp) and female and male healthy controls (HCs). As compared to female MSp, male MSp showed decreased GM volume in the bilateral frontal areas and increased FC between different brain regions. Because both sets of changes correlated significantly and no differences in cognitive performance were observed, we suggest that the FC increase observed in male MSp acts as a compensatory mechanism for their more extensive GM loss and that it promotes a functional convergence between male- and female-MSp.

  9. Infertile men’s needs and assessment of fertility care

    PubMed Central

    Sylvest, Randi; Fürbringer, Jeanette Krogh; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Male infertility is potentially a severe, low-control stressor. There is limited knowledge of the expectations, needs, and assessment of fertility care among men with severe infertility. The aim of this study was to explore experience, expectations, needs, and assessment of fertility care among Danish men having severe male-factor infertility. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interview study with 10 men with very low sperm quality initiating intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment at the Fertility Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. Five of the men participated in a follow-up interview after their first ICSI treatment. The data collection took place during November 2014 to May 2015. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Two themes were found: ‘The maze’ and ‘Desire for care’. It felt like an eternity for the men from the referral until treatment started. The men did not understand the process, and it was like being in a maze. The men saw fatherhood as something to strive for. They felt that they could not do what a man is supposed to do, and they felt pushed aside and that treatment focused on the women. The men appreciated the staff’s kindness and professionalism but desired the staff to address emotional subjects too. Conclusion The process from referral to treatment felt like a maze for these men. They needed the staff to give them the opportunity to speak of the psychosocial consequences of severe male-factor infertility. PMID:27501219

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances and endometriosis-related infertility in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Rongrong; Jin, Fan; Lou, Hangying; Mao, Yuchan; Zhu, Wenting; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Jun

    2017-03-07

    Endometriosis is one of the main causes for female infertility. Previous studies suggested that perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), a group of ubiquitous environmental chemicals with properties of endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity, were risk factors for endometriosis but there lacks direct evidence on the possible role of PFASs in endometriosis-related infertility. To fill this gap, we examined the association between PFASs and endometriosis-related infertility among Chinese reproductive-age women in a case-control study, which comprised 157 surgically confirmed endometriosis cases and 178 controls seeking infertility treatment because of male reproductive dysfunction in 2014 and 2015. Blood specimens were collected at the enrollment and analyzed for ten PFASs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual PFAS compound. Plasma concentrations of perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS) were associated with an increased risk of endometriosis-related infertility (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.74, 95% CI: 2.04, 6.84; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.65, 5.57). This association remained consistent when we restricted to subjects with no previous pregnancy (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.61; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.41, 95% CI: 1.52, 7.65) or to subjects without other gynecologic pathology (second vs. lowest tertile: OR=4.65, 95% CI: 2.21, 9.82; highest vs. lowest tertile: OR=3.36, 95% CI: 1.58, 7.15). Plasma concentrations of perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) were inversely associated with endometriosis-related infertility, but the associations were attenuated in the sensitivity analyses. Our preliminary evidence suggests that exposure to PFBS may increase the risk of female infertility due to endometriosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to confirm these

  11. Sexual Concerns of Male Spouses of Female Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litz, Brett T.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents case study which highlights attendant cognitive changes that occur in Alzheimer's patient, presenting caregiver with challenges to couple's sexual functioning. Describes man who reported erectile dysfunction directly stemming from stressful changes that had occurred in his relationship to his wife who had Alzheimer's disease. General…

  12. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    PubMed

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters.

  13. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism within the Novel Sex-Linked Testis-Specific Retrotransposed PGAM4 Gene Influences Human Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hidenobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Irie, Shinji; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Wada, Morimasa; Tanaka, Hiromitsu

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes. Methods and Finding We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4) on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme’s activity both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility. PMID:22590500

  14. A prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of the effect of saffron (Crocus sativus Linn.) on semen parameters and seminal plasma antioxidant capacity in infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-04-01

    Male factor infertility is a multifactorial disorder that affects a significant percentage of infertile couples; however, many of them remained untreated. In recent years, considerable numbers of infertile men have sought 'herbal remedies' as an effective treatment. Among 'herbal remedies', saffron is recommended for male infertility in our community. The effect of saffron was evaluated compared with placebo for the treatment of idiopathic male factor infertility. The study included 260 infertile men with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) who were randomized to saffron 60 mg/day (130, group 1) or a similar regimen of placebo (130, group 2) for 26 weeks. The two groups were compared for changes in semen parameters and total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity. Saffron administration did not result in beneficial effects. At the end of the study no statistically significant improvements were observed in either group in any of the studied semen parameters (sperm density, morphology and motility) (all p = 0.1). At the end of the trial, patients in group 1 had a mean motility of 25.7 ± 2.4%, which was not statistically different from the mean of 24.9 ± 2.8% in the placebo group (p = 0.1). Normal sperm morphology was 18.7 ± 4.7% and 18.4 ± 4.3%, in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.1). Patients treated with saffron and placebo had a mean sperm density of 20.5 ± 4.6% and 21.4 ± 4.6% per mL, respectively (p = 0.1). Saffron administration did not improve total seminal plasma antioxidant capacity, compared with baseline (p = 0.1) and placebo subjects (p = 0.1). Based on Pearson correlations, each semen parameter did not correlate significantly with treatment duration, including sperm density (r = 0.146, p = 0.13), percent of motile sperm (r = 0.145, p = 0.15) and percent of sperm with normal morphology (r = 0.125, p = 0.30). Saffron does not statistically significantly improve semen parameters in infertile men with idiopathic OAT. If medical

  15. Infertility Research at the NICHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Progress: Effects of Aspirin on Gestation and Reproduction (EAGeR) Study Previous studies have suggested that some ... through the NICHD Specialized Cooperative Centers Program in Reproduction and Infertility Research (SCCPIR) recently identified a key ...

  16. A case study: refractory recurrent autoimmune hepatitis following liver transplantation in two male patients.

    PubMed

    Tencate, V; Komorowski, R; Cronin, D; Hong, J; Gawrieh, S

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) recurs after liver transplantation and significantly impacts graft function and patient survival. In this case report, we present 2 cases of male patients with refractory recurrent AIH after liver transplantation. Each patient lost their first graft due to refractory continuous AIH. We have not noticed a similar refractory course for our female patients with AIH post-transplantation at our center. Based on our single-center experience there appears to be a gender disparity in the aggressive nature of AIH recurrence after transplantation. Despite the aggressive nature of recurrent AIH in both patients, graft loss occurred beyond 3 years for both patients and did not influence the 1- and 3-year patient survival. If these findings are validated, they may have significant impact on post-transplantation immunosuppression management in male patients.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  18. A fe/male transsexual patient in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, D

    1998-02-01

    The author describes the analysis of a transsexual who had undergone a vaginoplasty as a young man and had since been living as a woman. The complexity of the psychic reality is epitomised by the analyst's difficulty in deciding whether to use masculine or feminine grammatical forms to refer to this patient. The author tells how she assumed the fantasy role of parents expecting a baby whose sex they did not yet know. She discusses at length her hesitation about accepting a transsexual patient into analysis and reports how she overcame her misgivings after analysing her own countertransference and consulting the literature. Noting that this borderline analysand resorted to both psychotic and neurotic mechanisms, the analyst decided to rely on the capacity for symbolisation and mental representation evinced in the latter. On the psychotic level, the delusional neo-reality of the appearance of a woman sought to replace the unbearable reality of being a man, whereas the neurotic part was aware that s/he could never really be a woman. The author observes that in this analysand sexualisation served to conceal a fundamental narcissistic fault. She also describes how she worked with her own madness to help the patient emerge from a situation of paradoxical fusion with the mother in madness.

  19. Identification and assessment of common errors in the admission process of patients in Isfahan Fertility and Infertility Center based on “failure modes and effects analysis”

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Ashraf; Abumasoudi, Rouhollah Sheikh; Ehsanpour, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility and errors in the process of its treatment have a negative impact on infertile couples. The present study was aimed to identify and assess the common errors in the reception process by applying the approach of “failure modes and effects analysis” (FMEA). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, the admission process of fertility and infertility center of Isfahan was selected for evaluation of its errors based on the team members’ decision. At first, the admission process was charted through observations and interviewing employees, holding multiple panels, and using FMEA worksheet, which has been used in many researches all over the world and also in Iran. Its validity was evaluated through content and face validity, and its reliability was evaluated through reviewing and confirmation of the obtained information by the FMEA team, and eventually possible errors, causes, and three indicators of severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection were determined and corrective actions were proposed. Data analysis was determined by the number of risk priority (RPN) which is calculated by multiplying the severity of effect, probability of occurrence, and probability of detection. Results: Twenty-five errors with RPN ≥ 125 was detected through the admission process, in which six cases of error had high priority in terms of severity and occurrence probability and were identified as high-risk errors. Conclusions: The team-oriented method of FMEA could be useful for assessment of errors and also to reduce the occurrence probability of errors. PMID:28194208

  20. Infertility Counseling and Support: When and Where to Find It

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  1. Association of autoimmune diseases with lichen sclerosus in 532 male and female patients.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Alexander; Kryvosheyeva, Yulia; Terras, Sarah; Moritz, Rose; Möllenhoff, Katrin; Altmeyer, Peter; Scola, Nina; Gambichler, Thilo

    2013-03-27