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Sample records for male infertility patients

  1. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis.

  2. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  3. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments.

  4. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  5. Endocrine causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jarow, Jonathan P

    2003-02-01

    Although endocrinopathies are not often seen in infertile men, these disorders are clinically significant; they often have potentially serious medical significance, regardless of fertility issues. Correction of these disorders represents a possible way to restore normal fertility for the male partner. Male fertility is critically dependent upon a normal hormonal milieu. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is quite sensitive to disruption by endocrine disorders and other generalized medical disorders. Thus, male infertility is occasionally the presenting sign for significant underlying medical disease; it is important to properly evaluate these patients.

  6. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  7. Analysis of 508 infertile male patients in south-western Finland in 1980-2000: hormonal status and factors predisposing to immunological infertility.

    PubMed

    Veräjänkorva, Esko; Laato, Matti; Pöllänen, Pasi

    2003-12-10

    To analyse the factors predisposing to male immunological infertility from the hospital records of 508 patients that had been treated for infertility in the Turku University Central Hospital from 1980 to 2000. In addition, the hormonal status was investigated at the beginning of treatment. Patients with a history of mumps, or either a fresh varicocele or a history of varicocele had statistically significant lower levels of MAR antisperm antibodies (ASAs) than patients with no such conditions. Repair of varicocele (either surgical or embolisation), showed a statistically significant enhancement of the total sperm cell counts in ejaculates, but it appeared not to have any influence on other parameters of the semen analysis (mobility and morphology). Of all male infertility patients, 66.3% had normal hormonal status at the beginning of treatment, 12.6% of patients had hypotestosteronemia and 22.1% had subclinical hypogonadism. Patients with subclinical hypogonadism had lower total sperm cell count in ejaculates than patients with normal hormonal status although they had statistically significant more offspring. In addition, it appeared that mumps orchitis as well as smoking and alcohol abuse are risk factors for subclinical hypogonadism. No clear predisposing factor for male immunological infertility could be found. However, patients with subclinical hypogonadism differed from other male infertility patients and thus may form a special group among the male infertility patients.

  8. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. PMID:22046184

  9. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

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  10. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  11. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunology and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Mumford, D M

    1978-10-01

    This article has attempted to review evidence that suggests that immune factors may be operative in a small but significant number of infertile men. Although our current understanding of the possible processes by which autosensitization to previously sequestered reproductive antigens occurs is incomplete, there are laboratory assays presently available that give an indication, but do not prove, that immune factors may be contributing to the infertile state. Continued research is needed to develop new assays and more purified sperm antigens, which might enhance our knowledge of the underlying immunoreproductive changes. Until these are available, the following procedures should be considered when investigating a patient with infertility of suspected immune origin. The patient's history should be taken, and a physical examination should be performed. A complete blood count, urinalysis, and complete semen analysis and culture should be taken. Next, in vivo cervical tests (Sims-Huhner) are performed, followed by sperm antibody assessment (serum, semen) and perhaps in vitro cervical mucus sperm assays (especially the crossed hostility test). After the tests have been completed, the following possibe treatments exist: 1. Treatment of underlying infections 2. Correction of obstructions 3. Corticosteroid (or testosterone?) therapy 4. Washed sperm insemination 5. First portion of fresh ejaculate insemination 6. Artificial insemination with homologous donor 7. Adoption.

  13. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  14. [Overweight and secretory male infertility].

    PubMed

    Oshakbaev, K P; Abylaĭuly, Zh; Dukenbaeva, B A

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a trial with participation of 60 males aged 23-52. Of them, 30 had secretory male iufertility (SMI) and obesity. The control 30 patients were healthy volunteers. The protocol was performed by two stages. Stage 1 included: investigation of a clinico-laboratory status, of correlation between a sorption function of erythrocytes, endogenic metabolic intoxication (EMI) and spermogram parameters, concentration of serum testosterone in SMI patients. Stage 2 consisted in treatment of the intoxication by reducing body mass. All the infertile men were obese; 30% of them had low glucose tolerance, 46.7% had stage 2 hypertension, 23.3%--seasonal allergic symptoms. The level of organic substances on the surface of erythrocytes in infertile men was higher than in the controls (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was seen between spermogram parameters and organic substances content on erythrocytic surface (p < 0/05), concentration of serum testosterone and the above substances (p < 0.01). The loss of fat tissue by 7-14 kg by infertile men resulted in a positive trend in spermogram parameters and the level of serum testosterone (p < 0.01).

  15. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  16. Escin improves sperm quality in male patients with varicocele-associated infertility.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yujiang; Zhao, Lei; Yan, Feng; Xia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Donghui; Cui, Xijun

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of escin to improve sperm quality in Chinese male patients with varicocele-associated infertility. This study included 219 male patients with varicocele-associated infertility. These patients were randomly assigned into three groups: the control, the surgery and the escin group. 106 patients, with a mean age of 30 years old and a mean period of infertility of 5.0 years, were recruited in the escin group and a daily dose of 60mg (30mg every 12h) of escin was administered orally during an uninterrupted period of 2 months. The diameter of spermatic vein was also measured using color Doppler ultrasonography before and after treatment in the escin group. Patients in all groups took composite medicines favorable for sperm quality and semen were obtained and analyzed before and after treatment. In response to treatment, the improvement rates in sperm density in the control, the surgery and the escin group, were 38.5%, 68.8%, and 57.5%, respectively. The differences in the surgery and the escin groups were significant compared to that in the control group (68.8% or 57.5% vs. 38.5%, P<0.05). The improvement rates in sperm motility in the control, the surgery and the escin group were 46.2%, 77.1%, and 55.7%, respectively. Significant difference was only observed between the surgery and the control group (77.1% vs. 46.2%, P<0.05). In the escin group, when severity of varicocele was classified to mild, moderate or severe degree according to the diameter of the spermatic vein, the improvement rates in disease severity were higher in the mild (41.7% vs. 20.0%, P<0.05) and moderate severity subgroups (64.4% vs. 20.0%, P<0.05) when compared to that in the severe subgroup (20.0%). The improvement rate in disease severity was also higher in the moderate subgroup when compared to that in the mild subgroup (64.4% vs. 41.7%, P<0.05). During the period of treatment, only very low frequencies of mild adverse effects were observed, most of which resolved without

  17. Cryopreservation of very low numbers of spermatozoa from male patients undergoing infertility treatment using agarose capsules.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu; Abe, Hiroyuki; Araki, Yasuyuki; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2017-07-01

    This study tried to cryopreserve low numbers of spermatozoa from men undergoing infertility treatments by inserting into agarose capsules. The capsules were transferred into a drop of cryoprotectant solution and injected 3-4 motile spermatozoa that were selected by the swim-up method by conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection. These capsules were put on a Cryotop(®) and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor, and then submerged into liquid nitrogen and subsequently thawed and recovered. The motile spermatozoa in the capsules were counted. Eventually, we cryopreserved 2142 motile spermatozoa in 702 agarose capsules from 26 male patients and 1356 (63%) spermatozoa maintained their motility after thawing. The spermatozoa motility rates after thawing (MRAT) ranged from 20.0% (5/25) to 95.1% (58/61) among patients. The median MRAT was 68.3% (interquartile range 46.1-75.7). The total number of motile spermatozoa collected by swim-up method strongly correlated with MRAT (r = 0.746). It was possible to cryopreserve spermatozoa from male patients undergoing infertility treatment using agarose capsules. However, there were wide differences in MRAT among patients. It seems the spermatozoa from semen where there were many motile spermatozoa may have higher freezing resistance. Further studies using this method in cryptozoospermic semen, testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are required.

  18. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vicari, E; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Vicari, L O; La Vignera, S

    2012-04-01

    Recently, we reported an increased prevalence of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) in patients with prostatitis syndromes (PS) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) compared with patients with PS alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infections (MAGI) in patients with CBP plus IBS and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: (i) infertility; (ii) diagnosis of CBP; and (iii) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following two aged-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent to an accurate anamnesis, administration of the NIH-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively, physical examination, and semen analysis. A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with the patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or the fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in the patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leucocyte concentration compared with the patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both the groups of patients without MAGI. The patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with the patients with CBP alone. This was associated with worse sperm parameters and, hence, poorer reproductive prognosis. We suggest to search for the presence of IBS in the patients with PS and in particular when CBP and/or worse sperm parameters are present. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European

  19. Detection of Y chromosome microdeletions and mitochondrial DNA mutations in male infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Güney, A I; Javadova, D; Kırac, D; Ulucan, K; Koc, G; Ergec, D; Tavukcu, H; Tarcan, T

    2012-04-27

    Infertility affects about 10-15% of all couples attempting pregnancy with infertility attributed to the male partner in approximately half of the cases. Proposed causes of male infertility include sperm motility disturbances, Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal abnormalities, single gene mutations, and sperm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements. To investigate the etiology of decreased sperm fertility and motility of sperm and to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy, the molecular basis of these defects must be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the relationships between the genetic factors including sperm mtDNA mutations, Y chromosome microdeletions, and sperm parameters that can be regarded as candidate factors for male infertility. Thirty men with a history of infertility and 30 fertile men were recruited to the study. Y chromosome microdeletions were analyzed by multiplex PCR. Mitochondrial genes ATPase6, Cytb, and ND1, were amplified by PCR and then analyzed by direct sequencing. No Y chromosome microdeletions were detected in either group. However, a total of 38 different nucleotide substitutions were identified in the examined mitochondrial genes in both groups, all of which are statistically non-significant. Fifteen substitutions caused an amino acid change and 12 were considered novel mutations. As a conclusion, mtDNA mutations and Y chromosome microdeletions in male infertility should be examined in larger numbers in order to clarify the effect of genetic factors.

  20. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  1. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  2. Genetics of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Poongothai, J; Gopenath, T S; Manonayaki, S

    2009-04-01

    Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of infertile men, the cause of their infertility is unknown (idiopathic) and could be congenital or acquired. Infertility in men can be diagnosed initially by semen analysis. Seminograms of infertile men may reveal many abnormal conditions, which include azoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, necrospermia and pyospermia. The current estimate is that about 30 percent of men seeking help at the infertility clinic are found to have oligozoospermia or azoospermia of unknown aetiology. Therefore, there is a need to find the cause of infertility. The causes are known in less than half of these cases, out of which genetic or inherited disease and specific abnormalities in the Y chromosome are major factors. About 10-20 percent of males presenting without sperm in the ejaculate carry a deletion of the Y chromosome. This deleted region includes the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) locus, located in the Yq11, which is divided into four recurrently deleted non-overlapping subregions designated as AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd. Each of these regions may be associated with a particular testicular histology, and several candidate genes have been found within these regions. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family is reported to be the most frequently deleted AZF candidate gene and is located in the AZFc region. Recently, a partial, novel Y chromosome 1.6-Mb deletion, designated "gr/gr" deletion, has been described specifically in infertile men with varying degrees of spermatogenic failure. The DAZ gene has an autosomal homologue, DAZL (DAZ-Like), on the short arm of the chromosome 3 (3

  3. Novel FSHβ mutation in a male patient with isolated FSH deficiency and infertility.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junjie; Mao, Jiangfeng; Cui, Mingxuan; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Xi; Xiong, Shuyu; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2017-06-01

    Isolated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency due to mutations in FSHβ is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disease that has only been reported in ten patients to date. Symptoms of the disease include amenorrhoea and hypogonadism in women and azoospermia and normal testosterone levels in men. This study describes a Chinese male patient who presented with cryptorchidism and infertility. His serum hormonal profile revealed low FSH, elevated LH and normal testosterone levels. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous mutation in the FSHβ gene (c.343C > T) predicted to result in a premature termination codon and a truncated FSH protein (p.R115X). Both parents were heterozygous carriers of the mutation with normal pubertal development and fertility. The patient's testicular volume increased after one year of exogenous FSH replacement therapy at which point spermatocytes were detected in seminal samples, indicating potential future spermatogenesis. The expanded spectrum of FSHβ mutations and associated clinical manifestations described in this study may improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Ubiquitin-specific protease (USP26) gene alterations associated with male infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in Iranian infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Asadpor, U; Totonchi, M; Sabbaghian, M; Hoseinifar, H; Akhound, M R; Zari Moradi, Sh; Haratian, K; Sadighi Gilani, M A; Gourabi, H; Mohseni Meybodi, A

    2013-07-01

    The human X chromosome is enriched with testis-specific genes that may be crucial for male fertility. Mutations in USP26 gene have been proposed to be associated with male infertility. Moreover, the importance of the ubiquitin pathway during different stages of mammalian fertilization and even embryo development has been addressed. Some mutations and haplotypes on this gene have been proposed to be associated with male infertility. In this study, five different mutations on USP26 were investigated: 1737 G > A, 1090 C > T, 370-371ins ACA, 494 T > C and 1423 C > T. The study included 166 infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia, 72 male partners of couples who had previously experienced ≥3 clinical first trimester spontaneous abortions and 60 fertile men. Besides family history of reproduction, hormonal evaluation and semen analysis were performed. DNA was extracted from blood samples. PCR-SSCP, PCR-RFLP and PCR Product Cloning methods were used and resumed by sequencing to insure about the mutations. Moreover, USP26 gene expression was studied by Real-Time PCR after RNA extraction followed by cDNA synthesis from 24 testis biopsies in obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia patients. The results indicate that there is a haplotype between three observed mutations in Iranian population include: 370-371insACA, 1423C > T and 494 T > C. This haplotype was seen in control group as well. Surprisingly, total frequency of mutations in men with history of idiopathic RPL and azoospermic cases were significantly higher than that of in control groups (p < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular volume did not differ in the mutation positive group compared with the non-mutation group. About the USP26 gene expression, there is a significant difference between the expression levels of obstructive azoospermia, complete maturation arrest samples and SCO samples (P < 0.05). According to our results, the USP26 gene may play

  5. Testicular cancer and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cancer and infertility affect a similar age group of patients and have common biologic, epidemiologic, and environmental backgrounds. In this review, we provide current literature on links between infertility and testicular cancer, and new developments in the management of testicular cancer aimed at improving quality of life in men with testicular cancer. In-utero environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors modulates the genetically determined fate of primitive gonad and results in testicular dysgenesis syndrome, which may result in infertility and testicular cancer. Excellent response of testicular cancer to radiation and chemotherapy results in over 90% of survival and quality of life--fertility and sexual function--is of significant concern to patients and clinicians. The testicular-sparing management of testicular masses emerges as a sound alternative to radical orchiectomy and allows for preservation of spermatogenesis and hormonal function, and at the same time achieving similar survival rates. Secondary malignancies, pulmonary, and cardiovascular complications are recognized as late complications of treatment for testicular cancer. Better understanding of common mechanisms involved in infertility and testicular cancer, and scientifically driven evidence-based treatment options should improve quality of life in young men faced with this potentially life-threatening disease.

  6. Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Avery, Kelsey; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and

  7. Male infertility: pathogenesis and clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Csilla

    2011-04-01

    Infertility affects about 7% of all men. The etiology of impaired sperm production and function can be related to factors acting at pre-testicular, post-testicular or directly at the testicular level. Primary testicular failure accounts for about 75% of all male factor infertility. Genetic factors can be identified in about 15% of cases (congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, congenital absence of vas deferens, primitive testicular failure). Despite progresses, mainly in the field of genetics, the etiology is still unknown in about 50% cases and it is termed "idiopathic infertility". A part from few exceptions, the only available therapy for male factor infertility is assisted reproduction which allows conception also in severe male factor, including azoospermia following testicular sperm extraction. The complete diagnostic workup is important for: i) the identification of treatable/reversible or health-threatening conditions; ii) selection of patients for assisted reproductive techniques; iii) for appropriate genetic counselling including preventive measures (preimplanatation or prenatal diagnosis) to safeguard the health of future offspring. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging molecular methods for male infertility investigation.

    PubMed

    Benkhalifa, Moncef; Montjean, Debbie; Belloc, Stephanie; Dalleac, Alain; Ducasse, Michel; Boyer, Pierre; Merviel, Philippe; Copin, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for approximately 50% of reproductive pathology. Different disorders, including urogenital and endocrine system development abnormalities, lead to testicular and gametogenesis defects. Parallely, studies have reported that somatic and germ cell genome decay are a major cause of male infertility. It has been shown that in somatic karyotype, there is a higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations in infertile men than neonatal population and significant chromosome Y microdeletion or specific gene alterations in affected spermatogenesis. Karyotyping and FISH application at somatic and germ cell levels are no longer sufficient to investigate the potential contribution of genome disorders on male infertility. A wide range of molecular methods are required for better understanding of male infertility causes. Molecular omes and omics techniques have become a great tool to investigate male infertility from chromosome to protein. This review reports different molecular tests and methods that can be offered for male infertility investigation.

  9. Genetic testing and counselling for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Krausz, Csilla; Chianese, Chiara

    2014-06-01

    Genetic disorders can be identified in about 15% of cases of male infertility. With the widespread application of assisted reproductive technology, infertile patients are now given the possibility of having their biological children; however, a genetic risk exists for assisted reproductive technology-born offspring, implying the necessity for future parents to be appropriately informed about potential consequences. In this review, we provide current recommendations on clinical genetic testing and genetic counselling. New insights are presented concerning Klinefelter syndrome, X and Y chromosome-linked deletions, monogenic diseases and pharmacogenetics. As for Klinefelter patients, novel preventive measures to preserve fertility have been proposed although they are not yet applicable in the routine setting. Y-chromosome deletions have both diagnostic and prognostic values and their testing is advised to be performed according to the new European Academy of Andrology/European Molecular Genetics Quality Network guidelines. Among monogenic diseases, major advances have been obtained in the identification of novel genes of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Pharmacogenetic approaches of hormonal treatment in infertile men with normal values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are promising and based on FSHR and FSHB polymorphisms. X chromosome-linked deletions are relevant for impaired spermatogenesis. In about 40% of male infertility, the cause is unknown and novel genetic factors are expected to be discovered in the near future.

  10. [Genetic aspects of male infertility].

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    We examined 118 men with infertility. Among them we identified phenotypic syndromes associated with infertility in 4 and chromosomal abnormalities in 16. Further molecular genetic study of 98 infertile men found that microdeletions in AZFc-locus had 3, pathological AR allele had 2, CFTR gene mutation had 4 of them. In 37 infertile men an increased DNA fragmentation index (>20%) was found.

  11. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts.

    PubMed

    Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Paju, P; Vihljajev, V; Pomm, K; Ladva, R; Korrovits, P; Laan, M

    2017-01-01

    What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most severe forms of impaired spermatogenesis were relatively well understood; causes were assigned: for aspermia in 46/46 cases (100%), for azoospermia in 321

  12. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    PubMed Central

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most

  13. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Relevance of genetic investigation in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Asero, P; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Lanzafame, F; Crisci, R; La Vignera, S

    2014-05-01

    Genetic causes can be directly responsible for various clinical conditions of male infertility and spermatogenic impairment. With the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies our understanding of genetic basis of male infertility has large implications not only for understanding the causes of infertility but also in determining the prognosis and management of such couples. For these reasons, the genetic investigations represent today an essential and useful tool in the treatment of male infertility. Several evidences are available for the clinical practice regarding the diagnosis; however, there are less information relative to the treatment of the genetic causes of male infertility. Focus of this review is to discuss the main and more common genetic causes of male infertility to better direct the genetics investigation in the treatment of spermatogenic impairment.

  15. Can intracytoplasmic sperm injection prevent total fertilization failure and enhance embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could prevent total fertilization failure (TFF) and enhance the embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility. A total of 296 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed in patients with non-male factor infertility between April 2009 and March 2013 were included in this retrospective study. During the period, ICSI and conventional IVF were performed in 142 and 154 cycles, respectively. The usual indications for ICSI were in the cycles of patients with (1) known low fertilization rate, (2) repetitive implantation failure, (3) advanced maternal age, (4) presence of endometrioma, (5) low oocyte yield (number of oocytes ≤3), or (6) poor quality oocytes. The rate of TFF, normal fertilization, abnormal pronuclei (PN) formation, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcomes between the patients treated with ICSI and conventional IVF cycles were compared. The patients treated with ICSI (ICSI group, n=142) presented fewer number of oocytes than patients treated with conventional IVF cycles (n=154). The TFF rate was not different (4.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.059), but the ICSI group presented a significantly higher rate of normal fertilization (83.4% vs. 79.1%, P=0.04) and lower rate of abnormal PN formation (3.9% vs. 13.3%, P<0.01). The cleavage stage embryo quality was better in the ICSI group (grade A: 31.1% vs. 21.3%, P=0.001; grade A+B: 65.1% vs. 47.6%, P<0.001). The result of this study does not support the use of ICSI to prevent TFF in patients with non-male factor infertility. However, ICSI improved the fertilization rate and the embryo quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Male infertility: non-surgical therapy].

    PubMed

    Gulino, Gaetano; Stefanucci, Marco; Antonucci, Michele; Racioppi, Marco; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected intercourse and affects 15% of couples with male component of 50%. The failure of spermatogenesis can result from hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disorders although in the majority of cases it remains idiopathic. The diagnostic process includes medical history, semen analysis, hormonal studies, genetic studies and radiological evaluation.Targeted hormonal therapies are available for patients whose infertility is caused by altered levels of androgens, prolactin, or TSH. Main treatments aim to restore normal sexual function by administering testosterone and to increase spermatogenesis with pulsatile GnRH.Fertility in men suffering from hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism can be restored through hormone therapy using GnRH or with the use of gonadotropins when there is hypothalamic failure. In the past, treatment options for the factors of idiopathic male infertility were mainly based on the use of anti-estrogens that cause an increased secretion of FSH and LH and therefore of testosterone.Oxytocin promotes the progression of the sperm and increases the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. The aromatase's inhibitors decrease the conversion of androgens to estrogens, increasing serum levels of androgens, resulting in an increased release of gonadotropins.Two areas showed interesting future perspectives for the treatment of infertility: gene therapy and transplantation of spermatogonial stem cells.

  17. Human sperm and other seminal constituents in male infertile patients from arsenic and cadmium rich areas of Southern Assam.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Deb, Ishita; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Kar, Kushal Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In the present study the occurrence of two heavy metals, arsenic and cadmium, have been reported in the drinking water and seminal plasma of infertile male patients as compared to a control group. The study originated from a survey of geogenic groundwater contamination with the heavy metals arsenic and cadmium in Southern Assam, India as an increase in the incidence of male infertility was being reported from these areas. According to WHO protocol, patients with sperm concentration < 20 x 10(6)/ml were selected as cases (oligozoospermic and azoospermic), and those with > 20 x 10(6)/ml, without any extreme pathological disorders and having fathered a child within 1-2 years of marriage were the control (normozoospermic) group. The study reports an inverse relationship between total sperm count and heavy metal content in drinking water as well as seminal plasma of the subjects. Moreover, a high correlation between altered semenological parameters and lower expression of accessory sex gland markers like fructose, acid phosphatase, and neutral α-glucosidase in the seminal plasma of patients is reported. The study also highlights significant differences of the sperm function parameters like hypo-osmotic swelling, acrosome reaction, and nuclear chromatin decondensation in the patient group as compared to controls. These findings are significant as they address a likely association between heavy metal stress and altered sperm function as well as seminal enzyme inhibition.

  18. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  19. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  20. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  1. Male infertility and endocrinopathies in Kano, Northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emokpae, M A; Uadia, P O; Omale-Itodo, A; Orok, T N

    2007-06-01

    Endocrinologic disorders and infertility are common all over the world; the prevalence of infertility is high in sub-Saharan Africa. Several authors have suggested that the increased incidence of infertility in Africa is due to high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. To evaluate the contributions of endocrine abnormalities to infertility in the male in Kano, Northern Nigeria. A total of five hundred males, aged between 28 and 56 years were evaluated over a period of 4 years (2001-2004). The hormones were analyzed using electrochemiluminescene immunoassay technique. Hormonal abnormalities were detected in 22% oligospermic, 40.7% severe oligospermic, and 42.7% azoospermic subjects. Endocrine abnormalities are common in the infertile males. The reason for the observed endocrinopathies is not known, appropriate laboratory investigations are essential for effective patients management. Further study to ascertain the cause(s) of hormonal derangements is suggested.

  2. [Causes of male infertility. The contribution of the endocrine factor].

    PubMed

    Devoto, E; Madariaga, M; Lioi, X

    2000-02-01

    Male infertility is responsible for 35% of infertile couples. To investigate the causes of male infertility and the relative importance of endocrine factors. Patients referred to an andrology clinic due to an abnormal spermiogram were studied. A testicular examination, spermiogram and determination of FSH, LH, testosterone and prolactin were done to all. Testicular biopsy was done to patients with severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Causes of infertility were defined and classified as pretesticular, testicular, posttesticular or unclassified. Two hundred fifty seven males were studied. In 3.5% of them, the cause of infertility was defined as pretesticular (that included hypothalamic and pituitary endocrine causes), in 66.9% it was classified as testicular, in 15.6% as posttesticular and in 14%, as unclassified. Thirty percent of infertility cases were idiopathic, 17.9% were associated to varicocele, 12.8% were associated to cryptorchidism, 8.9% to Klinefelter syndrome and 6.6% to exposure to toxic substances. In 50% of patients with cryptorchidism, this abnormality was found during the specialized andrological examination and referrals for surgical correction were made late. Two thirds of patients with Klinefelter syndrome were hypoandrogenic. Causes for male infertility should be investigated and diagnosed accurately. Primary hypoandrogenic testicular failures must be treated with hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Balercia, G; Mancini, A; Paggi, F; Tiano, L; Pontecorvi, A; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Littarru, G P

    2009-07-01

    We had previously demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 [(CoQ10) also commonly called ubiquinone] is present in well-measurable levels in human seminal fluid, where it probably exerts important metabolic and antioxidant functions; seminal CoQ10 concentrations show a direct correlation with seminal parameters (count and motility). Alterations of CoQ10 content were also shown in conditions associated with male infertility, such as asthenozoospermia and varicocele (VAR). The physiological role of this molecule was further clarified by inquiring into its variations in concentrations induced by different medical or surgical procedures used in male infertility treatment. We therefore evaluated CoQ10 concentration and distribution between seminal plasma and spermatozoa in VAR, before and after surgical treatment, and in infertile patients after recombinant human FSH therapy. The effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility and function had been addressed only through some in vitro experiments. In two distinct studies conducted by our group, 22 and 60 patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia were enrolled, respectively. CoQ10 and its reduced form, ubiquinol, increased significantly both in seminal plasma and sperm cells after treatment, as well as spermatozoa motility. A weak linear dependence among the relative variations, at baseline and after treatment, of seminal plasma or intracellular CoQ10, ubiquinol levels and kinetic parameters was found in the treated group. Patients with lower baseline value of motility and CoQ10 levels had a statistically significant higher probability to be responders to the treatment. In conclusion, the exogenous administration of CoQ10 increases both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in semen and can be effective in improving sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia.

  4. Empiric medical therapy with hormonal agents for idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Nicholas N; Sabanegh, Edmund S

    2017-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of all couples, and male factor contribute to up to 50% of cases. Unfortunately, the cause of male infertility is unknown in about 30% of these cases. Infertility of unknown origin is classified as idiopathic male infertility when abnormal semen parameters are present. Despite not having a definable cause, these men may respond to treatment. This review focuses on the use of empiric hormonal therapies for idiopathic male infertility. A detailed PubMed/MEDLINE search was conducted to identify all publications pertaining to empiric use of hormonal therapies in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility using the keywords "idiopathic," "male infertility," "empiric treatment," "clomiphene," "SERM," "gonadotropin," "aromatase inhibitor," and "androgen." These manuscripts were reviewed to identify treatment modalities and results. Gonadotropins, androgens, aromatase inhibitors, and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have all been used with varying results. The studies on these treatments are of variable quality. The most well-studied agents are the SERMs which show a modest increase in semen parameters and pregnancy rates. Aromatase inhibitors are most effective in non-idiopathic patients. Gonadotropin treatment is limited by their inconvenience and relative ineffectiveness in this population. Testosterone suppresses spermatogenesis and should not be used to treat infertility. Gonadotropins, SERMs, and aromatase inhibitors may improve semen parameters and hormone levels in men with idiopathic infertility with the best results from SERMs. Testosterone should never be used to treat infertility. Large multicenter randomized controlled studies are needed to better determine the success of empiric use of hormonal therapy on pregnancy rates.

  5. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  6. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  7. Are oxidative stress markers associated with unexplained male infertility?

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Torres, B J M; Camargo, M; Cadavid, Á P; du Plessis, S S; Cardona Maya, W D

    2016-08-10

    Male infertility can be responsible for up to 20% of the cases attending fertility consultation facilities; nonetheless, the underlying molecular mechanisms that could explain it are still elusive. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate conventional and functional parameters of semen samples from patients who presented with male infertility of unknown origin. Conventional semen parameters and functional parameters (i.e. intracellular reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, sperm chromatin structure assay, sperm membrane lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of seminal plasma) were evaluated on semen samples from 54 healthy donors, 23 patients with idiopathic infertility and 34 fertile controls. No significant differences were observed in the conventional seminal parameters between the fertile and infertile men. However, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation were observed in the infertile patients compared to the fertile group. Alterations in intracellular ROS production and DNA fragmentation could be associated with male idiopathic infertility. These parameters could eventually distinguish both groups more accurately than the conventional parameters. Our current results are encouraging, and the efficacy of these parameters in the clinical settings needs to be further assessed to establish their predictive potential as a marker of unexplained male infertility.

  8. Role of Imaging in the Evaluation of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Pardeep K; Little, Brent; Harri, Peter A; Miller, Frank H; Alexander, Lauren F; Kalb, Bobby; Camacho, Juan C; Master, Viraj; Hartman, Matthew; Moreno, Courtney C

    2017-01-01

    Infertility is defined herein as the inability to achieve pregnancy after frequently engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse for 1 year. Among infertile couples, the cause of infertility involves the male partner in approximately 50% of cases. Male infertility is usually caused by conditions affecting sperm production, sperm function, or both, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. Chronic health problems, injuries, lifestyle choices, anatomic problems, hormonal imbalances, and genetic defects can have a role in male infertility. The diagnostic workup of male infertility should include a thorough medical and reproductive history, physical examination, and semen analysis, followed by imaging. The main role of imaging is identification of the causes of infertility, such as congenital anomalies and disorders that obstruct sperm transport and may be correctable. Scrotal ultrasonography is the most common initially performed noninvasive examination used to image the male reproductive system, including the testes and extratesticular structures such as the epididymis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is another noninvasive imaging modality used in the pelvis to evaluate possible obstructive lesions involving the ductal system. MR imaging of the brain is extremely useful for evaluating relevant neurologic abnormalities, such as pituitary gland disorders, that are suspected on the basis of hormone analysis results. Invasive techniques are usually reserved for therapeutic interventions in patients with known abnormalities. In this article, the causes and imaging findings of obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia are discussed. In addition to detecting treatable conditions that are related to male infertility, identifying the life-threatening entities associated with infertility and the genetic conditions that could be transmitted to offspring-especially in patients who undergo assisted reproduction-is critical. (©)RSNA, 2017.

  9. Karyotype analysis in large sample cases from Shenyang Women's and Children's hospital: a study of 16,294 male infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Gao, M; Pang, H; Zhao, Y-H; Hua, J; Tong, D; Zhao, H; Liu, Y; Zhao, Y; Zhang, M; Yan, X-J; Chen, H; Ma, H-P; Jin, T-Y; Dong, S-L

    2017-05-01

    To explore that it is necessary to routinely detect chromosomes in infertile patients, we investigated peripheral blood lymphocyte karyotype in 16,294 male infertile patients in the north-east of China and analysed the incidence and type of chromosomal anomaly and polymorphism. G-banding karyotype analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in 16,294 cases. Semen analysis was performed three times in all the men. PCR and FISH confirmed the presence of the SRY gene. The rate of chromosomal anomaly in the 16,294 male infertile patients was 4.15% (677/16,294). The rates of chromosomal anomaly were 0.24% in normal semen group, 12.6% in light oligoasthenospermia group, 4.7% in moderate-to-severe oligoasthenospermia group and 9.59% in azoospermia group. There are two male infertile patients with 45,X chromosome karyotype. One X male patient had confirmed the presence of the SRY gene and FISH analysis demonstrated its location on the p arm of chromosome 13. The other X male patient had not found SRY gene in its whole-genome DNA. Meanwhile, sperm motility is slightly oligo-asthenozoospermic at the age of 35-39 and nearly azoospermic at the age of 40-45. As the rates of chromosomal anomaly are 0.24% and 12.6% even in normal semen group and light oligoasthenospermia group, the rates of chromosomal polymorphism are 5.36% and 25.51% in normal semen group and light oligoasthenospermia group, respectively; it is necessary to explore peripheral blood lymphocyte karyotype in all infertile couples. We mentioned that Y, 1, 2, 9 and 12 chromosomes were quite important about male infertility. These findings demonstrate that autosomal retention of SRY can be submicroscopic and emphasise the importance of PCR and FISH in the genetic workup of the monosomic X male. At the same time, it suggested that male infertility might be related to meiotic disturbances with spermatogenetic arrest in Y-autosome translocations, which could result in infertility by reduction of sperm

  10. Male infertility: an obstacle to sexuality?

    PubMed

    Bechoua, S; Hamamah, S; Scalici, E

    2016-05-01

    Interactions between infertility and sexuality are numerous and complex. Infertile men may suffer from sexual dysfunction (SD) when undergoing an assisted reproductive technology programme. We undertook a review both in French and English of the available data on male SD when being diagnosed with a fertility problem with a specific focus on azoospermic men. The review was performed over a 30-year time period using PubMed/Medline. The sexual concerns and needs of infertile/sterile men for whom potential parenting can be compromised were evaluated. When diagnosed with infertility, men usually go through a crisis that can have a deleterious effect on their sexuality with sometimes a feeling of sexual inadequacy. Infertile men will feel stigmatized because they are perceived as being deficient in a specific component of their masculinity. Hence, subsequent SD may occur that can impact the couple sexuality and the infertility management. However, little is known on how the announcement of azoospermia may affect male on a sexual and psychological point of view. The present review suggests that a global management through a healthcare network (biologist, andrologist, sexologist and psychologist) is required which will allow to consider infertility and its subsequent sexual disorders as a whole and not as dichotomized issues.

  11. Endocrinology of male infertility: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Rebecca Z

    2009-03-01

    A normal functioning reproductive endocrine system is a prerequisite for normal male fertility. Any disruption of the delicately coordinated interaction between the components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis may lead to hypogonadism and/or infertility. The goal of the clinical evaluation is to determine if the patient has an abnormality of testosterone production or action, the etiology of the abnormality, and if hormone therapy will correct the infertility. Based on a careful history, physical examination, and evaluation of the hormones of the reproductive axis, the physician will ascertain if the patient's hypogonadism is (1) prepubertal or postpubertal in onset; (2) the result of an abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the testes, or the androgen receptor; or (3) associated with another underlying medical condition. This information will place the patient into one of four diagnostic categories: hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, testicular failure, 5alpha-reductase deficiency, or androgen resistance. Within each category are disorders with identifiable pathogenic mechanisms. Recent studies have added to these lists and have provided insights into the molecular basis and inheritance patterns of several of these endocrinopathies.

  12. Schistosomiasis-induced male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kini, Suresh; Dayoub, Nawal; Raja, Asif; Pickering, Sue; Thong, Joo

    2009-01-01

    Azoospermia is a rare, irreversible complication in the UK resulting from heavy infection of schistosomiasis of the male genital tract. Adequate anti-bilharzial treatment and close follow-up with urological assessments should reduce the risk of chronic ill health. This patient contracted schistosomiasis following swimming in lakes in Uganda, Africa, which resulted in azoospermia and reversible loss of libido. The couple underwent treatment at our assisted conception programme with testicular sperm extraction and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The female partner conceived in her second stimulated ICSI cycle and had a spontaneous vaginal delivery at term. PMID:21857876

  13. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    PubMed

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M; Drabovich, Andrei P; Lo, Kirk C

    2016-01-01

    For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling. PMID:26975492

  15. Civil war and male infertility in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Inhorn, Marcia C; Hannoun, Antoine B; Hammoud, Najwa; Awwad, Johnny; Abu-Musa, Antoine A

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the long-term impacts of the 15-year Lebanese civil war on male infertility. Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history and risk factor interview data and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male cases and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. Infertile male cases were more likely than fertile controls to have lived through the Lebanese civil war and to have experienced war-related trauma (residence in bombing areas, participation in combat, injuries, kidnapping, and displacement from home). Cases had a 57% increase in their odds of exposure to civil war-related trauma. This case-control study demonstrates an association between the Lebanese civil war and male infertility. Wartime and postwar exposure to a number of potential reproductive risk factors-including toxins, injuries, and stress-is believed to be the main factor leading to this finding.

  16. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  17. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  18. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws. PMID:27030084

  19. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  20. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  1. Cadmium Concentrations in Blood and Seminal Plasma: Correlations with Sperm Number and Motility in Three Male Populations (Infertility Patients, Artificial Insemination Donors, and Unselected Volunteers)

    PubMed Central

    Benoff, Susan; Hauser, Russ; Marmar, Joel L; Hurley, Ian R; Napolitano, Barbara; Centola, Grace M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a possible common environmental exposure that may partially explain the observed decrease in human semen quality, we correlated seminal plasma and blood cadmium levels with sperm concentration and sperm motility. We studied three separate human populations: group 1, infertility patients (Long Island, NY, USA); group 2, artificial insemination donors (AID) (Rochester, NY, USA); and group 3, general population volunteers (Rochester, NY, USA). Information about confounding factors was collected by questionnaire. Seminal plasma cadmium did not correlate with blood cadmium (Spearman correlation, n = 91, r = −0.092, P = 0.386, NS). Both blood and seminal plasma cadmium were significantly higher among infertility patients than the other subjects studied (for example, median seminal plasma cadmium was 0.282 μg/L in infertility patients versus 0.091 μg/L in AID and 0.092 μg/L in general population volunteers; Kruskal–Wallis test, P < 0.001). The percentage of motile sperm and sperm concentration correlated inversely with seminal plasma cadmium among the infertility patients (r = −0.201, P < 0.036 and r = −0.189, P < 0.05, respectively), but not in the other two groups. Age (among infertility patients) was the only positive confounder correlating with seminal plasma cadmium. To validate our human findings in an animal model, we chronically exposed adolescent male Wistar rats to low-moderate cadmium in drinking water. Though otherwise healthy, the rats exhibited decreases in epididymal sperm count and sperm motility associated with cadmium dose and time of exposure. Our human and rat study results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental cadmium exposures may contribute significantly to reduced human male sperm concentration and sperm motility. PMID:19593409

  2. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  3. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  4. Proteomics, oxidative stress and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Halabi, Jacques; Peng, Jason; Vazquez-Levin, Monica

    2014-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been established as one of the main causes of male infertility and has been implicated in many diseases associated with infertile men. It results from high concentrations of free radicals and suppressed antioxidant potential, which may alter protein expression in seminal plasma and/or spermatozoa. In recent years, proteomic analyses have been performed to characterize the protein profiles of seminal ejaculate from men with different clinical conditions, such as high oxidative stress. The aim of the present review is to summarize current findings on proteomic studies performed in men with high oxidative stress compared with those with physiological concentrations of free radicals, to better understand the aetiology of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. Each of these studies has suggested candidate biomarkers of oxidative stress, among them are DJ-1, PIP, lactotransferrin and peroxiredoxin. Changes in protein concentrations in seminal plasma samples with oxidative stress conditions were related to stress responses and to regulatory pathways, while alterations in sperm proteins were mostly associated to metabolic responses (carbohydrate metabolism) and stress responses. Future studies should include assessment of post-translational modifications in the spermatozoa as well as in seminal plasma proteomes of men diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. Oxidative stress, which occurs due to a state of imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants, has been implicated in most cases of male infertility. Cells that are in a state of oxidative stress are more likely to have altered protein expression. The aim of this review is to better understand the causes of oxidative stress-induced male infertility. To achieve this, we assessed proteomic studies performed on the seminal plasma and spermatozoa of men with high levels of oxidative stress due to various clinical conditions and compared them with men who had physiological concentrations of free

  5. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Nonmosaic 47,XYY syndrome presenting with male infertility: case series.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Razic, M M; Abdel-Hamid, I A; ElSobky, E S

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we describe nine patients with 47,XYY presenting with male infertility. All patients were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the scrotum, endocrinological investigations and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes. Two patients tried intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Our results showed that seven patients were oligospermic and two patients were azoospermic. Bilateral varicocele was detected in seven patients. The hormonal levels in the majority of the patients were within normal range. Two patients showed improvement after varicocelectomy. The wife of one of the oligospermic patients became successfully pregnant after the first trial of ICSI. In conclusion, this report suggests that patients with XYY may present with primary infertility and may show oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. Careful clinical, ultrasonographic, endocrinological and cytogenetic examinations should be a part of their diagnostic work-up for the proper management of these patients. In addition, ICSI may be a hope for some of these patients.

  7. Effects of Korean red ginseng on semen parameters in male infertility patients: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Choe, Sangmin; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on semen parameters in male infertility patients in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. A total of 80 male infertility patients with varicocele were recruited from April 2011 to February 2012. The subjects were then divided into the following four groups: non-varicocelectomy (V)+placebo (P) group, V+P group, non-V+KRG group (1.5-g KRG daily), and V+KGR group (1.5-g KRG daily). Semen analysis was performed and hormonal levels were measured in each treatment arm after 12 weeks. All groups but not the non-V+P group, showed significant improvements in sperm concentrations, motility, morphology, and viability at the end of the study. However, there were no significant differences in serum follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone among groups. The incidence of adverse events was low, and all events were assumed to be unrelated to the treatments administered. Although the exact mechanism by which KRG improves spermatogenesis remains unclear, KRG may be a useful agent for the treatment of male infertility. Nevertheless, additional studies to evaluate the optimal dose and duration of treatment are needed.

  8. The hormonal response to HCG stimulation in patients with male infertility before and after treatment with hochuekkito.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Manabe, F; Zhongtao, H; Yoshii, S; Koiso, K

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the changes in responsiveness to hCG stimulation, and the effects on sperm qualities and basal hormone levels, 63 infertile men received 7.5qr of Hochuekkito daily for 3 months (1). Sperm density (p less than 0.01) and motility (p less than 0.01) were significantly increased after the treatment (2). Serum prolactin (p less than 0.01) and estradiol (p less than 0.01) levels were significantly decreased after the treatment (3). Enhanced responsiveness of testosterone (p less than 0.05) and estradiol (p less than 0.05) excretion to hCG injection were observed in patients with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. These results suggested that Hochuekkito corrected Leydig cell dysfunctions in some infertile men, resulting in improvements in sperm qualities.

  9. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who ...

  10. Varicocele and male infertility in Northeast China: Y chromosome microdeletion as an underlying cause.

    PubMed

    Dai, R L; Hou, Y; Li, F B; Yue, J M; Xi, Q; Liu, R Z

    2015-06-12

    The prevalence of Y chromosome microdeletions among azoospermic, severe oligozoospermic, moderate oligozoospermic, and mild oligozoospermic patients with varicocele-related and idiopathic infertility shows conflicting data in Asian countries. We aimed to detect this frequency in Northeast China, and investigated spermatogenic defects whether associated with varicocele or Y chromosome microdeletions. All samples underwent a thorough physical examination, semen analysis, and PCR analyses for Y chromosome microdeletions. We randomly selected 150 infertile non-obstructive azoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 1), 150 idiopathic non-obstructive azoospermic infertility patients (Group 2), 150 infertile severe oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 3), 150 idiopathic severe oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 4), 150 infertile moderate oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 5), 150 idiopathic moderate oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 6), 150 infertile mild oligozoospermic patients with left varicocele (Group 7), 150 idiopathic mild oligozoospermic infertility patients (Group 8), and 60 healthy unrelated men with proven fertility were recruited as control subjects (Group 9). We observed that our samples from Northeastern China had a higher frequency of microdeletions among the non-obstructive azoospermic individuals with varicocele, as compared with other Asian countries. Furthermore, the spermatogenic defect is due to the underlying Y chromosome microdeletion, and not the varicocele itself. Although varicocele is not the cause of male infertility, it may be associated with male infertility in the Northeastern Chinese population.

  11. Management of male-factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, Herman J; Cohlen, Ben J

    2012-12-01

    For many years, the management of male-factor infertility has been empirical rather than evidence-based. In current clinical practice, assisted reproductive techniques are the most successful methods of alleviating male-factor infertility. To date, it remains unclear what adjuvant actions can be taken to improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques for male-factor infertility. Evidence shows that smoking adversely affects sperm quality to some extent, and the genetic make-up of sperm to a greater extent; however, because of the scarcity and heterogeneity of studies, its effect on in-vitro fertilisation outcome remains largely unknown. Although smoking cessation should be part of the assisted reproductive techniques treatment plan, the benefit of antioxidant treatment in either smokers or non-smokers undergoing assisted reproductive techniques is still under scrutiny. Other lifestyle modifications in subfertile men, such as refraining from moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption, are even more controversial. When embarking on assisted reproductive techniques to alleviate male-factor infertility, intrauterine insemination may be considered as a first-line treatment for couples in whom the female partner has a normal fertility status, and at least 0.8 × 10(6) progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation. If no pregnancy is achieved after three to six cycles of intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilisation can be proposed. When too few progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after sperm processing for in-vitro fertilisation, or when surgically retrieved sperm are to be used, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is preferable. Although the outcome of no other assisted reproductive techniques has been scrutinised so much, and no large-scale 'macro-problems' have yet been observed after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, malformation rates are reported to be higher compared with the general population. Therefore, candidates

  12. Analysis of seminal plasma from patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and identification of candidate biomarkers of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Batruch, Ihor; Smith, Christopher R; Mullen, Brendan J; Grober, Ethan; Lo, Kirk C; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Jarvi, Keith A

    2012-03-02

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples with equivalent male and female contribution. Absence of sperm in semen, referred to as azoospermia, accounts for 5-20% of male infertility cases and can result from pretesticular azoospermia, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), and obstructive azoospermia (OA). The current clinical methods of differentiating NOA cases from OA ones are indeterminate and often require surgical intervention for a conclusive diagnosis. We catalogued 2048 proteins in seminal plasma from men presented with NOA. Using spectral-counting, we compared the NOA proteome to our previously published proteomes of fertile control men and postvasectomy (PV) men and identified proteins at differential abundance levels among these clinical groups. To verify spectral counting ratios for candidate proteins, extracted ion current (XIC) intensities were also used to calculate abundance ratios. The Pearson correlation coefficient between spectral counting and XIC ratios for the Control-NOA and NOA-PV data sets is 0.83 and 0.80, respectively. Proteins that showed inconsistent spectral counting and XIC ratios were removed from analysis. There are 34 proteins elevated in Control relative to NOA, 18 decreased in Control relative to NOA, 59 elevated in NOA relative to PV, and 16 decreased in NOA relative to PV. Many of these proteins have expression in the testis and the epididymis and are linked to fertility. Some of these proteins may be useful as noninvasive biomarkers in discriminating NOA cases from OA.

  13. Male infertility and varicocele: myths and reality

    PubMed Central

    Kantartzi, P D; Goulis, Ch D; Goulis, G D; Papadimas, I

    2007-01-01

    Varicocele is among the most common causes of male infertility. It is also one of the most controversial issues in the field of Andrology, especially regarding why, when and to whom varicocelectomy should be applied. Many experts believe that the surgical repair of varicocele should be applied only in a meticulously selected group of infertile men, although there are no generally accepted criteria. Up to now, the only confirmed prognostic factor for achievement of pregnancy after varicocelectomy is the age of the female partner. Given the wide application of intra - cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) during the last few years, the modern research approaches should compare the benefits of varicocelectomy and ICSI, taking under consideration both the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of the methods. PMID:19582201

  14. Profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city.

    PubMed

    Khondker, L; Khan, S I; Ahamed, R S

    2012-07-01

    A cross sectional study was done to determine the important etiological profile of infertility status of male in Dhaka city. A total of eighty seven patients of male infertility were selected purposively. Among them, highest percentage of patients, 44(50.6%) were in between the 21-30 years old, 36(41.4%) had 6-10 years of post- marriage duration, 56(64.4%) patients stated that they stayed with their wife interruptedly, 54(62.1%) had primary infertility and 33(37.9%) had secondary infertility. It was found that among the patients 6(5.50%) had anti-sperm antibody, 45(40.9%) had sexually transmitted disease (STD), 41(37.3%) had varicocele, 2(1.80%) had loss of libido, 4(3.6%) had premature ejaculation and 12(10.9%) had hydrocele. It was observed that 14(12.7%) were tobacco user, 26(23.6%) were obese, 12(10.9%) had malnutrition, 7(6.4%) had exposure to heat etc and it was found that 61(70.1%) had free testosterone below the normal level and 51(58.6%) had prolactin level above the normal level. The semen analysis revealed that 48(55.2 %) had abnormal morphology of sperm, 26(29.9%) had feebly motile sperm and 27(31%) had non-motile sperm, 36(41.4%) had oligospermia, 6(6.9%) had azoospermia and 17(19.5%) had oligoasthenozoospermia.

  15. The role of microsurgical varicocelectomy in treating male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brannigan, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Varicoceles are the most common cause of male infertility. They afflict 15–20% of the general male population and 40% of males with primary infertility. Although multiple treatment modalities exist, including radiographic embolization and laparoscopy, open subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy is currently the gold standard of treatment for this condition. In this article, we discuss the role of varicocelectomy in the treatment of the modern infertile male and present a practical, safe, and reproducible technique for the microsurgical approach.

  16. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  17. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    PubMed Central

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001), sex (P<0.001), a history of abortion (P=0.009), failure of previous treatment (P<0.001), and education (P=0.014) had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems. PMID:27695609

  18. Effect of Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang on seminal plasma cytokine levels in patients with idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Y; Akashi, T; Fuse, H

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two idiopathic infertile patients were treated with Oriental herbal medicine, Bu-zhong-yi-qi-tang (Hochu-ekki-to). Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after herb administration. There was an inverse correlation between seminal plasma IL-6 level and sperm concentration before treatment. After the administration of herb seminal plasma, sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. Seminal plasma IL-8 level did not change. Certain kinds of cytokine in the seminal plasma might play some role in improving semen quality with treatment.

  19. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (<20×10 6/mL) and/or motility (<50%). Following a fourweek observation period, subjects were randomly assigned among three groups: a tomato juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  20. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%–60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement. PMID:27098657

  1. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ring, Joshua D; Lwin, Aye A; Köhler, Tobias S

    2016-01-01

    Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene), estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole), and hormone replacement.

  2. Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naina; Singh, Amit Kant

    2015-01-01

    Infertility and problems of impaired fecundity have been a concern through ages and is also a significant clinical problem today, which affects 8–12% of couples worldwide. Of all infertility cases, approximately 40–50% is due to “male factor” infertility and as many as 2% of all men will exhibit suboptimal sperm parameters. It may be one or a combination of low sperm concentration, poor sperm motility, or abnormal morphology. The rates of infertility in less industrialized nations are markedly higher and infectious diseases are responsible for a greater proportion of infertility. The present literature will help in knowing the trends of male factor infertility in developing nations like India and to find out in future, various factors that may be responsible for male infertility. PMID:26752853

  3. Occupation-related male infertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; Baker, H W; Hanna, P J

    1986-04-01

    Male infertility is a significant health problem for which few aetiological factors have been identified. The role of occupational exposure is largely unknown but certain substances such as 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, oestrogen, heat, lead and microwaves have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in workers. Other agents which interfere with reproductive performance in experimental animals such as cadmium, manganese, organophosphates and some solvents have not been studied sufficiently for their occupational risks to be fully known. Some occupational exposures, extensively studied, appear to convey little or no risk to male fertility including radiological exposure, anaesthetic gases and Agent Orange. It is clear that the range of substances potentially hazardous to male reproduction is great but the number of agents for which the evidence is unequivocal is very small.

  4. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    PubMed

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    PubMed

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  6. Recent advances in understanding & managing male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M.; Lo, Kirk C.

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility remains a struggle to definitively diagnose and treat with many men labelled as “idiopathic infertility” and eventually requiring assisted reproductive techniques.  Along those lines, research groups are continuing to explore current social and environmental factors, including the obesity epidemic, and their effects on male fertility potential.  Novel biomarkers of natural fertility status and azoospermia etiology have additionally seen recent attention with ACRV1 and TEX101/ECM1 assays either currently or soon to be commercially available.  Despite these advancements, however, medical treatment options have seen little progress.  Though surgical therapies have similarly seen little transformation, groups are exploring the use of testicular sperm for couples with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation and either planned or previously failed IVF/ICSI.  Concerted collaborative efforts will be needed as we move forward to better understand the challenges men face when struggling to conceive. PMID:27990271

  7. The experience of infertility treatment: the male perspective

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Shafali Talisa; Dibb, Bridget

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Current research surrounding infertility is focused primarily on women alone, thus removing men from the fertility equation. However, alternative research has indicated that, although men also experience infertility, there is a paucity of research on men. Therefore, very little is understood about the experiences of infertility from the male perspective. This study adopted a qualitative approach in an attempt to explore the infertility experience from the perspective of men. Fifteen men who had experienced infertility were interviewed to explore their experiences. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Five superordinate themes were developed, and these included: (1) the influence of society on infertility; (2) feeling unacknowledged; (3) natural verses assisted conception; (4) emotional reactions; and (5) improving the infertility experience. The findings of this research indicated that men experience infertility as a mentally, physically and socially demanding condition. Comparisons to previous research have been made, and future research is proposed. PMID:27563936

  8. Sexually transmitted diseases and their relation to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, M O; Mellinger, B C

    1992-02-01

    Controversy surrounds the role of sexually transmitted diseases in male infertility. Because our understanding of male infertility is limited, and because diagnostic tests such as semen analysis including culture and leukocyte count are variable, definitive conclusions on STDs and their effect on infertility cannot be substantiated. Prospective investigations of infertile couples using appropriate control groups, sophisticated semen collection protocols, proper microbiologic techniques, and standardization of seminal fluid analysis are required to understand the role of STDs in male infertility. Regardless of the ongoing research to delineate the role of STDs in male infertility, advocating primary prevention by increasing public awareness of the negative effects of STDs and the use of contraceptive methods to prevent the spread of STDs is mandatory for the health care professional.

  9. Hormonal treatment of male infertility: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Madhukar, Dama; Rajender, Singh

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 50% of infertility issues are attributable to male factors. A number of different factors may result in similar reductions of sperm count or motility and affect sperm morphology. Not only is the etiology of male infertility difficult to understand, but it is equally challenging to treat male infertility because of its etiological heterogeneity. Because of complex and incomplete knowledge of the underlying causes, most infertile men are described as idiopathically oligozoospermic and/or asthenozoospermic. Different hormonal treatments have been attempted, aiming to improve mainly endogenous follicle-stimulating hormone and/or androgen levels and subsequent spermatogenesis. Various studies have tried to treat infertility through natural pregnancies or increased sperm retrieval for in vitro fertilization techniques, or by treating spermatozoa in vitro to improve its fertilizing potential. The present review focuses on all of the aspects of male infertility treatment by hormone supplementation.

  10. Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Vicdan, Arzu; Vicdan, Kubilay; Günalp, Serdar; Kence, Aykut; Akarsu, Cem; Işik, Ahmet Zeki; Sözen, Eran

    2004-11-10

    The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of 208 patients, 119 had non-obstructive azoospermia and 89 had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Seventeen out of 119 (14.3%) azoospermic patients and two out of 89 (2.2%) patients with OAT had Y chromosome microdeletions. In total, 19 cases with deletions were detected in 208 infertile men, with a frequency of 9.1%. The AZFc locus, mainly DAZ gene cluster was the most frequently deleted region. Five other cases with azoospermia (4.2%) and two cases with OAT (2.2%) had a chromosomal abnormality, with a total number of seven (3.4%). Including Y chromosome deletions and structural chromosome abnormalities, the rate of genetic abnormalities was 12.5% (26/208) in our patients. On the other hand, 20 men with proven fertility and fathers of five cases with microdeletions were genetically normal. Y chromosome deletions and chromosomal abnormalities were associated with various histological alterations in testis. Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome and maturation arrest predominated in these cases, whereas hypospermatogenesis occurred more frequently in genetically normal patients. Various chromosomal abnormalities and deletions of Y chromosome can cause spermatogenic breakdown resulting in chromosomally derived infertility. All these findings strongly support the recommendation of genetic screening of infertile patients.

  11. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in human male gametes from normal patients, and those with varicocele and diabetes: a potential molecular marker for diagnosing male infertility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perrotta, I; Santoro, M; Guido, C; Avena, P; Tripepi, S; De Amicis, F; Gervasi, M C; Aquila, S

    2012-01-01

    Rising rates of varicocele and diabetes mellitus (DM) pose a significant problem to human fertility. Recent studies have pointed out the impact of cyclooxygenase (COX) in the regulation of testicular function and male fertility. Prominent COX-2 expression has been described recently in the testes of infertile patients, but little is known about the role and identity of COX isoforms in human sperm under certain disease states such as varicocele and DM. We therefore examined the expression profile and ultrastructural localization of COX-1 and COX-2 concomitantly in semen samples from healthy donors, and patients with varicocele and DM. Using Western blotting assay, ‘varicocele’ and ‘diabetic’ sperm showed enhanced COX isoforms expression with respect to the ‘healthy’ sperm. Immunogold labeling revealed human sperm anatomical regions containing COX-1 and COX-2, confirming their increased expression in pathological samples. Our data demonstrate that both COX isoforms are upregulated in the spermatozoa of varicocele and diabetic patients, suggesting the harmful effect of the diseases also at the sperm molecular level, going beyond the abnormal morphology described to date. In conclusion, COX enzymes may possess a biological relevance in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of male factor infertility associated with varicocele and DM, and may be considered additional molecular markers for the diagnosis of male infertility disorders. PMID:22747653

  12. Obesity and male infertility: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Meikle, A Wayne; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Gibson, Mark; Peterson, C Matthew; Carrell, Douglas T

    2012-12-01

    Obesity in men is associated with infertility in numerous studies, and the temporal trend for a decline in semen parameters parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. In addition to impaired semen quality, fertility among obese men may be affected by decreased libido and erectile dysfunction. This spectrum of expression of hypogonadism among obese men originates from multiple interacting factors including reduced levels of gonadotropins and testosterone, altered androgen-to-estrogen ratios, insulin resistance, and sleep apnea. No evidence-based treatment that increases the likelihood of pregnancy for the infertility associated with male obesity has been demonstrated to date. Interventions associated with improvement of intermediate outcomes that include the endocrine profile, semen parameters, and sexual function may be appropriately selected based on history, physical findings, as well as endocrine and metabolic evaluation. Among these interventions are weight loss through lifestyle change, relief from sleep apnea, use of aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin administration, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and insulin-sensitizing agents. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. What every gynecologist should know about male infertility: an update.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Sandro C; Hamada, Alaa; Kondray, Victor; Pitchika, Aruna; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    Our article reviews the evolving concepts in the field of male infertility for gynecologists and other health professionals involved in the care of men and women experiencing difficulty in having a child. The increased knowledge will help in the better management and treatment of infertile couples. Review of literature through Pubmed, Science Direct, Online Library. Gynecologists are often the first healthcare providers to assess an infertile couple. Because half of all infertility problems stem from male factors, it is crucial for the gynecologist to remain updated on the main conditions that cause male infertility as well as current diagnostic tools and treatment options, including conventional strategies and assisted reproductive techniques. Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility over the past several years and many old concepts are now challenged. Therefore, it is imperative that male infertility physicians should update the gynecologists about the recent advances in the work-up of infertile men in terms of diagnosis and management. Such convention will help improve the standards of care for the infertile couple and enhance the cooperation between male and female reproductive endocrinologists.

  14. Clinical genetic testing for male factor infertility: current applications and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, J; Carrell, D T

    2014-05-01

    Spermatogenesis involves the aggregated action of up to 2300 genes, any of which, could, potentially, provide targets for diagnostic tests of male factor infertility. Contrary to the previously proposed common variant hypothesis for common diseases such as male infertility, genome-wide association studies and targeted gene sequencing in cohorts of infertile men have identified only a few gene polymorphisms that are associated with male infertility. Unfortunately, the search for genetic variants associated with male infertility is further hampered by the lack of viable animal models of human spermatogenesis, difficulty in robustly phenotyping infertile men and the complexity of pedigree studies in male factor infertility. In this review, we describe basic genetic principles involved in understanding the genetic basis of male infertility and examine the utility and proper clinical use of the proven genetic assays of male factor infertility, specifically Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal translocations, karyotype, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation analysis and sperm genetic tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only able to diagnose the cause of about 20% of male factor infertility. The remainder of the review will be devoted to examining novel tests and diagnostic tools that have the potential to explain the other 80% of male factor infertility that is currently classified as idiopathic. Those tests include epigenetic analysis of the spermatozoa and the evaluation of rare genetic variants and copy number variations in patients. Success in advancing to the implementation of such areas is not only dependent on technological advances in the laboratory, but also improved phenotyping in the clinic. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  16. Genomics: Tool to predict and prevent male infertility.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ashutosh; Kumar, Prashant; Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur

    2017-06-01

    A large number of human diseases arise as a result of genetic abnormalities. With the advent of improved molecular biology techniques, the genetic etiology of male infertility is increasing. The common genetic factors responsible for male infertility are chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletion and cystic fibrosis. These are responsible for approximately 30 percent cases of male infertility. About 40 percent cases of male infertility are categorized as idiopathic. These cases may be associated with genetic and genomic abnormalities. During last few years more and more genes are implicated in male infertility leading to decline in prevalence of idiopathic etiology. In this review we will summarize up to date published works on genetic etiologies of male infertility including our own works. We also briefly describe reproductive technologies used to overcome male infertility, dangers of transmitting genetic disorders to offspring and ways to prevent transmission of genetic disorders during assisted reproduction. At the end we will provide our points on how genomic information can be utilized for prediction and prevention of male infertility in coming years.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avenarius MR, Hildebrand MS, Zhang Y, Meyer NC, Smith LL, Kahrizi K, Najmabadi H, Smith RJ. Human male infertility caused by mutations in ... article on PubMed Central Hildebrand MS, Avenarius MR, Smith RJH. CATSPER-Related Male Infertility. 2009 Dec 3 [ ...

  18. The role of epigenetics in idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-05-01

    Infertility is a complex disorder with multiple genetic and environmental causes. Although some specific mutations have been identified, other factors responsible for sperm defects remain largely unknown. Despite considerable efforts to identify the pathophysiology of the disease, we cannot explain the underlying mechanisms of approximately half of infertility cases. This study reviews current data on epigenetic regulation and idiopathic male infertility. Recent data have shown an association between epigenetic modifications and idiopathic infertility. In this regard, epigenetics has emerged as one of the promising research areas in understanding male infertility. Many studies have indicated that epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation in imprinted and developmental genes, histone tail modifications and short non-coding RNAs in spermatozoa may have a role in idiopathic male infertility.

  19. Hormonal treatment of male infertility: FSH.

    PubMed

    Foresta, C; Selice, R; Ferlin, A; Arslan, P; Garolla, A

    2007-12-01

    FSH plays a crucial role in spermatogenesis. In the fetal and neonatal development stages, FSH activates the proliferation of the Sertoli cells and successively, during the pubertal phase, it influences the mitotic activity of the spermatogonia and encourages cellular differentiation, until arrival at the round spermatid stage. Because of its physiological role in spermatogenesis, various attempts have been made to treat idiopathic oligozoospermic men with FSH. However, the results obtained so far are still controversial. In this research, attention was focused on the possible criteria able to predict a seminal response to this specific hormonal treatment. Furthermore, the effectiveness of FSH therapy was evaluated in terms of sperm count and pregnancy rate. Thus far, based on more recent knowledge about the FSH receptor gene, the authors have correlated different polymorphisms of this gene with the outcome of FSH treatment. In this paper, the literature is reviewed and the authors' experience on using FSH in male infertility is discussed.

  20. Contemporary concepts in the evaluation and management of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Kathleen; Walters, R. Chanc; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in men is a common condition. At the core of the medical evaluation of the male partner in a couple who are unable to conceive is the history and physical examination. Special attention should be directed to the patient’s developmental history and any use of testosterone products. The physical examination focuses on the genitals, and includes assessments of the size and consistency of the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, and presence of varicoceles. Although many sophisticated tests are available, semen analysis is still the most important diagnostic tool used to assess fertility, and includes parameters such as sperm count, motility and viability. Treatment of male factor infertility can involve targeted agents, in the case of specific conditions such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, or it can be empirical—using medical therapy or assisted conception techniques—for patients in whom no underlying cause has been identified. Although an all-encompassing treatment for male factor infertility has not yet been developed, the field offers many promising avenues of research. PMID:21243017

  1. Chronic orchitis: a neglected cause of male infertility?

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Meinhardt, A; Allam, J P; Bergmann, M; Weidner, W; Haidl, G

    2008-04-01

    Infection and inflammation of the male reproductive tract are accepted as important aetiological factors of infertility. With regard to their impact on male reproductive function, orchitis and epididymo-orchitis due to local or systemic infection as well as noninfectious aetiological factors are of particular concern. There is clinical and pathological evidence that chronic inflammatory conditions of the testes can disrupt spermatogenesis and irreversibly alter both sperm number and quality. In the majority of patients, however, diagnosis is hampered by an asymptomatic course of the disease and unspecific clinical signs. Hence, respective epidemiological data are scarce. On the other hand, systematic histopathological work-up of testicular biopsies from infertile men indicates a high prevalence of inflammatory reactions. A characteristic pattern of inflammatory lesions with focal or multifocal, predominantly peritubular lymphocyte infiltration and concomitant damage of seminiferous tubules is seen in chronic orchitis of various origins. This supports the concept that induction of testicular inflammation is associated with a T-cell-mediated autoimmune response, i.e. disruption of the immune privilege. Moreover, despite the patchy distribution of the lesions, testicular volume and score counts for spermatogenesis may be significantly reduced. In conclusion, asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in the testis should not be neglected as an underlying cause or co-factor of male infertility. However, definitive diagnosis of chronic asymptomatic orchitis still requires testicular biopsy and guidelines for the therapeutic management are not yet available.

  2. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  3. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in infertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of seminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (P<0.005) than that of controls but the serum levels of testosterone were significantly higher (P<0.05) in azoospermic than oligospermic subjects and controls. There was no significant correlation between serum hormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (P<0.05). We concluded that male infertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  4. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    PubMed

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  5. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC+) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC−), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC+ to sSMC− spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 − 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient’s sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient. PMID:26616419

  6. Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bin Mohd Tambi, Mohd Ismail; Imran, M. Kamarul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies. PMID:20348942

  7. Eurycoma longifolia Jack in managing idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tambi, Mohd Ismail Bin Mohd; Imran, M Kamarul

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies.

  8. Initiative for standardization of reporting genetics of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Traven, Eva; Ogrinc, Ana; Kunej, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    The number of publications on research of male infertility is increasing. Technologies used in research of male infertility generate complex results and various types of data that need to be appropriately managed, arranged, and made available to other researchers for further use. In our previous study, we collected over 800 candidate loci for male fertility in seven mammalian species. However, the continuation of the work towards a comprehensive database of candidate genes associated with different types of idiopathic human male infertility is challenging due to fragmented information, obtained from a variety of technologies and various omics approaches. Results are published in different forms and usually need to be excavated from the text, which hinders the gathering of information. Standardized reporting of genetic anomalies as well as causative and risk factors of male infertility therefore presents an important issue. The aim of the study was to collect examples of diverse genomic loci published in association with human male infertility and to propose a standardized format for reporting genetic causes of male infertility. From the currently available data we have selected 75 studies reporting 186 representative genomic loci which have been proposed as genetic risk factors for male infertility. Based on collected and formatted data, we suggested a first step towards unification of reporting the genetics of male infertility in original and review studies. The proposed initiative consists of five relevant data types: 1) genetic locus, 2) race/ethnicity, number of participants (infertile/controls), 3) methodology, 4) phenotype (clinical data, disease ontology, and disease comorbidity), and 5) reference. The proposed form for standardized reporting presents a baseline for further optimization with additional genetic and clinical information. This data standardization initiative will enable faster multi-omics data integration, database development and sharing

  9. [Importance of Klinefelter syndrome in the pathogenesis of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Pralea, Carmen-Elena; Mihalache, Gr

    2007-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, the most knowning hipergonadotrophic hypogonadism, is associated typically with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (47,XXY. The signs and symptoms of these conditions typically become more severe as the number of X chromosomes increases. To preveal the role of Klinefelter syndrome in pathogenesis of male infertility. The study included 20 men hospitalized and treated in the Endocrinology Clinic, Iaşi. The age of patients was between 19 years and 44 years. They made next investigations: clinical, biological and semen examination, testis echography and biopsy, test Elisa, Barr's test, psychological evaluation and psycho-analysis. Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome is made by examining chromosomes for evidence of more than one X chromosome present in a male. All patients are characterized by chromosomal abnormalities, small penis, small firm testicles with hyalinization and fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules, underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics, abnormal body proportions (long legs, short trunk), sexual problems, azoospermia, infertility and increased urinary excretion of gonadotropin. 14 cases had gynecomastia and 2 cases presented anti-sperm antibodies. The following test results may be found: karyotyping chromosome shows 47 XXY; positive test Barr; semen count-low; serum testosterone- low; serum luteinizing hormone (LH)--high; serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)--high; serum estradiol levels (a type of estrogen)-high, testicle size measurement < 10 cc. Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects male sexual development, preventing the testicles from functioning normally and reducing the levels of testosterone. Low Testosterone can lead to breast development (gynecomastia), decreased libido, incomplete masculinization with female body hair distribution (sparse facial, armpit, and pubic hair) and an inability to father children (infertility). The decreased testosterone also causes an increase in two

  10. Obesity, male infertility, and the sperm epigenome.

    PubMed

    Craig, James R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T; Hotaling, James M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a common problem among reproductive-age men that can both cause and exacerbate male-factor infertility by means of endocrine abnormalities, associated comorbidities, and direct effects on the fidelity and throughput of spermatogenesis. Robust epidemiologic, clinical, genetic, epigenetic, and nonhuman animal data support these findings. Recent works in the burgeoning field of epigenetics has demonstrated that paternal obesity can affect offspring metabolic and reproductive phenotypes by means of epigenetic reprogramming of spermatogonial stem cells. Understanding the impact of this reprogramming is critical to a comprehensive view of the impact of obesity on subsequent generations. Furthermore, and perhaps more importantly, conveying the impact of these lifestyle changes on future progeny can serve as a powerful tool for obese men to modify their behavior. Reproductive urologists and endocrinologists must learn to assimilate these new findings to better counsel men about the importance of paternal preconception health, a topic recently being championed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. AB146. Development of a new micro straw for cryopreservation of few sperm for severe male factor infertility patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Can; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Shan S.; Shi, Wen B.; Zhu, Jing J.; Huang, Yong H.; Li, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a new mirco-straw (named as LSL straw) for cryopreservation of few sperm retrieved from severe oligozoospermia and testicular biopsy samples. Methods We developed a new micro-straw with max volume of 50 µL. The same sperm samples were cryopreserved using new mirco-straw and conventional 0.2 and 0.5 mL straws and post thaw motility, acrosomal integrity and sperm DNA fragmentation were compared. Total of 32 semen samples were used in this study and each sample was diluted to sperm concentration 10×106/mL. The diluted semen was mixed with cryoprotectant in ratio of 1:1 before transferring to micro-straw and 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws. Then place all the three straws containing sperm directly to liquid nitrogen vapor at –140 for 3 hours before plunge it to liquid nitrogen for storage at –196 °C. In post thaw sample, total and progressive motility, sperm morphology, acrosome integrity (FITC-PSA) and DNA fragmentation index (sperm chromatin diffusion, SCD) were assessed in the same samples before and after freezing. Results While post thaw motility (25.6% vs. 27.4% vs. 38.5% vs. 54.4%, P<0.001) and acrosomal integrity (65.08% vs. 66.61% vs. 68.84% vs. 77.8%, P<0.001) were all significantly lower in all straws compared with fresh semen, new micro-straws had significantly higher motility recovery than conventional 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws (38.5%, 25.6%, 27.4%, P<0.003). There was significantly correlation between speed of temperature and motility recovery: the faster temperature declines, the better motility recovery in post thaw samples. However, there was no significantly different in morphology, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between the three types of straws. Conclusions New micro-straw for sperm cryopreservation has significant higher motility recovery than conventional 0.5 and 0.25 mL straws. This micro-straw may be benefit for cryopreservation of few sperm storage and easy to be recovered for ICSI treatment in several male factor

  12. Male accessory gland infection frequency in infertile patients with chronic microbial prostatitis and irritable bowel syndrome: transrectal ultrasound examination helps to understand the links.

    PubMed

    Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Lucia O; La Vignera, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) plus irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to compare the sperm parameters of patients with or without MAGI. In addition, another objective of this study was to evaluate the ultrasound characterization of the anatomical space between the posterior wall of the prostate and the anterior wall of the rectum using transrectal ultrasonography. Fifty consecutive patients with the following criteria were enrolled: 1) infertility, 2) diagnosis of CBP, and 3) diagnosis of IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The following 2 age-matched control groups were also studied: infertile patients with CBP alone (n = 56) and fertile men (n = 30) who had fathered a child within the previous 3 months. Patients and controls underwent an accurate patient history; administration of the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and the Rome III questionnaires for prostatitis and IBS, respectively; physical examination; semen analysis; and transrectal ultrasound evaluation (limited to patients with CBP and IBS or CBP alone). A significantly higher frequency of MAGI was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (82.0%) compared with patients with CBP alone (53.6%) or fertile men (0%). The presence of MAGI in patients with CBP plus IBS was associated with a significantly lower sperm concentration, total number, and forward motility, and with a higher seminal leukocyte concentration compared with patients with CBP alone and MAGI. Sperm normal morphology was similar in the groups of patients. All sperm parameters did not differ significantly in both groups of patients without MAGI. With ultrasound evaluation, a significantly higher frequency of dilatation of prostatic venous plexus was found in patients with CBP plus IBS (75%) compared with patients with CBP alone (10%). Patients with CBP plus IBS had a significantly higher frequency of

  13. [Diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation for male infertility].

    PubMed

    Fei, Qianjin; Huang, Hang; Jin, Jianyuan; Huang, Xuefeng

    2014-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) for male infertility. Two hundred and ninety-nine males attending infertility clinic were classified into 157 primary infertile cases and 142 fertile controls. Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). SDF was assessed by sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) assay, and the results were expressed as DNA fragmentation index (DFI). The DFI was significantly higher in infertile males than that in fertile controls [(17.1± 9.3)% vs. (14.2± 9.0)%](P< 0.01). No significant difference was detected in the age of male and female partners, seminal volume, sperm count, motility and morphology between infertile males and fertile controls (P> 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.861 [95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.814-0.907] for 15.1% of SDF. The threshold level of 15.1% was derived as cut-off value to discriminate infertile men from fertile controls. By this threshold, specificity was 88.2% and sensitivity was 81.8%. The 299 men were divided into group A (n= 120) with DFI≥ 15.1% and group B (n= 179) with DFI< 15.1% based on the cut-off value. The percentage of infertile men in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (79.2% vs. 34.6%) (P< 0.01). The odds ratio (OR) for infertility in the two groups was 7.2 (95%CI= 4.2-12.3). Sperms with high-level of DNA fragmentation can impair male fertility. DFI can be used as a good diagnostic marker for male infertility.

  14. Male genital tract chlamydial infection: implications for pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kelly A; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research, screening, and treatment are focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. The prevalence of chlamydial infection, however, is similar in males and females. Furthermore, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. The role of Chlamydia in the development of prostatitis is controversial, but we suggest that Chlamydia is an etiological agent, with incidences of up to 39.5% reported in patients with prostatitis. Infection of the testis and prostate is implicated in a deterioration of sperm, possibly affecting fertility. Chlamydia infections also may affect male fertility by directly damaging the sperm, because sperm parameters, proportion of DNA fragmentation, and acrosome reaction capacity are impaired with chlamydial infection. Furthermore, the proportion of male partners of infertile couples with evidence of a Chlamydia infection is greater than that documented in the general population. An effect of male chlamydial infection on the fertility of the female partner also has been reported. Thus, the need for a vaccine to protect both males and females is proposed. The difficulty arises because the male reproductive tract is an immune-privileged site that can be disrupted, potentially affecting spermatogenesis, if inappropriate inflammatory responses are provoked. Examination of responses to infection in humans and in experimental animal models suggest that an immunoglobulin A-inducing vaccine will be able to target the male reproductive tract effectively while avoiding harmful inflammatory responses that may impair fertility.

  15. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-11-09

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility.

  16. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  17. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... 502. Citation on PubMed Hildebrand MS, Avenarius MR, Smith RJH. CATSPER-Related Male Infertility. 2009 Dec 3 [ ... Bean LJH, Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): ...

  18. The future of male infertility management and assisted reproduction technology.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    2000-12-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is undoubtedly a powerful, and sometimes the only effective, form of infertility treatment. Nonetheless, it is a non-specific treatment that, combined with increasingly heroic techniques to recover male germinal cells, has led to perceptions of men as just providers of gametes in the infertility equation. In response to this nihilist attitude, where women are investigated extensively and scant attention is paid to men, there is a re-emerging awareness of andrology--particularly in countries with limited healthcare resources. Structured management strategies, using diagnostic information to recognize causative factors amenable to simpler, even systemic, therapies with reasonable chances of pregnancy rather than resorting prematurely to assisted reproduction technology, represent rational, cost-effective approaches to infertility management. Furthermore, genetic testing (particularly cystic fibrosis gene defects and Y-chromosome microdeletions) is essential for couples to make fully informed decisions on their options. Recognition that free radical-induced damage to the sperm genome (e.g. from smoking or in-vitro sperm manipulation) underlies deleterious paternal effects on preimplantation development promotes further synergy between andrology and embryology. Although societies strike different balances between considerations of affordability and cost-effectiveness of assisted reproduction technology, ICSI represents a last resort, to be used when less-invasive, lower-cost treatments have been deemed inappropriate or have failed. Consequently, rather than assisted reproduction technology eliminating the need for andrology, the future will see increasingly tighter integration of multidisciplinary infertility care, embracing careful diagnosis and patient education before obtaining truly informed consent and embarking upon cost-effective treatment.

  19. Male infertility: a critical review of pharmacologic management.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Alaa J; Montgomery, Brian; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-12-01

    Male factor infertility contributes partially and solely to the problem of childlessness in around 50% of the cases. Unfortunately, 30 - 50% of the etiologies of male infertility are unknown and therefore, no specific therapy can be instituted. Evidence-based medical therapy for male infertility is an attractive research area where a large number of clinical trials, controlled and uncontrolled, using different types of medications have been conducted yielding variable results and outcomes. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the most important and most recent information pertaining to the use of different medications in male infertility and assign level of evidence to these medications. An extensive literature search was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus. Male infertility represents a very challenging area of clinical medicine. Many different types of medications have been tried and very few have had satisfactory results. There is a huge need to advance and develop andrologic diagnostic techniques, focusing on the metabolomics and proteomics of the sperm, seminal plasma, and testicular tissue. Clarification of the causes of idiopathic male infertility and the discovery of novel molecular targets will help guide future innovative development of new pharmacologic agents.

  20. The role of intrauterine insemination in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Akanji Tijani, Hammed; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-12-01

    Male infertility is a common condition and intrauterine insemination (IUI) is used to treat the mild to moderate forms. Male subfertility determination is usually based on routine semen analysis but recent publications have questioned its diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as well as the effectiveness of IUI itself, as a treatment modality. We carried out a structured review of the literature to assess the current evidence regarding the diagnosis of male infertility, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and factors that affect the outcome of IUI. There is still uncertainty regarding the criteria for diagnosing male infertility and predicting treatment outcome based on standard semen parameters. The presence of seminal defects compromises the outcome of IUI in comparison with unexplained infertility. The total motile sperm count (TMSC) appears to have a consistent, direct relationship with treatment outcome, but there is no definite predictive threshold for success. However, it is reasonable to offer IUI as first-line treatment if TMSC is greater than 10 million when balancing the risk and cost of alternate treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm DNA studies and sperm preparation techniques warrant further studies in order to establish their clinical relevance. There are limited data on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and large high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. However the difficulties in organizing such a study, at the present time, are a matter for discussion.

  1. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman’s correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There were no differences in hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Conclusions Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis. PMID:23844631

  2. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-07-11

    Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no differences in hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis.

  3. TGFβ3 (TGFB3) polymorphism is associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Droździk, Marek; Kaczmarek, Maciej; Malinowski, Damian; Broś, Urszula; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafał; Kurzawski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting the blood-testis barrier function may be involved in testicular damage and male infertility. Two cytokines play an important role in the barrier regulation, namely transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between TGF-β3 (TGFB3) and TNF-α (TNF) gene polymorphisms and male infertility. A total of 846 subjects, 423 diagnosed with male infertility and 423 fertile men were enrolled. TGFB3 (rs2268626:T > C, rs3917158:C > T, rs2284792:A > G, rs2268625:T > C, rs3917187:C > T) and TNF (rs1800629:-308G > A) gene polymorphisms were genotyped. No association between TNF genotype and infertility was observed. As for TGFB3, the genotypes distribution was similar in infertile and fertile men. However, rs2284792 minor allele frequency was significantly higher among infertile subjects. Heterozygous rs2284792 AG genotype was associated with increased odds for infertility [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.05–1.86), p = 0.021] and similar results were observed for G allele carrier status [OR = 1.40 (95% CI 1.06–1.84), p = 0.017]. Heterozygosity in TGFB3 rs3917158 was also associated with the infertility [OR = 1.37 (95% CI 1.01–1.87), p = 0.041]. The TGFB3 variant genotypes were associated with lower spermatozoa motility parameters in fertile men. The results indicate that variants in TGFB3 gene may be associated with male infertility. However, the findings require further replication and validation. PMID:26612435

  4. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Lee, Hoi Chang; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζ(H398P)), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζ(H233L)), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζ(H398P) and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζ(H233L) and PLCζ(H398P) exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms.

  5. Gonadal dysfunction and infertility in kidney transplant patients receiving sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Boobes, Yousef; Bernieh, Bassam; Saadi, Hussein; Raafat Al Hakim, M; Abouchacra, Samra

    2010-06-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were receiving sirolimus. Follow-up data for two male patients were not available. The one unmarried female patient developed amenorrhea post-transplantation and had resumption of her menstrual cycles after discontinuation of sirolimus. The remaining six married patients (four males and two females), who all had fathered or conceived children in the pre-transplantation period, developed gonadal dysfunction and infertility on average 5-12 months after transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in all four male patients with full recovery of the oligo/azospermia and restoration of fertility. Both married female patients developed amenorrhea post-transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in one female patient with resumption of her menstrual cycles. In this small population of patients treated with sirolimus, the prevalence rate of reversible gonadal dysfunction and infertility was significant in both males and females. Infertility secondary to sirolimus is under-diagnosed and should be studied further.

  6. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive. PMID:26952957

  7. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies.

    PubMed

    Yao, David F; Mills, Jesse N

    2016-01-01

    While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT) include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  8. Investigation of male infertility using quantitative comparative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Légaré, Christine; Droit, Arnaud; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Force, André; Cloutier, Francine; Tremblay, Roland; Sullivan, Robert

    2014-12-05

    Male factors account for 40% of infertility cases. The identification of differentially expressed proteins on spermatozoa from fertile and infertile men can help in the elucidation of the molecular basis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to compare sperm proteomes from 3 different groups: fertile men, normozoospermic men consulting for infertility, and normozoospermic men with an impaired capacity for fertilization (IVF-failure). We used differential proteomics with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and LC-MS analysis to identify proteins that are differentially expressed. A total of 348 unique proteins were identified and quantified. The analysis identified 33 proteins that were differentially expressed in the IVF-failure group vs the fertile group. Comparison of the infertile and fertile groups revealed that 18 proteins appeared to be differentially expressed. Four proteins were similarly altered in the IVF-failure and infertile groups: semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), prolactin-induced protein (PIP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS), and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2). These protein markers were selected for validation using multiple reactions monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) and further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Overall, these results suggest that a panel of proteins may be used as biomarkers for future studies of infertility.

  9. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry; Weidner, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due to heterogeneity in the literature, a qualitative analysis was performed. Relevant studies on Chlamydia trachomatis, genital mycoplasmas, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and viral infections were identified. For all pathogens, the studies were contradictory and generally of limited quality. In studies confirming an association, there was a tendency for authors to perform multiple analyses without appropriate corrections and to subsequently focus solely on outcomes that seemed to suggest a positive association; however, the body of literature that does not confirm an association between STDs and male infertility is also of inadequate quality. The data regarding possible pathophysiologic mechanisms are inconclusive. There may be an association between STDs and male infertility of unknown genesis and possibly with different pathogenic mechanisms for different pathogens. Alternatively, some STDs may cause male infertility, whereas others may not; however, there is hardly a strong correlation. High-quality studies of the subject are needed. Sexually transmitted diseases may cause male infertility through

  10. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  11. Reproductive knowledge and patient education needs among Indonesian women infertility patients attending three fertility clinics.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Linda Rae; Wiweko, Budi; Bell, Lauren; Shafira, Nadia; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Adayana, I B Putra; Hinting, Aucky; Armstrong, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the reproductive knowledge and patient education needs of 212 female Indonesian infertility patients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to September 2011 by married women, 18 to 45 years old, seeking infertility care from clinics in Jakarta, Surabaya and Denpasar. Participants were literate, the sample was highly educated, predominantly urban and primarily middle class or elite. Infertility consultants were cited as the most useful source of information by 65% of respondents, 94% understood that infertility results from male and female factors, 84% could distinguish between infertility and sterility, and 70% could identify their fertility window. However, demand for further knowledge of reproduction and infertility was expressed by 87%. Patients' knowledge of the causes and treatment of infertility was extremely poor. Two key causes of infertility, advanced age and untreated sexually transmissible infections, were not named. Only 19% of patients had received written information. The study revealed the need for expanded infertility patient education among women patients accessing fertility care in Indonesian clinics. Opportunities for education should be maximized within infertility consultations. A standardized infertility patient education curriculum should be developed, incorporating patients' priorities, as well as gaps in existing knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  13. Absence of Sperm Rna Elements Correlates With Idopathic Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Jodar, Meritxell; Sendler, Edward; Moskovtsev, Sergey I.; Librach, Clifford L.; Goodrich, Robert; Swanson, Sonja; Hauser, Russ; Diamond, Michael P.; Krawetz, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Semen parameters have been used to diagnose male infertility and specify clinical interventions.. In idiopathic infertile couples, an unknown male factor could be the cause of infertility even when the semen parameters are normal. Next Generation Sequencing of spermatozoal RNAs has provided an objective measure of the paternal contribution that may be able to help guide the care of these couples. Spermatozoal RNAs from 96 couples presenting with idiopathic infertility were assessed in the context of fertility treatment and final reproductive outcome and sperm RNA elements (SREs) reflective of fecundity status were identified. The absence of required SREs reduced the probability to achieve live birth by Timed Intercourse (TIC) or Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) from 73% to 27%. However, the absence of these same sperm RNA elements does not appear to be critical when assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) with or without Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are employed. Approximately 30% of the idiopathic infertile couples presented an incomplete set of required SREs suggesting a male component as the cause of their infertility. Similarly, analysis of couples that failed to achieve a live birth when presented with a complete set of SREs suggested that a female factor was perhaps involved as confirmed by their diagnosis. The data presented from this study suggests that SRE analysis has the potential to inform on the individual success rate of different fertility treatments to reduce the time to achieve live birth. PMID:26157032

  14. The effect of obesity on sperm disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Stefan S; Cabler, Stephanie; McAlister, Debra A; Sabanegh, Edmund; Agarwal, Ashok

    2010-03-01

    The results of several studies point to an increased likelihood of abnormal semen parameters among overweight men, and an elevated risk for subfertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. Obesity is, therefore, associated with a higher incidence of male factor infertility. Several mechanisms might account for the effect of obesity on male infertility, both directly and indirectly, by inducing sleep apnea, alterations in hormonal profiles (reduced inhibin B and androgen levels accompanied by elevated estrogen levels) and increased scrotal temperatures, ultimately manifesting as impaired semen parameters (decreased total sperm count, concentration and motility; increased DNA fragmentation index). Neither the reversibility of obesity-associated male infertility with weight loss nor effective therapeutic interventions have been studied in-depth. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its effects on fertility, better understanding of underlying mechanisms, and exploration into avenues of treatment.

  15. Experimental Methods to Preserve Male Fertility and Treat Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Gassei, Kathrin; Orwig, Kyle E.

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a prevalent condition that has insidious impacts on the infertile individuals, their families and society that extend far beyond the inability to have a biological child. Lifestyle changes, fertility treatments and assisted reproductive technologies are available to help many infertile couples achieve their reproductive goals. All of these technologies require that the infertile individual is able to produce at least a small number of functional gametes (eggs or sperm). It is not possible for a person who does not produce gametes to have a biological child. This review focuses on the infertile man and describes several stem cell-based methods and gene therapy approaches that are in the research pipeline and may lead to new fertility treatment options for azoospermic men. PMID:26746133

  16. Epigenetic regulation of the RHOX homeobox gene cluster and its association with human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marcy E; Bleiziffer, Andreas; Tüttelmann, Frank; Gromoll, Jörg; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2014-01-01

    The X-linked RHOX cluster encodes a set of homeobox genes that are selectively expressed in the reproductive tract. Members of the RHOX cluster regulate target genes important for spermatogenesis promote male fertility in mice. Studies show that demethylating agents strongly upregulate the expression of mouse Rhox genes, suggesting that they are regulated by DNA methylation. However, whether this extends to human RHOX genes, whether DNA methylation directly regulates RHOX gene transcription and how this relates to human male infertility are unknown. To address these issues, we first defined the promoter regions of human RHOX genes and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to determine whether human RHOX gene transcription is regulated by DNA methylation. Our results indicated that DNA methylation is necessary and sufficient to silence human RHOX gene expression. To determine whether RHOX cluster methylation associates with male infertility, we evaluated the methylation status of RHOX genes in sperm from a large cohort of infertility patients. Linear regression analysis revealed a strong association between RHOX gene cluster hypermethylation and three independent types of semen abnormalities. Hypermethylation was restricted specifically to the RHOX cluster; we did not observe it in genes immediately adjacent to it on the X chromosome. Our results strongly suggest that human RHOX homeobox genes are under an epigenetic control mechanism that is aberrantly regulated in infertility patients. We propose that hypermethylation of the RHOX gene cluster serves as a marker for idiopathic infertility and that it is a candidate to exert a causal role in male infertility.

  17. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung

    2014-01-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse. PMID:25309854

  18. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Hung; Seo, Ju Tae

    2014-09-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse.

  19. Treatment of Leukocytospermia in Male Infertility: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Myung Ha; Kim, Jiye; Baik, Soon Koo; Koh, Sang-Baek; Park, Hyun Jun

    2016-01-01

    Male factors account for 20% to 50% of infertility cases, and infection in the genitourinary tract may play a contributing role in up to 15% of male infertility. Leukocytospermia is a well-known indicator of infection or inflammation in the male sex glands and the urogenital tract. Although great deal of effort has been expended to elucidate definite management strategies in infertile men with leukocytospermia, the gold standard of treatment remains unclear. Until recently, broad spectrum antibiotics and antioxidants have been used in the treatment of leukocytospermia for male infertility to eliminate infection and reduce reactive oxygen free radicals produced inside cellular mitochondria as a result of inflammation. The present review reveals that antibiotics might improve sperm parameters, the rate of resolution of leukocytospermia, the bacteriologic cure rate, and even the pregnancy rate, although some reports conflict. Antioxidants might also have clinical benefits for sperm function as shown by in vitro studies. However, the data are insufficient to conclude whether antibiotics and antioxidants for the treatment of infertile men with leukocytospermia are effective or not. Better designed investigations into leukocytospermia are needed. PMID:28053945

  20. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Skinner, Michael K

    2014-06-01

    Decreasing male fertility has been observed for the past fifty years. Examples of affected reproductive parameters include decreases in sperm count and sperm quality and increases in testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Exposures to environmental toxicants during fetal development and early postnatal life have been shown to promote infertility. Environmental exposures inducing epigenetic changes related to male infertility range from life style, occupational exposures, environmental toxicants and nutrition. Exposures during fetal gonadal sex determination have been shown to alter the epigenetic programming of the germline that then can transmit this altered epigenetic information to subsequent generations in the absence of any exposures. This environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease will be a component of the etiology of male infertility.

  1. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  2. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Bardaweel, Sanaa K

    2014-07-16

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients' belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients' knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities.

  3. Analysis of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile male subjects.

    PubMed

    Almeamar, Hussein Ali; Ramachandran, Vasudevan; Ismail, Patimah; Nadkarni, Prashan; Fawzi, Nora

    2013-04-01

    Complete deletions in the AZF (a, b, and c) sub-regions of the Y-chromosome have been shown to contribute to unexplained male infertility. However, the role of partial AZFc deletions in male infertility remains to be verified. Three types of partial AZFc deletions have been identified. They are gr/gr, b1/b3, and b2/b3 deletions. A recent meta-analysis showed that ethnic and geographical factors might contribute to the association of partial AZFc deletions with male infertility. This study analyzed the association of partial AZFc deletions in Malaysian infertile males. Fifty two oligozoospermic infertile males and 63 fertile controls were recruited to this study. Screening for partial AZFc deletions was done using the two sequence-tagged sites approach (SY1291 and SY1191) which were analyzed using both the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis and the high resolution melt, HRM method. Gr/gr deletions were found in 11.53% of the cases and 9.52% of the controls (p = 0.725). A B2/b3 deletion was found in one of the cases (p = 0.269). No B1/b3 deletions were identified in this study. The results of HRM analysis were consistent with those obtained using the conventional PCR gel-electrophoresis method. The HRM analysis was highly repeatable (95% limit of agreement was -0.0879 to 0.0871 for SY1191 melting temperature readings). In conclusion, our study showed that partial AZFc deletions were not associated with male infertility in Malaysian subjects. HRM analysis was a reliable, repeatable, fast, cost-effective, and semi-automated method which can be used for screening of partial AZFc deletions.

  4. Infertility.

    PubMed

    Jose-Miller, Alaina B; Boyden, Jennifer W; Frey, Keith A

    2007-03-15

    Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy during one year of frequent, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation generally begins after 12 months, but it can be initiated earlier if infertility is suspected based on history or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Major causes of infertility include male factors, ovarian dysfunction, tubal disease, endometriosis, and uterine or cervical factors. A careful history and physical examination of each partner can suggest a single or multifactorial etiology and can direct further investigation. Ovulation can be documented with a home urinary luteinizing hormone kit. Hysterosalpingography and pelvic ultrasonography can be used to screen for uterine and fallopian tube disease. Hysteroscopy and/or laparoscopy can be used if no abnormalities are found on initial screening. Women older than 35 years also may benefit from ovarian reserve testing of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle, the clomiphene citrate challenge test, or pelvic ultrasonography for antral follicle count to determine treatment options and the likelihood of success. Options for the treatment of male factor infertility include gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to ovulatory dysfunction often can be treated with oral ovulation-inducing agents in a primary care setting. Women with poor ovarian reserve have more success with oocyte donation. In certain cases, tubal disease may be treatable by surgical repair or by in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to endometriosis may be amenable to surgery, induction of ovulation with intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Unexplained infertility may be managed with ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or both. The overall likelihood of successful pregnancy with treatment is nearly 50 percent.

  5. [L-arginine and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F

    1994-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects.

  6. [Application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility].

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Feng; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2013-05-01

    The study on stem cells is a hot field in biomedical science in recent years, and has furthered from laboratory to clinical application. Stem cells, according to their developmental stage and differential properties, can be divided into embryonic stem cells, induced PS cells and adult stem cells, among which, adult stem cells have already been applied to the clinical treatment of many systemic diseases. Currently, the study of spermatogonial stem cells and adult stem cells is in the front of the basic researches on the treatment of male infertility, but the time has not yet arrived for their clinical application. This paper outlines the application prospect of adult stem cells in male infertility.

  7. Relationship amongst teratozoospermia, seminal oxidative stress and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spermatozoa morphology is an important and complex characteristic of the fertilization capacity of male germ cells. Morphological abnormalities have been observed to be accompanied by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and further damage to spermatozoa, ultimately leading to infertility. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the relationship between seminal ROS production and sperm morphology in infertile teratozoospermic patients as well as in healthy men of proven and unproven fertility. Methods Semen samples were collected from 79 patients classified as teratozoospermic and 56 healthy donors (control). Standard semen analysis was performed and spermatozoa morphology was assessed according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal ROS was measured by chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated, and sensitivity, specificity, cutoff value and area under curve (AUC) were determined. Results Sperm morphology was significantly poor in the Teratozoospermic Group compared with the 3 Donor Groups (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of ROS (RLU/sec/106 sperm) were seen in the Teratozoospermic group (145.4 (41.5; 555.4) compared to the Donor Groups: All Donors (64.8 (21.1; 198.2), Proven Donors (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) and Proven Donors < 2 years (58.8 (14.2; 79.2) (P < 0.05). ROS correlated negatively with sperm concentration in the All Donor group (r = −0.354; P = 0.021) as well as in the Teratozospermic group (r −0.356; P = 0.002). Using ROC analysis, we established the cutoff values for concentration, morphology and ROS. Conclusions The incidence of teratozoospermia may be directly related to the overproduction of seminal ROS. Therefore, besides sperm concentration and motility, spermatozoa morphology should receive an equally important consideration in the overall assessment of male fertility. PMID:24884815

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of the DJ-1 gene promoter associated with the susceptibility to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Danial; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Abasalt; Salimi, Saeedeh

    2017-09-20

    In this study, we evaluate the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of the DJ-1 gene, g.-6_+10del, and g.168_185del with male infertility susceptibility. Four hundred and twenty-two male infertile patients and 285 fertile male controls were recruited. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction. In silico analysis was performed by EPD, ElemeNT, SNPnexus, and PROMO to predict the potential functions of rs901561484 and rs373653682 polymorphisms. The Del (D) allele carriers of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del polymorphism were significantly associated with the risk of male infertility in total infertile, asthenozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia patients. Moreover, the Del (D) allele of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del polymorphism significantly increased in total male infertile, asthenozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia groups. In addition, the frequencies of different genotypes and the Del allele and Dup allele carriers of DJ-1 g.168_185del gene polymorphisms were associated with male infertility in total infertile and four different sub-group patients. Furthermore, haplotype analysis of DJ-1 g.-6_+10del and g.168_185del polymorphisms revealed that the D-Dup and I-Del haplotype frequencies significantly increased the risk of male infertility, while I-Ins haplotypes were associated with a decreased risk of male infertility in total and sub-group patients. The in silico analysis showed that the presence of Ins and/or Dup alleles of the DJ-1 g.-6_+10del and g.168_185del polymorphisms could provide additional binding sites of more nuclear factors and probably affect transcriptional activity. Our study presents evidence of a strong association between functional polymorphisms of the DJ-1 promoter, g.-6_+10del, and g.168_185del with the risk of male infertility.

  9. Screening for Y-chromosome microdeletions in a population of infertile males in the Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Shaqalaih, Ashraf J.; Abu Halima, Masood S.; Ashour, Mohammed J.; Sharif, Fadel A.

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is an extraordinary public health problem in the Arab world, as it affects about 15% of couples seeking children. The male partner is responsible for infertility in approximately half of these cases. Classic microdeletions of the Y-chromosome involving the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions are known to be associated with spermatogenic impairment, and non-obstructive azoospermia must be differentiated on the basis of endocrine evaluation and testicular biopsy. Partial AZFc deletions remain controversial because there is no clear agreement regarding their role in spermatogenic failure. In the current study, 50 fertile males (controls) and 125 patients with primary idiopathic male infertility were studied in order to describe the frequency of Y-chromosome mirodeletions among male infertility patients in the Gaza Strip-Palestine area. No Y chromosome classical microdeletions could be detected in any of the 125 infertile men, suggesting that ethnic factors, genetic background, and Y chromosome haplogroups are key factors in such deletions. On the other hand, six gr/gr and one b1/b3 AZFc partial deletions were detected in the infertile population. The gr/gr deletion was also noted in relatives of four of the six patients with this deletion, and in one of the fertile controls. In conclusion, our study shows that the incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletions in our population is rare; these data suggest that other genetic, epigenetic, nutritional and/or local factors are responsible for impairments in semen parameters observed in this Gazan population. We further hypothesise that the gr/gr deletion is not associated with male infertility, at least in this sub-group. PMID:20485582

  10. Molecular approaches to the diagnosis of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Jeremias, J; Witkin, S S

    1996-03-01

    The introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a technique to selectively amplify and identify specific DNA and RNA sequences has revolutionized the field of molecular medicine. Application of these newly developed molecular techniques to the field of male infertility has made the delineation of subtle causes of infertility-an inapparent genital tract infection, immune system activation within the genital tract, mutations in sperm mitochondrial or chromosomal DNA, alterations in sperm components involved in receptor-ligand interactions, and production of sperm autoantibodies-all increasingly amenable to clinical analysis. Continued investigations at the molecular level of the causes of male infertility will also lead to novel treatment regimens as well as development of new methods of fertility regulation.

  11. Phylogenetic and population-based approaches to mitogenome variation do not support association with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Salas, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Infertility has a complex multifactorial etiology and a high prevalence worldwide. Several studies have pointed to variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule as a factor responsible for the different disease phenotypes related to infertility. We analyzed 53 mitogenomes of infertile males from Galicia (northwest Spain), and these haplotypes were meta-analyzed phylogenetically with 43 previously reported from Portugal. Taking advantage of the large amount of information available, we additionally carried out association tests between patient mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) and haplogroups against Iberian matched controls retrieved from The 1000 Genomes Project and the literature. Phylogenetic and association analyses did not reveal evidence of association between mtSNPs/haplogroups and infertility. Ratios and patterns in patients of nonsynonymous/synonymous changes, and variation at homoplasmic, heteroplasmic and private variants, fall within expected values for healthy individuals. Moreover, the haplogroup background of patients was variable and fits well with patterns typically observed in healthy western Europeans. We did not find evidence of association of mtSNPs or haplogroups pointing to a role for mtDNA in male infertility. A thorough review of the literature on mtDNA variation and infertility revealed contradictory findings and methodological and theoretical problems that overall undermine previous positive findings.

  12. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  13. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  14. Smoking and Male Infertility: An Evidence-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Harlev, Avi; Gunes, Sezgin Ozgur; Shetty, Amit; du Plessis, Stefan Simon

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported that the contents of cigarette smoke negatively affect sperm parameters, seminal plasma, and various other fertility factors. Nevertheless, the actual effect of smoking on male fertility is not clear. The effect of smoking on semen parameters is based on the well-established biological finding that smoking increases the presence of reactive oxygen species, thereby resulting in oxidative stress (OS). OS has devastating effects on sperm parameters, such as viability and morphology, and impairs sperm function, hence reducing male fertility. However, not all studies have come to the same conclusions. This review sheds light upon the arguable association between smoking and male fertility and also assesses the impact of non-smoking routes of tobacco consumption on male infertility. It also highlights the evidence that links smoking with male infertility, including newly emerging genetic and epigenetic data, and discusses the clinical implications thereof. PMID:26770934

  15. Alternative and antioxidant therapies used by a sample of infertile males in Jordan: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used in the Middle East, especially to treat chronic diseases such as infertility. We aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of CAM use, particularly herbs and antioxidant therapies, among infertile males presenting for infertility evaluation in Jordan. Methods Demographic information, use of alternative and antioxidant therapies for infertility treatment, and patients’ belief in efficacy and safety of the therapies used were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. Data were collected from 428 infertile male patients presenting at infertility clinics in Amman, the capital city of Jordan. The study was conducted between April 2013 and September 2013. Results Of the 428 men who completed the questionnaire, 184 (43%) used at least one of the alternative and antioxidant therapies specified in the questionnaire. Nutritional regime; vitamins, such as vitamins C and E; and medicinal herbs, such as ginger, saw palmetto, and ginseng were the most commonly used therapies reported. A correlation between the use of alternative and antioxidant therapies versus infertility duration was found. Additionally, the majority of males using CAM did not inform their health care providers about their usage. Conclusions The high prevalence of CAM use among infertile male patients underscores the urge to assimilate CAM into the education and training of health professionals, as well as to improve infertile patients’ knowledge of the safe use of CAM modalities. PMID:25026980

  16. Genetic variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hou-Qun; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Shuo-Ran; A, Zhou-Cun

    2013-08-01

    In testis, eNOS is responsible for synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) which is an essential gas message regulator in spermatogenesis, suggesting that eNOS gene plays a role in normal spermatogenesis and the genetic variants of eNOS gene may be potential genetic risk factors of spermatogenesis impairment. In this study, the polymorphic distributions of three common polymorphism loci including T-786C, 4A4B and G894T in eNOS gene were investigated in 355 Chinese infertile patients with azoospermia or oligozoospermia and 246 healthy fertile men and a meta-analysis was carried in order to explore the possible relationship between the three loci of eNOS gene and male infertility with spermatogenesis impairment. As a result, allele -786C of T-786C (11.4% versus 6.5%, p = 0.004) and 4A of 4A4B (11.0% versus 6.3%, p = 0.005) as well as genotype TC of T-786C (22.8% versus 13.0%, p = 0.002) and AB of 4A4B (18% versus 11%, p = 0.015) were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility. The haplotypes T-4A-G (7.4% versus 4.1%, p = 0.015) and C-4B-G (7.6% versus 4.4%, p = 0.028) could increase the susceptibility to male infertility, whereas haplotype T-4B-G (67.0% versus 75.2%, p = 0.002) might be a protective factor for male infertility. The results of meta-analysis revealed that the polymorphism of T-786C was associated with male infertility. These findings suggested that the variants of eNOS gene may modify the susceptibility to male infertility with impaired spermatogenesis.

  17. "Wash leather scrotum" (scrotal dermatitis): a treatable cause of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hendry, W F; Munro, D D

    1990-02-01

    A group of 16 male patients with infertility had dermatitis of the scrotum and groins giving lichenified oedematous skin; the resulting thickening and loss of rugosity produced a characteristic appearance that we have termed wash leather scrotum. Treatment of the dermatosis resulted in an improvement in sperm count and motility in most patients, and 5 couples produced one or more pregnancies.

  18. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  19. Coenzyme Q(10) in male infertility: physiopathology and therapy.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Antonio; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    Both the bioenergetic and the antioxidant role of CoQ(10) suggest a possible involvement in sperm biochemistry and male infertility. CoQ(10) can be quantified in seminal fluid, where its concentration correlates with sperm count and motility. It was found that distribution of CoQ(10) between sperm cells and seminal plasma was altered in varicocele patients, who also presented a higher level of oxidative stress and lower total antioxidant capacity. The effect of vericocelectomy on partially reversing these biochemical abnormalities is discussed. The redox status of coenzyme Q(10) in seminal fluid was also determined: an inverse correlation was found between ubiquinol/ubiquinone ratio and hydroperoxide levels and between this ratio and the percentage of abnormal sperm forms. After the first in vitro observations CoQ(10) was administered to infertile patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia, originally in an open label study and then in three randomized placebo-controlled trials; doses were around 200-300 mg/day and treatment lasted 6 months. A significant increase in the concentration of CoQ(10) was found, both in seminal plasma and sperm cells. Treatment also led to a certain improvement in sperm motility. In one of the studies there was also a decrease in plasma levels of follicle stimulating horhone (FSH) and luteinizine horhone (LH). Administration of CoQ(10) may play a positive role in the treatment of asthenozoospermia, possibly related to not only to its function in the mitochondrial respiratory chain but also to its antioxidant properties. Further studies are needed in order to determine whether there is also an effect on fertility rate. Copyright © 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Spermatogenesis, DNA damage and DNA repair mechanisms in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Al-Sadaan, Maha; Agarwal, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process of proliferation and differentiation during male germ cell development involving mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. Endogenous and exogenous physical, chemical and biological sources modify the genome of spermatozoa. The genomic integrity and stability of the sperm is protected by DNA repair mechanisms. In the male germline cells, DNA repair mechanisms include nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, DNA mismatch repair, double strand break repair and post-replication repair. Defects in repair mechanisms cause arrest of spermatogenesis and abnormal recombination, ultimately resulting in male infertility. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms of the DNA repair pathways, DNA repair defects and male infertility. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aberrations of the X chromosome as cause of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2017-06-13

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or azoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistently with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis. Therefore, it is not surprising that the X chromosome, considered as the female counterpart of the male associated Y chromosome, may actually play an essential role in male infertility and sperm production. This is supported by the recent description of a significantly increased CNV burden on both sex chromosomes in infertile men and point mutations in X-chromosomal genes responsible for male infertility. Thus, the X chromosome seems to be frequently affected in infertile male patients. Four principal X-chromosomal aberrations have been identified so far: 1) aneuploidy of the X chromosome as found in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY or mosaicism for additional X chromosomes). 2) Translocations involving the X chromosome, e.g. nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (XX-male syndrome) or X-autosome translocations. 3) Copy Number Variations (CNVs) affecting the X chromosome. 4) Point mutations disrupting X-chromosomal genes. All of these are reviewed herein and assessed concerning their importance for the clinical routine diagnostic workup of the infertile male as well as their potential to shape research on spermatogenic failure in the next years.

  2. Genetic and epigenetic factors: Role in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, M. B.; Kumar, K.; Dada, R.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors contribute upto 15%–30% cases of male infertility. Formation of spermatozoa occurs in a sequential manner with mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic differentiation phases each of which is controlled by an intricate genetic program. Genes control a variety of physiologic processes, such as hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal axis, germ cell development, and differentiation. In the era of assisted reproduction technology, it is important to understand the genetic basis of infertility to provide maximum adapted therapeutics and counseling to the couple. PMID:21716934

  3. The Role of Estrogen Modulators in Male Hypogonadism and Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Rambhatla, Amarnath; Mills, Jesse N.; Rajfer, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Estradiol, normally considered a female hormone, appears to play a significant role in men in a variety of physiologic functions, such as bone metabolism, cardiovascular health, and testicular function. As such, estradiol has been targeted by male reproductive and sexual medicine specialists to help treat conditions such as infertility and hypogonadism. The compounds that modulate estradiol levels in these clinical conditions are referred to as selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In a certain subset of infertile men, particularly those with hypogonadism, or those who have a low serum testosterone to estradiol ratio, there is some evidence suggesting that SERMs and AIs can reverse the low serum testosterone levels or the testosterone to estradiol imbalance and occasionally improve any associated infertile or subfertile state. This review focuses on the role these SERMs and AIs play in the aforementioned reproductive conditions. PMID:27601965

  4. Varicocele as a source of male infertility – current treatment techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dobroński, Piotr Artur; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    To establish the extent of varicocele as the cause of infertility in men and compare the various techniques of treatment. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library database using varicocele, male infertility, varicocelectomy as keywords. Varicocele seems to be a growing problem considered to be one of the most common causes of male infertility in recent times. Nevertheless, its role remains unclear. The best treatment option seems to be microscopic surgery – the most effective and linked to rare surgical complications. But the greatest clinical problem remains the selection of patients to treat – recently it is believed that varicocelectomy is a possibly advisable option in patients with clinical varicocele and seminal parameter impairment [1]. More high-quality, multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT's) are required to verify the findings. PMID:26568883

  5. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuela; Förster, Heidi; Boersma, Auke; Seiler, Alexander; Wehnes, Helga; Sinowatz, Fred; Neumüller, Christine; Deutsch, Manuel J; Walch, Axel; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Ursini, Fulvio; Roveri, Antonella; Maleszewski, Marek; Maiorino, Matilde; Conrad, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is linked to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), first described as an antioxidant enzyme, is the predominant selenoenzyme in testis and has been suspected of being vital for spermatogenesis. Cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoforms are all encoded by the same gene. While disruption of entire GPx4 causes early embryonic lethality in mice, inactivation of nuclear GPx4 does not impair embryonic development or fertility. Here, we show that deletion of mitochondrial GPx4 (mGPx4) allows both normal embryogenesis and postnatal development, but causes male infertility. Infertility was associated with impaired sperm quality and severe structural abnormalities in the midpiece of spermatozoa. Knockout sperm display higher protein thiol content and recapitulate features typical of severe selenodeficiency. Interestingly, male infertility induced by mGPx4 depletion could be bypassed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We also show for the first time that mGPx4 is the prevailing GPx4 product in male germ cells and that mGPx4 disruption has no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of germinal or somatic tissue. Our study finally establishes that mitochondrial GPx4 confers the vital role of selenium in mammalian male fertility and identifies cytosolic GPx4 as the only GPx4 isoform being essential for embryonic development and apoptosis regulation.

  6. Association of body mass index with some fertility markers among male partners of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Hajshafiha, Masoumeh; Ghareaghaji, Rasul; Salemi, Sedigheh; Sadegh-Asadi, Nahid; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2013-01-01

    Background The available evidence on the role of obesity and body mass index (BMI) on male infertility has been controversial or inconclusive to some extent. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMI on some male-fertility laboratory indicators both among infertile and fertile men in an Iranian population. Methods and materials A total of 159 male patients who had lived as a partner in an infertile couple for at least 1 year, after regular reproductive activity in their married life, and who sought infertility consultation, were investigated. BMI was assessed, and a morning blood sample was taken assessing serum levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol. Semen-analysis parameters were also measured. Results In this study, it was found that the likelihood of oligospermia was increased at higher BMI values. Obese men were found to be 3.5 times more likely to have oligospermia than those with normal BMI. BMI was not found to be associated with mean numeric values of the semen-analysis parameters, including sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. BMI was not significantly correlated with some hormone levels, such as LH, prolactin, and LH/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio. However, a statistically significant association was observed between BMI and estradiol (P < 0.01), sex hormone-binding globulin (P < 0.001), and also the testosterone/estradiol ratio (P < 0.001). A different pattern of associations in this study was observed when the associations between BMI and sexual hormone levels were compared between fertile and subfertile/infertile men. Conclusion The association explored between BMI and some sexual hormones and semen characteristics, as well as different patterns of this association between fertile and subfertile/infertile men, will be of help to broaden our understanding of the effect of obesity on some male reproductive

  7. [Treatment of traditional Chinese medicine for idiopathic male infertility].

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yuzo; Akashi, Takuya; Fuse, Hideki

    2004-08-01

    Several Chinese herbal medicines have been used to treat patients with idiopathic male infertility and have been reported to improve semen quality. The clinical efficacy of these medicines was reviewed. The therapeutic effect of Hochu-ekki-to based on the pretreatment traditional diagnosis (Sho) was examined. Three months after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, the semen count and motility significantly increased in comparison with pretreatment values. When the patients were classified into 3 categories based on "Sho", Hochu-ekki-to was effective in semen motility in patients with vacuity pattern (Kyo-Sho). Seminal plasma soluble Fas (sFas) levels before and three months after the administration of drug were analyzed. Seminal plasma sFas level elevated significantly after the administration of Hochu-ekki-to. After the administration of Hochu-ekki-to, seminal plasma sFas levels significantly correlated with sperm concentration. To make the best use of traditional medicine, it is important to give medication according to the traditional diagnosis (Sho).

  8. The effect of the new 2010 World Health Organization criteria for semen analyses on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katie S; James, Andrew; McGeady, James B; Reed, Michael L; Kuang, Wayne W; Nangia, Ajay K

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the effect of the new 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) semen analysis reference values on reclassifying previous semen analysis parameters and definition of patients with male factor infertility. A multi-institutional retrospective chart review. University and private male infertility clinics. Men referred for infertility evaluation. Comparison of semen analysis values based on 2010 versus 1999 reference criteria. Quantification of the change based on individual sperm parameters and as a whole. A total of 184 men had at least two semen analyses; 13 (7%), 17 (9.2%), 34 (18.4%), and 29 (15.7%) patients changed classification to being at or above the reference values by the 2010 criteria for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, respectively. A total of 501 men had one semen analysis on file; 40 (7.9%), 31 (6.2%), 50 (9.9%), and 74 (19.3%) would change classification for volume, concentration, motility, and morphology, respectively. Overall, 103 patients (15.1%) who had one or more parameter below the reference value on the original analysis were converted to having all parameters at or above the 2010 reference values. The 2010 reference values result in some infertile men being reclassified as fertile if status is based on semen analysis alone. This may lead to fewer men being referred for proper infertility evaluation or treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservative Nonhormonal Options for the Treatment of Male Infertility: Antibiotics, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A.

    2017-01-01

    The nonhormonal medical treatment can be divided into empirical, when the cause has not been identified, and nonempirical, if the pathogenic mechanism causing male infertility can be solved or ameliorated. The empirical nonhormonal medical treatment has been proposed for patients with idiopathic or noncurable oligoasthenoteratozoospermia and for normozoospermic infertile patients. Anti-inflammatory, fibrinolytic, and antioxidant compounds, oligo elements, and vitamin supplementation may be prescribed. Infection, inflammation, and/or increased oxidative stress often require a specific treatment with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and/or antioxidants. Combined therapies can contribute to improve sperm quality. PMID:28164122

  10. [An approach to male infertility from economic sociology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lian-ming; Jiang, Hui; Sui, Yu-jie; Tang, Wen-hao; Yuan, Ren-pei; Ma, Lu-lin

    2007-09-01

    To study the psychology of infertility patients from the perspective of economic sociology so as to prevent the patients from medical frauds in seeking medical treatment. We investigated 902 infertility patients of the Third Hospital of Peking University from September 2005 to January 2006 using a randomized questionnaire. Of the total number, 84.4% had education below college level; the majority had a low monthly family income, 36.6% below Y1,000, 19.7% from Y1,000 to Y2,000, 16.5% from Y2,000 to Y3,000, 7.8% from Y3,000 to Y4,000 and 19.4% above Y4,000; 88.7% had a strong desire for a child; 60.3% were psychologically stressed. As for the advertisements for the treatment of infertility, 50.2% of the patients disbelieved them, 6.2% wanted to have a try and about 43.6% accepted them to be true. Regarding the treatment in individual hospitals, 55.2% disbelieved in it, 5.8% wanted to try it and about 39.0% believed in it. Infertility patients of low economic status usually have a lower educational level but a higher desire for children, and therefore are more likely to be the victims of medical frauds and more psychologically stressed. It calls for our attention how to provide them with medical help.

  11. Case-control study of leatherwork and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kurinczuk, J; Clarke, M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To test the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with male infertility mediated through the development of oligozoospermia. The basis of any association was postulated, at the outset, to be with exposure to the solvents used in leatherwork.
METHODS—All new referrals with infertility presenting in Leicestershire hospital clinics between November 1988 and September 1992 and Kettering District General Hospital from August 1990 were eligible to participate; 88.5% agreed to be interviewed. Exposure to leatherwork and work with solvents was defined by job title. Comparisons were made with fertile controls and in an analysis within men from infertile couples with oligozoospermia as the primary outcome. Effects on sperm motility and deformity were investigated secondarily. Analyses used logistic regression for binary outcomes and multilevel modelling for continuous outcomes.
RESULTS—1906 men were interviewed. Compared with the fertile controls the men from infertile couples were 1.10 times (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.46 to 2.63; p=0.99) more likely to be leatherworkers and 1.73 times (95% CI 1.26 to 2.38; p<0.001) more likely to work with solvents. Compared with other men, leatherworkers were 1.20 times (95% CI 0.43 to 3.33; p=0.73) more likely to present with oligozoospermia and 1.65 times (95% CI 0.37 to 7.30; p=0.51) more likely to present with teratozoospermia. Being a leatherworker was associated with only a 6% reduction in sperm concentration; motility and deformity were similarly unaffected by this exposure. Work with solvents did not statistically, nor clinically, increase the risk of oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, or asthenozoospermia.
CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to support the hypothesis that leatherwork is associated with an increased risk of presenting with infertility or oligozoospermia. There was limited evidence that leatherwork is a risk factor for teratozoospermia. Workers with solvents were at

  12. Use of alternative and hormonal therapies in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zini, Armand; Fischer, Marc Anthony; Nam, Robert K; Jarvi, Keith

    2004-01-01

    To examine the patterns of use of alternative and hormonal therapies in men presenting for infertility evaluation. We administered a questionnaire on the use of alternative and hormonal therapies to 500 consecutive men presenting for infertility evaluation at our male infertility clinic. The questionnaire asked about the use of specific therapies (eg, vitamins, herbal medicine, or hormones), the monthly cost of these therapies, and whether the principal healthcare provider had been made aware of the use of therapies. Of the 481 men who completed the questionnaire, 147 (31%) admitted to using one or more alternative therapies. Most of the men using alternative therapies (92 of 147, 63%) were taking one or more antioxidant vitamins or minerals (ie, vitamins C, E, selenium, zinc), and 18 men admitted to using herbal medicines. Of concern, 25 men reported using agents with clear hormonal activity (testosterone, clomiphene citrate), and 6 of these men had not informed their principal healthcare provider of this. Our data suggest that a significant percentage ( approximately 30%) of men presenting for infertility evaluation do use alternative therapies. It is important to inquire about the use of these therapies because some of these treatments may be toxic to the gonads.

  13. [Hysteroscopic evaluation in patients with infertility].

    PubMed

    Lasmar, Ricardo Bassil; Barrozo, Paulo Roberto Mussel; Parente, Raphael Câmara Medeiros; Lasmar, Bernardo Portugal; da Rosa, Daniela Baltar; Penna, Ivan Araujo; Dias, Rogério

    2010-08-01

    to describe hysteroscopy findings in infertile patients. this was a retrospective series of 953 patients with diagnosis of infertility evaluated by hysteroscopy. A total of 957 patients investigated for infertility were subjected to hysteroscopy, preferentially during the first phase of the menstrual cycle. When necessary, directed biopsies (under direct visualization during the exam) or guided biopsies were obtained using a Novak curette after defining the site to be biopsied during the hysteroscopic examination. Outcome frequencies were determined as percentages, and the χ2 test was used for the correlations. The statistical software EpiInfo 2000 (CDC) was used for data analysis. a normal uterine cavity was detected in 436 cases (45.8%). This was the most frequent diagnosis for women with primary infertility and for women with one or no abortion (p<0.05). Abnormal findings were obtained in 517 of 953 cases (54.2%), including intrauterine synechiae in 185 patients (19.4%), endometrial polyps in 115 (12.1%), endocervical polyps in 66 (6.0%), submucosal myomas in 47 (4.9%), endometrial hyperplasia in 39 (4.1%), adenomyosis in five (0.5%), endometritis (with histopathological confirmation) in four (0.4%), endometrial bone metaplasia in two (0.4%), and cancer of the endometrium in one case (0.1%). Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were detected in 5.6% of the cases, including uterine malformations in 32 (3.4%) and isthmus-cervical incompetence in 21 (2.2%). intrauterine synechiae were the most frequent abnormal findings in patients evaluated for infertility. Patients with a history of abortion and infertility should be submitted to hysteroscopy in order to rule out intrauterine synechiae as a possible cause of infertility.

  14. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-04-15

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men.

  15. Treating Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  16. Evaluating Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, October 2017 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  17. Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  18. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  19. Aneuploidies level in sperm nuclei in patients with infertility.

    PubMed

    Alchinbayev, Mirzakarim Karimovich; Aralbayeva, Araylyim Nugmanovna; Tuleyeva, Lazzat Namatullaevna; Duysenbayeva, Svetlana Melsovna; Makazhanov, Marat Abzalovich

    2016-09-01

    Male infertility is a relevant social and medical problem. Male infertility is mostly caused by genetic disorders. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation of chromosome aberrations, as well as DNA fragmentation and various manifestations of spermatogenesis disorder. Sperm samples of 58 males with infertility and 23 conditionally healthy males were studied. All patients diagnosed with asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia and oligoteratozoospermia underwent subsequent analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA fragmentation was examined with sperm chromatin dispersion test (sperm chromatin dispersion, Spermprocessor, India) with an Axioscope 40 fluorescent microscope. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with fluorescent probes (Vysis Multi Vysion PGT, Abbot Molecular) was used to study chromosome abnormalities in sperm nuclei with regard to X and Y chromosomes, as well as to chromosomes 18 and 21. It was found that the development of pathospermia was characterized by genetic discontinuity, which manifests as DNA fragmentation and disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis with spermatogenesis. It was also found that the prevailing type of pathospermia in men with infertility was oligozoospermia. In addition, this group also had the highest rate of numerical chromosome abnormalities. This was caused by the degeneration of spermatozoids with aneuploidies in chromosomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  1. Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? Results of a 7 year observational study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccà, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F

    2012-04-01

    This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (χ(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ≥ 0.05). Linear regression analyses showed that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ≥ 0.05), whereas partners' age (β = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (β = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These results showed a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame.

  2. Cell phones and male infertility: dissecting the relationship.

    PubMed

    Deepinder, Fnu; Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok

    2007-09-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the use of mobile phones in the past decade and concerns are growing about the possible hazardous effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves (EMW) emitted by these devices on human health. Preliminary studies, though with limitations in study design, suggest a possible link between cell phone use and infertility. A recent study found that use of cell phones adversely affects the quality of semen by decreasing the sperm counts, motility, viability and morphology. Evidence of detrimental effect of mobile phones on male fertility is still equivocal as studies have revealed a wide spectrum of possible effects ranging from insignificant effects to variable degrees of testicular damage. Although previous studies suggested a role of cell phone use in male infertility, the mode of action of EMW emitted from cell phones on the male reproductive system is still unclear. EMW can affect the reproductive system via an EMW-specific effect, thermal molecular effect or combination of both. Studies performed on human males are scarce and therefore further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male-fertilizing potential.

  3. Proteins involved in meiotic recombination: a role in male infertility?

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Matthew L; Hassold, Terry J; Carrell, Douglas T

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic recombination results in the formation of crossovers, by which genetic information is exchanged between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Recombination is a complex process involving many proteins. Alterations in the genes involved in recombination may result in infertility. Molecular studies have improved our understanding of the roles and mechanisms of the proteins and protein complexes involved in recombination, some of which have function in mitotic cells as well as meiotic cells. Human gene sequencing studies have been performed for some of these genes and have provided further information on the phenotypes observed in some infertile individuals. However, further studies are needed to help elucidate the particular role(s) of a given protein and to increase our understanding of these protein systems. This review will focus on our current understanding of proteins involved in meiotic recombination from a genomic perspective, summarizing our current understanding of known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms that may affect male fertility by altering meiotic recombination.

  4. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation? A population based study.

    PubMed

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Osler, Merete; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-05-19

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6 was significantly higher among men with male factor infertility compared with other men adjusted for potential confounders. This was not found for the two other inflammatory markers. The lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility were 10.2% and 17.9%, respectively. The findings suggest that male factor infertility might be associated with an increased level of interleukin-6.

  5. [Study of male sterility (Pt. 4) on the relationship of prostaglandin and male infertility (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ito, H

    1968-01-01

    That seminal (PG) prostaglandin in infertile males is much lower than in normal fertile men was reported recently. Possible roles of PG on fertility were also discussed. However, detailed data about the normal level of seminal PG in individuals have not been presented thus far, except some original descriptions. The present study presents the seminal PG contents in both infertile and fertile men. PGs were estimated biologically and/or spectrometrically after partial purification from semen. As related values were obtained with each method, measurements of optical density on alkali treated PG were done as a routine assay. Conventional classification of infertility was as follows: 1) azoospermia (no spermatozoa in semen), 2) oligospermia (spermatozoa than 50 millions/ml), and 3) normospermia (spermatozoa than 50 millions/ml). PG levels of those groups were: 1) 7.5 + or - 3.9 (8 cases), 2) 9.3 + or - 3.9 (29 cases), 3) 10.8 + or - 5.7 (21 cases) and normal men as controls 9.0 + or - 6.6 (17 cases). Fructose and cholesterol contents in seminal plasma were also determined in most of the cases. No particular relations were found between PG contents and these constituents. However, seminal fructose content was inversely proportional to that of cholesterol (r=0.66, n=20, p 0.01). Testosterone regulation of fructose production in seminal vesicles has been well established. Our results suggest there are hormonal controls for seminal cholesterol formation and for secretion but not for that of PG. Bergstrom et al have demonstrated the conversions of (EFA) essential fatty acids to PGs in vitro and have been led to postulate that EFA deficiency signs are due to lack of PGs. I examined the effects of EFA administration to patients on PG formation during the period of 2-12 weeks but PG levels in individuals are variable with time or conditions and definite tendencies have not yet been obtained. Further investigation is necessary. (Author's modified)

  6. A randomised controlled trial of intra-uterine insemination versus in vitro fertilisation in patients with idiopathic or mild male infertility.

    PubMed

    Elzeiny, Hossam; Garrett, Claire; Toledo, Manuela; Stern, Kate; McBain, John; Baker, Hugh William Gordon

    2014-04-01

    The cause of infertility is unexplained or poorly explained in 30-40% of couples undergoing standard investigations, and treatment ranges from expectant management to IUI and IVF. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical pregnancy rates and costs of intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in women where the same ovarian stimulation led to the development of two or three mature follicles. A randomised controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of IUI and IVF in a tertiary fertility centre (ISRCTN28780587). Primary outcome measures were fetal heart positive pregnancy rate and cost per live birth. The selection criteria were age: females 18-42 years and males 18-60 years, infertility for one year or more, no IVF or IUI for 12 months prior to the trial, and no coital, tubal or ovulatory disorders, oligospermia, untreated endometriosis or contraindication for multiple pregnancy. All women (n = 102) had the same dose FSH stimulation protocol. Those who developed two or three preovulatory follicles were randomised 3:1 to IUI (n = 33) or IVF (n = 10). IUI or IVF was performed 36 h after hCG administration with single or double embryo transfer on day two. Clinical pregnancy rates (40% vs 12%, P = 0.04) and live birth rate (40% vs 6%, P = 0.01) were higher for IVF than IUI. The cost per live birth was AU$8735 for IVF compared with $42,487 for IUI. This study provides evidence that IVF is more successful and cost-effective than IUI using the same doses of FSH. Further confirmatory studies are required. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. Genetic evaluation of severe male factor infertility in Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Batioglu, Sertaç; Gunel, Mufit; Ceylaner, Serdar; Karaer, Abdullah

    2012-06-01

    To determine the frequency, types of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility, and the association between clinical background and genetic abnormality. A total of 322 infertile men; 136 men with severe oligozoospermia (sperm count <5 million/ml) and 196 with nonobstructive azoospermia were studied between April 2004 and November 2006 at the Dr. Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Blood, semen samples, and testicular biopsies of patients were obtained. Hormonal analysis (follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels), semen analysis, karyotype analysis, and PCR screening for Y chromosome microdeletions were performed. Forty-eight out of 332 (14%) infertile men had a genetic abnormality. Twenty-four (7.2%) cases with karyotype abnormality were detected. The frequencies of karyotype abnormalities were Klinefelter's syndrome 17/24 (71%), translocation 3/24 (12%), mix gonadal dysgenesis 2/24 (8%), XX male 1/24 (4%), and 46XYY 1/24 (4%). Twenty cases (6%) infertile men had only Y chromosome microdeletions. The frequencies of the deleted areas were azoospermia factor (AZF)c 42%, AZFb 25%, AZFa 21%, AZFb, c 8%, and AZFa, c 4%. Four of the cases with Y chromosome microdeletions also had a concurrent karyotype abnormality. All patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia (sperm count <5 million/ml) should undergo genetic screening.

  8. Stem cell therapeutic possibilities: future therapeutic options for male-factor and female-factor infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproduction treatment have enabled some couples with severe infertility issues to conceive, but the methods are not successful in all cases. Notwithstanding the significant financial burden of assisted reproduction treatment, the emotional scars from an inability to conceive a child enacts a greater toll on affected couples. While methods have circumvented some root causes for male and female infertility, often the underlying causes cannot be treated, thus true cures for restoring a patient’s fertility are limited. Furthermore, the procedures are only available if the affected patients are able to produce gametes. Patients rendered sterile by medical interventions, exposure to toxicants or genetic causes are unable to utilize assisted reproduction to conceive a child – and often resort to donors, where permitted. Stem cells represent a future potential avenue for allowing these sterile patients to produce offspring. Advances in stem cell biology indicate that stem cell replacement therapies or in-vitro differentiation may be on the horizon to treat and could cure male and female infertility, although significant challenges need to be met before this technology can reach clinical practice. This article discusses these advances and describes the impact that these advances may have on treating infertility. PMID:23664220

  9. Association between periodontal status and idiopathic male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016).

  10. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  11. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    PubMed

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-02

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  12. NOS3 gene variants and male infertility: Association of 4a/4b with oligoasthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Vučić, N L J; Nikolić, Z Z; Vukotić, V D; Tomović, S M; Vuković, I I; Kanazir, S D; Savić-Pavićević, D L J; Brajušković, G N

    2017-05-03

    Results of recent studies confirmed that oxidative stress negatively affects sperm motility and causes sperm DNA damage. Produced by nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), nitric oxide is considered to be one of the important mediators of oxidative stress in testis tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association of three genetic variants (rs2070744, rs1799983 and intron variant 4a/4b) in NOS3 gene and infertility occurrence in two groups of infertile men (idiopathic azoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia) and fertile controls. Genotypes for the single-nucleotide genetic variants rs1799983 and rs2070744 were determined by PCR-RFLP, while genotyping of intron 4 variant 4a/4b was performed by gel electrophoresis of PCR products. Statistical analysis was performed by SNPStats software. No significant association between the three genetic variants of the NOS3 gene and infertility risk was determined comparing allele and genotype frequencies among group of patients diagnosed with azoospermia and the control group. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive association between 4a/4b and infertility in the group of males diagnosed with oligoasthenozoospermia, under overdominant genetic model. Our findings suggest that tandem repeat variant within intron 4 of the NOS3 gene is associated with an increased risk of infertility in men diagnosed with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    PubMed

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Differential clustering of sperm subpopulations in infertile males with clinical varicocele and carriers of rearranged genomes.

    PubMed

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Some methods for determining sperm DNA fragmentation, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD), provide additional information about particular subgroups of spermatozoa with specific irregularities. Thus, SCSA recognizes a specific sperm subpopulation, the high-DNA stainability sperm subpopulation (HDS), and SCD recognizes the so-called DNA-degraded sperm (DDS) subpopulation. Although some studies associate the presence of these subpopulations with specific aspects related to infertility, the relationship between both sperm subpopulations and their preponderance in specific clinical groups of infertile males has not been extensively investigated. In this study, HDS and DDS subpopulations were determined in a total of 37 human males: 8 males with proven fertility, 9 infertile males with asthenoteratozoospermia, 10 carriers of chromosomal reorganizations, and 10 infertile males with clinical varicocele. Results showed a significant increase of the DDS subpopulation (P < .001) in both the varicocele patient (16.85 ± 7.24) and carrier of rearranged genome (11.6 ± 5.23) groups, but not in patients with asthenoteratozoospermia (3.88 ± 1.55) or fertile donors (2.62 ± 1.68). No statistical differences were detected for the HDS subpopulation (P = .542), but the highest values were found in the varicocele and rearranged-genome groups. However, no correlation between the HDS and DDS subpopulations were found (r = 0.196; P = .244), suggesting that both represent a different class of sperm subpopulation in the ejaculate. A significant increase in HDS, and especially DDS, can be associated with the presence of varicocele or the rearrangement of chromosomes. Specific diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis must be performed in patients with increased DDS and HDS values.

  15. Infertility caused by male partners with genetic defects in Sichuan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L

    2013-12-11

    The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology.

  16. Medical management of male infertility in the absence of a specific etiology.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic male infertility can be diagnosis in approximately one-third of infertile males. The empirical medical treatment with or without assisted reproductive techniques appears common in male infertility practice. This type of management can be classified as hormonal treatment including gonadotropins, antiestrogens, and aromatase inhibitors and support with antioxidant supplements such as carnitine, lycopene, glutathione, and vitamin E. This review investigates the evidence of commonly used empirical medical management of male infertility when there is no demonstrable diagnosis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 female primary infertility patients and 1100 female secondary infertility patients were included in this study, as well as 627 healthy female controls. The above autoantibodies were tested and the positive rates in each group were calculated. Results: the positive rate of ASAb were significantly higher in primary infertility female than that in male, further analysis revealed that primary infertility population all exhibit significant higher positive rate of EMAb, AOAb, AZP and ACA compared with control group. Furthermore, the positive rates of all the antibodies in primary infertility female were significantly higher than those in secondary infertility female. Conclusions: Our study thus indicates that these autoantibodies might be associated with immunological related primary infertility and may have clinical significance in its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26550366

  18. Proteome analysis for profiling infertility markers in male mouse sperm after carbon ion radiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2013-04-05

    Ion radiation or radiotherapy is used to treat male patients with oligozoospermia, azoospermia, temporarily infertility, or even permanent infertility. The present study aims to investigate the potential infertility mechanism of sperm in mice after carbon ion radiation (CIR). The caudal epididymal sperm of male mice whole-body irradiated with carbon ion beam (0.5Gy and 4Gy) were used 7 days after irradiation. A two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach was employed to investigate the changes in protein expression in the caudal edididymal sperm. Spot detection and matching were performed using the PDQuest 8.0 software. The criteria used to select spots for the analysis were more than a threefold difference in protein quantities (normalized spot volume), which allowed the detection of six differentially expressed proteins. Protein identification was performed using MALDI-TOF-TOF. Six specific proteins were identified by searching the NCBI protein sequence database. Among these proteins, HSP 70-2, PLC, GPX4, β-tubulin, and GAPDHS were associated with sperm motility, which can affect fertility. β-tubulin is important in axoneme migration flagellar movement and regulation, and GAPDHS is related to sperm energy supply. We analyzed their expressions using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The changes in sperm protein expression after CIR are mainly associated with motility. These proteins are potential markers for the mechanisms of infertility in space or radiotherapy.

  19. [Anxiety status and influential factors in patients with infertility].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the anxiety status of infertile patients and the influential factors.
 A questionnaire survey was performed in 306 infertile patients, who were consulted in Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, and Productive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya from June, 2013 to June, 2014. A self-designed questionnaire and general information on the anxiety due to infertility were used in the investigation.
 The anxiety incidence for the participants was 61.4%. The single factor analysis showed that some information about the patients, including ages, marriage age, duration of infertility, number of reproductive technological intervention, infertility sources, the cost of treatment and the number of infertility clinic visits, significantly affected the anxiety of infertile patients (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that the number of reproductive technological intervention and infertile causes was related to the anxiety of infertile patients. Among them, the number of reproductive intervention more than 6 times was the risk factor for the low score of anxiety while the infertile causes from both spouses were the protective factor for low scores of anxiety.
 Infertility treatment are of complexity and long duration with the relatively low cure rate, which may cause and aggravate the patient's psychological burden, leading to the anxiety. As a result, infertility patients were the high-risk groups for anxiety symptoms.

  20. Ethanol-induced male infertility: impairment of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A; Willis, B R; Oswald, C; Zaneveld, L J

    1983-05-01

    Ethanol is generally regarded as a reproductive toxin. However, the mechanism(s) of ethanol-induced infertility remain poorly understood. As male fertility depends upon the ability of spermatozoa to fertilize ova, it was the purpose of the present study to examine the effects of chronic ethanol treatment on several parameters related to sperm fertility. Male C57Bl/6J mice of proven fertility were administered liquid diets as follows: 5% (v/v) ethanol for either 1) 5 weeks; 2) 10 weeks; 3) 20 weeks; or 4) 6% (v/v) ethanol for 5 weeks. After each treatment, epididymal spermatozoa were evaluated with respect to quantity, motility, morphology and the ability to fertilize. A biphasic effect on sperm content was noted: 5- and 10-week treatments with 5% ethanol increased content by 80 and 65%, respectively, whereas 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol decreased content by 52 and 71%, respectively. Although the proportion of motile spermatozoa was unaffected by ethanol, average forward progression velocity was reduced, the effect being dependent on ethanol dose and duration of exposure. Similarly, the frequency of abnormal spermatozoa was increased; 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol increased the frequency of sperm morphological anomalies by 50 and 40%, respectively. Fertility of spermatozoa was reduced as a function of ethanol dose and duration of exposure. The ability of sperm to fertilize mouse ova in vitro was reduced by 34% (P less than .02) and 62% (P less than .001) subsequent to 20-week treatment with 5% ethanol and 5-week treatment with 6% ethanol, respectively. An animal model has been developed which describes ethanol-induced male infertility. The degree of reproductive impairment varies with the amount of ethanol ingested, and the duration of ethanol exposure. The continuum of effects should make possible the evaluation of putative mechanisms of male sterility resulting from chronic ethanol

  1. [Analysis of sperm chromosomal abnormalities and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile males].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Leiguang; Zhang, Lihong; Yang, Dantong; Zhang, Aidong; Yu, Jianchun

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes in sperm chromosome and sperm DNA integrity of infertile males. The level of DNA fragmentation was determined by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test in infertile males with idiopathic severe oligoasthenozoospermia (ISOA, n= 19), couples with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (URM, n= 38) and adult healthy fertile men (control group, n= 32). Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y in the control group (n= 5), the ISOA (n= 10) and the URM (n= 12). Patients with ISOA and URM showed a significantly higher abnormality with total rate of 4.02% (n= 19) and 3.91%(n= 38) for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21, and 2.03%, 1.98% for chromosomes X and Y, respectively, in their spermatozoa compared to control (1.29% and 0.61%, P< 0.01). A significantly higher proportion of total sperm DNA fragmentation was detected in patients with ISOA (40.7%+/- 17.8%) and URM (22.1%+/- 10.3%) of sperm compared to the control group (12.1%+/- 5.2%, P< 0.01). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the rate of sperm chromosomal aberration and the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (gamma = 0.874, P< 0.01, n= 27). There were significant correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm density, sperm motility and abnormal sperm (gamma = - 0.571, gamma = - 0.616 and gamma = 0.637, respectively, P< 0.01). The result indicates that spermatozoa from patients with ISOA and URM contain greater DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aneuploidy and may lead to male infertility. Screening for sperm DNA damage may provide useful information in the diagnosis of male idiopathic infertility.

  2. Correlation between chromosomal polymorphisms and male infertility in a Northeast Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, L L; Peng, D; Wang, R X; Zhu, H B; Wang, W J; Liu, R Z

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between chromosomal polymorphisms and male infertility. The patients were diagnosed with azoospermia or oligospermiaby a semen analysis. Chromosomal analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes obtained from the patients, with standard G-banding and C-banding. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The parents of 35 polymorphic probands were also subjected to chromosomal analysis, and their detailed reproductive histories were surveyed. The frequency of autosomal polymorphisms did not differ significantly among the infertile patients and fertile control individuals. The frequency of the Yqh-variant increased with the decrease in sperm count; this appeared at a significantly higher frequency in the azoospermia group (57.2 vs 24.3 vs 0%). The results of PCR amplification indicated that 32.14% of the patients with Yqh ± had microdeletions in the Y chromosome. The parents of the probands with the same chromosomal polymorphisms as the probands (among the 35 recalled families) did not show any adverse reproductive history. We observed no significant correlations between autosomal polymorphisms and male infertility. However, we observed a significant increase in the frequency of Yqh- in the azoospermic patients. This may be attributed to Y chromosome microdeletions, although the association between Y chromosome microdeletions and Y chromosome variants remains to be elucidated.

  3. Follicle-stimulating hormone treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Foresta, Carlo; Selice, Riccardo; Garolla, Andrea; Ferlin, Alberto

    2008-11-01

    Treatment with gonadotrophins is very effective in patients affected by hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The success of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) treatment in these men has brought the utilization of the same therapy in infertile oligozoospermic patients, aimed at obtaining a quantitative increase in sperm count. FSH plays a crucial role in human reproduction. This physiological role in spermatogenesis has induced various attempts to treat idiopathic oligozoospermic men with FSH, often inducing the restoration of normal spermatogenesis and spontaneous pregnancy. However, the results obtained so far are still controversial. In this research, attention is focused on the possible criteria able to predict a seminal response to the specific hormonal treatment. Moreover, we have correlated different polymorphisms of FSH receptor gene with the outcome of FSH treatment. In this article, the literature is reviewed, and the authors' experience on using FSH treatment in oligozoospermic patients is discussed. FSH treatment may represent a valid tool for infertile men. However, it should be performed on selected patients utilizing some predictive parameters able to identify a priori responder patients with high probability.

  4. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  5. Molecular analysis of the PArkin co-regulated gene and association with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sim, Marcus L-J; Brody, Kate M; Taylor, Juliet M; McLachlan, Robert I; O'Bryan, Moira K; Delatycki, Martin B; Lockhart, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the potential role of PArkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in human male infertility. Case-control study. Academic reproductive biology department. Blood samples were obtained from 610 patients and 156 normal control subjects. Genomic DNA was used as template for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the PACRG promoter and coding exons. The amplified fragments were tested for DNA sequence variations by direct sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. Gene structure and sequence alterations of PACRG in infertile male patients. The structure of PACRG was determined to comprise 5 coding exons, generating a single transcript in the testis which encoded a predicted protein of 257 amino acids. No pathogenic mutations were identified; however, a variant in the promoter of PACRG was shown to be significantly associated with azoospermia, but not oligospermia, in the case-control cohort. Mutation of PACRG was not identified as a cause of male infertility, but variation in the promoter was demonstrated to be a risk factor associated with azoospermia. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A rare case of respiratory disorders associated with two autosomal recessive diseases and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sergio López; Scigliano, Sergio; Menga, Guillermo; Demiceu, Sergio; Palaoro, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The study of nasal ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ultrastructure may contribute to the understanding of pathognomonic cases of male infertility associated with defects in sperm motility. This study was designed to report a particular case of male infertility, characterized by the association of two respiratory autosomal recessive genetic diseases (alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency [AAT-D] and primary ciliary dyskinesia [PCD]). A 39-year-old patient with complete sperm immotility, AAT-D, and bronchiectasis was studied in the Laboratory of Male Fertility, the Department of Urology, the Respiratory Center of a Pediatric Hospital, and in the Department of Clinical Medicine of a Rehabilitation Respiratory Hospital. Family history, physical examination, hormonal analysis, microbial assays, semen analysis, nasal ciliary function, and structure study by digital high-speed video photography and transmission electron microscopy are described. A noninvasive nasal biopsy to retrieve ciliated epithelium lining the inferior surface of the inferior nasal turbinates was performed and CBF was determined. Beat pattern was slightly curved and rigid, not wide, and metacronic in all the observed fields analyzed. CBF was 8.2 Hz in average (reference value, 10–15 Hz) Ultrastructural assay revealed absence of the inner dynein arms in 97% of the cilia observed. The final infertility accurate diagnosis was achieved by the study of nasal CBF and ultrastructure contributing to the patient health management and genetic counseling while deciding fatherhood. Beyond this particular case, the present report may open a new field of studies in male infertility, mainly in cases of asthenozoospermia. PMID:23772318

  7. Chromosomal Aberrations and Polymorphic Evaluation in Males with Primary Infertility from Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pokale, Yamini S.; Jadhav, Ajinkya M.; Gangane, Suresh D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. Materials and Methods: The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Results: Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. Interpretation and Conclusion: The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques. PMID:25478430

  8. Chromosomal aberrations and polymorphic evaluation in males with primary infertility from Indian population.

    PubMed

    Kate, Ushang V; Pokale, Yamini S; Jadhav, Ajinkya M; Gangane, Suresh D

    2014-10-01

    The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques.

  9. Trichomonas vaginalis as a rare cause of male factor infertility at a hospital in East Anatolia.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E; Keleştemur, N; Kaplan, M

    2011-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is known as an important cause of sexually transmitted infection in developing countries. The prevalence and spectrum of Trichomonasis in men are less characterised. We analysed the presence of T. vaginalis in 80 infertile men using wet mount microscopy, Giemsa staining, culture and PCR methods. We found 2.5% positivity for T. vaginalis using PCR method. Wet mount microscopy was ineffective. Giemsa staining and culture tests were positive only in one patient. Both of our PCR-positive patients were symptomatic. Our findings suggest that T. vaginalis should be considered for the aetiology of male factor infertility, although it is rare in developed countries. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Clinical diagnostic testing for the cytogenetic and molecular causes of male infertility: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Sean E; Wiktor, Anne E; Kipp, Benjamin R; Dawson, D Brian; Van Dyke, Daniel L

    2011-11-01

    Approximately 8% of couples attempting to conceive are infertile and male infertility accounts for approximately 50% of infertility among couples. Up to 25% of males with non-obstructive infertility have chromosomal abnormalities and/or microdeletions of the long arm of the Y-chromosome. These are detected by conventional chromosome and Y-microdeletion analysis. In this study, we reviewed the results of testing performed in the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Laboratories and compared our findings with previously published reports. This study includes 2,242 chromosome studies from males ≥18 years of age referred for infertility between 1989 and 2000 and 2,749 Y-deletion molecular studies performed between 2002 and 2009. 14.3% of infertile males tested by karyotyping had abnormalities identified. These include: (258) 47,XXY and variants consistent with Klinefelter syndrome, (3) combined 47,XXY and balanced autosomal rearrangements, (9) 47,XYY, (9) Y-deletions, (7) 46,XX males, (32) balanced rearrangements, and (1) unbalanced rearrangement. 3.6% of males tested for Y-microdeletion analysis had abnormalities identified, 90% of which included a deletion of the AZFc region. This study highlights the need of males suffering from non-obstructive infertility to have laboratory genetic testing performed. An abnormal finding can have significant consequences to assisted reproductive techniques and fertility treatment, and provide a firm diagnosis to couples with longstanding infertility.

  11. One-carbon metabolism, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Jaiswal, Deepika

    2013-06-01

    Balanced diet is the natural source of micronutrients, such as folate and vitamins, vital for proper functioning of the body. One-carbon metabolic pathway along with folate and other vitamins plays an important role in DNA synthesis and in the establishment of epigenetic modifications like DNA/histone methylation. Spermatogenesis involves distinct cellular, genetic, and chromatin changes during the course of production of male gamete sperm. Folate and normal activity of 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes are central to nucleotide synthesis, methylation, and maintenance of genomic integrity as well as protection from DNA damage. As a result, polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes affecting several physiological processes also have an impact on spermatogenesis and may affect directly or indirectly quality of sperm. Alterations in these processes may be a consequence of additive effect resulting from altered expression of 1-carbon metabolic pathway genes and/or inadequate folate/micronutrients supplementation. The present review provides an overview of different cellular and molecular events regulated by 1-carbon metabolic pathway enzymes and their impact on male reproductive health. It also summarizes the different studies where polymorphisms in the enzymes of 1-carbon metabolic pathway or folate deficiency are associated with male infertility and future prospects.

  12. From spermatocytes to spermatozoa in an infertile XYY male.

    PubMed

    Rives, Nathalie; Milazzo, Jean Pierre; Miraux, Ludivine; North, Marie-Odile; Sibert, Louis; Macé, Bertrand

    2005-10-01

    Sex chromosome distribution and aneuploidy as well as germ cell degeneration were evaluated in meiotic and post-meiotic cells from an infertile XYY male. Sex chromosome distribution was assessed by multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization on meiotic preparations. Post-meiotic cell aneuploidy was characterized by a method combining multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry using the proacrosin-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 4D4). TUNEL assay was carried out on seminiferous tubules to evaluate germ cell degeneration. At the prophase stage of the first meiotic division, 63.64% of cells at the pachytene stage carried three sex chromosomes. The ratio of X-bearing to Y-bearing spermatids and spermatozoa differed significantly from 1 : 1 with an excess of Y-bearing spermatids and spermatozoa. The frequency of hyperhaploid XY spermatids was increased in the XYY male, as well as the incidence of YY, XY and disomic 18 ejaculated spermatozoa. A preferential elimination of germ cells by apoptosis occurred in spermatocytes I. The persistence of the extra Y chromosome during meiosis of an XYY male is associated with a high rate of spermatocyte I degeneration and a low rate of aneuploid spermatozoa.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  14. [Internet as a source of information about infertility among infertile patients].

    PubMed

    Talarczyk, Joanna; Hauke, Jan; Poniewaz, Marta; Serdyńska-Szuster, Monika; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Jedrzejczak, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Around one million couples in Poland suffer from infertility People in reproductive age are most active Internet users. The aim of the study was to assess Internet habits of infertile patients. We checked to what extent infertile patients seek information about infertility on-line and what is their approach to the information found. 85 female patients treated for infertility for at least one year were surveyed. The anonymous questionnaire was designed by the authors of the publication. It consisted of questions related to medical history of the patients and sources of information about infertility they used. It also checked Internet activity of the patients and contained Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation test were used to evaluate the results. The majority of patients used Internet to find information about infertility (93%); 46% of the respondent declared Internet forums to be their main source of information about it. Patients used on-line sources of information more often than stricte medical sources. Internet influenced their relation with the physician. 64% of patients verified on-line information and treatment proposed by their doctor before using them. One third of the surveyed women claimed their knowledge about infertility comes more from the Internet than the specialist who treated them. There was a positive correlation between patients who checked diagnostic or therapeutic methods proposed by their physician with depression in BDI. Considering the great impact of Internet forums and web pages on patient approach to diagnostics and treatment of infertility there seems to be a need to create a professional Polish website and forum to provide the patients with reliable information about the disease.

  15. Sperm viral infection and male infertility: focus on HBV, HCV, HIV, HPV, HSV, HCMV, and AAV.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Barzon, Luisa; Foresta, Carlo

    2013-11-01

    Chronic viral infections can infect sperm and are considered a risk factor in male infertility. Recent studies have shown that the presence of HIV, HBV or HCV in semen impairs sperm parameters, DNA integrity, and in particular reduces forward motility. In contrast, very little is known about semen infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpesviruses (HSV), cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and adeno-associated virus (AAV). At present, EU directives for the viral screening of couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques require only the evaluation of HIV, HBV, and HCV. However, growing evidence suggests that HPV, HSV, and HCMV might play a major role in male infertility and it has been demonstrated that HPV semen infection has a negative influence on sperm parameters, fertilization, and the abortion rate. Besides the risk of horizontal or vertical transmission, the negative impact of any viral sperm infection on male reproductive function seems to be dramatic. In addition, treatment with antiviral and antiretroviral therapies may further affect sperm parameters. In this review we attempted to focus on the interactions between defined sperm viral infections and their association with male fertility disorders. All viruses considered in this article have a potentially negative effect on male reproductive function and dangerous infections can be transmitted to partners and newborns. In light of this evidence, we suggest performing targeted sperm washing procedures for each sperm infection and to strongly consider screening male patients seeking fertility for HPV, HSV, and HCMV, both to avoid viral transmission and to improve assisted or even spontaneous fertility outcome.

  16. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in 2014–2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. Results One main theme emerged through analysis entitled “cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis” with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. Conclusion The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women. PMID:26767097

  17. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  18. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility.

  19. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Hsien; Liu, Chung-Hsien; Huang, Chun-Chia; Hsieh, Kung-Chen; Lin, Pi-Mei; Lee, Maw-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, and antral follicle count (AFC), as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women < 35 years of age or infertile couples with male factors. Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility. PMID:19761617

  20. Distribution of male infertility specialists in relation to the male population and assisted reproductive technology centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nangia, Ajay K; Likosky, Donald S; Wang, Dongmei

    2010-07-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers and male infertility specialists by location, driving distance from ART center, and potential male population in need of these resources. Cross-sectional study. Male population in the reproductive years (20-49 years old) based on U.S. Census Bureau data in 2000. Urology male infertility specialists as defined by 2005 specialty society membership directories. ART centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in 2005. Male population and male infertility specialists within the service area served by in-state and neighboring-state ART centers, as defined by a 60-minute travel time. One hundred ninety-seven male infertility specialists and 390 ART centers were identified. On a state level, the highest male population in the reproductive years was seen in California, Texas, and Florida. The highest male populations per male specialist were found in Oregon, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. The highest number of ART centers per male specialist was found in Tennessee. The highest proximities of male specialists within the 60-minute driving service area of different ART centers were found in the North East and Southern California. The Midwest to Northwest had the least. A disparity of urology male infertility specialists exists in the United States, with large areas of the country being underserved and overserved based on the location of ART centers. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infertility as a proxy of general male health: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Serino, Alessandro; Colicchia, Michele; Ippolito, Silvia; Scano, Roberta; Papaleo, Enrico; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, and clinical and seminal impact of comorbidities in white European men presenting for couple infertility. Cross-sectional study. Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. Cohort of 2,100 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). Obtaining complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 2,100 consecutive infertile men with health-significant comorbidities scored via the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; categorized 0 vs. 1 vs. ≥2) and semen analysis values assessed based on 2010 World Health Organization reference criteria. Assessment of the rate of comorbidities by means of CCI scores and possible associations between CCI, semen and hormonal parameters. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested the associations among semen parameters, clinical characteristics, and CCI. When assessing general comorbidity prevalence, CCI 0, CCI 1, and CCI ≥2 was found in 1,921 (91.5%), 102 (4.9%), and 77 (3.6%) patients, respectively. Patient age and follicle-stimulating hormone levels increased as the general health status decreased. Conversely, the total testosterone levels and sperm concentration decreased as CCI scores increased. A higher rate of oligozoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia was observed in patients with CCI ≥1. No differences were observed among the considered comorbidity groups in terms of testicular volume or further hormonal or seminal parameters. Both continuously coded and categorized sperm concentrations were independent predictors of CCI ≥1. Patients with sperm concentration <45.6 million/mL (most informative cutoff value) had a 2.74-fold increased risk of having a CCI ≥1. Decreased general health status appears to be associated with impaired male reproductive health, including lower sperm concentration, lower total testosterone levels, and higher follicle-stimulating hormone values. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Management of endometriosis in the infertile patient.

    PubMed

    Kistner, R W

    1975-12-01

    Infertility has a 30-40% incidence in women with endometriosis. However, conservative surgical procedures can result in pregnancy for 40-90% of these patients. The pregnancy rate is influenced by 5 factors: 1) extent of the disease, 2) age, 3) history of previous surgery for endometriosis, 4) duration of infertility before surgery, and 5) length of postsurgical follow-up. The factor responsible for infertility among women with endometriosis is believed to be an inadequacy of the tubo-ovarian motility secondary to fibrosis and scarring, which results in imperfect ovum acceptance by the fimbriae. Therapy encompasses 4 approaches: 1) prophylaxis, 2) observation and analgesia, 3) suppression of ovulation, and 4) surgical treatment. Pregnancy is suggested as the optimal prophylactic treatment for endometriosis since the symptoms and signs regress during gestation and for varying periods thereafter. This regression is probably due to a combination of anovulation and amenorrhea caused by adenohypophyseal suppression. It may also be due to a transformation of functioning endometriotic tissue into decidua by increasing levels of chorionic estrogen and progesterone. If pregnancy is not desired, anovulation can be secured by the administration of sex hormones. Pseudopregnancy for 6 months, induced by norgestrel plus ethinyl estradiol or norethynodrel plus mestranol, can lead to pregnancy in 50% of patients whose only abnormality is surface ovarian endometriosis within 1 year of cessation of therapy. Short periods of pseudopregnancy are also advocated after conservative surgery if all areas of endometriosis cannot be excised. 40-50% of these patients can expect to become pregnant within 24 months. The incidence of postoperative tubo-ovarian adhesions may be diminished by use of dexamethasone and promethazine.

  3. Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in infertile European males carrying Y-microdeletions.

    PubMed

    Paracchini, S; Stuppia, L; Gatta, V; Palka, G; Moro, E; Foresta, C; Mengua, L; Oliva, R; Ballescà, J L; Kremer, J A; van Golde, R J; Tuerlings, J H; Hargreave, T; Ross, A; Cooke, H; Huellen, K; Vogt, P H; Tyler-Smith, C

    2000-11-01

    We have determined Y-chromosomal DNA haplotypes in 73 infertile European males carrying Y microdeletions and compared them with the haplotypes of 299 infertile males lacking microdeletions. Chromosomes were typed with a set of 11 binary Y markers, which identified 8 haplogroups in the sample. Haplogroup frequencies were compared between 3 microdeletion classes and the non-deleted infertile males. Deletions arise on many different haplotypic backgrounds. No statistically significant differences in frequency were seen, although the small number of AZFa deletions lay predominantly on one branch of the Y haplotype tree.

  4. (Male) infertility: what does it mean to men? New evidence from quantitative and qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2013-09-01

    Scientific knowledge of the emotional repercussions of infertility on men remains limited and has only recently become the focus of social science research. Firstly, the current developments in research on the psychosocial impact of infertility on men through a search of the literature over the last 10 years are outlined in this paper. In the second section, issues raised in pretreatment counselling for men and their partner who consider donor insemination are described as this treatment typically raises many emotional issues. The results of more recent studies with sophisticated methodological design show that the emotional impact of infertility may be nearly balanced, suggesting that men do suffer as well and that they have to be addressed in infertility counselling too. The emotional and clinical aspects of donor insemination support the hypothesis that the emotional repercussions of infertility affect both sexes. In general, male factor infertility seems to be more stigmatized than other infertility diagnoses. Forthcoming studies have to differentiate between the psychological impact of infertility on women and men and their respective abilities to communicate easily about this distress. More studies on infertile men in non-Western societies need to be conducted in order to understand the cultural impact on infertility.

  5. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P < 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in controls. Within cases, follicle-stimulating hormone treatment allowed to perform intrauterine insemination in 35 patients with a pregnancy rate of 23.2 %. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed in all controls and in 49 patients from cases, with pregnancy rates of 23.2 and 40.8 %, respectively (P < 0.05). After 3 months (T0 vs. T1) of follicle-stimulating hormone therapy, cases with positive outcome had reduced DNA fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001 vs. negative outcome, respectively).In this observational study, we showed that follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  7. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  8. Associations of variants in MTHFR and MTRR genes with male infertility in the Jordanian population.

    PubMed

    Mfady, Doaa S; Sadiq, May F; Khabour, Omar F; Fararjeh, Abdulfattah S; Abu-Awad, Aymen; Khader, Yousef

    2014-02-15

    Folate pathway is expected to play an important role in spermatogenesis since it is involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) and MTRR (A66G) polymorphisms. A group of 300 males was recruited in this study from different Jordanian infertility clinics. Of these, 150 cases of infertile men that included oligozoospermia cases (n=45), severe oligozoospermia (n=71) and azoospermia (n=34) were studied. The other 150 males were age matched fertile controls. Genotyping of MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. The results showed an association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and male infertility (P<0.05). However, the distribution of MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G genotypes were not different between the fertile and infertile groups (P>0.05). In addition, none of the examined polymorphisms was related to any of the semen parameters in the infertile group. In conclusion, this study showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with male infertility in Jordanians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Male infertility-related molecules involved in sperm-oocyte fusion

    PubMed Central

    MOU, Lisha; XIE, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility has become a very serious problem in the human reproduction system, but the molecular mechanism of infertility remains largely unknown. Fertilization is the phenomenon in which a sperm and oocyte find each other, interact, and fuse. Sperm-oocyte fusion-related factors on the sperm side play crucial roles in male infertility. For example, IZUMO1 is well-known as a sperm protein essential for fusion of a sperm and oocyte, but its dysfunction or mutation can result in male infertility. Recent studies showed a novel sperm protein named Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), which takes part in the sperm-oocyte fusion process. The complexity and expected redundancy of the factors involved makes the process intricate, with a still poorly understood mechanism, which is difficult to comprehend in full detail. This review summarizes the known molecules involved in the process of sperm-oocyte fusion, mainly focusing on the relevant factors on the sperm side, whose dysregulation may potentially be associated with male infertility. New insights may come from these molecules in this review, can facilitate the development of new treatments of male infertility, and may have a diagnostic value in infertility. PMID:27904014

  10. Management of weight loss in obesity-associated male infertility: a spotlight on bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Abiad, Firass; Awwad, Johnny; Abbas, Hussein A; Zebian, Dina; Ghazeeri, Ghina

    2017-05-02

    In recent years, there has been a paralleled increase between male obesity and infertility rates. Obesity is associated with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, aberrant semen parameters, and subfertility or infertility. Weight loss is strongly recommended for the management of obesity-associated infertility. Lifestyle modifications that include caloric restriction and increased physical activity have a short-lived impact. Bariatric surgery is a better and more durable weight loss alternative. Comprehensive information about the benefits of weight loss on obesity-associated male infertility following bariatric surgery is still emerging. In this review, we discuss the hormonal, physical and environmental mechanism contributing to obesity-associated infertility. We then assess weight loss approaches, which include lifestyle modification, medical and surgical approaches, that can improve fertility in obese men. This review focuses also on bariatric surgery for the management of obese men seeking fertility treatment. Anecdotal evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery can impair fertility is also discussed.

  11. Male infertility in China: laboratory finding for AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Xue; Fu, Chao; Yang, Ya-Ping; Han, Rong-Rong; Dong, Yuan; Dai, Ru-Lin; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the frequencies of AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China. Moreover, to compare the prevalence of these abnormalities with other countries and regions in the world. 305 infertile men were enrolled. A complete semen analysis and reproductive hormones were measured according to standard methods. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using nine specific sequence-tagged sites (STS) were used to detect AZF microdeletions. Karyotype analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with standard G-banding. Of the 305 infertile men, 28 (9.2%) had AZF microdeletions and 26 (8.5%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent microdeletions were in the AZFc+d, followed by AZFc, AZFb+c+d and AZFa. A total of 19 patients (82.6%) had Klinefelter's syndrome (47, XXY) in the azoospermic group. The freqencies of AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China were comparable with infertile men from other countries and regions. However, there was a slightly higher prevalence rate of AZF microdeletions in oligozoospermic patients than reported in previous studies.

  12. Efficacy of Withania somnifera on seminal plasma metabolites of infertile males: a proton NMR study at 800 MHz.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Shukla, Kamla Kant; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Bansal, Navneeta; Sankhwar, Pushplata; Sankhwar, Satya Narain

    2013-08-26

    Traditional Indian systems of medicine use roots of Withania somnifera for impotence, infertility treatment, stress, and the aging process. Although Withania somnifera improves semen quality by regulating reproductive hormone levels and oxidative stress, the molecular mechanism is not clear. Our study uses high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to explore the scientific basis to reveal the pre- and post-treatment efficacy of Withania somnifera on seminal plasma of infertile men-which remains unexplored to date. A total of 180 infertile male patients were administered Withania somnifera root powder at the rate of 5 g/d for a 3-month period. The study included age-matched, healthy men as a control (n=50) group. Proton NMR spectroscopy was used to measure lactate, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, citrate, lysine, choline, glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glycine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and uridine in all seminal plasma samples. To appraise infertility levels, we also measured sperm concentration, motility, lipid peroxide, and hormonal perturbation. Withania somnifera therapy repairs the disturbed concentrations of lactate, alanine, citrate, GPC, histidine, and phenylalanine in seminal plasma and recovers the quality of semen of post-treated compared to pre-treated infertile men. Serum biochemistry was also improved over post-therapy in infertile men. Our findings reveal that Withania somnifera not only reboots enzymatic activity of metabolic pathways and energy metabolism but also invigorates the harmonic balance of seminal plasma metabolites and reproductive hormones in infertile men. The results suggest that Withania somnifera may be used as an empirical therapy for clinical management and treatment of infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing the Roles of Sperm Chromatin Integrity and Apoptosis in Intrauterine Insemination Outcomes of Couples with Mild Male and Female Factor Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Nazari, Saeedeh; Dehghani-Firouzabadi, Razieh; Talebi, Alireza; Baghazadeh-Naeini, Shekofeh; Sadeghian-Nodoshan, Fatemeh; Agha-Rahimi, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is one of the therapeutic approaches for infertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA integrity and apoptosis role in success of IUI in both mild male and female factor infertility. Methods Patients were divided into two groups: M (mild male factor; n = 29) and F (female factor; n = 31) undergoing single IUI. Ejaculates were analyzed and chromatin quality was assessed using chromomycin A3 (CMA3) staining. In addition, spermatozoal apoptosis was recognized using TUNEL assay. Statistical analyses were done using t-test and Mann Whitney test for sperm apoptosis and sperm chromatin by SPSS. Data were expressed in mean±SD for variables. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Sperm concentration and progressive motility were higher in F than M group. Sperm with normal morphology were statistically similar in M and F infertile patients (32.7±15.6% vs. 35.5±9.07%, p = 0.39). Sperm chromatin immaturity was higher in patients with mild male infertility, when compared with the other group (p < 0.01). Also, 32.0±5.6% and 30.8±6.1% of the spermatozoa showed signs of apoptosis in groups M and F, respectively (p = 0.49). Very low (3.4%) clinical pregnancy rates were noticed in patients with mild male factor infertility Conclusion Defect in sperm motility as well as high rates of DNA damage and apoptosis may be involved with very low rate of pregnancy outcomes in patients with mild male factor infertility. Therefore, it seems the application of IUI may have better outcomes in patients with female infertility compared to mild male factor infertility. PMID:24696794

  14. [Treatment of chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection and complicated with male infertility].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, S N; Tiktinskiĭ, O L

    2010-01-01

    Etiologically, chronic prostatitis can result from urogenital latent infections caused by chlamydia, ureaplasma and others. First of all, such patients should be examined for urethritis. We examined 306 patients aged 23-45 years with chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection. The samples were taken from the urethra, urine, prostatic secretion, ejaculate and were examined using direct immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, culturing. We found spermatogenetic disorders in 50% patients, 35 (11.4%) patients had a deferent duct obstruction. The patients had also immunointerferon deficiency and alterations in prostatic echostructure. In chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial-ureaplasmic infection the treatment must combine antibacterial drugs (vilprophen, unidox, solutab) with interferons (lavomax, genferon). Male infertility treatment should be started only after elimination of the bacterial infection.

  15. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  16. Distress in Infertile Males in Manipal-India: A Clinic Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ansha; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha; Narayan, Pratapkumar; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Narayanakurup, Dinesh; Pai, Praveena Joglekar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Being infertile comes as an overwhelming realization for couples trying to conceive. In consideration of rising rates of infertility worldwide, clinicians in India have also begun exploring this field for new possibilities, development and research. The purpose of this study was to estimate the proportion and predictors of infertility specific stress in males diagnosed with primary infertility. Methods: This cross-sectional research was conducted in an assisted reproduction center, Manipal, India, on 300 infertile married males. The tools were “semi-structured questionnaire” compiled by the authors, “ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders (Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines) and” Psychological Evaluation Test for infertility. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out on data with p-value fixed as 0.05. Results: The presence of stress was reported in 72% of male participants. The predictors of stress were nature and severity of their infertility diagnosis, sperm defects, urological condition and experience of corrective surgery undergone for it. Psychological stress in men was also predicted by present and past history of significant psychiatric morbidity and coping difficulties associated with it. Conclusion: The stress is both a common experience and at times a clinical condition associated with deteriorating mental and physical health in men seeking fertility treatments. As a prerequisite, Indian fertility clinics need to treat stress as an identifiable condition and devise ways of addressing it at all stages of assisted conception and reproductive treatments. PMID:27921000

  17. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  18. Predictors of Psychological Distress among Infertility Clinic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…

  19. Urinary phytoestrogen levels related to idiopathic male infertility in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yankai; Chen, Minjian; Zhu, Pengfei; Lu, Chuncheng; Fu, Guangbo; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Daozhen; Wang, Honghua; Hang, Bo; Wang, Shoulin; Zhou, Zuomin; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2013-09-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring chemical constituents of certain plants. The internal PE exposures, mainly from diet, vary among different populations and in different regions due to various eating habits. To investigate the potential relationship between urinary PE levels and idiopathic male infertility and semen quality in Chinese adult males, 608 idiopathic infertile men and 469 fertile controls were recruited by eligibility screening procedures. Individual exposure to PEs was measured using UPLC-MS/MS as spot urinary concentrations of 6 PEs (daidzein, DAI; equol, EQU; genistein, GEN; naringenin, NAR; coumestrol, COU; and secoisolariciresinol, SEC), which were adjusted with urinary creatinine (CR). Semen quality was assessed by sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility. We found that exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were significantly associated with idiopathic male infertility (P-value for trend=0.036; 0.002; and 0.0001, respectively), while these exposures had stronger association with infertile subjects with at least one abnormal semen parameter than those with all normal semen parameters. Exposures to DAI, GEN and SEC were also related to idiopathic male infertility with abnormal sperm concentration, number per ejaculum and motility (P-value for trend<0.05), while these exposures had stronger association with the infertile men with abnormal sperm number per ejaculum. These findings provide the evidence that PE exposures are related to male reproductive function and raise a public health concern because that exposure to PEs is ubiquitous in China.

  20. Correlation between SHBG gene polymorphism and male infertility in Han population of Henan province of China: A STROBE-compliant article.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuan-Rong; Guo, Yi-Hong; Qiao, Su-Dong; Leng, Li-Fa; Xie, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xing-Ling

    2017-08-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level alteration and SHBG gene mutations, especially in rs6259 and rs727428 loci, are associated with male infertility. In this study, the rs6259 and rs727428 loci in SHBG gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to explore the direct relation between these 2 loci and male infertility in Han population of Henan province and to provide information for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of male infertility.A total of 366 male Han individuals in Henan province were enrolled in this study. Of the 366 male individuals, 183 infertility patients were served as infertility group and other 183 normal individuals as a control group. SHBG gene rs6259 and rs727428 locus polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP in all patients. Also, genotype frequencies, allele frequency, and haplotype were all analyzed in both groups.There were statistical differences in A allele frequency (P = .017) and GA genotype frequency (P = .016) of SHBG gene rs6259 locus and in CC genotype frequency of SHBG gene rs727428 locus (P = .034) between the 2 groups.Male infertility is associated with GA genotype and A allele of rs6259 locus, as well as CC genotype of rs727428 locus in SHBG gene.

  1. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Health issues in the Arab American community. Male infertility in Lebanon: a case-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Inhorn, Marcia C

    2007-01-01

    The impact of risk factors, such as consanguinity and familial clustering, reproductive infections, traumas, and diseases, lifestyle factors and occupational and war exposures on male infertility, was investigated in a case-controlled study conducted in Lebanon. One-hundred-twenty males and 100 controls of Lebanese, Syrian or Lebanese-Palestinian descents were selected from two in-vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics located in Beirut, Lebanon. All cases suffered from impaired sperm count and function, according to World Health Organization guidelines for semen analysis. Controls were the fertile husbands of infertile women. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview, laboratory blood testing and the results of the most recent semen analysis. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used for data analysis, along with checks for effect modification and control of confounders. Consanguinity and the familial clustering of male infertility cases, as well as reproductive illnesses and war exposures were independently significant risk factors for male infertility. The odds of having infertility problems in the immediate family were 2.6 times higher in cases than controls. The odds of reproductive illness were 2 times higher in cases than controls. The odds of war exposures were 1.57 times higher in cases than controls. Occupational exposures, such as smoking and caffeine intake, were not shown to be important risk factors. This case-controlled study highlights the importance of investigating the etiology of male infertility in Middle Eastern communities. It suggests the need to expand research on male reproductive health in the Middle East in order to improve the prevention and management of male infertility and other male reproductive health problems.

  3. Recurrent Microdeletions at Xq27.3-Xq28 and Male Infertility: A Study in the Czech Population

    PubMed Central

    Chylíková, Blanka; Hrdlička, Ivan; Veselá, Kamila; Řežábek, Karel; Liška, František

    2016-01-01

    Background Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm) were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic. Methods 107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3), Xcnv67 (Xq28) and Xcnv69 (Xq28). The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C. Results We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively). There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043), Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452). We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort. Conclusion In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69) do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population. PMID:27257673

  4. Impact of male obesity on infertility: a critical review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Ahmad O; Gibson, Mark; Peterson, C Matthew; Meikle, A Wayne; Carrell, Douglas T

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the current understanding of the effects and potential mechanisms of obesity on male fertility. Literature review of articles pertaining to obesity and male infertility. Recent population-based studies suggest an elevated risk for subfertility among couples in which the male partner is obese and an increased likelihood of abnormal semen parameters among heavier men. Male factor infertility is associated with a higher incidence of obesity in the male partner. Obese men exhibit reduced androgen and SHBG levels accompanied by elevated estrogen levels. Reduced inhibin B levels correlate with degree of obesity and are not accompanied by compensatory increases in FSH. This complexly altered reproductive hormonal profile suggests that endocrine dysregulation in obese men may explain the increased risk of altered semen parameters and infertility. Additional features of male obesity that may contribute to an increased risk for infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, altered lifestyle factors, and increased risks for sexual dysfunction. Neither reversibility of obesity-associated male infertility with weight loss nor effective therapeutic interventions have been studied yet. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinician awareness of its effects on fertility, better understanding of underlying mechanisms, and eventually avenues for mitigation or treatment.

  5. Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqiang; Li, Shihua; Ma, Shuoqian; Jia, Lina; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Wong, Gary; Zhang, Shanshan; Lu, Xuancheng; Liu, Mei; Yan, Jinghua; Li, Wei; Qin, Chuan; Han, Daishu; Qin, Chengfeng; Wang, Na; Li, Xiangdong; Gao, George Fu

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility.

  6. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C.; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-01-01

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7−/−) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7−/− mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down−regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia. PMID:26878912

  7. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-02-16

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7(-/-)) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7(-/-) mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia.

  8. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    fibrosis around portal areas were seen in hepatic tissues. In the testes, histopathological examination displayed disorganized seminiferous tubules with degeneration of germinal epithelium and Sertoli cells. Also, spermatogenic cells had pyknotic nuclei and others were detached from basement membranes of seminiferous tubules, edema was seen between seminiferous tubules. Moreover, the present data showed that MEN and DEN down-regulated the protein expression of both CYP19A1 and 21A2 in both livers and testes of male rabbits. In addition, both MEN and DEN decreased levels of testosterone and estradiol in plasma of treated rabbits. On the one hand, DMN and DPN markedly up-regulated the protein expression of CYP19A1 in both hepatic and testicular tissues of treated rabbits. These compounds potentially increased estradiol and decreased testosterone levels. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the expression of CYP11A1 and levels of both testosterone and estradiol. It is concluded that most of tested N-nitrosamines induce different changes, which could be a new mechanism of infertility due to exposure to N-nitrosamines from different environmental sources. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0–100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal plasma

  10. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-11-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0‑100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal

  11. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of idiopathic male infertility in a secondary referral center in India.

    PubMed

    Abid, Shadaan; Maitra, Anurupa; Meherji, Pervin; Patel, Zareen; Kadam, Seema; Shah, Jatin; Shah, Rupin; Kulkarni, Vijay; Baburao, V; Gokral, Jyotsna

    2008-01-01

    The genetic basis of infertility has received increasing recognition in recent years, particularly with the advent of assisted reproductive technology. It is now becoming obvious that genetic etiology for infertility is an important cause of disrupted spermatogenesis. Y-chromosome microdeletions and abnormal karyotype are the two major causes of altered spermatogenesis. To achieve biological fatherhood, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is performed in cases of severe infertility with or without genetic abnormalities. There is a concern that these genetic abnormalities can be transmitted to the male progeny, who may subsequently have a more severe phenotype of infertility. A total of 200 men were recruited for clinical examinations, spermiograms, hormonal profiles, and cytogenetic and Yq microdeletion profiles. Testicular biopsy was also performed whenever possible and histologically evaluated. Genetic abnormalities were seen in 7.1% of cases, of which 4.1% had chromosomal aberrations, namely Klinefelter's mosaic (47XXY) and Robertsonian translocation, and 3.0% had Yq microdeletions, which is very low as compared to other populations. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were significantly increased in men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) as compared to severe oligoasthenozoospermia (P<0.0001), whereas testosterone levels were significantly decreased in men with microdeletions as compared to men with no microdeletions (P<0.0083). Low levels of androgen in men with microdeletions indicate a need to follow-up for early andropause. Patients with microdeletions had more severe testicular histology as compared to subjects without deletions. Our studies showed a significant decrease (P<0.002) in the serum inhibin B values in men with NOA, whereas FSH was seen to be significantly higher as compared to men with severe oligoasthenozoospermia (SOAS), indicating that both the Sertoli cells as well the germ cells were significantly

  12. The present and future state of hormonal treatment for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peter Y; Handelsman, David J

    2003-01-01

    Although male factors contribute to over half of all cases of infertility, most infertile men are described as 'idiopathic oligo/asthenozoospermic' rather than diagnosed precisely; hence, specific medical treatment is not possible. One uncommon but treatable cause of male infertility is gonadotrophin deficiency in which gonadotrophin replacement therapy is highly effective at inducing spermatogenesis and fertility. Hormonal therapy is a logical approach for empirical drug therapy given the fundamental role of hormonal regulation in spermatogenesis. However, treatment with GnRH analogues, gonadotrophins, androgens, anti-estrogens, aromatase inhibitors, growth hormone- and prolactin-suppressing drugs is ineffective in unselected infertile men. Prolonged high-dose glucocorticoid therapy for sperm autoimmunity may improve pregnancy rates modestly, but the risks are generally unacceptable compared with IVF or ICSI. For these reasons, modern reproductive technologies, notably ICSI/IVF, have become the de-facto standard empirical treatment of male infertility, despite involving significant though infrequent risks to the fetus and mother. There remains a potential for hormonal methods to improve sperm quality or ultrastructure in subgroups of infertile men more responsive to hormonal manipulation or using novel protein or gene-targeted therapies or biochemical approaches based on post-hormonal receptor mechanisms that stimulate spermatogenesis. How such novel hormonal methods will develop in conjunction with improved ICSI/IVF or cloning technologies, and the potential role of adjunctive hormonal therapy remains to be clarified.

  13. [Gynaecomastia and male infertility as symptoms of a nonpalpable Leydig cell tumour].

    PubMed

    van de Riet, J E; Oelke, M; van der Veen, F; Visser, H

    2006-08-19

    A 35-year-old man and his partner were referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment (ICSI) because of secondary infertility due to severe oligoasthenoteratospermia. Three years earlier he had presented elsewhere with left unilateral gynaecomastia. A hypertrophic mammary gland had been excised one year later. Histopathological investigation showed benign hypertrophy. One year later he developed gynaecomastia on the other side. Physical examination and incomplete hormonal screening showed no abnormalities. The couple were referred to our tertiary clinic for ICSI treatment. The patient still had unilateral gynaecomastia. Hormonal screening showed not only severe oligoasthenoteratospermia, but also an elevated serum oestrogen level. Scrotal ultrasound revealed a 17 mm mass in his right testicle. Subsequently unilateral orchidectomy was performed. Histology showed a benign Leydig cell tumour for which no further therapy was required. Four months after surgery the gynaecomastia diminished, oestrogen levels became normal and improvement in semen parameters followed. Patients with severe male infertility or gynaecomastia are at a higher risk of developing a testicular neoplasm. Besides history taking, physical examination of breasts and testicles, hormonal screening and scrotal sonography should be performed as some testicular neoplasms are not apparent on palpation.

  14. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  15. Comparison of pregnancy rates in pre-treatment male infertility and low total motile sperm count at insemination.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cheng Wei; Agbo, Chioma; Dahan, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    In intrauterine insemination (IUI), total motile sperm count (TMSC) is an important predictor of pregnancy. However, the clinical significance of a poor TMSC on the day of IUI in a patient with prior normal semen analysis (SA) is unclear. We performed this study to determine if these patients perform as poorly as those who had male factor infertility diagnosed prior to commencing treatment. 147 males with two abnormal SA based on the 2010 World Health Organization criteria underwent 356 IUI with controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation (COH). Their pregnancy rates were compared to 120 males who had abnormal TMSC at the time of 265 IUI with COH, in a retrospective university-based study. The two groups were comparable in female age (p = 0.11), duration of infertility (p = 0.17), previous pregnancies (p = 0.13), female basal serum FSH level (p = 0.54) and number of mature follicles on the day of ovulation trigger (p = 0.27). Despite better semen parameters on the day of IUI in the pre-treatment male factor infertility group (TMSC mean ± SD: 61 ± 30 million vs. 3.5 ± 2 million, p < 0.001), pregnancy rates were much higher in the group with low TMSC on the day of IUI (5 % vs. 17 %, p < 0.001). A patient with a recent (within 6 months) normal pre-treatment SA but low TMSC on the day of IUI likely has a reasonable chance to achieve pregnancy, and does not perform as poorly as subjects previously diagnosed with male factor infertility. More studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  16. Usage and perceptions of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among the male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung-Hun; Kim, Dong Suk; Shim, Sung Han; Lim, Jung Jin; Yang, Seung Choul

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and the usage of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for ED treatment in infertile couples. A total of 260 male partners in couples reporting infertility lasting at least 1 year were included in this study. In addition to an evaluation of infertility, all participants completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire to evaluate their sexual function. The participants were asked about their use of PDE5 inhibitors while trying to conceive during their partner's ovulatory period and about their concerns regarding the risks of PDE5 inhibitor use to any eventual pregnancy and/or the fetus. Based on the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 41.5% of the participants (108/260) were classified as having mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 17-21), while 10.4% of the participants (27/260) had greater than mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 16 or less). The majority (74.2%, 193/260) of male partners of infertile couples had a negative perception of the safety of using a PDE5 inhibitor while trying to conceive. Only 11.1% of men (15/135) with ED in infertile couples had used a PDE5 inhibitor when attempting conception. ED was found to be common in the male partners of infertile couples, but the use of PDE5 inhibitors among these men was found to be very low. The majority of male partners were concerned about the risks of using PDE5 inhibitors when attempting to conceive. Appropriate counseling about this topic and treatment when necessary would likely be beneficial to infertile couples in which the male partner has ED.

  17. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  18. High Resolution X Chromosome-Specific Array-CGH Detects New CNVs in Infertile Males

    PubMed Central

    Krausz, Csilla; Giachini, Claudia; Lo Giacco, Deborah; Daguin, Fabrice; Chianese, Chiara; Ars, Elisabet; Ruiz-Castane, Eduard; Forti, Gianni; Rossi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Context The role of CNVs in male infertility is poorly defined, and only those linked to the Y chromosome have been the object of extensive research. Although it has been predicted that the X chromosome is also enriched in spermatogenesis genes, no clinically relevant gene mutations have been identified so far. Objectives In order to advance our understanding of the role of X-linked genetic factors in male infertility, we applied high resolution X chromosome specific array-CGH in 199 men with different sperm count followed by the analysis of selected, patient-specific deletions in large groups of cases and normozoospermic controls. Results We identified 73 CNVs, among which 55 are novel, providing the largest collection of X-linked CNVs in relation to spermatogenesis. We found 12 patient-specific deletions with potential clinical implication. Cancer Testis Antigen gene family members were the most frequently affected genes, and represent new genetic targets in relationship with altered spermatogenesis. One of the most relevant findings of our study is the significantly higher global burden of deletions in patients compared to controls due to an excessive rate of deletions/person (0.57 versus 0.21, respectively; p = 8.785×10−6) and to a higher mean sequence loss/person (11.79 Kb and 8.13 Kb, respectively; p = 3.435×10−4). Conclusions By the analysis of the X chromosome at the highest resolution available to date, in a large group of subjects with known sperm count we observed a deletion burden in relation to spermatogenic impairment and the lack of highly recurrent deletions on the X chromosome. We identified a number of potentially important patient-specific CNVs and candidate spermatogenesis genes, which represent novel targets for future investigations. PMID:23056185

  19. Study of trichomoniasis among Egyptian male patients.

    PubMed

    el Seoud, S F; Abbas, M M; Habib, F S

    1998-04-01

    In the present study, Trichomonas vaginalis was diagnosed in 28.8% male patients with urethral discharge and in 8.2% suffering from impotence and infertility. Diagnosis was based on examination of urethral discharge, urine, semen and prostatic massage fluid by wet mount, stained films and culture inoculation. Diamond's culture proved to be the method of choice.

  20. Screening of ‘Y’ chromosome microdeletions in Iranian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Malekasgar, Ali Mohammad; Mombaini, Hayat

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that microdeletions of Yq may account for a significant proportion of men with infertility. Three nonoverlapping regions, referred to as “azoospermia factors” (AZFa, b, c from proximal to distal Yq) have been defined as spermatogenesis loci and deletions in these regions have been shown to be pathogenically involved in male infertility associated with azoospermia or severe oligospermia. AIMS: Evaluation the frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions in Iranian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty infertile men were selected. Semen analysis was done and on the basis of the mean sperm count, all patients were categorized into azoospermia and oligozoospermia, groups. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and chromosomal analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood lymphocytes and amplified by sequence tagged sites-polymerase chain reaction (STS-PCR) method to determine the presence of microdeletions in AZF locus. A total of 34 STS primers including two controls were selected to identify microdeletions of Y chromosome on each subject. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: 26/50 cases (52%) showed deletion of at least one of the STS Marker. Totally 41 microdeletions was observed. A total of 17 cases (34%) had deletion in one STS. Four oligospermia cases (8%) had deletion in 2 STS site. Three azoospermia cases (6%) had again deletion in 2 STS site, but in different STSs. One case had three deletions in three STS site and finally one individual had seven deletions in AZF locus. The overall frequency of Y chromosome microdeletions observed in the present study was found to be 26/50 (52%). Comparison of our data with the result of other investigators world wide shows that the incidence of Yq microdeletions in Iranian population is much higher than international frequency. Our data agree with other studies regarding microdeletions of AZFc, but for microdeletions of AZFa (14.6%) our results is much higher and differ significantly with

  1. The psychological impact of infertility and fertility treatment on the male partner.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Maeve; Dineen, Tim; Sarma, Kiran; Nolan, Aonghus

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies that examined factors predicting infertility distress in male partners within couples with an infertility diagnosis and where the couple was receiving fertility treatment. A cross-sectional design was implemented using a questionnaire battery (The questionnaire battery comprised an inventory of four different standardised questionnaires compiled together into one booklet) compiled from earlier theory-building qualitative research conducted by the authors. Infertility related distress was examined in relation to a number of psychosocial variables including relationship dynamics, self-esteem, current mental health and attitudes towards idealised masculinity. The questionnaire battery was completed by 167 men undergoing or consulting for fertility treatment. Participants were recruited through Irish fertility clinics (Study 1, n = 111) and through an online survey (Study 2, n = 55). Regression analyses identified four variables that predicted variance in infertility distress in both studies: 'Attitude towards idealised masculinity', 'Mental health', 'Relationship satisfaction' and 'Self-esteem'. This finding was found to be robust having controlled for age, time since diagnosis, number of attempts at treatment and diagnostic category (male factor, female factor or mixed factor infertility). ConclusiON: Recommendations for fertility clinics and mental health professionals should be made in relation to managing infertility distress and supporting couples during fertility treatment.

  2. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility.

  3. Infertility resulting from transgenic I-PpoI male Anopheles gambiae in large cage trials

    PubMed Central

    Klein, T A; Windbichler, N; Deredec, A; Burt, A; Benedict, M Q

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Anopheles gambiae is the primary vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is a potential target of genetic control programs. We determined the capacity of male A. gambiae created by germline transformation to introduce infertility into stable age-distribution populations. We also determined effects of the transgenes on life history. Methods Stable age-distribution populations of A. gambiae mosquitoes were established in large indoor cages. Male mosquitoes carrying an I-PpoI homing endonuclease gene were introduced at ×5 and ×10 release rates where they competed with target male mosquitoes for matings. Similar trials were conducted in small cages with an additional ×1 release level. Results Infertility was successfully introduced into all target populations. In supporting experiments, complete female infertility was observed in all strains and species of the A. gambiae complex to which transgenic males were mated. Life history experiments demonstrated that reductions in I-PpoI male vigor exist in the form of reduced adult male emergence, longevity and competitiveness. Discussion A. gambiae I-PpoI males are capable of introducing high levels of infertility in target populations in indoor cage trials. This was accomplished despite losses of vigor resulting from the HEG transgene. These results motivate further trials of sexually I-PpoI A. gambiae in outdoor cage and field trials. PMID:22595271

  4. Recurrent X chromosome-linked deletions: discovery of new genetic factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Lo Giacco, D; Chianese, C; Ars, E; Ruiz-Castañé, E; Forti, G; Krausz, C

    2014-05-01

    The role of X-linked genes and copy-number variations (CNVs) in male infertility remains poorly explored. Our previous array-CGH analyses showed three recurrent deletions in Xq exclusively (CNV67) and prevalently (CNV64, CNV69) found in patients. Molecular and clinical characterisation of these CNVs was performed in this study. 627 idiopathic infertile patients and 628 controls were tested for each deletion with PCR+/-. We used PCR+/- to map deletion junctions and long-range PCR and direct sequencing to define breakpoints. CNV64 was found in 5.7% of patients and in 3.1% of controls (p=0.013; OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3) and CNV69 was found in 3.5% of patients and 1.6% of controls (p=0.023; OR=2.204; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.62). For CNV69 we identified two breakpoints, types A and B, with the latter being significantly more frequent in patients than controls (p=0.011; OR=9.19; 95% CI 1.16 to 72.8). CNV67 was detected exclusively in patients (1.1%) and was maternally transmitted. The semen phenotype of one carrier (11-041) versus his normozoospermic non-carrier brother strongly indicates a pathogenic effect of the deletion on spermatogenesis. MAGEA9, an ampliconic gene reported as independently acquired on the human X chromosome with exclusive physiological expression in the testis, is likely to be involved in CNV67. We provide the first evidence for X chromosome-linked recurrent deletions associated with spermatogenic impairment. CNV67, specific to spermatogenic anomaly and with a frequency of 1.1% in oligo/azoospermic men, resembles the AZF regions on the Y chromosome with potential clinical implications.

  5. Association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Guo-Ying; Liu, Juan; Liang, Yue; Li, Yao-Yan; Zhao, Jing-Yu; Zhang, Li-Wen; Wang, Bai-Qi; Tang, Nai-Jun

    2017-04-01

    There have been several epidemiological studies evaluating the potential association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. However, the results obtained were inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further examine the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all eligible studies from the online literature databases published prior to January 15th, 2016. A total of 20 studies with 4293 cases and 4507 controls were included. An odds ratio (OR) and a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. A cumulative meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis and assessment of the publication bias were also performed in this study. The results showed that in the overall analysis, the association between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and male infertility was not significant. A stratified analysis by ethnicity revealed a significant increase in the risk of male infertility in the Asian population with the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (especially in the heterozygote model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.44, P=0.994; the dominant model: OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.04-1.45, P=0.996; and the allele model: OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.04-1.39, P=0.985) but not in the Caucasian population. In the stratified analyses, no significant association was observed between the different types of male infertility. This meta-analysis suggests the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism may be a potential risk factor for male infertility, especially in the Asian population.

  6. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE).

  7. Oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage, a possible reason for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hosen, Md Bayejid; Islam, Md Rakibul; Begum, Firoza; Kabir, Yearul; Howlader, M Zakir Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sperm DNA damage is an important factor in the etiology of male infertility. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage with the pathogenesis of male infertility. Materials and Methods: The study comprised a total of 66 subjects, including fertile men (n=25) and infertile men (n=41) matched by age. Seminal malondialdehyde (MDA), phospholipid hydroperoxide (PHP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG) were estimated by spectrophotometric and ELISA based methods and the association with the sperm parameters was assessed. Results: The percentages of motile and morphologically normal cells were significantly lower (p < 0.001, p <0.001, respectivly) in infertile men. Seminal levels of MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG were significantly higher (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p=0. 02, respectively) while the SOD and TAS were significantly lower (p=0. 0003, p< 0.001, respectively) in infertile men. Sperm parameters were negatively correlated with MDA, PHP and 8-OHdG while positively correlated with SOD and TAS. A positive correlation of 8-OHdG with MDA and PHP and a negative correlation with TAS and SOD were also found. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress induced sperm DNA damage might have a critical effect on the etiology of infertility. Therefore, evaluation of oxidative status, antioxidant defense systems and DNA damage, together with sperm parameters might be a useful tool for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26568756

  8. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma hominis in infertile female and male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Jamalizadeh Bahaabadi, Samaneh; Mohseni Moghadam, Naeime; Kheirkhah, Babak; Farsinejad, Alireza; Habibzadeh, Victoria

    2014-11-01

    Infection of urogenital system with Mycoplasma potentially affect reproductive system and increases infants mortalities. Therefore, detection of these organisms is an important issue that should be considered and appropriate diagnostic methods should be used to identify these microorganisms. In the female reproductive system, infection can affect different parts of the cervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube. The extent of this infection in different diseases and its pathogenesis might be related to anatomic site of involvement. Some infections can lead to infertility in both males and females. Genital infection with Mycoplasmas have devastating effects on reproductive organs and cause fertility disorders and mortality in infants. In recent years, many studies have been conducted to isolate these pathogens; however, the isolates have not been identified so far. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from infertile female and male reproductive system in the Infertility Center of Kerman. This descriptive study was performed purposefully on 100 infertile females and 100 infertile males who were referred to the Infertility Center of Kerman during a six-month period. The collected samples of semen and vaginal swabs were examined for the presence of M. hominis by PCR. The samples with positive results in PCR were selected for molecular identification. Alignment of samples sequence was performed using MEGA 5 software through Neighbor-joining method. Among 100 samples from infertile males, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 45 cases of which 15 cases were infected with M. hominis. Among 100 samples from infertile female, the presence of genus Mycoplasma was confirmed in 43 cases of which 18 case were infected with M. hominis. The positive samples were sequenced and the phylogenetic tree was plotted. The results showed that 37.5% of infertile males and females were infected with M. hominis. Analysis of the

  9. Prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in Indian infertile patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rawre, Jyoti; Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Broor, Shobha; Chaudhry, Rama

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in patients with infertility by PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing. Prevalence of other etiological agents (viz., Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis) were also assessed. Endocervical swabs were collected from 477 women and urine was collected from 151 men attending the Infertility Clinic. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by cryptic plasmid, ompA gene and nested ompA gene PCR. Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP and sequencing. Samples were screened for Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile women and their male partners were 15.7% (75 of 477) and 10.0% (15 of 151) respectively. Secondary infertility was significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Genovar E was the most prevalent followed by genovar D and F. Twenty-four C. trachomatis strains were selected for ompA gene sequencing. No mixed infection was picked. Variability in ompA sequences was seen in 50.0%. Both PCR-RFLP and ompA gene sequencing showed concordant results. High prevalence of C. trachomatis in infertile couples warrants routine screening for C. trachomatis infection in all infertile couples. Genotyping of the ompA gene of C. trachomatis may be a valuable tool in understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection.

  10. Seminal, ultrasound and psychobiological parameters correlate with metabolic syndrome in male members of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Degli Innocenti, S; Filimberti, E; Scognamiglio, V; Vignozzi, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a diagnostic category which identifies subjects at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED) and male hypogonadism. However, MetS impact on male infertility has been poorly studied. We systematically evaluated possible associations between MetS and clinical characteristics in men with couple infertility. Out of 367 consecutive subjects, 351 men without genetic abnormalities were studied. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation&American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute classification. All men underwent physical, hormonal, seminal and scrotal ultrasound evaluation. Erectile and ejaculatory functions were assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD) and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), respectively, while psychological symptoms by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Out of 351 patients, 27 (7.7%) fulfilled MetS criteria. Among ultrasound features, in an age-adjusted logistic model, only testis inhomogeneity was significantly associated with increasing MetS factors (HR = 1.36 [1.09-1.70]; p < 0.01). In an age-adjusted model, MetS was associated with a stepwise decline in total testosterone (TT) (B = -1.25 ± 0.33; p < 0.0001), without a concomitant rise in gonadotropins. At univariate analysis, progressive motility and normal morphology were negatively related to the number of MetS components (both p < 0.0001), but when age and TT were introduced in a multivariate model, only sperm morphology retained a significant association (B = -1.418 ± 0.42; p = 0.001). The risk of ED (IIEF-15-EFD score <26) increased as a function of the number of MetS factors, even after adjusting for age and TT (HR = 1.45[1.08-1.95]; p < 0.02). No association between PEDT score and MetS was observed. Finally, after adjusting for age and TT, somatization and depressive symptoms were associated with increasing Met

  11. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  12. The diagnosis and treatment of male infertility in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Marmar, J L

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of male infertility accomplished far-reaching advances in the past decade. Semen analysis has given rise to sperm function tests. Microsurgery, e.g., reversal of vasectomy, has reached new heights in sperm retrieval directly from the testis/epididymis and in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, genetic testing-for an ever-widening range of anomalies-is the norm in modern clinical practice. This review of what is possible, and now even common, in male infertility treatment focuses on sperm function, and then deficits/anomalies and their treatment; and testicular function and dysfunction, with descriptions of hormonal and surgical techniques that now offer fatherhood to men with types of infertility that strongly imply the need for genetic counseling.

  13. Association of common SNP rs1136410 in PARP1 gene with the susceptibility to male infertility with oligospermia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Pu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ruo-Peng; A, Zhou-Cun

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to explore possible associations between polymorphisms of common SNP rs1136410 and rS1805405 in PARP1 gene and male infertility with spermatogenesis impairment. The polymorphic distributions of SNP rs1136410 and rS1805405 were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in a Chinese cohort including 371 infertile patients with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia and 231 controls. Significant differences in the frequencies of allele and genotype of SNP rs1136410 were observed between patients with oligospermia and controls. The allele C (46.3 % vs. 36.4 %, P = 0.003) and genotype CC (22.6 % vs. 13.4 %, P = 0.014) significantly increased, whereas genotype TT (30 % vs. 40.7 %, P = 0.021) significantly decreased in patients with oligospermia compared with controls at this SNP locus. These results indicated that genotype CC of SNP rs1136410 may increase the risk of oligosoermia and genotype TT of rs1136410 may have some protective effect from oligospermia, suggesting that the polymorphism of SNP rs1136410 in PARP1 gene may modify the susceptibility to male infertility with oligospermia.

  14. Testosterone use in the male infertility population: prescribing patterns and effects on semen and hormonal parameters.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Loai, Yasir; Wong, Kimberly; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Jarvi, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze how frequently and why men presenting with infertility take testosterone (T) and if negative effects of T on semen parameters are reversed following cessation. Analysis of a prospectively collected database. Male Infertility clinic. Men presenting for fertility evaluation from 2008 to 2012. None. The frequency and reason for T use in the infertile male population, and semen and hormonal parameters while on T and following discontinuation. A total of 59/4,400 men (1.3%) reported taking T. T was prescribed by a variety of physicians, including endocrinologists (24%), general practitioners (17%), urologists (15%), gynecologists (5%), and reproductive endocrinologists (3%). Only one of the men admitted that he had obtained T from an illicit source. More than 82% of men were prescribed T for the treatment of hypogonadism, but surprisingly, 12% (7/59) were prescribed T to treat their infertility. While on T, 88.4% of men were azoospermic, but by 6 months after T cessation, 65% of the men without other known causes for azoospermia recovered spermatogenesis. In Canada, T was not commonly used by men presenting for fertility investigation (1.3%). Close to 2/3 of infertile men using T recovered spermatogenesis within 6 months of T discontinuation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility in a local Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Azhar Beg, M; Shabbir, A; Rashid Kayani, A; Kaukab Raja, G

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study determined an association between idiopathic sperm disorders in a local Pakistani infertile male population and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. After ruling out non genetic factors, a total of 437 idiopathic infertile men including 57 azoospermic, 66 oligospermic, 44 asthenozoospermic, 29 teratozoospermic, 20 oligoasthenospermic and 221 infertile normospermic men were recruited. Furthermore, 218 normospermic fertile men, who had two children (or more) were included as controls. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to determine MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) polymorphism. A significant association of the minor MTHFR 677T allele with male infertility was observed (p <0.05). In addition, men with MTHFR 677 CT and TT genotypes were at a greater risk [odds ratio (OR): 1.81, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.17-2.80, p = 0.008 and OR: 9.24, 95% CI: 1.20-70.92, p = 0.032, respectively] of infertility. All the subgroups of male infertility (azoospermic, oligospermic, asthenospermic, oligoasthenoteratospermic (OAT) and normospermic infertile) had significantly (p <0.05) higher frequencies of CT and TT genotypes when compared to fertile men. The combined genotypes (CT + TT) were also found significantly (OR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.31-3.08, p <0.001) associated with male infertility. The results suggest that the polymorphism might be a factor of male infertility in the Pakistani population. PMID:27785408

  16. Genetic screening and evaluation for chromosomal abnormalities of infertile males in Jilin Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Fan, H-T; Zhang, Q-S; Wang, X-Y; Yang, X; Tian, W-J; Li, R-W

    2015-12-08

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of male infertility, particularly in cases of azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomal rearrangement may interrupt an important gene or exert position effects. The functionality of genes at specific breakpoints, perhaps with a specific role in spermatogenesis, may be altered by such rearrangements. Structural chromosome abnormalities are furthermore known to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. In this study, we aimed to assess chromosomal defects in infertile men from Jilin Province, China, by genetic screening and to evaluate the relationship between structural chromosome abnormalities and male infertility. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities among the study participants (receiving genetic counseling in Jilin Province, China) was 10.55%. The most common chromosome abnormality was Klinefelter syndrome, and the study findings suggested that azoospermia and oligospermia may result from structural chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 1 was shown to be most commonly involved in male infertility and balanced chromosomal translocation was identified as one of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomes 4, 7, and 10 were the most commonly involved chromosomes in male partners of women experiencing repeated abortion.

  17. Should sperm DNA fragmentation testing be included in the male infertility work-up?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Sheena E M

    2015-08-01

    A response to the editorial 'Are we ready to incorporate sperm DNA fragmentation testing into our male infertility work-up? A plea for more robust studies' by Erma Drobnis and Martin Johnson. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The SPO11-C631T gene polymorphism and male infertility risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zheng-Ju; Ren, Peng-Wei; Yang, Bo; Liao, Jian; Liu, Sheng-Zhuo; Fang, Kun; Ren, Shang-Qing; Liu, Liang-Ren; Dong, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association between the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. We conducted a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China biology medical literature database (CBM), VIP, and Chinese literature database (Wan Fang) on 31 March 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to assess the strength of associations. A total of five studies including 542 cases and 510 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that the SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of male infertility (TT + CT vs. CC: OR = 4.14, 95%CI = 2.48-6.89; CT vs. CC: OR = 4.34, 95%CI = 2.56-7.34; T vs. C: OR = 4.35, 95%CI = 2.58-7.34). Subgroup analysis of different countries proved the relationship between SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism and male infertility risk in Chinese, but not in Iranian peoples. In conclusion, this study suggested that SPO11 gene C631T polymorphism may contribute as a genetic factor susceptible to cause male infertility. Furthermore, more large sample and representative population-based cases and well-matched controls are needed to validate our results.

  19. [Gonadotropin levels and spermatogenesis in infertile patients].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, G; DID, S

    1976-06-01

    165 STERILE MALE PATIENTS UNDERWENT SEMEN EXAMINATIONS AND SERUM GONADOTROPINS DOSAGE. In 47 of these patients a testicular biopsy was preformed. The results of the statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the sperm count and the FSH in addition to a close and precise relation between the initial stages of the spermatogenesis and FSH. No correlation was found to exist in regard to the LH. The Authors finally showed their interpertation of such data, with the possibility of different prognosis in subjects having severe oligozoospermia, but with a bioptic picture which did or did not present damage at the spermatid maturation stage.

  20. Effects of medical therapy, alcohol, smoking, and endocrine disruptors on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Fábio Firmbach; Lucon, Antônio Marmo; Sobreiro, Bernardo Passos; Pasqualotto, Eleonora Bedin; Arap, Sami

    2004-12-01

    Infertility affects up to 15% of the sexually active population, and in 50% of cases, a male factor is involved, either as a primary problem or in combination with a problem in the female partner. Because many commonly encountered drugs and medications can have a detrimental effect on male fertility, the medical evaluation should include a discussion regarding the use of recreational and illicit drugs, medications, and other substances that may impair fertility. With the knowledge of which drugs and medications may be detrimental to fertility, it may be possible to modify medication regimens or convince a patient to modify habits to decrease adverse effects on fertility and improve the chances of achieving a successful pregnancy. Concern is growing that male sexual development and reproduction have changed for the worse over the past 30 to 50 years. Although some reports find no changes, others suggest that sperm counts appear to be decreasing and that the incidence of developmental abnormalities such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism appears to be increasing, as is the incidence of testicular cancer. These concerns center around the possibility that our environment is contaminated with chemicals--both natural and synthetic--that can interact with the endocrine system.

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in infertile males attending the andrology clinic at Ga-Rankuwa Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bornman, M S; Crewe-brown, H H; Reif, S; Mahomed, M F; Broomker, D; Schulenburg, G W

    1992-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect the physiology of male/female reproduction. Chronic bacterial infection of semen is uncommon, but may be a cause of male infertility. Antibacterial treatment results in improvement in sperm quality, once the infection is eradicated. Little is known about how infection with Mycoplasma hominis affects semen quality, but treatment with antibiotics improves motility and decreases the percentage of coiled tails. Chlamydia trachomatis is not frequently isolated from the urethral cultures of normal men, but is a major cause of nongonococcal urethritis and epididymitis. Chlamydia is an important cause of epididymal and oviductal obstruction. Trichomonas vaginalis most frequently colonizes the vagina and cervix of women and the anterior urethra of the male sexual partners. The highest prevalence is in sexually active men and women and Trichomoniasis may well be the most common STD. Syphilis may be an important cofactor in facilitating transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A history of syphilis or a positive serologic test for syphilis is associated with HIV seropositivity in men. In South Africa, the seropositivity in pregnant black women ranges from 11-20%. Ga-Rankuwa Hospital is the referral center for 40 peripheral hospitals and over 4 million people. Since the inception of the Andrology Laboratory in June 1985, more than 5300 semen analyses have been performed on 2000 patients.

  2. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  3. Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes on spermatozoa from male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Rosaria; Capra, Giuseppina; Bellavia, Carmela; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Scazzone, Concetta; Venezia, Renato; Perino, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in patients who attended a fertility clinic. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-affiliated reproductive medicine clinic. A total of 308 male partners of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization techniques. Specimens of semen were collected from all patients. Sperm parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization manual. The presence of HPV DNA was researched by the combined use of two HPV assays and a highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay followed by HPV genotyping. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was performed. Results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and ISH analysis. Twenty-four out of 308 semen samples (7.8%) were HPV DNA positive, but HPV infection did not seem to affect semen quality. Moreover, ISH revealed a clear HPV localization at the equatorial region of sperm head in infected samples. Oncogenic HPV genotypes were detected on spermatozoa from asymptomatic subjects, but a role of the infection in male infertility was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  5. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Extreme Cases of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Gianpiero D.; Neri, Queenie V.; Schlegel, Peter N.; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. Patients and Methods In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. Result(s) The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001). Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. Conclusion(s) An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the scarce and unselected

  6. Coffee and caffeine intake and male infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Elena; Viganò, Paola; Cipriani, Sonia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Chiaffarino, Francesca; Bulfoni, Alessandro; Parazzini, Fabio

    2017-06-24

    Semen quality, a predictor of male fertility, has been suggested declining worldwide. Among other life style factors, male coffee/caffeine consumption was hypothesized to influence semen parameters, but also sperm DNA integrity. To summarize available evidence, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relation between coffee/caffeine intake and parameters of male fertility including sperm ploidy, sperm DNA integrity, semen quality and time to pregnancy. A systematic literature search was performed up to November 2016 (MEDLINE and EMBASE). We included all observational papers that reported the relation between male coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes: 1. semen parameters, 2. sperm DNA characteristics, 3. fecundability. All pertinent reports were retrieved and the relative reference lists were systematically searched in order to identify any potential additional studies that could be included. We retrieved 28 papers reporting observational information on coffee/caffeine intake and reproductive outcomes. Overall, they included 19,967 men. 1. Semen parameters did not seem affected by caffeine intake, at least caffeine from coffee, tea and cocoa drinks, in most studies. Conversely, other contributions suggested a negative effect of cola-containing beverages and caffeine-containing soft drinks on semen volume, count and concentration. 2. As regards sperm DNA defects, caffeine intake seemed associated with aneuploidy and DNA breaks, but not with other markers of DNA damage. 3. Finally, male coffee drinking was associated to prolonged time to pregnancy in some, but not all, studies. The literature suggests that caffeine intake, possibly through sperm DNA damage, may negatively affect male reproductive function. Evidence from epidemiological studies on semen parameters and fertility is however inconsistent and inconclusive. Well-designed studies with predefined criteria for semen analysis, subject selection, and life style habits

  7. [Evolution and mutation of human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Sha, Yan-Wei

    2009-04-01

    The Y chromosome evolves from euchromosome and accumulates a variety of male-specific genes, including SRY and many others that are related with spermatogenesis. The Y chromosome is distinguished from euchromosome by its characteristics of multiple copies of gene, multiple DNA sequences and high polymorphism. A lot of gene rearrangements occur during its evolution due to the specific gene structure in the Y chromosome. It has been discovered that one subset of such gene rearrangements induces Y-chromosome microdeletions that are involved in male infertility. Spermatogenesis is actually controlled by a network of genes, which may be located on the Y chromosome, euchromosomes or even the X chromosome. Further studies on the genomics and genes in the Y chromosome between sex chromosomes and/or between sex chromosome and euchromosomes will helps us to gain deeper insights into the molecular mechanism of male infertility.

  8. Structural variation of the human genome: mechanisms, assays, and role in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Claudia M B; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R

    2011-02-01

    Genomic disorders are defined as diseases caused by rearrangements of the genome incited by a genomic architecture that conveys instability. Y-chromosome related dysfunctions such as male infertility are frequently associated with gross DNA rearrangements resulting from its peculiar genomic architecture. The Y-chromosome has evolved into a highly specialized chromosome to perform male functions, mainly spermatogenesis. Direct and inverted repeats, some of them palindromes with highly identical nucleotide sequences that can form DNA cruciform structures, characterize the genomic structure of the Y-chromosome long arm. Some particular Y chromosome genomic deletions can cause spermatogenic failure likely because of removal of one or more transcriptional units with a potential role in spermatogenesis. We describe mechanisms underlying the formation of human genomic rearrangements on autosomes and review Y-chromosome deletions associated with male infertility.

  9. The dynamics of mitochondrial mutations causing male infertility in spatially structured populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Guillaume, Frédéric; Engelstädter, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are usually inherited maternally and therefore there is no direct selection against mutations that have deleterious effects in males only (mother's curse). This is true in particular for mitochondrial mutations that reduce the fertility of their male carriers, as has been reported in a number of species. Using both analytical methods and computer simulations, we demonstrate that spatial population structure can induce strong selection against such male infertility mutations. This is because (1) infertile males may reduce the fecundity of the females they mate with and (2) population structure induces increased levels of inbreeding, so that the fitness of females carrying the mutation is more strongly reduced than the fitness of wild-type females. Selection against mitochondrial male infertility mutations increases with decreasing deme size and migration rates, and in particular with female migration rates. On the other hand, the migration model (e.g., island or stepping stone model) has generally only minor effects on the fate of the mitochondrial mutations. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Association, prevalence, and clearance of human papillomavirus and antisperm antibodies in infected semen samples from infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Garolla, Andrea; Pizzol, Damiano; Bertoldo, Alessandro; De Toni, Luca; Barzon, Luisa; Foresta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence, association, and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV) and antisperm antibodies (ASAs) in infected semen samples from infertile patients. Cross-sectional clinical study. Andrology and microbiology sections at a university hospital. Three groups of subjects: 61 infertile patients with HPV semen infection, 104 noninfected infertile subjects, and 92 control subjects. Semen analysis, spermMar test, fluorescence in situ hybridization for sperm aneuploidy and for HPV, and immunofluorescence for HPV 16-L1 and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) determination. Association of sperm procedures, HPV sperm infection, sperm aneuploidies, and sperm ASAs. Infertile patients with HPV semen infection showed high percentages of ASAs. In these patients HPV sperm infection was associated with lower sperm motility, which was worse in subjects with ASAs. No alterations of sperm chromosomes were observed. To obtain a significant clearance of both HPV sperm infection and ASAs at least 24 months of follow-up were needed. Human papillomavirus has been recently suggested to have an important role in male infertility. This study demonstrated that HPV sperm infection can be long lasting and frequently associated with ASAs that may further reduce male fertility. Infertile patients with positive spermMar test results should be considered for investigation for HPV, especially if they are candidates for assisted reproduction. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis. PMID:20210997

  12. Ureaplasma spp. in male infertility and its relationship with semen quality and seminal plasma components.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun Heng; Ma, Hong Xia; Shi, Xiao Xing; Liu, Yang

    2017-06-22

    We investigated the prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. in semen samples of infertile men in Shanghai, China and evaluated the correlation between the sperm parameters (seminal volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility and non-progressive) and the secretary function in these infectious populations. Semens were collected from 540 infertile men and 260 fertile control group in shanghai, China and subjected to standard bacterial and Ureaplasma spp. culture. Positive Ureaplasma spp. isolates were further tested by PCR to detect the biovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma spp. Sperm seminological variabilities were analyzed by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis according to the fifth edition of World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. Seminal markers were measured by the automatic analyzer. The prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. in semen specimens was 39.6% (214/540) and 19.2% (50/260) in infertile and control group, respectively. Significant difference was observed between the two groups (P < 0.001). Among all clinical isolates from infertile men (n = 214), 59.3% (n = 127) was Ureaplasma parvum (UPA), 26.2% (n = 56) was Ureaplasma urealyticum (UUR), and 14.5% (n = 31) was mixed species. While those numbers in control group (n = 50) were 64.0% (n = 32), 20.0% (n = 10), 16.0% (n = 8), respectively. There was no significant difference between any two groups (P > 0.05). The progressive motility and the NAG activity of infertile men infected with UPA and mixed species were significantly lower than those of UUR infected subgroup (P < 0.05). The infection of Ureaplasma spp. plays an important pathogenic role in male infertility. UPA has higher pathogenicity on the progressive motility and the secretary function of epididymis than UUR. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Risk for Male Infertility in Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vandana; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-07-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme of folate pathway and required for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFE C677T polymorphisms is reported as risk factors for various diseases and disorders like birth defects, metabolic, neurological, psychiatric disorders, and cancers. Several studies have investigated association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism in Asian population, a meta-analysis was performed. Included articles were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science direct up to March 2015. Risk was estimated as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Seventeen case-control studies involving 4392 breast infertile males and 3667 fertile males were found suitable for the inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Results showed that the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with male infertility in Asian population using all the five genetic models (ORT vs. C (allele contrast model) = 1.86, 95% CI 1.7-2.0; ORTT vs. CC (homozygote model) = 1.96, 95% CI 1.67-2.30; ORCT vs. CC (co-dominant model) = 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.62; ORTT+CT vs. CC (dominant model) = 1.53, 95% CI 1.30-1.77; ORTT vs. CT+CC (recessive model) = 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). In conclusion, results of present meta-analysis strongly supported an association between C677T polymorphism and male infertility in Asians.

  14. ‘At the hospital I learnt the truth’: diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the sexual health and fertility services offered in district hospitals, men's clinical engagements and masculine imaginaries. The research suggested that men's willingness to be referred for semen analysis is an extension of intensive and persistent help-seeking for childlessness instigated by couples and encouraged by families. Within the laboratory, acceptable social arrangements for semen sample collection are negotiated between male clients and laboratory staff, which emphasise heterosexual and marital virility. Following diagnosis, counselling by clinical officers, without any significant therapeutic interventions, focuses on compassion in marriage. This paper considers: what is the role of semen analysis within public health facilities and why do men participate? How do men experience an infertility diagnosis and what do they and their partners do with this knowledge? In addition, how do these practices shape gendered relationships in families and communities? The analysis builds on Inhorn's (2012) concept of ‘emergent masculinities’ to better understand the connections between male subjectivities, medical technologies and the globalisation of male reproductive health, as they relate to men's lives in rural Malawi. PMID:25175293

  15. Effect of psychological stress on fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Bhongade, M B; Prasad, S; Jiloha, R C; Ray, P C; Mohapatra, S; Koner, B C

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of psychological stress on male fertility hormones and seminal quality in male partner of infertile couples. Seventy male partners of infertile couples were evaluated for level of psychological stress using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) questionnaire, serum total testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) by electrochemiluminescence assay and serum GnRH by ELISA. Seminal analysis was performed as per WHO guideline. Nineteen (27%) of them had HADS anxiety and depression score ≥8 (abnormal HADS score). The persons having abnormal HADS had lower serum total testosterone, higher serum FSH and LH than those of persons having normal HADS. Serum total testosterone correlated negatively with HADS, but LH and FSH correlated positively. There was no change in GnRH with the change in stress or testosterone levels. Sperm count, motility and morphologically normal spermatozoa were lower in persons having abnormal HADS. Sperm count correlated positively with total testosterone and negatively with FSH and LH. Abnormal sperm motility and morphology were related to lower testosterone and higher LH and FSH levels. Psychological stress primarily lowers serum total testosterone level with secondary rise in serum LH and FSH levels altering seminal quality. Stress management is warranted for male infertility cases.

  16. Male Infertility: The Effect of Natural Antioxidants and Phytocompounds on Seminal Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Adewoyin, Malik; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Roszaman, Ramli; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Mat Alewi, Nur Aizura; Abdul Rafa, Ainin Azwani; Anuar, Mohd Nur Nasyriq

    2017-01-01

    Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Although, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) play major roles in reproduction, they are strongly associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, factors such as obesity, inflammation, pollutants and cigarette smoking are negatively correlated with spermatogenesis. Endogenous antioxidants system exists to mediate these damages. In a normal physiological state, the seminal plasma contains antioxidant enzyme mechanism that is capable of quenching these ROS as well as protecting the spermatozoa against any likely damage. However, high level of ROS triggered by inflammatory cells and oxidation of fatty acid in obese subjects may down play antioxidant mechanism resulting in oxidative stress. Evaluation of such oxidative stress is the first step in the treatment of male infertility through administration of suitable antioxidant. Notably, antioxidant such as vitamin E and C, carotenoids and carnitine have been found beneficial in restoring a balance between ROS generation and scavenging activities. There are emerging evidences that herbal products can also boost male reproductive functions. Nonetheless, a good lifestyle, regular exercise, avoidance of stress and observing safety rules at work are habits that can reverse male infertility.

  17. Cryptorchidism is not a risk factor for antisperm antibody production in post-orchidopexy males with infertility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huan; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in adulthood is a well-recognized consequence of cryptorchidism, even after successful orchidopexy. Autoimmune reactions against spermatozoa are associated with infertility and often found in cryptorchids. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the linkage between antisperm antibody (ASA) and cryptorchidism, and furthermore, to clarify whether ASA is involved in cryptorchidism-associated infertility. We investigated a total of 48 infertile males with a history of unilateral (n = 30) or bilateral (n = 18) cryptorchidism who had undergone successful orchidopexy in prepuberty, and 20 age-matched fertile and healthy males were collected as controls. ASA in sperm samples was detected by the direct immunobead test, and semen analysis was performed concomitantly. No infertile case satisfied the diagnostic criteria of ASA-mediated infertility set forth by the World Health Organization. Decreases in both sperm concentration and motility accompanied by increases in abnormal morphology were seen in infertile cryptorchids when compared with the healthy controls. Testicular heat exposure in prepuberty is not a risk factor for ASA production. It is evident that the mechanisms that underlie cryptorchidism-associated infertility do not involve ASA. Poor sperm characteristics in cryptorchids resulting from thermal damage to the testes seem to be responsible for their infertility, even after successful orchidopexy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Association of a miR-34b binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with susceptibility to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Lin, W-Q; Cao, H-F; Li, C-Y; Li, F

    2015-10-09

    This study aims to explore the possible associations between a genetic variation in the miR-34b binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (rs55763075) with male infertility in a Chinese population. Genotype distributions of the rs55763075 single nucleotide polymorphism were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in a Chinese cohort that included 464 infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia and 458 controls with normal fertility. Overall, no significant differences in the distributions of the genotypes of the MTHFR rs55763075 polymorphism were detected between the infertility and control groups. A statistically significant increased risk of male infertility was found for carriers of the rs55763075 AA genotype when compared with homozygous carriers of the rs55763075 GG genotype in the azoospermia subgroup (OR = 1.721; 95% CI = 1.055-2.807; P = 0.031). Furthermore, we found that rs55763075 was associated with folate and homocysteine levels in patients with idiopathic azoospermia. Our results indicated that the MTHFR 3'-UTR rs55763075 polymorphism might modify the susceptibility to male infertility with idiopathic azoospermia.

  19. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-03-02

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

  20. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] −0.64 [−1.01, −0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: −0.99 [−1.60, −0.38], −1.82 [−2.63, −1.01], and −0.75 [−1.37, −0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility. PMID:26932683

  1. Ejaculatory physiology and pathophysiology: assessment and treatment in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Revenig, Louis; Leung, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Azoospermia is a heterogeneous condition with multiple etiologies and a variety of treatments. In this chapter we present a summary of retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation, both of which are characterized by an absence of antegrade semen propulsion through the male reproductive tract. Each of these affects fertility, but is pathophysiologically distinct disorders with differing evaluation and treatment. Retrograde ejaculation has a myriad of well-characterized causes, from pharmacologic disruption to interference of neural mechanisms by surgical intervention for a variety of diseases. Medication is the mainstay of treatment, although only a minority responds and develops antegrade ejaculation. For the men who are not responders to medical therapy, but still have fertility goals, there are a variety of sperm retrieval techniques to assist their reproductive abilities. Failure of emission is characterized by an absence of the emission phase and no antegrade or retrograde expulsion of ejaculatory products. If fertility is desired, these men must rely on assisted ejaculatory procedures, and treatment choice is guided by etiology and response. Ultimately, retrograde ejaculation and failure of emission are in a spectrum of ejaculatory disorders which impair male fertility. PMID:26816751

  2. Outcomes for offspring of men having ICSI for male factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Halliday, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using single sperm isolated from testicular tissue in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia, or using ejaculated sperm in those with poor semen quality, there have been concerns that this might have adverse effects on the offspring compared to conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and natural conceptions. ICSI is done for reasons other than male factor infertility, and on the whole has not been shown to have any more negative effects than those seen with IVF. There have however, been very few studies of ICSI with a focus on, or large enough numbers to examine, the specific outcomes associated with male factor infertility. From the limited information available in relation to the source of the sperm and aetiology of infertility in the presence of ICSI, there appears to be no increased risk of congenital malformations. There is, however, a small increase in both de novo and inherited chromosome abnormalities. In terms of growth and neurodevelopment, there are very few studies, and so far, no adverse outcomes have been found in young children whose fathers have a sperm defect. The origin of the sperm used in ICSI does not have a major influence on the early life outcomes for the offspring, but transgenerational and epigenetic effects remain unknown. When the male factor infertility is known or thought to be due to a Y-chromosome deletion, this information should be given to the young male offspring at a time that will ensure his own reproductive health and plans are optimized. PMID:22157986

  3. Association of androgen receptor GGN repeat length polymorphism and male infertility in Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Mohamad; Khatami, Saied Reza; Galehdari, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Androgens play critical role in secondary sexual and male gonads differentiations such as spermatogenesis, via androgen receptor. The human androgen receptor (AR) encoding gene contains two regions with three nucleotide polymorphic repeats (CAG and GGN) in the first exon. Unlike the CAG repeats, the GGN has been less studied because of technical difficulties, so the functional role of these polymorphic repeats is still unclear. Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate any relationship between GGN repeat length in the first exon of AR gene and idiopathic male infertility in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: This is the first study on GGN repeat of AR gene in infertile male in Khuzestan, Iran. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to categorize GGN repeat lengths in 72 infertile and 72 fertile men. Afterwards we sequenced the PCR products to determine the exact length of GGN repeat in each category. Our samples included 36 azoospermic and 36 oligozoospermic men as cases and 72 fertile men as control group. Results: We found that the numbers of repeats in the cases range from 18 to 25, while in the controls this range is from 20 to 28. The results showed a significant relation between the length of GGN repeat and fertility (p=0.015). The most frequent alleles were alleles with 24 and 25 repeats respectively in case and control groups. On the other hand no significant differences were found between Arab and non-Arab cases by considering GGN repeat lengths (p=0.234). Conclusion: Due to our results, there is a significant association between the presence of allele with 24 repeats and susceptibility to male infertility. Therefore this polymorphism should be considered in future studies to clarify etiology of disorders related to androgen receptor activity. PMID:26221130

  4. The effect of mahogunin gene mutant on reproduction in male mice: a new sight for infertility?

    PubMed

    Cheng, D; Xiong, C; Li, J; Sui, C; Wang, S; Li, H; Jiang, X

    2014-03-01

    Mahogunin is an important mediator of chromogenesis and neurodegeneration. Mahoganoid is a mutation of the mahogunin gene, which causes a pleiotropic phenotype that includes suppression of obesity, spongiform neurodegeneration and improvement of insulin sensitivity. Our previous research found that mahoganoid widely expressed in the male rat reproductive system, and mahoganoid-deficient mice have reduced embryonic viability. But the reproductive change in mahogunin knockout (md(nc) ) male mice has not been reported previously. Here, we report that the mahogunin mRNA also widely exists in reproductive system of male mice, and its mRNA expression in the testis was in accordance with the first spermatogenesis wave cycle. Moreover, we find that md(nc) male mice were able to mate with females but no pups are delivered. Besides, the sperms' active progressive motility and hormone secretion (E2, FSH, LH, PRL) were obviously decreased while abnormal sperm rate showed no significant difference in md(nc) compared to wild-type (WT) male mice. This study indicates the mahogunin deficiency results in the infertility of male mice, disruption of hormones secretion and impaired active progressive motility, which may additionally illuminate the aetiology of male infertility in human.

  5. Elocalcitol, a vitamin D3 analog for the potential treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, overactive bladder and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Atul

    2009-06-01

    Elocalcitol, which had been under development by BioXell SpA, is a synthetic derivative of vitamin D3 that regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis via its binding to the vitamin D receptor. In preclinical studies, elocalcitol inhibited the androgen-dependent and androgen-independent proliferation of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cells more potently than finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. In a phase IIb trial in patients with BPH, treatment with elocalcitol resulted in a significantly reduced prostate volume compared with placebo; irritative urinary symptoms (frequency, urgency and nocturia) and urodynamic parameters were comparable to the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist tamsulosin. In a phase IIa trial in patients with prostatitis, elocalcitol significantly reduced levels of IL-8 in semen, suggesting improved quality and forward motility of sperm. However, phase IIb trial data from patients with overactive bladder (OAB) were less promising: elocalcitol failed to meet the primary endpoint despite demonstrating good efficacy in a phase IIa trial. Based largely on these disappointing data, BioXell decided to terminate all further clinical development of elocalcitol, including an uncompleted phase IIa trial in patients with male infertility. Given the novel mechanism of action, efficacy profile and improved tolerability of elocalcitol over existing classes of drugs, the compound could have potentially added to the armamentarium in the expanding therapeutic markets of BPH, OAB and male infertility. This possibility appears to have been negated by BioXell's recent decision to terminate all further development of elocalcitol.

  6. Role of reactive nitrogen species in male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a subset of free oxygen radicals called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physiological levels of ROS are necessary to maintain the reproductive functions such as cell signaling, tight junction regulation, production of hormones, capacitation, acrosomal reaction, sperm motility, and zona pellucida binding. However, an excess of RNS can adversely affect reproductive potential by causing testicular dysfunction, decreased gonadotropin secretion, and abnormal semen parameters. Because such levels of RNS have been demonstrated in males with fertility problems and routine semen analysis has not been able to accurately predict IVF outcomes, it is imperative that novel strategies be developed in order to both assess and treat oxidative stress. This article describes both physiological and pathological roles of this unique subset of ROS. PMID:23241221

  7. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  8. Functional polymorphism in H2BFWT-5'UTR is associated with susceptibility to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinu; Park, Hee Suk; Kim, Hwan Hee; Yun, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Lee, Suman

    2009-08-01

    H2B histone family, member W, testis-specific (H2BFWT) gene encodes a testis-specific histone that becomes incorporated into sperm chromatin. A male infertility-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (-9C > T) within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the H2BFWT gene was identified by direct sequencing. Statistical association studies showed the polymorphism significantly associated with male infertility (n = 442, P = 0.0157), especially in non-azoospermia (n = 262, P = 0.018). Furthermore, this polymorphism is also associated with sperm parameters, especially sperm count (n = 164, P = 0.0127) and vitality (n = 164, P = 0.0076). We investigated how the genetic variant at 5'UTR confers susceptibility to non-azoospermia. Western blotting of His-tag H2BFWT revealed a difference at the translational level between -9T and the wild-type -9C in the absence of change at the transcriptional level. Reporter assays showed that this reducing translational change originated from an upstream open reading frame (uORF) generated by the -9C to -9T change. Finally, in vivo H2BFWT expression in sperm was significantly dependent on the -9C > T genotype from non-azoospermia (P = 0.0061). Therefore, this polymorphism could affect the translational efficiency of a quantitatively important histone protein by the uORF. Our data implicate H2BFWT as a susceptibility factor for male infertility, possibly with other genetic and environmental factors.

  9. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Ozoemena, Ofn; Ezugworie, Jo; Mbah, Au; Esom, Ea; Ayogu, Bo; Ejezie, Fe

    2011-01-01

    Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%-70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed. Of 216 men, 173 (80.1%) were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30-55) years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33-61) years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%), and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%). Among the 111 (64.2%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85%) of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60%) of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ(2) < 1.414; P > 0.05) for hormonal indices. The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  10. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Ozoemena, OFN; Ezugworie, JO; Mbah, AU; Esom, EA; Ayogu, BO; Ejezie, FE

    2011-01-01

    Background Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. Methods Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed. Results Of 216 men, 173 (80.1%) were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55) years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61) years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%), and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%). Among the 111 (64.2%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85%) of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60%) of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ2 < 1.414; P > 0.05) for hormonal indices. Conclusion The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility. PMID:24198646

  11. Electronic data base systems support the evaluation of male infertility factors, example cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Paasch, U; Thieme, C; Grunewald, S; Glander, H-J

    2004-01-01

    A new data base system was applied to analyse our patient group with two aims: (a) to analyze the effects of former cryptorchidism on the fertility of OUR infertility patients in comparison with the data of the literature and (b) to evaluate this system in a clinical study. Using the electronic data base Winsperm 2000, 1,648 infertility patients, 79 patients with testicular cancer and 201 healthy semen donors were examined. A history of cryptorchidism, treated at 6.8 +/- 3.3 years of life, was found in 10.1% of our infertility patient group. The routine spermiogram parameters, as well as basal hormone concentration of FSH, LH and testosterone, differed significantly from those of the healthy semen donor group. Comparison between patients with former unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism differed significantly only in total sperm count. 27.7% of patients with a history of unilateral and 5.4% of patients with a history of bilateral cryptorchidism showed a sperm concentration within the normal range (p < 0.01). Azoospermia was detected in 13.1% of patients with unilateral cryptorchidism and in 29.7% of patients with former bilateral cryptorchidism (p < 0.05). The patients responding to our conception questionnaire realised a total conception rate of 46.1% in the 'non-cryptorchidism group' and of 20.6% in the 'cryptorchidism-group' (p < 0.05), whereas the conception rates did not differ between former unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism (p > 0.05). Sixteen (20.3%) of the 79 patients with testicular neoplasm were previously treated for cryptorchidism. The results of our patient group underline the significance of former cryptorchidism for infertility and testicular neoplasm. The new data base system facilitates rapid data retrieval and examination. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sikka, S C; Rajasekaran, M; Hellstrom, W J

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity is an inherent challenge to aerobic life, including spermatozoa, the cells responsible for propagation of the species. How this toxicity affects the spermatozoan in its interactions with the ovum is still unknown. An increase in oxidative damage to sperm membranes, proteins, and DNA is associated with alterations in signal transduction mechanisms that affect fertility. Recent evidence suggests that spermatozoa and oocytes possess an inherent but limited capacity to generate ROS to aid in the fertilization process. Though a variety of defense mechanisms encompassing antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, and GSH peroxidase and reductase), vitamins (E, C, and carotenoids), and biomolecules (GSH and ubiquinol) are available, a balance of the benefits and risks from ROS and antioxidants appears to be necessary for the survival and functioning of spermatozoa. An assay system for the evaluation of OSS needs to be developed. Such an assay will assist the clinician in the assessment of fertility status of both male and female partners. The determination of this OSS value will also theoretically identify the subgroups of responders and nonresponders to any putative antioxidant therapy. Though the therapeutic use of antioxidants appears attractive, clinicians need to be aware of exaggerated claims of antioxidant benefits by various commercial supplements for fertility purposes until proper multicenter clinical trial have been completed.

  13. Robotic microsurgery in male infertility and urology-taking robotics to the next level.

    PubMed

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-03-01

    The initial reports of robotic assisted microsurgery began to appear in the early 1990s. Animal and early human studies were the initial publications. Larger series papers have recently been published from a few institutions. The field of robotic assisted microsurgery is still in evolution and so are adjunctive tools and instruments. It is clearly a different and unique skill set-is it microsurgery or is it robotic surgery, or both. It is clear from history that the art of surgery evolves over time to encompass new technology as long as the outcomes are better for the patient. Our current robotic platforms may not be ideal for microsurgery, however, the use of adjunctive tools and instrument refinement will further its future potential. This review article presents the current state of the art in various robotic assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and urology. Some novel applications of taking microsurgery to areas not classically accessible (intra-abdominal vasovasostomy) and adjunctive tools will also be presented.

  14. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  15. Robotic microsurgery 2011: male infertility, chronic testicular pain, postvasectomy pain, sports hernia pain and phantom pain.

    PubMed

    Parekattil, Sijo J; Cohen, Marc S

    2011-03-01

    The use of robotic assistance during microsurgical procedures has evolved from its early beginnings in the early 2000s. Currently, its use is expanding in the treatment of male infertility and patients with chronic testicular or groin pain. The addition of this technology may allow an improvement in outcomes as when the operating microscope was introduced in microsurgery. However, this is yet to be proven. This review covers new robotic microsurgical tools and applications of the robotic platform in microsurgical procedures such as vasectomy reversal, varicocelectomy, microsurgical denervation of the spermatic cord for chronic testicular or groin pain, post-vasectomy pain, sports hernia pain, postnephrectomy, donor nephrectomy and phantom groin pain. Preliminary animal studies show an advantage in terms of improved operative efficiency and improved surgical outcomes. Preliminary human clinical studies appear to support these findings. The use of robotic assistance during robotic microsurgical vasovasostomy appears to decrease operative duration and improve early postoperative sperm counts compared to the pure microsurgical technique. Long-term prospective controlled trials are necessary to assess the true cost-benefit ratio for robotic assisted microsurgery. The preliminary findings are promising and evidence is mounting, but further evaluation is warranted.

  16. Robotic microsurgery in male infertility and urology—taking robotics to the next level

    PubMed Central

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V.

    2014-01-01

    The initial reports of robotic assisted microsurgery began to appear in the early 1990s. Animal and early human studies were the initial publications. Larger series papers have recently been published from a few institutions. The field of robotic assisted microsurgery is still in evolution and so are adjunctive tools and instruments. It is clearly a different and unique skill set—is it microsurgery or is it robotic surgery, or both. It is clear from history that the art of surgery evolves over time to encompass new technology as long as the outcomes are better for the patient. Our current robotic platforms may not be ideal for microsurgery, however, the use of adjunctive tools and instrument refinement will further its future potential. This review article presents the current state of the art in various robotic assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and urology. Some novel applications of taking microsurgery to areas not classically accessible (intra-abdominal vasovasostomy) and adjunctive tools will also be presented. PMID:26816758

  17. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

    PubMed Central

    Suganthi, Ramaswamy; Vijesh, Vijayabhavanath Vijayakumaran; Vandana, Nambiar; Fathima Ali Benazir, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF). Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India. PMID:24520494

  18. Prednisone treatment in infertile patients with oligozoospermia and accessory gland inflammatory alterations.

    PubMed

    Milardi, D; Luca, G; Grande, G; Ghezzi, M; Caretta, N; Brusco, G; De Filpo, G; Marana, R; Pontecorvi, A; Calafiore, R; Foresta, C; Garolla, A

    2017-03-01

    The association between inflammation of the male reproductive system and oligozoospermia has been frequently reported in the clinical work-up of male infertility. To improve sperm parameters in infertile patients with genital inflammation, many phytochemical and nutraceutical drugs are currently being used. However, their use is still empirical and no conclusive data have been provided about their efficacy. The treatment with steroid anti-inflammatory drugs might be useful in reducing inflammation and improving sperm parameters, thus increasing the fertility outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate if glucocorticoid treatment improves seminal parameters in infertile oligozoospermic patients presenting signs of accessory gland inflammation at genital ultrasound. A total of 90 infertile patients were enrolled in the study. They presented normal testicular volume, normal FSH plasma levels, the presence of various degrees of oligozoospermia, associated with scrotal and trans-rectal ultrasound signs indicative of accessory gland inflammation, but negative microbiological analysis on semen and/or prostatic secretions. Patients were randomly allocated into three groups of treatment, receiving, respectively, 5, 12.5, and 25 mg daily oral Prednisone for one month. Seminal parameters were evaluated at admission and after treatment. In patients undergoing Prednisone treatment at a daily dose of 5 mg we observed a significant increase in total sperm count. At a daily dose of 12.5 mg, Prednisone treatment improved sperm concentration, total sperm count, and the percentage of sperm motility. Twenty-five mg of Prednisone led to significant improvement in all the sperm parameters, except for semen volume. These results clearly demonstrate that Prednisone treatment can significantly improve sperm parameters in a selected population of oligozoospermic patients. These findings suggest that Prednisone treatment should be considered in idiopathic oligozoospermic patients with

  19. [Initial results of a novel technique for sperm retrieval in male infertility due to refractory retrograde ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Perrin, J; Saïas-Magnan, J; Lanteaume, A; Thiry-Escudié, I; Serment, G; Bladou, F; Gamerre, M; Grillo, J-M; Karsenty, G

    2011-02-01

    To describe and evaluate a novel technique of spermatozoa retrieval from patients suffering from infertility secondary to refractory retrograde ejaculation. Prospective study to compare mobility and vitality of spermatozoa obtained from urine (U) after oral modification of chemical parameter (PH, Osmolarity) versus from endovesical instillation of sterile spermatozoa culture medium before ejaculation (F). Patients were their own controls. Twelve month prospective follow-up was achieved to document the results of assisted procreation. Eight patients were included and mobility and vitality were improved in all patients after F technique was compared to U technique. With U technique, eight patients on eight had negative defrost test; after F technique, seven patients on eight had a positive defrost test and could therefore have access to assisted reproduction techniques. Four couples had five ICSI and obtained three pregnancies leading to five births. Endovesical instillation of sterile spermatozoa culture medium before ejaculation was a safe and effective technique to improve spermatozoa quality in male infertility related to refractory retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Singh, Aspinder; Hamada, Alaa; Kesari, Kavindra

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  1. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    PubMed

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  2. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1,622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1,622; 57.8 %) and siblings (174/274; 63.5 %) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0 % in survivors versus 17.5 % in siblings (RR = 2.64, 95 % CI 1.88-3.70, p < 0.001). Of survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37 % had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose (AAD) score ≥3 (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥3 versus AAD <3), surgical excision of any organ of the genital tract (RR = 1.63, 95 % CI 1.20-2.21), testicular radiation ≥4 Gy (RR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.52-2.61), and exposure to bleomycin (RR = 1.55, 95 % CI 1.20-2.01). Many survivors who experience infertility father their own children, suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk.

  3. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p < 0.001). Of survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AAD<3), surgical excision of any organ of the genital tract (RR=1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.21), testicular radiation ≥ 4Gy (RR=1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.61), and exposure to bleomycin (RR=1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.01). Conclusion Many survivors who experience infertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  4. Nutritional modifications in male infertility: a systematic review covering 2 decades

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Javidan, Aida; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Context: Studies suggest that appropriate nutritional modifications can improve the natural conception rate of infertile couples. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to review the human trials that investigated the relation between nutrition and male infertility. Data Sources: A comprehensive systematic review of published human studies was carried out by searching scientific databases. Article selection was carried out in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The American Dietetic Association Research Design and Implementation Checklist was also used for quality assessment. Data Extraction: A total of 502 articles were identified, of which 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data Synthesis: Results indicated that a healthy diet improves at least one measure of semen quality, while diets high in lipophilic foods, soy isoflavones, and sweets lower semen quality. Conclusion: The role of daily nutrient exposure and dietary quality needs to be highlighted in male infertility. Mechanistic studies addressing the responsible underlying mechanisms of action of dietary modifications are highly warranted. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO 2013: CRD42013005953. Available at: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42013005953. PMID:26705308

  5. Male attitude towards masturbating: an impediment to infertility evaluation and sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Pottinger, A M; Carroll, K; Mason, G

    2016-09-01

    Male attitude about masturbation may influence early diagnosis and treatment of infertility and may be of particular burden in developing countries. We sought to explore attitude about masturbating and examine comfort/discomfort with masturbating and sexual history, pregnancy history and sperm quality in men investigating fertility potential. The study consisted of 83 male volunteers, 23-61 years, attending a fertility management unit in Kingston, Jamaica. Comfort with masturbation was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants also completed the unit's standard intake form for infertility investigations and produced a semen sample. T-tests, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square were used to compare differences in comfort level with outcome variables. We found 59% were comfortable masturbating although requiring external stimulation to produce a sample (48%); 6% (n = 5) failed to produce a sample after repeated attempts. A higher percentage of men uncomfortable with masturbating reported sexual problems (P < 0.05) and spending a longer time trying to have a baby (P < 0.05). Semen quality was not associated with masturbating comfort. Producing a sample by masturbation is standard for many assisted conception treatments. As comfort with masturbating may influence delay in infertility investigations and fertility outcome, efforts to improve men's comfort level with semen production should be considered in pre-treatment fertility counselling.

  6. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of 5'-untranslated region of GPx4 gene and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Chang-jun; Si, Xiao-min; Yao, Yu-feng; Shi, Lei; Ke, Jin-kun; Yu, Liang; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-qin; Huang, Xiao-qin; Sun, Hao; Chu, Jia-you

    2011-06-01

    To study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4 or PHGPx) gene and oligo- or asthenozoospermic male infertility. The 5'-UTR region of the GPx4 gene was amplified from infertile men and controls using the polymerase chain reaction and was analyzed for polymorphisms by direct sequencing. A total of 9 SNPs were present in the cohort, however there were no significant differences in these 9 SNPs between the case and control groups. According to the results of linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotype construction, one haplotype (rs757229-rs757230-rs4588110-rs3746165-rs3746166: C-G-G-T-A) was present only in the control men, and significant difference was detected(P< 0.01). The SNPs of 5'-UTR region of the GPx4 gene might not be associated with oligo- or asthenozoospermic male infertility. However, the haplotype (rs757229-rs757230-rs4588110- rs3746165-rs3746166: C-G-G-T-A) might be a protective haplotype.

  7. Inhibin B is a better marker of spermatogenesis than other hormones in the evaluation of male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Kumanov, Philip; Nandipati, Kalyana; Tomova, Analia; Agarwal, Ashok

    2006-08-01

    To assess the role of inhibin B in the evaluation of male factor infertility. Prospective study. Reproductive endocrinology clinic. Seventy-five patients with infertility problems (mean age 31.2 +/- 7.5 years) and 12 controls (32.1 +/- 8.8 years) with proven fertility. None. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Testicular volume was assessed with the Prader's orchidometer. Serum levels of inhibin B (pg/mL), LH (mIU/mL), FSH (mIU/mL), prolactin (micro IU/mL), and testosterone (nmol/L) were assessed. The mean +/- SEM inhibin B and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (inhibin B: 116.4 +/- 11.7 vs. 181.2 +/- 20.9, P=.008; testosterone: 13.6 +/- 0.9 vs. 25.1 +/- 2.9, P=.008). In general, sperm count and testicular volume in the patients were significantly and positively correlated with inhibin B (sperm count: r = 0.476, P<.0001; testicular volume, right: r = 0.57, P=.0001; left: r = 0.53, P=.0001); the inhibin B-FSH index was negatively correlated with FSH. Inhibin B was more strongly correlated with testicular volume and semen parameters than FSH. Inhibin B in the patients was negatively correlated with FSH (r = -0.723, P=.0001) and LH (r = -0.52, P=.0001) and was positively correlated with testosterone (r = 0.4, P=.0013). Inhibin B measurement is a better marker of fertility status than FSH and LH. Concentration of inhibin B in patients with infertility may provide useful information on spermatogenesis and possibly serve as a more direct marker of spermatogenesis than FSH.

  8. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.

  9. [Specifics of therapy of tubal infertility in patients with endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Vegheş, Simina; Lupaşcu, Ivona; David, Cristina; Vişan, Valeria; Vasiliu, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Our purpose was to define the best way of treating tubal infertility caused by endometriosis. We have studied 24 patients with tubal infertility caused by endometriosis; the etiology has been laparoscopically established in the 2nd Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Iaşi. The endometriosis score (r-AFS) was used to establish the therapy. We performed laparoscopic treatment when endometriosis was visible. Postoperative medical therapy (Diphereline, 3 months) was indicated; patients with ,,unpigmented endometriosis" received the same medical therapy. The rate of pregnancies in patients that had benefit of combined therapy: surgical and medical (n=9) was superior (44.4%) to that obtained in patients that were only surgical treated (n=15): 26.6% (Spearman correlation--0.6595, p < 0.0012). Endometriosis is an important etiological factor in female infertility. The pathway is mechanic as well as chemical and it justifies the combined therapy. There are better results, as fertility prognosis in patients with endometriosis that receive both, surgical and medical therapy.

  10. [Analysis of the demographic profile of patients treated for infertility using assisted reproductive techniques in 2005-2010].

    PubMed

    Milewski, Robert; Milewska, Anna Justyna; Czerniecki, Jan; Leśniewska, Monika; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of the demographic profile of patients, causes for infertility and effectiveness of infertility treatment methods in the years 2005-2010. Retrospective research was conducted to analyze data of 1705 randomly selected couples who underwent in vitro fertilization procedure at the Department of Reproduction and Gynecological Endocrinology Medical University of Bialystok, between 2005 and 2010. The analyzed data included mainly causes for infertility age of the female and male subjects, place of residence and final treatment results. The percentage of pregnancy rate increased significantly to approximately 40% in 2007. The contribution of male and female infertility factors remained at a similar level, but the idiopathic factor continued to steadily increase (to 20% in the last years of the study). We observed a greater prevalence of the male factor among couples living in cities compared to inhabitants of rural areas (42.3% vs. 34.3%, p = 0.004), whereas the tubal factor dominated among couples living in the countryside when compared to city dwellers (29.7% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.001). The average age of women entering treatment was significantly higher in cities than the countryside (p < 0.001), thus, consequently treatment efficacy was also lower (33.9% vs. 38.9%, p = 0.04). Comparison of treatment efficacy and cause of infertility revealed statistically significant differences only with regard to the idiopathic factor (p = 0.03). In the group of patients with idiopathic infertility the treatment efficacy was higher than in the rest of patients (40.2% vs. 33.8%). Apart from the idiopathic infertility only the presence of the male factor was associated with a higher (but statistically insignificant) pregnancy rate (36.2% vs. 33.9%). For the other factors, their presence was associated with a lower percentage of pregnancy and the greatest differences (but still statistically insignificant) were observed for the polycystic ovary syndrome (31.5% vs. 35.1%) and for

  11. Prospective study of depression and anxiety in female fertility preservation and infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Angela K; Klock, Susan C; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer; Smith, Kristin N; Kazer, Ralph R

    2014-11-01

    To prospectively assess anxiety, depression, coping, and appraisal in female fertility preservation (FP) patients compared with infertile patients. Prospective pre- and post-treatment survey. Academic medical center. Forty-seven women with cancer (FP patients) and 91 age-matched infertile patients. None. Depression, anxiety, coping, infertility-related stress, appraisal of treatment, and medical outcomes. FP patients reported more symptoms of anxiety and depression than infertile patients, but infertile patients' symptoms worsened over time; 44% of FP and 14% of infertile patients' scores exceeded the clinical cutoff for depression before treatment. The interval between surveys and medical treatment data did not predict changes in mood symptoms. Coping strategies and infertility-related stress did not differ between groups, and avoidant coping predicted higher depression and anxiety scores. FP patients reported more anxiety and depression than infertile patients at enrollment in treatment, with more than one-third of FP patients reporting clinically significant depressive symptoms. However, infertile patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms increased across treatment. This increase was not related to time between registration for IVF and oocyte retrieval or the medical aspects of treatment. FP and infertile patients should be provided psychologic consultation before treatment to identify mood and anxiety symptoms and to refer patients for counseling as needed to prevent worsening of symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of the antisperm antibodies in male infertility assessment after microsurgical varicocelectomy.

    PubMed

    Bozhedomov, V A; Lipatova, N A; Alexeev, R A; Alexandrova, L M; Nikolaeva, M A; Sukhikh, G T

    2014-11-01

    Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are a cause of male infertility. ASA are often found in varicocele patients. The study objective was to assess the ASA role in fertility recovery after varicocelectomy. The longitudinal study involved 99 patients with varicocele. Patients were examined according to the WHO recommendations; ASA level was measured using the direct method of Sperm MAR test: 66 patients were ASA-negative, 33 had MAR-IgG ≥ 10%. All patients underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy. Student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, Chi-squared test and signed rank test were used for data analysis. The retrospective analysis of all operated patients data showed that the patients without spermiogram improvement after varicocelectomy had higher ASA levels. 3 months after the surgery, the initially ASA-negative varicocele patients demonstrated 2.5 times increase in number of progressive motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate (p < 0.001), accompanied by 6% decrease in abnormal sperm count (p < 0.05); the spermiogram parameters improved in 77% of cases (p < 0.01). After the surgery, ASA developed in 16% of cases (Max--MAR-IgG = 12%). The patients who were initially ASA-positive demonstrated ASA decrease only in half of the cases (16 of 33; p > 0.05). The main outcome in this group was a favourable response to the surgery (ASA level decrease) vs. no reduction in autoimmune process. The improvement in the ASA-positive group was demonstrated in the patients with higher varicocele grade (median--2 vs. 1; p < 0.05) and lower ASA level (MAR-IgG = 48% vs. 92%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate within a year after surgery was 2.8 times more frequent in couples with ASA-negative men: 39% (25 of 65) in the ASA-negative group compared to 14% (4 of 28) in the ASA-positive group (p < 0.05). Thus, antisperm immune response decreases the varicocelectomy efficacy for reproductive function recovery: the higher percentage of ASA and lower grade of varicocele are associated with an unfavourable prognosis.

  13. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  14. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... may suggest other options to make a baby. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments can include:Intrauterine insemination (IUI). A man’s ... it is implanted back in the woman’s uterus.ART treatments often are effective, but are not a ...

  15. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... using assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilization. Infection. Some infections can interfere with sperm production ... genital tract, or used to perform in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. When treatment doesn't ...

  16. Does varicocele repair improve male infertility? An evidence-based perspective from a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Meguid, Taha A; Al-Sayyad, Ahmad; Tayib, Abdulmalik; Farsi, Hasan M

    2011-03-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing varicocele treatment are scarce and have conflicting outcomes. To determine whether varicocele treatment is superior or inferior to no treatment in male infertility from an evidence-based perspective. A prospective, nonmasked, parallel-group RCT with a one-to-one concealed-to-random allocation was conducted at the authors' institution from February 2006 to October 2009. Married men 20-39 yr of age who had experience infertility ≥1 yr, had palpable varicoceles, and with at least one impaired semen parameter (sperm concentration <20 million/ml, progressive motility <50%, or normal morphology <30%) were eligible. Exclusions included subclinical or recurrent varicoceles, normal semen parameters, and azoospermia. Sample size analysis suggested 68 participants per arm. Participants were randomly allocated to observation (the control arm [CA]) or subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (the treatment arm [TA]). Semen analyses were obtained at baseline (three analyses) and at follow-up months 3, 6, 9, and 12. The mean of each sperm parameter at baseline and follow-ups was determined. We measured the spontaneous pregnancy rate (the primary outcome), changes from baseline in mean semen parameters, and the occurrence of adverse events (AE-the secondary outcomes) during 12-mo follow-up; p<0.05 was considered significant. Analysis included 145 participants (CA: n=72; TA: n=73), with a mean age plus or minus standard deviation of 29.3±5.7 in the CA and 28.4±5.7 in the TA (p=0.34). Baseline characteristics in both arms were comparable. Spontaneous pregnancy was achieved in 13.9% (CA) versus 32.9% (TA), with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-6.95) and a number needed to treat (NNT) of 5.27 patients (95% CI, 1.55-8.99). In CA within-arm analysis, none of semen parameters revealed significant changes from baseline (sperm concentration [p=0.18], progressive motility [p=0.29], and normal morphology [p=0

  17. Infertility in a marine crustacean: have we been ignoring pollution impacts on male invertebrates?

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongda; Kille, Peter; Ford, Alex T

    2008-06-02

    Invertebrate infertility has been under-explored as a potential ecological issue or biomarker of stress within ecotoxicology. To date, the majority of studies focussing on contaminant induced infertility have centred on vertebrate groups. This study aimed to address the question whether industrial pollution has the ability to influence the sperm counts and testicular morphology of male amphipod, Echinogammarus marinus (Leach). In addition, the sperm counts of normal and intersex specimens were compared to assess the potential impact of a crustacean with a disrupted endocrine system. Specimens of E. marinus were collected at one industrially impacted (Inverkeithing) and two reference (Thurso and Loch Fleet) sites along the north and eastern coasts of Scotland. Significantly higher sperm counts ( approximately 20%) were observed from normal males collected from reference sites compared to the industrially impacted site. Higher proportions (30%) of intersex specimens were observed at the industrially impacted site compared to 17 and 6% male intersexuality observed at Thurso and Loch Fleet, respectively. Intersex male specimens from Thurso had lower mean sperm counts ( approximately 15%) than normal male specimens, however, this result was not significant (P=0.089). No significant differences in sperm counts were observed between normal and intersex males at Inverkeithing. Our results indicate that industrial pollution does have the potential to affect the sperm counts of male crustaceans. Whether the quality of sperm in Crustacea from contaminated sites is also compromised or whether this is an endocrine mediated effect is yet to be confirmed. To date, many of the studies of endocrine disruption in crustaceans have, surprisingly, focussed on female fecundity parameters, growth and moulting despite many of the vertebrate studies initially focussing on the male gender. Whether this could be an ecological issue needs to be addressed through further field and laboratory

  18. A Nutrition Screening Form for Female Infertility Patients.

    PubMed

    Langley, Susie

    2014-12-01

    A Nutrition Screening Form (NSF) was designed to identify lifestyle risk factors that negatively impact fertility and to provide a descriptive profile of 300 female infertility patients in a private urban infertility clinic. The NSF was mailed to all new patients prior to the initial physician's visit and self-reported data were assessed using specific criteria to determine if a nutrition referral was warranted. This observational study revealed that 43% of the women had a body mass index (BMI) <20 or ≥25 kg/m(2), known risks for infertility. Almost half reported a history of "dieting" and unrealistic weight goals potentially limiting energy and essential nutrients. A high number reported eating disorders, vegetarianism, low fat or low cholesterol diets, and dietary supplement use. Fourteen percent appeared not to supplement with folic acid, 13% rated exercise as "extremely" or "very active", and 28% reported a "high" perceived level of stress. This preliminary research demonstrated that a NSF can be a useful tool to identify nutrition-related lifestyle factors that may negatively impact fertility and identified weight, BMI, diet, exercise, and stress as modifiable risk factors deserving future research. NSF information can help increase awareness among health professionals and patients about the important link between nutrition, fertility, and successful reproductive outcomes.

  19. Polymorphisms in Protamine 1 and Protamine 2 predict the risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Weijun; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Qiuyue; Li, Tianfu; Zhang, Cui; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Mingchao; Xia, Xinyi

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in protamine 1 and 2 genes and male infertility risk, with inconsistent results to date. This meta-analysis based on the 13 published case-control studies, including 7350 cases and 6167 controls, was performed to further establish the potential association between the 6 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs35576928, rs737008, rs35262993, rs2301365, rs1646022, rs2070923) in protamines 1 and 2 and male infertility. The -190C > A (rs2301365) polymorphism was identified as a risk factor for male infertility under all models. Interestingly, rs1646022 and rs737008 polymorphisms exerted protective effects against male sterility in Asian and population-based under some models. No associations between the remaining SNPs and male sterility were observed. PMID:26472740

  20. The Desire for Multiple Pregnancy among Patients with Infertility and Their Partners

    PubMed Central

    Md Latar, Ida Lilywaty; Razali, Nuguelis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study the predictors for desire for multiple pregnancies and the influence of providing information regarding the maternal and fetal complications associated with multiple pregnancies on their preference for multiple pregnancies. Methods. Couples attending an infertility clinic were offered to fill up a questionnaire separately. Following this, they were handed a pamphlet with information regarding the risks associated with multiple pregnancies. The patients will then be required to answer the question on the number of pregnancies desired again. Results. Two hundred fifty three out of 300 respondents completed the questionnaires adequately. A higher proportion of respondents, 60.3% of females and 57.9% of males, prefer singleton pregnancy. Patients who are younger than 35 years, with preexisting knowledge of risks associated with multiple pregnancies and previous treatment for infertility, have decreased desire for multiple pregnancies. However, for patients who are older than 35, with longer duration of infertility, and those patients who have preexisting knowledge of the increased risk, providing further information regarding the risks did not change their initial preferences. Conclusion. Providing and reinforcing knowledge on the risks to mother and fetus associated with multiple pregnancies did not decrease the preference for multiple pregnancies in patients. PMID:25763396

  1. MTHFR 677C>T Polymorphism Increases the Male Infertility Risk: A Meta-Analysis Involving 26 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Mancheng; Dong, Wenjing; He, Tingyu; Shi, Zhirong; Huang, Guiying; Ren, Rui; Huang, Sichong; Qiu, Shaopeng; Yuan, Runqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism may be a risk factor for male infertility. However, the epidemiologic studies showed inconsistent results regarding MTHFR polymorphism and the risk of male infertility. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies to re-examine the controversy. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were conducted to select eligible literatures for this meta-analysis (updated to June 19, 2014). According to our inclusion criteria and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), only high quality studies that observed the association between MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk were included. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the MTHFR polymorphism and male infertility risk. Results Twenty-six studies involving 5,575 cases and 5,447 controls were recruited. Overall, MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism showed significant associations with male infertility risk in both fixed effects (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23–1.46) and random effects models (CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.19–1.62). Further, when stratified by ethnicity, sperm concentration and control sources, the similar results were observed in Asians, Caucasians, Azoo or OAT subgroup and both in population-based and hospital-based controls. Nevertheless, no significant association was only observed in oligo subgroup. Conclusions Our results indicated that the MTHFR polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of male infertility. Further well-designed analytical studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions and evaluate gene-environment interactions with male infertility risk. PMID:25793386

  2. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    PubMed

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  3. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, Aliye; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Yousefzadeh, Solmaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Hamdi, Kobra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. Materials and Methods: In this observer-blinded clinical trial, semen samples of 25 infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males were collected in Alzahra Educational Medical Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from August 2010 to August 2012. After the isolation of spermatozoa by the swim-up method, they were randomized into four groups in ISM1 environment: The controls treated normally: Group 1 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 50 μg/ml, Group 2 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 100 μg/ml, and Group 3 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 200 μg/ml. Sperm viability and motility were compared among the groups on 45 min, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h intervals. Results: Mean percentages of live sperms were 98.40%, 51.40%, 20.60%, and 6.00% in control group and 98.40%, 69.20%, 38.60%, and 14.60% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. This mean percentage decrease of live sperms was significantly lower in Group 3 comparing with that of other groups (P = 0.01). Mean percentages of motile sperms were 54%, 8.40%, 2.80%, and 0% in control group; and 54%, 16%, 4.80%, and 1.40% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. There was not a significant difference between the four groups in this regard (P = 0.19). Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can enhance the viability of sperm of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males with no significant effect on its motility. PMID:27942099

  4. Medical Imaging and Infertility.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Infertility affects many couples, and medical imaging plays a vital role in its diagnosis and treatment. Radiologic technologists benefit from having a broad understanding of infertility risk factors and causes. This article describes the typical structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, as well as congenital and acquired conditions that could lead to a couple's inability to conceive. Medical imaging procedures performed for infertility diagnosis are discussed, as well as common interventional options available to patients. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  5. Evidence from enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 gene variants and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Liu, T; Mi, Y-J; Yue, L-D; Wang, J-M; Liu, D-W; Yan, J; Tian, Q B

    2015-03-01

    Do men who carry mutations in USP26 have an increased risk of infertility? The association between mutations in USP26 gene and male infertility has been studied intensively. However, the results from different groups are controversial. In particular, biological function of the mutant proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a USP cleavage assay and a meta-analysis of the published literature (up to 31 May 2013) to evaluate the impact of five frequent mutations (NM_031907.1: c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T, c.1090C>T, c.1737G>A) on enzymatic activity of the USP26 and to assess the strength of the association between those mutations and male infertility. The USP cleavage assay showed that those mutations do not affect USP26 enzymatic activity. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis of ten case-control studies (in total 1716 patients and 2597 controls) revealed no significant association (P > 0.05) between USP26 mutations and male infertility. The pooled ORs were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.10) for cluster mutations (c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T), 1.60 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.74) for c.1090 C>T and 2.64 (95% CI: 0.97, 7.20) for c.1737 G>A. Evidence from both enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 variants and male infertility. Further research is necessary to study the biological function of USP26, which may provide clues as to the regulation of androgen receptor signalling. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Association between DAZL polymorphisms and susceptibility to male infertility: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Simin; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Yuan, Beilei; Lu, Chuncheng; Xia, Yankai; Ding, Hongjuan; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the association between polymorphisms in the Deleted in AZoospermia-Like (DAZL) gene and male infertility risk, but with inconsistent results. We aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, therefore a meta-analysis was performed. A total of 13 case-control studies, including 2556 cases and 1997 controls, were selected. Two polymorphisms in DAZL were investigated, namely T12A (Thr12 → Ala) and T54A (Thr54 → Ala). Our meta-analysis showed that A > G is a risk factor for male infertility (P = 0.047, OR = 1.262, 95%CI = 1.003–1.587). However, when using trial sequential analysis (TSA) to confirm, we found that A > G risk effect turned out to be false positive. In addition, significant association was found between the T54A polymorphism and male infertility under co-dominant model (AG vs. AA: OR = 4.364, 95%CI = 2.207–8.630, P < 0.001) and dominant model (OR = 4.584, 95%CI = 2.320–9.058, P < 0.001). Stratified analysis showed that significantly strong association between T54A polymorphism and male infertility was present only in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Further studies of T12A and T54A with their biological functions are needed to understand the role of these polymorphisms in the development of male infertility. PMID:24717865

  7. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  8. "Micro-deletions" of the human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Haines, Christopher J; Han, Yibing

    2008-04-01

    The Y chromosome evolves from an autochromosome and accumulates male-related genes including sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY) and several spermatogenesis-related genes. The human Y chromosome (60 Mb long) is largely composed of repetitive sequences that give it a heterochromatic appearance, and it consists of pseudoautosomal, euchromatic, and heterochromatic regions. Located on the two extremities of the Y chromosome, pseudoautosomal regions 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2, 2.6 Mb and 320 bp long, respectively) are homologs with the termini of the X chromosome. The euchromatic region and some of the repeat-rich heterochromatic parts of the Y chromosome are called "male-specific Y" (MSY), which occupy more than 95% of the whole Y chromosome. After evolution, the Y chromosome becomes the smallest in size with the least number of genes but with the most number of copies of genes that are mostly spermatogenesis-related. The Y chromosome is characterized by highly repetitive sequences (including direct repeats, inverted repeats, and palindromes) and high polymorphism. Several gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome occur during evolution owing to its specific gene structure. The consequences of such rearrangements are not only loss but also gain of specific genes. One hundred and fifty three haplotypes have been discovered in the human Y chromosome. The structure of the Y chromosome in the GenBank belongs to haplotype R1. There are 220 genes (104 coding genes, 111 pseudogenes, and 5 other uncategorized genes) according to the most recent count. The 104 coding genes encode a total of about 48 proteins/protein families (including putative proteins/protein families). Among them, 16 gene products have been discovered in the azoospermia factor region (AZF) and are related to spermatogenesis. It has been discovered that one subset of gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome, "micro-deletions", is a major cause of male infertility in some populations. However, controversies

  9. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S; Waghmare, Jwalant E; Chaudhari, Ajay R; Wankhede, Vandana R; Tarnekar, Aaditya M; Shende, Moreshwar R; Pal, Asoke K

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal sperm motility. The 7436-bp deletions of mtDNA in spermatozoa

  10. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Waghmare, Jwalant E.; Chaudhari, Ajay R.; Wankhede, Vandana R.; Tarnekar, Aaditya M.; Shende, Moreshwar R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. Aim To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. Materials and Methods The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Results Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Conclusion Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal

  11. Factors affecting clinical pregnancy rates after IUI for the treatment of unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility

    PubMed Central

    Atasever, Melahat; Kalem, Müberra Namlı; Hatırnaz, Şafak; Hatırnaz, Ebru; Kalem, Ziya; Kalaylıoğlu, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate intrauterine insemination (IUI) clinical experiences and to define the variables for predicting success. Material and Methods The present study was an observational trial performed in a private IVF center on subfertile couples who had applied for treatment between 2002 and 2012, in which the data of 503 IUI cases were retrospectively reviewed. Couples who had been diagnosed with unexplained and mild male subfertility were included. The primary outcome measure was the clinical pregnancy rate in an attempt to form a predictive model for the odds of a clinical pregnancy. Recorded parameters were used to determine the prediction model. Results Utilizing univariate logistic regression analysis, clinical pregnancy was positively associated with the duration of infertility (OR=1.09, p=0.089), secondary infertility (OR=1.77, p=0.050), and +4 sperm motility after preparation (OR=1.03, p=0.091). Following an adjustment analysis involving a multivariate logistic regression, clinical pregnancy was still found to positively associate with secondary infertility (OR=2.51, p=0.008). Conclusion IUI success in secondary infertile couples who were in the unexplained infertility and mild male subfertility groups was higher than that in primary infertile couples, and the chances of pregnancy increased as sperm numbers with +4 motility increased. It is difficult to concomitantly evaluate all these parameters and to determine a predictive parameter in IUI independent from other factors. PMID:27651720

  12. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  13. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05-3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  14. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    PubMed Central

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05–3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P < 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate

  15. Patient evaluation of infertility management in an ISO 9001:2008-certified centre for reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Spiessens, Carl; Dancet, Eline; Bakelants, Els; Vrancken, Annelies; Demyttenaere, Koen; Enzlin, Paul; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Quality management according to ISO 9001:2008 guidelines includes infertility care quality assessment and improvement. This study aimed to describe the development process of a questionnaire for infertility management. A literature review, qualitative interviews with experts and patients resulted in a content-valid and face-valid questionnaire. Three cross-sectional surveys were performed in 2004, 2007 and 2008 in a tertiary university infertility centre. First (2004), the questionnaire – measuring eight a-priori dimensions of infertility management – was tested. Second (2007), improvement projects for infertility management were evaluated. Third (2008), factor analysis was performed and internal consistency was documented. The developed patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management and pre-set desired levels of agreement served to set targets for and assess quality improvement projects. The final patient questionnaire to evaluate infertility management within an ISO framework was valid and reliable and contained 14 items covering four dimensions of infertility management: Telephone Access, Reception, Information and Patient-centeredness. ISO 9001:2008-certified infertility centres can evaluate infertility management with this 14-item questionnaire. This top-down approach to evaluate the patients’ perspective on quality aspects selected by health professionals can be complementary to the bottom-up approach evaluating the patients’ complete experiences of quality of care.

  16. Splicing mutation in Sbf1 causes nonsyndromic male infertility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liška, František; Chylíková, Blanka; Janků, Michaela; Šeda, Ondřej; Vernerová, Zdeňka; Pravenec, Michal; Křen, Vladimír

    2016-09-01

    In the inbred SHR/OlaIpcv rat colony, we identified males with small testicles and inability to reproduce. By selectively breeding their parents, we revealed the infertility to segregate as an autosomal recessive Mendelian character. No other phenotype was observed in males, and females were completely normal. By linkage using a backcross with Brown Norway strain, we mapped the locus to a 1.2Mbp segment on chromosome 7, harboring 35 genes. Sequencing of candidate genes revealed a G to A substitution in a canonical 'AG' splice site of intron 37 in Sbf1 (SET binding factor 1, alias myotubularin-related protein 5). This leads to either skipping exon 38 or shifting splicing one base downstream, invariantly resulting in frameshift, premature stop codon and truncation of the protein. Western blotting using two anti-Sbf1 antibodies revealed absence of the full-length protein in the mutant testis. Testicles of the mutant males were significantly smaller compared with SHR from 4weeks, peaked at 84% wild-type weight at 6weeks and declined afterward to 28%, reflecting massive germ cell loss. Histological examination revealed lower germ cell number; latest observed germ cell stage were round spermatids, resulting in the absence of sperm in the epididymis (azoospermia). SBF1 is a member of a phosphatase family lacking the catalytical activity. It probably modulates the activity of a phosphoinositol phosphatase MTMR2. Human homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for missense SBF1 mutations exhibit Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (manifested mainly as progressive neuropathy), while a single mouse knockout reported in the literature identified male infertility as the only phenotype manifestation.

  17. Partial loss of contractile marker proteins in human testicular peritubular cells in infertility patients.

    PubMed

    Welter, H; Kampfer, C; Lauf, S; Feil, R; Schwarzer, J U; Köhn, F-M; Mayerhofer, A

    2013-03-01

    Fibrotic remodelling of the testicular tubular wall is common in human male infertility caused by impaired spermatogenesis. We hypothesized that this morphological change bears witness of an underlying fundamentally altered state of the cells building this wall, that is, peritubular smooth muscle-like cells. This could include a loss of the contractile abilities of these cells and thus be a factor in male infertility. Immune cells are increased in the tubular wall in these cases, hence local immune cell-related factors, including a prostaglandin (PG) metabolite may be involved. To explore these points in the human, we used testicular biopsies, in which tubules with normal spermatogenesis and impaired spermatogenesis are next to each other [mixed atrophy (MA)], normal biopsies and cultured human testicular peritubular cells. Proteins essential for contraction, myosin heavy chain (MYH11), calponin (Cal) and relaxation, cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (cGKI), were readily detected by immunohistochemistry and were equally distributed in all peritubular cells of biopsies with normal spermatogenesis. In all biopsies, vascular smooth muscle cells also stained and served as important intrinsic controls, which showed that in MA samples when spermatogenesis was impaired, staining was restricted to only few peritubular cells or was absent. When spermatogenesis was normal, regular peritubular staining became obvious. This pattern suggests complex regulatory influences, which in face of the identical systemic hormonal situation in MA patients, are likely caused by the local testicular micromilieu. The PG metabolite 15dPGJ2 may represent such a factor and it reduced Cal protein levels in peritubular cells from patients with/without impaired spermatogenesis. The documented phenotypic switch of peritubular, smooth muscle-like cells in MA patients may impair the abilities of the afflicted seminiferous tubules to contract and relax and must now be considered as a part of the complex

  18. Molecular analysis of guanidinoacetate-n-methyltransferase (GAMT) and creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene by using denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC) as a possible source of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Furhan; Item, Chike Bellarmine; Ratschmann, Rene; Ali, Muhammad; Plas, Eugen; Bodamer, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system is essential for cellular phosphate coupled energy storage and production, particularly in tissues subject to high metabolic demands. Male factor infertility is a common condition with unknown etiology in most of the cases. Sperm abnormalities could possibly lead to infertility. As sperm motility depends on intact mitochondrial function and energy levels. Thus reduced intracellular creatine stores may contribute to decreased sperm motility leading to male infertility as creatine /phosphocreatine system plays major role in making and breaking of ATP, thus in energy kinetics. We developed and validated a denaturing high performance liquid chromatograph (DHPLC) method for the molecular analysis of SLC6A8 and GAMT genes involve in creatine biosynthesis and transport as a possible source of human male infertility by analyzing DNA from 64, clinically confirmed, infertile men. No mutation/polymorphism was detected in the exonic regions of both genes in all the patients and in fertile healthy controls indicating that SLC6A8 and GAMT genes may not be directly involved in human male infertility.

  19. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 10(6) was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration < 15 × 10(6) (830.3 ± 350 μM and 268.3 ± 220 μM, resp., p < 0.001). Polyphenols concentration did not differ between the groups of sperm concentration above and below 15 × 10(6) (178.7 ± 121 μM and 161.7 ± 61 μM, resp., p-NS). No difference was found between fertilization rates and antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility.

  20. A proposed mouse model to study male infertility provoked by genital serovar E, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hanen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Mabrouk, Imed; Frikha-Gargouri, Olfa; Keskes, Leila; Mallek, Zohair; Aouni, Mahjoub; Hammami, Adnane

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen. The impact of chlamydial infection on male infertility is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of C trachomatis human genital serovar E on sperm function, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and reproductive performance, using the Swiss male mice model. Fertile mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with 10(6) C trachomatis inclusion-forming units at day 0. The studied parameters were evaluated 7, 15, 21, and 30 days postinoculation (pi) in infected and sham-infected controls. Semen parameters of the infected mice groups were significantly lower than those of the control groups at the different days pi. DNA fragmentation study indicated that the mean percentages of apoptotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups 7 and 15 days pi, whereas the mean percentages of necrotic spermatozoa in the infected mice groups were significantly higher than those in the control group on the 30th day pi. A decrease in reproductive performance was observed at different days pi in infected male mice groups when compared to the control groups. Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the mean number of infant mice was observed at 21 and 30 days pi. In conclusion, our data showed that inoculation of fertile male Swiss mice in the meatus urethra with C trachomatis could lead to alteration of semen parameters, induction of apoptosis in spermatozoa, and decrease of the reproductive performance of male mice.

  1. Impact of microwave at X-band in the aetiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, J; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of environmental and occupational exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the aetiology of human infertility. Testicular functions are particularly susceptible to electromagnetic fields. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of 10-GHz EMF on male albino rat's reproductive system and to investigate the possible causative factor for such effect of exposure. The study was carried out in two groups of 70-day old adult male albino rats: a sham-exposed and a 10-GHz-exposed group (2 h a day for 45 days). Immediately after completion of the exposure, animals were sacrificed and sperms were extracted from the cauda and caput part of testis for the analysis of MDA, melatonin, and creatine kinase. Creatine kinase results revealed an increased level of phosphorylation that converts creatine to creatine phosphate in sperms after EMF exposure. EMF exposure also reduced the level of melatonin and MDA. It is concluded that microwave exposure could adversely affect male fertility by reducing availability of the above parameters. These results are indications of deleterious effects of these radiations on reproductive pattern of male rats.

  2. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 106 was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration < 15 × 106 (830.3 ± 350 μM and 268.3 ± 220 μM, resp., p < 0.001). Polyphenols concentration did not differ between the groups of sperm concentration above and below 15 × 106 (178.7 ± 121 μM and 161.7 ± 61 μM, resp., p-NS). No difference was found between fertilization rates and antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility. PMID:27293518

  3. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  4. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  5. Expression profiles of NPHP1 in the germ cells in the semen of men with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Devi, A N; Anil Kumar, T R; Pillai, S M; Jayakrishnan, K; Kumar, P G

    2015-07-01

    NPHP1, the gene that encodes the protein nephrocystin-1 has been identified to be mutated in Juvenile Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disorder which is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children and young adults. Nphp1-targeted mutant mice studies have shown that it did not express renal manifestations of nephronophthisis; instead male mice were infertile with oligoteratozoospermia signifying the crucial role of Nphp1 in relation to murine spermatogenesis. Whether an aberrant expression of NPHP1 in testis might lead to spermatogenic defects in human and ultimately male factor infertility is a possibility that have not been investigated so far. In this regard, characterization of NPHP1 in spermatozoa from fertile and infertile males was carried out by employing RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. In all the 23 normozoospermic samples we screened, NPHP1 was significantly expressed at the target message and protein level and also prominent localization pattern of NPHP1 was observed at the head, midpiece, and tail segments of spermatozoa. Conversely, in majority of the 103 infertile samples we screened, aberrant pattern of NPHP1 expression was detected at the transcript and protein level and abnormal localization pattern of expression was observed in spermatozoa. Anomalies detected in infertile cases when compared with the normozoospermic controls points to the indispensable role of NPHP1 in relation to spermatogenesis. Thus, besides the decisive association with juvenile nephronophthisis, our study provides the first direct evidence that NPHP1 is associated with male factor infertility and also could be a possible biomarker for the assessment of male fertility status. GENBANK NM_000272.3

  6. Does varicocelectomy affect DNA fragmentation in infertile patients?

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Sarici, Hasmet; Kabar, Mucahit; Ozgur, Berat Cem; Resorlu, Berkan; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of varicocelectomy on DNA fragmentation index and semen parameters in infertile patients before and after surgical repair of varicocele. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 72 men with at least 1-year history of infertility, varicocele and oligospermia were examined. Varicocele sperm samples were classified as normal or pathological according to the 2010 World Health Organization guidelines. The acridine orange test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) preoperatively and postoperatively. Results: DFI decreased significantly after varicocelectomy from 34.5% to 28.2% (P = 0.024). In addition all sperm parameters such as mean sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility and sperm morphology significantly increased from 19.5 × 106 to 30.7 × 106, 5.4 × 106/ml to 14.3 × 106/ml, and 19.9% to 31.2% (P < 0.001) and 2.6% to 3.1% (P = 0.017). The study was limited by the loss to follow-up of some patients and unrecorded pregnancy outcome due to short follow-up. Conclusion: Varicocele causes DNA-damage in spermatozoa. We suggest that varicocelectomy improves sperm parameters and decreases DFI. PMID:25878412

  7. Online Health Information Regarding Male Infertility: An Evaluation of Readability, Suitability, and Quality

    PubMed Central

    Robins, Stephanie; Barr, Helena J; Idelson, Rachel; Lambert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries. The following categories of websites were considered: (1) Canadian fertility clinics, (2) North American organizations related to fertility, and (3) the first 20 results of Google searches using the terms “male infertility” and “male fertility preservation” set to the search locations worldwide, English Canada, and French Canada. Websites that met inclusion criteria (N=85) were assessed using readability indices, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), and the DISCERN tool. The associations between website affiliation (government, university/medical, non-profit organization, commercial/corporate, private practice) and Google placement to readability, suitability, and quality were also examined. Results None of the sampled websites met recommended levels of readability. Across all websites, the mean SAM score for suitability was 45.37% (SD 11.21), or “adequate”, while the DISCERN mean score for quality was 43.19 (SD 10.46) or “fair”. Websites that placed higher in Google obtained a higher overall score for quality with an r (58) value of -.328 and a P value of .012, but this position was not related to readability or suitability. In addition, 20% of fertility clinic websites did not include fertility information for men. Conclusions There is a lack of high quality online sources of information on male fertility. Many websites target their information to women, or fail to meet established

  8. Molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in diabetes-related male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alves, M G; Martins, A D; Rato, L; Moreira, P I; Socorro, S; Oliveira, P F

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest public health threats in modern societies. Although during a few years it was suggested that DM had no significant effect in male reproductive function, this view has been challenged in recent years. The increasing incidence of DM worldwide will inevitably result in a higher prevalence of this pathology in men of reproductive age and subfertility or infertility associated with DM is expected to dramatically rise in upcoming years. From a clinical perspective, the evaluation of semen parameters, as well as spermatozoa deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity, are often studied due to their direct implications in natural and assisted conception. Nevertheless, recent studies based on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in testicular cells provide new insights in DM-induced alterations in male reproductive health. Testicular cells have their own glucose sensing machinery that react to hormonal fluctuations and have several mechanisms to counteract hyper- and hypoglycemic events. Moreover, the metabolic cooperation between testicular cells is crucial for normal spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the main components of blood-testis barrier, are not only responsible for the physical support of germ cells but also for lactate production that is then metabolized by the developing germ cells. Any alteration in this tied metabolic cooperation may have a dramatic consequence in male fertility potential. Therefore, we present an overview of the clinical significance of DM in the male reproductive health with emphasis on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose fluctuation and transport in testicular cells.

  9. Depression, anxiety and stress among female patients of infertility; A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Infertility, in many ways, is a very distressing condition that can have its impact on social and marital life of a couple. Depression, anxiety and stress associated with infertility may affect treatment and outcomes for such couples. The purpose of this study was to find out prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among females suffering from infertility. Methods: One hundred females suffering from infertility as study subjects and 100 females accompanying them as controls were randomly selected from infertility clinic at Arif Memorial Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Females with diagnosed mental health issues and those from couples having male factor infertility were not included. Validated Urdu version of Depression, anxiety, stress scale (DASS) was used for assessment of depression, anxiety and stress scores. Results from both groups were compared and independent sample t-test was used to analyze the results. Results: There was high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among females suffering from infertility compared to females in control group (p < 0.05). Level of education did not appear to have any positive effect on these scores. Similarly, results did not appear to change when occupations of infertile females were used for stratified analysis. Conclusion: Depression, anxiety and stress are very common among females suffering from infertility. Healthcare professionals should consider psychological counseling, and psychiatric help if required, when they offer fertility treatment for such females. PMID:28083022

  10. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  11. Proteomics of spermatogenesis: from protein lists to understanding the regulation of male fertility and infertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-Yan; Sha, Jia-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic technologies have undergone significant development in recent years, which has led to extensive advances in protein research. Currently, proteomic approaches have been applied to many scientific areas, including basic research, various disease and malignant tumour diagnostics, biomarker discovery and other therapeutic applications. In addition, proteomics-driven research articles examining reproductive biology and medicine are becoming increasingly common. The key challenge for this field is to move from lists of identified proteins to obtaining biological information regarding protein function. The present article reviews the available scientific literature related to spermatogenesis. In addition, this study uses two-dimensional electrophoresis mass spectrometry (2DE-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS to construct a series of proteome profiles describing spermatogenesis. This large-scale identification of proteins provides a rich resource for elucidating the mechanisms underlying male fertility and infertility. PMID:21076435

  12. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans
    John C. Rockett and David J. Dix
    Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  13. Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Altered Sertoli Cell Transcriptome and Epigenome: Molecular Etiology of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina; Haque, Md. Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease, including testis disease and male infertility. The current study was designed to determine the impact of an altered sperm epigenome on the subsequent development of an adult somatic cell (Sertoli cell) that influences the onset of a specific disease (male infertility). A gestating female rat (F0 generation) was exposed to the agriculture fungicide vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination and then the subsequent F3 generation progeny used for the isolation of Sertoli cells and assessment of testis disease. As previously observed, enhanced spermatogenic cell apoptosis was observed. The Sertoli cells provide the physical and nutritional support for the spermatogenic cells. Over 400 genes were differentially expressed in the F3 generation control versus vinclozolin lineage Sertoli cells. A number of specific cellular pathways were identified to be transgenerationally altered. One of the key metabolic processes affected was pyruvate/lactate production that is directly linked to spermatogenic cell viability. The Sertoli cell epigenome was also altered with over 100 promoter differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) modified. The genomic features and overlap with the sperm DMR were investigated. Observations demonstrate that the transgenerational sperm epigenetic alterations subsequently alters the development of a specific somatic cell (Sertoli cell) epigenome and transcriptome that correlates with adult onset disease (male infertility). The environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of testis disease appears to be a component of the molecular etiology of male infertility. PMID:23555832

  14. GENE ARRAYS FOR ELUCIDATING MECHANISTIC DATA FROM MODELS OF MALE INFERTILITY AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURE IN MICE, RATS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays for elucidating mechanistic data from models of male infertility and chemical exposure in mice, rats and humans
    John C. Rockett and David J. Dix
    Gamete and Early Embryo Biology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects ...

  15. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered Sertoli cell transcriptome and epigenome: molecular etiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Savenkova, Marina; Haque, Md Muksitul; Nilsson, Eric; Skinner, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Environmental toxicants have been shown to induce the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease, including testis disease and male infertility. The current study was designed to determine the impact of an altered sperm epigenome on the subsequent development of an adult somatic cell (Sertoli cell) that influences the onset of a specific disease (male infertility). A gestating female rat (F0 generation) was exposed to the agriculture fungicide vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination and then the subsequent F3 generation progeny used for the isolation of Sertoli cells and assessment of testis disease. As previously observed, enhanced spermatogenic cell apoptosis was observed. The Sertoli cells provide the physical and nutritional support for the spermatogenic cells. Over 400 genes were differentially expressed in the F3 generation control versus vinclozolin lineage Sertoli cells. A number of specific cellular pathways were identified to be transgenerationally altered. One of the key metabolic processes affected was pyruvate/lactate production that is directly linked to spermatogenic cell viability. The Sertoli cell epigenome was also altered with over 100 promoter differential DNA methylation regions (DMR) modified. The genomic features and overlap with the sperm DMR were investigated. Observations demonstrate that the transgenerational sperm epigenetic alterations subsequently alters the development of a specific somatic cell (Sertoli cell) epigenome and transcriptome that correlates with adult onset disease (male infertility). The environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of testis disease appears to be a component of the molecular etiology of male infertility.

  16. Induction of Excessive Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Drosophila Male Accessory Gland Results in Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clement Y.; Avila, Frank W.; Clark, Andrew G.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production. PMID:25742606

  17. Induction of excessive endoplasmic reticulum stress in the Drosophila male accessory gland results in infertility.

    PubMed

    Chow, Clement Y; Avila, Frank W; Clark, Andrew G; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when misfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the ER. A cell responds to ER stress with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex program of transcriptional and translational changes aimed at clearing misfolded proteins. Secretory tissues and cells are particularly well adapted to respond to ER stress because their function requires high protein production and secretory load. The insect male accessory gland (AG) is a secretory tissue involved in male fertility. The AG secretes many seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) essential for male reproduction. Among adult Drosophila tissues, we find that genes upregulated by ER stress are most highly expressed in the AG, suggesting that the AG is already undergoing high levels of ER stress due to its normal secretory functions. We hypothesized that induction of excessive ER stress in the AG above basal levels, would perturb normal function and provide a genetic tool for studying AG and SFP biology. To test this, we genetically induced excessive ER stress in the AG by conditional 1) expression of a misfolded protein or 2) knockdown of the UPR regulatory protein, BiP. Both genetic manipulations induced excessive ER stress in the AG, as indicated by the increase in Xbp1 splicing, a marker of ER stress. Both models resulted in a large decrease in or loss of SFP production and male infertility. Sperm production, motility, and transfer appeared unaffected. The induction of strong ER stress in the insect male AG may provide a simple way for studying or manipulating male fertility, as it eliminates AG function while preserving sperm production.

  18. Association of MDR1 C3435T and C1236T single nucleotide polymorphisms with male factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Aydos, S E; Karadağ, A; Özkan, T; Altınok, B; Bunsuz, M; Heidargholizadeh, S; Aydos, K; Sunguroğlu, A

    2015-06-11

    Infertility affects 1 in 6 couples and approximately 1 in 25 men. Male factor infertility is a major cause of spermatogenic anomalies, the causes of which are largely unknown. Impaired repro-ductive functions in men might result from physiological, genetic, and/or environmental factors such as xenobiotics. The multi-drug re-sistance1 (MDR1) gene encodes a P-glycoprotein which has a role in the active transport of various substrates providing protection of somatic cells from potentially toxic substances, including xenobi-otics. MDR1 is highly expressed at the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells, and is expressed in Leydig cells, testicular mac-rophages, and Sertoli cells. We performed genotype and haplotype analyses of MDR1 in 192 infertile and 102 fertile Turkish men for the genetic markers C1236T and C3435T, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the overall population, correlations were analyzed in all genotype mod-els. We found that the C3435T polymorphism TT vs CT genotypes showed statistically significant differences in their association with infertility (P = 0.045), and that the CT genotype was associated with high sperm DNA damage (P = 0.02), suggesting that the CT genotype might be a susceptibility factor for infertility. Additionally, the T-T haplotype was significantly more frequent in the control group (13.2 vs 6.5%; odds ratio = 0.459, 95%CI = 0.259-0.814, P = 0.006). This study showed that MDR1 might have a role in male infertility. Fur-ther research in large cohorts with different populations is required to clarify the role of MDR in male fertility.

  19. Is Coasting Valuable in All Patients with Any Cause of Infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Tahereh; Jahangiri, Nadia; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Akhoond, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of coasting duration on the number and quality of oocytes and fertilization rate in male factor infertile women and those with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods In this prospective observational follow-up study, 114 patients undergoing coasting (53 women with male factor infertility and 61 women with PCOS) were evaluated at the Royan Institute Research Center, Iran, between 2010 and 2012. Results The results were analyzed according to the coasting periods of 1–4 days. In normal females, the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly reduced after the second day (p = 0.004). In addition, a statistically significant drop was observed in the number of metaphase II oocytes and fertilization rate after the third day (p = 0.006 and p = 0.006, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the number and quality of oocytes retrieved and fertilization rate with regard to coasting days in PCOS patients. Conclusion Coasting with duration of more than three days should be performed with caution in normal females who are at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. PMID:27974954

  20. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection.

  1. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the results of the meta-analysis support the conclusion that the T-786C and 4a4b loci were associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future.

  2. Exploring the Human Seminal Plasma Proteome: An Unexplored Gold Mine of Biomarker for Male Infertility and Male Reproduction Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Savadi-Shiraz, Elham; Rezadoost, Hassan; Lakpour, Niknam

    2015-01-01

    Background The human seminal fluid is a complex body fluid. It is not known how many proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma; however in analog with the blood it is possible up to 10,000 proteins are expressed in the seminal plasma. The human seminal fluid is a rich source of potential biomarkers for male infertility and reproduction disorder. Methods In this review, the ongoing list of proteins identified from the human seminal fluid was collected. To date, 4188 redundant proteins of the seminal fluid are identified using different proteomics technology, including 2-DE, SDS-PAGE-LC-MS/MS, MudPIT. However, this was reduced to a database of 2168 non-redundant protein using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot reviewed database. Results The core concept of proteome were analyzed including pI, MW, Amino Acids, Chromosome and PTM distribution in the human seminal plasma proteome. Additionally, the biological process, molecular function and KEGG pathway were investigated using DAVID software. Finally, the biomarker identified in different male reproductive system disorder was investigated using proteomics platforms so far. Conclusion In this study, an attempt was made to update the human seminal plasma proteome database. Our finding showed that human seminal plasma studies used to date seem to have converged on a set of proteins that are repeatedly identified in many studies and that represent only a small fraction of the entire human seminal plasma proteome. PMID:25927022

  3. Spermatozoa from infertile patients exhibit differences of DNA methylation associated with spermatogenesis-related processes: an array-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Cristina; Salas-Huetos, Albert; Aiese-Cigliano, Riccardo; Godo, Anna; Pons, Maria-Carme; Castellano, Giancarlo; Grossmann, Mark; Sanseverino, Walter; Martin-Subero, José I; Garrido, Nicolás; Blanco, Joan

    2016-12-01

    The influence of aberrant sperm DNA methylation on the reproductive capacity of couples has been postulated as a cause of infertility. This study compared the DNA methylation of spermatozoa of 19 fertile donors and 42 infertile patients using the Illumina 450K array. Clustering analysis of methylation data arranged fertile and infertile patients into two groups. Bivariate clustering analysis identified a differential distribution of samples according to the characteristics of seminogram and age, suggesting a possible link between these parameters and specific methylation profiles. The study identified 696 differentially methylated cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG) associated with 501 genes between fertile donors and infertile patients. Ontological enrichment analysis revealed 13 processes related to spermatogenesis. Data filtering identified a set of 17 differentially methylated genes, some of which had functions relating to spermatogenesis. A significant association was identified between RPS6KA2 hypermethylation and advanced age (P = 0.016); APCS hypermethylation and oligozoospermia (P = 0.041); JAM3/NCAPD3 hypermethylation and numerical chromosome sperm anomalies (P = 0.048); and ANK2 hypermethylation and lower pregnancy rate (P = 0.040). This description of a set of differentially methylated genes provides a framework for further investigation into the influence of such variation in male fertility in larger patient cohorts. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Severe oligospermia associated with a unique balanced reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3): male infertility related to t(6;12).

    PubMed

    Bianco, B; Christofolini, D; Gava, M; Mafra, F; Moraes, E; Barbosa, C

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of chromosome abnormalities is increased in infertile men, the incidence of a chromosomal factor being estimated to be about 8%. We report two brothers, a 38-year-old man with 10 years' primary infertility and severe oligospermia, but otherwise healthy, and a 35-year-old man with primary infertility and a history of mumps during puberty. Semen and karyotype analysis, and investigation of Y-chromosome microdeletions were performed. An apparently unique reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3) was found in both infertile brothers. Semen analyses showed severe oligospermia. No Y-chromosome microdeletions were found. These two cases support the relationship between both environmental and chromosomal abnormalities, combined or separated, with male infertility. Investigation of genetic alterations in infertile males has to be performed prior to performing any assisted reproduction technique. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Hojati, Zohreh; Nouri Emamzadeh, Fatemeh; Dehghanian, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some dynamic changes occurs during spermatogenesis such as histone removal and its replacement with transition nuclear protein and protamine. These proteins are required for packing and condensation of sperm chromatin. JHDM2A is a histone demethylase that directly binds to promoter regions of Tnp1 and Prm1 genes and controls their expression by removing H3K9 at their promoters. Objective: The association between polymorphisms of exon 12 and exon 24 in JHDM2A gene and male infertility were evaluated for the first time. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 400 infertile men (oligospermia and azoospermia) and normal healthy fathers were evaluated (n=200). Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP-PCR) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used for screening any polymorphisms that are exist in exon 12 and exon 24. Results: Exon 24 PCR products were analyzed by RFLP but no polymorphism was found in this exon at the restriction site of EcoRV enzyme. Our monitoring along the whole nucleotides of exon 12 and exon 24 were continued using SSCP method, but we found no change along these exons. Conclusion: Generally, this study evaluated the association between polymorphisms in exon 12 and exon 24 of JHDM2A gene and male infertility which suggests that polymorphisms of these exons may not be associated with the risk of male infertility. PMID:27525322

  6. Influence of spermatogenic profile and meiotic abnormalities on reproductive outcome of infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Barri, Pedro N; Vendrell, Jose M; Martinez, Francisca; Coroleu, Buenaventura; Arán, Begoña; Veiga, Anna

    2005-06-01

    Genetic aspects of male infertility and the possible risks of new assisted reproduction and their influence on the development of zygotes and children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) need further research. These patients have an increased risk of diploidy, and disomies are frequent in their spermatozoa. Meiotic disorders are more common in testicular biopsies of patients with severe oligoasthenozoospermia. For these reasons, a detailed andrological study is absolutely mandatory before accepting a couple with these characteristics into an IVF-ICSI programme. When an andrological patient has plasma FSH values >10 IU/l and/or very low total motile sperm count <1 x 10(6), despite a normal karyotype, they clearly need a testicular biopsy and a meiotic study in order to rule out meiotic arrest or synaptic anomalies. Another important aspect to be considered is the possible benefit of applying preimplantation genetic diagnosis in these cases because they normally have a high percentage of chromosomally abnormal embryos, although in the present study this was not evident. All studies agree on the necessity of conducting follow-up studies in the population of children born after IVF-ICSI. In this way, it will be possible to find out if these infertile patients and their offspring have a higher risk of suffering epigenetic errors and imprinting disorders.

  7. Postcoital recovery of sperm in Douglas pouch aspirates of infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Aref, I; Reda, M; Kandil, O; El Tagi, A

    1984-02-01

    Tubal dysfunction is certainly involved in some cases of infertility. Clinical diagnostic procedures for tubal patency are occasionally misleading and contradictory. Moreover, they provide no information on tubal function. The recovery of viable sperm in Douglas pouch aspirates (DPA) was used to evaluate tubal function in 94 infertile patients with different tubal findings at hysterosalpingography (HS) and laparoscopy. Sperm recovery in DPA of ten infertile patients with poor or negative postcoital Sims- Huhner test results demonstrated the limitation of this test for evaluation of sperm transport in the female genital tract. Laparoscopic aspiration of DP may be performed in infertile patients undergoing chromosalpingoscopy as a part of their infertility investigation. The procedure should be supplementary to other available diagnostic parameters.

  8. Male Infertility Workup Needs Additional Testing of Expressed Prostatic Secretion and/or Post-Massage Urine

    PubMed Central

    Punab, Margus; Kullisaar, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2013-01-01

    The male factor accounts for almost 50% of infertility cases. Inflammation may reduce semen quality via several pathways, including oxidative stress (OxS). As male infertility routinely is assessed using semen analysis only, the possible presence of non-leukocytospermic asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be overlooked. We compared local and systemic OxS levels in male partners of infertile couples with different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. Subjects (n=143) were grouped according to inflammation in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS), and/or post-massage urine (post-M). Systemic (8-isoprostanes in urine) and local (diene conjugates and total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma) OxS was measured The levels of OxS markers were significantly elevated in both severe inflammation groups – leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to EPS and/or post-M. Comparison between oligospermic and non-oligospermic men with genital tract inflammation, and oligozoospermic men with or without inflammation in the genital tract indicated that inflammation but not oligospermia status had significant impact on the measured OxS markers. Hence, a high leukocyte count in prostate-specific materials (EPS, post-M), even in absence of clear leukocytopsermia, is an important source of local and systemic OxS that may be associated with male infertility and affect general health. We suggest including the tests for detection of inflammation of the prostate into the workup of infertile men as was suggested in the WHO 1993 recommendation. PMID:24349358

  9. Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chidrawar, VR; Chitme, HR; Patel, KN; Patel, NJ; Racharla, VR; Dhoraji, NC; Vadalia, KR

    2011-01-01

    Cynodon dactylon (Family: Poaceae) is known to be a tackler in Indian mythology and is offered to Lord Ganesha. It is found everywhere, even on waste land, road side, dry places, and spreads vigorously on cultivated ground. This study was carried out with an objective to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping stress-induced sexual In this study, we considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility and the effect of C. dactylon in restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon has shown a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content, sperm concentration and its effect on accessory sexual organs and body weight. We conclude that active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. PMID:21607051

  10. Impact of partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuening; Li, Muyan; Xiao, Feifan; Teng, Ruobing; Zhang, Chengdong; Lan, Aihua; Gu, Kailong; Li, Jiatong; Wang, Di; Li, Hongtao; Jiang, Li; Zeng, Siping; He, Min; Huang, Yi; Guo, Peifen; Zhang, Xinhua; Yang, Xiaoli

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the effect of the partial DAZ1/2 deletion and partial DAZ3/4 deletion on male infertility through a comprehensive literature search. All case-control studies related to partial DAZ1/2 and DAZ3/4 deletions and male infertility risk were included in our study. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association and its precision, respectively. Eleven partial DAZ1/2 deletion and nine partial DAZ3/4 deletion studies were included. Partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the overall analysis (ORs=2.58, 95%CI: 1.60-4.18, I(2)=62.1%). Moreover, in the subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was significantly associated with male infertility risk in the East Asian populations under the random effect model (ORs=2.96, 95%CI: 1.87-4.71, I(2)=51.3%). Meanwhile, the analysis suggested that partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with male infertility risk in East-Asian ethnicity (ORs=1.02, 95%CI: 0.54-1.92, I(2)=71.3%), but not in Non-East Asian under the random effect model (ORs=3.56, 95%CI: 1.13-11.23, I(2)=0.0%,). More interestingly, partial DAZ1/2 deletion was associated with azoospermia (ORs=2.63, 95%CI: 1.19-5.81, I(2)=64.7%) and oligozoospermia (ORs=2.53, 95%CI: 1.40-4.57, I(2)=51.8%), but partial DAZ3/4 deletion was not associated with azoospermia (ORs=0.71, 95%CI: 0.23-2.22, I(2)=71.7%,) and oligozoospermia (ORs=1.21, 95%CI: 0.65-2.24, I(2)=55.5%). In our meta-analysis, partial DAZ1/2 deletion is a risk factor for male infertility and different ethnicities have different influences, whereas partial DAZ3/4 deletion has no effect on fertility but partial DAZ3/4 deletion might have an impact on Non-East Asian male.

  11. Semen characteristics and diabetes mellitus: significance of insulin in male infertility.

    PubMed

    García-Díez, L C; Corrales Hernandez, J J; Hernandez-Diaz, J; Pedraz, M J; Miralles, J M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of semen quality and serum hormonal profiles (FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone) of patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Semen parameters and levels of prolactin and testosterone were significantly altered in the diabetic state. The concentration of insulin in serum and seminal plasma and the serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in 80 men classified in the following groups: fertile subjects, infertile normoglycemic subjects, subjects with carbohydrate intolerance, and excretory and secretory azoospermic subjects. In all groups, seminal insulin concentrations were higher than those obtained in serum. The hormone appears to freely cross the blood-testis barrier, there to be concentrated in the semen. The levels of insulin in serum and seminal plasma did not correlate with semen parameters and are not suitable markers of seminal quality. For unknown reasons, the concentrations of insulin in seminal plasma were lower in the subjects suffering from carbohydrate intolerance.

  12. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-07-16

    The Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2-/- males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2-/- cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20×less than control. Bscl2-/- seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2+/+ testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2-/- testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2-/- round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2-/- spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2-/- spermatids. Bscl2-/- late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2-/- late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2-/- late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the midpiece of Bscl2-/- sperm, indicating defective

  13. Sperm DNA damage caused by oxidative stress: modifiable clinical, lifestyle and nutritional factors in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wright, C; Milne, S; Leeson, H

    2014-06-01

    DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However, it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high DNA fragmentation levels have significantly lower odds of conceiving, naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Couples may be counselled to proceed directly to intracytoplasmic sperm injection as it is more successful in this group, avoiding costly procedures, recurrent failures or pregnancy losses; however, this treatment is not without limitations or risks. Ideally DNA fragmentation should be minimized where possible. Oxidative stress is the major cause of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa. Endogenous and exogenous factors that contribute to oxidative stress are discussed, and in many cases are shown to be easily modifiable. Antioxidants play a protective role, although a delicate balance of reduction and oxidation is required for essential functions, including fertilization. Reducing oxidative stress may improve a couple's chances of conception either naturally or via assisted reproduction. Sources of oxidative stress therefore should be thoroughly examined in men with high levels of DNA fragmentation and modified where possible. DNA fragmentation is an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. However it is still underevaluated and its inclusion in routine semen analysis is still debated. DNA fragmentation has been shown to be a robust indicator of fertility potential, more so than conventional semen parameters. Men with high levels of DNA fragmentation will have significantly lower odds of conceiving naturally or through procedures such as intrauterine insemination and IVF. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be much more successful in this group, and couples may be counselled to proceed directly to

  14. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility

    PubMed Central

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-01-01

    The Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2−/− males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2−/− cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20 × less than control. Bscl2−/− seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2+/+ testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2−/− testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2−/− round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2−/− spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2−/− spermatids. Bscl2−/− late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2−/− late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the

  15. Coenzyme Q10, α-Tocopherol, and Oxidative Stress Could Be Important Metabolic Biomarkers of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440 mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30 mg ubiquinol + 75 IU vitamin E + 12 mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,  CoQ10-TOTAL, γ, and α-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and α-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ10-TOTAL, and α-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:25810566

  16. Coenzyme Q₁₀, α-tocopherol, and oxidative stress could be important metabolic biomarkers of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjáková, Anna; Kucharská, Jarmila; Dubravicky, Jozef; Mojto, Viliam; Singh, Ram B

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant capacity, and impaired sperm mitochondrial function are the main factors contributing to male infertility. The goal of the present study was to assess the effect of the per os treatment with Carni-Q-Nol (440 mg L-carnitine fumarate + 30 mg ubiquinol + 75 IU vitamin E + 12 mg vitamin C in each softsule) in infertile men on sperm parameters, concentration of antioxidants (coenzyme Q10,  CoQ(10-TOTAL), γ, and α-tocopherols), and oxidative stress in blood plasma and seminal fluid. Forty infertile men were supplemented daily with two or three Carni-Q-Nol softsules. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, improved sperm density was observed (by 48.9% and 80.9%, resp.) and after 3-month treatment the sperm pathology decreased by 25.8%. Concentrations of CoQ(10-TOTAL) (ubiquinone + ubiquinol) and α-tocopherol were significantly increased and the oxidative stress was decreased. In conclusion, the effect of supplementary therapy with Carni-Q-Nol showed benefits on sperm function in men, resulting in 45% pregnancies of their women. We assume that assessment of oxidative stress, CoQ(10-TOTAL), and α-tocopherol in blood plasma and seminal fluid could be important metabolic biomarkers in both diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  17. Major spliceosome defects cause male infertility and are associated with nonobstructive azoospermia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hao; Sun, Liwei; Wen, Yang; Liu, Yujuan; Yu, Jun; Mao, Feiyu; Wang, Ya; Tong, Chao; Hu, Zhibin; Sha, Jiahao; Liu, Mingxi; Xia, Laixin

    2016-01-01

    Processing of pre-mRNA into mRNA is an important regulatory mechanism in eukaryotes that is mediated by the spliceosome, a huge and dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex. Splicing defects are implicated in a spectrum of human disease, but the underlying mechanistic links remain largely unresolved. Using a genome-wide association approach, we have recently identified single nucleotide polymorphisms in humans that associate with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA), a common cause of male infertility. Here, using genetic manipulation of corresponding candidate loci in Drosophila, we show that the spliceosome component SNRPA1/U2A is essential for male fertility. Loss of U2A in germ cells of the Drosophila testis does not affect germline stem cells, but does result in the accumulation of mitotic spermatogonia that fail to differentiate into spermatocytes and mature sperm. Lack of U2A causes insufficient splicing of mRNAs required for the transition of germ cells from proliferation to differentiation. We show that germ cell-specific disruption of other components of the major spliceosome manifests with the same phenotype, demonstrating that mRNA processing is required for the differentiation of spermatogonia. This requirement is conserved, and expression of human SNRPA1 fully restores spermatogenesis in U2A mutant flies. We further report that several missense mutations in human SNRPA1 that inhibit the assembly of the major spliceosome dominantly disrupt spermatogonial differentiation in Drosophila. Collectively, our findings uncover a conserved and specific requirement for the major spliceosome during the transition from spermatogonial proliferation to differentiation in the male testis, suggesting that spliceosome defects affecting the differentiation of human spermatogonia contribute to NOA. PMID:27035939

  18. Research trends and perspectives of male infertility: a bibliometric analysis of 20 years of scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Xiao, F; Lu, S; Song, J; Zhang, C; Li, J; Gu, K; Lan, A; Lv, B; Zhang, R; Mo, F; Jiang, G; Zhang, X; Yang, X

    2016-11-01

    To carry out an in-depth analysis of the scientific research on male infertility, we performed the first bibliometric analysis focusing on studies involving male infertility worldwide during the period 1995-2014. Analysis of 6357 articles in the field of male infertility showed a significant increasing trend in the number of publications over the period 1995-2014. Obstetrics and Gynecology was an important subject category and Multidisciplinary Sciences was the newest interest. Authors were mainly from Europe and USA, with researchers from Cleveland Clinic producing the most articles, and those from the Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the University of Utah having the highest-quality articles. The USA contributed the most independent and international collaborative articles. The Cleveland Clinic and the University of Munster were the most productive institutions. The Cleveland Clinic and the University of Giessen had the most international collaboration publications. Harvard University had the most collaborators. The most common interests were pathogenesis and therapy, and new interests were hypogonadism, obesity, and cryopreservation. In conclusion, rapid development of the male infertility field was observed. Overall, collaborative and multidisciplinary science research has become more popular. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role, followed by European countries. Thanks to the common research focus worldwide, more insight into male fertility has been gained in the scientific literature over the past 20 years. [Correction added on September 21, 2016, after online publication: the term "institute" has been replaced by the term "institution" throughout the text.]. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Finasteride use in the male infertility population: effects on semen and hormone parameters.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Lo, Kirk; Grober, Ethan; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-12-01

    To determine the degree of improvement in semen parameters after finasteride discontinuation. A prospective database of men presenting for a fertility evaluation was analyzed for semen and hormone parameters before and after discontinuation of finasteride. A male infertility specialty clinic. Men presenting for fertility evaluation from 2008-2012 on finasteride. None. Semen and hormone parameters before and after discontinuation of finasteride. At presentation, 27 (0.6%) of 4,400 men on finasteride. The mean duration of treatment with finasteride was 57.4 months, and mean dose was 1.04 mg/day. There was an average 11.6-fold increase in sperm counts after finasteride discontinuation. Of the men with severe oligospermia (<5 M/mL), 57% had counts increase to >15 M/mL after finasteride cessation. No man had a decrease in sperm count. There was no change in hormone parameters, sperm motility, or sperm morphology. Finasteride, even at low doses, may cause reduced sperm counts in some men. In this population, counts improved dramatically for the majority of men after finasteride discontinuation. The hormone parameters, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were unchanged after cessation. Finasteride should be discontinued in subfertile men with oligospermia, and used with caution in men who desire fertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A clinical appraisal of the genetic basis in unexplained male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility (UMI), the inability to reproduce despite having a normal sexual history, physical exam and semen analysis, can have a genetic origin. Currently, few diagnostic tools are available for detecting such genetic abnormalities. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are respectively used for chromosomal alterations in somatic cells and sperm aneuploidy assessment. Gene sequencing and mutational analysis have been introduced for identifying specific mutations and polymorphisms. Other approaches to the molecular evaluation of spermatozoa are under investigation, including array comparative genomic hybridization and whole-genome sequencing and non-coding ribonucleic acid arrays. Although treating cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic aberrations is still out of reach, the integration of these novel techniques may unravel hidden genetic defects in UMI. Finally, a deeper understanding of the sperm epigenome might allow the development of therapies based on epigenome modifications. This review focuses on the genetic basis of UMI and highlights the current and future methods for the evaluation of genetic defects as they relate to UMI. Review of the literature was carried out using ScienceDirect, OVID, PubMed and MedLine search engines. PMID:24347931

  1. TDRP deficiency contributes to low sperm motility and is a potential risk factor for male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shanhua; Wu, Fei; Cao, Xinyi; He, Min; Liu, Naijia; Wu, Huihui; Yang, Zhihong; Ding, Qiang; Wang, Xuanchun

    2016-01-01

    TDRP (Testis Development-Related Protein), a nuclear factor, might play an important role in spermatogenesis. However, the molecular mechanisms of TDRP underlying these fundamental processes remain elusive. In this study, a Tdrp-deficient mouse model was generated. Fertility tests and semen analysis were performed. Tdrp-deficient mice were not significantly different from wild-type littermates in development of testes, genitourinary tract, or sperm count. Morphologically, spermatozoa of the Tdrp-deficient mice was not significantly different from the wild type. Several sperm motility indexes, i.e. the average path velocity (VAP), the straight line velocity (VSL) and the curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly decreased in Tdrp-deficient mice (p<0.05). The proportion of slow velocity sperm also increased significantly in the mutant mice (p<0.05). However, fertility tests showed that no significant difference inaverage offspring amount (AOA), frequency of copulatory plug (FCP), and frequency of conception (FC). Furthermore, TDRP1 could interact with PRM2, which might be the molecular mechanism of its nuclear function in spermatozoa. In conclusion, these data collectively demonstrated that Tdrp deficiency impaired the sperm motility, but Tdrp deficiency alone was not sufficient to cause male infertility in mice. Additionally, TDRP1 might participate in spermatogenes is through interaction with PRM2. PMID:27069551

  2. Abnormal spermatogenesis and male infertility in testicular zinc finger protein Zfp318-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masamichi; Ohtsuka, Eri; Inoue, Atsuto; Odaka, Mirei; Ohshima, Hirotaka; Tamura, Norihisa; Yoshida, Kaoru; Sako, Norihisa; Baba, Tadashi; Kashiwabara, Shin-Ichi; Okabe, Masaru; Noguchi, Junko; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility. ZFP318 was expressed during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, from spermatocytes to round spermatids. The nuclei of secondary spermatocytes showed high levels of expression. Histological analysis and quantitative analysis of DNA content showed decreased numbers of both spermatids in the seminiferous tubules and mature spermatozoa in the epididymides of Zfp318-null mice. These results suggest that Zfp318 is expressed as a functional protein in testicular germ cells and plays an important role in meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  3. [Role of sperm antibodies and cellular autoimmunity to sperm in the pathogenesis of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Madar, J; Urbánek, V; Chaloupková, A; Nouza, K; Kinský, R

    2002-01-01

    To test the hypothesis of relationship between sperm pathology and elevated humoral and/or cell-mediated antisperm autoimmunity in male partners from infertile couples. Analytic study. Department of Immunobiology, Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague. Sperm samples were evaluated according to WHO rules. Sperm-bound antisperm autoantibodies (ASA) were determined by SpermMar Test (FertiPro N. V., Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium). For evaluation of cell-mediated antisperm autoimmunity (CMAA) the authors used their own modification of migration-inhibition test (Dimitrov et al., J. Immunol. Methods 154: 147, 1992). The pool of men was divided into groups according to the result of sperm examination: normozoospermia (740 men), asthenozoospermia (244), teratozoospermia (191), oligoasthenozoospermia levis (61), oligoasthenozoospermia gravis (29), oligoteratozoospermia (82), and azoospermia (54). Subgroup of fertile men (32) consisted of normozoospermic men--fathers of child younger than 3 years. Percentage of sperm-bound ASA-positive samples was significantly higher in asthenozoospermia in comparison with normozoospermia in both IgA (20.8% versus 10.6%) and IgG classes (13.8% vs 6.8%). Positivity of CMAA was significantly more frequent in group of asthenozoospermic (52%) than in normozoospermic (28.5%) and fertile (12.5%) men. Antisperm autoimmunity, namely its cell-mediated form, appears to play a significant role in impairment of spermiogenesis. Sperm-bound autoantibodies were found more frequently in asthenozoospermia, but also in some men with normozoospermia they may impair fertility.

  4. Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, A M

    2003-12-01

    In Great Britain, married couples were reported to have between 1.9 and 2.1 children, while men with Crohn's disease had a mean of 1.2 and of 0.4 children before and after diagnosis, respectively. The role of zinc for male fertility is essential. Although lack of zinc in Crohn's disease is well established in up to 70% of patients, a possible relation between zinc deficiency and male subfertility in Crohn's disease remains unclear. This study is aimed at examining a possible link between zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease and male subfertility in this group of patients.

  5. Novel device for male infertility screening with single-ball lens microscope and smartphone.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Yoshitomo; Pfanner, Peter; Prins, Gail S; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the usefulness of a novel semen analysis device consisting of a single-ball lens microscope paired with a state-of-the-art smartphone equipped with a camera. Laboratory investigation. University research laboratory. A total of 50 semen samples obtained from volunteers were analyzed for count, concentration, and motility with an 0.8-mm ball lens and three types of smartphone. Comparisons were made with results obtained with a laboratory-based computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system. None. Sperm concentration; sperm motility. Sperm concentration counted with a ball lens and each smartphone showed a very strong correlation with the CASA results. Likewise, sperm motility calculated with our device showed significant correlations to CASA. If eight spermatozoa or fewer were found on the field of view of an iPhone 6s, the semen specimens were considered to be below the lower reference limit for sperm concentration of World Health Organization 2010 guidelines (15 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL). The sensitivity was 87.5%, and specificity was 90.9%. Smartphones have great potential to analyze semen because they are portable, contain excellent digital cameras, and can be easily attached to a microscope. A single-ball lens microscope is inexpensive and easy to use for acquiring digital microscopic movies. Given its small size and weight, the device can support testing for male fertility at home or in the field, making it much more convenient and economical than current practice. This single-ball lens microscope provides an easy solution for global users to rapidly screen for male infertility. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghistani, Hala I.; Hamad, Abdul-Wahab R.; Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al-Swaifi, Mohammad; Abu Zaid, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs) and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone) levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74 ± 24.331, 365.9 ± 16.55, and 367.5 ± 21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325 ± 0.243, 0.341 ± 0.022, and 0.357 ± 0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6 ± 26.75, 315.6 ± 13.08, and 332.08 ± 24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P = .001). This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47%) of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46%) without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0%) fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P = .017). ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P < .05). In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele) and fertile (P < .05). Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with autoimmunity and sperm antibodies

  7. Impact of Italian legislation regulating assisted reproduction techniques on ICSI outcomes in severe male factor infertility: a multicentric survey.

    PubMed

    Ciriminna, R; Papale, M L; Artini, P G; Costa, M; De Santis, L; Gandini, L; Parmegiani, L; Ragni, G; Revelli, A; Rienzi, L; Barbaro, R; Cela, V; Cino, I; Colia, D; D'Ambrogio, G; Diotallevi, L; Dusi, M; Filicori, M; Genazzani, A R; Giuffrida, G; Lombardo, F; Paffoni, A; Racca, C; Greco, E

    2007-09-01

    In 2004, a law regulating assisted reproduction techniques (ART) was passed in Italy. The new rules allow for the formation and transfer of a maximum of three embryos at one time, whereas embryo selection and embryo storage are prohibited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of these restrictions on ICSI outcome in couples affected by severe male factor infertility. Thirteen Italian ART Units were involved in this study. Data were collected on ICSI cycles performed during 2 years before (control group) and 2 years after (study group) the enforcement of the law. Only cases of obstructive azoospermia (OA), non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and severe oligoastenoteratozoospermia (OAT) (sperm count male factor infertility. NOA patients are particularly affected by this restriction imposed by the new Italian law.

  8. Characterisation of the bacterial community in expressed prostatic secretions from patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and infertile men: a preliminary investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dong-Sheng; Long, Wen-Min; Shen, Jian; Zhao, Li-Ping; Pang, Xiao-Yan; Xu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    The expressed prostatic secretions (EPSs) of men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), infertile men and normal men were subjected to microbiological study. EPSs were collected from the subjects, which included 26 normal men, 11 infertile patients and 51 CP/CPPS patients. DNA was extracted from each specimen, and the V3 regions of the 16S rRNA genes were amplified using universal bacterial primers. The results showed that the EPS 16S rRNA gene-positive rate in the CP/CPPS and infertile patients was much higher than in the normal men, but without any difference among the three patient groups. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method was used to characterize the EPS bacterial community structure of the prostate fluid from patients with CP/CPPS or infertility issues. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analyses of PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that the EPS bacterial community structure differed among the three groups. Three bands were identified as the key factors responsible for the discrepancy between CP/CPPS patients and infertile patients (P<0.05). Two bands were identified as priority factors in the discrepancy of category IIIA and category IIIB prostatitis patients (P<0.05). According to this research, the ecological balance of the prostate and low urethra tract, when considered as a microenvironment, might play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy male reproductive tract. PMID:22635162

  9. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-02-17

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial.

  10. What age-related factors may be involved with infertility in females and males?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Erectile dysfunction, which can be affected by decreasing testosterone levels as a man ages or by medications ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. (2013). Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: A committee ...

  11. Prevalence of male accessory gland inflammations/infections in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, R A; Calogero, A E; Vicari, E; Duca, Y; Favilla, V; Morgia, G; Cimino, S; Di Mauro, M; La Vignera, S

    2013-10-01

    MAGI is an acronym that identifies the "male accessory gland inflammations/infections", a potential cause of male infertility. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) prevalence is going to increase among men of reproductive age. Due to the high prevalence of these two conditions, we could suppose that they might appear together in the same patient. To evaluate MAGI prevalence in patients with DM2 in fertile age. A cross-sectional study carried out on patients with DM2 of fertile age. All patients underwent andrological evaluation for the identification of conventional MAGI diagnostic criteria. DM2 patients showed a frequency of MAGI about 43%, significantly lower (p<0.05) than in infertile patients of the same age without diabetes, which showed a MAGI overall frequency of 61%. Among examined diabetic patients the prevalence of MAGI did not significantly differ between patients attending for diabetes care problems (glycemic control) and patients with andrological disorders. Finally, no significant difference in seminal inflammatory signs frequency was detected between patients with DM2 and infertile patients without diabetes. Finally, the correlation analysis showed a significant direct correlation between duration of diabetes and glycemic control with the prevalence of MAGI. MAGI prevalence in DM2 is lower than the one detected in age-matched infertile non-diabetic patients, however, as in infertile patients, there is a high frequency of seminal inflammatory signs. Moreover, the observed prevalence among diabetic patients with diabetes care problems and diabetic patients with andrological problems is not statistically different.

  12. TNF-α −308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α −308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions −308 G/A (four studies) where −308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378–0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211–0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  13. Transplantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells into the Testes of Infertile Male Rats and New Germ Cell Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh-Hasankolaei, Mohammad; Batavani, Roozali; Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza Baghaban; Sayahpour, Foroughazam

    2016-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have been suggested as a potential choice for treatment of male infertility. Yet, the effects of MSCs on regeneration of germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules and recovery of spermatogenesis have remained controversial. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the fate of autologous bone marrow (BM)-MSCs during three different periods of time- 4, 6 and 8 weeks after transplantation into the testes of busulfan-induced infertile male rats. Methods Rats BM samples were collected from tibia bone under anesthesia. The samples were directly cultured in culture medium. Isolated, characterized and purified BM-MSCs were labeled with PKH26, and transplanted into the testes of infertile rats. After 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the testes were removed and underwent histological evaluations. Results Immunohistochemical analysis showed that transplanted BM-MSCs survived in all three groups. Some of the cells homed at the germinal epithelium and expressed spermatogonia markers (Dazl and Stella). The number of homed spermatogonia-like cells in 4-week testes, was more than the 6-week testes. The 8-week testes had the least numbers of homed cells (p<0.05). Immunostaining for vimentin showed that BM-MSCs did not differentiate into the sertoli cells in the testes. Conclusions From our results, it could be concluded that, autologous BM-MSCs could survive in the testis, migrate onto the seminiferous tubules basement membrane and differentiate into spermatogonia. Although, no more differentiation was observed in the produced spermatogonia, generation of such endogenous GCs would be a really promising achievement for treatment of male infertility using autologous stem cells. PMID:27430978

  14. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population

    PubMed Central

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  15. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population.

  16. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparative study on interrelations among microelements, infection of Ureaplasma urealyticum, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Han, X D; Wang, Y; Chen, J X

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the association among male infertility, infection of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), and microelements in semen fluid. Semen analysis and cultivation of Uu are carried out to 165 samples of semen fluid. Then the contents of microelements, such as Cu, Fe, Se, Cd, Mn, and Zn, in the samples are measured respectively by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Quantometer (ICP). The contents of Fe, Se, and Zn in seminal plasma of the normal spermatic quality group are obviously higher than those of the poor spermatic quality group (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma of the normal spermatic quality group is obviously lower than that of the poor spermatic quality group (p<.05), and the contents of Cu and Mn show no difference. The contents of Zn, Se, and Cu in seminal plasma infected with Uu are markedly lower than those of seminal plasma not infected with Uu (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma infected with Uu is obviously higher than that in samples not infected with Uu, and the contents of Fe and Mn show no statistic difference. The contents of Zn and Se in seminal plasma of the poor spermatic qualitative semen that were infected with Uu are obviously lower than those of seminal plasma not infected with Uu (p<.05), while the content of Cd in seminal plasma of the poor spermatic qualitative semen with Uu infection is markedly higher than that of the normal seminal plasma (p<.05). Uu infection leads to the decrease of the contents of Zn and Se in semen fluid, and therefore causes spermatic quality decline. Lack of Fe or overdose of Cd may also contribute to spermatic quality decline.

  19. Anxiety and depression after failure of assisted reproductive treatment among patients experiencing infertility.

    PubMed

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Karimi, Elaheh; Vesali, Samira; Omani Samani, Reza

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact of the number of previous infertility treatment failures on anxiety and depression. In a cross-sectional study, individuals (men and women, but not couples) aged at least 18 years who had a history of infertility and could read and write in Persian were enrolled at the Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between November 1, 2013, and February 28, 2014. Participants provided demographic and infertility information and completed the Persian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Overall, 330 patients (122 men, 208 women) were included. Mean scores on the HADS anxiety and depression subscales (HADS-A and HADS-D) were 8.40±4.51 and 5.95±3.54, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, mean HADS-A scores were significantly higher for patients with one treatment failure (9.57±4.58) than for those without a history of treatment (7.79±4.13; P=0.003). HADS-D scores were significantly higher for patients with two failures (6.92±3.69) than for those with no previous treatment (5.59±3.79; P=0.019). Patients with infertility have increased depression and anxiety after infertility treatment failure. Counseling or treatment for these potential psychological effects should be considered after infertility treatment failure. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Association of DAZL A260G and A386G polymorphisms with oligozoospermia- or azoospermia-induced male infertility: A meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Chen, Ping; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xin-hua

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association of A260G and A386G polymorphisms of the DAZL gene with male infertility caused by oligozoospermia or azoospermia. We searched the PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, CNKI, VIP, and CDDB databases up to November 30, 2013 for case-control studies evaluating the relationship of SNP260 and SNP386 polymorphisms of the DAZL gene with male infertility, and meanwhile conducted manual sourcing of the references in the identified studies and relevant articles. Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract and keywords of each article retrieved. The StataSE12. 0 software was used for meta-analysis and other statistical analyses. Totally, 13 case-control studies were included (10 about A260G and 11 about A386G), involving 2 715 infertile patients (2 500 with oligozoospermia or azoospermia) and 1 835 normozoospermic men. DAZL A260G showed no statistical significance in the allele, dominant, recessive, co-dominant, or super-dominant gene model (P >0. 05). DAZL A386G exhibited a strong correlation with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in Asians in the allele gene model (OR = 0. 15, 95% CI 0.07 -0.34, P <0.05), dominant gene model (OR =0. 16, 95% CI 0.07 - 0. 35, P <0.05), co-dominant gene model (AA/AG) (OR = 0. 15, 95% CI 0. 06 - 0. 33, P < 0. 05), and super-dominant gene model (OR = 0. 15 (95% CI 0.06 - 0.33, P <0.05) , and so did it in Chinese in the four gene models ( OR = 0. 11, 95% CI 0.04 - 0. 28, P <0.05; OR =0. 11, 95% CI 0.04 - 0.28, P<0.05; OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.03 - 0.26, P<0.05; OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.03 - 0.26, P< 0.05). Our study manifested that the DAZL polymorphism A386G, but not A260G, was correlated with reduced sper- matogenesis or sperm count specifically in Chinese males. More high-quality trials are required for a deeper insight into the exact relationship of DAZL A260G and A386G polymorphisms with oligozoospermia- or azoospermia-induced male infertility.

  1. Embryo quality before and after surgical treatment of endometriosis in infertile patients

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Richard O.; Behr, Barry; Milki, Amin A.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Lathi, Ruth B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that surgical treatment of endometriosis in infertile patients may improve pregnancy rates by improving embryo quality. Methods We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 30 infertile patients treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) before and after surgery for endometriosis. Patients served as their own controls and only cycles with similar stimulation protocols were compared. Results Using standard visual evaluation, embryo quality on day 3 was similar before and after surgical treatment of endometriosis. Fifty seven percent of patients had stage I–II endometriosis and 43% had stage III–IV disease. No patients had a live birth after the first IVF cycle and 43% of patients had a live birth with the IVF cycle after surgery. Conclusions Surgical treatment of endometriosis does not alter embryo quality in patients with infertility treated with IVF. PMID:19214735

  2. Association of infertile patients having polycystic ovarian syndrome with recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Banu, J; Fatima, P; Sultana, P; Chowdhury, M A; Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Ishrat, S; Deeba, F; Begum, S A

    2014-10-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has a pivotal role in the development of various complications during pregnancy. Polycystic ovarian syndrome women having elevated LH and hyper insulineuia may be at increased risk of miscarriage. The study was done to find out the recurrent pregnancy loss among the PCOS patient. This was a cross sectional case control study in total 100 infertile patients between age 20-40 years attending BSMMU out patient Department from July 2011 to June 2012, among them 50 infertile patients with PCOS regarding as a case and 50 infertile patients without PCOS selected as a control. Regarding case (infertile patients with PCOS) shows 20(40%) recurrent miscarriage and among control (infertile patients without PCOS) shows recurrent miscarriage 6(12%). And also among case group shows insulin resistance 8(16%) and control group insulin resistance 1(2%). Six (75%) abortion occur among PCOS with insulin resistance and 5(62.5%) abortion occur among PCOS with raised testosterone level. It is observed that recurrent miscarriage is higher in PCOS group. And also concluded that insulin resistance and raised testosterone level is responsible for this condition. So, further large scale study would be needed to reduce the chance of recurrent pregnancy loss by treatment with insulin sensitizer in case of obese PCOS with insulin resistance patient.

  3. Detection of 90K/MAC-2BP in the seminal plasma of infertile males with accessory gland infection and the autoimmune pathogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Ettore; Niederberger, Craig; Iacovazzi, Palma A; Correale, Mario; D'Amato, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate 90K/MAC-2BP, a glycoprotein member of the Scavenger Receptor Cystein Rich superfamily, in the seminal plasma of infertile male patients with male accessory gland infection in order to investigate a putative autoimmune pathogenesis. 90K seminal concentration and sperm parameters were evaluated in 50 patients with male accessory gland infection at baseline and after cycles of treatment with Levofluoxacin 500 mg daily for 15 days plus serratiopeptidase 10 mg daily for 30 days. Treatment was continued for up to 6 cycles in cases of persistant bacteriospermia and/or clinical and ejaculatory signs of the disease. Patients with persistant male accessory gland infection after 6 cycles were defined as nonresponders. The same parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a 2-month period in 30 healthy controls. Patients with male accessory gland infection showed impaired sperm parameters and had lower seminal 90K concentration compared to controls. After treatment, seminal 90K level significantly increased in patients compared to controls. Twenty-two patients responded to treatment (44%), while 28 were nonresponders (56%). No difference in pretreatment and posttreatment sperm parameters and seminal 90K was observed between the 2 subgroups. Thirteen patients (26%) had identifiable bacteriospermia: significantly less pretreatment seminal 90K was observed compared to patients without bacteriospermia. Seminal 90K is decreased in patients with male accessory gland infection, and may be restored by a treatment with quinolones. However, the clinical utility of a 90K assay in these patients remains uncertain, as its level is not predictive of response to treatment.

  4. Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Hanen; Znazen, Abir; Sellami, Afifa; Mnif, Hela; Louati, Nour; Zarrouk, Soumaya Ben; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Gdoura, Radhouane; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis

  5. [A case of male infertility with a reciprocal translocation t(X;14)(p11.4;p12)].

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sang Hyun; Lee, Sun Min; Seo, Eul Ju; Choi, Kyung Un; Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol; Choi, Jin; Lee, Eun Yup

    2007-04-01

    A chromosomal abnormality was found in about 3.6-7.6% of males presenting with azoospermia or oligospermia. Translocations between X chromosome and autosomes are rarely seen genetic disorders that cause male infertility. We described here a 26-year-old infertile male with t(X;14)(p11.4; p12). He showed a normal phenotype without any familial history of congenital abnormalities. The cytogenetic analysis of the proband revealed an X-autosomal translocation, 46,Y,t(X;14)(p11.4;p12), which was inherited from his mother. The testis biopsies indicated the arrest of spermatogenesis. There were no microdeletions of the azoospermia factor a (AZFa), AZFb and AZFc regions in the Y chromosome shown by PCR with 11 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. According to the literature, male carriers of an X-autosome translocation are invariably sterile, regardless of the position of the break-point in the X chromosome. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of azoospermia with t(X;14)(p11.4;p12) in Korea.

  6. Persistence of infertility in GnRH immunized male rats treated with subdermal implants of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, C A; Hurst, B S; Reece, M S; Kim, W K; Schlaff, W D

    1996-10-01

    Male hormonal contraception has been limited to date because two fundamental requirements have not been concurrently satisfied, these are, consistent and dependable azoospermia and infertility coupled with maintenance of libido. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which implants of potent androgen (DHT) will restore androgenization and spermatogenesis in hypogonadotropic infertile male rats. Twenty-five sexually mature male rats of proven fertility were actively immunized against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce azoospermia. After azoospermia was achieved, GnRH immunized rats received subdermal DHT-filled Silastic implants of 2, 4, 6, or 8 cm, or empty implants (n=5/group). Five untreated control rats received empty capsules. Eight weeks later, fertility was evaluated, sperm number was obtained from the testis, and weights of androgen-dependent organs were measured. The results indicate that immunoneutralization of GnRH induced complete azoospermia, and subsequent treatment with DHT implants of 2 or 4 cm for 8 wk restored accessory organ weights, but did not restore spermatogenesis or fertility. In addition, DHT implants of 6 to 8 cm partially restored spermatogenesis, but not fertility. We conclude that low-dose DHT supplementation of GnRH-immunized rats may be a suitable alternate therapy able to maintain androgenization in the face of persistent azoospermia in the rat. This may be an effective model for development of a male contraceptive.

  7. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex – Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. PMID:23998093

  8. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522) and confirmed fertile (N = 315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p = 0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p = 0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000), 1.310 (p = 0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  9. Strong Association of 677 C>T Substitution in the MTHFR Gene with Male Infertility - A Study on an Indian Population and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Background Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. Methodology/Principal Findings We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522) and confirmed fertile (N = 315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included ‘Pubmed’, ‘Ovid’ and ‘Google Scholar’. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p = 0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p = 0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000), 1.310 (p = 0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. Conclusions/Significance 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor. PMID:21799811

  10. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133