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Sample records for male type fat

  1. Swim Training Improves HOMA-IR in Type 2 Diabetes Induced by High Fat Diet and Low Dose of Streptozotocin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Rafigheh; Ghadiri Soufi, Farhad; Somi, Mohammad hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Mirzaie Bavil, Fariba; Naderi, Roya; Alipour, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Insulin resistance plays a key role in the onset and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications. In this study, we evaluated the effect of swim training on insulin resistance in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=10): sedentary control (Con), sedentary diabetic (Dia), swim trained control (Exe) and swim trained diabetic (Dia+Exe) rats. Diabetes was induced by high fat diet (HFD) and a low dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p). In trained groups, one week after the induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks. At the end of training, fasting blood sugar (FBS), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting/basal insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, insulin resistance index, homeostasis model assessment method (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG,) total cholesterol (TCh), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in blood were measured. Results: Swimming significantly improved OGTT (P<0.01) and HOMA-IR (P<0.01). Swim training also significantly decreased FBS (p<0.01), fasting/basal insulin (P<0.01), HbA1C (p<0.01), TG (P<0.05), and TCh (P<0.05) levels. It also significantly increased HDL (p<0.05) level. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that swim training improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes caused by high fat diet in male rats. PMID:26504760

  2. GABA type B receptor signaling in proopiomelanocortin neurons protects against obesity, insulin resistance, and hypothalamic inflammation in male mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Banno, Ryoichi; Shibata, Miyuki; Adachi, Koichi; Hagimoto, Shigeru; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ozawa, Yoshiharu; Goto, Motomitsu; Suga, Hidetaka; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Bettler, Bernhard; Oiso, Yutaka; Arima, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    There is evidence suggesting that the GABA system in the arcuate nucleus, where orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide as well as anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are expressed, plays an important role in energy balance. In this study, we generated POMC-specific GABAB receptor-deficient [knock-out (KO)] mice. Male KO mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) showed mild increases in body weight (BW) at the age of 9 weeks compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and the differences remained significant until 16 weeks old. However, there was no difference in BW in females between genotypes. While food intake was similar between genotypes, oxygen consumption was significantly decreased in the male KO mice. The insulin tolerance test revealed that the male KO mice were less insulin sensitive compared to WT mice at the age of 8 weeks, when there was no significant difference in BW between genotypes. Despite increased BW, POMC mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased in the KO mice compared to WT mice at the age of 16 weeks. Furthermore, the expression of TNFα as well as IL-6, proinflammatory markers in the hypothalamus, was significantly increased in the KO mice on a HFD compared to WT mice. This demonstrates that the deletion of GABAB receptors in POMC neurons in the male mice on a HFD results in obesity, insulin resistance, and hypothalamic inflammation. Furthermore, the decreased POMC expression in the obese KO mice suggests that the regulation of POMC expression through GABAB receptors is essential for proper energy balance.

  3. Effect of fish oil and coconut fat supplementation on depressive-type behavior and corticosterone levels of prenatally stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Borsonelo, Elizabethe Cristina; Suchecki, Deborah; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes

    2011-04-18

    Prenatal stress (PNS) during critical periods of brain development has been associated with numerous behavioral and/or mood disorders in later life. These outcomes may result from changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which, in turn, can be modulated by environmental factors, such as nutritional status. In this study, the adult male offspring of dams exposed to restraint stress during the last semester of pregnancy and fed different diets were evaluated for depressive-like behavior in the forced swimming test and for the corticosterone response to the test. Female Wistar rats were allocated to one of three groups: regular diet, diet supplemented with coconut fat or with fish oil, offered during pregnancy and lactation. When pregnancy was confirmed, they were distributed into control or stress groups. Stress consisted of restraint and bright light for 45 min, three times per day, in the last week of pregnancy. The body weight of the adult offspring submitted to PNS was lower than that of controls. In the forced swimming test, time of immobility was reduced and swimming was increased in PNS rats fed fish oil and plasma corticosterone levels immediately after the forced swimming test were lower in PNS rats fed regular diet than their control counterparts; this response was reduced in control rats whose mothers were fed fish oil and coconut fat. The present results indicate that coconut fat and fish oil influenced behavioral and hormonal responses to the forced swimming test in both control and PNS adult male rats.

  4. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  5. Ferulic acid exerts its antidiabetic effect by modulating insulin-signalling molecules in the liver of high-fat diet and fructose-induced type-2 diabetic adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Akilavalli; Chinnaiyan, Mayilvanan; Karundevi, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic phytochemical known for its antidiabetic property The present study is designed to evaluate the mechanism behind its antidiabetic property in high-fat and fructose-induced type 2 diabetic adult male rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups: (i) control, (ii) diabetic control, (iii) diabetic animals treated with FA (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(-1), orally) for 30 days, (iv) diabetic animals treated with metformin (50 mg/(kg body weight · day)(-1), orally) for 30 days, and (v) control rats treated with FA. FA treatment to diabetic animals restored blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance to normal range. Hepatic glycogen concentration, activity of glycogen synthase, and glucokinase were significantly decreased, whereas activity of glycogen phosphorylase and enzymes of gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase)) were increased in diabetic animals and FA restored these to normal levels similar to that of metformin. FA improved the insulin signalling molecules and reduced the negative regulators of insulin signalling. The messenger RNA of gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase) and the interaction between forkhead transcription factor-O1 and promoters of gluconeogenic enzyme genes (PEPCK and G6Pase) was reduced significantly by ferulic acid. It is concluded from the present study that FA treatment to type 2 diabetic rats improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic glycogenesis but inhibits gluconeogenesis and negative regulators of insulin signalling to maintain normal glucose homeostasis.

  6. What Are the Types of Fat?

    MedlinePlus

    ... they are also found in liquid tropical oils (palm and coconut). Trans fats (partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated fats) are ... skin Whole-fat dairy products (cream/milk) Butter Palm and coconut oil (snack foods, non- dairy creamers, whipped toppings) ...

  7. New percentage body fat prediction equations for Japanese males.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Masaharu; Kerr, Deborah; Binns, Colin W

    2006-07-01

    Anthropometry is simple, cheap, portable and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition. While the Nagamine and Suzuki body density prediction equation has been frequently used to estimate %BF of Japanese, the equation was developed more than 40 years ago and its applicability to the current Japanese population has not been studied. This study aimed to compare %BF results estimated from anthropometry and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in order to examine applicability of the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. Body composition of 45 Japanese males (age: 24.3+/-5.5 years, stature: 171.6+/-5.8 cm, body mass: 62.6+/-7.1 kg, %BF: 15.7+/-5.6%) were assessed using whole-body DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) scan and anthropometry using the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). From anthropometric measurements %BF was calculated using the Nagamine and Suzuki equation. The results showed that the Nagamine and Suzuki equation significantly (p<0.05) underestimated %BF of Japanese males compared to the DXA results. There was a trend towards greater underestimation as the estimated %BF values using DXA increased. New %BF prediction equations were proposed from the DXA and anthropometry results. Application of the proposed equations may assist in more accurate assessment of body fatness in Japanese males living today.

  8. Adipose tissue expansion and the development of obesity: influence of dietary fat type.

    PubMed

    Hausman, D B; Loh, M Y; Flatt, W P; Martin, R J

    1997-03-01

    Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 30% or more in the past decade, with increases in both genders and in all ethnic and racial populations and age groups. Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases and alterations in physiologic function including cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease and certain types of cancer. Much attention regarding dietary influences on obesity development or prevention has focused on high fat diets. Many studies have confirmed that high fat feeding leads to an expansion of adipose tissue mass through an increase in fat cell size and/or number and to the subsequent development of obesity. However, there is little definitive information on the effect of type of dietary fat, especially palm oil, on adipose tissue cellularity and the development of obesity. These studies were designed to determine whether dietary fat of different sources vary in their ability to produce obesity and to begin to elucidate the mechanism by which such divergence occurs. Male Osborne-Mendel rats were fed either a low fat (15% calories) or one of three high fat diets (65% calories) for 12 weeks. The predominant fat source in the high fat diets was either soybean oil, tallow, or palm-olein (a fraction of palm oil). Final body weight was not influenced by fat level or type; however, percent carcass lipid and fat pad weight were higher in soybean oil and tallow fed rats than in low fat and palm-olein fed rats. Fat pad specific increases in cell size and cell number were observed for tallow and soybean oil fed compared to low fat and palm-olein fed rats. Serum triglycerides were higher in the tallow and palm-olein fed rats compared to low fat fed rats; no significant effects of dietary fat type on serum cholesterol were observed. These results indicate that palm-olein, unlike tallow and soybean oil, were comparable to a low fat diet concerning fat pad weight, body composition and

  9. Dietary fat-induced hyperphagia in rats as a function of fat type and physical form.

    PubMed

    Lucas, F; Ackroff, K; Sclafani, A

    1989-05-01

    The influence of dietary fat on food intake and weight gain was assessed by feeding adult female rats diets that differed in the type and form of fat, as well as in the availability of other macro- and micronutrients. Compared to chow-fed controls, the various fat diets increased total food intake by 4% to 27%. Specifically, rats fed chow and a separate source of fat (fat option diet) consumed more fat and total calories, and gained more weight when the fat source was emulsified corn oil rather than pure corn oil or was vegetable shortening rather than corn oil. However, corn oil and shortening had similar effects on caloric intake and weight gain when presented as emulsified gels. Also, pure and emulsified-gel forms of shortening did not differ in their effects on caloric intake and weight gain. Supplementing the vegetable shortening with micronutrients, however, enhanced its hyperphagia-promoting effect. The results of two-choice tests revealed that the rats' preferences for the orosensory properties of the various fat sources did not account for the differential hyperphagias obtained. Rather, it appears that long-term fat selection and caloric intake are influenced primarily by postingestive factors. Fat selection and total intake were determined not only by the fat source itself, but also by the other diet options. That is, rats selected more fat and consumed more calories when chow was the alternative food than when separate sources of carbohydrate and protein were available.

  10. Linoleic acid causes greater weight gain than saturated fat without hypothalamic inflammation in the male mouse.

    PubMed

    Mamounis, Kyle J; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A

    2017-02-01

    A significant change in the Western diet, concurrent with the obesity epidemic, was a substitution of saturated fatty acids with polyunsaturated, specifically linoleic acid (LA). Despite increasing investigation on type as well as amount of fat, it is unclear which fatty acids are most obesogenic. The objective of this study was to determine the obesogenic potency of LA vs. saturated fatty acids and the involvement of hypothalamic inflammation. Forty-eight mice were divided into four groups: low-fat or three high-fat diets (HFDs, 45% kcals from fat) with LA comprising 1%, 15% and 22.5% of kilocalories, the balance being saturated fatty acids. Over 12 weeks, bodyweight, body composition, food intake, calorimetry, and glycemia assays were performed. Arcuate nucleus and blood were collected for mRNA and protein analysis. All HFD-fed mice were heavier and less glucose tolerant than control. The diet with 22.5% LA caused greater bodyweight gain, decreased activity, and insulin resistance compared to control and 1% LA. All HFDs elevated leptin and decreased ghrelin in plasma. Neuropeptides gene expression was higher in 22.5% HFD. The inflammatory gene Ikk was suppressed in 1% and 22.5% LA. No consistent pattern of inflammatory gene expression was observed, with suppression and augmentation of genes by one or all of the HFDs relative to control. These data indicate that, in male mice, LA induces obesity and insulin resistance and reduces activity more than saturated fat, supporting the hypothesis that increased LA intake may be a contributor to the obesity epidemic.

  11. PPARα L162V underlies variation in serum triglycerides and subcutaneous fat volume in young males

    PubMed Central

    Uthurralt, Julieta; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Bradbury, Meg; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Devaney, Joseph; Harmon, Brennan; Reeves, Erica K; Brandoli, Cinzia; Hansen, Barbara C; Seip, Richard L; Thompson, Paul D; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Moyna, Niall M; Pescatello, Linda S; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Gordon, Paul M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2007-01-01

    Background Of the five sub-phenotypes defining metabolic syndrome, all are known to have strong genetic components (typically 50–80% of population variation). Studies defining genetic predispositions have typically focused on older populations with metabolic syndrome and/or type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the study of younger populations would mitigate many confounding variables, and allow us to better define genetic predisposition loci for metabolic syndrome. Methods We studied 610 young adult volunteers (average age 24 yrs) for metabolic syndrome markers, and volumetric MRI of upper arm muscle, bone, and fat pre- and post-unilateral resistance training. Results We found the PPARα L162V polymorphism to be a strong determinant of serum triglyceride levels in young White males, where carriers of the V allele showed 78% increase in triglycerides relative to L homozygotes (LL = 116 ± 11 mg/dL, LV = 208 ± 30 mg/dL; p = 0.004). Men with the V allele showed lower HDL (LL = 42 ± 1 mg/dL, LV = 34 ± 2 mg/dL; p = 0.001), but women did not. Subcutaneous fat volume was higher in males carrying the V allele, however, exercise training increased fat volume of the untrained arm in V carriers, while LL genotypes significantly decreased in fat volume (LL = -1,707 ± 21 mm3, LV = 17,617 ± 58 mm3 ; p = 0.002), indicating a systemic effect of the V allele on adiposity after unilateral training. Our study suggests that the primary effect of PPARα L162V is on serum triglycerides, with downstream effects on adiposity and response to training. Conclusion Our results on association of PPARα and triglycerides in males showed a much larger effect of the V allele than previously reported in older and less healthy populations. Specifically, we showed the V allele to increase triglycerides by 78% (p = 0.004), and this single polymorphism accounted for 3.8% of all variation in serum triglycerides in males (p = 0.0037). PMID:17705849

  12. Gestational exercise protects adult male offspring from high-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Ryan D.; Blaize, A. Nicole; Fletcher, Justin A.; Pearson, Kevin J.; Donkin, Shawn; Newcomer, Sean C.; Rector, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Mounting evidence indicates that maternal exercise confers protection to adult offspring against various diseases. Here we hypothesized that maternal exercise during gestation would reduce high fat diet (HFD) induced hepatic steatosis in adult rat offspring. Methods Following conception, pregnant dams were divided into either voluntary wheel running exercise (GE) or wheel-locked sedentary (GS) groups throughout gestation (days 4-21). Post-weaning, offspring received either normal chow diet (ND; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat, 35% carbohydrate, and 20% protein) until sacrifice at 4-or 8-months of age. Results GE did not affect offspring birth weight or litter size. HFD feeding in offspring increased weight gain, % body fat, and glucose tolerance test area under the curve (GTT-AUC). Male offspring from GE dams had reduced % body fat across all ages (p < 0.05). In addition, 8-mo male offspring from GE dams were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, which was associated with increased markers of hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α and TFAM), autophagic potential (ATG12:ATG5 conjugation) and hepatic triacylglycerol secretion (MTTP). Conclusions The current study provides the first evidence that gestational exercise can reduce susceptibility to high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in adult male offspring. PMID:26325536

  13. Effect of the use of entire male fat in the production of reduced salt fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the use of entire male fat and salt reduction in dry fermented sausages was evaluated. Four different sausage formulations were manufactured with back fat from gilt or entire male and two different salt contents. The physicochemical parameters, sensory characteristics, texture, lipid composition, volatile compounds and boar taint compounds were analysed. The use of entire male fat produced the highest weight losses producing high hardness and chewiness while salt reduction produced a decrease in hardness. Entire male sausages had the lowest oxidation values due to the low content of C18:2n6 while salt reduction did not affect the oxidation process. Boar taint odour was due to the presence of androstenone and skatole but entire male fat sausages had different generations of volatile compounds. The presence of androstenone was perceived by consumers as abnormal odours but also other sausage characteristics such as texture (high hardness) and oxidation were detected due to the different chemical compositions of entire males versus gilts.

  14. Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Epicardial Fat Thickness in a Healthy Male Population

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Uğur; Küçük, Hilal Olgun; Cüce, Ferhat; Balta, Sevket

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epicardial fat is an upper body visceral fat depot that may play a significant role in the development of adverse metabolic and cardiovascular risk profiles. There is a significant direct relationship between the amount of epicardial fat and general body adiposity (body mass index, BMI), but data regarding subcutaneous adiposity is limited. Objective: We conducted a study to determine the association between neck circumference and epicardial fat thickness in healthy young male individuals, and assess their individual correlations with general body adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods: One hundred consecutive male patients aged 18 years or older with no known major medical conditions were included in the study. All participants underwent detailed physical examination including measurement of blood pressure, weight, height, waist/hip ratio, and neck circumference. Blood was collected to determine fasting glucose and lipid parameters. A standard echocardiographic examination was performed with additional epicardial fat thickness determination. Results: Among 100 study participants, neck circumference correlated significantly with weight, waist circumference, BMI, blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, low-density (LDL)-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels. No significant correlation was found between neck circumference and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Neck circumference correlated moderately and positively with echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness. Conclusion: Among patients with low cardiometabolic risk, increased neck circumference was associated with increased epicardial fat thickness. PMID:27509093

  15. Androgen Deficiency Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Alterations in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Vanessa; Laurent, Michaël R; Jardi, Ferran; Antonio, Leen; Lemaire, Katleen; Goyvaerts, Lotte; Deldicque, Louise; Carmeliet, Geert; Decallonne, Brigitte; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Claessens, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Androgen deficiency is associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, but the mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of androgen deficiency and high-fat diet (HFD) on body composition and glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J male mice. Two models of androgen deficiency were used: orchidectomy (ORX) and androgen receptor knockout mice. Both models displayed higher adiposity and serum leptin levels upon HFD, whereas no differences were seen on a regular diet. Fat accumulation in HFD ORX animals was accompanied by increased sedentary behavior and occurred in spite of reduced food intake. HFD ORX mice showed white adipocyte hypertrophy, correlated with decreased mitochondrial content but not function as well as increased lipogenesis and decreased lipolysis suggested by the up-regulation of fatty acid synthase and the down-regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase. Both ORX and androgen receptor knockout exacerbated HFD-induced glucose intolerance by impairing insulin action in liver and skeletal muscle, as evidenced by the increased triglyceride and decreased glycogen content in these tissues. In addition, serum IL-1β levels were elevated, and pancreatic insulin secretion was impaired after ORX. Testosterone but not dihydrotestosterone supplementation restored the castration effects on body composition and glucose homeostasis. We conclude that sex steroid deficiency in combination with HFD exacerbates adiposity, insulin resistance, and β-cell failure in 2 preclinical male mouse models. Our findings stress the importance of a healthy diet in a clinical context of androgen deficiency and may have implications for the prevention of metabolic alterations in hypogonadal men.

  16. Association between Type 2 Diabetes Loci and Measures of Fatness

    PubMed Central

    Pecioska, Slavica; Zillikens, M. Carola; Henneman, Peter; Snijders, Pieter J.; Oostra, Ben A.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disorder characterized by disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and insulin resistance. The majority of T2D patients are obese and obesity by itself may be a cause of insulin resistance. Our aim was to evaluate whether the recently identified T2D risk alleles are associated with human measures of fatness as characterized with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Methodology/Principal Findings Genotypes and phenotypes of approximately 3,000 participants from cross-sectional ERF study were analyzed. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CDKN2AB, CDKAL1, FTO, HHEX, IGF2BP2, KCNJ11, PPARG, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 were genotyped. We used linear regression to study association between individual SNPs and the combined allelic risk score with body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), fat percentage (FAT), waist circumference (WC) and waist to hip ratio (WHR). Significant association was observed between rs8050136 (FTO) and BMI (p = 0.003), FMI (p = 0.007) and WC (p = 0.03); fat percentage was borderline significant (p = 0.053). No other SNPs alone or combined in a risk score demonstrated significant association to the measures of fatness. Conclusions/Significance From the recently identified T2D risk variants only the risk variant of the FTO gene (rs8050136) showed statistically significant association with BMI, FMI, and WC. PMID:20049090

  17. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Methods Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. Results After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = −0.52, P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (β = 0.27, P < 0.0001) were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) − 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. Conclusion The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners. PMID:24198587

  18. Fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism in non-obese male black African and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Ama, P F; Poehlman, E T; Simoneau, J A; Boulay, M R; Thériault, G; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-four male black African (25.5 +/- 3.0, mean +/- s.d., years of age) and 24 male Caucasian (21.5 +/- 3.6) subjects, ascertained as sedentary individuals, participated in this study designed to determine whether there were racial differences in fat distribution and adipose tissue metabolism while controlling the differences in body fat. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained from the suprailiac region for the determination of basal (BL), epinephrine submaximal 10(-4) M (ESML) and maximal 10(-3) M (EML) stimulated lipolysis, basal (BLG) and maximal insulin 9 microU/ml (ILG) stimulated lipogenesis and heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Body density was determined through underwater weighing procedures and body fat derived with the Siri equation. The following skinfolds were also measured: triceps, biceps, subscapular, abdomen, suprailiac, front thigh and medial calf. Caucasians were matched with the black Africans for age, body weight and body density. Results indicated that when Caucasians and black Africans of similar percentage body fat were compared, no significant differences were observed in the total amount of subcutaneous fat, fat distribution and suprailiac mean fat cell size. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups for BL, BLG, and ILG of adipose tissue. However, black Africans had higher (P less than 0.01) epinephrine stimulated lipolytic values (ESML and EML) and LPL activity (P less than 0.01) than the Caucasian subjects. These results suggest that for a comparable level of fatness and similar fat morphology and distribution, there are racial differences in adipose tissue metabolism.

  19. Quantification of intrapancreatic fat in type 2 diabetes by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Kieren G.; Steven, Sarah; Tiniakos, Dina; Taylor, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Accumulation of intrapancreatic fat may be important in type 2 diabetes, but widely varying data have been reported. The standard quantification by MRI in vivo is time consuming and dependent upon a high level of experience. We aimed to develop a new method which would minimise inter-observer variation and to compare this against previously published datasets. Methods A technique of ‘biopsying’ the image to minimise inclusion of non-parenchymal tissues was developed. Additionally, thresholding was applied to exclude both pancreatic ducts and intrusions of visceral fat, with pixels of fat values of <1% or >20% being excluded. The new MR image ‘biopsy’ (MR-opsy) was compared to the standard method by 6 independent observers with wide experience of image analysis but no experience of pancreas imaging. The effect of the new method was examined on datasets from two studies of weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Results At low levels of intrapancreatic fat neither the result nor the inter-observer CV was changed by MR-opsy, thresholding or a combination of the methods. However, at higher levels the conventional method exhibited poor inter-observer agreement (coefficient of variation 26.9%) and the new combined method improved the CV to 4.3% (p<0.03). Using either MR-opsy alone or with thresholding, the new methods indicated a closer relationship between decrease in intrapancreatic fat and fall in blood glucose. Conclusion The inter-observer variation for quantifying intrapancreatic fat was substantially improved by the new method when pancreas fat levels were moderately high. The method will improve comparability of pancreas fat measurement between research groups. PMID:28369092

  20. Elevated fat skatole levels in immunocastrated, surgically castrated and entire male pigs with acute dysentery.

    PubMed

    Skrlep, Martin; Batorek, Nina; Bonneau, Michel; Fazarinc, Gregor; Segula, Blaž; Candek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2012-12-01

    Boar taint is due to androstenone and skatole (3-methyl-indole) accumulation in fat tissues. During a study to investigate the effect of immunocastration on fattening pigs, an outbreak of acute dysentery occurred caused by Lawsonia intracellularis and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and resulted in cachexia and high mortality. Low androstenone levels in the immunocastrates (0.25 ± 0.04 μg/g liquid fat) suggested that the immunocastration had been effective, but unusually high skatole concentrations in fat tissues were found not only in entire males, but also in surgical castrates and immunocastrates (0.22 ± 0.15, 0.14 ± 0.08 and 0.18 ± 0.14 μg/g liquid fat, respectively). The findings suggest that boar taint can arise in cases of intestinal infections, even in castrated pigs.

  1. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  2. Activated Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells regulate Beige Fat Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Min-Woo; Odegaard, Justin I.; Mukundan, Lata; Qiu, Yifu; Molofsky, Ari B.; Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Yun, Karen; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), an innate source of the type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-5 and -13, participate in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Although type 2 immunity is critically important for mediating metabolic adaptations to environmental cold, the functions of ILC2s in beige or brown fat development are poorly defined. We report here that activation of ILC2s by IL-33 is sufficient to promote the growth of functional beige fat in thermoneutral mice. Mechanistically, ILC2 activation results in the proliferation of bipotential adipocyte precursors (APs) and their subsequent commitment to the beige fat lineage. Loss- and gain-of-function studies reveal that ILC2-and eosinophil-derived type 2 cytokines stimulate signaling via the IL-4Rα in PDGFRα+ APs to promote beige fat biogenesis. Together, our results highlight a critical role for ILC2s and type 2 cytokines in the regulation of adipocyte precursor numbers and fate, and as a consequence, adipose tissue homeostasis. PMID:25543153

  3. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on fat metabolism in trained and untrained older males.

    PubMed

    Bassami, Minoo; Ahmadizad, Sajad; Doran, Dominic; MacLaren, Donald P M

    2007-11-01

    Advancing age is associated with changes in fat and carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The effects of exercise intensity and duration on fat and CHO metabolism in elderly male subjects were investigated in the present study. Seven trained (63.7+/-4.7 years) and six untrained (63.5+/-4.5 years) healthy males performed three 30 min trials on a cycle ergometer at 50, 60 and 70% VO2max and two other trials at 60 and 70% VO2max in which the total energy expenditure was equal to that for 30 min at 50% VO2max Respiratory measures were undertaken throughout the exercise and blood samples taken before and immediately after each trial. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect of exercise intensity on fat oxidation when the exercise durations were equated as well as when the energy expenditure was held constant for the three trials, though no training effect was noted. Total carbohydrate oxidation increased significantly with exercise intensity (P<0.05) and with training. Significantly higher levels of non-esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) and glycerol were observed for trained compared with untrained though not for B-hydroxybutyrate (3-OH) or insulin. No differences in NEFA, glycerol, 3-OH were evident for increases in exercise intensity. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation are significantly affected by exercise intensity in elderly males, although only CHO oxidation is influenced by training. Furthermore, training-induced increases in the availability of NEFA and glycerol are not associated with an increase in fat oxidation, rather an increase in CHO oxidation.

  4. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD.

  5. Chronic High Fat Diet Consumption Impairs Metabolic Health of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morselli, Eugenia; Criollo, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding affects the hypothalamus of male but not female mice. In our study we demonstrate that palmitic acid and sphingolipids accumulate in the central nervous system of HFD-fed males. Additionally, we show that HFD-feeding reduces proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) thus reducing estrogen receptor α (ERα) and driving hypothalamic inflammation in male but not female mice. Hypothalamic inflammation correlates with markers of metabolic dysregulation as indicated by dysregulation in glucose intolerance and myocardial function. Lastly, we demonstrate that there are blockages in mitophagy and lipophagy in hypothalamic tissues in males. Our data suggest there is a sexually dimorphic response to chronic HDF exposure, females; despite gaining the same amount of body weight following HFD-feeding, appear to be protected from the adverse metabolic effects of the HFD. PMID:26046098

  6. Comparative Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis (cAEDA) of Fat from Tainted Boars, Castrated Male Pigs, and Female Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Christoph; Leppert, Jan; Santiuste, Alicia Chamarro; Pfeiffer, Anne; Boeker, Peter; Wüst, Matthias

    2017-01-12

    The aroma profile of porcine fat from tainted boars, female pigs, and castrated male pigs was investigated by application of comparative aroma extract dilution analysis (cAEDA) on a SAFE distillate of volatiles prepared from porcine back fat samples. The AEDA resulted in a total of 16 aroma active compounds for boar fat with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 2 to 2048, whereas 12 aroma active compounds were found in fat of female pigs and 14 in fat of castrated male pigs, both with FD factors ranging from 2 to 32. Odor activity values (OAVs) of key components for each fat were identified: In boar fat androstenone, skatole, indole, and 2-aminoacetophenone showed highest OAVs, whereas 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,4-decadienal, and δ-decalactone showed highest OAVs in fat of female pigs. Fat of castrated male pigs showed highest OAVs for skatole, indole, 1-octen-3-ol and methional. Finally, the off-flavor attributes of boar fat were successfully simulated by a recombinant of all odorants at their natural concentration level in deodorized sunflower oil.

  7. Differential expression of apolipoprotein D in male reproductive system of rats by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lim, W; Bae, H; Song, G

    2016-11-01

    Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins. Although Apolipoprotein D binds to small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol, little is known about effects of high-fat diet with cholesterol on expression of Apolipoprotein D in the male reproductive tract. Therefore, we investigated Apod expression in penises, prostate glands, and testes from rats fed a high-fat diet including a high amount of cholesterol. Our previous research indicated that a high-fat diet induces dyslipidemia leading to histological changes and dysfunction of male reproduction in rats. Consistent with these results, Apod mRNA expression was significantly (p < 0.001) decreased in penises and prostate glands (p < 0.01) and testes (p < 0.01) from rats fed a high-fat diet as compared with normal diet. In addition, Apod mRNA and protein were detected predominantly in urethral epithelium and penile follicle from rats. Moreover, changes in expression of specific microRNAs (miR-229b-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-490-3p) regulating Apod in the penises and prostate glands were negatively associated with Apod expression. Collectively, results of this study suggest that Apod is a novel regulatory gene in the male reproductive system, especially in penises of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, and that expression of Apod is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by target microRNAs.

  8. Maternal Omega-3 Supplementation Increases Fat Mass in Male and Female Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Muhlhausler, Beverly Sara; Miljkovic, Dijana; Fong, Laura; Xian, Cory J.; Duthoit, Emmanuelle; Gibson, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n = 10) or chow designed to provide ∼15 mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n = 11) and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3 and 6 weeks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using quantitative real time reverse transcription-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs. 4.56 ± 0.2%, P < 0.04) and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs. 3.89 ± 0.36%, P < 0.04) offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a% of total fatty acids) was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2% vs. 5.6 ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n−3 LCPUFA

  9. Personal Best Time, Percent Body Fat, and Training Are Differently Associated with Race Time for Male and Female Ironman Triathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average…

  10. Maternal High Fat Diet Alters Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Catalytic Activity in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Pileggi, Chantal A.; Hedges, Christopher P.; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Markworth, James F.; Durainayagam, Brenan R.; Gray, Clint; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D.; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Vickers, Mark H.; Hickey, Anthony J. R.; Reynolds, Clare M.; Cameron-Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    A maternal high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy can lead to metabolic compromise, such as insulin resistance in adult offspring. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is one mechanism contributing to metabolic impairments in insulin resistant states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in metabolically compromised offspring born to HF-fed dams. Sprague-Dawley dams were randomly assigned to receive a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat) or a high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and during lactation. From weaning, all male offspring received a standard chow diet and soleus muscle was collected at day 150. Expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) were downregulated in HF offspring. Furthermore, genes encoding the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory complex subunits were suppressed in HF offspring. Moreover, protein expression of the complex I subunit, NDUFB8, was downregulated in HF offspring (36%), which was paralleled by decreased maximal catalytic linked activity of complex I and III (40%). Together, these results indicate that exposure to a maternal HF diet during development may elicit lifelong mitochondrial alterations in offspring skeletal muscle. PMID:27917127

  11. Obesity Impact Evaluated from Fat Percentage in Bone Mineral Density of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Modesto, Jhomyr Dias; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze bone mineral density (BMD) values in adolescents and to assess obesity impact, measured through body fat #x2013;on this variable through the assessment by DEXA. Methodology A total of 318 males adolescents (12–17 years) were evaluated considering weight, height, body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), fat and lean mass. BMD was assessed for the arms, legs, hips, and lumbar regions, as well as for total amount. Stratification of the nutritional status was determined by body fat (%BF) percentage; comparison of groups was scrutinized by analysis of variance; and the association of variables was performed using Pearson's test. Results There was a progressive increase in weight, height, and BMD for all evaluated age groups following the advance of chronological age. A negative correlation was found between the %BF with BMD in all evaluated segments. Significant differences were found between the eutrophic group compared to the overweight group and the obesity group in the evaluated segments (P <0.01) noting a reduction of up to 12.92% for the lumbar region between eutrophic and obese. Conclusion The results suggest that increase %BF is associated with lower BMD among male adolescents. PMID:27685942

  12. [Estimation of the biological age in males of the taiga tick (Ixodes persulcatus: Ixodinae) by fat reserves in the midgut].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2012-01-01

    Some criteria for the estimation of the biological and calendar age by the fat storage in midgut cells of Ixodes persulcatus males were established on the basis of examination of ticks from the laboratory culture.

  13. Effect of breed-type on the relationships between intramuscular and total body fat in steers.

    PubMed

    García, P T; Casal, J J; Parodi, J J

    1986-01-01

    The partitioning of total dissectible body fat and the amounts of intramuscular fat in Psoas major, Semitendinosus and Biceps brachii muscles were determined in two groups of A. Angus and AA × Nelore steers with similar averages of total dissectible fat (27·7 kg). In addition, the fatty acid composition of total fat and the triglyceride fraction from dissectible and intramuscular fats were determined. The AA × Nelore steers have higher levels of subcutaneous fat and lower levels of intermuscular fat than the A. Angus but contain lower levels of intramuscular fat in the three muscles. The allometric regressions varied according to the muscle and breed type. The fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fats were similar but differences in the percentages of 14:0, 18:0, 18:2 and 20:4 fatty acids in intramuscular fats between the two genetic groups were detected.

  14. A high-fat diet differentially affects the gut metabolism and blood lipids of rats depending on the type of dietary fat and carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-02-03

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats.

  15. A High-Fat Diet Differentially Affects the Gut Metabolism and Blood Lipids of Rats Depending on the Type of Dietary Fat and Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Jurgoński, Adam; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to investigate how selected gut functions and serum lipid profile in rats on high-fat diets differed according to the type of fat (saturated vs. unsaturated) and carbohydrate (simple vs. complex). The experiment was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats distributed into 4 groups of 8 animals each. For 4 weeks, the animals were fed group-specific diets that were either rich in lard or soybean oil (16% of the diet) as the source of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids, respectively; further, each lard- and soybean oil-rich diet contained either fructose or corn starch (45.3% of the diet) as the source of simple or complex carbohydrates, respectively. Both dietary factors contributed to changes in the caecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, especially to the butyrate concentration, which was higher in rats fed lard- and corn starch-rich diets compared to soybean oil- and fructose-rich diets, respectively. The lowest butyrate concentration was observed in rats fed the soybean oil- and fructose-rich diet. On the other hand, the lard- and fructose-rich diet vs. the other dietary combinations significantly increased serum total cholesterol concentration, to more than two times serum triglyceride concentration and to more than five times the atherogenic index. In conclusion, a high-fat diet rich in fructose can unfavorably affect gut metabolism when unsaturated fats are predominant in the diet or the blood lipids when a diet is rich in saturated fats. PMID:24496299

  16. Personal best time, percent body fat, and training are differently associated with race time for male and female ironman triathletes.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Baumann, Barbara; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We studied male and female nonprofessional Ironman triathletes to determine whether percent body fat, training, and/or previous race experience were associated with race performance. We used simple linear regression analysis, with total race time as the dependent variable, to investigate the relationship among athletes' percent body fat, average amount of weekly training, and best time in an Ironman triathlon. For male athletes, percent body fat (r2 = 0.57, p < .001) was related to total race time but not average weekly training. For women, percent body fat showed no association with total race time; howeven average weekly training volume was related to total race time (r = .43, p < .01). Percent body fat and average weekly training were not correlated in either gender Speed in training was not associated with race performance in either gender. For men (r2 = .56, p < .001) and women (r2 = .45, p < .05), personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was related to total race time. We concluded that percent body fat was related to race performance in male athletes and to average weekly training in female athletes. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon was associated with total race time for both male and female athletes.

  17. Fat oxidation rate and the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation decreases with pubertal status in young male subjects.

    PubMed

    Riddell, M C; Jamnik, V K; Iscoe, K E; Timmons, Brian W; Gledhill, N

    2008-08-01

    The range of exercise intensities that elicit high fat oxidation rates (FOR) in youth and the influence of pubertal status on peak FOR are unknown. In a longitudinal design, we compared FOR over a range of exercise intensities in a small cohort of developing prepubertal male subjects. Five boys all at Tanner stage 1 (ages 11-12 yr) and nine men (ages 20-26 yr) underwent an incremental cycle ergometry test to volitional exhaustion. FOR curves were determined from indirect calorimetry during the final 30 s of each increment. The same protocol was duplicated annually in the boys as they progressed through puberty. The peak FOR was considerably higher (P<0.05) in boys at Tanner 1 (8.6+/-1.5 mg.kg lean body mass(-1).min(-1)) (mean+/-SD) compared with men (4.2+/-1.1 mg.kg lean body mass(-1).min(-1)). FOR dropped as boys developed through puberty (Tanner 2/3 peak rate=7.6+/-0.6 mg.kg lean body mass(-1).min(-1); Tanner 4 peak rate=5.4+/-1.8 mg.kg lean body mass(-1).min(-1), main effect of Tanner stage; P<0.05) to the levels found in men (not significant). The exercise intensity that elicited peak FOR was higher in the boys at Tanner 1 [56+/-6% peak aerobic power (VO2 peak)] than in men (31+/-4% VO2 peak) (P<0.001). This value tended to decrease by Tanner stage 4 (45+/-10% VO2 peak, main effect of Tanner stage; P=0.06). We conclude that, compared with men, prepubertal boys have higher relative FOR throughout a wide range of exercise intensities and that FOR drops as boys develop through puberty.

  18. High-Fat Diet During Mouse Pregnancy and Lactation Targets GIP-Regulated Metabolic Pathways in Adult Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Michael; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Isken, Frank; Nitz, Barbara; Kretschmer, Anja; Reischl, Eva; de las Heras Gala, Tonia; Osterhoff, Martin A; Grallert, Harald; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2016-03-01

    Maternal obesity is a worldwide problem associated with increased risk of metabolic diseases in the offspring. Genetic deletion of the gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice due to specific changes in energy and fat cell metabolism. We investigated whether GIP-associated pathways may be targeted by fetal programming and mimicked the situation by exposing pregnant mice to control or HFD during pregnancy (intrauterine [IU]) and lactation (L). Male wild-type (WT) and Gipr(-/-) offspring received control chow until 25 weeks of age followed by 20 weeks of HFD. Gipr(-/-) offspring of mice exposed to HFD during IU/L became insulin resistant and obese and exhibited increased adipose tissue inflammation and decreased peripheral tissue substrate utilization after being reintroduced to HFD, similar to WT mice on regular chow during IU/L. They showed decreased hypothalamic insulin sensitivity compared with Gipr(-/-) mice on control diet during IU/L. DNA methylation analysis revealed increased methylation of CpG dinucleotides and differential transcription factor binding of promoter regions of genes involved in lipid oxidation in the muscle of Gipr(-/-) offspring on HFD during IU/L, which were inversely correlated with gene expression levels. Our data identify GIP-regulated metabolic pathways that are targeted by fetal programming.

  19. Clostridium perfringens challenge and dietary fat type affect broiler chicken performance and fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Józefiak, D; Kierończyk, B; Rawski, M; Hejdysz, M; Rutkowski, A; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine how different fats commonly used in the feed industry affect broiler performance, nutrient digestibility and microbial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens challenged with virulent Clostridium perfringens strains. Two experiments were carried out, each including 480-day-old male broilers (Ross 308), which were randomly distributed to eight experimental groups using six replicate pens per treatment and 10 birds per pen. In Experiment 1, birds were fed diets containing soybean oil, palm kernel fatty acid distillers, rendered pork fat and lard. In Experiment 2, birds were fed diets containing rapeseed oil, coconut oil, beef tallow and palm oil. In both experiments, the birds were either not challenged or challenged with a mixture of three C. perfringens type A strains. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens did not affect broiler chicken body weight gain (BWG) and mortality in either of the two experiments. The BWG was affected by dietary fat type in both experiments, indicating that the fatty acid composition of the fat source affects broiler growth performance. In particular, the inclusion of animal fats tended to improve final BW to a greater extent compared with the inclusion of unsaturated vegetable oils. In Experiment 2, irrespective of the dietary fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge significantly impaired feed conversion ratio in the period from 14 to 28 days (1.63 v. 1.69) and at 42 days (1.65 v. 1.68). In both experiments apparent metabolizable energy values were affected by dietary fat type. Irrespective of the fat type present in the diet, C. perfringens challenge decreased the digesta pH in the crop and ileum, but had no effect in cecal contents. Moreover, in Experiment 1, total organic acid concentration in the ileum was two to three times lower on soybean oil diets as compared with other treatments, indicating that C. perfringens as well as

  20. Enhanced vascular function after acute fat-rich snacking in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yibin; Daleke, David L; Fly, Alyce D

    2012-08-01

    Diets high in fat are associated with vascular dysfunction. Frequent snacking may exacerbate this problem by extending the postprandial state. We hypothesized that repeated fat-rich mixed snacks would impair peripheral endothelial function and increase oxidative stress, a purported causal factor. Second, we hypothesized that feeding a quantity of snack based on the subject's body size would not cause different effects from feeding a fixed or constant size snack. A crossover design was used where 10 healthy males followed 2 repeated-snack regimens (fixed and variable based on body surface area), 1 week apart. Each regimen consisted of 2 snacks, fed 4 hours apart (0 and 4 hours). Markers of vascular function (reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacity were measured before and after each snack. Peripheral vascular function improved from fasting to 2 hours after snack 1 (RHI(2h-0h), P = .010), but the change before and after snack 2, RHI(6h-4h), was negative (P = .026), indicating reduced endothelial function after repeated snacking. The oxidative stress marker changed over time (P = .043), increasing after snack 1 and decreasing before snack 2, with no change after snack 2. The antioxidant marker increased 2 hours after each snack (P = .003). Responses to fixed snacks over time were not different from variable snacks, although power was low; the effect size was large for antioxidant capacity, medium for oxidative stress, and small for RHI. Snacking after fasting resulted in a transiently improved peripheral vascular response that disappeared with a second snack. Antioxidant capacity appeared to help limit oxidative stress from repeated snacking in these healthy male subjects.

  1. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide, has been reported to promote adipogenesis and cause insulin resistance in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance using male C57BL/6J mice. Imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) was mixed in a low-fat (4% w/w) or high-fat (20% w/w) diet and given to mice ad libitum for 12 weeks. Imidacloprid significantly promoted high fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. In addition, imidacloprid treatment with the high fat diet resulted in impaired glucose metabolism. Consistently, there were significant effects of imidacloprid on genes regulating lipid and glucose metabolisms, including the AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) pathway in white adipose tissue and liver. These results suggest that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:27960282

  2. Imidacloprid Promotes High Fat Diet-Induced Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Male C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quancai; Xiao, Xiao; Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Yoon, Kyoon Sup; Clark, John M; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-14

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agriculture worldwide, has been reported to promote adipogenesis and cause insulin resistance in vitro. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of imidacloprid and its interaction with dietary fat in the development of adiposity and insulin resistance using male C57BL/6J mice. Imidacloprid (0.06, 0.6, or 6 mg/kg bw/day) was mixed in a low-fat (4% w/w) or high-fat (20% w/w) diet and given to mice ad libitum for 12 weeks. Imidacloprid significantly promoted high fat diet-induced body weight gain and adiposity. In addition, imidacloprid treatment with the high fat diet resulted in impaired glucose metabolism. Consistently, there were significant effects of imidacloprid on genes regulating lipid and glucose metabolisms, including the AMP-activated protein kinase-α (AMPKα) pathway in white adipose tissue and liver. These results suggest that imidacloprid may potentiate high fat diet-induced adiposity and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice.

  3. ssc-miR-7134-3p regulates fat accumulation in castrated male pigs by targeting MARK4 gene

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kejun; Li, Wenting; Bai, Ying; Yang, Wanjie; Ling, Yao; Fang, Meiying

    2017-01-01

    Castration of male pigs is a common practice used to reduce boar taint in commercial pork production, but it also significantly results in fat accumulation in carcass. Our previous study revealed a miRNA gene, ssc-miR-7134-3p that was implicated in adipogenesis. However, the relationship between ssc-miR-7134-3p and fat deposition due to castration is unknown. In the present study, we observed that ssc-miR-7134-3p targets the coding sequence (CDS) region of MARK4 based on bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase assays. Experiments using silent mutations and sub-cloning showed that ssc-miR-7134-3p binds independently to two adjacent sites in the MARK4 CDS. Subsequently, ssc-miR-7134-3p inhibits MARK4 protein expression in pig fibroblast cells, being consistent with the targeting demonstrated in vitro. We found higher MARK4 protein levels in the back fat of castrated pigs than in intact pigs, providing further evidence that MARK4 is involved in regulation of fat deposition. In addition, one SNP (g.2581A>G) in MARK4 was significantly associated with the back fat trait in Chinese and European pig populations. Taken together, we would conclude that ssc-miR-7134-3p targets the MARK4 gene for fat accumulation in the castrated male pigs. PMID:28255271

  4. Effect of sitagliptin on epicardial fat thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Rodney, Marianela; Balladares, Nathalie; Contreras, Miguel; D'Marco, Luis; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of sitagliptin addition on the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. This was a 24-week interventional pilot study in 26 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients, 14 females and 12 males average age of 43.8 ± 9.0 years, with Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥ 7% on metformin monotherapy. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were added on sitagliptin and started on sitagliptin/metformin combination at the dosage of 50 mg/1000 mg twice daily. EAT and visceral and total body fat were measured, respectively, with echocardiography and bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and after 24 weeks of sitagliptin/metformin treatment in each subject. HbA1c and plasma lipids were also measured. EAT decreased significantly from 9.98 ± 2.63 to 8.10 ± 2.11 mm, p = 0.001, accounting for a percentage of reduction (∆%) of -15% after 24 weeks of sitagliptin addition, whereas total body fat percentage, visceral fat, and body mass index (BMI), decreased by 8, 12, and 7%, respectively (p = 0.001 for all). After 6 month, EAT ∆% was significantly correlated with ∆% of visceral fat (r = 0.456; p = 0.01), whereas no correlation with either BMI ∆% (r = 0.292; p = 0.147) or HbA1c ∆% was found. The addition of Sitagliptin produced a significant and rapid reduction of EAT, marker of organ-specific visceral fat, in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin monotherapy. EAT as measured with ultrasound can serve as no invasive and accurate marker of visceral fat changes during pharmaceutical interventions targeting the fat.

  5. Additive Effects of Nicotine and High-Fat Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Theodore C.; Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Parveen, Meher; Najjar, Sonia M.; Liu, Yanjun; Mangubat, Michael; Shin, Chang-Sung; Lyzlov, Alexei; Ivey, Rasheed; Shaheen, Magda; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease and may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We hypothesize that in the presence of nicotine, high-fat diet (HFD) causes more severe hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal chow diet or HFD and received twice daily injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight, ip) or saline for 10 wk. Light microscopic image analysis revealed significantly higher lipid accumulation in livers from mice on HFD plus nicotine (190 ± 19 μm2), compared with mice on HFD alone (28 ± 1.2 μm2). A significant reduction in the percent volume of endoplasmic reticulum (67.8%) and glycogen (49.2%) was also noted in hepatocytes from mice on HFD plus nicotine, compared with mice on HFD alone. The additive effects of nicotine on the severity of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis was associated with significantly greater oxidative stress, increased hepatic triglyceride levels, higher incidence of hepatocellular apoptosis, inactivation (dephosphorylation) of AMP-activated protein kinase, and activation of its downstream target acetyl-coenzyme A-carboxylase. Treatment with acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis, significantly reduced nicotine plus HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation. We conclude that: 1) greater oxidative stress coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase mediate the additive effects of nicotine and HFD on hepatic steatosis in obese mice and 2) increased lipolysis is an important contributor to hepatic steatosis. We surmise that nicotine exposure is likely to exacerbate the metabolic abnormalities induced by high-fat intake in obese patients. PMID:23093702

  6. Effects of swim training on liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats fed a low-fat or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake.

  7. Dietary fat type influences total milk fat content in lean women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole K; Beerman, Kathy A; McGuire, Mark A; Dasgupta, Nairanjana; Griinari, J Mikko; Williams, Janet; McGuire, Michelle K

    2005-03-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are found naturally in some foods (e.g., dairy products) as well as many processed foods made with partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO). Data from a growing literature suggest that some TFA decrease milk fat in lactating animals. Because the physiologic effects of TFA in lactating women are unknown, this study was designed to investigate the effects of TFA consumption on human milk fat. A randomized, crossover design (n = 12) was used to study the effect of 3 dietary treatments: high PHVO (regular margarine), low PHVO (low TFA margarine), or low PHVO but high in naturally occurring TFA (butter) on milk fat. Treatments were administered for 5 d, with 7-d washout periods. Maternal adiposity was estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Milk and blood were collected on d 5 of each intervention period. In general, milk and serum fatty acid concentrations mirrored those of the dietary treatments. There were significant interactions between treatment and maternal adiposity on milk fat and infant milk consumption, as well as on serum glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. Consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, resulted in lower milk fat in leaner, but not in more obese women. Consumption of either regular or low TFA margarine, compared with butter, elevated serum NEFA concentrations in the more obese women. In summary, consumption of regular margarine, compared with low TFA margarine, decreased milk fat in lean women. Further studies are required to determine whether infant milk consumption might compensate for this potentially important change in milk composition.

  8. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  9. Distinct metabolic effects following short-term exposure of different high-fat diets in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Senthil Kumar, Shiva P D; Shen, Minqian; Spicer, Elizabeth G; Goudjo-Ako, Ashley J; Stumph, Justin D; Zhang, Jing; Shi, Haifei

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-associated hepatic lipid accumulation and chronic low-grade inflammation lead to metabolic defects. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) are a risk factor for, whereas unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) are thought to be protective against, developing metabolic diseases. Sex differences exist in the regulation of metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that diets high in SFA, mono-UFA (MUFA), or poly-UFA (PUFA) had early, sex-distinct effects that differentially contribute to long-term metabolic disturbance such as fatty liver and insulin resistance. Metabolic changes including body and fat mass, circulating leptin and glucose levels, plasma lipid profile, hepatic lipid accumulation, expression levels of genes related to lipid metabolism and low-grade inflammation, and tissue insulin sensitivity were compared between male and female mice fed with a low-fat chow, or high-fat SFA, MUFA, or PUFA for a short period of four days. SFA and MUFA males increased adiposity associated with increased liver lipid accumulation and rapid activation of inflammation in adipose and muscle tissues, whereas PUFA males did not show lipid accumulation or tissue inflammation compared to chow males. All SFA and UFA males displayed tissue insulin resistance. In contrast, female high-fat diet groups had normal liver lipid content and maintained tissue insulin sensitivity without showing tissue inflammation. Therefore, sex differences existed during early phase of development of metabolic dysfunction. The beneficial effects of PUFA, but not MUFA, were corroborated in protection of obesity, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and low-grade inflammation. The benefit of MUFA and PUFA in maintaining tissue insulin sensitivity in males, however, was questioned.

  10. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  11. Resveratrol potentiates rapamycin to prevent hyperinsulinemia and obesity in male mice on high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, O V; Paszkiewicz, G; Demidenko, Z N; Blagosklonny, M V

    2013-01-01

    High doses of rapamycin, an antiaging agent, can prevent obesity in mice on high fat diet (HFD). Obesity is usually associated with hyperinsulinemia. Here, we showed that rapamycin given orally, at doses that did not affect weight gain in male mice on HFD, tended to decrease fasting insulin levels. Addition of resveratrol, which alone did not affect insulin levels, potentiated the effect of rapamycin, so that the combination decreased obesity and prevented hyperinsulinemia. Neither rapamycin nor resveratrol, and their combination affected fasting levels of glucose (despite lowering insulin levels), implying that the combination might prevent insulin resistance. We and others previously reported that resveratrol at high doses inhibited the mTOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway in cell culture. Yet, as we confirmed here, this effect was observed only at super-pharmacological concentrations. At pharmacological concentrations, resveratrol did not exert ‘rapamycin-like effects' on cellular senescence and did not inhibit the mTOR pathway in vitro, indicating nonoverlapping therapeutic mechanisms of actions of rapamycin and resveratrol in vivo. Although, like rapamycin, resveratrol decreased insulin-induced HIF-1-dependent transcription in cell culture, resveratrol did not inhibit mTOR at the same concentrations. Given distinct mechanisms of action of rapamycin and resveratrol at clinically relevant doses, their combination warrants further investigation as a potential antiaging, antiobesity and antidiabetic modality. PMID:23348586

  12. Distinct Relationships of Intramuscular and Subcutaneous Fat With Cortical Bone: Findings From a Cross-Sectional Study of Young Adult Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Deere, K.; Sayers, A.; Viljakainen, H. T.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sattar, N.; Kemp, J. P.; Fraser, W. D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intracellular fat within muscle and visceral tissue has been suggested to adversely influence bone development. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate associations between im fat, as reflected by muscle density as measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and cortical bone parameters in young adults. Design/Setting/Participants: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 1703 males and 2243 females aged 17.8 years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Outcome Measures: We measured cortical bone parameters from midtibial peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Results: Muscle density (inversely related to im fat) was inversely associated with periosteal circumference (PC) (beta = −0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), −0.1, −0.04]), cortical bone mineral density (BMDC) (beta = −0.21 [95% CI, −0.26, −0.17]), and cortical thickness (CT) (beta = −0.37 [95% CI, −0.42, −0.33]) (males and females combined, adjusted for age, height, gender, and muscle cross-sectional area). In contrast, sc fat area was positively associated with PC (beta = 0.10 [95% CI, 0.07, 0.12]), but no association was seen with BMDC or CT. To examine the role of candidate intermediary metabolic pathways, analyses were repeated after adjustment for insulin, C-reactive protein, and β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen. Whereas similar associations were observed after adjustment for insulin and C-reactive protein, the association between muscle density and BMDC was partially attenuated by adjustment for β-C-telopeptides of type I collagen (beta = −0.14 [95% CI, −0.20, −0.08]). Conclusion: Although im and sc fat were both positively associated with cortical bone mass, the nature of these relationships differed in that im fat was predominantly associated with CT and BMDC, whereas sc fat was mainly associated with PC. These relationships were largely independent of candidate metabolic pathways, such as altered bone

  13. Influence of Term of Exposure to High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity on Myocardial Collagen Type I and III

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Danielle Cristina Tomaz; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Leopoldo, André Soares; de Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; do Nascimento, André Ferreira; de Oliveira, Sílvio Assis; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for many medical complications; medical research has shown that hemodynamic, morphological and functional abnormalities are correlated with the duration and severity of obesity. Objective Present study determined the influence of term of exposure to high-fat diet-induced obesity on myocardial collagen type I and III. Methods Thirty-day-old male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups: a control (C) group fed a standard rat chow and an obese (Ob) group alternately fed one of four palatable high-fat diets. Each diet was changed daily, and the rats were maintained on their respective diets for 15 (C15 and Ob15) and 30 (C30 and Ob30) consecutive weeks. Obesity was determined by adiposity index. Results The Ob15 group was similar to the C15 group regarding the expression of myocardial collagen type I; however, expression in the Ob30 group was less than C30 group. The time of exposure to obesity was associated with a reduction in collagen type I in Ob30 when compared with Ob15. Obesity did not affect collagen type III expression. Conclusion This study showed that the time of exposure to obesity for 30 weeks induced by unsaturated high-fat diet caused a reduction in myocardial collagen type I expression in the obese rats. However, no effect was seen on myocardial collagen type III expression. PMID:24676371

  14. Effects of bingeing on fat during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, M Carmen; Cantacorps, Lídia; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Aguilar, María A; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga; Miñarro, José; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Binge eating is a specific form of overeating characterized by intermittent excessive eating. In addition to altering the neurobiological reward system, several studies have highlighted that consumption of palatable food increases vulnerability to drug use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a high-fat diet consumed in a binge pattern during adolescence on the reinforcing effects of cocaine. After 40 days of binge-eating for 2 h, three days a week (PND 29-69), the reinforcing effects of cocaine on conditioning place preference and intravenous self-administration paradigm were evaluated in adolescent male mice. Circulating leptin and ghrelin levels and the effects of bingeing on fat on CB1 mu opioid receptor (MOr) and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) gene expression in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) and Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) were also assessed. Our results showed a significant escalation in the consumption of a high-fat diet between the first and last week. High-fat binge (HFB) animals were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of a subthreshold dose of cocaine in the paradigms assayed, and animals under fat withdrawal were more vulnerable to the reinstatement of conditioned place preference. HFB mice also showed enhanced cocaine self-administration. After fat withdrawal, exposure to a new fat binge reinstated cocaine seeking. Although HFB did not modify leptin levels, a decrease in plasmatic ghrelin was observed. Moreover, this pattern of fatty diet resulted in a reduction of MOr and CB1 gene expression in the NAcc and an increase in GHSR expression in the VTA. We propose that bingeing on fat during adolescence induces long-lasting changes in the brain through the sensitization of brain reward circuits, which predisposes individuals to seek cocaine during adulthood.

  15. Influence of lipid type on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages studied by low-field NMR.

    PubMed

    Miklos, R; Mora-Gallego, H; Larsen, F H; Serra, X; Cheong, L-Z; Xu, X; Arnau, J; Lametsch, R

    2014-01-01

    The effects of diacylglycerols (DAG), pork back fat and sunflower oil on water and fat mobility in fermented sausages were studied with (1)H NMR relaxometry. The added fat affected the physicochemical parameters weight loss, water activity, moisture content and moisture content on a defatted-dry-matter basis of reduced-fat non-acid fermented sausages. The weight losses were the lowest in sausages prepared with DAG and sunflower oil, which resulted in higher water activity compared to sausages prepared with back fat. The relaxation times related to fat mobility differed between fat types and increased in the order: controlfatfat mobility were ascribed to differences in the fat distribution caused by deviations in the physicochemical properties of the fat types.

  16. Maternal high-fat diet inversely affects insulin sensitivity in dams and young adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Karbaschi, Roxana; Sadeghimahalli, Forouzan; Zardooz, Homeira

    2016-09-01

    This study attempts to further clarify the potential effects of maternal high-fat (HF) diet on glucose homeostasis in dams and young adult male rat offspring. Female rats were divided into control (CON dams) and HF (HF dams) diet groups, which received the diet 4 weeks prior to and through pregnancy and lactation periods. Blood samples were taken to determine metabolic parameters, then an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed. Maternal HF diet increased intra-abdominal fat mass and plasma corticosterone level, but decreased leptin concentration in dams. In HF offspring intra-abdominal fat mass, plasma leptin, and corticosterone levels decreased. Following IPGTT, the plasma insulin level of HF dams was higher than the controls. In HF offspring plasma insulin level was not significantly different from the controls, but a steeper decrease of their plasma glucose concentration was observed.

  17. Chronic rhein treatment improves recognition memory in high-fat diet-induced obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen; Huang, Xu-Feng; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hongqin; Zhang, Qingsheng; Yu, Shijia; Yu, Yinghua

    2016-10-01

    High-fat (HF) diet modulates gut microbiota and increases plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is associated with obesity and its related low-grade inflammation and cognitive decline. Rhein is the main ingredient of the rhubarb plant which has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for several millennia. However, the potential effects of rhein against HF diet-induced obesity and its associated alteration of gut microbiota, inflammation and cognitive decline have not been studied. In this study, C57BL/6J male mice were fed an HF diet for 8 weeks to induce obesity, and then treated with oral rhein (120 mg/kg body weight/day in HF diet) for a further 6 weeks. Chronic rhein treatment prevented the HF diet-induced recognition memory impairment assessed by the novel object recognition test, neuroinflammation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) deficits in the perirhinal cortex. Furthermore, rhein inhibited the HF diet-induced increased plasma LPS level and the proinflammatory macrophage accumulation in the colon and alteration of microbiota, including decreasing Bacteroides-Prevotella spp. and Desulfovibrios spp. DNA and increasing Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. DNA. Moreover, rhein also reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance in HF diet-induced obese mice. In conclusion, rhein improved recognition memory and prevented obesity in mice on a chronic HF diet. These beneficial effects occur via the modulation of microbiota, hypoendotoxinemia, inhibition of macrophage accumulation, anti-neuroinflammation and the improvement of BDNF expression. Therefore, supplementation with rhein-enriched food or herbal medicine could be beneficial as a preventive strategy for chronic HF diet-induced cognitive decline, microbiota alteration and neuroinflammation.

  18. Difference Verification of Cheek Subcutaneous Fat Thickness of Male and Female Using Near Infrared Ray Spectral Characteristic Simulation of Cheek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Satoshi; Yasuda, Shun

    The near infrared ray spectral characteristic of a person’s cheeks was simulated in this paper, and it was confirmed that the spectral characteristic of the cheeks part by the near infrared rays was detected at the subcutaneous fat under 2mm of the skin. Therefore, subcutaneous fat has a great influence at the near infrared ray spectral characteristic. Concretely, when subcutaneous fat thickness is thick, the absorbance falls down, and the spectral characteristic around 1200nm is the same for an acute angle, and becomes the spectral characteristic of the female. On the other hand, increasing the water content to simulate the increase in the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, the light absorbance rises, and the acute angle of the spectral characteristic around 1200nm disappears. The 1200nm characteristic becomes that of the male’s spectral characteristic which shows a rounded form. From the discussion above, it could be verified that a difference in the subcutaneous fat thickness is the factor of the difference in the near infrared ray spectral characteristics between that of a male and female cheek.

  19. Influence of amount and type of dietary fat on deposition, adipocyte count and iodine number of abdominal fat in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongsuthavas, S; Terapuntuwat, S; Wongsrikeaw, W; Katawatin, S; Yuangklang, C; Beynen, A C

    2008-02-01

    This study described the relation between the type and amount of dietary fat on the deposition of abdominal fat by broiler chickens. It was hypothesized that at higher fat intakes, the well-known lowering effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the deposition of abdominal fat would be diminished. Experimental diets were formulated to contain three levels of added fat (3%, 6% and 9%). Each level had different proportions of the saturated fatty acids (SFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) by installing the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 with the use of tallow and soybean oil. Arbor Acres chicks, aged 7 days, were fed one of the 15 experimental diets until they were aged 42 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. There was no systematic effect of the dietary fat type and the amount on the weight gain and the feed intake. The lowest SFA:UFA ratio of 1:5 produced the lowest feed conversion rates, irrespective of the amount of the fat in the diet. The abdominal fat deposition was similar in the birds fed on diets containing either 3% or 6% added fat, but deposition was lower than in those fed 9% fat. A decrease in the SFA:UFA ratio of the diet was associated with a dose-dependent decrease in abdominal fat, irrespective of the amount of fat in the diet. This observation leads to the rejection of the hypothesis stated above. A decrease in the dietary SFA:UFA from 1:1 to 1:4 caused a decrease in the number of the fat cells per surface unit of breast meat. It is concluded that an increased intake of soybean oil at the expense of tallow reduced the abdominal fat deposition and the number of fat cells in the breast meat of broiler chickens.

  20. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing.

  1. Association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomoyuki; Murata, Miho; Otani, Taeko; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Masanobu; Ishikawa, San-E

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association of subcutaneous and visceral fat mass with serum concentrations of adipokines in 130 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP), adiponectin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, interleukin-18, and retinol-binding protein 4 were measured. Percentage body fat was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were measured by abdominal CT. HS-CRP had significant positive correlations with percentage body fat and subcutaneous fat area, and a particularly significant positive correlation with visceral fat area. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with the subcutaneous and visceral fat areas, with the strongest correlation with the visceral fat area. Similar results were obtained for HMW adiponectin. Serum adiponectin had a negative correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with a visceral fat area < 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm². In contrast, serum HS-CRP showed a positive correlation with visceral fat area in subjects with visceral fat area ≥ 100 cm², but not in those with a visceral fat area < 100 cm². These findings indicate that an increased visceral fat area is associated with inflammatory changes, and that inflammatory reactions may alter the functional properties of visceral fat in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Increased myocardial dysfunction, dyssynchrony, and epicardial fat across the lifespan in healthy males

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluation of sensitive myocardial mechanics with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) across the lifespan may reveal early indicators of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) and left ventricular (LV) myocardial dyssynchrony; subclinical risk-factors of CVD, are of particular clinical interest. However, the evolution of EAT and LV-dyssynchrony across the lifespan, and their influence on myocardial dysfunction remains unclear. We aimed to establish a profile of the healthy aging-heart using conventional, tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI) and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), while also exploring underlying contributions from EAT and LV-dyssynchrony towards LV myocardial mechanics, independent of blood biology. Methods Healthy males aged 19–94 years were recruited through University-wide advertisements in Victoria and New-South Wales, Australia. Following strict exclusion criteria, basic clinical and comprehensive echocardiographic profiles (conventional, TDI and STE) were established. LV-dyssynchrony was calculated from the maximum-delay of time-to-peak velocity/strain in the four LV-annulus sites (TDI), and six LV-segments (STE longitudinal and circumferential axes). Epicardial fat diameter was obtained from two-dimensional grey-scale images in the parasternal long-axis. Blood biological measures included glycemia, hsCRP, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein levels. Results Three groups of 15 were assigned to young (<40 years), middle (40–65 years), and older (>65) aged categories. Five participants were excluded from STE analyses due to inadequate image quality. Decreased longitudinal strain, increased circumferential apical strain and LV twist were age-related. Moreover, independent of blood biology, significant increases were observed across age categories for EAT (young: 2.5 ± 0.9 mm, middle: 3.9 ± 1.0 mm, older 5.7 ± 2.4 mm; p < 0.01), longitudinal STE

  3. Deposition of stearate-oleate rich seed fat in Mangifera indica is mediated by a FatA type acyl-ACP thioesterase.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Ghosh, Santosh K; Neogi, Krishnakali; Aich, Aniruddha; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Sen, Soumitra K; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy

    2011-02-01

    Although the mechanism of accumulation of C8-C16 saturated fatty acids in seed oils has been well-studied, the control of stearic (C18:0) acid deposition in high stearate seed fat is still unclear. We investigated the mechanism that regulates high level of stearate and oleate (C18:1) accumulation in mango (Mangifera indica) seeds during its development, and examined the seed plastid extracts for induction of any specialized fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase (Fat) that may control this high level of deposition. Though the specificity of the Fat enzymes does not account directly for the fatty acid composition of mango seeds, our result suggested that an induced synthesis of a FatA type of thioesterase could be responsible for the high content of oleate and stearate in its seed fat. The major thioesterase from developing seed kernel was purified to near homogeneity, and characterized as a heat-labile, dimeric, neutral protein with relative substrate specificity of 100:35:1.8 towards oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP, respectively. This enzyme was confirmed as Mi FatA by mass spectrometric analysis. Additionally, a heat-stable FatB type enzyme (Mi FatB) was also partially purified, with relative substrate specificity for the same substrates as 9:8.5:100, respectively. Mi FatA is an enzyme of great biotechnological interest because of its involvement in the regulation of stearate rich seed fat in mango.

  4. Postprandial lipoprotein composition in pigs fed diets differing in type and amount of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effects of diet on postprandial lipoprotein composition, growing pigs were fed diets containing 20 or 40% of energy as soybean oil, tallow or a 50:50 blend of soybean oil and tallow. At the end of wk 6, a blood sample was drawn from pigs fasted for 12 h. Pigs were then fed, and blood samples were drawn 1 and 4 h later. In LDL, concentrations of free and total cholesterol were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.02). Pigs fasted for 12 h had lesser concentrations of triacylglycerol and greater concentrations of phospholipid in LDL and HDL than did pigs fasted for 1 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). In HDL, total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). A greater concentration of triacylglycerol was found in VLDL of pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). Amount of dietary fat had a greater effect than did type of dietary fat on composition of lipoproteins from postprandial pigs.

  5. Cardiovascular function in male and female JCR:LA-cp rats: Effect of high fat/high sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ian; Soler, Amanda; Joseph, Gregory; Hutcheson, Brenda; Bradford, Chastity; Zhang, Frank; Potter, Barry J; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2017-01-13

    30% of the world population is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. High fat/high sucrose diet (HF/HS, Western diet) correlates with metabolic syndrome prevalence. We characterized effects of the HF/HS diet on vascular (arterial stiffness, vasoreactivity, coronary collateral development) and cardiac (echocardiography) function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (JCR). Furthermore, we determined whether male vs. female animals were affected differentially by the Western diet. Cardiovascular function in JCR male rats was impaired vs. normal rats (SD). HF/HS diet compromised cardiovascular (dys)function in JCR but not in SD male rats. In contrast, cardiovascular function was minimally impaired in JCR females on normal chow. However, cardiovascular function in JCR females on the HF/HS diet deteriorated to levels comparable to JCR males on the HF/HS diet. Similarly, oxidative stress was markedly increased in male but not female JCR rats on normal chow, but was equally exacerbated by the HF/HS diet in male and female JCR rats. These results indicate that the Western diet enhances oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and eliminates the protective effect of female sex on cardiovascular function, implying that both males and females with metabolic syndrome are at equal risk for cardiovascular disease.

  6. MSG intake suppresses weight gain, fat deposition, and plasma leptin levels in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, Takashi; Torii, Kunio

    2008-09-03

    Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG), an umami taste substance, may be a key molecule coupled to a food intake signaling pathway, possibly mediated through a specific l-glutamate (GLU) sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the effect of the spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution and water on food intake and body weight in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed diets of varying caloric density, fat and carbohydrate contents. Fat mass and lean mass in the abdomen, blood pressure, and several blood metabolic markers were also measured. Rats given free access to MSG and water showed a high preference (93-97%) for the MSG solution, regardless of the diet they consumed. Rats ingesting MSG had a significantly smaller weight gain, reduced abdominal fat mass, and lower plasma leptin levels, compared to rats ingesting water alone. Naso-anal length, lean mass, food and energy intakes, blood pressure, blood glucose, and plasma levels of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, albumin, and GLU were not influenced by the ingestion of the MSG solution. These same effects were observed in a study of adult rats. Together, these results suggest that MSG ingestion reduces weight gain, body fat mass, and plasma leptin levels. Moreover, these changes are likely to be mediated by increased energy expenditure, not reduced energy intake or delayed development. Conceivably, these effects of MSG might be mediated via gut GLU receptors functionally linked to afferent branches of the vagus nerve in the gut, or the afferent sensory nerves in the oral cavity.

  7. Effect of high dietary fat content on heat production and lipid and protein deposition in growing immunocastrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Batorek-Lukač, N; Dubois, S; Noblet, J; Čandek-Potokar, M; Labussière, E

    2016-12-01

    In immunocastrated (IC) pigs, revaccination (V2) increases lipid deposition (LD) because of increased voluntary feed intake; but little is known on associated effect of diet composition on partitioning of nutrients in IC pigs. Digestibility measurements, N and energy balances in respiration chambers were performed in two subsequent stages in four replicates of two male littermates to determine the changes between 85 (stage 1) and 135 (stage 2) kg live weight due to combined effect of IC, growth and increased feed intake (IC/growth). During stage 1, pigs received a standard low-fat diet (LF diet; 2.5% dry matter (DM) of fat fed at 2.27 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg BW0.60 per day), whereas during stage 2, feed intake was increased to 2.47 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day and one littermate was fed LF diet whereas the second received a fat-enriched diet (HF diet; 8.9% DM of fat) to determine the effect of increased dietary fat content on energy utilization in IC pigs. Results from N balance and measurements of gas exchanges were used to calculate respiratory quotient (RQ), heat production (HP), nutrient contribution to fat retention, components of HP, protein deposition (PD) and LD. Nutrients and energy apparent digestibility coefficients, methane losses and N retention (P<0.05) increased with IC/growth. Despite higher ME intake, total HP remained similar (1365 kJ/kg of BW0.60 per day; P=0.47) with IC/growth. Consequently, total retained energy (RE) increased with IC/growth (from 916 to 1078 kJ/kg of BW0.60 per day; P<0.01) with a higher fat retention (625 to 807 kJ/kg BW0.60 per day; P<0.01), originating mainly from carbohydrates associated with a higher lipogenesis (536 to 746 kJ/kg BW0.60 per day; P<0.01) and RQ (1.095 to 1.145; P<0.01). Both PD (from 178 to 217 g/day; P=0.02) and LD (from 227 to 384 g/day; P<0.01) increased due to IC/growth. Feeding HF diet after IC was associated with increased crude fat digestibility (P<0.01) and increased RE as fat (807 to 914 k

  8. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  9. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males

    PubMed Central

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. [Methods] Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. [Results] Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p < 0.05) compared with the placebo. Fat oxidation was also significantly increased post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.01). During and after exercise the plasma glycerol levels significantly increased in both groups after green tea consumption and were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group (p < 0.05). Compared with the placebo, the plasma epinephrine levels were significantly higher for both groups in the green tea condition during and after exercise, however, norepinephrine levels were only significantly greater, p < 0.05, during and after exercise in the untrained group. [Conclusion] Green tea significantly increased resting and post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group. PMID:27298806

  10. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yifu; Nguyen, Khoa D.; Odegaard, Justin I.; Cui, Xiaojin; Tian, Xiaoyu; Locksley, Richard M.; Palmiter, Richard D.; Chawla, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beige fat, which expresses the thermogenic protein UCP1, provides a defense against cold and obesity. Although a cold environment is the physiologic stimulus for inducing beige fat in mice and humans, the events that lead from the sensing of cold to the development of beige fat remain poorly understood. Here, we identify the efferent beige fat thermogenic circuit, consisting of eosinophils, type 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4/13 and alternatively activated macrophages. Genetic loss of eosinophils or IL-4/13 signaling impairs cold-induced biogenesis of beige fat. Mechanistically, macrophages recruited to cold-stressed subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) undergo alternative activation to induce tyrosine hydroxylase expression and catecholamine production, factors required for browning of scWAT. Conversely, administration of IL-4 to thermoneutral mice increases beige fat mass and thermogenic capacity to ameliorate pre-established obesity. Together, our findings have uncovered the efferent circuit controlling biogenesis of beige fat and provide support for its targeting to treat obesity. PMID:24906148

  11. The effect of exercise on obesity, body fat distribution and risk for type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goedecke, Julia H; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), while exercise is known to reduce body fatness and attenuate the risk of T2D. The aim of this chapter is to examine the interactions between exercise, obesity and body fat distribution, and the risk for T2D. Firstly, we show that body fatness, in particular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation, is associated with insulin resistance and incident T2D. We then show that aerobic exercise of sufficient intensity and volume results in a decrease in body fat and VAT. Conversely, sedentary behavior and physical inactivity are associated with increased body fat and VAT. Finally, the chapter examines the interaction between physical activity (PA), obesity and risk for T2D and shows that both obesity and PA are significant independent predictors of incident T2D, but the magnitude of risk imparted by high levels of body fat is much greater than that of low levels of PA. Further, we show that obese physically active individuals are at greater risk for incident T2D than normal-weight physically inactive individuals. The mechanisms underlying this complex interaction include the ability of exercise to increase free fatty acid oxidation to match high rates of lipolysis associated with obesity, as well as the effects of exercise on adipokine, cytokine and myokine secretion. Exercise, of sufficient volume and intensity, is therefore recommended to reduce obesity, centralization of body fat, and risk of T2D.

  12. Adjusted and unadjusted energy usage rates both determine body fat and plasma leptin in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J A; Rahman, S; Saint-Preux, S; Owen, D R; Boozer, C N

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between plasma leptin and energy usage have yielded contradictory findings. The present study was therefore conducted to clearly distinguish and measure the energy usage rate and the energy usage rate adjusted for a surrogate of metabolically active tissue mass. We investigated the simultaneous relationships between these two measures of energy usage, leptin, and body fat in 21-month-old adult male Fischer 344 rats on three different long-term dietary regimens: (1) continuous ad libitum feeding (Ad-lib); (2) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, and then continuous 60% caloric restriction (CR); and (3) ad libitum feeding until early adulthood, then 60% caloric restriction until 16 months, and then ad libitum feeding for 5 months (CR/Ad-lib). Two versions of the daily usage rate were measured: daily dietary caloric intake (DCI), and daily energy expenditure (EE) based on indirect calorimetry. Two versions of the metabolically active tissue mass were also measured: fat-free mass (FFM), and the sum of the weight of the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys. Energy usage rates were adjusted for these measures of metabolically active tissue mass to yield measures of the energy metabolic rate. Correlation, regression, and path analyses showed that both the energy usage rate and adjusted energy usage rate played important independent roles in determining body fat and plasma leptin, but only after multivariate techniques were used to account for the simultaneous interactions between variables. Increases in the energy usage rate were associated with increases in body fat and the adjusted energy usage rate. Increases in the adjusted energy usage rate were associated with decreases in body fat and plasma leptin. These findings suggest that differences in subjects adjusted energy usage rate could explain some of the apparently contradictory findings concerning the relationship between energy usage and plasma leptin in previously published

  13. Fructose and saturated fats predispose hyperinsulinemia in lean male rat offspring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Early exposure to suboptimal nutrition during perinatal period imposes risk to metabolic disorders later in life. Fructose intake has been associated with increases in de novo lipogensis, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and obesity. Excess consumption of saturated fat is associated w...

  14. Effect of starch type and its modifications on physicochemical properties of bologna-type sausage produced with sheep tail fat.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, N; Gençcelep, H

    2006-10-01

    Gelatinized, solubilized/dispersed and retrograded starches were produced from normal (unmodified) corn and potato starches, and were used with sheep tail fat for sausage batters. Emulsion stability, jelly and fat separation, water holding capacity (WHC), emulsion viscosity and batter pH were determined. Penetrometer reading after cooking of the batters, and tenderness of the end-product were determined. Modified starches statistically (p<0.01) affected emulsion stability and emulsion viscosity. The modification process was not significant for pH, WHC, jelly and fat separation and penetrometer values (p>0.05). While type of used starch had a significant effect on jelly and fat separation (p<0.05), for the other measurements it was not significant (p>0.05).

  15. Endotoxins are associated with visceral fat mass in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lassenius, Mariann I.; Ahola, Aila J.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), potent inducers of inflammation, have been associated with chronic metabolic disturbances. Obesity is linked to dyslipidemia, increased body adiposity, and endotoxemia. We investigated the cross-sectional relationships between serum LPS activity and body adiposity as well as inflammation in 242 subjects with type 1 diabetes. Body fat distribution was measured by DXA and serum LPS activity by the limulus amebocyte lysate end-point assay. Since no interaction between visceral fat mass and sex was observed, data were pooled for the subsequent analyses. LPS was independently associated with visceral fat mass, when adjusted for traditional risk factors (age, sex, kidney status, hsCRP, insulin sensitivity). In the multivariate analysis, serum LPS activity and triglyceride concentrations had a joint effect on visceral fat mass, independent of these factors alone. A combination of high LPS and high hsCRP concentrations was also observed in those with the largest visceral fat mass. In conclusion, high serum LPS activity levels were associated with visceral fat mass in subjects with type 1 diabetes strengthening its role in the development of central obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27958332

  16. Effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes on Kiss1 and GPR54 expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and peripheral organs (fat, pancreas and liver) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dudek, M; Kołodziejski, P A; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, E; Sassek, M; Ziarniak, K; Nowak, K W; Sliwowska, J H

    2016-04-01

    Recent data indicates that kisspeptin, encoded by the KISS1 gene, could play a role in transducing metabolic information into the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, the mechanism that controls reproductive functions. Numerous studies have shown that in a state of negative energy balance, the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is impaired. However, data concerning positive energy balance (e.g. diabetes and obesity) and the role of kisspeptin in the peripheral tissues is scant. We hypothesized that: 1) in diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats and/or rats with diabetes type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), altered reproductive functions are related to an imbalance in Kiss1 and GPR54 mRNA in the HPG axis; and 2) in DIO and/or DM1 and/or DM2 rats, Kiss1 and GPR 54 expression are altered in the peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions (fat, pancreas and liver). Animals were fed a high-fat or control diets and STZ (streptozotocin - toxin, which destroys the pancreas) was injected in high or low doses to induce diabetes type 1 (DM1) or diabetes type 2 (DM2), respectively. RT-PCR and Western blot techniques were used to assess the expression of Kiss1 and GRP54 in tissues. At the level of mRNA, we found that diabetic but not obese rats have alterations in Kiss1 and/or GPR54 mRNA levels in the HPG axis as well as in peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions (fat, pancreas and liver). The most severe changes were seen in DM1 rats. However, in the case of protein levels in the peripheral tissues (fat, pancreas and liver), changes in Kiss1/GPR54 expression were noticed in DIO, DM1 and DM2 animals and were tissue-specific. Our data support the hypothesis that alterations in Kiss1/GPR54 balance may account for both reproductive and metabolic abnormalities reported in obese and diabetic rats.

  17. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  18. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Miklos, Rikke; Lametsch, René; Arnau, Jacint

    2013-03-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, instrumental color and texture and sensory attributes of the sausages was studied. Results showed that reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages containing less than 12.5% of fat (BF, SO and DAGs) had a good overall sensory quality. This means a fat reduction of more than 70% compared with the average fat content of standard fermented sausages of similar characteristics. Sausages with SO showed higher sensory ratings in desirable ripened odor and flavor attributes and improved texture defined by lower hardness and chewiness (both sensory and instrumental) and higher crumbliness. Sausages with DAGs showed a similar behavior to that of BF, so they could be a good alternative to produce healthier reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages.

  19. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  20. Age-related changes in male forearm skin-to-fat tissue dielectric constant at 300 MHz.

    PubMed

    Mayrovitz, Harvey N; Grammenos, Alexandra; Corbitt, Kelly; Bartos, Simona

    2017-03-01

    Prior research suggests that tissue dielectric constant (TDC) values are useful to assess localized skin water in females for early diagnosing breast cancer treatment-related lymphoedema and TDC values in young adults have shown gender differences. However, no TDC data are available for older males nor have ageing effects been studied despite known shifts in water state and other skin age-related changes. Thus our goals were to (i) characterize TDC values at various skin depths in young and older males, (ii) determine the dependence of these values on body composition parameters and (iii) establish inter-arm TDC ratios for use as normal male reference values. TDC measurements were made to depths of 0·5, 1·5, 2·5 and 5·0 mm bilaterally on volar forearm skin in 60 males in three groups of 20 that had mean ages ± SD of 24·0 ± 0·9, 40·0 ± 12·9 and 71·0 ± 8·0 years. Total body fat and water percentages were determined via bioimpedance at 50 KHz. Results showed that (i) for all age groups TDC values decreased with increasing depth, (ii) TDC values were not statistically different among age groups except at a depth of 0·5 mm, (iii) TDC values were highly negatively correlated with total body fat and (iv) inter-arm ratios varied little among age groups and depths. It is concluded that (i) age-related larger TDC values at only the shallowest depth is consistent with skin water shifting state from bound to more mobile in the oldest group and (ii) inter-arm ratios at any depth provide a basis to test for unilateral oedema.

  1. Skinfold Measurements and the Percentage of Body Fat Differences Between Black and White Male Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-16

    Malina, R.M. (1972). Skinfold-body weight correlations in Negro and white children of elementary school age. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 25, 861-863. (41) Robson...Professor Paul F. Parks, Dean Nutrition and Foods Graduate School D-C QuZ .,,"D 1 SKINFOLD MEASUREMENTS AND THE PERCENTAGE OF BODY FAT DIFFERENCES...Washington, D. C. She attended schools in Virginia, Great Britain, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and graduated from East Washington High School , Washington

  2. Weekly administration of rapamycin improves survival and biomarkers in obese male mice on high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leontieva, Olga V; Paszkiewicz, Geraldine M; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2014-08-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed the key role of mTOR (target of rapamycin) in aging. Furthermore, rapamycin extends lifespan in mice, especially in female mice. Here, we treated obese male mice on high-fat diet with rapamycin given intermittently: either weekly (once a week) or alternating bi-weekly (three injections every other week). While only marginally reducing obesity, intermittent administration of rapamycin significantly extended lifespan. Significance was achieved for weekly treated group and for the three rapamycin-received groups combined. In weekly treatment group, 100% mice were alive by the age of 2 years, whereas 60% of mice died in untreated group by this age. The effect of weekly treatment on survival was highly significant and cannot be fully explained by partial reduction in obesity. Alternating bi-weekly treatments seem to be less effective than weekly treatment, although effects of additional factors (see ) may not be excluded. After one year of treatment, all survived mice were sacrificed 8 days after the last administration of rapamycin to avoid its direct interference with parameters examined. Fasting levels of cardiac and hepatic p-S6, a marker of mTORC1 activity, were lower in weekly treatment group compared with control mice. In contrast, levels of p-Akt (S473), glucose, triglycerides and insulin were unchanged, whereas leptin and IGF-1 tended to be lower. Thus, weekly treatment with rapamycin may slow down aging in obese male mice on high-fat diet.

  3. Exercise and ectopic fat in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabag, A; Way, K L; Keating, S E; Sultana, R N; O'Connor, H T; Baker, M K; Chuter, V H; George, J; Johnson, N A

    2017-02-02

    Ectopic adipose tissue surrounding the intra-abdominal organs (visceral fat) and located in the liver, heart, pancreas and muscle, is linked to cardio-metabolic complications commonly experienced in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of exercise on ectopic fat in adults with type 2 diabetes. Relevant databases were searched to February 2016. Included were randomised controlled studies, which implemented≥4 weeks of aerobic and/or resistance exercise and quantified ectopic fat via magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy or muscle biopsy before and after intervention. Risk of bias and study quality was assessed using Egger's funnel plot test and modified Downs and Black checklist, respectively. Of the 10,750 studies retrieved, 24 were included involving 1383 participants. No studies were found assessing the interaction between exercise and cardiac or pancreas fat. One study assessed the effect of exercise on intramyocellular triglyceride concentration. There was a significant pooled effect size for the meta-analysis comparing exercise vs. control on visceral adiposity (ES=-0.21, 95% CI: -0.37 to -0.05; P=0.010) and a near-significant pooled effect size for liver steatosis reduction with exercise (ES=-0.28, 95% CI: -0.57 to 0.01; P=0.054). Aerobic exercise (ES=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.44 to -0.03; P=0.025) but not resistance training exercise (ES=-0.13, 95% CI: -0.37 to 0.12; P=0.307) was effective for reducing visceral fat in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes. These data suggest that exercise effectively reduces visceral and perhaps liver adipose tissue and that aerobic exercise should be a key feature of exercise programs aimed at reducing visceral fat in obesity-related type 2 diabetes. Further studies are required to assess the relative efficacy of exercise modality on liver fat reduction and the effect of exercise on pancreas, heart, and intramyocellular

  4. The proportions of muscle, bone and fat in two different types of dog.

    PubMed

    Gunn, H M

    1978-05-01

    This study compares the proportions of muscle, bone and fat (obtained by gross dissection) in greyhounds--a breed selected for high speed running--and other dogs, both at maturity and during growth. In adults the proportion of muscle is significantly greater in the 'athletic' greyhound. The proportion of muscle decreases but not significantly with detraining. Adult greyhounds have less fat (even when detrained) than other dogs, but the skeleton provides a similar proportion of liveweight in both types of dog when adult. The greater growth rate of muscle in athletes explains the difference in adult proportions.

  5. Timing of fat and liquid sugar intake alters substrate oxidation and food efficiency in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Johanneke E; Foppen, Ewout; van der Spek, Rianne; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2015-03-01

    In addition to the amount of ingested calories, both timing of food intake and meal composition are determinants of body weight gain. However, at present, it is unknown if the inappropriate timing of diet components is responsible for body weight gain. In the present study, we therefore studied a time-dependent effect of the diet composition on energy homeostasis. Male Wistar rats were subjected to chow ad libitum (chow group) or a choice diet with saturated fat, a 30% sugar solution, chow and tap water. The choice diet was provided either with all components ad libitum (AL), with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and a 30% sugar solution, but with access to saturated fat only during the light period (LF), or with ad libitum access to chow, tap water and saturated fat, but access to a 30% sugar solution only during the light period (LS). Caloric intake and body weight gain were monitored during 31 days. Energy expenditure was measured in the third week in calorimetric cages. All rats on a choice diet showed hyperphagia and gained more body weight compared to the chow group. Within the choice diet groups, rats on the LS diet were most food efficient (i.e. gained most body weight per ingested calorie) and showed a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) with an anti-phasic pattern, whereas no differences in locomotor activity or heat production were found. Collectively these data indicate that the timing of the diet composition affects food efficiency, most likely due to a shifted oxidation pattern, which can predispose for obesity. Further studies are underway to assess putative mechanisms involved in this dysregulation.

  6. A High-Fat High-Sucrose Diet Rapidly Alters Muscle Integrity, Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kelsey H.; Paul, Heather A.; Hart, David A.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Smith, Ian C.; Rios, Jaqueline L.; Seerattan, Ruth A.; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The chronic low-level inflammation associated with obesity is known to deleteriously affect muscle composition. However, the manner in which obesity leads to muscle loss has not been explored in detail or in an integrated manner following a short-term metabolic challenge. In this paper, we evaluated the relationships between compromised muscle integrity, diet, systemic inflammatory mediators, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and the number of pro-inflammatory cells increased by 3-days and was sustained across 28-days of high-fat high-sugar feeding compared to control-diet animals. To understand systemic contributors to muscle damage, dynamic changes in gut microbiota and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Data from this study links metabolic challenge to persistent compromise in muscle integrity after just 3-days, a finding associated with altered gut microbiota and systemic inflammatory changes. These data contribute to our understanding of early consequences of metabolic challenge on multiple host systems, which are important to understand as obesity treatment options are developed. Therefore, intervention within this early period of metabolic challenge may be critical to mitigate these sustained alterations in muscle integrity. PMID:27853291

  7. Fructose consumption does not worsen bone deficits resulting from high-fat feeding in young male rats.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Toklu, Hale Z; Balaez, Alex; Phillips, Ean G; Otzel, Dana M; Chen, Cong; Wronski, Thomas J; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Sakarya, Yasemin; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Dietary-induced obesity (DIO) resulting from high-fat (HF) or high-sugar diets produces a host of deleterious metabolic consequences including adverse bone development. We compared the effects of feeding standard rodent chow (Control), a 30% moderately HF (starch-based/sugar-free) diet, or a combined 30%/40% HF/high-fructose (HF/F) diet for 12weeks on cancellous/cortical bone development in male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8weeks. Both HF feeding regimens reduced the lean/fat mass ratio, elevated circulating leptin, and reduced serum total antioxidant capacity (tAOC) when compared with Controls. Distal femur cancellous bone mineral density (BMD) was 23-34% lower in both HF groups (p<0.001) and was characterized by lower cancellous bone volume (BV/TV, p<0.01), lower trabecular number (Tb.N, p<0.001), and increased trabecular separation versus Controls (p<0.001). Cancellous BMD, BV/TV, and Tb.N were negatively associated with leptin and positively associated with tAOC at the distal femur. Similar cancellous bone deficits were observed at the proximal tibia, along with increased bone marrow adipocyte density (p<0.05), which was negatively associated with BV/TV and Tb.N. HF/F animals also exhibited lower osteoblast surface and reduced circulating osteocalcin (p<0.05). Cortical thickness (p<0.01) and tissue mineral density (p<0.05) were higher in both HF-fed groups versus Controls, while whole bone biomechanical characteristics were not different among groups. These results demonstrate that "westernized" HF diets worsen cancellous, but not cortical, bone parameters in skeletally-immature male rats and that fructose incorporation into HF diets does not exacerbate bone loss. In addition, they suggest that leptin and/or oxidative stress may influence DIO-induced alterations in adolescent bone development.

  8. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rin; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. Methods We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. Results A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm2. The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. Conclusion There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26634102

  9. Thinking about gender types: cognitive organization of female and male types.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Roos; Ashmore, Richard D

    2003-06-01

    We examined the content and dimensional structure of a large and representative sample of gender types. In Study 1, using an open-ended procedure, participants generated 306 different labels for female types (e.g. housewife, feminist, femme fatale, secretary, slob) and 310 for male types (e.g. workaholic, family man, sissy, womanizer, labourer). In Study 2A, a multidimensional configuration of 229 of these male and female types was derived from a free sorting task among a new set of participants. In Study 2B, a subset of types was judged on several dimensions of meaning, which were then fitted into the configuration of types. The most important dimensions in describing the structure of gender types were: young-old, masculine-feminine and traditional-modern. The masculine-feminine dimension showed that the male and female types were largely separated from each other; within each gender category, the types were ordered by their position on the masculine-feminine dimension. Several other aspects of current thinking about men and women are discussed.

  10. Male gonadal axis function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Pablo R; Knoblovits, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have lower serum testosterone levels and a higher prevalence of hypogonadism than non-diabetic patients, independently of the metabolic control of disease. The mechanisms underlying a decrease in testosterone might be related to age, obesity and insulin resistance, often present in patients with type 2 diabetes. The increase in estrogens due to higher aromatase enzyme activity in increased adipose tissue might exert negative-feedback inhibition centrally. Insulin stimulates gonadal axis activity at all three levels and therefore insulin resistance might account for the lower testosterone production. Leptin exerts a central stimulatory effect but inhibits testicular testosterone secretion. Thus, resistance to leptin in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes determines lower central effects of leptin with lower gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and, on the other hand, hyperleptinemia secondary to leptin resistance inhibits testosterone secretion at the testicular level. However, lower testosterone levels in patients with diabetes are observed independently of age, weight and body mass index, which leads to the assumption that hyperglycemia per se might play a role in the decrease in testosterone. Several studies have shown that an overload of glucose results in decreased serum testosterone levels. The aim of this review is to assess changes in the male gonadal axis that occur in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Effects of improved fat meat products consumption on emergent cardiovascular disease markers of male volunteers at cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Celada, Paloma; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Delgado-Pando, Gonzalo; Bastida, Sara; Rodilla, Manuel Espárrago; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-12-01

    High meat-product consumption has been related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, previous results suggest the benefits of consuming improved fat meat products on lipoprotein-cholesterol and anthropometric measurements. Present study aims to assess the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers at increased CVD risk. Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a sequentially controlled study where different pork-products were tested: reduced-fat (RF), omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF), and normal-fat (NF). Pork-products were consumed during 4-week periods separated by 4-week washout. The cardiometabolic index (CI), oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), apolipoproteins (Apo) A1 and B, homocysteine (tHcys), arylesterase (AE), C-reactive Protein (CRP), tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNFα), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were tested and some other related ratios calculated. AE, oxLDL and Lp(a), AE/HDLc, LDLc/Apo B, and AE/oxLDL rate of change were differently affected (P<0.01) by pork-products consumption. RF increased (P < 0.05) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased TNFα, tHcys; n-3RF increased (P < 0.001) AE, AE/HDLc and AE/oxLDL ratios and decreased (P < 0.05) Lp(a); while NF increased (P<0.05) oxLDL and Lp(a) levels. In conclusion, RF and n-3RF products affected positively the level of some emergent CVD markers. The high regular consumption of NF-products should be limited as significantly increased Lp(a) and oxLDL values. The high variability in response observed for some markers suggests the need to perform more studies to identify targets for RF- and n-3RF-products. Graphical Abstract Emergent CVD markers.

  12. Diagnosing a male hysteric: Don Juan-type.

    PubMed

    Lubbe, Trevor

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical account of a male hysteric, Don Juan-type, taken from the early stages of treatment. The patient presented with a relationship problem but there soon emerged a form of compulsive sexuality or hypersexuality in his love relations that became a central feature of the clinical picture. This hypersexuality expressed itself in a compulsive need to stage, or to stage-manage, interpersonal scenaria of a sexual or sexualised nature. These scenaria, which were repeated in different variations and with different personnel, are seen by the author as a dramatisation of the primal scene with the patient taking up the position of the oedipal father. Explanations for the disappearance of male hysteria are given, including a new theory which claims that an imbalance in psychoanalytic theory itself led to the feminisation of hysteria. This critique allows certain forms of hypersexuality in men to be promoted as a form of hysteria, the most common example being Don Juanism-a form of compulsive sexuality that encompasses normative, conversion and character features. The paper also examines the male hysteric's developmental agenda. What the patient's compulsive sexual tableaux exposed was that he had never faced a separation that was not a triangular experience. This meant that his separations were experienced as two developmental agonies telescoped into one-separation (pre-oedipal) and exclusion (early oedipal). This combination, the author suggests, is so frightening in a particular group of men as to explain the choice of hysteria as opposed to some other choice of neurosis.

  13. Body adiposity and type 2 diabetes: increased risk with a high body fat percentage even having a normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Galofré, Juan C; Escalada, Javier; Santos, Silvia; Gil, María J; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2011-07-01

    Obesity is the major risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. BMI is widely used as a surrogate measure of obesity, but underestimates the prevalence of obesity, defined as an excess of body fat. We assessed the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose (both considered together as prediabetes) or type 2 diabetes in relation to the criteria used for the diagnosis of obesity using BMI as compared to body fat percentage (BF%). We performed a cross-sectional study including 4,828 (587 lean, 1,320 overweight, and 2,921 obese classified according to BMI) white subjects (66% females), aged 18-80 years. BMI, BF% determined by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and conventional blood markers of glucose metabolism and lipid profile were measured. We found a higher than expected number of subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes in the obese category according to BF% when the sample was globally analyzed (P < 0.0001) and in the lean BMI-classified subjects (P < 0.0001), but not in the overweight or obese-classified individuals. Importantly, BF% was significantly higher in lean (by BMI) women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes as compared to those with normoglycemia (NG) (35.5 ± 7.0 vs. 30.3 ± 7.7%, P < 0.0001), whereas no differences were observed for BMI. Similarly, increased BF% was found in lean BMI-classified men with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (25.2 ± 9.0 vs. 19.9 ± 8.0%, P = 0.008), exhibiting no differences in BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, assessing BF% may help to diagnose disturbed glucose tolerance beyond information provided by BMI and waist circumference in particular in male subjects with BMI <25 kg/m(2) and over the age of 40.

  14. Increased Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress and Salt-Loading in Adult Male Offspring of Fat Fed Non-Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rudyk, Olena; Makra, Péter; Jansen, Eugene; Shattock, Michael J.; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11) or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16) chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old) offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry). The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF) and controls (OC). However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Δheart rate (HR)) with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week) male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05) in the awake phase (night-time) and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli. PMID:22043281

  15. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Alyssa J.; Shehan, Catherine V.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference. PMID:26752811

  16. Type of milk typically consumed, and stated preference, but not health consciousness affect revealed preferences for fat in milk.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Shehan, Catherine V; Hayes, John E

    2016-04-01

    Fat is an important source of both pleasure and calories in the diet. Dairy products are a major source of fat in the diet, and understanding preferences for fat in fluid milk can potentially inform efforts to change fat consumption patterns or optimize consumer products. Here, patterns of preference for fat in milk were determined in the laboratory among 100 free living adults using rejection thresholds. Participants also answered questions relating to their health concerns, the type of fluid milk typically consumed, and their declared preference for type of milk (in terms of fat level). When revealed preferences in blind tasting were stratified by these measures, we observed striking differences in the preferred level of fat in milk. These data indicate a non-trivial number of consumers who prefer low-fat milk to full fat milk, a pattern that would have been overshadowed by the use of a group mean. While it is widely assumed and claimed that increasing fat content in fluid milk universally increases palatability, present data demonstrate this is not true for a segment of the population. These results underscore the need to go look beyond group means to understand individual differences in food preference.

  17. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  18. Effects of different emulsifier types, fat contents, and gum types on retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes.

    PubMed

    Seyhun, Nadide; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil

    2003-08-01

    The effects of different types of emulsifiers, gums, and fat contents on the retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes were investigated. First, different types of emulsifiers (DATEM, Lecigran, and Purawave) at three different fat contents (50%, 25%, and 0%) were added to cake formulations to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Then, three types of gums (guar gum, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose) were added to the optimum formulations chosen. As a control, cakes formulated without any emulsifier or gum addition and baked in an conventional oven at 175 degrees C for 25 min was used. Weight loss, firmness, soluble starch and amylose content of the cakes were used as the indicators of staling criteria. Cakes were baked in a microwave oven for 1.5 min at 100% power. Variation of staling parameters during storage of cakes followed zero-order kinetics. Use of emulsifiers and gums helped to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Fat content was found to be a significant factor in affecting variation of firmness and weight loss of the cakes during storage. DATEM and Purawave were the most effective emulsifier types. Using gums in combination with emulsifiers gave better moisture retention and softer cakes than using gums alone.

  19. Consumption of low doses of fat prevents the postprandial rise in chylomicron particle concentration and remnant accumulation in healthy normolipidaemic males

    PubMed Central

    James, Anthony P.; Mamo, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Chylomicron particles are continually synthesised and secreted from the intestine even in the absence of ingested fat. It is possible that following consumption of low doses of fat the basal level of chylomicron secretion and subsequent metabolism are sufficient to metabolise this fat without an increase in postprandial chylomicron concentrations. To test this hypothesis, healthy male subjects were randomised to receive, on three separate occasions, meals containing a range of doses of fat (average 8·1–19 g) and effects on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron concentration were determined. Furthermore, to delineate the effect on lipid-rich v. lipid-poor (remnant) forms lipid levels were also determined in a density <1·006 g/ml fraction. Following consumption of the very low dose of fat the postprandial concentration of chylomicrons was unaltered, whereas following the medium dose postprandial chylomicron concentrations were significantly increased. Interestingly, this increase was only detected in the lipid-rich chylomicron fraction, with postprandial levels of chylomicron remnants remaining unchanged. In conclusion, it appears that consumption of what would be considered low to medium doses of fat are not associated with transient postprandial increases in chylomicron remnants in healthy male subjects. PMID:25191552

  20. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN).

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Mercer, Kelly; Suva, Larry J; Vantrease, Jamie; Ferguson, Matthew; Hogue, William R; Sharma, Neha; Cleves, Mario A; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2014-03-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant osteopenia in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically with isocaloric liquid diets. Dietary fat content was either 5% (high carbohydrate, HC) or 45% (high fat, HF), with or without ethanol (12-13 g/kg/day). After 14, 28, or 65 days, livers were harvested and analyzed. In addition, bone morphology was analyzed after 65 days. HC rats gained more weight and had larger fat pads than HF rats with or without ethanol. Steatosis developed in HC + ethanol (HC + EtOH) compared to HF + ethanol (HF + EtOH) rats, accompanied by increased fatty acid (FA) synthesis and increased nuclear carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) (p < 0.05), but in the absence of effects on hepatic silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog (SIRT-1) or nuclear sterol regulatory binding element protein (SREBP-1c). Ethanol reduced serum leptin (p < 0.05) but not adiponectin. Over time, HC rats developed fatty liver independent of ethanol. FA degradation was significantly elevated by ethanol in both HC and HF groups (p < 0.05). HF + EtOH rats had increased oxidative stress from 28 days, increased necrosis compared to HF controls and higher expression of cytochromes P450, CYP2E1, and CYP4A1 compared to HC + EtOH rats (p < 0.05). In contrast, HC + EtOH rats had no significant increase in oxidative stress until day 65 with no observed increase in necrosis. Unlike liver pathology, no dietary differences were observed on ethanol-induced osteopenia in HC compared to HF groups. These data demonstrate that interactions between diet composition and alcohol are complex, dependent on the length of exposure, and are an important influence in development of fatty liver injury. Importantly, it appears that diet composition does not affect

  1. Dietary fat content and fiber type modulate hind gut microbial community and metabolic markers in the pig.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Potu, Ramesh; Lu, Hang; Vezzoni de Almeida, Vivian; Stewart, Terry; Ragland, Darryl; Armstrong, Arthur; Adeola, Olayiwola; Nakatsu, Cindy H; Ajuwon, Kolapo M

    2013-01-01

    Obesity leads to changes in the gut microbial community which contribute to the metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Dietary fat and fiber affect the caloric density of foods. The impact of dietary fat content and fiber type on the microbial community in the hind gut is unknown. Effect of dietary fat level and fiber type on hindgut microbiota and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles was investigated. Expression of metabolic marker genes in the gut, adipose tissue and liver was determined. A 2 × 2 experiment was conducted in pigs fed at two dietary fat levels (5% or 17.5% swine grease) and two fiber types (4% inulin, fermentable fructo-oligosaccharide or 4% solka floc, non-fermentable cellulose). High fat diets (HFD) resulted in a higher (P<0.05) total body weight gain, feed efficiency and back fat accumulation than the low fat diet. Feeding of inulin, but not solka floc, attenuated (P<0.05) the HFD-induced higher body weight gain and fat mass accumulation. Inulin feeding tended to lead to higher total VFA production in the cecum and resulted in a higher (P<0.05) expression of acyl coA oxidase (ACO), a marker of peroxisomal β-oxidation. Inulin feeding also resulted in lower expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), a marker of lipid anabolism. Bacteria community structure characterized by DGGE analysis of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments showed that inulin feeding resulted in greater bacterial population richness than solka floc feeding. Cluster analysis of pairwise Dice similarity comparisons of the DGGE profiles showed grouping by fiber type but not the level of dietary fat. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of PCR- DGGE profiles showed that inulin feeding negatively correlated with back fat thickness. This study suggests a strong interplay between dietary fat level and fiber type in determining susceptibility to obesity.

  2. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M), rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification. PMID:26696906

  3. Fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Canteli, B; Saez, F; de los Ríos, A; Alvarez, C

    1996-04-01

    We report the MR appearance of a case of subcutaneous fat necrosis, which is a previously unreported etiology for knee mass. The role of MR imaging in differentiating fat necrosis from other causes of soft tissue masses is discussed. We conclude that MR characteristics of subcutaneous fat necrosis are typical and allow its differentiation from other types of soft tissue lesions.

  4. Short-term high-fat diet alters postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Numao, Shigeharu; Kawano, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoya; Yamada, Yuka; Takahashi, Masaki; Konishi, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2016-08-01

    Short-term intake of a high-fat diet aggravates postprandial glucose metabolism; however, the dose-response relationship has not been investigated. We hypothesized that short-term intake of a eucaloric low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (LCHF) would aggravate postprandial glucose metabolism and circulating adhesion molecules in healthy males. Seven healthy young males (mean ± SE; age: 26 ± 1 years) consumed either a eucaloric control diet (C, approximately 25% fats), a eucaloric intermediate-carbohydrate/intermediate-fat diet (ICIF, approximately 50% fats), or an LCHF (approximately 70% fats) for 3 days. An oral meal tolerance test (MTT) was performed after the 3-day dietary intervention. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined at rest and during MTT. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of plasma glucose concentration during MTT was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.009). The first-phase insulin secretion indexes were significantly lower in LCHF than in C (P = 0.04). Moreover, the iAUC of GLP-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations was significantly higher in LCHF than in C (P = 0.014 and P = 0.04, respectively). The metabolites from ICIF and C were not significantly different. In conclusion, short-term intake of eucaloric diet containing a high percentage of fats in healthy males excessively increased postprandial glucose and VCAM-1 concentrations and attenuated first-phase insulin release.

  5. Influence of fat/carbohydrate ratio on progression of fatty liver disease and on development of osteopenia in male rats fed alcohol via total enteral nutrition (TEN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol abuse is associated with the development of fatty liver disease and also with significant bone loss in both genders. In this study, we examined ethanol (EtOH)-induced pathology in response to diets with differing fat/carbohydrate ratios. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed intragastrically wit...

  6. Yeast inoculation as a strategy to improve the physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced salt fermented sausages produced with entire male fat.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Belloch, Carmela; López-Díez, José Javier; Salvador, Ana; Flores, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Yeast inoculation of dry fermented sausages manufactured with entire male fat was evaluated as a strategy to improve sausage quality. Four different formulations with entire male/gilt back fat and inoculated/non-inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii were manufactured. The use of entire male back fat produced the highest weight losses, hardness and chewiness in dry sausages. Consumers clearly distinguished samples according to drying time and D. hansenii inoculation while the use of entire/gilt back fat was not highly perceived. The presence of androstenone and skatole was close to their sensory thresholds. Androstenone was not degraded during the process but skatole was affected by yeast inoculation. D. hansenii growth on the surface regulated water release during ripening, reduced hardness and chewiness in entire male sausages and resulted with similar texture to gilt sausages. Yeast inoculation inhibited lipid oxidation providing fruity odours and less oxidized fatty sausages in the sensory analysis. The effectiveness of yeast to mask boar taint was demonstrated by sensory analysis.

  7. The absence of GH signaling affects the susceptibility to high-fat diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Baquedano, Eva; Ruiz-Lopez, Ana M; Sustarsic, Elahu G; Herpy, James; List, Edward O; Chowen, Julie A; Frago, Laura M; Kopchick, John J; Argente, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    GH is important in metabolic control, and mice with disruption of the gene encoding the GH receptor (GHR) and GH binding protein (GHR-/- mice) are dwarf with low serum IGF-1 and insulin levels, high GH levels, and increased longevity, despite their obesity and altered lipid and metabolic profiles. Secondary complications of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity are reported to be associated with hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis. Because GH and IGF-1 can modulate inflammatory processes, our objective was to evaluate the effect of HFD on hypothalamic inflammation/gliosis in the absence of GH signaling and determine how this correlates with changes in systemic metabolism. On normal chow, GHR-/- mice had a higher percentage of fat mass and increased circulating nonesterified free fatty acids levels compared with wild type (WT), and this was associated with increased hypothalamic TNF-α and phospho-JNK levels. After 7 weeks on a HFD, both WT and GHR-/- mice had increased weight gain, with GHR-/- mice having a greater rise in their percentage of body fat. In WT mice, HFD-induced weight gain was associated with increased hypothalamic levels of phospho-JNK and the microglial marker Iba-1 (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1) but decreased cytokine production. Moreover, in GHR-/- mice, the HFD decreased hypothalamic inflammatory markers to WT levels with no indication of gliosis. Thus, the GH/IGF-1 axis is important in determining not only adipose tissue accrual but also the inflammatory response to HFD. However, how hypothalamic inflammation/gliosis is defined will determine whether it can be considered a common feature of HFD-induced obesity.

  8. Body condition and forage type influence intramuscular and rump fat, and reproductive performance of postpartum Brahman-influenced cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiparous Brahman-influenced cows were managed to achieve marginal (BCS = 4.9 ± 0.1; n = 55) or moderate (BCS = 6.5 ± 0.1; n = 55) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of forage type on estrous characteristics, intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat (RF), and reproductive performan...

  9. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chei Won

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), serum triglyceride (β = 0.001, P < 0.001), CCr (β = -0.003, P = 0.001), hsCRP (β = 0.157, P = 0.001), fibrinogen (β = 0.001, P < 0.001) and BMI (β = 0.02, P = 0.008) independently affected log transformed serum chemerin levels. Higher serum chemerin level was associated with higher level of abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM. PMID:27247502

  10. Effect of fat type in baked bread on amylose-lipid complex formation and glycaemic response.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evelyn; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    The formation of amylose-lipid complexes (ALC) had been associated with reduced starch digestibility. A few studies have directly characterised the extent of ALC formation with glycaemic response. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of using fats with varying degree of saturation and chain length on ALC formation as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses after consumption of bread. Healthy men consumed five test breads in a random order: control bread without any added fats (CTR) and breads baked with butter (BTR), coconut oil (COC), grapeseed oil (GRP) or olive oil (OLV). There was a significant difference in glycaemic response between the different test breads (P=0·002), primarily due to COC having a lower response than CTR (P=0·016), but no significant differences between fat types were observed. Insulinaemic response was not altered by the addition of fats/oils. Although BTR was more insulinotropic than GRP (P<0·05), postprandial β-cell function did not differ significantly. The complexing index (CI), a measure of ALC formation, was significantly higher for COC and OLV compared with BTR and GRP (P<0·05). CI was significantly negatively correlated with incremental AUC (IAUC) of change in blood glucose concentrations over time (IAUCglucose) (r -0·365, P=0·001). Linear regression analysis showed that CI explained 13·3 % of the variance and was a significant predictor of IAUCglucose (β=-1·265, P=0·001), but IAUCinsulin did not predict IAUCglucose. Our study indicated that a simple way to modulate glycaemic response in bread could lie in the choice of fats/oils, with coconut oil showing the greatest attenuation of glycaemic response.

  11. Effect of dietary fat type on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Baba, Kento; Miyahara, Hideo; Shimizu, Naomi; Tabata, Kuniko; Kino, Takako; Sato, Yusuke; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fat plays an important role in higher brain functions. We aimed to assess the short and long term intake of three different types of dietary fat (soybean oil, lard, and fish oil) on anxiety-like and depression-like behavior in mice. For the short term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery for anxiety and depression was carried out for a 3-day feeding period. For the long term intake assessment, a behavioral test battery began after the 4-week feeding period. During the short term intake, the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze was the longest in the fish oil fed group, followed by the soybean oil and lard-fed groups. The elevated plus-maze is a common animal model to assess anxiety, in which an increased time spent in the open arms indicates an anxiolytic effect. The difference between the fish oil-fed group and lard-fed group was statistically significant (p < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between the soybean oil-fed group and the other two groups. Similar results were observed after a 4-week feeding period. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the three groups in behavior tests to evaluate depression. Thus, the dietary fat types appeared to influence anxiety but not depression in mice, both in short term (3 days) and long term (4 weeks) feeding.

  12. [Effect of prenatal stress on the hypothalamo-hypophyseal-adrenal system activity and fat metabolism in the male water vole Arvicola terrestris].

    PubMed

    Makarova, E N; Bazhan, N M

    1999-08-01

    The HPA axis function and the fat metabolism were studied in adult male water voles born to intact mothers and mothers deprived of food on the 15th and 18th days of their pregnancy. The HPA response to emotional stress was relatively low in experimental males in winter. The hormonal response to a 24-hrs food deprivation diminished in experimental group only in February. The blood level of free fatty acids was increased in experimental group as compared to the control one. The short maternal food deprivation modified adaptive abilities of their male progeny.

  13. Effects of the type of dietary fat on acetylcholine-evoked amylase secretion and calcium mobilization in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Yago, María D; Díaz, Ricardo J; Martínez, María A; Audi, Nama'a; Naranjo, José A; Martínez-Victoria, Emilio; Mañas, Mariano

    2006-04-01

    Olive oil is a major component of the Mediterranean diet, and its role in human health is being actively debated. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of pancreatic adaptation to dietary fat. For this purpose, we examined whether dietary-induced modification of pancreatic membranes affects acinar cell function in response to the secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh). Weaning male Wistar rats were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed for 8 weeks with a commercial chow (C) or a semisynthetic diet containing virgin olive oil as dietary fat (OO). The fatty acid composition of pancreatic plasma membranes was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. For assessment of secretory function, viable acini were incubated with ACh and amylase of supernatant was further assayed with a substrate reagent. Changes in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in response to ACh were measured by fura-2 AM fluorimetry. Compared to C rats, pancreatic cell membranes of OO rats had a higher level of monounsaturated fatty acids and a lower level of both saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, thus, reflecting the type of dietary fat given. Net amylase secretion in response to ACh was greatly enhanced after OO feeding, although this was not paralleled by enhancement of ACh-evoked Ca(2+) peak increases. In conclusion, chronic intake of diets that differ in the fat type influences not only the fatty acid composition of rat pancreatic membranes but also the responsiveness of acinar cells to ACh. This mechanism may be, at least in part, responsible for the adaptation of the exocrine pancreas to the type of fat available.

  14. Maternal conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reverses high-fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and inflammation in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Pileggi, C A; Segovia, S A; Markworth, J F; Gray, C; Zhang, X D; Milan, A M; Mitchell, C J; Barnett, M P G; Roy, N C; Vickers, M H; Reynolds, C M; Cameron-Smith, D

    2016-03-01

    A high-saturated-fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy and lactation leads to metabolic disorders in offspring concomitant with increased adiposity and a proinflammatory phenotype in later life. During the fetal period, the impact of maternal diet on skeletal muscle development is poorly described, despite this tissue exerting a major influence on life-long metabolic health. This study investigated the effect of a maternal HFD on skeletal muscle anabolic, catabolic, and inflammatory signaling in adult rat offspring. Furthermore, the actions of maternal-supplemented conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on these measures of muscle phenotype were investigated. A purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal fat), a CD supplemented with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal fat, 1% total fat as CLA), a high-fat (HFD; 45% kcal fat from lard), or a HFD supplemented with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal fat from lard, 1% total fat as CLA) was fed ad libitum to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 10 days before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring received a standard chow diet from weaning, and the gastrocnemius was collected for analysis at day 150. Offspring from HF and HFCLA mothers displayed lower muscular protein content accompanied by elevated monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Phosphorylation of NF-κBp65 (Ser(536)) and expression of the catabolic E3 ligase muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) were increased in HF offspring, an effect reversed by maternal CLA supplementation. The present study demonstrates the importance of early life interventions to ameliorate the negative effects of poor maternal diet on offspring skeletal muscle development.

  15. Effects of Dairy Protein and Fat on the Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnshave, Ann; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Evidence supports a negative relationship between the consumption of dairy products and risk of MetS and T2D. Dairy proteins are known to have a directly beneficial effect on hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, but a detailed understanding of the underlying mechanisms is missing. It has been confirmed by observations that the insulinotropic effect of dairy proteins is associated with the amino acid composition; in particular branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) seem to be of vital importance. Dairy protein-derived peptides may also contribute to the insulinotropic effect via dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitory activity, and may lower the blood pressure (BP). The lipid metabolism may be improved by whey protein (WP), which acts to reduce the postprandial triglyceride (TG) response. The effect of dairy fat is much more controversial because of the potentially harmful effect exerted by saturated fatty acid (SFA) on metabolic health. Recent observations suggest less adverse effects of SFA on metabolic health than previous assumed. However, little is known about dairy lipid fractions belonging to the groups of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and phospholipids (PL). Dairy fat seems to act differently depending on the dairy product and the composition of macronutrients in the meal. Therefore, for a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the dairy protein and fat effect on MetS, we suggest that more human studies should be carried out to clarify the interactions of dairy protein and fat with macronutrients in the meal and other dairy components, such as micronutrients and microorganisms from fermented products. PMID:25396403

  16. Effect of fat types on the structural and textural properties of dough and semi-sweet biscuit.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Hasmadi; Hill, Sandra E

    2014-09-01

    Fat is an important ingredient in baking products and it plays many roles in providing desirable textural properties of baking products, particularly biscuit. In this study, the effect of fat types on dough rheological properties and quality of semi-sweet biscuit (rich tea type) were investigated using various techniques. Texture profile and extensibility analysis were used to study the dough rheology, while three-point bend test and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyse the textural characteristics of final product. TPA results showed that the type of fat significantly influenced dough textural properties. Biscuit produced with higher solid fat oil showed higher breaking force but this was not significantly different when evaluated by sensory panel. Scanning electron microscopy showed that biscuit produced with palm mid-fraction had an open internal microstructure and heterogeneous air cells as compared to other samples.

  17. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Morillas-Ruiz, J. M.; Delgado-Alarcon, J. M.; Rubio-Perez, J. M.; Albaladejo Oton, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil) separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD. PMID:25136625

  18. Leucine supplementation at the onset of high-fat feeding does not prevent weight gain or improve glycemic regulation in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Baum, Jamie I; Washington, Tyrone A; Shouse, Stephanie A; Bottje, Walter; Dridi, Sami; Davis, Gina; Smith, Dameon

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern and it is essential to identify effective treatments and preventative strategies to stop continued increases in obesity rates. The potential functional roles of the branched chain amino acid leucine make this amino acid an attractive candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of obesity. The objective of this study was to determine if long-term leucine supplementation could prevent the development of obesity and reduce the risk factors for chronic disease in rats fed a high-fat (60 % fat) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30 per dietary treatment) were meal-fed (3 meals/day) either a control, low-fat diet (LF), control + leucine (LFL), high-fat (HF), or high-fat + leucine (HFL) for 42 days. On day 42, rats were sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postprandial. Animals fed the HF and HFL diets had higher (P < 0.05) final body weights and weight gain compared to animals fed the LF and LFL diets. Leucine supplementation increased epididymal fat mass (P < 0.05) and decreased muscle mass (P < 0.05). There was no effect of leucine supplementation on postprandial glucose or insulin response. However, there was a significant effect (P < 0.05) of diet and time on free fatty acid concentrations. There was no effect of leucine on muscle markers of protein synthesis (4E-BP1, p70S6K) or energy metabolism (Akt, AMPK). Leucine supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) PGC1α expression and increased (P < 0.05) PPARγ expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, long-term leucine supplementation does not prevent weight gain, improve body composition, or improve glycemic control in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Minchin, James E N; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K; Epstein, Jonathan A; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F

    2015-04-07

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans.

  20. Plexin D1 determines body fat distribution by regulating the type V collagen microenvironment in visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Minchin, James E. N.; Dahlman, Ingrid; Harvey, Christopher J.; Mejhert, Niklas; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Arner, Peter; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Rawls, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have implicated PLEXIN D1 (PLXND1) in body fat distribution and type 2 diabetes. However, a role for PLXND1 in regional adiposity and insulin resistance is unknown. Here we use in vivo imaging and genetic analysis in zebrafish to show that Plxnd1 regulates body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Plxnd1 deficiency in zebrafish induced hyperplastic morphology in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and reduced lipid storage. In contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) growth and morphology were unaffected, resulting in altered body fat distribution and a reduced VAT:SAT ratio in zebrafish. A VAT-specific role for Plxnd1 appeared conserved in humans, as PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with hypertrophic morphology in VAT, but not SAT. In zebrafish plxnd1 mutants, the effect on VAT morphology and body fat distribution was dependent on induction of the extracellular matrix protein collagen type V alpha 1 (col5a1). Furthermore, after high-fat feeding, zebrafish plxnd1 mutant VAT was resistant to expansion, and excess lipid was disproportionately deposited in SAT, leading to an even greater exacerbation of altered body fat distribution. Plxnd1-deficient zebrafish were protected from high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance, and human VAT PLXND1 mRNA was positively associated with type 2 diabetes, suggesting a conserved role for PLXND1 in insulin sensitivity. Together, our findings identify Plxnd1 as a novel regulator of VAT growth, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in both zebrafish and humans. PMID:25831505

  1. Suppressed Fat Appetite after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery Associates with Reduced Brain μ-opioid Receptor Availability in Diet-Induced Obese Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hankir, Mohammed K.; Patt, Marianne; Patt, Jörg T. W.; Becker, Georg A.; Rullmann, Michael; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Schischke, Kristin; Seyfried, Florian; Brust, Peter; Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama; Krügel, Ute; Fenske, Wiebke K.

    2017-01-01

    Brain μ-opioid receptors (MORs) stimulate high-fat (HF) feeding and have been implicated in the distinct long term outcomes on body weight of bariatric surgery and dieting. Whether alterations in fat appetite specifically following these disparate weight loss interventions relate to changes in brain MOR signaling is unknown. To address this issue, diet-induced obese male rats underwent either Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sham surgeries. Postoperatively, animals were placed on a two-choice diet consisting of low-fat (LF) and HF food and sham-operated rats were further split into ad libitum fed (Sham-LF/HF) and body weight-matched (Sham-BWM) to RYGB groups. An additional set of sham-operated rats always only on a LF diet (Sham-LF) served as lean controls, making four experimental groups in total. Corresponding to a stage of weight loss maintenance for RYGB rats, two-bottle fat preference tests in conjunction with small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies with the selective MOR radioligand [11C]carfentanil were performed. Brains were subsequently collected and MOR protein levels in the hypothalamus, striatum, prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex were analyzed by Western Blot. We found that only the RYGB group presented with intervention-specific changes: having markedly suppressed intake and preference for high concentration fat emulsions, a widespread reduction in [11C]carfentanil binding potential (reflecting MOR availability) in various brain regions, and a downregulation of striatal and prefrontal MOR protein levels compared to the remaining groups. These findings suggest that the suppressed fat appetite caused by RYGB surgery is due to reduced brain MOR signaling, which may contribute to sustained weight loss unlike the case for dieting. PMID:28133443

  2. High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. Design A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Setting Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. Subjects 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40–60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ≥ 1. Results 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33–0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. Conclusion A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity. PMID:23320900

  3. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Lisa; Hilliard, Austin T.; Kent, Kai R.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1) males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2) males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to the same

  4. Seasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in "sneaker" type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus.

    PubMed

    Bhandiwad, Ashwin A; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Colleye, Orphal; Zeddies, David G; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2017-02-28

    Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in "sneaker" type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive "sneaker" type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 µPa and 1 ms(-2), respectively) that were ~8-21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season.

  5. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    PubMed Central

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P < 0.05). After weight loss, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P < 0.01), whereas EAs showed no difference between diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0

  6. Adipose-specific ablation of Nrf2 transiently delayed high-fat diet-induced obesity by altering glucose, lipid and energy metabolism of male mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Le; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a well-known master controller of the cellular adaptive antioxidant and detoxification response. Recent studies demonstrated altered glucose, lipid and energy metabolism in mice with a global Nrf2 knockout. In the present study, we aim to determine the effects of an adipose-specific ablation of Nrf2 (ASAN) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) in male mice. The 6-week-old adipose-specific Nrf2 knockout (NK) and its Nrf2 control (NC) mice were fed with either control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. NK mice exhibited transiently delayed body weight (BW) growth from week 5 to week 11 of HFD feeding, higher daily physical activity levels and preferential use of fat over carbohydrates as a source of energy at week 8 of the CD-feeding period. After 14 weeks of feeding, NK mice showed comparable results with NC mice with respect to the overall BW and body fat content, but exhibited reduced blood glucose, reduced number but increased size of adipocytes, accompanied with elevated expression of many genes and proteins in the visceral fat related to glucose, lipid and energy metabolism (e.g. Fgf21, Pgc1a). These results indicated that NRF2 is an important mediator for glucose, lipid and energy metabolism in adipose tissue, and ASAN could have beneficial effect for prevention of DIO during the early development of mice.

  7. Adipose-specific ablation of Nrf2 transiently delayed high-fat diet-induced obesity by altering glucose, lipid and energy metabolism of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Dasuri, Kalavathi; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a well-known master controller of the cellular adaptive antioxidant and detoxification response. Recent studies demonstrated altered glucose, lipid and energy metabolism in mice with a global Nrf2 knockout. In the present study, we aim to determine the effects of an adipose-specific ablation of Nrf2 (ASAN) on diet-induced obesity (DIO) in male mice. The 6-week-old adipose-specific Nrf2 knockout (NK) and its Nrf2 control (NC) mice were fed with either control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. NK mice exhibited transiently delayed body weight (BW) growth from week 5 to week 11 of HFD feeding, higher daily physical activity levels and preferential use of fat over carbohydrates as a source of energy at week 8 of the CD-feeding period. After 14 weeks of feeding, NK mice showed comparable results with NC mice with respect to the overall BW and body fat content, but exhibited reduced blood glucose, reduced number but increased size of adipocytes, accompanied with elevated expression of many genes and proteins in the visceral fat related to glucose, lipid and energy metabolism (e.g. Fgf21, Pgc1a). These results indicated that NRF2 is an important mediator for glucose, lipid and energy metabolism in adipose tissue, and ASAN could have beneficial effect for prevention of DIO during the early development of mice. PMID:28078004

  8. The type of dietary fat affects the severity of autoimmune disease in NZB/NZW mice.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, N. J.; Smythe, N. L.; Jokinen, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    The type of dietary fat dramatically affects the onset of autoimmune disease in lupus-prone female New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 (B/W) mice. Disease development was strikingly slowed in mice fed a diet containing quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil, FO). By 10 months of age, 94% of the FO mice were still living, whereas all the mice fed a saturated fat diet (lard,L) were dead. Those mice fed a corn oil (CO) diet were intermediate with 35% alive at the 10-month time evaluation. Long after the L and CO groups had succumbed to glomerulonephritis, the FO group had negligible proteinuria. Both B and T cell function, particularly antibody production and resultant circulating immune complex (CIC) levels, were modified by the type of dietary fat. FO mice exhibited lower levels of anti-ds-DNA and lower levels of CICs than L or CO mice. B/W antibody response to a T-independent antigen (DNP-dextran) was enhanced at 8 months of age in FO mice, whereas it was suppressed in L mice. T-dependent (sheep red blood cell) responses at that time period were reduced in all the diet groups, a reflection of the reduced numbers of accessory T cells as determined by FACS analysis. The natural killer (NK) response to YAC-1 cells decreased in the L group from 5 to 9 months of age but remained unchanged in the CO and FO groups. Severe glomerulonephritis was the most common histopathologic finding in the L and CO groups. Arteritis was found in the spleens of nearly all the L and CO mice. Arteritis of the heart, colon and intestine, stomach, kidney, and liver were also seen principally in the L mice. In contrast, most FO mice had minimal to mild glomerulonephritis and no or minimal arteritis in the spleen. It is likely omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil reduce immune-complex-induced glomerulonephritis through production of prostaglandin metabolites with attenuated activity and/or through altering cell membrane structure and fluidity, which may, in turn, affect the responsiveness of

  9. A mixture of cod and scallop protein reduces adiposity and improves glucose tolerance in high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Borkowski, Kamil; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Low-protein and high-protein diets regulate energy metabolism in animals and humans. To evaluate whether different dietary protein sources modulate energy balance when ingested at average levels obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed high-fat diets (67 energy percent fat, 18 energy percent sucrose and 15 energy percent protein) with either casein, chicken filet or a mixture of cod and scallop (1:1 on amino acid content) as protein sources. At equal energy intake, casein and cod/scallop fed mice had lower feed efficiency than chicken fed mice, which translated into reduced adipose tissue masses after seven weeks of feeding. Chicken fed mice had elevated hepatic triglyceride relative to casein and cod/scallop fed mice and elevated 4 h fasted plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to low-fat and casein fed mice. In casein fed mice the reduced adiposity was likely related to the observed three percent lower apparent fat digestibility compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. After six weeks of feeding an oral glucose tolerance test revealed that despite their lean phenotype, casein fed mice had reduced glucose tolerance compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. In a separate set of mice, effects on metabolism were evaluated by indirect calorimetry before onset of diet-induced obesity. Spontaneous locomotor activity decreased in casein and chicken fed mice when shifting from low-fat to high-fat diets, but cod/scallop feeding tended (P = 0.06) to attenuate this decrease. Moreover, at this shift, energy expenditure decreased in all groups, but was decreased to a greater extent in casein fed than in cod/scallop fed mice, indicating that protein sources regulated energy expenditure differently. In conclusion, protein from different sources modulates energy balance in C57BL/6J mice when given at normal levels. Ingestion of a cod/scallop-mixture prevented diet-induced obesity compared to intake of chicken filet and preserved glucose

  10. A Mixture of Cod and Scallop Protein Reduces Adiposity and Improves Glucose Tolerance in High-Fat Fed Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Rønnevik, Alexander Krokedal; Borkowski, Kamil; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Low-protein and high-protein diets regulate energy metabolism in animals and humans. To evaluate whether different dietary protein sources modulate energy balance when ingested at average levels obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice were pair-fed high-fat diets (67 energy percent fat, 18 energy percent sucrose and 15 energy percent protein) with either casein, chicken filet or a mixture of cod and scallop (1∶1 on amino acid content) as protein sources. At equal energy intake, casein and cod/scallop fed mice had lower feed efficiency than chicken fed mice, which translated into reduced adipose tissue masses after seven weeks of feeding. Chicken fed mice had elevated hepatic triglyceride relative to casein and cod/scallop fed mice and elevated 4 h fasted plasma cholesterol concentrations compared to low-fat and casein fed mice. In casein fed mice the reduced adiposity was likely related to the observed three percent lower apparent fat digestibility compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. After six weeks of feeding an oral glucose tolerance test revealed that despite their lean phenotype, casein fed mice had reduced glucose tolerance compared to low-fat, chicken and cod/scallop fed mice. In a separate set of mice, effects on metabolism were evaluated by indirect calorimetry before onset of diet-induced obesity. Spontaneous locomotor activity decreased in casein and chicken fed mice when shifting from low-fat to high-fat diets, but cod/scallop feeding tended (P = 0.06) to attenuate this decrease. Moreover, at this shift, energy expenditure decreased in all groups, but was decreased to a greater extent in casein fed than in cod/scallop fed mice, indicating that protein sources regulated energy expenditure differently. In conclusion, protein from different sources modulates energy balance in C57BL/6J mice when given at normal levels. Ingestion of a cod/scallop-mixture prevented diet-induced obesity compared to intake of chicken filet and preserved glucose

  11. Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Young-Seol; Cho, Mi-Ran; Choue, Ryowon

    2011-04-01

    The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat (R(2) = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; R(2) = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat (R(2) = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

  12. Effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in drug-naive subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yan; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Wen; Yang, Huijie; Feng, Wenhuan; Li, Cuiliu; Tong, Guoyu; Li, Ming; Wang, Xin; Shen, Shanmei; Zhu, Bin; Weng, Jianping; Zhu, Dalong

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and adiponectin were assayed by ELISA. HbA1c declined significantly in all three groups. Body weight, waist, and serum triglycerides decreased with exenatide. After interventions, IHF significantly reduced with three treatments (exenatide Δ = -68 %, insulin Δ = -58 %, pioglitazone Δ = -49 %). Exenatide reduced VF (Δ = -36 %) and SF (Δ = -13 %), and pioglitazone decreased VF (Δ = -30 %) with no impact on SF, whereas insulin had no impact on VF or SF. Levels of TNFα (exenatide/insulin/pioglitazone) decreased, and levels of adiponectin (exenatide/pioglitazone) increased. Analysis showed that ΔIHF correlated with ΔHbA1c and Δweight. Besides, ΔIHF correlated with Δtriglycerides and ΔTNFα, but the correlations fell short of significance after BMI adjustment. By linear regression analysis, ΔHbA1c alone explained 41.5 % of the variance of ΔIHF, and ΔHbA1c + Δweight explained 57.6 % of the variance. Liver fat content can be significantly reduced irrespective of using exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone. Early glycaemic control plays an important role in slowing progression of fatty liver in T2DM.

  13. Testosterone supplementation improves glucose homeostasis despite increasing hepatic insulin resistance in male mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Pal, M; Gupta, S

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output. Testosterone inhibited the insulin signaling in liver, thus increased insulin resistance. However, testosterone treatment inactivated GSK3α independent of PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibited FOXO1 By interaction of androgen receptor to FOXO1 and downregulated PEPCK, causing repression of gluconeogenic pathway, which is otherwise upregulated in T2DM, resulted in better glucose homeostasis. PMID:27941939

  14. Trans and interesterified fat and palm oil during the pregnancy and lactation period inhibit the central anorexigenic action of insulin in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Kenia Pereira; de Oliveira Rodrigues, Letícia; da Silva Soares de Souza, Érica; Mucci, Daniela; Tavares do Carmo, Maria das Graças; de Albuquerque, Kelse Tibau; de Carvalho Sardinha, Fatima Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil and interesterified fat have been used to replace partially hydrogenated fats, rich in trans isomers, in processed foods. This study investigated whether the maternal consumption of normolipidic diets containing these lipids affects the insulin receptor and Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) contents in the hypothalamus and the hypophagic effect of centrally administered insulin in 3-month-old male offspring. At 90 days, the intracerebroventricular injection of insulin decreased 24-h feeding in control rats but not in the palm, interesterified or trans groups. The palm group exhibited increases in the insulin receptor content of 64 and 69 % compared to the control and trans groups, respectively. However, the quantifications of PKB did not differ significantly across groups. We conclude that the intake of trans fatty acid substitutes during the early perinatal period affects food intake regulation in response to centrally administered insulin in the young adult offspring; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

  15. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  16. Umbelliferone Improves an Impaired Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet/Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn; Somparn, Nuntiya; Saentaweesuk, Suphaket; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-06-08

    Umbelliferone (UMB) is a natural product that has several pharmacological effects including antihyperglycemic activity in diabetic rats. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of UMB on insulin resistance and on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced in rats by feeding a high-fat diet (45 kcal% fat) and a single dose of streptozotocin injection. After 8 weeks of treatment, UMB significantly reduced the elevated blood glucose levels and insulin resistance and increased the liver glycogen and serum adiponectin. Moreover, the serum lipid and the storages of triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid in liver tissue were reduced. From histological examination, the lipid droplets in liver tissue were clearly decreased, and the fat cell size in the fat tissue was smaller in diabetic rats treated with UMB. Interestingly, UMB increased fat cell adiponectin, plasma membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and liver PPARα protein expressions. Our findings demonstrate that UMB improves glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes by stimulating the insulin secretion and the related mechanisms via stimulating expression of adiponectin, GLUT4, PPARγ, and PPARα-protein expressions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  18. Quality of gingernut type biscuits as affected by varying fat content and partial replacement of honey with molasses.

    PubMed

    Filipčev, Bojana; Šimurina, Olivera; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Gingernut type biscuits were prepared with varying fat content (10, 20, and 30 % w/w flour basis) and with sugar beet molasses replacing 0, 25, and 50 % w/w of the honey in the formulation. To evaluate the effects of these modifications, dough properties, and the physical, and sensory properties, and chemical composition of the biscuits were determined. Dough properties were significantly affected by the fat content; higher fat gave softer dough with reduced adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness. Biscuit height and diameter were also significantly affected only by the fat content. The tested biscuit variants showed no difference with respect to hardness and fracturability. During storage, hardness, fracturability and brittleness of the biscuits significantly increased but significant differences within the biscuits variants were observed after two months of storage in terms of fracturability which was least impaired in the biscuits with 30 % fat. Higher fat content also contributed to better flavour keeping during storage. Substitution of honey with molasses resulted in products with darker colour, less yellow and more red tone. Molasses also contributed to better nutritive value of biscuits by increasing significantly the content of proteins, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron.

  19. Patients with type 1 diabetes show signs of vascular dysfunction in response to multiple high-fat meals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A high-fat diet promotes postprandial systemic inflammation and metabolic endotoxemia. We investigated the effects of three consecutive high-fat meals on endotoxemia, inflammation, vascular function, and postprandial lipid metabolism in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods Non-diabetic controls (n = 34) and patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 37) were given three high-caloric, fat-containing meals during one day. Blood samples were drawn at fasting (8:00) and every two hours thereafter until 18:00. Applanation tonometry was used to assess changes in the augmentation index during the investigation day. Results Three consecutive high-fat meals had only a modest effect on serum LPS-activity levels and inflammatory markers throughout the day in both groups. Of note, patients with type 1 diabetes were unable to decrease the augmentation index in response to the high-fat meals. The most profound effects of the consecutive fat loads were seen in chylomicron and HDL-metabolism. The triglyceride-rich lipoprotein remnant marker, apoB-48, was elevated in patients compared to controls both at fasting (p = 0.014) and postprandially (p = 0.035). The activities of the HDL-associated enzymes PLTP (p < 0.001), and CETP (p = 0.007) were higher and paraoxonase (PON-1) activity, an anti-oxidative enzyme bound to HDL, decreased in patients with type 1 diabetes (p = 0.027). Conclusions In response to high-fat meals, early signs of vascular dysfunction alongside accumulation of chylomicron remnants, higher augmentation index, and decreased PON-1 activity were observed in patients with type 1 diabetes. The high-fat meals had no significant impact on postprandial LPS-activity in non-diabetic subjects or patients with type 1 diabetes suggesting that metabolic endotoxemia may be more central in patients with chronic metabolic disturbances such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, or diabetic kidney disease. PMID:24959195

  20. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gotthardt, Juliet D.; Verpeut, Jessica L.; Yeomans, Bryn L.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Yasrebi, Ali; Bello, Nicholas T.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%–52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%–13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%–42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%–60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%–32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%–75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy. PMID:26653760

  1. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  2. Effects of Cage Type and NASA Rodent Food Bar in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, Angela; Ramirez, J.; Pruitt, S.; Melson, E.; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Girten, B.; Apseloff, G.

    2001-01-01

    Early prototype caging for the rodent Advanced Animal Habitat (P-AAH) for the International Space Station (ISS) is currently being tested. In this five week study, effects of the wire-bottom P-AAH cages and specialized NASA rodent food bars (FB) were compared to standard vivarium cages (VIV) with corn-cob, litter-filled bottoms, and standard Purina rat chow (CH). Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four treatment groups (24 rats/treatment): Group 1) VIV+CH, Group 2) P-AAH+CH, Group 3) VIV+FB, and Group 4) P-AAH+FB. Each VIV and P-AAH cage housed three and six rats, respectively. After five weeks of treatment rats were weighed, euthanized, and blood samples were collected. Weights of liver (LIV), kidney (KID), brain (BRN), epididymal fat (EPI), and perirenal fat (PERI) were also measured. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures (ANOVA) with a significance level of pLO.05. Results indicated P-AAH housed rats had significantly lower body weights (BW), LIV weights, and LIV/BW than VIV housed rats. FB fed rats had significantly lower blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and LIV/BW than CH fed rats. In addition, FB fed rats had significantly higher cholesterol (CHOL) levels, EPI/BW, PERI/BW, and total fat (EPI+PERI)/BW than CH fed rats. The P-AAH+FB group had significantly lower EPI, BRN, and total fat than VIV+FB rats. VIV+FB rats had significantly higher BRN, EPI, PERI, and total fat than VIV+CH rats. Triglycerides (TG), KID, KID/BW, and BRN/BW were not significantly different among treatment groups. These findings provide valuable information regarding cage design and food bar suitability for long-term use on the ISS.

  3. Relation of epicardial fat thickness with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Polat, Mustafa; Suner, Arif; Zencir, Cemil; Ardic, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of echocardiographic epicardial fat thickness (EFT) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods and Results. A total of 139 patients with T2DM (mean age 54.3 ± 9.2 and 49.6% male) and 40 age and sex-matched control subjects were evaluated. Echocardiographic EFT and ultrasonographic CIMT were measured in all subjects. Patients with T2DM had significantly increased EFT and CIMT than those of the controls (6.0 ± 1.5 mm versus 4.42 ± 1.0 mm, P < 0.001 and 0.76 ± 0.17 mm versus 0.57 ± 0.14 mm, P < 0.001, resp.). EFT was correlated with CIMT, waist circumference, BMI, age, duration of T2DM, HbA1c in the type 2 diabetic patients. Linear regression analysis showed that CIMT (β = 3.52, t = 3.72, P < 0.001) and waist circumference (β = 0.36, t = 2.26, P = 0.03) were found to be independent predictors of EFT. A cutoff high risk EFT value of 6.3 mm showed a sensitivity and specificity of 72.5% and 71.7%, respectively, for the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis. Conclusion. We found that echocardiographic EFT was significantly higher in patients with T2DM. Our study also showed that EFT was strongly correlated with waist circumference and CIMT as being independent of sex.

  4. MRI chemical shift imaging of the fat content of the pancreas and liver of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jun; Liu, Peng; Jin, Erhu; Su, Tianhao; Zhang, Jie; Shi, Kaining; Hong, X U; Yin, Jie; Yu, Hengchi

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the association between the content and distribution of fat in the pancreas and liver in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 70 patients newly diagnosed with T2DM (T2DM group) and 30 healthy volunteers (normal control group) were enrolled in the present study. Dual-echo magnetic resonance (MR) chemical shift imaging was used to measure the fat content of the liver and the head, body and tail regions of the pancreas. In addition, the distribution of fat in the various regions of the pancreas, as well as the average fat content of the pancreas versus the liver, were compared. The fat content of the pancreatic head, body and tail regions of the T2DM group were 5.59±4.70, 4.80±3.75 and 4.89±3.86%, respectively. The fat content of these regions in the normal control group were 3.89±2.47, 3.30±2.11 and 3.23±2.23%, respectively. The average fat content of the pancreas was 5.19±3.75% for the T2DM group and 3.47±2.00% for the normal control group. The average fat content of the liver was 9.87±3.19% for the T2DM group and 7.24±2.38% for the normal control group. Therefore, the results from MR chemical shift imaging suggested that there were no significant differences in the distribution of fat between the pancreas of patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and that from the healthy population; however, the average fat content in the pancreas of the T2DM group was significantly higher (F=3.597; P<0.05), as compared with the normal control group. In addition, there was no correlation between the fat contents in the pancreas and liver in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM and the healthy population.

  5. Fat diet and alcohol-induced steatohepatitis after LPS challenge in mice: role of bioactive TNF and Th1 type cytokines.

    PubMed

    Olleros, Maria L; Martin, Maria L; Vesin, Dominique; Fotio, Agathe L; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Spahr, Laurent; Hadengue, Antoine; Garcia, Irene

    2008-10-01

    Obesity with insulin resistance and alcohol are the most frequent causes of steatohepatitis. This work investigates the contribution of bioactive TNF and Th1 type cytokines in a mouse model of steatohepatitis induced by FAT alone or FAT+EtOH and endotoxin. The extent of liver injury and cytokine activation induced by endotoxin in chronic FAT-fed mice, FAT+EtOH-fed mice, or mice fed standard chow were analyzed. Endotoxin administration to either FAT-fed or FAT+EtOH-fed mice increased serum ALT and AST compared to standard chow mice. Immunoreactive TNF was strongly activated by LPS in FAT-fed and FAT+EtOH-fed mice which presented the highest levels, but low levels were found in standard chow mice. In contrast, bioactive TNF was only present in serum of FAT-fed and in particular the highest levels were found in FAT+EtOH-fed mice. Moreover, soluble TNFR2 but not TNFR1 was found in lower amounts in serum of FAT+EtOH-fed mice compared to FAT-fed mice. Steatohepatitis was associated with increased IL-6, IFN-gamma, and iNOS mRNA and proteins. Data show that a moderately FAT diet and low-dose EtOH concur to generate steatohepatitis and TNF liver expression after LPS. In this model, changes in the regulation of TNF are associated with increased expression of IL-6, IFN-gamma, and iNOS.

  6. Trans fat intake across gestation and lactation increases morphine preference in females but not in male rats: Behavioral and biochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Roversi, Karine; Pase, Camila Simonetti; Roversi, Katiane; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Metz, Vinícia Garzella; Burger, Marilise Escobar

    2016-10-05

    The abuse of morphine has risen considerably in recent years, mainly due to the increase of its prescription in clinical medicine. Also, increased consumption of processed foods, rich in trans fatty acids (TFA), has caused concerns about human health. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine whether trans fat consumption in the perinatal period may affect preference for morphine in adolescent female and male rats. Dams were orally supplemented with water (C-control) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF-rich in TFA) during gestation and lactation periods. On post-natal day 43, pups were exposed to morphine (4mg/kg i.p., for 4 days) and assessed in the conditioned place preference paradigm. Anxiety-like symptoms were assessed, and oxidative status of the brain was estimated by reactive species (RS) generation. Female rats with HVF supplementation showed increased morphine preference and less anxiety-like symptoms. Additionally, both male and female rats from HVF-supplementation showed increased RS generation in the ventral tegmental area, whose level was similar in morphine-conditioned female rats. RS generation was increased in the hippocampus of morphine-conditioned female rats, regardless of the supplementation of their dams. We may infer that gender is a predictive factor to opioid preference, since adolescent female rats showed more susceptibility to addiction than males. Furthermore, trans fat consumption across the perinatal period is able to modify parameters of opioid preference in female rats, possibly due to TFA incorporation in phospholipid membranes, modifying the endogenous opioid system and the oxidative status in brain areas related to drug addiction.

  7. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lumei; Byrd, Aria; Plummer, Justin; Erikson, Keith M.; Harrison, Scott H.; Han, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n = 5) with varying fat (control/high) and iron (control/high/low) contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin heavy chain (FtH) protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P < 0.05). The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: (1) high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P < 0.05), but not other regions, and (2) thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared with other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P < 0.05). Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings

  8. Optical body fat measurement might contribute to the search for a predictor of type-2 diabetes mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafeit, Erwin; Horejsi, Renate; Sudi, Karl; Berg, Aloys; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Moeller, Reinhard

    2001-10-01

    The optical device LIPOMETER allows for non-invasive, quick, precise and safe determination of subcutaneous fat distribution, so-called subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Previously we showed how the high-dimensional SAT-Top information of women with type-2 diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and a health control group can be analysed and represented in low-dimensional plots by applying special artificial neural networks (ANNs). Three top-down sorted subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments were determined (upper trunk, lower trunk, legs). NIDDM women provided significantly higher upper trunk obesity and significantly lower leg obesity (apple type), as compared with their healthy control group. Now we apply those ANN results on SAT-Top measurements of young and healthy women, comparing their individual subcutaneous fat pattern to the body fat distribution of NIDDM women and to the normal fat development of healthy women. Some of these young and healthy women provide a subcutaneous fat distribution very similar to the SAT-Top results of NIDDM women, which might increase their risk for this disease later in life.

  9. Ipragliflozin effectively reduced visceral fat in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes under adequate diet therapy.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Chiho; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Ono, Kota; Sugawara, Hajime; Kameda, Reina; Ichiyama, Mei; Yamamoto, Kohei; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Akinobu; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2016-06-30

    To investigate if ipragliflozin, a novel sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, alters body composition and to identify variables associated with reductions in visceral adipose tissue in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This prospective observational study enrolled Japanese participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subjects were administered ipragliflozin (50 mg/day) once daily for 16 weeks. Body composition, visceral adipose tissue volume and plasma variables were measured at 0, 8, and 16-weeks. The subjects' lifestyle habits including diet and exercise were evaluated at baseline and 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was defined as the decrease of visceral adipose tissue mass. Twenty-four of 26 enrolled participants completed the study. The visceral adipose tissue decreased significantly (110 ± 33 to 101 ± 36 cm(2), p = 0.005) as well as other parameters for metabolic insufficiency including hemoglobin A1c. Seventy-one % of the total body weight reduction (-2.49 kg) was estimated by a decrease in fat mass (-1.77 kg), and the remaining reduction (22%) by water volume (-0.55 kg). A minor but significant reduction in the skeletal muscle index was also observed. Correlation analyses were performed to identify variables associated with changes in visceral adipose tissue and the only significant variable identified was diet therapy (Spearman's r = -0.416, p = 0.043). Ipragliflozin significantly decreased visceral adipose tissue, and improved parametres for metabolic dysfunction. Adequate diet therapy would be necessary to induce and enhance the therapeutic merit.

  10. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet-induced weight gain in mice.

    PubMed

    Uebele, Victor N; Gotter, Anthony L; Nuss, Cindy E; Kraus, Richard L; Doran, Scott M; Garson, Susan L; Reiss, Duane R; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C; Reger, Thomas S; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S; Renger, John J

    2009-06-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity.

  11. Effect of different types of textiles on male sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different types of textile underpants on sexual activity was studied in 50 men. All the subjects were potent and sexually active. They were divided into 5 equal groups: 4 test and 1 control. Each of the 4 test groups were dressed in one type of textile underpants made of either 100% polyester, 50/50% polyester/cotton mix, 100% cotton, or 100% wool. Sexual behavior was assessed before and after 6 and 12 months of wearing the pants, and 6 months after their removal. Behavioral response was rated as potent if the subject's penis became erect, entered the vagina, and ejaculated. The rate of potent intromission (I) to mounts (M) (I/M ratio) was determined. The electrostatic potentials (EP) generated on the penis and scrotum were measured by an electrostatic kilovoltmeter. The I/M ratio at 6 and 12 months of wearing the polyester and polyester/cotton mix pants was significantly reduced compared to the pretest levels and the controls (p < .001). The reduction was more manifest in the pure polyester than in the polyester/cotton mix group, and at the 12-month than at the 6-month examination. The I/M ratio of the cotton and wool groups showed insignificant changes during the study period. Six months after removal of the underpants, the I/M ratio had returned to the pretest levels in the two groups that had worn polyester-containing pants. The polyester-containing pants generated EP, which may induce electrostatic fields in the intrapenile structures and could explain the diminished sexual activity. The cotton and wool textiles did not generate EP. Thus, polyester underpants could have an injurious effect on human sexual activity.

  12. H1-antihistamines exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in wild-type but not in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Raveendran, Vineesh V.; Kassel, Karen M.; Smith, Donald D.; Luyendyk, James P.; Williams, Kurt J.; Cherian, Rachel; Reed, Gregory A.; Flynn, Colleen A.; Csanaky, Iván L.; Lickteig, Andrew L.; Pratt-Hyatt, Matthew J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of two over-the-counter H1-antihistamines on the progression of fatty liver disease in male C57Bl/6 wild-type and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)−/− mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 mo, together with administration of either cetirizine (4 mg/kg body wt) or fexofenadine (40 mg/kg body wt) in drinking water. Antihistamine treatments increased body weight gain, gonadal fat deposition, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis in wild-type mice but not in ApoE−/− mice. Lobular inflammation, acute inflammation, and necrosis were not affected by H1-antihistamines in either genotype. Serum biomarkers of liver injury tended to increase in antihistamine-treated wild-type mice. Serum level of glucose was increased by fexofenadine, whereas lipase was increased by cetirizine. H1-antihistamines reduced the mRNA expression of ApoE and carbohydrate response element-binding protein in wild-type mice, without altering the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, or ApoB100, in either genotype. Fexofenadine increased both triglycerides and cholesterol ester, whereas cetirizine increased only cholesterol ester in liver, with a concomitant decrease in serum triglycerides by both antihistamines in wild-type mice. Antihistamines increased hepatic levels of conjugated bile acids in wild-type mice, with the effect being significant in fexofenadine-treated animals. The increase was associated with changes in the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide 1b2 and bile salt export pump. These results suggest that H1-antihistamines increase the progression of fatty liver disease in wild-type mice, and there seems to be an association between the severity of disease, presence of ApoE, and increase in hepatic bile acid levels. PMID:24852568

  13. Noninvasive fat quantification of the liver and pancreas may provide potential biomarkers of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi; Luo, Yanji; Cai, Huasong; Zhang, Zhongwei; Peng, Zhenpeng; Jiang, Mengjie; Li, Yanbing; Li, Chang; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study is to investigate if the fat content of the liver and pancreas may indicate impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 83 subjects (34 men; aged 46.5 ± 13.5 years) were characterized as T2DM, IGT, or normal glucose tolerant (NGT). NGT individuals were stratified as <40 or ≥40 years. Standard laboratory tests were conducted for insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. The magnetic resonance imaging Dixon technique was used to determine fat distribution in the liver and pancreas. Correlations among liver and pancreatic fat volume fractions (LFVFs and PFVFs, respectively) and laboratory parameters were analyzed. Among the groups, fat distribution was consistent throughout sections of the liver and pancreas, and LFVFs closely correlated with PFVFs. LFVFs correlated more closely than PFVFs with insulin resistance and β-cell function. Both the LFVFs and PFVFs were the highest in the T2DM patients, less in the IGT, and least in the NGT; all differences were significant. The PFVFs of the NGT subjects ≥40 years were significantly higher than that of those <40 years. The fat content of the liver and pancreas, particularly the liver, may be a biomarker for IGT and T2DM. PMID:27281097

  14. Comparative study between atorvastatin and losartan on high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Ahmed A; Heeba, Gehan H; Taye, Ashraf; El-Moselhy, Mohamed A

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is often associated with chronic inflammatory state which contributes to the development of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated the effects of single and combined administration of atorvastatin (ATOR, lipid-lowering drug) and losartan (LOS, angiotensin receptor antagonist) on metabolic disorders and inflammatory status that are implicated in the development of T2DM with the use of pioglitazone (PIO) as a standard antidiabetic drug. T2DM was induced in male rats by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding for 16 weeks. Oral administrations of ATOR (10 mg/kg), LOS (20 mg/kg), PIO (3 mg/kg), their binary combinations, or vehicle were started in the last 4 weeks. Fasting serum glucose, oral glucose tolerance, fasting serum insulin, IR, serum lipid profile, serum TNF-α and body composition index were determined. Results showed that all drugs and their combinations had positive impact effect on all measured parameters, and better results were achieved from binary drug combinations than administration of each drug alone. Combination of PIO with either ATOR or LOS provided better improvements on T2DM-associated metabolic abnormalities and inflammatory status with respect to each drug alone. However, the most pronounced effects of drugs and their combinations regarding the above parameters were attributed to LOS + PIO combination. In conclusion, this study indicates that combination of ATOR + PIO and, in particular, LOS + PIO can be used as promising effective therapies in the management of HFD-induced T2DM. This concept may be attributed to the combined effects of the respective monotherapies to improve lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and TNF-α level.

  15. A Difference in Fatty Acid Composition of Isocaloric High-Fat Diets Alters Metabolic Flexibility in Male C57BL/6JOlaHsd Mice.

    PubMed

    Duivenvoorde, Loes P M; van Schothorst, Evert M; Swarts, Hans M; Kuda, Ondrej; Steenbergh, Esther; Termeulen, Sander; Kopecky, Jan; Keijer, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be healthier than saturated fatty acids (SFAs), but others postulate that especially the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFAs (n6/n3 ratio) determines health. Health can be determined with biomarkers, but functional health status is likely better reflected by challenge tests that assess metabolic flexibility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of high-fat diets with different fatty acid compositions, but similar n6/n3 ratio, on metabolic flexibility. Therefore, adult male mice received isocaloric high-fat diets with either predominantly PUFAs (HFpu diet) or predominantly SFAs (HFs diet) but similar n6/n3 ratio for six months, during and after which several biomarkers for health were measured. Metabolic flexibility was assessed by the response to an oral glucose tolerance test, a fasting and re-feeding test and an oxygen restriction test (OxR; normobaric hypoxia). The latter two are non-invasive, indirect calorimetry-based tests that measure the adaptive capacity of the body as a whole. We found that the HFs diet, compared to the HFpu diet, increased mean adipocyte size, liver damage, and ectopic lipid storage in liver and muscle; although, we did not find differences in body weight, total adiposity, adipose tissue health, serum adipokines, whole body energy balance, or circadian rhythm between HFs and HFpu mice. HFs mice were, furthermore, less flexible in their response to both fasting- re-feeding and OxR, while glucose tolerance was indistinguishable. To conclude, the HFs versus the HFpu diet increased ectopic fat storage, liver damage, and mean adipocyte size and reduced metabolic flexibility in male mice. This study underscores the physiological relevance of indirect calorimetry-based challenge tests.

  16. [Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].

    PubMed

    Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z

    1997-12-01

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point.

  17. Effect of fat content, casing type and smoking procedures on PAHs contents of Portuguese traditional dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A; Santos, C; Almeida, J; Elias, M; Roseiro, L C

    2013-08-01

    Portuguese dry fermented sausages are traditionally processed through direct drying/smoking, making them susceptible to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of added fat (20% and 40%), casing type (hog and collagen) and smoking procedures (direct and indirect exposure) on the 16 EPA priority PAHs in dry fermented sausages manufactured according traditional processing. The total PAHs content (sum of 16 PAHs) found in whole product (casing included) varied between 150 and 870 μg kg(-1), with more than 99% of this content corresponding to harmless low molecular weight compounds. Concerning benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and PAH4, the respective maximum contents (0.32 and 10.35 μg kg(-1), respectively) did not exceed the imposed limits regulated by the European Union. According to our results, casing type was the most influential factor. For hog samples, fat content and smoking regime alone did not influenced the total PAHs amount. However, significantly higher (p<0.05) contamination levels were detected in hog casing samples combining high fat content and direct smoking procedures. In opposition, irrespective of the fat content and smoking regime, safer products, with significantly lower (p<0.001) contamination levels, were obtained when collagen casing was used.

  18. Valproic acid reduces insulin-resistance, fat deposition and FOXO1-mediated gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Kumar, Sandeep; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in insulin-resistance, gluconeogenesis and islet function. HDACs can modulate the expression of various genes, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. This study was aimed to evaluate the role of valproic acid (VPA) on fat deposition, insulin-resistance and gluconeogenesis in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin. VPA at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day and metformin (positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 weeks were administered by oral gavage. Insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and glycemia were evaluated by biochemical estimations, while fat accumulation and structural alteration were assessed by histopathology. Protein expression and insulin signaling were evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry. VPA treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue and liver, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, VPA inhibited the gluconeogenesis and glucagon expression as well as restored the histopathological alterations in pancreas and liver. Our findings provide new insights on the anti-diabetic role of VPA in type-2 diabetes mellitus by the modulation of insulin signaling and forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1)-mediated gluconeogenesis. Since VPA is a well established clinical drug, the detailed molecular mechanisms of the present findings can be further investigated for possible clinical use.

  19. The relation between serum leptin levels and max VO2 in male patients with type I diabetes and healthy sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Unal, Mehmet; Unal, Durisehvar Ozer; Salman, Fatih; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2004-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating leptin levels in male diabetes type I patients who were on insulin treatment and also healthy sedentary males. The study included 10 male type I diabetes patients and 17 healthy sedentary males. Leptin levels of type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 were evaluated separately. The relation between serum leptin, max VO2, blood lactic acid levels before and after exercise, and effort durations of participants were investigated. At the end of the tests, no difference was found between leptin levels, max VO2 values, lactic acid values before exercise, and test durations of male type I diabetes patients and healthy sedentary males (p > .05), whereas lactic acid levels after exercise were found to be lower in healthy sedentary males (p < .05). Leptin levels in the group with BMI above 25 kg/m2 were higher than those in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .001). It was also seen that max VO2 values and test durations were higher in the group with BMI below 25 kg/m2 (p < .05). In conclusion, leptin levels of male type I diabetes patients are close to those of healthy sedentary males. The increase in leptin levels in both groups is in proportion to the BMI of individuals.

  20. Effect of chronic p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) exposure on high fat diet-induced alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism in male C57BL/6H mice.

    PubMed

    Howell, George E; Mulligan, Charlee; Meek, Edward; Chambers, Janice E

    2015-02-03

    Diabetes mellitus is a highly prevalent metabolic disease affecting 29.1 million people or 9.3% of the population of the United States. The most prevalent form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes (T2D) which comprises 90-95% of all reported cases of diabetes. While the exact cause of T2D remains an enigma, known risk factors include age, weight, sedentary lifestyle, poor dietary habits, and genetic predisposition. However, these risk factors can not sufficiently explain the increasing prevalence of T2D. Recently, environmental exposures have been explored as potential risk factors. Indeed, epidemiological and limited empirical studies have revealed elevated serum concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including the bioaccumulative metabolite of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), are positively correlated with increased T2D prevalence. The goal of the present study is to determine if chronic exposure to DDE promotes T2D in a widely used in vivo model, the high saturated fat-fed mouse. Male C57BL/6H mice were exposed to DDE (2.0mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil; 1ml/kg) via gavage for 5 consecutive days, then every 7 days for the duration of the study. One week following the 5 day consecutive DDE dosing, animals were placed on either a low fat (10%kcal from lard) or high fat (45%kcal from lard) diet (HFD) for 13 weeks. Chronic exposure to DDE promoted fasting hyperglycemia after 4 and 8 weeks on the HFD diet and normalized fasting blood glucose levels at week 13. This DDE-mediated decrease in fasting hyperglycemia was preceded by improved glucose tolerance at week 12. In addition to normalizing fasting hyperglycemia at the end of high fat feeding, DDE exposure decreased HFD-induced fasting hyperinsulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values, and hepatic steatosis. Therefore, based on the current data, chronic DDE exposure appears to have a biphasic effect on HFD

  1. Extract of Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Ki-Jong; Lee, Chang Gun; Kim, Sung Woo; Gim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Jung, Bae Dong

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is caused by either destruction of pancreatic β-cells (type 1 DM) or unresponsiveness to insulin (type 2 DM). Conventional therapies for diabetes mellitus have been developed but still needs improvement. Many diabetic patients have complemented conventional therapy with alternative methods including oral supplementation of natural products. In this study, we assessed whether Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 could provide beneficial effects in the streptozotocin-induced type 1 DM and high-fat diet-induced type 2 DM murine model system. For the type 1 DM model, streptozotocin-induced mice were orally administered EGb 761 for 10 days prior to streptozotocin injection and then again administered EGb 761 for an additional 10 days. Streptozotocin-treated mice administered EGb 761 exhibited lower blood triglyceride levels, lower blood glucose levels and higher blood insulin levels compared to streptozotocin-treated mice. Furthermore, liver LPL and liver PPAR-α were increased whereas IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased in streptozotocin-injected mice treated with EGb 761 compared to mice injected with streptozotocin alone. For the type 2 DM model, mice were given high-fat diet for 60 days and then orally administered EGb 761 every other day for 80 days. We found that mice given a high-fat diet and EGb 761 showed decreased blood triglyceride levels, increased liver LPL, increased liver PPAR-α and decreased body weight compared to mice given high-fat diet alone. These results suggest that EGb 761 can exert protective effects in both type 1 and type 2 DM murine models.

  2. Influance of regular swimming on serum levels of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Rafighe; Ghadiri Soufi, Farhad; Mohaddes, Gisou; Alihemmati, Alireza; Somi, Mohammad H; Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mirzaie Bavil, Fariba; Alipour, Mohammad R

    2016-10-01

    Due to key role of inflammation in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), aim of this study was evaluating the influance of regular swimming on serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interlukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. Fourty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, diabetic, exercise and diabetic-exercise groups (n = 10). Diabetes was induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). In exercise groups, after induction of diabetes, animals were subjected to swimming (60 min/5 days a week) for 10 weeks. At the end of training, rats were anestatized and blood samples and pancreatic tissues were collected and used for evaluation of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α and pancreatic histopatholology. Our results showed significantly increase in lymphocytes, monocytes and decrease in neutrophils in diabetic rats (p < 0.01), which these parameters significantly reversed to control levels by induction of swimming (p < 0.01). In diabetic group, the levels of CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α increased (p < 0.01), and swimming decreased these factors significantly. Histopathological results of this study also showed that swimming can prevent damage induced by diabetes. The present study indicates that swim training is associated with improved inflammation and inflammatory mediators and pancreatic damage.

  3. A role for phosphodiesterase 3B in acquisition of brown fat characteristics by white adipose tissue in male mice.

    PubMed

    Guirguis, Emilia; Hockman, Steven; Chung, Youn Wook; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Gavrilova, Oksana; Raghavachari, Nalini; Yang, Yanqin; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Zu Xi; Liu, Shiwei; Degerman, Eva; Manganiello, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is linked to various diseases, including insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The idea of inducing white adipose tissue (WAT) to assume characteristics of brown adipose tissue (BAT), and thus gearing it to fat burning instead of storage, is receiving serious consideration as potential treatment for obesity and related disorders. Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) links insulin- and cAMP-signaling networks in tissues associated with energy metabolism, including WAT. We used C57BL/6 PDE3B knockout (KO) mice to elucidate mechanisms involved in the formation of BAT in epididymal WAT (EWAT) depots. Examination of gene expression profiles in PDE3B KO EWAT revealed increased expression of several genes that block white and promote brown adipogenesis, such as C-terminal binding protein, bone morphogenetic protein 7, and PR domain containing 16, but a clear BAT-like phenotype was not completely induced. However, acute treatment of PDE3B KO mice with the β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243, markedly increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, which catalyzes prostaglandin synthesis and is thought to be important in the formation of BAT in WAT and the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids 3, which is linked to BAT recruitment upon cold exposure, causing a clear shift toward fat burning and the induction of BAT in KO EWAT. These data provide insight into the mechanisms of BAT formation in mouse EWAT, suggesting that, in a C57BL/6 background, an increase in cAMP, caused by ablation of PDE3B and administration of CL316243, may promote differentiation of prostaglandin-responsive progenitor cells in the EWAT stromal vascular fraction into functional brown adipocytes.

  4. High-protein diet selectively reduces fat mass and improves glucose tolerance in Western-type diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Hu, Eugenia; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Pisegna, Joseph R; Taché, Yvette

    2013-09-15

    Obesity is an increasing health problem. Because drug treatments are limited, diets remain popular. High-protein diets (HPD) reduce body weight (BW), although the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated physiological mechanisms altered by switching diet induced obesity (DIO) rats from Western-type diet (WTD) to HPD. Male rats were fed standard (SD) or WTD (45% calories from fat). After developing DIO (50% of rats), they were switched to SD (15% calories from protein) or HPD (52% calories from protein) for up to 4 weeks. Food intake (FI), BW, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and intestinal hormone plasma levels were monitored. Rats fed WTD showed an increased FI and had a 25% greater BW gain after 9 wk compared with SD (P < 0.05). Diet-induced obese rats switched from WTD to HPD reduced daily FI by 30% on day 1, which lasted to day 9 (-9%) and decreased BW during the 2-wk period compared with SD/SD (P < 0.05). During these 2 wk, WTD/HPD rats lost 72% more fat mass than WTD/SD (P < 0.05), whereas lean mass was unaltered. WTD/HPD rats had lower blood glucose than WTD/SD at 30 min postglucose gavage (P < 0.05). The increase of pancreatic polypeptide and peptide YY during the 2-h dark-phase feeding was higher in WTD/HPD compared with WTD/SD (P < 0.05). These data indicate that HPD reduces BW in WTD rats, which may be related to decreased FI and the selective reduction of fat mass accompanied by improved glucose tolerance, suggesting relevant benefits of HPD in the treatment of obesity.

  5. Effect of chromium on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rat.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Onderci, Muhittin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ustundag, Bilal; Cikim, Gurkan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Juturu, Vijaya; Komorowski, James R

    2007-09-01

    Chromium supplements are widely used as an alternative remedy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In vitro study findings show that chromium picolinate (CrPic) may improve insulin sensitivity by enhancing intracellular insulin receptor. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic effects of CrPic in a rat model of T2DM. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 45, 8 weeks old) were divided into 3 groups. The controls (group I) received a standard diet (12% of calories as fat); group II received a high-fat diet (HFD; 40% of calories as fat) for 2 weeks and then were intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg; HFD/STZ) on day 14; group III rats were given group II diets with the addition of 80 microg CrPic per kilogram body weight per day. The addition of CrPic in the group III treatment lowered glucose by an average of 63% (P < .001), total cholesterol by 9.7% (P < .001), and triglycerides by 6.6% (P < .001) compared with group II treatment. Compared with group II, CrPic treatment also lowered free fatty acid levels by 24% (P < .001), blood urea by 33% (P < .05), and creatinine level by 25% (P < .01), and reduced the severity of glomerular sclerosis (P < .0001). Histopathologic findings suggest that the CrPic-treated group had normal renal tubular appearance compared with the HFD/STZ-treated group. Normal appearance of hepatocytes was observed in the CrPic-treated group. These results showed that CrPic has marked beneficial effects against microvascular complications. In conclusion, HFD/STZ rats provide a novel animal model for T2DM. Further treatment with CrPic for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated changes in metabolic risk factors including favorable changes in histopathology of the liver, kidney, and pancreas, suggesting its potential role in the management of diabetes.

  6. QTL involved in the partial restoration of male fertility of C-type cytoplasmic male sterility in maize.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Susanne; Stamp, Peter; Knaak, Carsten; Messmer, Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Partial restoration of male fertility limits the use of C-type cytoplasmic male sterility (C-CMS) for the production of hybrid seeds in maize. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of the trait is still unknown. Therefore, the aim to this study was to identify genomic regions that govern partial restoration by means of a QTL analysis carried out in an F(2) population (n = 180). This population was derived from the Corn Belt inbred lines B37C and K55. F(2)BC(1) progenies were phenotyped at three locations in Switzerland. Male fertility was rated according to the quality and number of anthers as well as the anthesis-silking interval. A weak effect of environment on the expression of partial restoration was reflected by high heritabilities of all fertility-related traits. Partial restoration was inherited like an oligogenic trait. Three major QTL regions were found consistently across environments in the chromosomal bins 2.09, 3.06 and 7.03. Therefore, a marker-assisted counter-selection of partial restoration is promising. Minor QTL regions were found on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8. A combination of partial restorer alleles at different QTL can lead to full restoration of fertility. The maternal parent was clearly involved in the partial restoration, because the restorer alleles at QTL in bins 2.09, 6.04 and 7.03 originated from B37. The three major QTL regions collocated with other restorer genes of maize, a phenomenon, which seems to be typical for restorer genes. Therefore, a study of the clusters of restorer genes in maize could lead to a better understanding of their evolution and function. In this respect, the long arm of chromosome 2 is particularly interesting, because it harbors restorer genes for the three major CMS systems (C, T and S) of maize.

  7. Consumption of diets with different type of fat influences triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins particle number and size during the postprandial state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background and aims: Previous evidence suggests that dietary fat could influence the composition and size of triacylglycerols-rich lipoproteins (TRL). In a controlled intervention study on healthy subjects, we evaluated the influence of 3 dietary interventions, with different types of fat on postpra...

  8. Long term treatment with olanzapine mixed with the food in male rats induces body fat deposition with no increase in body weight and no thermogenic alteration.

    PubMed

    Minet-Ringuet, Julie; Even, Patrick C; Goubern, Marc; Tomé, Daniel; de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2006-05-01

    Body weight gain is a worrying side effect of many new antipsychotic drugs. The mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs increase weight in humans are not known. Attempts to model the metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs in the animal have not been successful. Female rats appear to be sensitive to the effects of antipsychotics, but male rats less, and this does not match the clinical situation in humans. In previous rodent studies, antipsychotics were always given by daily gavage or injections. Antipsychotics have different pharmacokinetics in rodents and humans, and in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the insensitivity of male rats to the effects of antipsychotics could be related to their mode of administration. Thus, we administered antipsychotic drugs mixed with the food. Animals were treated during 6 weeks with haloperidol (1mg/kg), olanzapine (1mg/kg), ziprasidone (10mg/kg), or a control solution. Animals were allowed to self-select food among three macronutrients (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins). Food selection was measured throughout the study. At the end of the study, body composition was measured by dissection and weighing of the rat's main organs and tissues. Mitochondrial thermogenesis was measured in brown adipose tissue in olanzapine-treated animals. Circulating leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were also assayed at the end of the study. The results show that none of the antipsychotic treatments modified caloric intake, food selection or body weight. Olanzapine did not alter mitochondrial thermogenesis. However, haloperidol and olanzapine induced a significant increase in adiposity and circulating leptin. Ziprasidone produced a moderate fat accumulation. It is concluded that mixing antipsychotic treatments with the food provides a reliable animal model of antipsychotic-induced fat accumulation.

  9. E-type cyclins modulate telomere integrity in mammalian male meiosis.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Marcia; Sicinski, Piotr; Wolgemuth, Debra J

    2016-06-01

    We have shown that E-type cyclins are key regulators of mammalian male meiosis. Depletion of cyclin E2 reduced fertility in male mice due to meiotic defects, involving abnormal pairing and synapsis, unrepaired DNA, and loss of telomere structure. These defects were exacerbated by additional loss of cyclin E1, and complete absence of both E-type cyclins produces a meiotic catastrophe. Here, we investigated the involvement of E-type cyclins in maintaining telomere integrity in male meiosis. Spermatocytes lacking cyclin E2 and one E1 allele (E1+/-E2-/-) displayed a high rate of telomere abnormalities but can progress to pachytene and diplotene stages. We show that their telomeres exhibited an aberrant DNA damage repair response during pachynema and that the shelterin complex proteins TRF2 and RAP2 were significantly decreased in the proximal telomeres. Moreover, the insufficient level of these proteins correlated with an increase of γ-H2AX foci in the affected telomeres and resulted in telomere associations involving TRF1 and telomere detachment in later prophase-I stages. These results suggest that E-type cyclins are key modulators of telomere integrity during meiosis by, at least in part, maintaining the balance of shelterin complex proteins, and uncover a novel role of E-type cyclins in regulating chromosome structure during male meiosis.

  10. Properties of bologna-type sausages with pork back-fat replaced with pork skin and amorphous cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Faria, Miriam; Cipriano, Tayssa Martins; da Cruz, Adriano Gomes; Santos, Bibiana Alves Dos; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello

    2015-06-01

    Bologna-type sausages were produced with 50% of their pork back-fat content replaced with gels elaborated with different ratios of pork skin, water, and amorphous cellulose (1:1:0, 1:1:0.1, 1:1:0.2, 1:1:0.3, and 1:1:0.4). The impact of such replacement on the physico-chemical characteristics and the consumer sensory profiling was evaluated. The modified treatments had 42% less fat, 18% more protein, and 8% more moisture than the control group. Treatments with amorphous cellulose had a lower cooking loss and higher emulsion stability. High amorphous cellulose content (1:1:0.3 and 1:1:0.4) increased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. The gel formulated with the ratio of 1:1:0.2 (pork skin: water: amorphous cellulose gel) provided a sensory sensation similar to that provided by fat and allowed products of good acceptance to be obtained. Therefore, a combination of pork skin and amorphous cellulose is useful in improving technological quality and producing healthier and sensory acceptable bologna-type sausages.

  11. Repeated Sprint Performance in Male and Female College Athletes Matched for VO2max Relative to Fat Free Mass.

    PubMed

    Mageean, Amanda L; Alexander, Ryan P; Mier, Constance M

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in repeated sprint exercise (RSE) performance among male and female athletes matched for VO2max relative to FFM (VO2max FFM). Thirty nine male and female college athletes performed a graded exercise test for VO2max and hydrostatic weighing to determine FFM. From the results, 11 pairs of males and females matched for VO2max FFM (mean ± SD; 58.3 ± 4.3 and 58.9 ± 4.6 ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1); men and women, respectively) were identified. On a separate day, matched participants performed a RSE protocol that consisted of five 6-sec cycle sprints with 30-sec recovery periods, followed by 5-min active recovery and a 30-sec all-out sprint. Repeated 6-sec sprint performance did not differ between men and women; both maintained power output (PO) until sprint 4. POFFM (W·kg(-1) FFM) did not differ between men and women during the five sprints. During the 30-sec sprint, men achieved a lower peak POFFM than women (11.7 ± 1.5 vs 13.2 ± 1.2); however, the decline in POFFM over 30 sec was greater in women. VO2 (ml·kg FFM(-1)·min(-1)) was lower in men during recovery (24.4 ± 3.8 vs 28.7 ± 5.7) and at the beginning (29.2 ± 4.0 vs 34.7 ± 4.9) and end (49.4 ± 5.0 vs 52.3 ± 4.0). of the 30-sec sprint. These data indicate that men and women with similar aerobic capacities do not respond differently to short repeated sprints but may differ in their ability to recover and perform sprints of longer duration.

  12. Sodium butyrate reduces insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat: A comparative study with metformin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2016-07-25

    Recent evidences highlighted that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can deacetylate the histone, various transcription factors and regulatory proteins, which directly or indirectly affect glucose metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of sodium butyrate (NaB) and metformin on the glucose homeostasis, insulin-resistance, fat accumulation and dyslipidemia in type-2 diabetic rat. Diabetes was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats by the combination of high-fat diet (HFD) and low dose streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). NaB at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg twice daily as well as metformin (as a positive control) 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 consecutive weeks were administered by i.p. and oral route, respectively. NaB treatment significantly reduced the plasma glucose, HbA1c, insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia and gluconeogenesis, which are comparable to metformin treatment. Further, NaB treatment ameliorated the micro- and macro-vesicular steatosis in liver and fat deposition in brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (adipocytes hypertrophy) as well as pancreatic beta-cell damage. In the present study, both NaB and metformin inhibited the diabetes-associated increased HDACs activity, thereby increased the acetylation of histone H3 in liver. The present findings demonstrated that NaB and metformin reduced insulin-resistance, dyslipidemia, fat accumulation and gluconeogenesis thereby improved the glucose homeostasis in rat. Thus, NaB might be a promising molecule for the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  13. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  14. Family Type as a Prognostic Indicator of Rehabilitation Outcome with Post-Hospitalized Male Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Barbara Oliver; Frumkin, Robert M.

    1973-01-01

    A study of 65 male schizophrenic patients at the Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation Unit, Cleveland Psychiatric Institute, Cleveland, Ohio revealed that family type (conjugal settings, parental settings, living alone) is found to to be a valuable prognosticator of rehabilitation outcome among post-hospitalized schizophrenics. (EA)

  15. Type II atresia ani associated with rectovaginal fistula in a male pseudohermaphrodite kitten.

    PubMed

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Alleaume, Charline; Jardel, Nicolas; Maenhoudt, Cindy; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2013-05-01

    A combination of gastrointestinal and urogenital congenital abnormalities was diagnosed and surgically treated in a kitten. Physical examination, exploratory laparotomy, castration, histological examination, and cytogenetic karyotyping were utilized to determine the true gender of the kitten. The kitten was confirmed to be a male (38 XY) pseudohermaphrodite with Type II atresia ani and rectovaginal fistula.

  16. Type II atresia ani associated with rectovaginal fistula in a male pseudohermaphrodite kitten

    PubMed Central

    Vallefuoco, Rosario; Alleaume, Charline; Jardel, Nicolas; Maenhoudt, Cindy; Cordonnier, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A combination of gastrointestinal and urogenital congenital abnormalities was diagnosed and surgically treated in a kitten. Physical examination, exploratory laparotomy, castration, histological examination, and cytogenetic karyotyping were utilized to determine the true gender of the kitten. The kitten was confirmed to be a male (38 XY) pseudohermaphrodite with Type II atresia ani and rectovaginal fistula. PMID:24155431

  17. NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass

    PubMed Central

    Elmsjö, A; Rosqvist, F; Engskog, M K R; Haglöf, J; Kullberg, J; Iggman, D; Johansson, L; Ahlström, H; Arvidsson, T; Risérus, U; Pettersson, C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation. Methods: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation. Results: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Conclusion: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation. PMID:26479316

  18. PKC-mediated modulation of L-type calcium channels may contribute to fat-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    Increased intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i has been noted in adipocytes, platelets, and leukocytes of subjects with insulin resistance syndrome or allied disorders. In rodent studies, measures which increase [Ca2+]i in adipocytes and skeletal muscle are associated with impaired insulin signaling, attributable at least in part to diminished ability of insulin to activate phosphoserine phosphatase-1 (PP-1). In fat-fed insulin resistant rats, pre-treatment with a drug that selectively chelates intracellular calcium eliminates about half of the decrement in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake induced by fat feeding; since this chelator does not influence the insulin sensitivity of chow-fed rats, it is reasonable to suspect that fat feeding boosts [Ca2+]i in skeletal muscle, and that this effect is partially responsible for the associated reduction in insulin sensitivity. Clinical insulin resistance is associated with increased levels of triglycerides and other fatty acid metabolites in muscle fibers; this can give rise to diacylglycerol-mediated activation of PKC, which in turn compromises insulin signaling by triggering kinase cascades that phosphorylate IRS-1 on key serine residues. Yet there is also evidence that, in skeletal muscle, PKC activity up-regulates the function of L-type calcium channels, increasing their maximal conductance while left-shifting their voltage dependence. Thus, the PKC activation associated with fat overexposure might be expected to boost basal [Ca2+]i in skeletal muscle, potentially impeding insulin-mediated activation of PP-1. This hypothesis is consistent with several clinical studies demonstrating that long-acting inhibitors of L-type calcium channels can improve insulin sensitivity in overweight hypertensives; it should be readily testable in rodent models of fat-induced insulin resistance. Since parathyroid hormone can act on adipocytes and muscle to boost [Ca2+]i, mild secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with low calcium intakes

  19. Migration and illicit drug use among two types of male migrants in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Frank Y; He, N; Huang, Z J; Young, D; O'Conor, C; Ding, Y Y; Fu, C; Arayasirikul, S

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale internal migrations within China have led to speculation of increased drug use, but with little empirical evidence. This cross-sectional study examines the association between migration characteristics and illicit drug use in 100 general male migrants and 239 "money boys" (i.e., male migrants engaging in same-sex transactional sex) in Shanghai, China. Only three general male migrants reported any drug use. Among money boys, lifetime illicit drug use was 12%; Ecstasy and methamphetamine appeared to be the most popular drugs. In addition, depression prevalence was very high among both types of male migrants. Depression was associated with lifetime soft- and hard-drug use, while earning a higher income was associated with lifetime soft-drug use. These findings provide the first set of quantitative evidence of illicit drug use among Chinese male migrants. Although illicit drug use among male migrants is low compared to Western countries, its resurgence after 30 years of drug control gives cause for concern.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L.; Cordero, Mario; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:26783708

  1. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Quiles, José L; Cordero, Mario; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro

    2015-04-28

    Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients' effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF A HIGH ANIMAL FAT DIET ON THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF MALE F344/N RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANES IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Effects of a High Animal Fat Diet on the Induction of Aberrant Crypt Foci in the Colons of Male F344/N Rats Exposed to Trihalomethanes in the Drinking Water

    Abstract

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), identified as the putative precursor lesion in the development of co...

  3. Involvement of dietary saturated fats, from all sources or of dairy origin only, in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Morio, Béatrice; Fardet, Anthony; Legrand, Philippe; Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the consumption of saturated fatty acids to a level as low as possible is a European public health recommendation to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and development and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), however, is a matter of debate. A literature search was performed to identify prospective studies and clinical trials in humans that explored the association between dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM. Furthermore, to assess whether specific foods, and not just the saturated fatty acid content of the food matrix, can have differential effects on human health, the relationship between consumption of full-fat dairy products, a main source of dietary saturated fatty acids, and risk of insulin resistance and T2DM was studied. There is no evidence that dietary saturated fatty acids from varied food sources affect the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM, nor is intake of full-fat dairy products associated with this risk. These findings strongly suggest that future studies on the effects of dietary saturated fatty acids should take into account the complexity of the food matrix. Furthermore, communication on saturated fats and their health effects should be prudent and well informed.

  4. Feces composition and manure derived methane yield from dairy cows: Influence of diet with focus on fat supplement and roughage type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Moset, Verónica; Brask, Maike; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Lund, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dairy cow diets on feces composition and methane (CH4) potential from manure with emphasis on fat level and roughage type and compare these results with the corresponding enteric CH4 emission. In experiment 1 six different diets, divided into two fat levels (low and high) and three different roughage types (early cut grass silage, late cut grass silage and maize silage), were used. The high fat level was achieved by adding crushed rapeseed. In experiment 2, the influence of increasing the fat level by using three different types of rapeseed: rapeseed cake, whole seed and rapeseed oil against a low fat ration with no rapeseed fat supplementation was studied. The diet and fat level had a significant influence on feces composition and CH4 yield. In general, ultimate CH4 yields (B0) were 8-9% higher than the present international default values for diets without extra fat and in feces from diets with extra fat supply the yield was 25-31% higher. It was possible to predict the B0 value from feed and feces characteristics; in fact, the best correlation was obtained by including both feed and feces characteristics. Addition of crude fat to diets to dairy cows reduced enteric CH4 emission but at the same time increased CH4 potential from feces both in terms of organic matter in feces and dry matter intake which might lead to increasing emissions unless proper manure handling such as anaerobic digestion is included. Without subsequent anaerobic digestion to produce energy the positive effect achieved at cow level could be counteracted by increasing manure emissions.

  5. Dietary fat source alters hepatic gene expression profile and determines the type of liver pathology in rats overfed via total enteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if the fatty acid composition of the diet affects the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-6/group) were overfed low (5%) or high (70%) fat diets with different fatty acid sources: olive oil (OO,...

  6. Type-I Prenyl Protease Function Is Required in the Male Germline of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Adolphsen, Katie; Amell, Amanda; Havko, Nathan; Kevorkian, Sara; Mears, Kyle; Neher, Hayley; Schwarz, Dietmar; Schulze, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    Many proteins require the addition of a hydrophobic prenyl anchor (prenylation) for proper trafficking and localization in the cell. Prenyl proteases play critical roles in modifying proteins for membrane anchorage. The type I prenyl protease has a defined function in yeast (Ste24p/Afc1p) where it modifies a mating pheromone, and in humans (Zmpste24) where it has been implicated in a disease of premature aging. Despite these apparently very different biological processes, the type I prenyl protease gene is highly conserved, encoded by a single gene in a wide range of animal and plant groups. A notable exception is Drosophila melanogaster, where the gene encoding the type I prenyl protease has undergone an unprecedented series of duplications in the genome, resulting in five distinct paralogs, three of which are organized in a tandem array, and demonstrate high conservation, particularly in the vicinity of the active site of the enzyme. We have undertaken targeted deletion to remove the three tandem paralogs from the genome. The result is a male fertility defect, manifesting late in spermatogenesis. Our results also show that the ancestral type I prenyl protease gene in Drosophila is under strong purifying selection, while the more recent replicates are evolving rapidly. Our rescue data support a role for the rapidly evolving tandem paralogs in the male germline. We propose that potential targets for the male-specific type I prenyl proteases include proteins involved in the very dramatic cytoskeletal remodeling events required for spermatid maturation. PMID:22690372

  7. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    PubMed

    Windahl, Sara H; Andersson, Niklas; Börjesson, Anna E; Swanson, Charlotte; Svensson, Johan; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Sjögren, Klara; Shao, Ruijin; Lagerquist, Marie K; Ohlsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T) versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2), encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2). 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05) and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05) but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT) mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05) in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05). Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  8. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index.

    PubMed

    Han, Liyuan; Tang, Linlin; Wang, Changyi; Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sihan; Liu, Shengyuan; Peng, Xiaolin; Mai, Yifeng; Duan, Shiwei

    2014-09-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19-2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni's correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity.

  9. Fat mass and obesity-associated gene rs11642015 polymorphism is significantly associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes subsequent to adjustment for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    HAN, LIYUAN; TANG, LINLIN; WANG, CHANGYI; CHEN, ZHONGWEI; ZHANG, TAO; CHEN, SIHAN; LIU, SHENGYUAN; PENG, XIAOLIN; MAI, YIFENG; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2014-01-01

    The association of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs11642015 polymorphism with prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity in certain populations has not been previously reported. A population-based study was conducted that included 490 type 2 diabetic, 471 prediabetic and 575 normal subjects. The main outcomes of the study were prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity. Binary logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of FTO rs11642015 with the risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and obesity following adjustment for the corresponding confounders. A meta-analysis was also conducted to evaluate the association between FTO rs11642015 and obesity. FTO rs11642015 was significantly associated with prediabetes in the whole sample under the additive model [odds ratio (OR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17–1.93; P=0.002], particularly in females. The polymorphism remained consistently significant following adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI), showing an increased prediabetes risk with an additive effect (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.19–2.01; P=0.001). In addition, a significant association was found for rs11642015 with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes under the dominant model. However, under the stringent Bonferroni’s correction there was no evidence of positive associations for FTO rs11642015 with obesity in the whole sample, females or males. Findings of the meta-analysis showed that FTO rs11642015 was not predisposed to obesity. In conclusion, the T allele of FTO rs11642015 is positively associated with an increased risk of prediabetes, even after adjustment for age and BMI, particularly in females. Subjects carrying the CT + TT genotype are predisposed to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, results of the population-based study and follow-up meta-analysis suggested that FTO rs11642015 is not significantly associated with susceptibility to obesity. PMID:25054011

  10. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: a new target for male contraception?

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ying; Han, Yan; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Li, Hong-Gang; Hu, Lian; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is closely related to male reproduction. With the aim of investigating the possibility for uPA as a potential contraceptive target, in the present work, Kunming male mice were immunized by human uPA subcutaneous injection at three separate doses for 3 times. Then the potency of the anti-human uPA antibody in serum was analyzed, and mouse fertility was evaluated. Serum antibody titers for human uPA in immunized groups all reached 1:10,240 or higher levels by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and mating experiments revealed that pregnancy rates and the mean number of embryos implanted after mating declined obviously (P < 0.05) when compared with control groups. However, the mating capacity and reproductive organ weights had no obvious change, and histological analysis of the testes and epididymides also showed normal morphology for immunized male mice. Sperm function tests suggested that the sperm concentration, sperm viability, sperm motility, and in vitro fertilization rate for the cauda epididymis sperm in uPA-immunized groups were lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05). Together, these observations indicated that subcutaneous injection human uPA to the male mice could effectively reduce their fertility, and uPA could become a new target for immunocontraception in male contraceptive development. PMID:25578931

  11. Cell type-specific translational repression of Cyclin B during meiosis in males.

    PubMed

    Baker, Catherine Craig; Gim, Byung Soo; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-10-01

    The unique cell cycle dynamics of meiosis are controlled by layers of regulation imposed on core mitotic cell cycle machinery components by the program of germ cell development. Although the mechanisms that regulate Cdk1/Cyclin B activity in meiosis in oocytes have been well studied, little is known about the trans-acting factors responsible for developmental control of these factors in male gametogenesis. During meiotic prophase in Drosophila males, transcript for the core cell cycle protein Cyclin B1 (CycB) is expressed in spermatocytes, but the protein does not accumulate in spermatocytes until just before the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that two interacting proteins, Rbp4 and Fest, expressed at the onset of spermatocyte differentiation under control of the developmental program of male gametogenesis, function to direct cell type- and stage-specific repression of translation of the core G2/M cell cycle component cycB during the specialized cell cycle of male meiosis. Binding of Fest to Rbp4 requires a 31-amino acid region within Rbp4. Rbp4 and Fest are required for translational repression of cycB in immature spermatocytes, with Rbp4 binding sequences in a cell type-specific shortened form of the cycB 3' UTR. Finally, we show that Fest is required for proper execution of meiosis I.

  12. Attenuated improvements in adiponectin and fat loss characterize type 2 diabetes non-remission status following bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Malin, Steven K.; Bena, James; Abood, Beth; Pothier, Claire E.; Bhatt, Deepak L; Nissen, Steven; Brethauer, Stacy A.; Schauer, Philip R.; Kirwan, John P.; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Bariatric surgery improves glycemic control, but not all patients achieve type 2 diabetes (T2D) remission. Thus, we aimed to identify metabolic determinants of T2D non-remission status following bariatric surgery at 12 and 24 months (m). Methods Forty adults (BMI: 36±3kg/m2, Age: 48±9y, HbA1c: 9.7±2%) undergoing bariatric surgery (i.e. RYGB or SG) were enrolled in STAMPEDE. T2D remission was defined as HbA1c <6.5% and fasting glucose <126 mg/dl without anti-diabetic medication. Indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity were calculated from plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide during a 120 min MMTT. Body fat (DXA), incretins (GLP-1, GIP, ghrelin), and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, hs-CRP) were also assessed. Results At 24m, 37 subjects had follow-up data (n = 18 RYGB and n = 19 SG). Bariatric surgery-induced 40% and 27% T2D remission rates at 12 and 24m, respectively. Total fat/abdominal fat loss, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function (C-peptide0–120/Glucose0–120 × Matsuda index) improved more in remitters at 12 and 24m than non-remitters. Incretin levels were unrelated to T2D remission, but, compared to non-remitters, hs-CRP decreased and adiponectin increased more in remitters. Only baseline adiponectin predicted lower HbA1c at 12 and 24m, and elevated adiponectin correlated with enhanced β-cell function, lower triglycerides and fat loss. Conclusions Smaller rises in adiponectin, a mediator of insulin action and adipose mass, depict T2D non-remission up to 2 years after bariatric surgery. Adjunctive strategies promoting greater fat loss and/or raising adiponectin may be key for higher T2D remission rates after bariatric surgery. PMID:25132119

  13. Effect of the types of dietary fats and non-dietary oils on bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Eman; Ibrahim, Khadiga

    2017-03-04

    Nutrients beyond calcium and vitamin D have a role on bone health, and in treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Quality and quantity of dietary fat may have consequences on skeletal health. Diets with highly saturated fat content produce deleterious effects on bone mineralization in growing animals. Conversely, dietary n-3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play an important role in bone metabolism and may help in prevention and treatment of bone disease. Some reports suggest a correlation between the dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone formation. Specific dietary fatty acids were found to modulate prostanoid synthesis in bone tissue and improve bone formation in both animal and clinical trials. The skeletal benefits of dietary isoprenoids are extremely documented. Higher isoprenoids intake may relate to higher bone mineral density. Dietary supplements containing fish oil, individual polyunsaturated fatty acids, and isoprenoids could be used as adjuvant with bone medications in osteoportic conditions but their doses must be considered to avoid detrimental effect of over dosages.

  14. Exposure to Bisphenol-A during Pregnancy Partially Mimics the Effects of a High-Fat Diet Altering Glucose Homeostasis and Gene Expression in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    García-Arevalo, Marta; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Rebelo Dos Santos, Junia; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Nadal, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread EDCs used as a base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. The aim of our research has been to study how the exposure to BPA during pregnancy affects weight, glucose homeostasis, pancreatic β-cell function and gene expression in the major peripheral organs that control energy flux: white adipose tissue (WAT), the liver and skeletal muscle, in male offspring 17 and 28 weeks old. Pregnant mice were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 10 µg/kg/day of BPA or a vehicle from day 9 to 16 of pregnancy. One month old offspring were divided into four different groups: vehicle treated mice that ate a normal chow diet (Control group); BPA treated mice that also ate a normal chow diet (BPA); vehicle treated animals that had a high fat diet (HFD) and BPA treated animals that were fed HFD (HFD-BPA). The BPA group started to gain weight at 18 weeks old and caught up to the HFD group before week 28. The BPA group as well as the HFD and HFD-BPA ones presented fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma compared with the Control one. Glucose stimulated insulin release was disrupted, particularly in the HFD-BPA group. In WAT, the mRNA expression of the genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, Srebpc1, Pparα and Cpt1β was decreased by BPA to the same extent as with the HFD treatment. BPA treatment upregulated Pparγ and Prkaa1 genes in the liver; yet it diminished the expression of Cd36. Hepatic triglyceride levels were increased in all groups compared to control. In conclusion, male offspring from BPA-treated mothers presented symptoms of diabesity. This term refers to a form of diabetes which typically develops in later life and is associated with obesity. PMID:24959901

  15. Exposure to bisphenol-A during pregnancy partially mimics the effects of a high-fat diet altering glucose homeostasis and gene expression in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    García-Arevalo, Marta; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Rebelo Dos Santos, Junia; Quesada, Ivan; Carneiro, Everardo M; Nadal, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is one of the most widespread EDCs used as a base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. The aim of our research has been to study how the exposure to BPA during pregnancy affects weight, glucose homeostasis, pancreatic β-cell function and gene expression in the major peripheral organs that control energy flux: white adipose tissue (WAT), the liver and skeletal muscle, in male offspring 17 and 28 weeks old. Pregnant mice were treated with a subcutaneous injection of 10 µg/kg/day of BPA or a vehicle from day 9 to 16 of pregnancy. One month old offspring were divided into four different groups: vehicle treated mice that ate a normal chow diet (Control group); BPA treated mice that also ate a normal chow diet (BPA); vehicle treated animals that had a high fat diet (HFD) and BPA treated animals that were fed HFD (HFD-BPA). The BPA group started to gain weight at 18 weeks old and caught up to the HFD group before week 28. The BPA group as well as the HFD and HFD-BPA ones presented fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and high levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma compared with the Control one. Glucose stimulated insulin release was disrupted, particularly in the HFD-BPA group. In WAT, the mRNA expression of the genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, Srebpc1, Pparα and Cpt1β was decreased by BPA to the same extent as with the HFD treatment. BPA treatment upregulated Pparγ and Prkaa1 genes in the liver; yet it diminished the expression of Cd36. Hepatic triglyceride levels were increased in all groups compared to control. In conclusion, male offspring from BPA-treated mothers presented symptoms of diabesity. This term refers to a form of diabetes which typically develops in later life and is associated with obesity.

  16. In Utero Growth Restriction and Catch-up Adipogenesis After Developmental Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Exposure Cause Glucose Intolerance in Adult Male Rats Following a High-fat Dietary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Strakovsky, Rita S.; Lezmi, Stéphane; Shkoda, Ielyzaveta; Flaws, Jodi A.; Helferich, William G.; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates impact adipocyte morphology in vitro, but the sex-specific adipogenic signature immediately after perinatal di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure and adulthood physiology following a high-fat (HF) dietary challenge are unknown. In the current study, pregnant and lactating dams received DEHP (300 mg/kg body weight) or oil. At weaning (postnatal day (PND) 21), adipose tissue was sampled for real-time PCR. The remaining offspring consumed a control or HF diet. DEHP decreased % fat in males at birth from 13.9%±0.2 to 11.8%±0.6 (mean±SEM), representing a 15.1% decrease in fat by DEHP, and these males caught up in adiposity to controls by PND21. Adult DEHP-exposed males had a 27.5% increase in fat (12.5%±0.9% in controls vs. 15.9%±1.5% in the DEHP group); adipocyte perimeter was increased as well, with fewer small/medium-sized adipocytes, and decreased cell number compared to oil controls. HF diet intake in DEHP-exposed males further increased male energy intake and body weight and led to glucose intolerance. In PND21 males, DEHP increased the expression of adipogenic markers (Pparg1, Cebpa, Adipoq, Ppard, Fabp4, Fasn, Igf1), decreased Lep, and decreased markers of mesenchymal stem cell commitment to the adipogenic lineage (Bmp2, Bmp4, Stat1, Stat5a) compared to oil controls. These data suggest that DEHP may decrease the adipocyte pool at birth, which initially increases adaptive adipocyte maturation and lipid accumulation, but leads to adipose tissue dysfunction in adulthood, decreasing the capacity to adapt to a HF diet, and leading to systemic glucose intolerance. PMID:26188368

  17. A mixture of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) aqueous extract and cyclodextrin reduces body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation, and total cholesterol and insulin increases in male Wistar fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Eriko; Ito, Tetsuya; Fujita, Koki; Kiuchi, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a mixture of an aqueous extract of Salacia reticulata (Kotala himbutu) and cyclodextrin (SRCD) on various metabolic parameters and cecal fermentation in obese fa/fa male Wistar fatty rats, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wistar fatty rats were fed 0% (control group) or 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diets and weighed weekly. The plasma glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, insulin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 5. SRCD supplementation suppressed the time-dependent increase in the plasma total cholesterol and insulin concentrations. After 6 weeks of a 0.2% SRCD-supplemented diet, the body weight gain, food intake, visceral fat mass, liver mass, and liver triacylglycerol content of the rats were significantly lower, whereas the plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly higher than those of the control group. SRCD supplementation had no significant effect on plasma glucose and triacylglycerol concentrations. SRCD supplementation significantly increased cecum mass, whereas it significantly decreased the cecal butyrate and short-chain fatty acid (sum of the acetate, butyrate, and propionate) concentrations. All of the rats were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test at the beginning of week 6. The area under the curve for insulin was significantly smaller with SRCD supplementation and showed no change in glucose tolerance compared to that of the control group. These results suggest that bioactive compounds in SRCD may suppress the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus by influencing glucose and lipid metabolism in male Wistar fatty rats and that SRCD may influence cecal fermentation.

  18. Fat-free mass and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in the 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise in young male Japanese athletes.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Moji, Kazuhiko; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakao, Rieko; Tsunawake, Noriaki; Fukuda, Rika; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas

    2008-05-01

    The relationship between fat-free mass (FFM) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has not been well researched because of the relatively small number of subjects studied. This study investigated the effects of FFM on EPOC and EPOC/maximum oxygen consumption. 250 Japanese male athletes between 16 and 21 years old from Nagasaki prefecture had their EPOC measured up to 40 minutes after short-duration exhaustive exercise. The value was named as EPOC40 min. The proportions of EPOC up to 1, 3, 6, 10, and 25 minutes to EPOC40 min were calculated and named as P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25, respectively. Body size and composition, VO2max and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were also measured. Mean EPOC40 min was 9.04 L or 158 ml/kg FFM. EPOC40 min was related to FFM (r=0.55, p<0.001) and VO2max (r=0.37, p<0.001). The ratio of EPOC40 min to VO2max was related to FFM (r=0.28, p<0.001). P1, P3, P6, P10, and P25 were negatively related to EPOC40 min/FFM, EPOC40 min/VO2max, and FFM. Athletes who had larger FFM had larger EPOC40 40 min and EPOC40 40 min/VO2max, and smaller P1, P3, P10, and P25.

  19. A comparison between handgrip strength, upper limb fat free mass by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA) and anthropometric measurements in young males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Correa, C. H.; Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; Varon-Serna, D. R.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanical function and size of a muscle may be closely linked. Handgrip strength (HGS) has been used as a predictor of functional performing. Anthropometric measurements have been made to estimate arm muscle area (AMA) and physical muscle mass volume of upper limb (ULMMV). Electrical volume estimation is possible by segmental BIA measurements of fat free mass (SBIA-FFM), mainly muscle-mass. Relationship among these variables is not well established. We aimed to determine if physical and electrical muscle mass estimations relate to each other and to what extent HGS is to be related to its size measured by both methods in normal or overweight young males. Regression analysis was used to determine association between these variables. Subjects showed a decreased HGS (65.5%), FFM, (85.5%) and AMA (74.5%). It was found an acceptable association between SBIA-FFM and AMA (r2 = 0.60) and poorer between physical and electrical volume (r2 = 0.55). However, a paired Student t-test and Bland and Altman plot showed that physical and electrical models were not interchangeable (pt<0.0001). HGS showed a very weak association with anthropometric (r2 = 0.07) and electrical (r2 = 0.192) ULMMV showing that muscle mass quantity does not mean muscle strength. Other factors influencing HGS like physical training or nutrition require more research.

  20. Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Decrease Interferon Gamma Production through an Age-Dependent Histone Modification in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Hung, Pi-Lien; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Overexposure to prenatal glucocorticoid (GC) disturbs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism and susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. A high-fat (HF) diet is a major environmental factor that can cause metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate whether prenatal GC plus a postnatal HF diet could alter immune programming in rat offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline at 14–21 days of gestation. Male offspring were then divided into four groups: vehicle, prenatal dexamethasone exposure, postnatal HF diet (VHF), and prenatal dexamethasone exposure plus a postnatal HF diet (DHF). The rats were sacrificed and adaptive immune function was evaluated. Compared to the vehicle, the DHF group had lower interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production by splenocytes at postnatal day 120. Decreases in H3K9 acetylation and H3K36me3 levels at the IFN-γ promoter correlated with decreased IFN-γ production. The impaired IFN-γ production and aberrant site-specific histone modification at the IFN-γ promoter by prenatal dexamethasone treatment plus a postnatal HF diet resulted in resilience at postnatal day 180. Prenatal dexamethasone and a postnatal HF diet decreased IFN-γ production through a site-specific and an age-dependent histone modification. These findings suggest a mechanism by which prenatal exposure to GC and a postnatal environment exert effects on fetal immunity programming. PMID:27669212

  1. Early Life Stress Induced by Limited Nesting Material Produces Metabolic Resilience in Response to a High-Fat and High-Sugar Diet in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P.; Wang, Kristy W.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced in early life can profoundly influence long-term metabolic health, but the additive impact of poor nutrition is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that early life stress (ELS) induced by limited nesting material (LN) combined with high-fat and high-sugar diet (HFHS) post-weaning would worsen diet-related metabolic risk. Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to LN, postnatal days 2–9, and at weaning (3 weeks), siblings were given unlimited access to chow or HFHS resulting in (Con-Chow, Con-HFHS, LN-Chow, and LN-HFHS, n = 11–15/group). Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested and rats were killed at 13 weeks. LN rats weighed less at weaning but were not different to control at 13 weeks; HFHS diet led to similar increases in body weight. LN-chow rats had improved glucose and insulin tolerance relative to Con-Chow, whereas LN-HFHS improved insulin sensitivity versus Con-HFHS, associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1-alpha (Pgc-1α) mRNA in muscle. No effect of LN on plasma or liver triglycerides was observed, and hepatic gluconeogenic regulatory genes were unaltered. In summary, this study demonstrates that ELS induced by LN conferred some metabolic protection against insulin and/or glucose intolerance in a diet-dependent manner during adulthood. PMID:26441828

  2. High-fat diet-induced β-cell proliferation occurs prior to insulin resistance in C57Bl/6J male mice.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Rockann E; Maulis, Matthew F; Moullé, Valentine S; Dunn, Jennifer C; Carboneau, Bethany A; Arasi, Kavin; Pappan, Kirk; Poitout, Vincent; Gannon, Maureen

    2015-04-01

    Both short- (1 wk) and long-term (2-12 mo) high-fat diet (HFD) studies reveal enhanced β-cell mass due to increased β-cell proliferation. β-Cell proliferation following HFD has been postulated to occur in response to insulin resistance; however, whether HFD can induce β-cell proliferation independent of insulin resistance has been controversial. To examine the kinetics of HFD-induced β-cell proliferation and its correlation with insulin resistance, we placed 8-wk-old male C57Bl/6J mice on HFD for different lengths of time and assayed the following: glucose tolerance, insulin secretion in response to glucose, insulin tolerance, β-cell mass, and β-cell proliferation. We found that β-cell proliferation was significantly increased after only 3 days of HFD feeding, weeks before an increase in β-cell mass or peripheral insulin resistance was detected. These results were confirmed by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps and measurements of α-hydroxybutyrate, a plasma biomarker of insulin resistance in humans. An increase in expression of key islet-proliferative genes was found in isolated islets from 1-wk HFD-fed mice compared with chow diet (CD)-fed mice. These data indicate that short-term HFD feeding enhances β-cell proliferation before insulin resistance becomes apparent.

  3. Diet-Induced Maternal Obesity Alters Insulin Signalling in Male Mice Offspring Rechallenged with a High-Fat Diet in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    de Fante, Thaís; Simino, Laís Angélica; Reginato, Andressa; Payolla, Tanyara Baliani; Vitoréli, Débora Cristina Gustavo; de Souza, Monique; Torsoni, Márcio Alberto; Milanski, Marciane; Torsoni, Adriana Souza

    2016-01-01

    Modern lifestyle has resulted in an increase in the prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities in pregnant women and the young population. It has been well established that the consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) has many direct effects on glucose metabolism. However, it is important to assess whether maternal consumption of a HFD during critical periods of development can lead to metabolic changes in the offspring metabolism. This study evaluated the potential effects of metabolic programming on the impairment of insulin signalling in recently weaned offspring from obese dams. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure to an obesogenic environment could exacerbate the impairment of glucose metabolism in adult life in response to a HFD. Swiss female mice were fed with Standard Chow (SC) or a HFD during gestation and lactation and tissues from male offspring were analysed at d28 and d82. Offspring from obese dams had greater weight gain and higher adiposity and food intake than offspring from control dams. Furthermore, they showed impairment in insulin signalling in central and peripheral tissues, which was associated with the activation of inflammatory pathways. Adipose tissue was ultimately the most affected in adult offspring after HFD rechallenge; this may have contributed to the metabolic deregulation observed. Overall, our results suggest that diet-induced maternal obesity leads to increased susceptibility to obesity and impairment of insulin signalling in offspring in early and late life that cannot be reversed by SC consumption, but can be aggravated by HFD re-exposure. PMID:27479001

  4. Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sarah E E; Tucker, Sally; Banerji, Radhika; Jiang, Benyu; Chowienczyk, Phillip J; Charles, Sonia M; Sanders, Thomas A B

    2008-10-01

    Postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function possibly via an oxidative stress mechanism. A stearic acid-rich triacylglycerol (TAG) (shea butter) results in a blunted postprandial increase in plasma TAG compared with an oleic acid-rich TAG; however, its acute effects on endothelial function and oxidative stress are unknown. A randomized crossover trial (n = 17 men) compared the effects of 50 g fat, rich in stearic acid [shea butter blend (SA)] or oleic acid [high oleic sunflower oil (HO)], on changes in endothelial function [brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD)], arterial tone [pulse wave analysis (PWA), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV(c-f))], and oxidative stress (plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha) at fasting and 3 h following the test meals. The postprandial increase in plasma TAG was lower (66% lower incremental area under curve) following the SA meal [28.3 (9.7, 46.9)] than after the HO meal [83.4 (57.0, 109.8); P < 0.001] (geometric means with 95% CI, arbitary units). Following the HO meal, there was a decrease in FMD [-3.0% (-4.4, -1.6); P < 0.001] and an increase in plasma 8-isoprostane F2alpha [10.4ng/L (3.8, 16.9); P = 0.005] compared with fasting values, but no changes followed the SA meal. The changes in 8-isoprostane F2alpha and FMD differed between meals and were 14.0 ng/L (6.4, 21.6; P = 0.001) and 1.75% (0.10, 3.39; P = 0.02), respectively. The reductions in PWA and PWV c-f did not differ between meals. This study demonstrates that a stearic acid-rich fat attenuates the postprandial impairment in endothelial function compared with an oleic acid-rich fat and supports the hypothesis that postprandial lipemia impairs endothelial function via an increase in oxidative stress.

  5. Genetic Parameters for Linear Type Traits and Milk, Fat, and Protein Production in Holstein Cows in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Rafael Viegas; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters for linear type traits, as well as milk yield (MY), fat yield (FY) and protein yield (PY) in 18,831 Holstein cows reared in 495 herds in Brazil. Restricted maximum likelihood with a bivariate model was used for estimation genetic parameters, including fixed effects of herd-year of classification, period of classification, classifier and stage of lactation for linear type traits and herd-year of calving, season of calving and lactation order effects for production traits. The age of cow at calving was fitted as a covariate (with linear and quadratic terms), common to both models. Heritability estimates varied from 0.09 to 0.38 for linear type traits and from 0.17 to 0.24 for production traits, indicating sufficient genetic variability to achieve genetic gain through selection. In general, estimates of genetic correlations between type and production traits were low, except for udder texture and angularity that showed positive genetic correlations (>0.29) with MY, FY, and PY. Udder depth had the highest negative genetic correlation (−0.30) with production traits. Selection for final score, commonly used by farmers as a practical selection tool to improve type traits, does not lead to significant improvements in production traits, thus the use of selection indices that consider both sets of traits (production and type) seems to be the most adequate to carry out genetic selection of animals in the Brazilian herd. PMID:25656190

  6. Effects of four different meal types on the population pharmacokinetics of single-dose rifapentine in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Zvada, Simbarashe P; Van Der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Smith, Peter J; Fourie, P Bernard; Roscigno, Giorgio; Mitchison, Denis; Simonsson, Ulrika S H; McIlleron, Helen M

    2010-08-01

    Rifapentine and its primary metabolite, 25-desacetyl rifapentine, are active against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine in fasting and fed states. Thirty-five male healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, sequential, five-way crossover study. Participants received a single 900-mg dose of rifapentine after meals with high fat (meal A), bulk and low fat (meal B), bulk and high fat (meal C), high fluid and low fat (meal D), or 200 ml of water (meal E). Venous blood samples were collected over 72 h after each rifapentine dose, and plasma was analyzed for rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using NONMEM. Compared with the fasting state, meal A had the greatest effect on rifapentine oral bioavailability, increasing it by 86%. Meals B, C, and D resulted in 33%, 46%, and 49% increases in rifapentine oral bioavailability, respectively. Similar trends were observed for 25-desacetyl rifapentine. As meal behavior has a substantial impact on rifapentine exposure, it should be considered in the evaluation of optimal dosing approaches.

  7. Effects of Four Different Meal Types on the Population Pharmacokinetics of Single-Dose Rifapentine in Healthy Male Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Van Der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Smith, Peter J.; Fourie, P. Bernard; Roscigno, Giorgio; Mitchison, Denis; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.; McIlleron, Helen M.

    2010-01-01

    Rifapentine and its primary metabolite, 25-desacetyl rifapentine, are active against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The objectives of this study were to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine in fasting and fed states. Thirty-five male healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, sequential, five-way crossover study. Participants received a single 900-mg dose of rifapentine after meals with high fat (meal A), bulk and low fat (meal B), bulk and high fat (meal C), high fluid and low fat (meal D), or 200 ml of water (meal E). Venous blood samples were collected over 72 h after each rifapentine dose, and plasma was analyzed for rifapentine and 25-desacetyl rifapentine using high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effect modeling using NONMEM. Compared with the fasting state, meal A had the greatest effect on rifapentine oral bioavailability, increasing it by 86%. Meals B, C, and D resulted in 33%, 46%, and 49% increases in rifapentine oral bioavailability, respectively. Similar trends were observed for 25-desacetyl rifapentine. As meal behavior has a substantial impact on rifapentine exposure, it should be considered in the evaluation of optimal dosing approaches. PMID:20516273

  8. High dietary fat-induced obesity in Wistar rats and type 2 diabetes in nonobese Goto-Kakizaki rats differentially affect retinol binding protein 4 expression and vitamin A metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tomomi; Shichi, Yuta; Sato, Miyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Furusho, Tadasu; Ota, Toru; Tadokoro, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, which is caused mainly by insulin resistance. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is the only specific transport protein for retinol in the serum. RBP4 level is increased in the diabetic state and high-fat condition, indicating that retinol metabolism may be affected under these conditions. However, the precise effect of diabetes and high fat-induced obesity on retinol metabolism is unknown. In this study, we examined differences in retinol metabolite levels in rat models of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes (Goto-Kakizaki [GK] rat). Four-week-old male Wistar and GK rats were given either a control diet (AIN-93G) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 40% fat kJ). After 15 weeks of feeding, the RBP4 levels increased by 2-fold in the serum of GK rats but not HFD-fed rats. The hepatic retinol concentration of HFD-fed rats was approximately 50% that of the controls (P < .01). In contrast, the renal retinol concentrations of GK rats increased by 70% (P < .01). However, expression of RARβ in the kidney, which was induced in a retinoic acid-dependent manner, was downregulated by 90% (P < .01) in GK rats. In conclusion, diabetes and obesity affected retinol metabolism differently, and the effects were different in different peripheral tissues. The impact of HFD may be limited to the storage of hepatic vitamin A as retinyl palmitate. In particular, our data indicate that renal retinoic acid production might represent an important target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  9. Penalties for success: reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks.

    PubMed

    Heilman, Madeline E; Wallen, Aaron S; Fuchs, Daniella; Tamkins, Melinda M

    2004-06-01

    A total of 242 subjects participated in 3 experimental studies investigating reactions to a woman's success in a male gender-typed job. Results strongly supported the authors' hypotheses, indicating that (a) when women are acknowledged to have been successful, they are less liked and more personally derogated than equivalently successful men (Studies 1 and 2); (b) these negative reactions occur only when the success is in an arena that is distinctly male in character (Study 2); and (c) being disliked can have career-affecting outcomes, both for overall evaluation and for recommendations concerning organizational reward allocation (Study 3). These results were taken to support the idea that gender stereotypes can prompt bias in evaluative judgments of women even when these women have proved themselves to be successful and demonstrated their competence. The distinction between prescriptive and descriptive aspects of gender stereotypes is considered, as well as the implications of prescriptive gender norms for women in work settings.

  10. Acute downregulation of Type II and Type III iodothyronine deiodinases by photoperiod in peripubertal male and female Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Availability of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in the mediobasal hypothalamus plays a central role in seasonal reproductive responses to photoperiod. Across many vertebrates, Type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO2) is elevated under reproductively stimulatory long days (LD) and synthesizes the conversion of thyroxine to T3; Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) reduces T3 production and signaling, and is upregulated under reproductively-inhibitory short days (SD). In Siberian hamsters, regulation of hypothalamic T3 is dominated by dio3 expression, whereas dio2 expression is less-consistently affected by photoperiod. In adult hamsters, changes in deiodinase mRNA expression typically require several weeks to manifest, but it is not known whether or how quickly these mechanisms are engaged during the rapid responses to photoperiod observed in young, peri-pubertal hamsters. This experiment tested the hypotheses that (1) deiodinase responses to photoperiod are accelerated in juvenile hamsters and (2) photoperiodic downregulation of deiodinase expression occurs more rapidly than upregulation. Hypothalamic dio2 and dio3 mRNA expression was quantified in male and female Siberian hamsters that were weaned on postnatal day 18 (PND 18) into SD or remained in their natal LD, and on PND 31 were exposed to a single long or short day. In SD males and females, a single long day inhibited dio3 mRNA expression, but did not increase dio2 mRNA. In LD males, a single short day rapidly inhibited dio2 mRNA expression, but did not stimulate expression of dio3 mRNA. Downregulation of dio2 and dio3 mRNAs precedes gonadotrophin responses to day length. Rapid photoperiodic inhibition of deiodinase mRNAs may initiate changes in thyroid hormone signaling in advance of longer-term, melatonin-dependent, responses.

  11. Preventive effect of Monascus-fermented products enriched with ubiquinones on type 2 diabetic rats induced by a high-fructose plus high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Won

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Monascus-fermented grains (MFGEs) enriched with ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs, CoQ9+CoQ10) alleviates high-fructose (60%) plus high-fat (20%) diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with MFGEs (300 mg/kg/day) or atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) for the last 4 weeks of the study. HFD-fed rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired insulin sensitivity. MFGE treatment prevented the increase in glucose levels and index of insulin resistance in the HFD-induced diabetic rats. A significant decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation and significant increases in hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in the MFGE supplemented group. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with MFGEs enriched with CoQs exerts an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats by improving insulin resistance and hepatic antioxidant enzymes.

  12. Browning of subcutaneous fat and higher surface temperature in response to phenotype selection for advanced endurance exercise performance in male DUhTP mice.

    PubMed

    Brenmoehl, J; Ohde, D; Albrecht, E; Walz, C; Tuchscherer, A; Hoeflich, A

    2017-02-01

    For the assessment of genetic or conditional factors of fat cell browning, novel and polygenic animal models are required. Therefore, the long-term selected polygenic mouse line DUhTP originally established in Dummerstorf for high treadmill performance is used. DUhTP mice are characterized by increased fat accumulation in the sedentary condition and elevated fat mobilization during mild voluntary physical activity. In the present study, the phenotype of fat cell browning of subcutaneous fat and a potential effect on oral glucose tolerance, an indicator of metabolic health, were addressed in DUhTP mice. Analysis of peripheral fat pads revealed increased brite (brown-in-white) subcutaneous adipose tissues and in subcutaneous fat from DUhTP mice higher levels of irisin and different markers of fat cell browning like T-box transcription factor (Tbx1), PPARα, and uncoupling protein (UCP1) (P < 0.05) when compared to unselected controls. UCP1 was further increased in subcutaneous fat from DUhTP mice in response to mild exercise (fourfold, P < 0.05). In addition, surface temperature of DUhTP mice was increased when compared to controls indicating a physiological effect of increased UCP1 expression. The present study suggests that DUhTP mice exhibit different markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and fat browning without external stimuli. At an age of 43 days, sedentary DUhTP mice have improved metabolic health as judged from lower levels of blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. Consequently, the non-inbred mouse model DUhTP represents a novel model for the identification of fat cell browning mechanisms in white adipose tissues.

  13. Long-term beneficial effect of a 16-week very low calorie diet on pericardial fat in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Jonker, Jacqueline T; Hammer, Sebastian; Kerpershoek, Gijs; Lamb, Hildo J; Meinders, A Edo; Pijl, Hanno; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes W A; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-08-01

    Pericardial fat accumulation has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. A very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves the cardiovascular risk profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), by improving the metabolic profile, heart function, and triglyceride (TG) stores in (non)adipose tissues. However, long-term effects of a VLCD on pericardial fat volume and tissue-specific TG accumulation have not been documented. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effects of a 16-week VLCD and of subsequent 14 months follow-up on a regular diet on pericardial fat in relation to other TG stores in obese T2DM patients. We included 14 obese patients with insulin-treated T2DM (mean ± s.e.m.: age 53 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg/m(2)). Pericardial fat and other (non)adipose TG stores were measured using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and proton spectroscopy before and after a 16-week VLCD and after a 14-month follow-up without dietary interventions. A 16-week VLCD reduced body weight, pericardial fat, hepatic TG content, visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes to 78, 83, 16, 40, and 53% of baseline values respectively, (all P < 0.05). After an additional 14 months of follow-up on a regular diet, the reduction in pericardial fat volume sustained, despite a substantial regain in body weight, visceral abdominal fat, and hepatic TG content (respectively 90, 83 and 73% of baseline values). In conclusion, VLCD-induced weight loss in obese T2DM patients is accompanied by a substantial decrease in pericardial fat volume, which is sustained even after subsequent weight regain.

  14. A high-fat, high-glycaemic index, low-fibre dietary pattern is prospectively associated with type 2 diabetes in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pastorino, Silvia; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Ambrosini, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    The combined association of dietary fat, glycaemic index (GI) and fibre with type 2 diabetes has rarely been investigated. The objective was to examine the relationship between a high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern across adult life and type 2 diabetes risk using reduced rank regression. Data were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Repeated measures of dietary intake estimated using 5-day diet diaries were available at age 36, 43 and 53 for 1180 study members. Associations between dietary patterns scores at each age, as well as longitudinal changes in dietary pattern z-scores, and type 2 diabetes incidence (n=106) from 53 to 60-64 years were analysed. The high-fat, high-GI, low-fibre dietary pattern was characterised by low intakes of fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, and whole grain cereals, and high intakes of white bread, fried potatoes, processed meat and animal fats. There was an increasing trend in OR for type 2 diabetes with increasing quintile of dietary pattern z-scores at age 43 among women but not among men. Women in the highest z-score quintile at age 43 had an OR for type 2 diabetes of 5.45 (2.01, 14.79). Long-term increases in this dietary pattern, independently of BMI and waist circumference, were also detrimental among women: for each 1 SD unit increase in dietary pattern z-score between 36 and 53 years, the OR for type 2 diabetes was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.43) independently of changes in BMI and waist circumference in the same periods. A high-fat, high-GI low-fibre dietary pattern was associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged British women but not men. PMID:27245103

  15. Maternal hypoxia increases the susceptibility of adult rat male offspring to high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong; Xie, Jing-Xian; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Lin, Hui-Tong

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment increases the risk for adult metabolic syndrome. However, the influence of prenatal hypoxia on the risk of fatty liver disease in offspring is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of reduced fetal oxygen on the development and severity of high-fat (HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Based on design implicating 2 factors, ie, maternal hypoxia (MH) and postnatal HF diet, blood lipid and insulin levels, hepatic histology, and potential molecular targets were evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rat offspring. MH associated with postnatal HF diet caused a significant increase in plasma concentration of triglycerides, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin. Histologically, a more severe form of NAFLD with hepatic inflammation, hepatic resident macrophage infiltration, and progression toward nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was observed. The lipid homeostasis changes and insulin resistance caused by MH plus HF were accompanied by a significant down-regulation of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2), phosphoinositide-3 kinase p110 catalytic subunit, and protein kinase B. In MH rats, insulin-stimulated IRS-2 and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation were significantly blunted as well as insulin suppression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Meanwhile, a significant up-regulation of lipogenic pathways was noticed, including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1 and fatty acid synthase in liver. Our results indicate that maternal hypoxia enhances dysmetabolic liver injury in response to an HF diet. Therefore, the offspring born in the context of maternal hypoxia may require special attention and follow-up to prevent the early development of NAFLD.

  16. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMI<25 kg/m(2), waist ≥85 cm; n=31), a group with normal BMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist <85 cm; n=68), and a group with low normal BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMI<22 kg/m(2) and waist<85 cm; n=68). We measured the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels before glucose loading and after 30 and 120 minutes and calculated several indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Results Subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.005) among the clinical variables and with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.0001) among the anthropometric variables but not with WC in either analysis. Conclusion Decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR were observed in subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors.

  17. Associations of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and tocopherols with proxies of membrane stability and subcutaneous fat sites in male elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Ney, Jacqueline G; Koury, Josely C; Azeredo, Vilma B; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Trugo, Nadia M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2009-09-01

    We hypothesize that membrane stability of elite swimmers adapted to chronic intense training is dependent on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and tocopherols in blood pools and that the composition of PUFA in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) might be associated with specific subcutaneous fat sites. Our aims were to investigate in male elite swimmers the associations of n-6 and n-3 PUFA and alpha- and gamma-tocopherols with proxies of membrane stability (phase angle and erythrocyte osmotic fragility) and of PUFA in plasma NEFA with specific skinfolds. Brazilian male elite swimmers (n = 20) under regular training for an average of 4.1 h/d and 6.1 d/wk took part in the study. Blood samples were obtained once after 18-hour rest and an overnight fast. Fatty acids were determined in plasma NEFA and erythrocytes by gas chromatolography and tocopherols were determined in plasma and erythrocytes by high-performance liquid chromatography. The status of PUFA was assessed as mean melting point, PUFA index [(Sigman-6 + Sigman-3) / (Sigman-7 + Sigman-9)] and docosahexaenoic acid indices (22:5n-6/22:4n-6 and 22:6n-3/22:5n-6 ratios) calculated from erythrocyte fatty acids. Phase angle was associated with an index of docosahexaenoic acid inadequacy (22:5n-6/22:4n-6; r = -0.53, P = .019) and with 22:5n-3 in erythrocytes (r = 0.51, P = .024), and erythrocyte osmotic fragility was associated with plasma alpha-tocopherol (r = -0.51, P = .05), which is a biomarker of vitamin E status. Plasma NEFAs 18:3n-3 and 20:4n-6 were positively associated with skinfolds of the trunk and arms (r = 0.49-0.59, P = .011-.043). The data presented indicate that n-3 PUFA and vitamin E states possibly improve membrane stability in elite swimmers and that the extent of specific anatomic sites of subcutaneous adipose tissue in the upper body might contribute to the composition of NEFA in the resting state.

  18. An Atypical Presentation of a Male with Oral-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type 1 Related Ciliopathy

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Ethan M.; Reynoso, Francis Jeshira; Pradhan, Madhura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is a rare condition with X-linked dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the Cxorf5 (OFD1) gene. This gene encodes the OFD1 protein located within centrosomes and basal bodies of primary cilia. Approximately 15–50% of patients with OFD1 progress to end-stage kidney disease following development of polycystic changes within the kidneys. This condition almost always causes intrauterine lethality in males. Description of Case Diagnosis and Treatment. A Caucasian male aged 9 years and 9 months presented with increased urinary frequency, increased thirst, and decreased appetite. Physical examination demonstrated short stature, hearing loss, photophobia, murmur, and hypogonadism. He had no other dysmorphic features. Laboratory results revealed anemia, renal insufficiency, and dilute urine with microscopic hematuria but no proteinuria. Ultrasound showed small kidneys with increased echogenicity but no evidence of cystic changes. A Ciliopathy Panel showed a novel and likely pathogenic deletion, approximately 7.9 kb, in the OFD1 gene encompassing exons 16, 17, and 19 (c.1654+833_2599+423del). Brain MRI did not demonstrate typical OFD1 findings. He is currently on chronic hemodialysis awaiting transplant from a living donor. Conclusions. We present a male patient with OFD1 mutation who lacks the classic OFD1 phenotype who presented with end-stage renal disease without evidence of polycystic changes within the kidneys. PMID:27651963

  19. Total and subtypes of dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study.

    PubMed

    Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Portoles, Olga; Fitó, Montserrat; Hu, Frank B; Forga, Lluís; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-03-01

    Background: The associations between dietary fat and cardiovascular disease have been evaluated in several studies, but less is known about their influence on the risk of diabetes.Objective: We examined the associations between total fat, subtypes of dietary fat, and food sources rich in saturated fatty acids and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Design: A prospective cohort analysis of 3349 individuals who were free of diabetes at baseline but were at high cardiovascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study was conducted. Detailed dietary information was assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up using a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate T2D HRs and 95% CIs according to baseline and yearly updated fat intake.Results: We documented 266 incident cases during 4.3 y of follow-up. Baseline saturated and animal fat intake was not associated with the risk of T2D. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of updated intake of saturated and animal fat had a higher risk of diabetes than the lowest quartile (HR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.28, 3.73; and P-trend = 0.01 compared with HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.29, 3.09; and P-trend < 0.01, respectively). In both the Mediterranean diet and control groups, participants in the highest quartile of updated animal fat intake had an ∼2-fold higher risk of T2D than their counterparts in the lowest quartile. The consumption of 1 serving of butter and cheese was associated with a higher risk of diabetes, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake was associated with a lower risk.Conclusions: In a Mediterranean trial focused on dietary fat interventions, baseline intake of saturated and animal fat was not associated with T2D incidence, but the yearly updated intake of saturated and animal fat was associated with a higher risk of T2D. Cheese and butter intake was associated with a higher risk of T2D, whereas whole-fat yogurt intake

  20. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  1. Cytochemical Analysis of Pollen Development in Wild-Type Arabidopsis and a Male-Sterile Mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, SM; Moffatt, BA

    1990-01-01

    Microsporogenesis has been examined in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the nuclear male-sterile mutant BM3 by cytochemical staining. The mutant lacks adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, an enzyme of the purine salvage pathway that converts adenine to AMP. Pollen development in the mutant began to diverge from wild type just after meiosis, as the tetrads of microspores were released from their callose walls. The first indication of abnormal pollen development in the mutant was a darker staining of the microspore wall due to an incomplete synthesis of the intine. Vacuole formation was delayed and irregular in the mutant, and the majority of the mutant microspores failed to undergo mitotic divisions. Enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and esterases decreased in the mutant soon after meiosis and were undetectable in mature pollen grains of the mutant. RNA accumulation was also diminished. These results are discussed in relation to the possible role(s) of adenine salvage in pollen development. PMID:12354970

  2. Immunoneutralization of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III suppresses male reproductive behavior of cichlids.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Satoshi; Akiyama, Go; Kato, Shumei; Soga, Tomoko; Sakuma, Yasuo; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2006-08-07

    To investigate the roles of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) types in reproductive behaviors, antisera against GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3 were stereotaxically administered into the intracerebroventricular region to neutralize the three native GnRH types in the brain of male tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Reproductive behaviors (nest-building and aggressive behaviors), and morphological changes of the three GnRH systems were investigated by immunocytochemistry. GnRH1, GnRH2 and GnRH3 immunoreactive fibers were significantly decreased following injections of GnRH antisera indicating successful neutralization of their respective endogenous GnRH peptides. GnRH1- and GnRH2-immunoneutralization did not inhibit reproductive behaviors but GnRH3-immunoneutralization significantly decreased nest-building ability (Saline: 26.5 +/- 3.7%/day versus GnRH3: 6.1 +/- 2.9%/day, P < 0.001), nest size (Saline: 0.67 +/- 0.09 points versus GnRH3: 0.10 +/- 0.05 points, P < 0.0002) and aggressive behavior (Saline: 2.34 +/- 0.19 points versus GnRH3 1.06 +/- 0.12 points, P < 0.0001). These observations provide evidence that GnRH3 is a potent neuromodulator of reproductive behaviors in male tilapia.

  3. Beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Sudhakara, G; Mallaiah, P; Sreenivasulu, N; Sasi Bhusana Rao, B; Rajendran, R; Saralakumari, D

    2014-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Caralluma fimbriata (CFE) on the effects of high-fat diet feeding on insulin resistance and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. High-fat diet (60% of fat) and CFE (200 mg/kg body weight/day) were given concurrently to the rats for a period of 90 days. Feeding with high-fat diet resulted in the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia and impaired insulin sensitivity (P < 0.05). Administration of CFE to high-fat diet-fed rats for 90 days resulted in a significant improvement in plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and triglycerides. Regarding liver antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and lower GSH levels and lower activities of enzymatic antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. In conclusion, intake of CFE may be beneficial for the suppression of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress.

  4. Whole Mitochondrial Genome Sequencing and Re-Examination of a Cytoplasmic Male Sterility-Associated Gene in Boro-Taichung-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Rice

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Tomohiko; Toriyama, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genome substitutions between subspecies can lead to cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) through incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Boro-Taichung (BT)-type CMS rice was obtained by substituting the nuclear genome of Oryza sativa subsp. indica cultivar Chinsurah Boro II with that of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica cultivar Taichung 65. In BT-type CMS rice, the mitochondrial gene orf79 is associated with male sterility. A complete sequence of the Boro-type mitochondrial genome responsible for BT-type CMS has not been determined to date. Here, we used pyrosequencing to construct the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. The contiguous sequences were assembled into five circular DNA molecules, four of which could be connected into a single circle. The two resulting subgenomic circles were unable to form a reliable master circle, as recombination between them was scarcely detected. We also found an unequal abundance of DNA molecules for the two loci of atp6. These results indicate the presence of multi-partite DNA molecules in the Boro-type mitochondrial genome. Expression patterns were investigated for Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, which were not found in the mitochondria from the standard japonica cultivar Nipponbare. Restorer of fertility 1 (RF1)-dependent RNA processing has been observed in orf79-containing RNA but was not detected in other Boro-type mitochondria-specific orfs, supporting the conclusion that orf79 is a unique CMS-associated gene in Boro-type mitochondria. PMID:27414645

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of Japanese male athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, although the incidence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) is still low compared with that in Europe and the United States, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased over the last 15 years,. In both Japanese and Caucasian populations it has been reported that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness protects against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no reports focused specifically on athletes that investigate whether high cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can prevent disease later in life. We examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese athletes using a cohort study. Methods The cardiorespiratory fitness of male alumni of the physical education department of Juntendo University, as measured by stored data of a 1,500-m endurance run in college (1971–1991) was compared with their incidence of type 2 diabetes as determined by follow-up questionnaires (2007–2009). This study used Cox’s proportional hazards models and adjusted for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports club participation at college age. Results We collected data on cardiorespiratory fitness at college age and medical history survey data during 2007–2009 from 570 male alumni. The median follow-up period was 26 years (IQR: 23–29 years), and 22 men had developed type 2 diabetes. An inverse relationship was observed between incidence of type 2 diabetes and level of cardiorespiratory fitness at time of college after adjustment for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports participation. The adjusted hazards ratio and 95% CI by category (low, medium, and high) were 1.00 (reference), 0.40 (0.14–1.13) and 0.26 (0.07–1.00) (p = 0.03 for trend). Conclusions A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can help prevent type 2 diabetes later in life. PMID:24885699

  6. Sohlh2 knockout mice are male-sterile because of degeneration of differentiating type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jing; Yamamoto, Miwako; Richardson, Timothy E; Chapman, Karen M; Denard, Bray S; Hammer, Robert E; Zhao, Guang Quan; Hamra, F Kent

    2008-06-01

    The spermatogenesis and oogenesis-specific transcription factor Sohlh2 is normally expressed only in premeiotic germ cells. In this study, Sohlh2 and several other germ cell transcripts were found to be induced in mouse embryonic stem cells when cultured on a feeder cell line that overexpresses bone morphogenetic protein 4. To study the function of Sohlh2 in germ cells, we generated mice harboring null alleles of Sohlh2. Male Sohlh2-deficient mice were infertile because of a block in spermatogenesis. Although normal prior to birth, Sohlh2-null mice had reduced numbers of intermediate and type B spermatogonia by postnatal day 7. By day 10, development to the preleptotene spermatocyte stage was severely disrupted, rendering seminiferous tubules with only Sertoli cells, undifferentiated spermatogonia, and degenerating colonies of differentiating spermatogonia. Degenerating cells resembled type A2 spermatogonia and accumulated in M-phase prior to death. A similar phenotype was observed in Sohlh2-null mice on postnatal days 14, 21, 35, 49, 68, and 151. In adult Sohlh2-mutant mice, the ratio of undifferentiated type A spermatogonia (DAZL+/PLZF+) to differentiating type A spermatogonia (DAZL+/PLZF-) was twice normal levels. In culture, undifferentiated type A spermatogonia isolated from Sohlh2-null mice proliferated normally but linked the mutant phenotype to aberrant cell surface expression of the receptor-tyrosine kinase cKit. Thus, Sohlh2 is required for progression of differentiating type A spermatogonia into type B spermatogonia. One conclusion originating from these studies would be that testicular factors normally regulate the viability of differentiating spermatogonia by signaling through Sohlh2. This regulation would provide a crucial checkpoint to optimize the numbers of spermatocytes entering meiosis during each cycle of spermatogenesis. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  7. Improvement of Cardiomyopathy After High-Fat Diet in Two Siblings with Glycogen Storage Disease Type III.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Alessandra; Mannarino, Savina; Pretese, Roberta; Gasperini, Serena; Galimberti, Cinzia; Parini, Rossella

    2014-01-01

    Glycogenosis type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency. This disease causes limit dextrin storage in affected tissues: liver, skeletal muscles, and heart in GSD IIIa and only liver in GSD IIIb. Cardiomyopathy is quite frequent in GSD IIIa with variable severity and progression of manifestations. It is not clear if diet manipulation may interfere with cardiomyopathy's progression. Recent case reports showed improvement of cardiomyopathy following a ketogenic diet.Two siblings (girl and boy), 7- and 5-year-old, both affected with GSD IIIa, developed severe and rapidly worsening left ventricular hypertrophy in the first years of life, while treated with frequent diurnal and nocturnal hyperproteic meals followed by orally administered uncooked cornstarch. Subsequently they were treated with high-fat (60%) and high-protein (25%), low-carbohydrate (15%) diet. After 12 months exertion dyspnea disappeared in the girl and biochemical blood tests, cardiac enzymes, and congestive heart failure markers improved in both (CK 3439→324, 1304→581 U/L; NT-proBNP 2084→206, 782→135 pg/mL, respectively); ultrasound assessment in both patients showed a relevant reduction of the thickness of interventricular septum (30→16, 16→11 mm, respectively) and left ventricle posterior wall (18→7, 13→8 mm, respectively) and an improvement of the outflow obstruction. A diet rich in fats as well as proteins and poor in carbohydrates could be a beneficial therapeutic choice for GSD III with cardiomyopathy. Future research is needed to confirm the beneficial effect of this treatment and to design treatment strategies with the aim to provide alternative source of energy and prevent glycogen accumulation.

  8. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity.

    PubMed

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterize their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp- and oral glucose tolerance test-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs per allele [95% CI], -0.03 [-0.04, -0.01]; P = 0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (-0.01 [-0.01, -0.0]; P = 0.02) and gluteofemoral fat mass (-0.03 [-0.05, -0.02; P = 1.4 × 10(-6)) and with higher alanine transaminase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.002) and γ-glutamyl transferase (0.02 [0.01, 0.03]; P = 0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (Pinteraction = 0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI or waist strata (Pinteraction > 0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size.

  9. Facts about saturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Cholesterol - saturated fat; Atherosclerosis - saturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - saturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - saturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - saturated fat; Coronary artery disease - saturated fat; ...

  10. Slow and fast evolving markers typing in Modena males (North Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Corradini, Beatrice; Radheshi, Erjon; Beduschi, Giovanni

    2009-03-01

    One hundred thirty male individuals, strictly selected for their geographical origin and for typical regional surnames were submitted to the analysis. 17 STRs (short tandem repeats) loci and 19 SNPs binary markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) were typed to well characterize the selected population of Modena province. The availability of joint distribution of MSY haplotypes and haplogroup frequencies is becoming an important tool for both human evolutionary studies and forensic investigation, but large databases of complete Y-lineages are needed for a better understanding of the power of the combined use of Y-specific polymorphisms. A total of 129 haplotypes and 9 haplogroups were found and R1b haplogroup with a frequency of 67.7% was the most frequent, as expected because of the geographical location of the sample (Northwestern Italy). The Modena Y-lineages (STRs and SNPs independently) were also compared with published data of other neighbouring populations' samples.

  11. “Because being fat means being sick”: children at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Shelley J; Manke, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the social and cultural underpinnings that shape children’s risk of type 2 diabetes, as identified by a racially and economically diverse group of parents and their children living in Anaheim, California. Based on in-depth interviews with 28 adults and 17 children, we explored how they understood what constitutes “good health” in children and the aspects of their neighborhoods and communities that acted as resources or impediments to their children’s well-being. We found that parents and children employed a language of food that reflected a fear-based, medicalized orientation to food consumption. Although nearly all agreed that children should stay active, densely populated neighborhoods, apartment complexes with rigid outdoor rules, high crime rates, police surveillance, and diminished access to public parks and recreational facilities posed challenges. Similarly problematic were deficits in school lunch programs and the limited sometimes demeaning, conversations with healthcare professionals about diabetes risk and prevention. Together, these narratives identify key structural processes attendant to type 2 diabetes risk in children and call for a more politicized conversation regarding prevention strategies and public healthcare practices.

  12. A psychodynamic (NonOedipal) and brain function hypothesis regarding a type of male sexual masochism.

    PubMed

    Schrut, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A clinical observation suggests a hypothesis that differs from classical analytic oedipal theory as to the origin and psychodynamics of a type of male sexual masochism. This type of masochism may occur when a painful childhood life experience regarding severely forbidden sexual pleasure is associated and amalgamated with shame, humiliation, and feared physical and psychological punishment resulting in sexual pleasure. If this takes place with sufficient frequency during the critical phases of childhood sexual development, possibly including early adolescent sexual development, it becomes recorded as long-term memory in brain neural networks. The phenomenon of its recording includes, at least in part, the commonly accepted theory of Donald Hebb. In later years, the man feels compelled to reproduce in a masochistic ritual the former childhood psychological and physical conditions, to bring about the most intense sexual pleasure. Humiliation, shame, discomfort, helplessness, and even possible pain are simulated or actually instigated. By voluntarily placing himself in charge of the type of sadistic treatment he receives in acts of masochism, a patient may unconciously place himself in charge of his plight, in an attempt to master it, in contrast to his childhood helpless state. This formulation does not require an Oedipal explanation.

  13. Type of dietary fat is associated with the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 increment in response to vitamin D supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mono- and polyunsaturated fats may have opposing effects on vitamin D absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intakes of different dietary fats are associated with the increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) following supplementation with vitamin D3. This analysis was co...

  14. An Overview of Murine High Fat Diet as a Model for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a worldwide epidemic, which by all predictions will only increase. To help in combating the devastating array of phenotypes associated with T2DM a highly reproducible and human disease-similar mouse model is required for researchers. The current options are genetic manipulations to cause T2DM symptoms or diet induced obesity and T2DM symptoms. These methods to model human T2DM have their benefits and their detractions. As far as modeling the majority of T2DM cases, HFD establishes the proper etiological, pathological, and treatment options. A limitation of HFD is that it requires months of feeding to achieve the full spectrum of T2DM symptoms and no standard protocol has been established. This paper will attempt to rectify the last limitation and argue for a standard group of HFD protocols and standard analysis procedures. PMID:27547764

  15. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  16. Uninephrectomized High-Fat-Fed Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Model for the Investigation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Yuri V.; Chefu, Svetlana G.; Pchelin, Ivan Yu.; Bairamov, Alekber A.; Alexeyeva, Nina P.; Shatalov, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) could be reproduced in rats with alimentary obesity by using low doses of streptozotocin (LD-STZ) as well as STZ in high doses with preliminary nicotinamide (NA) administration. However, STZ could induce tubulotoxicity. Aim. To develop rat model of DN in NA-STZ-induced DM2 and compare it with LD-STZ-model in order to choose the most relevant approach for reproducing renal glomerular and tubular morphofunctional diabetic changes. Starting at 3 weeks after uninephrectomy, adult male Wistar rats were fed five-week high-fat diet and then received intraperitoneally either LD-STZ (40 mg/kg) or NA (230 mg/kg) followed by STZ (65 mg/kg). Control uninephrectomized vehicle-injected rats received normal chow. At weeks 10, 20, and 30 (the end of the study), metabolic parameters, creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and urinary tubular injury markers (NGAL, KIM-1) were evaluated as well as renal ultrastructural and light microscopic changes at weeks 20 and 30. NA-STZ-group showed higher reproducibility and stability of metabolic parameters. By week 10, in NA-STZ-group NGAL level was significantly lower compared to LD-STZ-group. By week 30, diabetic groups showed early features of DN. However, morphofunctional changes in NA-STZ-group appeared to be more pronounced than those in STZ-group despite lower levels of KIM-1 and NGAL. We proposed a new rat model of DM2 with DN characterized by stable metabolic disorders, typical renal lesions, and lower levels of tubular injury markers as compared to LD-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:28090542

  17. Fine particulate matter potentiates type 2 diabetes development in high-fat diet-treated mice: stress response and extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Goettems-Fiorin, Pauline Brendler; Grochanke, Bethânia Salamoni; Baldissera, Fernanda Giesel; Dos Santos, Analu Bender; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo; Ludwig, Mirna Stela; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Heck, Thiago Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We argue whether the potentiating effect of PM2.5 over the development of T2DM in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice would be related to modification in cell stress response, particularly in antioxidant defenses and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) status. Male mice were fed standard chow or HFD for 12 weeks and then randomly exposed to daily nasotropic instillation of PM2.5 for additional 12 weeks under the same diet schedule, divided into four groups (n = 14-15 each): Control, PM2.5, HFD, and HFD + PM2.5 were evaluated biometric and metabolic profiles of mice, and cellular stress response (antioxidant defense and HSP70 status) of metabolic tissues. Extracellular to intracellular HSP70 ratio ([eHSP72]/[iHSP70]), viz. H-index, was then calculated. HFD + PM2.5 mice presented a positive correlation between adiposity, increased body weight and glucose intolerance, and increased glucose and triacylglycerol plasma levels. Pancreas exhibited lower iHSP70 expression, accompanied by 3.7-fold increase in the plasma to pancreas [eHSP72]/[iHSP70] ratio. Exposure to PM2.5 markedly potentiated metabolic dysfunction in HFD-treated mice and promoted relevant alteration in cell stress response assessed by [eHSP72]/[iHSP70], a relevant biomarker of chronic low-grade inflammatory state and T2DM risk.

  18. Sustained housing-type social buffering following social housing in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Ishida, Aya; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-05-01

    In social animals, recovery from the adverse effects of distressing stimuli is promoted by subsequent cohousing with a conspecific animal(s). This phenomenon has been termed housing-type social buffering. We previously found that social housing induced housing-type social buffering in fear-conditioned male rats. This buffering took the form of attenuated conditioned hyperthermia in response to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Here, we assessed whether this social buffering is sustained even if the subject is housed alone after a period of social housing. When fear-conditioned subjects were housed alone during a 48-h period between conditioning and re-exposure to the auditory CS, they exhibited conditioned hyperthermia in response to the CS. However, conditioned hyperthermia was not observed when the 12-h period of social housing began 24 and 36h after conditioning during the 48-h period. This was not the case when the 12-h period of social housing began 0 and 12h after the conditioning. These results suggest that housing-type social buffering is sustained for 12h after the 12-h period of social housing. We next considered whether increasing the duration of social housing would extend the period of social buffering. We observed social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia 24 and 48, but not 96h after a 24-h period of social housing. These results suggest that social buffering was extended when the duration of social housing was increased. Taken together, our findings indicate that housing-type social buffering is sustained after a period of social housing.

  19. Effect of type and level of fish oil supplementation on yolk fat composition and n-3 fatty acids retention efficiency in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cachaldora, P; García-Rebollar, P; Alvarez, C; De Blas, J C; Méndez, J

    2006-02-01

    1. Laying hen performance and yolk fat fatty acid (FA) concentrations were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of different sources and levels of marine fish oil (MFO). 2. Twelve diets were arranged factorially, with three sources (MFO1, MFO2_EPA, MFO3_DHA) and four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60 g/kg) of MFO. 3. Type of diet had little effect on egg production traits, although laying rate and shell thickness slightly decreased at the highest level of MFO supplementation. 4. An increase in level of inclusion of MFO from 15 to 60 g/kg linearly increased concentrations of C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3 and total n-3 FA in yolk fat, but greatly impaired their efficiencies of deposition (g retained/g ingested). 5. An interaction between type and dietary concentration of MFO was found, as the reduction in efficiency of retention of n-3 FA in egg fat with level of MFO was less when the proportion of n-3 in total FA decreased or when that of DHA in total n-3 FA increased. 6. MFO3_ DHA was more efficiently used for total n-3 FA yolk deposition than MFO2_EPA at a similar total n-3 FA intake. 7. Dietary inclusion of MFO reduced LC n-6 FA yolk fat content, which additionally decreased the ratio between total n-6 and total n-3 FA in egg fat. 8. Regression equations were calculated in order to predict efficiency of retention and n-3 FA concentration of yolk fat in the range of diets studied.

  20. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  1. Male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display increased circulatory retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels and its expression in visceral adipose depots.

    PubMed

    Asha, G V; Raja Gopal Reddy, M; Mahesh, M; Vajreswari, A; Jeyakumar, S M

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin A and its metabolites are known to modulate adipose tissue development and its associated complications. Here, we assessed the vitamin A status and its metabolic pathway gene expression in relation to sexual dimorphism by employing 35 days old C57BL/6J male and female mice, which were fed either stock or high fat (HF) diet for 26 weeks. HF diet feeding increased body weight/weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) of visceral and subcutaneous regions, however, increase in vitamin A levels observed only in subcutaneous WAT. Further, the expression of most of the vitamin A metabolic pathway genes showed no sexual dimorphism. The observed HF diet-induced hyperglycaemia in male corroborates with increased retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels in plasma and its expression in visceral adipose depots. In conclusion, the male mice are susceptible to high fat diet-induced hyperglycaemia and display higher plasma RBP4 levels, possibly due to its over-expression in visceral adipose depots.

  2. A study to evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with Type-2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Parminder; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Sharma, S. K.; Majumdar, Anirban; Shah, Parag; Sahay, Rakesh; Ayyar, S. Vageesh; Phatale, Hemant; Batra, Chandar M.; Syed, Raeesuddin; Shetty, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of hypogonadism in men with Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported worldwide. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of hypogonadism in Indian males with T2DM and assess the primary and secondary hypogonadism along with androgen deficiency. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 900 men with T2DM were evaluated using androgen deficiency in aging male questionnaire. They were screened for demographic characteristics, gonadal hormone levels, lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin. Results: The prevalence of hypogonadism in T2DM patients was found to be 20.7% (186 out of 900). Hypogonadism was of testicular origin (primary) in 48/186 (25.8%) patients, of pituitary or hypothalamic origin (secondary) in 14/186 (7.53%), and remaining 124/186 (66.67%) patients were found to have low testosterone with the inappropriate normal level of luteinizing hormone and Follicle-stimulating hormone. 451/900 (50.1%) patients were only symptomatic but had normal testosterone levels. Further 263 patients out 900 were asymptomatic, of which 51/900 (5.7%) patients had low levels of testosterone and 212/900 (23.5%) patients had normal testosterone level without symptoms. There were no deaths or other serious adverse events except mild pyrexia which was not related to the study. Conclusion: Hypogonadism diagnosis, at times, might not be validated with the help of androgen deficiency questionnaire or symptoms only. Given the large number of patients of T2DM in India, the incidence of hypogonadism is more in diabetic patients as compared to the general population. Hence, implementation of screening programs in diabetic patients is necessary to understand and detect individuals with low serum total testosterone at any early stage and to supplement testosterone accordingly. PMID:28217500

  3. Prevalence of hypogonadism in male Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Madhu, S. V.; Aslam, M.; Aiman, A. J.; Siddiqui, A.; Dwivedi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study is carried out to investigate hypogonadism using serum testosterone levels in male Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Subjects and Methods: A total of 150 age and body mass index-matched male subjects in the age group of 30–70 years were recruited in three groups; Group A - subjects with normal glucose tolerance, Group B - T2DM subjects without CAD, and Group C - T2DM subjects with CAD (n = 50 each group). Subjects with CAD were diagnosed on the basis of electrocardiogram, treadmill testing, stress echocardiography, or coronary angiography. Total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone, calculated FT and glycemic parameters were measured and compared between all the three study groups. One-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's test and Pearson's coefficient of correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: Hypogonadism (TT <3 ng/ml) was observed in 40% (20/50) of subjects in Group C and 32% (16/50) of subjects in Group B as compared to only 14% (7/50) of subjects in Group A (Groups A vs. B; P = 0.055, Groups A vs. C; P = 0.006 and Groups B vs. C; P = 0.53). Group C subjects had significantly lower levels of TT (3.55 ± 1.46 ng/ml vs. 4.73 ± 2.17 ng/ml, P = 0.005), calculated FT (0.062 ± 0.0255 pg/ml vs. 0.0951 ± 0.0508 pg/ml, P ≤ 0.001), and bioavailable testosterone (1.48 ± 0.65 ng/ml vs. 2.18 ± 1.20 ng/ml, P ≤ 0.001) compared to control Group A subjects. There was no significant difference in any of the testosterone parameters between Groups A and B. Furthermore, an overall positive correlation was found between hypogonadism and CAD (r = 0.177, P = 0.030, n = 150). Conclusion: We observed hypogonadism as indicated by low testosterone levels in a significant proportion of male T2DM subjects with CAD. PMID:28217495

  4. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy.

  5. Sodium Butyrate Protects Against High Fat Diet-induced Cardiac Dysfunction and Metabolic Disorders in Type II Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Du, Jianfeng; Yano, Naohiro; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Yu Tina; Patricia, Dubielecka-Szczerba; Zhuang, Shougang; Chin, Eugene Y; Qin, Gangjian; Zhao, Ting C

    2017-01-21

    Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively. Glucose intolerance, metabolic parameters, cardiac function, and remodeling were assessed. Histological analysis and cellular signaling were examined at 24 weeks following euthanization of mice. HFD-fed mice demonstrated myocardial dysfunction and profound interstitial fibrosis, which were attenuated by HDAC inhibition. HFD-induced metabolic syndrome features insulin resistance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, lipid accumulations, and cardiac hypertrophy, these effects were prevented by HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, HDAC inhibition attenuated myocyte apoptosis, reduced production of reactive oxygen species, and increased angiogenesis in the HFD-fed myocardium. Notably, HFD induced decreases in MKK3, p38, p38 regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK) and Akt-1, but not p44/42 phosphorylation, which were prevented by HDAC inhibition. These results suggest that HDAC inhibition plays a critical role to preserve cardiac performance and mitigate metabolic disorders in obesity and diabetes, which is associated with MKK3/p38/PRAK pathway. The study holds promise in developing a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of type II diabetic-induced heart failure and metabolic disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. The APOB -516C/T polymorphism is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity in healthy males during the consumption of diets with different fat content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several apo B polymorphic sites have been studied for their potential use as markers for CHD in the population and for potential gene-diet interactions. Our aim was to determine whether the presence of the -516C/T polymorphism in the APOB gene promoter modifies insulin sensitivity to dietary fat. We...

  7. [Physico-chemical characteristics of different types of vegetable fats and oils used in the manufacture of candies].

    PubMed

    Saavedra, M I; López-Jiménez, J A; Pérez-Llamas, F; Zamora, S

    1997-01-01

    The quality of three vegetable fats (cocoa butter and two commercial fats) and three roasted nut oils (almond, hazelnut and peanut) used as raw material in the chocolate products manufacturing was studied. The hydroperoxide content, oxidative stability and fatty acid composition were determined and its health repercussion by atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes. Two commercial fats and cocoa butter showed higher oxidative stability, atherogenic and thrombogenic properties than oils because of its different fatty acid profiles. Peroxide value was a low reliability parameter of raw material shelf live. Rancimat presented a good correlation with the unsaturation index of different fats and oils, it was a better index than peroxide value. In the chocolate products manufacturing it would be advisable a good raw material selection and formulation in order to get a balance between technological properties, organoleptic qualities and the influence on the health. Those raw material with less primary oxidation and higher oxidative stability were also those of higher atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indexes.

  8. Nitrosamine exposure exacerbates high fat diet-mediated type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and neurodegeneration with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The current epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) all represent insulin-resistance diseases. Previous studies linked insulin resistance diseases to high fat diets or exposure to streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related compound that causes T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that low-level exposure to nitrosamines that are widely present in processed foods, amplifies the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM, NASH, and neurodegeneration. Methods Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) by i.p. Injection, and upon weaning, they were fed with high fat (60%; HFD) or low fat (5%; LFD) chow for 6 weeks. Rats were evaluated for cognitive impairment, insulin resistance, and neurodegeneration using behavioral, biochemical, molecular, and histological methods. Results NDEA and HFD ± NDEA caused T2DM, NASH, deficits in spatial learning, and neurodegeneration with hepatic and brain insulin and/or IGF resistance, and reductions in tau and choline acetyltransferase levels in the temporal lobe. In addition, pro-ceramide genes, which promote insulin resistance, were increased in livers and brains of rats exposed to NDEA, HFD, or both. In nearly all assays, the adverse effects of HFD+NDEA were worse than either treatment alone. Conclusions Environmental and food contaminant exposures to low, sub-mutagenic levels of nitrosamines, together with chronic HFD feeding, function synergistically to promote major insulin resistance diseases including T2DM, NASH, and AD-type neurodegeneration. Steps to minimize human exposure to nitrosamines and consumption of high-fat content foods are needed to quell these costly and devastating epidemics. PMID:20034403

  9. Combination of Vildagliptin and Pioglitazone in Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Rowaida; Sakr, Ahmed; Salama, Mona; El Sarha, Ashgan

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination. Diabetic rats showed elevated fasting serum glucose, fasting serum insulin, serum transaminases together with a deleterious lipid profile and elevated serum creatinine and urea concentrations. Serum levels of the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitrite/nitrate were also elevated compared to normal rats. Oxidative stress was manifested by lowered hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Pancreatic sections from diabetic rats showed degenerated islets with poorly maintained architecture that was prevented by drug treatment. Pioglitazone was generally more effective than vildagliptin in the studied parameters except for the lipid profile where the effect of both drugs was comparable and for the liver enzymes and renal parameters where vildagliptin was more effective. The combination of vildagliptin and pioglitazone produced superior effects than either drug alone. Drug Dev Res 77 : 251-257, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  11. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in avocados and olive, peanut, and canola oils polyunsaturated , found in most vegetable oils omega-3 fatty acids , a type of polyunsaturated ... saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which are often used in commercial baked goods. ...

  12. Coconut fats.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  13. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-09-06

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  14. Type of Residential Living Unit and Male Attitudes toward Working Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gade, Eldon; Gerszewski, Raymond

    Differences in the intensity of attitudes toward working women among college males residing in coeducational or all-male dormitories and fraternity houses were investigated by statistical covariation of the factors of liberalism-conservatism in social orientation, classification in school, size of hometown, and role model of a working mother,…

  15. Male 11β-HSD1 Knockout Mice Fed Trans-Fats and Fructose Are Not Protected From Metabolic Syndrome or Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larner, Dean P.; Morgan, Stuart A.; Gathercole, Laura L.; Doig, Craig L.; Guest, Phil; Weston, Christopher; Hazeldine, Jon; Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Stewart, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a spectrum of conditions from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis and is regarded as the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Glucocorticoids can promote steatosis by stimulating lipolysis within adipose tissue, free fatty acid delivery to liver and hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Glucocorticoids can be reactivated in liver through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme activity. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 has been suggested as a potential treatment for NAFLD. To test this, male mice with global (11β-HSD1 knockout [KO]) and liver-specific (LKO) 11β-HSD1 loss of function were fed the American Lifestyle Induced Obesity Syndrome (ALIOS) diet, known to recapitulate the spectrum of NAFLD, and metabolic and liver phenotypes assessed. Body weight, muscle and adipose tissue masses, and parameters of glucose homeostasis showed that 11β-HSD1KO and LKO mice were not protected from systemic metabolic disease. Evaluation of hepatic histology, triglyceride content, and blinded NAFLD activity score assessment indicated that levels of steatosis were similar between 11β-HSD1KO, LKO, and control mice. Unexpectedly, histological analysis revealed significantly increased levels of immune foci present in livers of 11β-HSD1KO but not LKO or control mice, suggestive of a transition to NASH. This was endorsed by elevated hepatic expression of key immune cell and inflammatory markers. These data indicate that 11β-HSD1-deficient mice are not protected from metabolic disease or hepatosteatosis in the face of a NAFLD-inducing diet. However, global deficiency of 11β-HSD1 did increase markers of hepatic inflammation and suggests a critical role for 11β-HSD1 in restraining the transition to NASH. PMID:27384305

  16. Effect of ripening, heat processing, and fat type on the micellarization of pigments from jalapeño peppers.

    PubMed

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2013-10-16

    Raw and heat-processed (boiled and grilled) jalapeño peppers at three intermediate ripening stages (brown, 50% red, and 75% red) were digested in vitro without fat and in the presence of soybean oil (SO) or beef tallow (BT), and the micellarization of their lipid soluble pigments (LSP) was measured. The micelles from digestions with brown, 50% red, and 75% red peppers contained up to 27, 35, and 29 different LSP, respectively. Boiling and grilling decreased the micellarization of LSP from brown peppers, whereas the opposite was observed with 75% red peppers. Heat processing did not clearly affect the micellarization of LSP from 50% red fruits. The impact of fat on LSP micellarization was ripening-dependent, but the micellarization of the less polar carotenoids was always increased by SO or BT. This positive effect of fat was higher with SO than with BT.

  17. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:28111622

  18. Verapamil - L type voltage gated calcium channel inhibitor diminishes aggressive behavior in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    Kania, B F; Dębski, B; Wrońska, D; Zawadzka, E

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is a L-type voltage gated calcium channels inhibitor (VGCCI), which is a highly prescribed drug used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia and cluster headaches. Its common use caused its appearance in water environment. VGCC inhibit epinephrine release and cause many neuro-hormonal changes influencing also fish behavior. Siamese fighting fish was chosen to study the influence of verapamil given to the water on the beginning of experiment in 3 different concentrations of 0 (control), 8 and 160 μg · L-1, on aggressive behavior in these fish. The experimental fish were placed in individual glass containers for 3 weeks and the mirror test was used. The highest concentration led to a significant modulation of fish behavior after 1 week and the lower dose caused statistically significant behavioral changes after 2 weeks of verapamil treatment. Siamese fighting fish males exposed to verapamil had longer latencies to the first chase - 12.6 s (8 μg · L-1 of verapamil) and 18.8 s (160 μg · L-1 of verapamil) compared to 5.6 s in the control group, decreased attack frequency and shorter duration of these attacks. The number of attacks within 10 min was decreased from 38.3 in the control group to 27.1 and 16.1, respectively. Also the total duration of these attacks decreased from 354.8 (control) to 326.4 (decrease statistically insignificant) and to 194.8 s in verapamil treated groups. It was shown, that even relatively low concentrations of verapamil in water may have adverse effects on fish and probably other living organisms.

  19. Fat and cholesterol avoidance among Mexican-American and Anglo preschool children and parents.

    PubMed

    Frank, G C; Zive, M; Nelson, J; Broyles, S L; Nader, P R

    1991-08-01

    Is a fat-avoidance scale a useful tool for monitoring and tracking dietary fat selections of adults and children? Using a seven-point scale, we addressed this question with 341 preschool children and 421 of their parents participating in a longitudinal study of childhood behaviors in San Diego County, California. Milk type and cooking fat reported in the fat-avoidance scale was compared with data reported in a 24-hour food intake record. An overall 86% agreement for milk type and a 78% agreement for cooking fat were noted. Anglo preschoolers (n = 143) had significantly greater mean scores for fat and cholesterol avoidance than did Mexican-American preschoolers (n = 198). Anglo, but not Mexican-American, women avoided fat and cholesterol more often than did their male counterparts. A significantly higher sum score was noted for Anglo men and women and Mexican-American men as education increased. These findings indicate that the fat-avoidance scale has a relative validity compared with a 1-day food record, that fat avoidance can be measured, that differences can be noted in a biethnic sample of children and adults, and that the scale has potential for monitoring success in achieving a lower fat and cholesterol intake.

  20. Amount of dietary fat and type of soluble fiber independently modulate postabsorptive conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A in mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Deming, D M; Boileau, A C; Lee, C M; Erdman, J W

    2000-11-01

    Current dietary guidelines recommend a decrease in fat intake and an increase in fiber consumption. Decreased bioavailability (BV) of carotenoids is thought to be associated with both of these recommendations. A 2 x 4 factorial design was used to test the effects of dietary fat level at 10 or 30% of total energy and fiber type using no fiber, silica, citrus pectin or oat gum (7 g/100 g) on beta-carotene (betaC) BV in 4- to 5-wk-old Mongolian gerbils. We assessed BV as both accumulation of betaC and bioconversion of betaC to vitamin A (VA) in tissues. A VA- and betaC-deficient diet was fed for 1 wk followed by one of eight isocaloric, semipurified diets supplemented with carrot powder [ approximately 1 microgram betaC, 0.5 microgram alpha-carotene (alphaC)/kJ diet] for 2 wk (n = 12/group). Increasing dietary fat resulted in higher VA (P: = 0.074) and lower betaC (P: = 0.0001) stores in the liver, suggesting that consumption of high fat diets enhances conversion of betaC to VA. The effect of soluble fiber on hepatic VA storage was dependent on fiber type. Consumption of citrus pectin resulted in lower hepatic VA stores and higher hepatic betaC stores compared with all other groups, suggesting less conversion of betaC to VA. In contrast, consumption of oat gum resulted in hepatic VA and betaC stores that were higher (P = 0.012) and lower (P = 0.022), respectively, than those of citrus pectin-fed gerbils. The level of dietary fat consumed with soluble fiber had no interactive effects on hepatic VA, betaC or alphaC stores. Results demonstrate that betaC BV is independently affected by dietary fat level and type of soluble fiber, and suggest that these dietary components modulate postabsorptive conversion of betaC to VA. This study confirms the negative effects of citrus pectin on betaC BV, and suggests that oat gum does not adversely affect betaC BV.

  1. Use of microparticulated whey protein concentrate, exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus, and adjunct cultures for making low-fat Italian Caciotta-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, R; De Pasquale, I; De Angelis, M; Buchin, S; Rizzello, C G; Gobbetti, M

    2014-01-01

    Low-fat Caciotta-type cheeses were manufactured with partially skim milk (fat content of ~0.3%) alone (LFC); with the supplementation of 0.5% (wt/vol) microparticulated whey protein concentrate (MWPC) (LFC-MWPC); with MWPC and exopolysaccharides (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus ST446 (LFC-MWPC-EPS); and with MWPC, EPS-producing strain ST446, and Lactobacillus plantarum LP and Lactobacillus rhamnosus LRA as adjunct cultures (LFC-MWPC-EPS-A). The non-EPS-producing isogenic variant Streptococcus thermophilus ST042 was used for making full-fat Caciotta-type cheese (FFC), LFC, and LFC-MWPC. Cheeses were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, biochemical, texture, volatile components (purge and trap, and solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and sensory analyses. Compared with FFC and LFC (51.6 ± 0.7 to 53.0 ± 0.9%), the other cheese variants retained higher levels of moisture (60.5 ± 1.1 to 67.5 ± 0.5%). The MWPC mainly contributed to moisture retention. Overall, all LFC had approximately one-fourth (22.6 ± 0.8%) of the fat of FFC. Hardness of cheeses slightly varied over 7d of ripening. Microbial EPS positively affected cheese texture, and the texture of LFC without MWPC or microbial EPS was excessively firm. Free amino acids were at the highest levels in LFC treatments (2,705.8 ± 122 to 3,070.4 ± 123 mg/kg) due to the addition of MWPC and the peptidase activity of adjunct cultures. Aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, sulfur compounds, and short- to medium-chain carboxylic acids differentiated LFC variants and FFC. The sensory attributes pleasant to taste, intensity of flavor, overall acceptability, and pleasant to chew variously described LFC-MWPC-EPS and LFC-MWPC-EPS-A. Based on the technology options used, low-fat Caciotta-type cheese (especially ripened for 14 d) has promising features to be further exploited as a suitable alternative to the full-fat variant.

  2. Differences in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism and resistance to obesity in male and female vitamin D receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Weber, K; Erben, R G

    2013-08-01

    A lean phenotype has been detected in vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice; however, the gender differences in fat metabolism between male and female mice both with age and in response to a high-fat diet have not been studied before. The objective of our study was to assess changes in body and fat tissue weight, food intake and serum cholesterol and triglyceride in VDR knockout mice from weaning to adulthood and after a challenge of adult animals with a high-fat diet. Although VDR knockout mice of both sexes consumed more food than wild-type and heterozygous littermates, their body weight and the weight of fat depots was lower after 6 months on a diet with 5% crude fat content. When adult animals were challenged with a high-fat diet containing 21% crude fat content for 8 weeks, VDR knockout mice of both sexes had a significantly higher food intake but gained less weight than their wild-type littermates. Cholesterol levels were higher after 2 days on the high-fat diet in both sexes, but in the VDR knockout mice, less cholesterol was detected in the serum after 8 weeks. Wild-type male mice showed signs of fatty liver disease at the end of the experiment, which was not detected in the other groups. In conclusion, lack of the VDR receptor results in reduced fat accumulation with age and when adult mice are fed a high-fat diet, despite a higher food intake of VDR knockout mice relative to their wild-type littermates. These effects can be detected in both sexes. Wild-type male mice react with the highest weight gain and cholesterol levels of all groups and develop fatty liver disease after 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, while male VDR knockout mice appear to be protected.

  3. Hyper-Variability in Circulating Insulin, High Fat Feeding Outcomes, and Effects of Reducing Ins2 Dosage in Male Ins1-Null Mice in a Specific Pathogen-Free Facility

    PubMed Central

    Templeman, Nicole M.; Mehran, Arya E.; Johnson, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin is an essential hormone with key roles in energy homeostasis and body composition. Mice and rats, unlike other mammals, have two insulin genes: the rodent-specific Ins1 gene and the ancestral Ins2 gene. The relationships between insulin gene dosage and obesity has previously been explored in male and female Ins2-/- mice with full or reduced Ins1 dosage, as well as in female Ins1-/- mice with full or partial Ins2 dosage. We report herein unexpected hyper-variability in Ins1-null male mice, with respect to their circulating insulin levels and to the physiological effects of modulating Ins2 gene dosage. Two large cohorts of Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice and their Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates were fed chow diet or high fat diet (HFD) from weaning, and housed in specific pathogen-free conditions. Cohort A and cohort B were studied one year apart. Contrary to female mice from the same litters, inactivating one Ins2 allele on the complete Ins1-null background did not consistently cause a reduction of circulating insulin in male mice, on either diet. In cohort A, all HFD-fed males showed an equivalent degree of insulin hypersecretion and weight gain, regardless of Ins2 dosage. In cohort B the effects of HFD appeared generally diminished, and cohort B Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- males showed decreased insulin levels and body mass compared to Ins1-/-:Ins2+/+ littermates, on both diets. Although experimental conditions were consistent between cohorts, we found that HFD-fed Ins1-/-:Ins2+/- mice with lower insulin levels had increased corticosterone. Collectively, these observations highlight the phenotypic characteristics that change in association with differences in circulating insulin and Ins2 gene dosage, particularly in male mice. PMID:27055260

  4. Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jinshan; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ruijuan; Wang, Zhenlin; Fan, Daidi; Yang, Haixia; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-06-26

    The use of natural hypoglycemic compounds is important in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-180 g were divided into four groups to investigate the effects of the compounds in stay-green wheat (SGW), a novel variety of wheat in China, on T2DM rats. The control group (NDC) was fed with a standard diet, while T2DM was induced in the rats belonging to the other three groups by a high-fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The T2DM rats were further divided into a T2DM control group (DC), which was fed with the normal diet containing 50% common wheat flour, a high dose SGW group (HGW) fed with a diet containing 50% SGW flour, and a low dose SGW group (LGW) fed with a diet containing 25% SGW flour and 25% common wheat flour. Our results showed that SGW contained cereal antioxidants, particularly high in flavonoids and anthocyanins (46.14 ± 1.80 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1.73 ± 0.14 mg CGE/100 g DW, respectively). Furthermore, SGW exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro (30.33 ± 2.66 μg TE/g DW, p < 0.01). Administration of the SGW at a high and low dose showed significant down-regulatory effects on fasting blood glucose (decreasing by 11.3% and 7.0%, respectively), insulin levels (decreasing by 12.3% and 9.7%, respectively), and lipid status (decreasing by 9.1% and 7.5%, respectively) in T2DM rats (p < 0.01). In addition, the T2DM groups treated with SGW at a high and low dose showed a significant increase in the blood superoxide dismutase (1.17 fold and 1.15 fold, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activities (1.37 fold and 1.30 fold, respectively) compared with the DC group (p < 0.01). The normalized impaired antioxidant status of the pancreatic islet and of the liver compared with the DC group was also significantly increased. Our results indicated that SGW components exerting a glycemic control and a serum lipid regulation effect may be due to their free radical scavenging

  5. High dietary fat exacerbates weight gain and obesity in female liver fatty acid binding protein gene-ablated mice.

    PubMed

    Atshaves, Barbara P; McIntosh, Avery L; Storey, Stephen M; Landrock, Kerstin K; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-02-01

    Since liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates uptake/oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in cultured transfected cells and primary hepatocytes, loss of L-FABP was expected to exacerbate weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat. Male and female wild-type (WT) and L-FABP gene-ablated mice, pair-fed a defined isocaloric control or high fat diet for 12 weeks, consumed equal amounts of food by weight and kcal. Male WT mice gained weight faster than their female WT counterparts regardless of diet. L-FABP gene ablation enhanced weight gain more in female than male mice-an effect exacerbated by high fat diet. Dual emission X-ray absorptiometry revealed high-fat fed male and female WT mice gained mostly fat tissue mass (FTM). L-FABP gene ablation increased FTM in female, but not male, mice-an effect also exacerbated by high fat diet. Concomitantly, L-FABP gene ablation decreased serum beta-hydroxybutyrate in male and female mice fed the control diet and, even more so, on the high-fat diet. Thus, L-FABP gene ablation decreased fat oxidation and sensitized all mice to weight gain as whole body FTM and LTM-with the most gain observed in FTM of control vs high-fat fed female L-FABP null mice. Taken together, these results indicate loss of L-FABP exacerbates weight gain and/or obesity in response to high dietary fat.

  6. Immunogenicity of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (Type 6/11/16/18) Vaccine in Males 16 to 26 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Palefsky, Joel M.; Goldstone, Stephen; Moreira, Edson D.; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Ferris, Daron G.; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J. Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M.; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth I. O.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can lead to significant disease in males, including anogenital warts, intraepithelial neoplasias, and several types of oral and anogenital cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (qHPV vaccine; Gardasil) has recently been demonstrated to prevent persistent infection and associated disease related to vaccine HPV types in males. We report the overall immunogenicity results from a trial of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in males. Overall, 3,463 heterosexual men and 602 men who had sex with men were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study. Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination at day 1 and at months 7, 24, and 36 postvaccination. Immunogenicity was evaluated with a multiplex, competitive Luminex immunoassay. Almost all subjects (97.4 to 99.2%) seroconverted for vaccine HPV types by month 7. At month 36, 88.9%, 94.0%, 97.9%, and 57.0% of subjects were still seropositive for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, respectively. For all vaccine HPV types, black subjects had significantly higher antibody titers at month 7 than did both Caucasian and Asian subjects. An anamnestic antibody response was seen in men seropositive before vaccination. The vaccine was highly immunogenic in males 16 to 23 years of age; responses were comparable to those observed in women. Furthermore, the immune responses were consistent with the established efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of incident and persistent HPV infection, anogenital warts, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:22155768

  7. Insulin response dysregulation explains abnormal fat storage and increased risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Cohen Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Limoge, Floriane; Faivre, Laurence; Gautier, Thomas; Petit, Jean-Michel; Gautier, Elodie; Masson, David; Jego, Gaëtan; El Chehadeh-Djebbar, Salima; Marle, Nathalie; Carmignac, Virginie; Deckert, Valérie; Brindisi, Marie-Claude; Edery, Patrick; Ghoumid, Jamal; Blair, Edward; Lagrost, Laurent; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Duplomb, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    Cohen Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, with defective glycosylation secondary to mutations in the VPS13B gene, which encodes a protein of the Golgi apparatus. Besides congenital neutropenia, retinopathy and intellectual deficiency, CS patients are faced with truncal obesity. Metabolism investigations showed abnormal glucose tolerance tests and low HDL values in some patients, and these could be risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular complications. To understand the mechanisms involved in CS fat storage, we used two models of adipogenesis differentiation: (i) SGBS pre-adipocytes with VPS13B invalidation thanks to siRNA delivery and (ii) CS primary fibroblasts. In both models, VPS13B invalidation led to accelerated differentiation into fat cells, which was confirmed by the earlier and increased expression of specific adipogenic genes, consequent to the increased response of cells to insulin stimulation. At the end of the differentiation protocol, these fat cells exhibited decreased AKT2 phosphorylation after insulin stimulation, which suggests insulin resistance. This study, in association with the in-depth analysis of the metabolic status of the patients, thus allowed us to recommend appropriate nutritional education to prevent the occurrence of diabetes mellitus and to put forward recommendations for the follow-up of CS patients, in particular with regard to the development of metabolic syndrome. We also suggest replacing the term obesity by abnormal fat distribution in CS, which should reduce the number of inappropriate diagnoses in patients who are referred only on the basis of intellectual deficiency associated with obesity.

  8. The Relationship Between Brown Adipose Tissue Content in Supraclavicular Fat Depots and Insulin Sensitivity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ustyuzhanin, Dmitry; Philippov, Yury; Mayorov, Alexander; Shestakova, Marina; Shariya, Merab; Ternovoy, Sergey; Dedov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The evaluation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and its role in metabolism and obesity remains an important topic in the recent literature. This study evaluated the influence of the BAT triglyceride content measured by proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and prediabetes on insulin sensitivity. Methods: A total of 25 patients with DM2 and prediabetes (45.9 ± 10.1 years old, body mass index [BMI] of 31.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2) underwent anthropometric measurements (BMI), insulin sensitivity analysis (M value during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), proton MR spectroscopy, and blood tests (total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides). The relationship between the triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot and insulin sensitivity, anthropometric measurements, and blood test results was assessed. Results: The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot varied between 79.2% and 97.1% (mean: 92.6% ± 4.2%). The triglyceride content in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of the neck was significantly higher (85.3%–99.3%; mean: 95.5% ± 2.9%; P = 0.0007). The triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot exhibited a significantly moderate correlation with the BMI (r = 0.64; P = 0.0009). A significant weak negative correlation between the supraclavicular fat content and M value was revealed (r = −0.44; P = 0.002). Patients with high insulin resistance (IR) had a higher triglyceride content in the supraclavicular fat depot than patients with normal and lower IR (94.3% ± 2.0% vs. 90.4% ± 5.2%; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Reducing the BAT content in the supraclavicular fat depot can influence the development of IR in patients with DM2 and prediabetes. PMID:28118051

  9. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise--a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Mads; Auerbach, Pernille; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Sjödin, Anders

    2012-09-15

    The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g., lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate-exercise (MOD; 300 kcal/day), and 22 to a high-exercise (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) group for 13 wk, corresponding to ∼30 and 60 min of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6 kg, P < 0.001; HIGH: -2.7 kg, P = 0.01) and fat mass (MOD: -4.0 kg, P < 0.001 and HIGH: -3.8 kg, P < 0.001) decreased similarly in both exercise groups. Although the exercise-induced energy expenditure in HIGH was twice that of MOD, the resulting accumulated energy balance, calculated from changes in body composition, was not different (MOD: -39.6 Mcal, HIGH: -34.3 Mcal, not significant). Energy balance was 83% more negative than expected in MOD, while it was 20% less negative than expected in HIGH. No statistically significant changes were found in energy intake or nonexercise physical activity that could explain the different compensatory responses associated with 30 vs. 60 min of daily aerobic exercise. In conclusion, a similar body fat loss was obtained regardless of exercise dose. A moderate dose of exercise induced a markedly greater than expected negative energy balance, while a higher dose induced a small but quantifiable degree of compensation.

  10. Genetic Evidence That Nonhomologous Disjunction and Meiotic Drive Are Properties of Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, Manuela; Belloni, Massimo; Robbins, Leonard G.

    2006-01-01

    We have followed sex and second chromosome disjunction, and the effects of these chromosomes on sperm function, in four genotypes: wild-type males, males deficient for the Y-linked crystal locus, males with an X chromosome heterochromatic deficiency that deletes all X–Y pairing sites, and males with both deficiencies. Both mutant situations provoke chromosome misbehavior, but the disjunctional defects are quite different. Deficiency of the X heterochromatin, consonant with the lack of pairing sites, mostly disrupts X–Y disjunction with a decidedly second-level effect on major autosome behavior. Deleting crystal, consonant with the cytological picture of postpairing chromatin-condensation problems, disrupts sex and autosome disjunction equally. Even when the mutant-induced nondisjunction has very different mechanics, however, and even more importantly, even in the wild type, there is strong, and similar, meiotic drive. The presence of meiotic drive when disjunction is disrupted by distinctly different mechanisms supports the notion that drive is a normal cellular response to meiotic problems rather than a direct effect of particular mutants. Most surprisingly, in both wild-type and crystal-deficient males the Y chromosome moves to the opposite pole from a pair of nondisjoined second chromosomes nearly 100% of the time. This nonhomologous interaction is, however, absent when the X heterochromatin is deleted. The nonhomologous disjunction of the sex and second chromosomes may be the genetic consequence of the chromosomal compartmentalization seen by deconvolution microscopy, and the absence of Y–2 disjunction when the X heterochromatin is deleted suggests that XY pairing itself, or a previously unrecognized heterochromatic function, is prerequisite to this macrostructural organization of the chromosomes. PMID:16219792

  11. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors still improve metabolic phenotype in male 11β-HSD1 knockout mice suggesting off-target mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G; Goldberg, Fred W; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J; Turnbull, Andrew V; Leighton, Brendan; White, Anne

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme inhibition but, in addition, reduced body weight (17%), food intake (28%), and glucose (22%). We hypothesized that at the higher doses compound C might be accessing the brain. However, when we developed male brain-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout mice and fed them the HFD, they had body weight and fat pad mass and glucose and insulin responses similar to those of HFD-fed Nestin-Cre controls. We then found that administration of compound C to male global 11β-HSD1 knockout mice elicited improvements in metabolic parameters, suggesting "off-target" mechanisms. Based on the patent literature, we synthesized another 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (MK-0916) from a different chemical series and showed that it too had similar off-target body weight and food intake effects at high doses. In summary, a significant component of the beneficial metabolic effects of these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors occurs via 11β-HSD1-independent pathways, and only limited efficacy is achievable from selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition. These data challenge the concept that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is likely to produce a "step-change" treatment for diabetes and/or obesity.

  12. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) Inhibitors Still Improve Metabolic Phenotype in Male 11β-HSD1 Knockout Mice Suggesting Off-Target Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G.; Goldberg, Fred W.; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J.; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Leighton, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)–fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme inhibition but, in addition, reduced body weight (17%), food intake (28%), and glucose (22%). We hypothesized that at the higher doses compound C might be accessing the brain. However, when we developed male brain-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout mice and fed them the HFD, they had body weight and fat pad mass and glucose and insulin responses similar to those of HFD-fed Nestin-Cre controls. We then found that administration of compound C to male global 11β-HSD1 knockout mice elicited improvements in metabolic parameters, suggesting “off-target” mechanisms. Based on the patent literature, we synthesized another 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (MK-0916) from a different chemical series and showed that it too had similar off-target body weight and food intake effects at high doses. In summary, a significant component of the beneficial metabolic effects of these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors occurs via 11β-HSD1–independent pathways, and only limited efficacy is achievable from selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition. These data challenge the concept that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is likely to produce a “step-change” treatment for diabetes and/or obesity. PMID:24169553

  13. Body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet slows the progression of diabetic kidney damage in an obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Ohtomo, Shuichi; Izuhara, Yuko; Nangaku, Masaomi; Dan, Takashi; Ito, Sadayoshi; van Ypersele de Strihou, Charles; Miyata, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of several factors implicated in the genesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Obese, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic rats SHR/NDmcr-cp were given, for 12 weeks, either a normal, middle-carbohydrate/middle-fat diet (MC/MF group) or a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (HC/LF group). Daily caloric intake was the same in both groups. Nevertheless, the HC/LF group gained less weight. Despite equivalent degrees of hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and even a poorer glycemic control, the HC/LF group had less severe renal histological abnormalities and a reduced intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress. Mediators of the renoprotection, specifically linked to obesity and body weight control, include a reduced renal inflammation and TGF-beta expression, together with an enhanced level of adiponectin. Altogether, these data identify a specific role of body weight control by a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet in the progression of DN. Body weight control thus impacts on local intrarenal advanced glycation and oxidative stress through inflammation and adiponectin levels.

  14. A gestational diet high in fat-soluble vitamins alters expression of genes in brain pathways and reduces sucrose preference, but not food intake, in Wistar male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Diana; Poon, Abraham N; Kubant, Ruslan; Kim, Hwanki; Huot, Pedro S P; Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Pausova, Zdenka; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of multivitamins (HV) during pregnancy by Wistar rats increase food intake, body weight, and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in male offspring. In this study, high-fat soluble vitamins were fed in combination during gestation to test the hypothesis that they partially account for the effects of the HV diet. Pregnant Wistar rats (14-16/group) were fed a recommended multivitamin diet (1-fold all vitamins) or high-fat soluble vitamin diet (HFS; 10-fold vitamins A, D, E, and K) during pregnancy. Offspring body weight, food intake, and preference as well as expression of selected genes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were evaluated at birth, weaning, and 14 weeks postweaning. Body weight and food intake were not affected but sucrose preference decreased by 4% in those born to dams fed the HFS gestational diet. Gene expressions of the hypothalamic anorexogenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) and orexogenic neuropeptide Y (Npy) (∼30% p = 0.008, ∼40% p = 0.007) were increased in weaning and adult rats, respectively. Hippocampal dopaminergic genes (35%-50% p < 0.05) were upregulated at birth and 14 weeks postweaning. DNA hypermethylation (2% p = 0.006) was observed in the dopamine receptor 1 (Drd1) promoter region. We conclude that a gestational diet high in vitamins A, D, E, and K does not show the effects of the HV diet on body weight or food intake but may affect the development of higher hedonic regulatory pathways associated with food preference.

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    MedlinePlus

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid; PUFA; Cholesterol - polyunsaturated fat; Atherosclerosis - polyunsaturated fat; Hardening of the arteries - polyunsaturated fat; Hyperlipidemia - polyunsaturated fat; Hypercholesterolemia - polyunsaturated ...

  16. Prolonged high fat diet ingestion, obesity, and type 2 diabetes symptoms correlate with phenotypic plasticity in myenteric neurons and nerve damage in the mouse duodenum.

    PubMed

    Stenkamp-Strahm, Chloe M; Nyavor, Yvonne E A; Kappmeyer, Adam J; Horton, Sarah; Gericke, Martin; Balemba, Onesmo B

    2015-08-01

    Symptoms of diabetic gastrointestinal dysmotility indicate neuropathy of the enteric nervous system. Long-standing diabetic enteric neuropathy has not been fully characterized, however. We used prolonged high fat diet ingestion (20 weeks) in a mouse model to mimic human obese and type 2 diabetic conditions, and analyzed changes seen in neurons of the duodenal myenteric plexus. Ganglionic and neuronal size, number of neurons per ganglionic area, density indices of neuronal phenotypes (immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and varicosities per ganglion or tissue area) and nerve injury were measured. Findings were compared with results previously seen in mice fed the same diet for 8 weeks. Compared to mice fed standard chow, those on a prolonged high fat diet had smaller ganglionic and cell soma areas. Myenteric VIP- and ChAT-immunoreactive density indices were also reduced. Myenteric nerve fibers were markedly swollen and cytoskeletal protein networks were disrupted. The number of nNOS nerve cell bodies per ganglia was increased, contrary to the reduction previously seen after 8 weeks, but the density index of nNOS varicosities was reduced. Mice fed high fat and standard chow diets experienced an age-related reduction in total neurons, with bias towards neurons of sensory phenotype. Meanwhile, ageing was associated with an increase in excitatory neuronal markers. Collectively, these results support a notion that nerve damage underlies diabetic symptoms of dysmotility, and reveals adaptive ENS responses to the prolonged ingestion of a high fat diet. This highlights a need to mechanistically study long-term diet-induced nerve damage and age-related impacts on the ENS.

  17. Dietary Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... PHOs to food. Try to replace them with oils such as canola, olive, safflower, sesame, or sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds. Fat has twice as many calories as proteins or carbohydrates. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  18. The Effects of High-fat-diet Combined with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress on Depression-like Behavior and Leptin/LepRb in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin Ling; Liu, De Xiang; Jiang, Hong; Pan, Fang; Ho, Cyrus SH; Ho, Roger CM

    2016-01-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and depression via the long form of leptin receptor (LepRb). An animal model of comorbid obesity and depression induced by high-fat diet (HFD) combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was developed to study the relationship between depression/anxiety-like behavior, levels of plasma leptin and LepRb in the brains between four groups of rats, the combined obesity and CUMS (Co) group, the obese (Ob) group, the CUMS group and controls. Our results revealed that the Co group exhibited most severe depression-like behavior in the open field test (OFT), anxiety-like behavior in elevated plus maze test (EMT) and cognitive impairment in the Morris water maze (MWM). The Ob group had the highest weight and plasma leptin levels while the Co group had the lowest levels of protein of LepRb in the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, depressive and anxiety-like behaviors as well as cognitive impairment were positively correlated with levels of LepRb protein and mRNA in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The down-regulation of leptin/LepRb signaling might be associated with depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment in obese rats facing chronic mild stress. PMID:27739518

  19. Effect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Britten, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Calcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.

  20. Body mass index trajectory patterns and changes in visceral fat and glucose metabolism before the onset of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    We investigated BMI trajectory patterns before diabetes diagnosis and examined associated changes in visceral adiposity and glucose metabolism. 23,978 non-diabetic Japanese participants (2,789 women) aged 30–64 years were assessed with a mean follow-up of 7.6 years. Diabetes was diagnosed via fasting glucose, HbA1c, and self-report. Latent-class trajectory analyses were performed to identify BMI trajectories. Longitudinal changes in BMI, visceral adiposity, and glucose metabolism were estimated using mixed models. 1,892 individuals developed diabetes. Three distinct BMI trajectories were identified in adults developing and not developing diabetes, respectively. Among adults developing diabetes, 47.3% were classified as “medium BMI” (n = 895), and had increased mean BMI within the obesity category before diagnosis. The “low BMI” group (38.4%, n = 726) had an initial mean BMI of 21.9 kg/m2, and demonstrated small weight gain. The “high BMI” group (n = 271) were severely obese and showed greater increase in BMI until diagnosis. All groups which developed diabetes showed absolute and/or relative increase in visceral fat and impaired β-cell compensation for insulin resistance. All groups not developing diabetes showed measured variables were relatively stable during observation. These data suggest that visceral fat gain may induce β-cell failure in compensation for insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes regardless of obesity level. PMID:28266592

  1. Multiple Pigment Cell Types Contribute to the Black, Blue, and Orange Ornaments of Male Guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Kottler, Verena A.; Koch, Iris; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Weigel, Detlef; Dreyer, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) highly depends on the size and number of their black, blue, and orange ornaments. Recently, progress has been made regarding the genetic mechanisms underlying male guppy pigment pattern formation, but we still know little about the pigment cell organization within these ornaments. Here, we investigate the pigment cell distribution within the black, blue, and orange trunk spots and selected fin color patterns of guppy males from three genetically divergent strains using transmission electron microscopy. We identified three types of pigment cells and found that at least two of these contribute to each color trait. Further, two pigment cell layers, one in the dermis and the other in the hypodermis, contribute to each trunk spot. The pigment cell organization within the black and orange trunk spots was similar between strains. The presence of iridophores in each of the investigated color traits is consistent with a key role for this pigment cell type in guppy color pattern formation. PMID:24465632

  2. [Male participation in types of physical activities of a program for the elderly: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo Adão de; Streit, Inês Amanda; Sandreschi, Paula Fabricio; Fortunato, Artur Rodrigues; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to describe male participation on a physical activity program for the elderly in the south of Brazil over a ten-year period (2003-2013). The data of the study were extracted from a database and assessed using descriptive and inferential statistics and assessment of the thematic content. The first phase of the study was longitudinal (from 2003 to 2013) with 163 elderly participants, while the second phase was cross-sectional for the year of 2013 with 45 elderly individuals. Male participation was, on average, 3.5 times lower than female participation for all years assessed, and the activity most practiced was swimming. In the year 2013, the average age of the elderly men was 68 ± 7.8 years. Most of them are married, have tertiary education, good acquisitive power, positive self perception of health, one or more diagnosed diseases, and do not participate in any other physical activity outside the program. According to the elderly, the reasons for participating most cited was the search for quality of life and health and, for continuing to exercise, acquiring the taste for the physical activity. Understanding the profile of these individuals and of the reasons that motivate them are important tools to comprehend the issue and help to define public politics directed at this population group.

  3. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  4. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine efficacy against disease related to vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types in males.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Jessen, Heiko; Palefsky, Joel M; Giuliano, Anna R; Moreira, Edson D; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Hillman, Richard J; Ferris, Daron G; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth

    2013-08-20

    A small number of HPV types are related to a majority of HPV-related neoplastic lesions in humans. High-risk types such as HPV 16 and 18 are most often implicated, although other oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types can cause disease in men. The efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against external genital lesions and intra-anal disease related to HPV in men has been demonstrated. This report examines the vaccine's efficacy against disease due to 10 additional non-vaccine HPV types, as well as efficacy regardless of HPV detection. The data presented suggest that vaccinating males against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 protects them against most vaccine HPV-type related anogenital disease. However, significant efficacy against disease due to non-vaccine HPV types was not seen. In addition, the data do not provide any evidence that vaccination with qHPV vaccine will increase the likelihood of disease caused by non-vaccine types in the short term.

  5. Sexual orientation of female-to-male transsexuals: a comparison of homosexual and nonhomosexual types.

    PubMed

    Chivers, M L; Bailey, J M

    2000-06-01

    Homosexual and nonhomosexual (relative to genetic sex) female-to-male transsexuals (FTMs) were compared on a number of theoretically or empirically derived variables. Compared to nonhomosexual FTMs, homosexual FTMs reported greater childhood gender nonconformity, preferred more feminine partners, experienced greater sexual rather than emotional jealousy, were more sexually assertive, had more sexual partners, had a greater desire for phalloplasty, and had more interest in visual sexual stimuli. Homosexual and nonhomosexual FTMs did not differ in their overall desire for masculinizing body modifications, adult gender identity, or importance of partner social status, attractiveness, or youth. These findings indicate that FTMs are not a homogeneous group and vary in ways that may be useful in understanding the relation between sexual orientation and gender identity.

  6. Male abuser: type of violence and perception of the relationship with the victim.

    PubMed

    Boira, Santiago; Marcuello, Chaime

    2013-02-01

    This article explores violent behavior within a relationship from the male abuser's perspective. A systemic approach was used, combining qualitative and quantitative information in two parallel studies. The first (Study 1) is a descriptive analysis of a group of men (N = 220) who participated in a program to address violence within the couple. In the second (Study 2), a subgroup of 8 participants was interviewed in-depth for describing and analyzing their perceptions of violence. The data analysis suggest that relationship violence (a) begins in the early stages of the relationship, (b) is long-term, (c) rarely includes serious physical aggression, (d) is dominated by a growing hostility and isolation, (e) is characterized by a lack of awareness and responsibility for the violent behavior, and (f) includes intentional and strategic use of violent behavior.

  7. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  8. The Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, and Meat Quality of Egg-Type Male Growing Chicken and White-Mini Broiler in Comparison with Commercial Broiler (Ross 308)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Eun-Jib; Kim, Hee-Sung

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of the egg-type male growing chicken (EM), white-mini broiler (WB), and commercial broiler (Ross 308, CB). A total of 360 1-d-old chicks were reared together using a completely randomized design with 4 replicates for each group under the identical feeding and rearing conditions. The ADG and gain:feed were the highest in CB, intermediate in WB, and the lowest in EM (p<0.05), and the live and carcass weights of CB and EM were significantly higher than those of WB (p<0.05). The pH of breast meat from WB and CB was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that from EM with a similar body weight. The EM had the lowest moisture (p<0.05) and the highest protein content (p<0.05), whereas the fat and ash contents were not different among groups. The mystiric acid (C14:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 ω7), and oleic acid (C18:1 ω9) levels were significantly higher in breast meat from CB (p<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content showed the highest (p<0.05) levels in CB. In contrast, the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents of breast meat, including linoleic acid (C18:2 ω6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4 ω6), were higher (p<0.05) in EM and WB than in CB. In conclusion, the EM and WB had less growth performances in comparison with CB, but they each had some unique features (taste, flavor, and physiological characteristics) when raised under the identical rearing and feeding conditions. PMID:26761496

  9. Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independently of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert A; Fall, Tove; Pasko, Dorota; Barker, Adam; Sharp, Stephen J; Arriola, Larraitz; Balkau, Beverley; Barricarte, Aurelio; Barroso, Inês; Boeing, Heiner; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Fagherazzi, Guy; Ferrannini, Ele; Forouhi, Nita G; Franks, Paul W; Gavrila, Diana; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Kühn, Tilman; Lotta, Luca A; Nilsson, Peter M; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Roswall, Nina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sala, Núria; Sánchez, María-José; Schulze, Matthias B; Siddiq, Afshan; Slimani, Nadia; Sluijs, Ivonne; Spijkerman, Annemieke MW; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; McCarthy, Mark I; Semple, Robert K; Riboli, Elio; Walker, Mark; Ingelsson, Erik; Frayling, Tim M; Savage, David B

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to validate genetic variants as instruments for insulin resistance and secretion, to characterise their association with intermediate phenotypes, and to investigate their role in T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals.We investigated the association of genetic scores with euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp- and OGTT-based measures of insulin resistance and secretion, and a range of metabolic measures in up to 18,565 individuals. We also studied their association with T2D risk among normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals in up to 8,124 incident T2D cases. The insulin resistance score was associated with lower insulin sensitivity measured by M/I value (β in SDs-per-allele [95%CI]:−0.03[−0.04,−0.01];p=0.004). This score was associated with lower BMI (−0.01[−0.01,−0.0;p=0.02) and gluteofemoral fat-mass (−0.03[−0.05,−0.02;p=1.4×10−6), and with higher ALT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.002) and gamma-GT (0.02[0.01,0.03];p=0.001). While the secretion score had a stronger association with T2D in leaner individuals (pinteraction=0.001), we saw no difference in the association of the insulin resistance score with T2D among BMI- or waist-strata(pinteraction>0.31). While insulin resistance is often considered secondary to obesity, the association of the insulin resistance score with lower BMI and adiposity and with incident T2D even among individuals of normal weight highlights the role of insulin resistance and ectopic fat distribution in T2D, independently of body size. PMID:24947364

  10. Inactivation of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific coliphage (MS2) in biosolids by lime stabilization.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jacqueline J; Warden, Paul S; Margolin, Aaron B

    2007-03-01

    The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 +/- 5 degrees C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively) following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 +/- 5 degrees C and 4 +/- 2 degrees C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  11. A Comparison of the Status, Legal, Economic, and Psychological Characteristics of Types of Adult Male Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A; Dinur Klein, L; Dannon, P N

    2015-09-01

    Gambling behavior is not a unique behavior. There are certain differences in behavior, gambling habits, gambling beliefs, and their reflection in psychosocial life. We have compared three groups of adult male gamblers—sports gamblers (n = 41), machine gamblers (n = 36), and poker gamblers (n = 35)—in regard to measures of personal status and legal-social characteristics. We found no difference between groups in terms of the length of gambling behavior, personal status, or age. We found no legal difference between groups in terms of the number of court cases for debt, stealing, or family court cases. In terms of economic circumstances, sports gamblers suffered more losses than the other groups (p < 0.0001). There were higher rates of bankruptcy among sports gamblers compared with machine gamblers (p < 0.01). Sports gamblers were more likely to borrow money from the black market compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). In terms of mental health, sports and machine gamblers had more suicidal thoughts and gestures than poker gamblers (p < 0.05), whereas the rate of suicide attempts was higher in machine gamblers compared with poker players (p < 0.05). Our results indicated higher vulnerability in sports gamblers in terms of economic problems compared with the other groups, whereas machine gamblers had vulnerability to suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts compared with poker gamblers.

  12. Acute Cocoa Supplementation Increases Postprandial HDL Cholesterol and Insulin in Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes after Consumption of a High-Fat Breakfast123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Leyva, Misti J; Fu, Dongxu; Aston, Christopher E; Lyons, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary cocoa is an important source of flavonoids and is associated with favorable cardiovascular disease effects, such as improvements in vascular function and lipid profiles, in nondiabetic adults. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with adverse effects on postprandial serum glucose, lipids, inflammation, and vascular function. Objective: We examined the hypothesis that cocoa reduces metabolic stress in obese T2D adults after a high-fat fast-food–style meal. Methods: Adults with T2D [n = 18; age (mean ± SE): 56 ± 3 y; BMI (in kg/m2): 35.3 ± 2.0; 14 women; 4 men] were randomly assigned to receive cocoa beverage (960 mg total polyphenols; 480 mg flavanols) or flavanol-free placebo (110 mg total polyphenols; <0.1 mg flavanols) with a high-fat fast-food–style breakfast [766 kcal, 50 g fat (59% energy)] in a crossover trial. After an overnight fast (10–12 h), participants consumed the breakfast with cocoa or placebo, and blood sample collection [glucose, insulin, lipids, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and vascular measurements were conducted at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially on each study day. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment. Results: Over the 6-h study, and specifically at 1 and 4 h, cocoa increased HDL cholesterol vs. placebo (overall Δ: 1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P ≤ 0.01) but had no effect on total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and hsCRP. Cocoa increased serum insulin concentrations overall (Δ: 5.2 ± 3.2 mU/L; P < 0.05) and specifically at 4 h but had no overall effects on insulin resistance (except at 4 h, P < 0.05), systolic or diastolic blood pressure, or small artery elasticity. However, large artery elasticity was overall lower after cocoa vs. placebo (Δ: −1.6 ± 0.7 mL/mm Hg; P < 0.05), with the difference significant only at 2 h. Conclusion: Acute cocoa supplementation showed no clear overall benefit in T2D patients after a high-fat fast-food–style meal challenge

  13. Fats and oils: An overview

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fat is a macronutrient that has historically engendered considerable controversy and continues to do so. Contentious areas include optimal amount and type for cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and role in body weight regulation. Dietary fats and oils are unique in modern times in that ...

  14. Inulin-type fructans with prebiotic properties counteract GPR43 overexpression and PPARγ-related adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Dewulf, Evelyne M; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Possemiers, Sam; Van Holle, Ann; Muccioli, Giulio G; Deldicque, Louise; Bindels, Laure B; Pachikian, Barbara D; Sohet, Florence M; Mignolet, Eric; Francaux, Marc; Larondelle, Yvan; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2011-08-01

    Inulin-type fructans (ITF) are nondigestible/fermentable carbohydrates which are able - through the modification of the gut microbiota - to counteract high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity, endotoxemia and related-metabolic alterations. However, their influence on adipose tissue metabolism has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of ITF supplementation on adipose tissue metabolism, by focusing on a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR), GPR43, as a potential link between gut fermentation processes and white adipose tissue development. Male C57bl6/J mice were fed a standard diet or an HF diet without or with ITF (0.2 g/day per mouse) during 4 weeks. The HF diet induced an accumulation of large adipocytes, promoted peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)-activated differentiation factors and led to a huge increase in GPR43 expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. All those effects were blunted by ITF treatment, which modulated the gut microbiota in favor of bifidobacteria at the expense of Roseburia spp. and of Clostridium cluster XIVa. The dietary modulation of GPR43 expression seems independent of endotoxemia, in view of data obtained in vivo (acute and chronic lipopolysaccharides treatment). In conclusion, ITF, which promote gut fermentation, paradoxically counteract GPR43 overexpression induced in the adipose tissue by an HF diet, a phenomenon that correlates with a beneficial effect on adiposity and with potential decrease in PPARγ-activated processes.

  15. The Effect of Long-Term Intranasal Serotonin Treatment on Metabolic Parameters and Hormonal Signaling in Rats with High-Fat Diet/Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Derkach, Kira V.; Bondareva, Vera M.; Chistyakova, Oxana V.; Berstein, Lev M.; Shpakov, Alexander O.

    2015-01-01

    In the last years the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) was carried out using regulators of the brain signaling systems. In DM2 the level of the brain serotonin is reduced. So far, the effect of the increase of the brain serotonin level on DM2-induced metabolic and hormonal abnormalities has been studied scarcely. The present work was undertaken with the aim of filling this gap. DM2 was induced in male rats by 150-day high-fat diet and the treatment with low dose of streptozotocin (25 mg/kg) on the 70th day of experiment. From the 90th day, diabetic rats received for two months intranasal serotonin (IS) at a daily dose of 20 μg/rat. The IS treatment of diabetic rats decreased the body weight, and improved glucose tolerance, insulin-induced glucose utilization, and lipid metabolism. Besides, it restored hormonal regulation of adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in the hypothalamus and normalized AC stimulation by β-adrenergic agonists in the myocardium. In nondiabetic rats the same treatment induced metabolic and hormonal alterations, some of which were similar to those in DM2 but expressed to a lesser extent. In conclusion, the elevation of the brain serotonin level may be regarded as an effective approach to treat DM2 and its complications. PMID:26124826

  16. Effects of alcohol, expectancies, and partner type on condom use in college males: event-level analyses.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph; Earleywine, Mitch; Schiffman, Jason; Pedersen, Eric; Marriot, Charles

    2005-08-01

    Sexually active heterosexual college males (N = 93) provided data on over 1,500 sexual encounters. Alcohol consumption, expectancies about alcohol's impact on condom use, and partner type each contributed to use of a condom. Partner type covaried with alcohol consumption and condom use. The men consumed significantly more alcohol with new partners, followed by casual partners, and then by regular partners. In contrast, they were more likely to use condoms with new partners than with casual or regular partners. Drinking alcohol decreased condom use, but only with casual partners. Expectancies about alcohol's disinhibiting sexual effects decreased condom use as well. These data suggest that alcohol consumption does decrease condom use, particularly with casual partners and when drinkers believe alcohol alters sexual disinhibition. Improving knowledge about HIV and other STD transmission in casual partners and challenging expectancies about alcohol as a sexual disinhibitor could help decrease the spread of HIV and other STDs.

  17. Physical interaction is not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering of conditioned hyperthermia in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Kodama, Yuka; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    In social animals, housing with conspecific animals after a stressful event attenuates the subsequent adverse outcomes due to the event, and this has been called housing-type social buffering. We have previously found that housing-type social buffering attenuates the enhancement of hyperthermia and Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus that occurs in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus in male rats. Here, we analyzed the role of physical interactions during social housing in the induction of housing-type social buffering. When a fear-conditioned subject was alone after the conditioning and then exposed to the conditioned stimulus, it showed behavioral, autonomic, and neural stress responses. However, social housing, during which physical interactions were prevented by wire mesh, attenuated these autonomic and neural stress responses, as has been seen in previous studies. These results suggested that physical interaction was not necessary for the induction of housing-type social buffering. With this social cohabitation model, we then found that social cohabitation increased Fos expression in the posterior complex of the anterior olfactory nucleus of the fear-conditioned subject. Social cohabitation also increased Fos expression in 11 brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the medial, lateral, basal, and cortical amygdala. These results provide information about the neural mechanisms that induce housing-type social buffering.

  18. The stability of water- and fat-soluble vitamin in dentifrices according to pH level and storage type.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Eun; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Yong-Duk; Kwon, Ha-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vitamin stabilities in dentifrices by analyzing various vitamins according to the level and storage temperature. The stabilities of water- and fat-soluble vitamins were investigated in buffer solution at different pH values (4, 7, 8, 10 and 11) for 14 days and in dentifrices at different pH (7 and 10) for 5 months at two temperature conditions (room and refrigeration temperature) by analyzing the remaining amounts using HPLC methods. In the buffer solution, the stability of vitamins B1 , B6 and C was increased as the pH values increased. Vitamins E and K showed poor stability at pH 4, and vitamin B3 showed poor stability at pH 11. In dentifrices, the storage temperature highly influenced vitamin stability, especially vitamins C and E, but the stabilities of vitamins B1 and C according to pH values did not correspond to the buffer solution tests. Vitamin B group was relatively stable in dentifrices, but vitamin C completely disappeared after 5 months. Vitamin K showed the least initial preservation rates. Vitamins were not detected in commercial dentifrices for adults and detected amounts were less than the advertised contents in dentifrices for children.

  19. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Samir; Mujeeb, Abdul; Hussain, Seema Abid; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper investigates the relationship betweendifferent types of impactions with postoperativeinflammatory tissue reaction. Materials & Methods: Consecutive patients with only mandibular third molar impactions were included in our study. They were classified by winter’s classification. The disimpactions were performed under local anaesthesia. Time for surgery was noted for each surgical procedure. Postoperative inflammatory complication in terms of pain, swelling and trismus were noted. Results: 150 male patients in the age groupof 18-40 years were studied. Inflammatory tissue reactions were increasing with more operative time. Distoangular and Horizontal impactions were associated with more pain on first 3 days of surgery along with more swelling and trismus. Vertically impacted teeth were associated with least complications. Conclusion: Post operative morbidity was increasing along with moreoperating time and increase in the depth of mandibular third molar impaction. How to cite the article: Mansuri S, Mujeeb A, Hussain SA, Hussain MA. Mandibular third molar impactions in male adults: Relationship of Operative time and Types of impaction on inflammatory complications. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):9-15. PMID:24876696

  20. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Akt and protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) phosphorylation in different tissues of C57BL6, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) male mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Tajima, Kazuki; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    We have previously reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) suppresses the activity and mRNA expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and hepatic glucose production in db/db mice. Tyrosine phosphorylation levels of Insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1 and IRS2 reportedly differ between the liver and muscle tissue and the effect of DHEA on insulin signaling has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined DHEA's effect on the liver and muscle tissue of IRS1(-/-) and IRS2(-/-) mice. Eight-week-old male C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD containing 0.2% DHEA for 4 weeks. In a separate experiment, 8-week-old male C57BL6 mice were fed an HFD or an HFD containing 0.2% androstenedione for 4 weeks. In an insulin tolerance test, DHEA administration decreased the initial plasma glucose levels in the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice but did not decrease the ratios to the basal blood glucose level. Although DHEA administration increased Akt phosphorylation in the liver of the C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), and IRS2(-/-) mice, androstenedione administration did not increase Akt phosphorylation in the liver of C57BL6 mice. DHEA administration did not increase Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6, IRS1(-/-), or IRS2(-/-) mice. However, androstenedione administration increased Akt and PKCζ phosphorylation in the muscle tissue of C57BL6 mice. These findings suggest that the effect of DHEA on insulin action in the liver is self-mediated by DHEA or DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) in the presence of IRS1, IRS2, or both.

  1. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle. PMID:28212343

  2. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-16

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  3. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Alice; Matthan, Nirupa R; Spartano, Nicole L; Butkowski, Ann E; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2013-12-01

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat type on aortic cholesterol accumulation, lipoprotein profiles, hepatic lipids and selected genes. F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (20/group) were fed (12 weeks) semi-purified or non-purified diets containing either 10 % (w/w) coconut oil or safflower oil and 0.15 % (w/w) cholesterol. The non-purified diets relative to semi-purified diets resulted in significantly higher TC (72 % [percent difference] and 38 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) and nHDL-C (84 and 61 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively), and lower HDL-C (-47 and -45 %, coconut oil and safflower oil, respectively) concentrations. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in the hamsters fed the non-purified coconut oil-supplemented diets were three- to fourfold higher than non-purified safflower oil-supplemented, and both semi-purified diets. With the exception of HDL-C, a significant effect of fat type was observed in TC, nHDL-C and triacylglycerol (all P < 0.05) concentrations. Regardless of diet induced differences in lipoprotein profiles, there was no significant effect on aortic cholesterol accumulation. There was an inverse relationship between plasma nHDL-C and triacylglycerol, and hepatic cholesteryl ester content (P < 0.001). Diet induced differences in hepatic gene transcription (LDL receptor, apoB-100, microsomal transfer protein) were not reflected in protein concentrations. Although hamsters fed non-purified and/or saturated fatty acid-supplemented diets had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles compared to hamsters fed semi-purified and/or polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented diets these differences were not reflected in aortic cholesterol accumulation.

  4. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Remely, Marlene; Ferk, Franziska; Sterneder, Sonja; Setayesh, Tahereh; Roth, Sylvia; Kepcija, Tatjana; Noorizadeh, Rahil; Rebhan, Irene; Greunz, Martina; Beckmann, Johanna; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements. PMID:28133504

  5. Hypothesis: kisspeptin mediates male hypogonadism in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    George, Jyothis T; Millar, Robert P; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Hypogonadism occurs commonly in men with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and severe obesity. Current evidence points to a decreased secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and thereby decreased secretion of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland as a central feature of the pathophysiology in these men. Hyperglycaemia, inflammation, leptin and oestrogen-related feedback have been proposed to make aetiological contributions to the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of T2DM. However, the neuroendocrine signals that link these factors with modulation of GnRH neurons have yet to be identified. Kisspeptins play a central role in the modulation of GnRH secretion and, thus, downstream regulation of gonadotropins and testosterone secretion in men. Inactivating mutations of the kisspeptin receptor have been shown to cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in man, whilst an activating mutation is associated with precocious puberty. Data from studies in experimental animals link kisspeptin expression with individual factors known to regulate GnRH secretion, including hyperglycaemia, inflammation, leptin and oestrogen. We therefore hypothesise that decreased endogenous kisspeptin secretion is the common central pathway that links metabolic and endocrine factors in the pathology of testosterone deficiency seen in men with obesity and T2DM. We propose that the kisspeptin system plays a central role in integrating a range of metabolic inputs, thus constituting the link between energy status with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and put forward potential clinical studies to test the hypothesis.

  6. Pharmacological and Genetic Manipulation of p53 in Brown Fat at Adult But Not Embryonic Stages Regulates Thermogenesis and Body Weight in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Massadi, Omar; Porteiro, Begoña; Kuhlow, Doreen; Köhler, Markus; Gonzalez-Rellan, María J; Garcia-Lavandeira, Montserrat; Díaz-Rodríguez, Esther; Quiñones, Mar; Senra, Ana; Alvarez, Clara V; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Schulz, Tim J; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    p53 is a well-known tumor suppressor that plays multiple biological roles, including the capacity to modulate metabolism at different levels. However, its metabolic role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) remains largely unknown. Herein we sought to investigate the physiological role of endogenous p53 in BAT and its implication on BAT thermogenic activity and energy balance. To this end, we generated and characterized global p53-null mice and mice lacking p53 specifically in BAT. Additionally we performed gain-and-loss-of-function experiments in the BAT of adult mice using virogenetic and pharmacological approaches. BAT was collected and analyzed by immunohistochemistry, thermography, real-time PCR, and Western blot. p53-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure and BAT activity. However, the deletion of p53 in BAT using a Myf5-Cre driven p53 knockout did not show any changes in body weight or the expression of thermogenic markers. The acute inhibition of p53 in the BAT of adult mice slightly increased body weight and inhibited BAT thermogenesis, whereas its overexpression in the BAT of diet-induced obese mice reduced body weight and increased thermogenesis. On the other hand, pharmacological activation of p53 improves body weight gain due to increased BAT thermogenesis by sympathetic nervous system in obese adult wild-type mice but not in p53(-/-) animals. These results reveal that p53 regulates BAT metabolism by coordinating body weight and thermogenesis, but these metabolic actions are tissue specific and also dependent on the developmental stage.

  7. Effect of type and level of dietary fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Grummer, R R

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tallow and choice white grease (CWG) fed at 0, 2, and 4% of the diet dry matter (DM) on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows when corn silage is the sole forage source. Fifteen midlactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 0% fat (control), 2% tallow, 2% CWG, 4% tallow, and 4% CWG (DM basis). The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets fed twice daily as total mixed rations. Cows fed supplemental fat had lower DM intake and produced less milk and milk fat than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 4% fat reduced milk production and milk fat yield relative to feeding 2% fat. Treatments had little effect on the concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids in milk fat. Total trans fatty acids were poorly related to changes in milk fat percentage. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by supplemental fat. The acetate:propionate ratio, NH3-N, and numbers of protozoa in the rumen were significantly decreased when fat was added to the diets. Source of dietary fat did not affect rumen parameters. There was no treatment effect on in situ corn silage DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance. Including fat in corn silage-based diets had negative effects on milk production and rumen fermentation regardless of the source or level of supplemental fat.

  8. Types of Adolescent Male Dating Violence Against Women, Self-Esteem, and Justification of Dominance and Aggression.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Aguado, Maria Jose; Martinez, Rosario

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of the seriousness of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the need to prevent it has led to the study of its inception in relationships established in adolescence. This study uses latent class analysis to establish a typology of male adolescents based on self-reports of violence against a girl in dating relationships. The participants were 4,147 boys in Spain aged 14 to 18 years from a probabilistic sample. Four discrete, identifiable groups were derived based on 12 indicators of emotional abuse, intimidation, coercion, threats, physical violence, and violence transmitted via communication technologies. The first group consists of non-violent adolescent boys. A second group comprises those boys who isolate and control their partners. Boys who exert only medium-level emotional abuse form the third group, whereas the fourth is formed by teenage boys who frequently engage in all types of violence. Compared with the non-violent adolescents in a multinomial logistic regression, the other groups show lower self-esteem and display a greater justification of male dominance and IPV against women; greater justification of aggression in conflict resolution; they have also received more dominance and violence messages from adults in their family environment; and they perceive IPV behaviors against women as abuse of lesser importance.

  9. Nature of motor imitation problems in school-aged males with autism: how congruent are the error types?

    PubMed

    Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Roeyers, Herbert; De Weerdt, Willy

    2007-01-01

    This case-comparison study explores the underlying mechanisms of imitation problems in school-aged males with autism. Analysis of congruent error types in their imitation performance was made and compared with appropriate comparisons. Fifty-five males (eight low-functioning with autism: mean age 6y 2mo [SD 7.6mo]; 13 low-functioning with learning disabilities: mean age 6y 3mo [SD 2.8mo]; 17 high-functioning with autism: mean age 8y 9mo [SD 11mo]; and 17 typically developing: mean age 8y 8mo [SD 11.6mo]) were assessed on 18 single gestures and six sequences of hand postures. Imitation performance was videotaped for blind scoring on 21 possible errors by two independent observers. Results revealed that in both groups with autism, imitation required far more effort (more attempts) than in the comparison groups and was less precise (more spatial errors). Typical for low-functioning participants with autism was their less mature imaginary grip in transitive gestures. Typical for high-functioning participants with autism was their preference for immature mirror-image imitations. These observations support the assumption that the underlying mechanisms in motor imitation problems are linked more to the action production system and less to the action conceptual system or to behavioural problems. We postulate that the action production system is delayed rather than deficient.

  10. Predicting the consumption of foods low in saturated fats among people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The role of planning in the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J; Troup, Carolyn; Rempel, Lynn A; Norman, Paul

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested the utility of an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour that included a measure of planning, in the prediction of eating foods low in saturated fats among adults diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Participants (N=184) completed questionnaires assessing standard theory of planned behaviour measures (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control) and the additional volitional variable of planning in relation to eating foods low in saturated fats. Self-report consumption of foods low insaturated fats was assessed 1 month later. In partial support of the theory of planned behaviour, results indicated that attitude and subjective norm predicted intentions to eat foods low in saturated fats and intentions and perceived behavioural control predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats. As an additional variable, planning predicted the consumption of foods low in saturated fats directly and also mediated the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships, suggesting an important role for planning as a post-intentional construct determining healthy eating choices. Suggestions are offered for interventions designed to improve adherence to healthy eating recommendations for people diagnosed with these chronic conditions with a specific emphasis on the steps and activities that are required to promote a healthier lifestyle.

  11. Hypoglycemic Activity through a Novel Combination of Fruiting Body and Mycelia of Cordyceps militaris in High-Fat Diet-Induced Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sung-Hsun; Chen, Szu-Yu Tina; Li, Wei-Shan; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Chen, Wei-Hong; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Leu, Sy-Jye; Deng, Win-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is currently ranked among leading causes of death worldwide in which type 2 DM is reaching an epidemic proportion. Hypoglycemic medications for type 2 DM have either proven inadequate or posed adverse effects; therefore, the Chinese herbal products are under investigation as an alternative treatment. In this study, a novel combination of fruiting body and mycelia powder of herbal Cordyceps militaris number 1 (CmNo1) was administered to evaluate their potential hypoglycemic effects in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced type 2 DM in C57BL/6J mice. Body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and blood biochemistry indexes were measured. Results indicated that CmNo1 lowered the blood glucose level by increasing insulin sensitivity, while no change in body weight was observed. Increased protein expression of IRS-1, pIRS-1, AKT, pAKT, and GLUT-4 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was found indicating restoration of insulin signaling. Additionally, PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue restored the triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Finally, our results suggest that CmNo1 possesses strong hypoglycemic, anticholesterolemic, and antihypertriglyceridemic actions and is more economical alternate for DM treatment. PMID:26258146

  12. The role of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the development of male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Saboor Aftab, S A; Kumar, S; Barber, T M

    2013-03-01

    Obesity, secondary (hypogonadotrophic) hypogonadism (SH), sleep disorders [such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA)] and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in men have complex interlinks both with respect to mutual aetiopathogenesis as well as therapeutics. Correction of the attendant hypogonadism in obese men may serve to break this link and have beneficial effects beyond restoration of normal sexual function. Male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) should be regarded as a distinct clinical entity and subtype of SH. A high index of suspicion for the presence of MOSH must be maintained by clinicians when assessing obese men. The pathogenesis of MOSH remains incompletely understood. Furthermore, the optimal management of MOSH and its associated sequelae will require long-term prospective studies that in turn will inform the development of future clinical guidelines for this important and prevalent condition.

  13. Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type in a sighted male with severe depression, anxiety, and agoraphobia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A; Quan, Stuart F; Eichling, Philip S

    2011-02-15

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, free-running type (CRSD, FRT) is a disorder in which the intrinsic circadian rhythm is no longer entrained to the 24-hour schedule. A unique case of CRSD, FRT in a 67-year-old sighted male is presented. The patient had a progressively delayed time in bed (TIB) each night, so that he would cycle around the 24-h clock approximately every 30 days. This was meticulously documented each night by the patient over the course of 22 years. The patient's CRSD, FRT was associated with severe depression, anxiety, and agoraphobia. The agoraphobia may have exacerbated the CRSD, FRT. Entrainment and stabilization of his circadian rhythm was accomplished after treatment that included melatonin, light therapy, and increased sleep structure.

  14. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed. PMID:27551189

  15. Kankuamo, a new theraphosid genus from Colombia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae), with a new type of urticating setae and divergent male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Perafán, Carlos; Galvis, William; Gutiérrez, Miguel; Pérez-Miles, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A new monotypic Theraphosidae genus, Kankuamo Perafán, Galvis & Pérez-Miles, gen. n., is described from Colombia, with a new type of urticating setae. These setae differ from others principally by having a small distal oval patch of lanceolate reversed barbs. Males of Kankuamo gen. n. additionally differ by having a palpal bulb organ very divergent from all known species, with many conspicuous keels dispersed across the median tegulum to the tip, mostly with serrated edges. Females differ by having spermathecae with a single notched receptacle, with two granulated lobes and several irregular sclerotized longitudinal striations. The new urticating setae, type VII, is characterized, illustrated and its releasing mechanism is discussed. It is hypothesized that these setae are the first in Theraphosinae subfamily whose release mechanism is by direct contact. Kankuamo gen. n. is described and illustrated on the basis of the type species Kankuamo marquezi Perafán, Galvis & Gutiérrez, sp. n., and their remarkable characteristics, morphological affinities and cladistic relationship are analyzed.

  16. Saturated fat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ... saturated fats. Vegetable sources of saturated fat include coconut and palm oils. When looking at a food label, pay ...

  17. Alleviation of high-fat diet-induced fatty liver damage in group IVA phospholipase A2-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ii, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Naoki; Yoshida, Shintaro; Tsutsumi, Kae; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Sato, Takashi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Akiba, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Hepatic fat deposition with hepatocellular damage, a feature of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, is mediated by several putative factors including prostaglandins. In the present study, we examined whether group IVA phospholipase A(2) (IVA-PLA(2)), which catalyzes the first step in prostanoid biosynthesis, is involved in the development of fatty liver, using IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Male wild-type mice on high-fat diets (20% fat and 1.25% cholesterol) developed hepatocellular vacuolation and liver hypertrophy with an increase in the serum levels of liver damage marker aminotransferases when compared with wild-type mice fed normal diets. These high-fat diet-induced alterations were markedly decreased in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice. Hepatic triacylglycerol content was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice under normal dietary conditions. Although high-fat diets increased hepatic triacylglycerol content in both genotypes, the degree was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice. Under the high-fat dietary conditions, IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice had lower epididymal fat pad weight and smaller adipocytes than wild-type mice. The serum level of prostaglandin E(2), which has a fat storage effect, was lower in IVA-PLA(2)-knockout mice than in wild-type mice, irrespective of the kind of diet. In both genotypes, high-fat diets increased serum leptin levels equally between the two groups, but did not affect the serum levels of adiponectin, resistin, free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, glucose, or insulin. Our findings suggest that a deficiency of IVA-PLA(2) alleviates fatty liver damage caused by high-fat diets, probably because of the lower generation of IVA-PLA(2) metabolites, such as prostaglandin E(2). IVA-PLA(2) could be a promising therapeutic target for obesity-related diseases including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Acute Effects of Dietary Fat on Inflammatory Markers and Gene Expression in First-Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pietraszek, Anna; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their relatives (REL) carry an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Low-grade inflammation, an independent risk factor for CVD, is modifiable by diet. Subjects with T2D show elevated postprandial inflammatory responses to fat-rich meals, while information on postprandial inflammation in REL is sparse. AIM: To clarify whether medium-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have differential acute effects on low-grade inflammation in REL compared to controls (CON). METHODS: In randomized order, 17 REL and 17 CON ingested two fat-rich meals, with 72 energy percent from MUFA and 79 energy percent from mainly medium-chain SFA, respectively. Plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin, and leptin were measured at baseline, 15 min, 60 min, and 240 min postprandially. Muscle and adipose tissue biopsies were taken at baseline and 210 min after the test meal, and expression of selected genes was analyzed. RESULTS: Plasma IL-6 increased (p < 0.001) without difference between REL and CON and between the meals, whereas plasma adiponectin and plasma hs-CRP were unchanged during the 240 min observation period. Plasma leptin decreased slightly in response to medium-chain SFA in both groups, and to MUFA in REL. Several genes were differentially regulated in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. CONCLUSIONS: MUFA and medium-chain SFA elicit similar postprandial circulating inflammatory responses in REL and CON. Medium-chain SFA seems more proinflammatory than MUFA, judged by the gene expression in muscle and adipose tissue of REL and CON. PMID:22580729

  19. Detrimental effects of high-fat diet loading on vascular endothelial function and therapeutic efficacy of ezetimibe and statins in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Mori, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Takuya; Masuda, Daisaku; Yamashita, Shizuya; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2016-05-31

    Several recent reports from large clinical trials have described the role of postprandial hyperlipidemia in the onset of atherosclerosis. In this pilot study, the effects of postprandial lipid abnormalities induced by high-fat diet loading on vascular endothelial function in type 2 diabetes were investigated and the effects of ezetimibe and statins on endothelial function were compared. In 20 patients in Study 1, peripheral arterial tonometry tests were performed before and 4h after loading to measure the reactive hyperemia index (RHI). In Study 2, the same patients were randomly allocated to ezetimibe or rosuvastatin. After 1 week of treatment, loading tests were conducted in the same manner. In Study 1, the RHI decreased from 1.86 to 1.60. There were no significant correlations between changes in RHI and the area under the curve (AUC) or coefficient of variation (CV) of each metabolic marker. In Study 2, ezetimibe treatment resulted in a significant improvement in RHI. The two drugs had comparable effects on changes in AUC. There were no significant correlations between changes in RHI and changes in AUC or changes in CV. When age, sex, drug, hemoglobin A1c, and changes in each lipid were evaluated as independent variables with RHI improvement as the dependent variable, drug differences were found to exert the greatest effect on RHI improvement using a stepwise procedure. The results of this study suggest that the progression of atherosclerosis is due to abnormalities in postprandial lipid metabolism and that ezetimibe can potentially inhibit the aggravation of vascular endothelial dysfunction after high-fat diet loading.

  20. Influence of dietary fat source on growth performance responses and carcass traits of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Poorghasemi, Mohammadreza; Seidavi, Alireza; Qotbi, Ali Ahmad Alaw; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of three different fat sources and their combination on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal measurements of broiler chickens reared to 42 d of age. Two hundred day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to one of five treatments with four replicates of 10 chicks based on a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments consisted of 4% added fat from three different sources and their combination as follows: T, diet containing 4% tallow; CO, diet containing 4% canola oil; SFO, diet containing 4% sunflower oil; TCO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% canola oil; TSFO, diet containing 2% tallow+2% sunflower oil. Dietary fat type affected significantly BW and gain as well as feed efficiency in birds fed the TCO diets compared with those fed the other diets. Dietary fat type also modified meat yield, resulting in a higher breast and drumstick yields in the birds fed TCO and TSFO diets, respectively. Most of internal organ relative weights and small intestine measurements were not influenced by dietary treatments, except for the abdominal fat pad weight that was lower in birds fed SFO and for small intestinal length that was influenced by fat source. Results from the current study suggested that the supplementation with a combination of vegetable and animal fat sources in broiler diet supported positively growth performance and carcass parameters.

  1. Fat Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  2. Association between adjunctive metformin therapy in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat and reduction of carotid intima-media thickness.

    PubMed

    Burchardt, Paweł; Zawada, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Jolanta; Marcinkaniec, Justyna; Wysocki, Henryk; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Grzymisławski, Marian; Rzeźniczak, Janusz; Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz, Dorota; Naskręt, Dariusz

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and cholesteryl ester lipase (CEL) may oxidize low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of metformin on the metabolism of atherogenic lipid fractions in relation to Lp-PLA2 and CEL levels, as well as assess consequent improvement in the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery in young type 1 diabetes patients with excess body fat. PATIENTS AND METHODS    It was an open-label randomized clinical trial that lasted 6 months. It included a total of 84 people with metabolic decompensation (glycated hemoglobin >7.5%, >58.5 mmol/mol) of diabetes. Adjunctive metformin therapy (in addition to insulin) was administered in 42 patients, and the remaining 42 patients received insulin alone. Glycated low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), oxLDL, Lp-PLA2, and CEL were assessed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cartoid IMT was measured using the Carotid Analyser for Research tool. Biochemical analyses were performed using routine laboratory techniques. RESULTS    The reduction of mean carotid IMT was observed in young type 1 diabetic adults treated additionally with metformin (0.6 ±0.1 cm vs 0.53 ±0.1 cm; P = 0.002). This effect was probably due to weight reduction (90 ±16 kg vs 87 ±15 kg, P = 0.054) and the decrease in atherogenic glycated LDL levels (1.5 ±0.5 mg/dl vs 1.6 ±1.046 mg/dl, P = 0.006). No such correlations were observed in patients treated with insulin alone. Additionally, in patients receiving metformin, glycated LDL levels were inversely correlated with Lp-PLA2 levels (r = -0.31, P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    Additional use of metformin in young type 1 diabetic patients with excess body fat leads to a significant reduction of mean IMT in the common carotid artery. Concentrations of CEL and Lp-PLA2 were significantly increased in both study arms despite improved glucose metabolism.

  3. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, prevents the development of diabetes in male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Goji; Fukui, Michiaki; Hosoda, Hiroko; Asano, Mai; Harusato, Ichiko; Tanaka, Muhei; Shiraishi, Emi; Senmaru, Takashi; Sakabe, Kazumi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kitawaki, Jo; Fujinami, Aya; Ohta, Mitsuhiro; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naoto

    2009-03-01

    To assess the beneficial effects of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan on a non-obese animal model of reduced function and mass of islet beta-cells prior to the development of diabetes, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were treated with telmisartan at 8 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, the treatment with telmisartan dose-dependently ameliorated hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and high-dose (5 mg/kg/day) treated SDT rats did not developed diabetes. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that treatment with high-dose telmisartan reduced mRNA expression of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components, components of NAD(P)H oxidase, transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the pancreas of male SDT rats. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses revealed that treatment with telmisartan also reduced expression of p47(phox). These results suggest that treatment with telmisartan reduces oxidative stress by local RAS activation and protects against islet beta-cell damage and dysfunction. These findings provide at least a partial explanation for the reduced incidence of new-onset diabetes that has been observed in several clinical trials involving angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers and ACE inhibitors.

  4. Revealing the molecular relationship between type 2 diabetes and the metabolic changes induced by a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, accounting for 85-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in terms of clinical outcomes on type 2 diabetes patients. However, the molecular events responsible for these improvements still remain unclear in spite of the high amount of knowledge on the primary mechanisms of both the diabetes and the metabolic state of ketosis. Molecular network analysis of conditions, diseases and treatments might provide new insights and help build a better understanding of clinical, metabolic and molecular relationships among physiological conditions. Accordingly, our aim is to reveal such a relationship between a ketogenic diet and type 2 diabetes through systems biology approaches. Methods Our systemic approach is based on the creation and analyses of the cell networks representing the metabolic state in a very-low-carbohydrate low-fat ketogenic diet. This global view might help identify unnoticed relationships often overlooked in molecule or process-centered studies. Results A strong relationship between the insulin resistance pathway and the ketosis main pathway was identified, providing a possible explanation for the improvement observed in clinical trials. Moreover, the map analyses permit the formulation of some hypothesis on functional relationships between the molecules involved in type 2 diabetes and induced ketosis, suggesting, for instance, a direct implication of glucose transporters or inflammatory processes. The molecular network analysis performed in the ketogenic-diet map, from the diabetes perspective, has provided insights on the potential mechanism of action, but also has opened new possibilities to study the applications of the ketogenic diet in other situations such as CNS or other metabolic dysfunctions. PMID:21143928

  5. A high calcium, skim milk powder diet results in a lower fat mass in male, energy-restricted, obese rats more than a low calcium, casein, or soy protein diet.

    PubMed

    Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2010-07-01

    The combination of dairy protein and dietary calcium (Ca) may enhance weight loss more effectively than either compound alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine the effect of various protein sources [skim milk powder (SMP), whey, casein, and soy protein isolate (SPI)] and 2 levels of Ca [low, 0.67% Ca (LC) or high, 2.4% Ca (HC)] on weight loss. Sixty-four 12-wk-old Sprague-Dawley, diet-induced obese rats were assigned to 1 of 8 energy-restricted (ER) diets for 4 wk with 1 of the 4 protein sources and either LC or HC concentrations. Rats were ER to 70% of the ad libitum food and energy intake of a reference group (n = 8) fed the AIN-93M diet. The interaction between dietary protein and Ca affected final body weight and fat mass (FM) (P < 0.05). FM was less in rats fed SMP-HC than in those fed casein-LC or SPI-LC. Lean body mass was greater in rats fed SMP than in those fed whey. Rats fed HC diets had a lower plasma glucagon area under the curve (AUC) than those fed LC diets. The blood glucose AUC, homeostatic model of insulin resistance, and the expression of certain hepatic genes involved in energy metabolism were affected by protein and Ca. These data suggest that consuming a diet containing SMP and HC is associated with a lower FM in obese, male, ER rats than in diets containing casein or SPI and LC; however, the role of SMP and Ca in glucose homeostasis remains to be determined.

  6. Effects of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient and wild-type mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the effects of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in PAI-1 deficient (PAI-1-/-) and wildtype mice (C57BL/6J background) fed the AIN93G diet or that diet modified with 45% calories from fat. The high-fat diet i...

  7. Dyadic dynamics of HIV risk among transgender women and their primary male sexual partners: the role of sexual agreement types and motivations.

    PubMed

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Darbes, Lynae A; Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Nemoto, Toru; Operario, Don

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women - individuals assigned a male sex at birth who identify as women, female, or on the male-to-female trans feminine spectrum - are at high-risk of HIV worldwide. Prior research has suggested that transgender women more frequently engage in condomless sex with primary cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) male partners compared with casual or paying partners, and that condomless sex in this context might be motivated by relationship dynamics such as trust and intimacy. The current study examined sexual agreement types and motivations as factors that shape HIV risk behaviors in a community sample of 191 transgender women and their cisgender primary male partners who completed a cross-sectional survey. Overall, 40% of couples had monogamous, 15% open, and 45% discrepant sexual agreements (i.e., partners disagreed on their type of agreement). Actor-partner interdependence models were fit to examine the influence of sexual agreement type and motivations on extra-dyadic HIV risk (i.e., condomless sex with outside partners) and intra-dyadic HIV serodiscordant risk (i.e., condomless sex with serodiscordant primary partners). For male partners, extra-dyadic risk was associated with their own and their partners' sexual agreement motives, and male partners who engaged in extra-dyadic HIV risk had an increased odds of engaging in HIV serodiscordant intra-dyadic risk. Study findings support inclusion of the male partners of transgender women into HIV prevention efforts. Future research is warranted to explore the interpersonal and social contexts of sexual agreement types and motivations in relationships between transgender women and their male partners to develop interventions that meet their unique HIV prevention needs.

  8. Cytological characterization of a thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat line having K-type cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Liying; Liu, Zihan; Zhang, Lingli; Hu, Gan; Song, Xiyue

    2016-01-01

    Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages. TCMS line KTM3315A exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility in Zadoks growth stages 41–49 and 58–59. Morphologically, the line exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility at 3–9 days before heading and at 3–6 days before flowering, and it was partially restored in three locations during spring and summer. TCMS line KTM3315A plants exhibited premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) from the early uninucleate stage of microspore development until the tapetal cells degraded completely. Microspore development was then blocked and the pollen abortion type was stainable abortion. Thus, male fertility in the line KTM3315A is sensitive to temperature and premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion, where it determines the starting period and affects male fertility conversion in K-type TCMS lines at certain temperatures. PMID:28163591

  9. Cytological characterization of a thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile wheat line having K-type cytoplasm of Aegilops kotschyi.

    PubMed

    Meng, Liying; Liu, Zihan; Zhang, Lingli; Hu, Gan; Song, Xiyue

    2016-12-01

    Male sterility is an important tool for obtaining crop heterosis. A thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male-sterile (TCMS) line was developed recently using a new method based on tiller regeneration. In the present study, we explored the critical growth stages required to maintain thermo-sensitive male sterility in TCMS lines and found that fertility is associated with abnormal tapetal and microspore development. We investigated the fertility and cytology of temperature-treated plant anthers at various developmental stages. TCMS line KTM3315A exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility in Zadoks growth stages 41-49 and 58-59. Morphologically, the line exhibited thermo-sensitive male sterility at 3-9 days before heading and at 3-6 days before flowering, and it was partially restored in three locations during spring and summer. TCMS line KTM3315A plants exhibited premature tapetal programmed cell death (PCD) from the early uninucleate stage of microspore development until the tapetal cells degraded completely. Microspore development was then blocked and the pollen abortion type was stainable abortion. Thus, male fertility in the line KTM3315A is sensitive to temperature and premature tapetal PCD is the main cause of pollen abortion, where it determines the starting period and affects male fertility conversion in K-type TCMS lines at certain temperatures.

  10. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract in a high-fat diet STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseena Banu Hedayathullah; Vinayagam, Kaladevi Siddhi; Sekar, Ashwini; Palanivelu, Shanthi; Panchanadham, Sachdanandam

    2012-03-01

    Semecarpus anacardium commonly known as marking nut has been used in the Siddha system of medicine against various ailments. The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of the drug was evaluated in Type 2 diabetic rats induced by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks followed by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight. Three days after STZ induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with Semecarpus anacardium nut milk extract (SA) orally at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days. Metformin (500 mg/kg body weight, orally) was used as a reference drug. The fasting blood glucose, insulin, Hb, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR and HOMA-β were measured, and also the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes were observed. SA significantly (p < .05) reduced and normalized blood glucose levels and also decreased the levels of HbA1c as compared with that of HFD STZ control group. SA treatment also significantly (p < .05) increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes while decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation. The potential antihyperglycemic action and antioxidant role might be due to the presence of flavonoids in the drug.

  11. Glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switch and mTOR signaling activation are early-onset features of SBMA muscle modified by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rocchi, Anna; Milioto, Carmelo; Parodi, Sara; Armirotti, Andrea; Borgia, Doriana; Pellegrini, Matteo; Urciuolo, Anna; Molon, Sibilla; Morbidoni, Valeria; Marabita, Manuela; Romanello, Vanina; Gatto, Pamela; Blaauw, Bert; Bonaldo, Paolo; Sambataro, Fabio; Robins, Diane M; Lieberman, Andrew P; Sorarù, Gianni; Vergani, Lodovica; Sandri, Marco; Pennuto, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR). The mechanism by which expansion of polyglutamine in AR causes muscle atrophy is unknown. Here, we investigated pathological pathways underlying muscle atrophy in SBMA knock-in mice and patients. We show that glycolytic muscles were more severely affected than oxidative muscles in SBMA knock-in mice. Muscle atrophy was associated with early-onset, progressive glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type switch. Whole genome microarray and untargeted lipidomic analyses revealed enhanced lipid metabolism and impaired glycolysis selectively in muscle. These metabolic changes occurred before denervation and were associated with a concurrent enhancement of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) expression. At later stages of disease, we detected mitochondrial membrane depolarization, enhanced transcription factor EB (TFEB) expression and autophagy, and mTOR-induced protein synthesis. Several of these abnormalities were detected in the muscle of SBMA patients. Feeding knock-in mice a high-fat diet (HFD) restored mTOR activation, decreased the expression of PGC1α, TFEB, and genes involved in oxidative metabolism, reduced mitochondrial abnormalities, ameliorated muscle pathology, and extended survival. These findings show early-onset and intrinsic metabolic alterations in SBMA muscle and link lipid/glucose metabolism to pathogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an HFD regime as a promising approach to support SBMA patients.

  12. Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY1 encodes a PHD-type transcription factor and regulates pollen and tapetum development.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuya; Nagata, Noriko; Yoshiba, Yoshu; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Ma, Hong; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2007-11-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana MALE STERILITY1 (MS1) gene encodes a nuclear protein with Leu zipper-like and PHD-finger motifs and is important for postmeiotic pollen development. Here, we examined MS1 function using both cell biological and molecular biological approaches. We introduced a fusion construct of MS1 and a transcriptional repression domain (MS1-SRDX) into wild-type Arabidopsis, and the transgenic plants showed a semisterile phenotype similar to that of ms1. Since the repression domain can convert various kinds of transcriptional activators to dominant repressors, this suggested that MS1 functioned as a transcriptional activator. The Leu zipper-like region and the PHD motif were required for the MS1 function. Phenotypic analysis of the ms1 mutant and the MS1-SRDX transgenic Arabidopsis indicated that MS1 was involved in formation of pollen exine and pollen cytosolic components as well as tapetum development. Next, we searched for MS1 downstream genes by analyzing publicly available microarray data and identified 95 genes affected by MS1. Using a transgenic ms1 plant showing dexamethasone-inducible recovery of fertility, we further examined whether these genes were immediately downstream of MS1. From these results, we discuss a role of MS1 in pollen and tapetum development and the conservation of MS1 function in flowering plants.

  13. Modulation of N-type Ca2+ currents by A1-adenosine receptor activation in male rat pelvic ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Park, K S; Jeong, S W; Cha, S K; Lee, B S; Kong, I D; Ikeda, S R; Lee, J W

    2001-11-01

    Modulation of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels by adenosine was investigated in male rat major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons by using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. Adenosine inhibited high voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 313 nM and a maximal inhibition of 36%, respectively. Inhibition of HVA Ca2+ currents in adrenergic and cholinergic MPG neurons was similar. Adenosine did not modulate T-type Ca2+ channels present in adrenergic MPG neurons. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that MPG neurons express mRNAs encoding A1 and A2a receptors. Ca2+ current inhibition by adenosine was mimicked by N6-cyclopentyladenosine, an A1-selective agonist (EC50 = 63 nM) and prevented by 100 nM 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an A1-selective antagonist. Conversely, CGS 21680, an A2a-selective agonist, displayed a relatively low potency (EC50 = 2200 nM) for inhibiting Ca2+ currents. The action of adenosine was significantly attenuated by 2 mM guanosine-5'-thiodiphosphate or 500 ng/ml pertussis toxin. The voltage dependence of adenosine-induced current inhibition was evident by 1) a bell-shaped profile between the current inhibition and test potentials, 2) kinetic slowing in the presence of agonist, and 3) relief of the current inhibition by a conditioning prepulse to +80 mV. Finally, 1 microM omega-conotoxin GVIA occluded adenosine-induced current inhibition. Taken together, we concluded that adenosine inhibits N-type Ca2+ currents by activation of A1 receptors via a voltage-dependent and PTX-sensitive pathway in rat MPG neurons. Our data may explain how adenosine acts as an inhibitory modulator of ganglionic and neuromuscular transmission in the pelvic plexus.

  14. Dyadic dynamics of HIV risk among transgender women and their primary male sexual partners: The role of sexual agreement types and motivations

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Reisner, Sari L.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Hoff, Colleen C.,; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Nemoto, Toru; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Transgender women—individuals assigned a male sex at birth who identify as women, female, or on the male-to-female (MTF) trans feminine spectrum—are at high-risk of HIV worldwide. Prior research has suggested that transgender women more frequently engage in condomless sex with primary cisgender (i.e. non-transgender) male partners compared with casual or paying partners, and that condomless sex in this context might be motivated by relationship dynamics such as trust and intimacy. The current study examined sexual agreement types and motivations as factors thatshape HIV risk behaviors in a community sample of 191 transgender women and their cisgenderprimary male partners who completed a cross-sectional survey. Overall, 40% of couples had monogamous, 15% open, and 45% discrepant sexual agreements (i.e., partners disagreed on their type of agreement). Actor-partner interdependence models (APIM) were fit to examine the influence of sexual agreement type and motivations on extra-dyadic HIV risk (i.e., condomless sex with outside partners) and intra-dyadic HIV serodiscordant risk (i.e., condomless sex with serodiscordant primary partners). Formale partners, extra-dyadic risk was associated with their own and their partners' sexual agreement motives, and male partners who engaged in extra-dyadic HIV risk had an increased odds of engaging in HIV serodiscordant intra-dyadic risk. Study findings supportinclusion ofthe male partners of transgender women into HIV prevention efforts. Future research is warranted to explore the interpersonal and social contexts of sexual agreement types and motivations in relationships between transgender women and their male partners to develop interventions that meet their unique HIV prevention needs. PMID:26273720

  15. The type of caloric sweetener added to water influences weight gain, fat mass, and reproduction in growing Sprague-Dawley female rats.

    PubMed

    Light, Heather R; Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Gigliotti, Joseph; Morgan, Keri; Tou, Janet C

    2009-06-01

    Caloric sweetened beverages have been suggested to be a major dietary contributor to weight gain, particularly among adolescents. Dietary recommendations are for moderating intakes of added sugars; however, the question remains whether certain types of sugars should be limited. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drinking different caloric sweetened beverages on the development of adiposity, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Young (age 28 days) female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8-9 rats/group) were randomly assigned to drink either deionized distilled water (ddH2O) or ddH2O sweetened with 13% (w/v) glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup 55 (HFCS-55) for 8 weeks. Rats drinking caloric sweetened solutions failed to completely compensate for liquid calories ingested by reducing their consumption of solid food. This resulted in greater total energy intake compared to the ddH2O control; however, there was no significant difference in total energy intake between rats drinking sucrose, fructose or HFCS-55. Of the different caloric sweeteners, only rats drinking HFCS-55 had greater (P < 0.05) final body weights and fat mass compared to the rats drinking ddH2O or glucose solution. This may have occurred because drinking HFCS-55 solution promoted a faster body weight gain. Adiposity induced by caloric sweetened water was not accompanied by metabolic disorders indicated by the absence of dyslipidemia and no differences in fasting serum glucose, insulin or C-peptide among the treatment groups. However, rats drinking HFCS-55 showed lengthened estrous cycles due to prolonged estrus. Based on this study, the type of caloric sweetener added to beverages should be considered when making dietary recommendation for reducing excess body weight and related health risk.

  16. Anti-diabetic activity of chromium picolinate and biotin in rats with type 2 diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Kucuk, Osman; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Juturu, Vijaya; Komorowski, James R

    2013-07-28

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) and biotin supplementations in type 2 diabetic rats. The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: (1) non-diabetic rats fed a regular diet; (2) diabetic rats fed a HFD; (3) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with CrPic (80 μg/kg body weight (BW) per d); (4) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with biotin (300 μg/kg BW per d); (5) diabetic rats fed a HFD and supplemented with both CrPic and biotin. Circulating glucose, cortisol, total cholesterol, TAG, NEFA and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased (P< 0·05), but serum insulin concentrations increased (P< 0·05) in diabetic rats treated with biotin and CrPic, particularly with a combination of the supplements. Feeding a HFD to diabetic rats decreased PPAR-γ expression in adipose tissue and phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (p-IRS-1) expression of liver, kidney and muscle tissues, while the supplements increased (P< 0·001) PPAR-γ and p-IRS-1 expressions in relevant tissues. Expression of NF-κB in the liver and kidney was greater in diabetic rats fed a HFD, as compared with rats fed a regular diet (P< 0·01). The supplements decreased the expression of NF-κB in diabetic rats (P< 0·05). Results of the present study revealed that supplementing CrPic and biotin alone or in a combination exerts anti-diabetic activities, probably through modulation of PPAR-γ, IRS-1 and NF-κB proteins.

  17. Cell biology of fat storage

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  18. Background diet and fat type alters plasma lipoprotein response but not aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B golden syrian hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary modification alters plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion progression in humans and some animal models. Variability in response to diet induced atherosclerosis has been reported in hamsters. Assessed was the interaction between background diet composition and dietary fat typ...

  19. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type) with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Manisha; Subramanya, Yerraguntla Sarma

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by retention of Müllerian duct derivatives in a phenotypically and karyotypically male patient. Deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secretion or resistance to AMH action due to defective AMH-II receptor is presumed to cause such syndrome in the majority of cases. About 158 PMDS cases have been reported so far, out of which 31 cases are associated with testicular neoplasms. Herein, we describe an interesting case of young male initially diagnosed and treated for inguinal hernia, but finally diagnosed as "PMDS of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type) with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis" comprising components of seminoma and yolk sac tumor and treated successfully.

  20. Effect of ghrelin receptor agonist and antagonist on the activity of arcuate nucleus tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons in C57BL/6 male mice exposed to normal or high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pirnik, Z; Majercikova, Z; Holubova, M; Pirnik, R; Zelezna, B; Maletinska, L; Kiss, A

    2014-08-01

    Catecholamines participate in the food intake regulation, however, there are no literature data available, dealing with the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) neurons in response to stimulation or inhibition of GHS-R (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The present study was focused to reveal whether [Dpr(N-octanoyl) 3ghrelin], a stable GHS-R agonist, itself in doses of 5 or 10 mg/kg (s.c.) or in combination with GHS-R receptor antagonist ([DLys3]GHRP-6) in dose of 10 mg/kg (s.c.), may affect the activity of ARC TH-containing neurons in C57BL/6 male mice fed either with standard (SD) or high fat diet (HFD) that developed a diet-induced obesity (DIO). The data of the present study clearly indicate that both doses of GHS-R agonist stimulated food intake in SD mice and GHS-R antagonist significantly reduced GHS-R agonist orexinergic effect in SD mice and suppressed the voluntary food intake in HFD mice. Both doses of the GHS-R agonist stimulated Fos expression in ARC neurons in both diet groups of mice which was not abolished by GHS-R antagonist pretreatment. Moreover, both doses of the GHS-R agonist significantly influenced the activation of TH neurons in the ARC of SD mice. The GHS-R antagonist also significantly increased TH neurons activation after GHS-R agonist although this effect was less powerful in HFD mice. This is the first study demonstrating response of local ARC TH neurons to peripherally applied GHS-R agonist and antagonist. The present data point out that the response of TH neurons to GHS-R agonist and antagonist is different in normal and DIO mice and extend our knowledge about the further ARC neuronal phenotype responding to peripheral ghrelin. To bring insight into the understanding of the functional significance of the activated TH neurons in ARC, in the context of the ghrelin peripheral increase, further studies are required.

  1. Dietary fat and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...

  2. Studies on the chronic toxicity (inhalation) of four types of refractory ceramic fiber in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Mast, R W; McConnell, E E; Anderson, R; Chevalier, J; Kotin, P; Bernstein, D M; Thevenaz, P; Glass, L R; Miiller, W C; Hesterberg, T W

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) are man-made vitreous fibers used primarily in industrial high-temperature applications, especially for insulation of furnaces and kilns. Because of their increasing use and potential for human exposure, a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity inhalation study was conducted in Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Five groups of 140 weanling male F344 rats were exposed via noseonly inhalation to either HEPA-filtered air (chamber controls) or 30 mg/m(3) (approximately 220 fibers/cm(3)) of three types [kaolin-based, high-purity, and aluminum zirconia silica (AZS)] of "size-selected" RCF fibers (approximately 1µ in diameter and approximately 20 um in length) and an "after-service" heat-treated (2400°F for 24 h) kaolin-based fiber for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 24 mo. They were then held unexposed until approximately 20% survival and then sacrificed at 30 mo. A positive control group of 80 F344 rats was exposed to 10 mg/m(3) chrysotile asbestos. Croups of 3-6 animals were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 mo to follow the progression of lesions and to determine fiber lung burdens. Additional groups of 3 rats were removed from exposure at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 mo and were held until sacrificed at 24 mo (recovery groups) for similar determinations. Lung burdens increased rapidly for all RCFs, appearing to plateau by about 12 mo. By 24 mo, lung burdens ranged from 2.6 to 9.6 × 10(5) fiberslmg of dry lung tissue for the RCFs tested. Treatment-related lesions were restricted to the lungs. To some extent all types of RCF resulted in macrophage infiltration, bronchiolization of proximal alveoli, and microgranuloma formation by 3 mo of exposure. Interstitial fibrosis was observed at 6 mo for all types of RCF, except the "after-service" fiber where fibrosis was not seen until 12 mo. The lesions progressed in severity until 12-15 mo, after which they plateaued. A minimal amount of focal pleural fibrosis was first observed at 9 mo and progressed to a

  3. Placenta passage of the thyroid hormone analog DITPA to male wild-type and Mct8-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Gil-Ibáñez, Pilar; Bernal, Juan; Weiss, Roy E; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Refetoff, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency causes severe X-linked intellectual and neuropsychological impairment associated with abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) producing thyroid hormone (TH) deprivation in brain and excess in peripheral tissues. The TH analog diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) corrected the TFTs abnormalities and hypermetabolism of MCT8-deficient children but did not improve the neurological phenotype. The latter result was attributed to the late initiation of treatment. Therefore, we gave DITPA to pregnant mice carrying Mct8-deficient embryos to determine whether DITPA, when given prenatally, crosses the placenta and affects the serum TFTs and cerebral cortex of embryos. After depletion of the endogenous TH, Mct8-heterozygous pregnant dams carrying both wild-type (Wt) and Mct8-deficient (Mct8KO) male embryos were given DITPA. Effects were compared with those treated with levothyroxine (L-T4). With DITPA treatment, serum DITPA concentration was not different in the two genotypes, which produced equal effect on serum TSH levels in both groups of pups. In contrast, with L-T4 treatment, TSH did not normalize in Mct8KO pups whereas it did in the Wt littermates and dams despite higher concentration of serum T4. Finally, both treatments similarly modulated the expression of the TH-dependent genes Shh, Klf9, and Aldh1a3 in brain. Thus, the ability of DITPA to cross the placenta, its thyromimetic action on the expression of TH-dependent genes in brain, and its better accessibility to the pituitary than L-T4, as assessed by serum TSH, make DITPA a candidate for the prenatal treatment of MCT8 deficiency.

  4. Placenta Passage of the Thyroid Hormone Analog DITPA to Male Wild-Type and Mct8-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Alfonso Massimiliano; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Gil-Ibáñez, Pilar; Bernal, Juan; Weiss, Roy E.; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) deficiency causes severe X-linked intellectual and neuropsychological impairment associated with abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) producing thyroid hormone (TH) deprivation in brain and excess in peripheral tissues. The TH analog diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA) corrected the TFTs abnormalities and hypermetabolism of MCT8-deficient children but did not improve the neurological phenotype. The latter result was attributed to the late initiation of treatment. Therefore, we gave DITPA to pregnant mice carrying Mct8-deficient embryos to determine whether DITPA, when given prenatally, crosses the placenta and affects the serum TFTs and cerebral cortex of embryos. After depletion of the endogenous TH, Mct8-heterozygous pregnant dams carrying both wild-type (Wt) and Mct8-deficient (Mct8KO) male embryos were given DITPA. Effects were compared with those treated with levothyroxine (L-T4). With DITPA treatment, serum DITPA concentration was not different in the two genotypes, which produced equal effect on serum TSH levels in both groups of pups. In contrast, with L-T4 treatment, TSH did not normalize in Mct8KO pups whereas it did in the Wt littermates and dams despite higher concentration of serum T4. Finally, both treatments similarly modulated the expression of the TH-dependent genes Shh, Klf9, and Aldh1a3 in brain. Thus, the ability of DITPA to cross the placenta, its thyromimetic action on the expression of TH-dependent genes in brain, and its better accessibility to the pituitary than L-T4, as assessed by serum TSH, make DITPA a candidate for the prenatal treatment of MCT8 deficiency. PMID:25051435

  5. Effects provoked by chronic undernourishment on the fibre type composition and contractility of fast muscles in male and female developing rats.

    PubMed

    Pereyra-Venegas, J; Segura-Alegría, B; Guadarrama-Olmos, J C; Mariscal-Tovar, S; Quiróz-González, S; Jiménez-Estrada, I

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of pre- and post-natal food deprivation on the relative proportion of fibre types and contractile responses in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of female and male rats at different post-natal ages. EDL muscles from undernourished male (UM) rats showed a higher proportion of Type IIB than IIA fibres and larger normalized twitch responses (with respect to muscle weight) than those of controls (CM). In contrast, EDL muscles from control (CF) and undernourished female rats (UF) showed no significant differences in their fibre type composition and normalized twitch forces at most of the ages analysed. Our data are indicative that the EDL muscles from undernourished males are more susceptible to the effects exerted by low food income than the EDL muscles from female rats. It is proposed that changes in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration and hormonal factors, due to undernutrition, are involved in the alterations observed in the fibre type composition and force production of EDL muscles in undernourished male rats and that estrogens may have an antioxidant protective role on the undernourished EDL muscles in female rats.

  6. Streptozotocin-Treated High Fat Fed Mice: A New Type 2 Diabetes Model Used to Study Canagliflozin-Induced Alterations in Lipids and Lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Sungelo, Mitchell J; Goldberg, Ira J; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2017-04-10

    The pharmacological effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) medications on lipoprotein metabolism are difficult to assess in preclinical models because those created failure to replicate the human condition in which insulin deficiency is superimposed on obesity-related insulin resistance. To create a better model, we fed mice with high fat (HF) diet and treated the animals with low dose streptozotocin (STZ) to mimic T2DM. We used this model to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a drug that reduces plasma glucose by inhibiting the sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), which mediates ~90% of renal glucose reabsorption] on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. After 6 weeks of CANA (30 mg/kg/day) treatment, the increase in total plasma cholesterol in HF-STZ diabetic mice was reversed, but plasma triglycerides were not affected. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol distribution analysis showed that CANA kept HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and IDL-Cholesterol levels steady while these lipoprotein species were increased in placebo- and insulin-treated control groups. CANA treatment of HF-STZ mice reduced post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity at 2 (-40%) and 5 (-30%) weeks compared to placebo. Tissue-specific LPL activity following CANA treatment showed similar reduction. In summary, CANA prevented the total cholesterol increase in HF-STZ mice without effects on plasma lipids or lipoproteins, but did decrease LPL, implying a potential role of LPL-dependent lipoprotein metabolism in CANA action. These effects did not recapitulate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on lipids and lipoproteins in human, suggesting that a better murine T2DM model (such as the ApoB100 humanized CETP-overexpressing mouse) is needed next.

  7. Effect of sardine proteins on hyperglycaemia, hyperlipidaemia and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, in high-fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benaicheta, Nora; Labbaci, Fatima Z; Bouchenak, Malika; Boukortt, Farida O

    2016-01-14

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major risk factor of CVD. The effects of purified sardine proteins (SP) were examined on glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport in T2D rats. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, and injected with a low dose of streptozotocin, were used. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups, and they were fed casein (CAS) or SP combined with 30 or 5% lipids, for 4 weeks. HFD-induced hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia in rats fed HFD, regardless of the consumed protein. In contrast, these parameters lowered in rats fed SP combined with 5 or 30% lipids, and serum insulin values reduced in SP v. CAS. HFD significantly increased total cholesterol and TAG concentrations in the liver and serum, whereas these parameters decreased with SP, regardless of lipid intake. Faecal cholesterol excretion was higher with SP v. CAS, combined with 30 or 5% lipids. Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and HDL3-phospholipids (PL) were higher in CAS-HF than in CAS, whereas HDL2-cholesteryl esters (CE) were lower. Otherwise, LCAT activity and HDL2-CE were higher in the SP group than in the CAS group, whereas HDL3-PL and HDL3-unesterified cholesterol were lower. Moreover, LCAT activity lowered in the SP-HF group than in the CAS-HF group, when HDL2-CE was higher. In conclusion, these results indicate the potential effects of SP to improve glycaemia, insulin sensitivity and reverse cholesterol transport, in T2D rats.

  8. Elevated serum milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 levels in type 2 diabetic patients are suppressed by overweight or obese status.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Ran, Wenzhuo; Zhang, Jiaqiang; Chen, Shi; Li, Yihang; Luo, Deng; Wang, Chen; Jia, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Inflammation is the most important link between obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a key mediator in anti-inflammatory responses, its role in obesity and diabetes is not yet completely understood. We aimed to measure MFG-E8 serum levels and to explore the role of MFG-E8 in obesity and T2D. Fasting serum MFG-E8 levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 168 individuals, whose oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein, were measured. The participants were subdivided into 66 newly diagnosed T2D individuals, 44 impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects and 58 healthy controls. Their characteristics were further classified as lean or nonlean for investigation. MFG-E8 levels were significantly higher in T2D subjects than in healthy controls (P = 0.028). Decreased levels of MFG-E8 were found in overweight or obese individuals, compared to those in lean subjects, in both the T2D and IGT groups (P < 0.001). Interestingly, MFG-E8 levels showed a negative correlation with body mass index (BMI) and TNF-α levels in the total population and the T2D subgroup. Further, BMI and TNF-α concentrations were found to be independent predictors of MFG-E8 levels in all subjects. MFG-E8 levels are elevated in T2D but suppressed by increased adipose tissues, thereby allowing inflammatory factors to rise to high levels. MFG-E8 may serve as a potential biomarker for obesity and T2D in the clinical setting. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):63-71, 2017.

  9. The characterization of the physicochemical and sensory properties of full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat ovine and bovine Halloumi.

    PubMed

    Lteif, L; Olabi, A; Kebbe Baghdadi, O; Toufeili, I

    2009-09-01

    Halloumi cheese is a popular cheese in Lebanon and the Middle East. Today, health-conscious consumers are demanding lower fat foods with sensory properties that are comparable to their full-fat counterparts. The objectives of this work were to characterize the physicochemical and sensory properties of bovine and ovine Halloumi of different fat levels and to provide a baseline sensory profile for Halloumi cheese. Full-fat, reduced-fat, and low-fat samples were produced from ovine and bovine milks in 2 batches resulting in a total of 12 batches. The fat, protein, moisture, ash, pH, sodium, and calcium levels were determined and the instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Eleven trained panelists used quantitative descriptive analysis to profile the sensory attributes of the samples and an acceptability test was conducted with 84 panelists. The type of milk (ovine vs. bovine) significantly affected the moisture and protein contents, whereas fat level had a significant effect on moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents. Instrumental texture analysis revealed that the type of milk significantly affected adhesiveness, chewiness, and hardness, whereas the fat level affected chewiness, hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness. The sensory results of the trained panelists revealed that the ovine cheese was more yellow and harder than bovine cheese, whereas bovine cheese was squeakier. Low-fat and reduced-fat cheeses were also more yellow and harder than full-fat cheese, and full-fat cheese was more moist with no significant differences between the low-fat and reduced-fat varieties. Type of milk and fat level did not have any significant effect on fermented flavor, whey flavor, or saltiness. Bovine cheese received significantly higher scores on overall acceptability, texture acceptability, and significantly lower scores on the food action rating scale. Full-fat cheese obtained the highest score on overall acceptability

  10. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, a Rapid Method for Predicting the Age of Male and Female Wild-Type and Wolbachia Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method. Calibrations were developed using spectra collected from their heads and thoraces using partial least squares (PLS) regression. A highly significant correlation was found between the true and predicted ages of mosquitoes. The coefficients of determination for wild-type females and males across all age groups were R2 = 0.84 and 0.78, respectively. The coefficients of determination for the age of wMel and wMelPop infected females were 0.71 and 0.80, respectively (P< 0.001 in both instances). The age of wild-type female Ae. aegypti could be identified as < or ≥ 8 days old with an accuracy of 91% (N = 501), whereas female Ae. aegypti infected with wMel and wMelPop were differentiated into the two age groups with an accuracy of 83% (N = 284) and 78% (N = 229), respectively. Our results also indicate NIRS can distinguish between young and old male wild-type, wMel and wMelPop infected Ae. aegypti with accuracies of 87% (N = 253), 83% (N = 277) and 78% (N = 234), respectively. We have demonstrated the potential of NIRS as a predictor of the age of female and male wild-type and Wolbachia infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes under laboratory conditions. After field validation, the tool has the potential to offer a cheap and rapid alternative for surveillance of dengue and Zika vector control programs. PMID:27768689

  11. iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic profiling of anthers from a photosensitive male sterile mutant and wild-type cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Song, Meizhen; Meng, Yanyan; Ma, Jianhui; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2015-08-03

    Male sterility is a common phenomenon in flowering plants, and it has been successfully developed in several crops by taking advantage of heterosis. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important economic crop, used mainly for the production of textile fiber. Using a space mutation breeding technique, a novel photosensitive genetic male sterile mutant CCRI9106 was isolated from the wild-type upland cotton cultivar CCRI040029. To use CCRI9106 in cotton hybrid breeding, it is of great importance to study the molecular mechanisms of its male sterility. Here, histological and iTRAQ-facilitated proteomic analyses of anthers were performed to explore male sterility mechanisms of the mutant. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the anthers showed that the development of pollen wall in CCRI9106 was severely defective with a lack of exine formation. At the protein level, 6121 high-confidence proteins were identified and 325 of them showed differential expression patterns between mutant and wild-type anthers. The proteins up- or down-regulated in MT anthers were mainly involved in exine formation, protein degradation, calcium ion binding,etc. These findings provide valuable information on the proteins involved in anther and pollen development, and contribute to elucidate the mechanism of male sterility in upland cotton.

  12. Are female smokers at higher risk for lung cancer than male smokers? A case-control analysis by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Risch, H A; Howe, G R; Jain, M; Burch, J D; Holowaty, E J; Miller, A B

    1993-09-01

    A case-control study of male-female differences in cigarette smoking and lung cancer was conducted during 1981-1985 in Toronto, St. Catharine's, and Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. In total, 442 female and 403 male histologically verified cancer cases were individually matched by age and area of residence to each other and to 410 female and 362 male randomly selected population controls. Subjects were interviewed concerning their exposures to various life-style factors, and in particular, they received detailed questioning regarding their lifelong histories of usage of tobacco products. It was found that, for both sexes, a greatly elevated risk of developing lung cancer was associated with cigarette consumption, increasing with pack-years of cigarettes smoked and declining with duration of time since quitting smoking. Furthermore, the association was significantly (p = 0.010) and appreciably stronger for females than for males. At a history of 40 pack-years relative to lifelong nonsmoking, the odds ratio for women was 27.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-52.0) and that for men was 9.60 (95% CI 5.64-16.3). Higher odds ratios for females were also seen within each of the major histologic groupings. Thus, the higher elevated risk of lung cancer currently observed in other studies for female ever smokers compared with male ever smokers, while possibly attributable in part to greater smoking cessation among males, may be due to higher susceptibility among females.

  13. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  14. The role of dietary fat in obesity.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Arne

    2005-02-01

    Current scientific evidence indicates that dietary fat plays a role in weight loss and maintenance. Meta-analyses of intervention trials find that fat-reduced diets cause a 3-4-kg larger weight loss than normal-fat diets. A 10% reduction in dietary fat can cause a 4-5-kg weight loss in individuals with initial body mass index of 30 kg m (-2). Short-term trials show that nonfat dietary components are equally important. Sugar-sweetened beverages promote weight gain, and replacement of energy from fat by sugar-sweetened beverages is counterproductive in diets aimed at weight loss. Protein has been shown to be more satiating than carbohydrate, and fat-reduced diets with a high protein content (20-25% of energy) may increase weight loss significantly. There is little evidence that low-glycemic index foods facilitate weight control. Evidence linking certain fatty acids to body fatness is weak. Monounsaturated fatty acids may even be more fattening than polyunsaturated and saturated fats. No ad libitum dietary intervention study has shown that a normal-fat, high-monounsaturated fatty acid diet is comparable to a low-fat diet in preventing weight gain. Current evidence indicates that the best diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease is low in fat and sugar-rich beverages and high in carbohydrates, fiber, grains, and protein.

  15. Genotype-dependent Metabolic Responses to Semi-Purified High-Sucrose High-Fat Diets in the TALLYHO/Jng vs. C57BL/6 Mouse during the Development of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Parkman, J K; Mao, X; Dillon, K; Gudivada, A; Moustaid-Moussa, N; Saxton, A M; Kim, J H

    2016-11-01

    Background: The co-epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors are highly involved in the development of these diseases, in the form of interactions of multiple genes within obesogenic and diabetogenic environments, such as a high fat diet. The TALLYHO/Jng (TH) mouse is an inbred polygenic model for human obesity and type 2 diabetes. In order to further develop the TH mouse as a clinically relevant model, we investigated diet dependence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in TH mice vs. C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Results: TH and B6 mice were weaned onto a standard rodent chow, semi-purified high-sucrose low-fat (HSLF), or semi-purified high-sucrose high-fat (HSHF) diet and maintained on these diets throughout the study. Despite similar fat contents in HSLF diets and chow, both B6 and TH mice responded to HSLF diets, with increases in adiposity. TH mice, but not B6 mice, exhibited significantly higher adiposity with severely aggravated glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia on HSHF diets compared to the other diets. HSLF diets also advanced diabetes in TH mice compared to chow, but it did not surpass the effects of HSHF diets. The severe glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia in TH mice on both HSLF and HSHF diets were accompanied by significantly reduced Glut4 mRNA levels compared to B6 mice. Conclusions: The present data demonstrate that diets are important modulators of genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and obesity in TH mice. The interplay between heredity and dietary environment in TH mice appears to amplify insulin resistance, contributing to severe glucose intolerance and diabetes.

  16. Modelling the relationship between body fat and the BMI.

    PubMed

    Mills, T C; Gallagher, D; Wang, J; Heshka, S

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing concerns about the levels of obesity being reached throughout the world, this paper analyses the relationship between the most common index of obesity, the BMI, and levels of body fat. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The statistical relationship, in terms of functional form, between body fat and BMI is analysed using a large data set which can be categorized by race, sex and age. RESULTS: Irrespective of race, body fat and BMI are linearly related for males, with age entering logarithmically and with a positive effect on body fat. Caucasian males have higher body fat irrespective of age, but African American males' body fat increases with age faster than that of Asians and Hispanics. Age is not a significant predictor of body fat for females, where the relationship between body fat and BMI is nonlinear except for Asians. Caucasian females have higher predicted body fat than other races, except at low BMIs, where Asian females are predicted to have the highest body fat. DISCUSSION: Using BMIs to make predictions about body fat should be done with caution, as such predictions will depend upon race, sex and age and can be relatively imprecise. The results are of practical importance for informing the current debate on whether standard BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity should apply to all sex and racial groups given that these BMI values are shown to correspond to different levels of adiposity in different groups.

  17. Disruption of the murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene Akp3 impairs lipid transcytosis and induces visceral fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Takanari; Inoue, Ikuo; Koyama, Iwao; Kanazawa, Kenta; Nakamura, Koh-Ichi; Narisawa, Sonoko; Tanaka, Kayoko; Akita, Masumi; Masuyama, Taku; Seo, Makoto; Hokari, Shigeru; Katayama, Shigehiro; Alpers, David H; Millán, José Luis; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2007-05-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is involved in the process of fat absorption, a conclusion confirmed by an altered lipid transport and a faster body weight gain from 10 to 30 wk in both male and female mice with a homozygous null mutation of the IAP coding gene (Akp3(-/-) mice). This study was aimed to delineate morphologically and quantitatively the accelerated lipid absorption in male Akp3(-/-) mice. Feeding a corn oil bolus produced an earlier peak of triacylglycerol in serum (2 vs. 4 h for Akp3(-/-) and wild-type mice, respectively) and an approximately twofold increase in serum triacylglycerol concentration in Akp3(-/-) mice injected with a lipolysis inhibitor, Triton WR-1339. A corn oil load induced the threefold enlargement of the Golgi vacuoles in male wild-type mice but not in Akp3(-/-) mice, indicating that absorbed lipids rarely reached the Golgi complex and that the transcytosis of lipid droplets does not follow the normal pathway in male Akp3(-/-) mice. Force feeding an exaggerated fat intake by a 30% fat chow for 10 wk induced obesity in both male Akp3(-/-) and wild-type mice, and therefore no phenotypic difference was observed between the two. On the other hand, the forced high-fat chow induced an 18% greater body weight gain, hepatic steatosis, and visceral fat accumulation in female Akp3(-/-) mice but not in female wild-type controls. These results provide further evidence that IAP is involved in the regulation of the lipid absorption process and that its absence leads to progressive metabolic abnormalities in certain fat-forced conditions.

  18. Fat oxidation over a range of exercise intensities: fitness versus fatness.

    PubMed

    Croci, Ilaria; Hickman, Ingrid J; Wood, Rachel E; Borrani, Fabio; Macdonald, Graeme A; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-12-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO), as well as the exercise intensity at which it occurs (Fatmax), have been reported as lower in sedentary overweight individuals but have not been studied in trained overweight individuals. The aim of this study was to compare Fatmax and MFO in lean and overweight recreationally trained males matched for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to study the relationships between these variables, anthropometric characteristics, and CRF. Twelve recreationally trained overweight (high fatness (HiFat) group, 30.0% ± 5.3% body fat) and 12 lean males (low fatness (LoFat), 17.2% ± 5.7% body fat) matched for CRF (maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 39.0 ± 5.5 vs. 41.4 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), p = 0.31) and age (p = 0.93) performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. V̇O2max and fat and carbohydrate oxidation rates were determined using indirect calorimetry; Fatmax and MFO were determined with a mathematical model (SIN); and % body fat was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. MFO (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.42 ± 0.16 g·min(-1), p = 0.58), Fatmax (46.7% ± 8.6% vs. 45.4% ± 7.2% V̇O2max, p = 0.71), and fat oxidation rates over a wide range of exercise intensities were not significantly different (p > 0.05) between HiFat and LoFat groups. In the overall cohort (n = 24), MFO and Fatmax were correlated with V̇O2max (r = 0.46, p = 0.02; r = 0.61, p = 0.002) but not with % body fat or body mass index (p > 0.05). Fat oxidation during exercise was similar in recreationally trained overweight and lean males matched for CRF. Consistently, substrate oxidation rates during exercise were not related to adiposity (% body fat) but were related to CRF. The benefits of high CRF independent of body weight and % body fat should be further highlighted in the management of obesity.

  19. Prevalence of DNA-HPV in Male Sexual Partners of HPV-Infected Women and Concordance of Viral Types in Infected Couples

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Maria Gabrielle de Lima; Faria, Fabio Lopes; Gonçalves, Leonor; Souza, Maria do Carmo M.; Fernandes, Paula Ávila; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of HPV infection in men remains important due to its association with genital warts and anorectal cancer, as well as to the role men play in HPV transmission to their female sexual partners. Asymptomatic men (n = 43), whose sexual partners had presented cervical HPV infection, were enrolled in this study. Among the 43 men, 23 had their female partner included and tested for HPV-DNA, totaling 23 couples. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR. Type specific PCR to detect HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 6/11 was performed. At least one type of HPV was detected in 86.0% (37/43) of the male patients and more than one HPV type was identified in 39.5% (17/43) of the samples, including high and low risk HPV. HPV-16 proved to be the most prevalent viral type in both male and female samples. Concordance of at least one viral type was observed in 56.5% (13/23) of the couples. Among couples that have shown concordance of viral types, 84.6% (11/13) of the men had the same high risk viral type presented by the female sexual partner. These data suggest that HPV infected men is an important reservoir, contributing to a higher transmission to women and maintenance of infection, and consequently, a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination in men will protect not only them but will also have implications for their sexual partners. PMID:22815888

  20. Pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, bone type I collagen amino acid composition, reproductive capability and posterity antenatal and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, Larysa B; Shayakhmetova, Ganna M; Byshovets, Taisiya F; Kovalenko, Valentina M

    2012-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimens with first-line antitubercular agents are associated with a high rate of adverse effects which can lead to therapeutic failure. Understanding the nature and the severity of these effects is important for treatment optimization. The aim of present study was to investigate pyrazinamide potential effects on male rats DNA fragmentation, amino acid composition of bone type I collagen, reproductive capability and their posterity antenatal and postnatal development. Wistar albino male rats (160-200 g b.w.) were divided into three groups: I--received pyrazinamide per os at a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.w./day, II--at a dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w./day, in both groups it was given for 60 days; III--control. After 60 days of the experiment, rats of the experimental (groups I and II) and control groups were mated with intact virgin females. The amino acids contents of male rat bone type I collagens were determined using amino acid analyzer, epididymis and testis DNA fragmentation--electrophoretically; posterity antenatal development indices and postnatal development--by standard procedures. The study of pyrazinamide effects (administered in different doses) on males bone type I collagen amino acid contents and testis DNA fragmentation demonstrated the presence of dose-dependent pyrazinamide-mediated quantitative and qualitative changes in male rat reproductive organs DNA and extracellular matrix proteins in comparison with control. Changes in nucleic acids and proteins structure were accompanied by alterations in processes of fertilization (with intact females), embryogenesis and by lowering of posterity survival.

  1. Interruption of ghrelin signaling in the PVN increases high-fat diet intake and body weight in stressed and non-stressed C57BL6J male mice

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Zachary R.; Parno, Tamara; Isaacs, Albert M.; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Chronic social stress has been associated with increased caloric intake and adiposity. These effects have been linked to stress induced changes in the secretion of ghrelin, a hormone that targets a number of brain regions to increase food intake and energy expenditure and promote increased body fat content. One of the brain sites targeted by ghrelin is the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a region critical for both the regulation of the stress response and the regulation of energy balance. Given these data, we examined the contribution of ghrelin receptors in the PVN to the metabolic and behavioral changes that are seen during chronic social stress in mice. To do this, mice were implanted with cannulae attached to osmotic minipumps and delivering either vehicle or the ghrelin receptor (growth hormone secretagogue receptor) antagonist [D-Lys-3]-GHRP-6 (20 nmol/day/mouse). Following a week of recovery, half of the animals in each group were exposed to chronic social defeat stress for a period of 3 weeks whereas the other half were left undisturbed. During this time, all animals were given ad libitum access to standard laboratory chow and presented a high-fat diet for 4 h during the day. Results showed that the ghrelin receptor antagonism did not decrease stressed induced caloric intake, but paradoxically increased the intake of the high fat diet. This would suggest that ghrelin acts on the PVN to promote the intake of carbohydrate rich diets while decreasing fat intake and blockade of ghrelin receptors in the PVN leads to more consumption of foods that are high in fat. PMID:24062637

  2. A possible second type of maternal-fetal immune interaction involved in both male and female homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has found that the mothers of firstborn homosexual sons produce fewer subsequent offspring than do the mothers of firstborn heterosexual sons. It was hypothesized that a subset of mothers of firstborn homosexuals may be responsible for this finding. If there is a subset of mothers whose immune reactions cause their first male fetus to be homosexual and their subsequent fetuses to die, then their immune reactions should also cause their first male fetus to have a lower birth weight. This leads to the prediction that, within the population of firstborn homosexual men, those with no younger siblings should also tend to have lower birth weights. This prediction was tested using a previously published sample of 1,445 firstborn subjects: 929 heterosexual females, 47 homosexual females, 409 heterosexual males, and 60 homosexual males. The results showed that firstborn homosexuals with no younger siblings (i.e., only children) did have lower birth weights compared with all the other subjects, but the finding applied to firstborn lesbian women as well as firstborn gay men.

  3. [Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong].

    PubMed

    Han, Lin; Xin, Ruosai; Sun, Jian; Hou, Feng; Li, Changgui; Hu, Xinlin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yao; Li, Xinde; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Jia, Zhaotong

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with liability to gout among ethnic Han Chinese males from coastal region of Shandong province. METHODS Seven SNPs within the susceptibility genes of T2DM, including rs10773971(G/C) and rs4766398(G/C) of WNT5B gene, rs10225163(G/C) of JAZF1 gene, rs2069590(T/A) of BDKRB2 gene, rs5745709(G/A) of HGF gene, rs1991914(C/A) of OTOP1 gene and rs2236479(G/A) of COL18A1 gene, were typed with a custom-made Illumina GoldenGate Genotyping assay in 480 male patients with gout and 480 male controls. Potential association was assessed with the chi-square test. RESULTS No significant difference was detected for the 7 selected SNPs in terms of genotypic and allelic frequencies (P > 0.05). When age and body mass index (BMI) were adjusted, the 7 genetic variants still showed no significant association with gout. CONCLUSION The genotypes of the 7 selected SNPs are not associated with gout in ethnic Han Chinese male patients from the coastal region of Shandong province. However, the results need to be replicated in larger sets of patients collected from other regions and populations.

  4. Dietary fat, cooking fat, and breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; John, Esther M; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between dietary fat intake, cooking fat usage, and breast cancer risk in a population-based, multiethnic, case-control study conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Intake of total fat and types of fat were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire among 1,703 breast cancer cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and 2,045 controls. In addition, preferred use of fat for cooking was assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). High fat intake was associated with increased risk of breast cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, P(trend) < 0.01). A positive association was found for oleic acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.14-2.10, P(trend) < 0.01) but not for linoleic acid or saturated fat. Risk was increased for women cooking with hydrogenated fats (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10) or vegetable/corn oil (rich in linoleic acid; OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.06-1.58) compared to women using olive/canola oil (rich in oleic acid). Our results suggest that a low-fat diet may play a role in breast cancer prevention. We speculate that monounsaturated trans fats may have driven the discrepant associations between types of fat and breast cancer.

  5. The effect of ripening, heat processing and frozen storage on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from Jalapeño peppers in absence and presence of two dietary fat types.

    PubMed

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Ramos-Aguilar, Olivia P; Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D

    2015-08-15

    To date, there is no information in the literature regarding the bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from natural sources. The effect of ripening and heat-processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin was studied in the absence and presence of two dietary fat types. The capsaicinoid bioaccessibility was also studied during the frozen storage of peppers for 6 months. Fresh green peppers showed the highest capsaicinoid bioaccessibility, as compared with that of other experimental groups. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids from green peppers decreased as the intensity of heat treatment increased. The dietary fat increased the bioaccessibility of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in digestions with red peppers, especially that of dihydrocapsaicin. The bioaccessibility of capsaicinoids was altered by frozen storage. The Caco-2 cells incorporated capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin (8.4% and 10.9%, respectively) but they were probably metabolized by cells.

  6. Function and cancer genomics of FAT family genes

    PubMed Central

    KATOH, MASARU

    2012-01-01

    FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 and FAT4 are human homologs of Drosophila Fat, which is involved in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity (PCP). FAT1 and FAT4 undergo the first proteolytic cleavage by Furin and are predicted to undergo the second cleavage by γ-secretase to release intracellular domain (ICD). Ena/VAPS-binding to FAT1 induces actin polymerization at lamellipodia and filopodia to promote cell migration, while Scribble-binding to FAT1 induces phosphorylation and functional inhibition of YAP1 to suppress cell growth. FAT1 is repressed in oral cancer owing to homozygous deletion or epigenetic silencing and is preferentially downregulated in invasive breast cancer. On the other hand, FAT1 is upregulated in leukemia and prognosis of preB-ALL patients with FAT1 upregulation is poor. FAT4 directly interacts with MPDZ/MUPP1 to recruit membrane-associated guanylate kinase MPP5/PALS1. FAT4 is involved in the maintenance of PCP and inhibition of cell proliferation. FAT4 mRNA is repressed in breast cancer and lung cancer due to promoter hypermethylation. FAT4 gene is recurrently mutated in several types of human cancers, such as melanoma, pancreatic cancer, gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. FAT1 and FAT4 suppress tumor growth via activation of Hippo signaling, whereas FAT1 promotes tumor migration via induction of actin polymerization. FAT1 is tumor suppressive or oncogenic in a context-dependent manner, while FAT4 is tumor suppressive. Copy number aberration, translocation and point mutation of FAT1, FAT2, FAT3, FAT4, FRMD1, FRMD6, NF2, WWC1, WWC2, SAV1, STK3, STK4, MOB1A, MOB1B, LATS1, LATS2, YAP1 and WWTR1/TAZ genes should be comprehensively investigated in various types of human cancers to elucidate the mutation landscape of the FAT-Hippo signaling cascades. Because YAP1 and WWTR1 are located at the crossroads of adhesion, GPCR, RTK and stem-cell signaling network, cancer genomics of the FAT signaling cascades could be applied for diagnostics, prognostics

  7. B-type nuclear lamin and the nuclear pore complex Nup107-160 influences maintenance of the spindle envelope required for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Daisuke; Tanabe, Karin; Katsube, Hiroka

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In higher eukaryotes, nuclear envelope (NE) disassembly allows chromatin to condense and spindle microtubules to access kinetochores. The nuclear lamina, which strengthens the NE, is composed of a polymer meshwork made of A- and B-type lamins. We found that the B-type lamin (Lam) is not fully disassembled and continues to localize along the spindle envelope structure during Drosophila male meiosis I, while the A-type lamin (LamC) is completely dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Among the nuclear pore complex proteins, Nup107 co-localized with Lam during this meiotic division. Surprisingly, Lam depletion resulted in a higher frequency of cytokinesis failure in male meiosis. We also observed the similar meiotic phenotype in Nup107-depleted cells. Abnormal localization of Lam was found in the Nup-depleted cells at premeiotic and meiotic stages. The central spindle microtubules became abnormal and recruitment of a contractile ring component to the cleavage sites was disrupted in Lam-depleted cells and Nup107-depleted cells. Therefore, we speculate that both proteins are required for a reinforcement of the spindle envelope, which supports the formation of central spindle microtubules essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila male meiosis. PMID:27402967

  8. Consumption of low-fat dairy products and energy and protein intake in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Pintor-de la Maza, Begoña; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-01-01

    Current nutritional guidelines encourage the reduction of fat intake from animal sources like dairy products. The aim was to determine whether the consumption of low-fat dairy is related to poorer dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients at risk of malnutrition. This cross-sectional included patients with solid or hematological malignancies at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional status was studied using Subjective Global Assessment, anthropometry, and grip strength. Dietary intake was evaluated with a 24-h recall and dairy consumption with a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four patients were recruited; 71.6% males of 64.8 yr, most with gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 37.8% consumed whole milk, and 61.4% consumed whole yogurt. Reasons for consumption of low-fat dairies were healthy diet (58.0%), hypercholesterolemia (20.0%), and digestive intolerance (10.0%). There were similar rates of malnutrition according the type of dairy (whole 60.9% vs. low-fat 66.7%, P = 0.640). Low-fat dairies were related to a reduction in energy (whole 1980.1 kcal vs. low-fat 1480.9, P = 0.007) and protein intake (whole 86.0 g vs. low-fat 63.0 g, P = 0.030).

  9. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Jacob; George, Reeba; Dixit, R.; Gupta, R. C.; Gupta, N.

    2013-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome is an often overlooked cause of breathlessness in trauma wards. Presenting in a wide range of clinical signs of varying severity, fat embolism is usually diagnosed by a physician who keeps a high degree of suspicion. The clinical background, chronology of symptoms and corroborative laboratory findings are instrumental in a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. There are a few diagnostic criteria which are helpful in making a diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome. Management is mainly prevention of fat embolism syndrome, and organ supportive care. Except in fulminant fat embolism syndrome, the prognosis is usually good. PMID:23661916

  10. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2016-10-20

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  11. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  12. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (-16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (-0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (-166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  13. Sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type-III (GnRH3) neurons and hormonal sex reversal of male reproductive behavior in Mozambique tilapia.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Asami; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Kaneko, Toyoji; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2011-10-01

    In tilapia, hormone treatment during the period of sexual differentiation can alter the phenotype of the gonads, indicating that endocrine factors can cause gonadal sex reversal. However, the endocrine mechanism underlying sex reversal of reproductive behaviors remains unsolved. In the present study, we detected sexual dimorphism of gonadotropin-releasing hormone type III (GnRH3) neurons in Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus. Our immunohistochemical observations showed sex differences in the number of GnRH3 immunoreactive neurons in mature tilapia; males had a greater number of GnRH3 neurons in the terminal ganglion than females. Treatment with androgen (11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) or methyltestosterone), but not that with 17β-estradiol, increased the number of GnRH3 neurons in females to a level similar to that in males. Furthermore, male-specific nest-building behavior was induced in 70% of females treated with 11-KT within two weeks after the onset of the treatment. These results indicate androgen-dependent regulation of GnRH3 neurons and nest-building behavior, suggesting that GnRH3 is importantly involved in sex reversal of male-specific reproductive behavior.

  14. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  15. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  16. Stem cell activation in adults can reverse detrimental changes in body composition to reduce fat and increase lean mass in both sexes.

    PubMed

    Wiren, Kristine M; Hashimoto, Joel G; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-12-01

    Detrimental changes in body composition are often associated with declining levels of testosterone. Here, we evaluated the notion that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, that give rise to both fat and muscle tissue, can play a significant role to alter existing body composition in the adult. Transgenic mice with targeted androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in stem cells were employed. Wild-type littermate and AR-transgenic male and female mice were gonadectomized and left untreated for 2 months. After the hypogonadal period, mice were then treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) for 6 weeks. After orchidectomy (ORX), wild-type males have reduced lean mass and increased fat mass compared to shams. DHT treatment was beneficial to partially restore body composition. In wild-type females, ovariectomy (OVX) produced a similar change but there was no improvement with DHT. In targeted AR transgenic mice, DHT treatment increased lean and reduced fat mass to sham levels. In contrast to wild-type females, DHT treatment in female transgenic mice significantly ameliorated the increased fat and decreased lean mass changes that result after OVX. Our results show that DHT administration reduces fat mass and increases lean mass in wild-type males but not females, indicating that wild-type females are not as sensitive to androgen treatment. Because both male and female transgenic mice are more responsive than wild-type, results suggest that body composition remains linked to stem cell fate in the adult and that targeted androgen signaling in stem cells can play a significant role to reverse detrimental changes in body composition in both sexes.

  17. Paradoxical Cerebral Fat Embolism in Revision Hip Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Piuzzi, Nicolás S.; Zanotti, Gerardo; Comba, Fernando M.; Buttaro, Martin A.; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of clinical fat embolism syndrome (FES) is low (<1%) whilst fat embolism (FE) of marrow fat appears to occur more often (Mellor and Soni (2001)). Paradoxical brain FE may occur in patients undergoing hip orthopedic surgery who have an undocumented patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a case of an eighty-year-old male patient, who underwent a scheduled revision hip surgery suffering a paradoxical cerebral FE. PMID:25184065

  18. Ketogenic diet does not impair spatial ability controlled by the hippocampus in male rats.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Ogura, Yuji; Furuta, Miyako; Kakehashi, Chiaki; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo

    2015-10-05

    A ketogenic diet was recently shown to reduce glutamate accumulation in synaptic vesicles, decreasing glutamate transmission. We questioned whether a ketogenic diet affects hippocampal function, as glutamate transmission is critically involved in visuospatial ability. In the present study, male Wistar rats were maintained on a ketogenic diet containing 10% protein and 90% fat with complements for 3 weeks to change their energy expenditure from glucose-dependent to fat-dependent. Control rats were fed a diet containing 10% protein, 10% fat, and 80% carbohydrates. The fat-dependent energy expenditure induced by the ketogenic diet led to decreased body weight and increased blood ketone production, though the rats in the two groups consumed the same number of calories. The ketogenic diet did not alter food preferences for the control or high-fat diet containing 10% protein, 45% fat, and 45% carbohydrates. Anxiety in the open field was not altered by ingestion the ketogenic diet. However, rats fed the ketogenic diet performed better in the Y-maze test than rats fed the control diet. No difference was observed between the two groups in the Morris water maze test. Finally, Western blot revealed that the hippocampal expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) was significantly increased in mice fed a ketogenic diet. These results suggest that hippocampal function is not impaired by a ketogenic diet and we speculate that the fat-dependent energy expenditure does not impair visuospatial ability.

  19. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... have plenty of fat. They include nuts, oils, butter, and meats like beef. The name — fat — may ... you reach that goal. It includes a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, milk, and an apple. The ...

  20. Know Your Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ... from plants that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil (often called tropical ...

  1. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  2. Saturated fats (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Saturated fats are found predominantly in animal products such as meat and dairy products, and are strongly associated with higher cholesterol levels. Tropical oils such as palm, coconut, and coconut butter, are also high in saturated fats.

  3. Learning about Fats

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink low-fat or skim milk. Doing the Math How much fat should you eat? Experts say ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  4. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training.

  5. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  6. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Burger, D; Dolivo, G; Marti, E; Sieme, H; Wedekind, C

    2015-05-22

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies.

  7. Effects of high-fat diet on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    PubMed Central

    QI, GUANGYING; TANG, BO; ZHOU, LIHUA; JIKIHARA, HIROSHI; KIWATA, ATSUMI; SAKAMOTO, YUKI; TANG, FANG; XIAO, SHENGJUN; WANG, ZHENRAN; WU, QIUHUI; LU, HUILING; WU, ZHEN; ZENG, SIEN; SHIMAMOTO, FUMIO

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of numerous types of cancer. The present study investigated the impact of a high-fat diet on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) in F344 rats. A total of 16 male F344 rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into two groups (8 rats/group). Rats in group A were fed a basal diet with a moderate fat (MF) content, while rats in group B were fed a high-fat diet. Upon reaching 5 weeks of age, the rats were injected subcutaneously with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight). DMH was administered once a week for 8 consecutive weeks. All the rats were sacrificed 34 weeks after the first DMH injection and dissected to obtain samples of colorectal tissues. The tissues were examined under a microscope for the presence of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) and subjected to histopathological analysis. The results showed that at the end of the 34-week experiment, body weights and visceral fat levels were significantly higher in the high-fat diet group compared to the basal diet group. In addition, the incidences of colorectal ACF, adenoma and adenocarcinoma were markedly elevated in the high-fat diet group compared to the basal diet group. These results indicate that the consumption of a high-fat diet promotes the development and progression of CRC and the control of fat intake may prevent CRC. PMID:26137224

  8. Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

    2012-12-01

    This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats.

  9. Comparison of germ cell mutagenicity in male CYP2E1-null and wild-type mice treated with acrylamide: evidence supporting a glycidamide-mediated effect.

    PubMed

    Ghanayem, B I; Witt, K L; El-Hadri, L; Hoffler, U; Kissling, G E; Shelby, M D; Bishop, J B

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide is an animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen present in appreciable amounts in heated carbohydrate-rich foodstuffs. It is also a germ cell mutagen, inducing dominant lethal mutations and heritable chromosomal translocations in postmeiotic sperm of treated mice. Acrylamide's affinity for male germ cells has sometimes been overlooked in assessing its toxicity and defining human health risks. Previous investigations of acrylamide's germ cell activity in mice showed stronger effects after repeated administration of low doses compared with a single high dose, suggesting the possible involvement of a stable metabolite. A key oxidative metabolite of acrylamide is the epoxide glycidamide, generated by cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1). To explore the role of CYP2E1 metabolism in the germ cell mutagenicity of acrylamide, CYP2E1-null and wild-type male mice were treated by intraperitoneal injection with 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg acrylamide (5 ml saline)(-1) kg(-1) day(-1) for 5 consecutive days. At defined times after exposure, males were mated to untreated B6C3F1 females. Females were killed in late gestation and uterine contents were examined. Dose-related increases in resorption moles (chromosomally aberrant embryos) and decreases in the numbers of pregnant females and the proportion of living fetuses were seen in females mated to acrylamide-treated wild-type mice. No changes in any fertility parameters were seen in females mated to acrylamide-treated CYP2E1-null mice. Our results constitute the first unequivocal demonstration that acrylamide-induced germ cell mutations in male mice require CYP2E1-mediated epoxidation of acrylamide. Thus, CYP2E1 polymorphisms in human populations, resulting in variable enzyme metabolic activities, may produce differential susceptibilities to acrylamide toxicities.

  10. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Background Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Methods Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch®. We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT®). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. Results All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. Conclusion EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS. PMID:26955278

  11. The Role of Dorsal Hippocampal Dopamine D1-Type Receptors in Social Learning, Social Interactions, and Food Intake in Male and Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Matta, Richard; Tiessen, Angela N; Choleris, Elena

    2017-03-29

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying social learning (ie, in which an animal's learning is influenced by another) are slowly being unraveled. Previous work with systemic treatments shows that dopamine (DA) D1-type receptors mediate social learning in the social transmission of food preferences (STFP) in mice. This study examines the involvement of one brain region underlying this effect. The ventral tegmental area has dopaminergic projections to many limbic structures, including the hippocampus-a site important for social learning in the STFP in rodents. In this study, adult male and female CD-1 mice received a dorsal hippocampal microinfusion of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390 at 1, 2, 4, or 6 μg/μl 15 min before a 30 min social interaction with a same-sex conspecific, in which mice had the opportunity to learn a socially transmitted food preference. Results show that social learning was blocked in female mice microinfused with 6 μg/μl, and in males infused with 1, 4, or 6 μg/μl of SCH23390. This social learning impairment could not be explained by changes in total food intake, or olfactory discrimination. A detailed analysis of the social interactions also revealed that although SCH23390 did not affect oronasal investigation for either sex, drug treatments affected other social behaviors in a sex-specific manner; there was primarily a reduction in agonistic-related behaviors among males, and social investigatory-related behaviors among females. Thus, this study shows that dorsal hippocampal D1-type receptors mediate social learning and social behaviors in male and female mice.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 29 March 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.43.

  12. Multipoint linkage map of the human pseudoautosomal region, based on single-sperm typing: Do double crossovers occur during male meiosis?

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, K.; Arnheim, N.; Lazzeroni, L.C.; Goradia, T.M.; Lange, K.; Foote, S.; Vollrath, D.; Fisher, E.M.C.; Page, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Sperm typing was used to measure recombination fractions among pseudoautosomal markers and the beginning of the X/Y-specific sequences located at the pseudoautosomal boundary. These experiments included primer-extension preamplification and PCR followed by allele typing using gel electrophoresis. A newly developed data-analysis program allowed the construction of the first multipoint-linkage sperm-typing map, using results obtained on seven loci from three individuals. The large sample size not only confirmed the increased recombination activity of the pseudoautosomal region but allowed an estimate of interference of recombination to be made. The coefficient of coincidence was calculated to be .26 over a physical distance of only {approximately} 1,800 kb. The observation of a few sperm presumably resulting from double recombination argues that more than one crossover event can occur in this region during male meiosis. 44 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  13. Mapping QTLs for Fertility Restoration of Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Types in Rice Using Two Oryza sativa ×O. rufipogon Backcross Inbred Line Populations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Biao-Lin; Xie, Jian-Kun; Wan, Yong; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zhang, Fan-Tao; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL) populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB)//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR) (XXD) or XB//DWR/XB (XDX) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-), Indonesia Paddy- (ID-), and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed with both the XXD- and XDX-BILs, while the line with DWR-type CMS was testcrossed with the XDX-BILs only. A total of 16 QTLs for fertility restoration of CMS systems were identified, including three for DWR-type CMS, six for DA-type CMS, and seven for ID-type CMS. All of the additive alleles in the QTLs were derived from Oryza rufipogon. Eleven QTLs were clustered in five chromosomal regions, indicating that common Rf loci restored different CMS systems, and the favorable O. rufipogon alleles could be used to develop restorer lines for various CMS types by marker-assisted selection.

  14. Mapping QTLs for Fertility Restoration of Different Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Types in Rice Using Two Oryza sativa ×O. rufipogon Backcross Inbred Line Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Biao-lin; Wan, Yong; Zhang, Jin-wei; Zhang, Fan-tao; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice breeding using cytoplasmic male sterility/fertility restoration (CMS/Rf) systems plays an important role in ensuring global food security. Two backcross inbred line (BIL) populations derived from either Xieqingzao B (XB)//XB/Dongxiang wild rice (DWR) (XXD) or XB//DWR/XB (XDX) were used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for fertility restoration of Dwarf wild abortive- (DA-), Indonesia Paddy- (ID-), and DWR-type CMS in rice. Lines with ID- and DA-type CMS were testcrossed with both the XXD- and XDX-BILs, while the line with DWR-type CMS was testcrossed with the XDX-BILs only. A total of 16 QTLs for fertility restoration of CMS systems were identified, including three for DWR-type CMS, six for DA-type CMS, and seven for ID-type CMS. All of the additive alleles in the QTLs were derived from Oryza rufipogon. Eleven QTLs were clustered in five chromosomal regions, indicating that common Rf loci restored different CMS systems, and the favorable O. rufipogon alleles could be used to develop restorer lines for various CMS types by marker-assisted selection. PMID:27872859

  15. Reproductive and lipid cycles in the male frog Rana ridibunda in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Loumbourdis, N S; Kyriakopoulou-Sklavounou, P

    1991-01-01

    1. Reproductive and lipid cycles in the male frog Rana ridibunda were studied. 2. The spermatogenesis of Rana ridibunda is of the potentially continuous type. 3. During prehibernating season (September-November) a part of lipid is mobilized from fat bodies to other body sites or is transformed to other metabolites. 4. During wintering this frog consumes mainly glycogen. 5. In February the lipid is accumulated in the fat bodies and the liver mass shows a second peak, probably as a result of glycogen accumulation. 6. The greatest decrease of metabolites was observed during the breeding season and this is the result of the intensive activities related to the reproduction and maintenance.

  16. Validity of Impedance Predictions at Various Levels of Fatness,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    estimates of total body water and of fat-free mass. The validity of RES to predict percent body fat (%BF) was evaluated in a sample of 403 male (Mean...were collected on a sample of 403 male and 135 female military personnel. Characteristics of this population sample are provided in Table 1...inferior to the axilla and at the nipple line as described by Beckett and Hodgdon (1985) and Behnke and Wilmore (1974), respectively. Abdominal

  17. Improved Glycaemia Correlates with Liver Fat Reduction in Obese, Type 2 Diabetes, Patients Given Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Irwin, Andrew; Gardner, Chris J.; Daousi, Christina; Purewal, Tej; Furlong, Niall; Goenka, Niru; Thomas, E. Louise; Adams, Valerie L.; Pushpakom, Sudeep P.; Pirmohamed, Munir; Kemp, Graham J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are effective for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because they concomitantly target obesity and dysglycaemia. Considering the high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with T2DM, we determined the impact of 6 months’ GLP-1 RA therapy on intrahepatic lipid (IHL) in obese, T2DM patients with hepatic steatosis, and evaluated the inter-relationship between changes in IHL with those in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and volume of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT). We prospectively studied 25 (12 male) patients, age 50±10 years, BMI 38.4±5.6 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) with baseline IHL of 28.2% (16.5 to 43.1%) and HbA1c of 9.6% (7.9 to 10.7%) (median and interquartile range). Patients treated with metformin and sulphonylureas/DPP-IV inhibitors were given 6 months GLP-1 RA (exenatide, n = 19; liraglutide, n = 6). IHL was quantified by liver proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and VAT and SAT by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment was associated with mean weight loss of 5.0 kg (95% CI 3.5,6.5 kg), mean HbA1c reduction of 1·6% (17 mmol/mol) (0·8,2·4%) and a 42% relative reduction in IHL (−59.3, −16.5%). The relative reduction in IHL correlated with that in HbA1c (ρ = 0.49; p = 0.01) but was not significantly correlated with that in total body weight, VAT or SAT. The greatest IHL reduction occurred in individuals with highest pre-treatment levels. Mechanistic studies are needed to determine potential direct effects of GLP-1 RA on human liver lipid metabolism. PMID:23236362

  18. Influence of Oreocnide integrifolia (Gaud.) Miq on IRS-1, Akt and Glut-4 in Fat-Fed C57BL/6J Type 2 Diabetes Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ansarullah; Jayaraman, Selvaraj; Hardikar, Anandwardhan A.; Ramachandran, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Oreocnide integrifolia (OI) leaves are used as folklore medicine by the people of northeast India to alleviate diabetic symptoms. Preliminary studies revealed hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic potentials of the aqueous leaf extract. The present study was carried out to evaluate whether the OI extract induces insulin secretion in vivo and in vitro and also whether it is mediated through the insulin-signaling pathway. The experimental set-up consisted of three groups of C57BL/6J mice strain: (i) control animals fed with standard laboratory diet, (ii) diabetic animals fed with a high-fat diet for 24 weeks and (iii) extract-supplemented animals fed with 3% OI extract along with high-fat diet for 24 weeks. OI-extract supplementation lowered adiposity and plasma glucose and insulin levels. Immunoblot analysis of IRS-1, Akt and Glut-4 protein expressions in muscles of extract-supplemented animals revealed that glucoregulation was mediated through the insulin-signaling pathway. Moreover, immunostaining of pancreas revealed increased insulin immunopositive cells in OI-extract-treated animals. In addition, the insulin secretogogue ability of the OI extract was demonstrated when challenged with high glucose concentration using isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Overall, the present study demonstrates the possible mechanism of glucoregulation of OI extract suggestive of its therapeutic potential for the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:21785636

  19. Transgenic MSH overexpression attenuates the metabolic effects of a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michelle; Kim, Andrea; Chua, Streamson C; Obici, Silvana; Wardlaw, Sharon L

    2007-07-01

    To determine whether long-term melanocortinergic activation can attenuate the metabolic effects of a high fat diet, mice overexpressing an NH(2)-terminal POMC transgene that includes alpha- and gamma(3)-MSH were studied on either a 10% low-fat diet (LFD) or 45% high-fat diet (HFD). Weight gain was modestly reduced in transgenic (Tg-MSH) male and female mice vs. wild type (WT) on HFD (P < 0.05) but not LFD. Substantial reductions in body fat percentage were found in both male and female Tg-MSH mice on LFD (P < 0.05) and were more pronounced on HFD (P < 0.001). These changes occurred in the absence of significant feeding differences in most groups, consistent with effects of Tg-MSH on energy expenditure and partitioning. This is supported by indirect calorimetry studies demonstrating higher resting oxygen consumption and lower RQ in Tg-MSH mice on the HFD. Tg-MSH mice had lower fasting insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance on both diets. Histological and biochemical analyses revealed that hepatic fat accumulation was markedly reduced in Tg-MSH mice on the HFD. Tg-MSH also attenuated the increase in corticosterone induced by the HFD. Higher levels of Agrp mRNA, which might counteract effects of the transgene, were measured in Tg-MSH mice on LFD (P = 0.02) but not HFD. These data show that long-term melanocortin activation reduces body weight, adiposity, and hepatic fat accumulation and improves glucose metabolism, particularly in the setting of diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that long-term melanocortinergic activation could serve as a potential strategy for the treatment of obesity and its deleterious metabolic consequences.

  20. Linking cellular zinc status to body weight and fat mass: mapping quantitative trait loci in Znt7 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Tepaamorndech, Surapun; Kirschke, Catherine P; Huang, Liping

    2014-08-01

    Zinc transporter 7 (Znt7, Slc30a7) knockout (KO) mice display abnormalities in body weight gain and body adiposity. Regulation of body weight and body fat accumulation is complex, involving multiple genetic and environmental factors. To understand how zinc homeostasis influences body weight and fat deposit and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that link zinc metabolism to growth and adiposity, we conducted a genome-wide mapping study using male F2 Znt7 KO mice and wild-type (WT) littermates with a mixed 129P1/ReJ and C57BL/6J genetic background. The mice were fed a semi-purified diet containing 30-mg Zn/kg diet at weaning. Body weights and fat pad weights including epididymal, retroperitoneal, and femoral subcutaneous fat pads were measured at 16 weeks of age. We detected two significant QTLs (p < 0.05) for body weight and fat deposit. One was in the F2 Znt7 KO population and the other in the F2 WT population. In Znt7 KO mice, the body weight and fat deposit was significantly linked to a locus on chromosome 7 ranging from 64.3 to 78.3 Mb. In WT mice, a significant linkage of retroperitoneal fat mass was found on chromosome 8 between 14.5 and 63.5 Mb. In addition, several other suggestive QTLs (p < 0.63) for body weight and fat accumulation were detected in Znt7 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, the QTLs identified in this study may provide new hints to uncover the genes linking cellular zinc status to growth and body fat accumulation.

  1. Antecedents and consequences of expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat foods.

    PubMed

    Tuorila, H; Cardello, A V; Lesher, L L

    1994-12-01

    Hedonic and sensory expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat pound cake, crackers and American cheese were studied with 97 subjects divided into three subgroups, each testing one type of product. Four study phases were separated by 1-month intervals: (1) a questionnaire on demographics, dietary practices and consumption of the test products, (2) intensity ratings of sensory attributes and ratings of liking of unlabeled fat-free and regular-fat samples, (3) ratings of expected attribute intensities and liking in response to product labels of "fat-free" and "regular", and subsequent ratings of these samples and (4) phase 3 repeated with opposite (incorrect) labels. Fat-free products were expected to be less liked than their regular counterparts; however, only cheese was less liked in actual taste tests. Expected liking was best predicted by familiarity with the product and, in the case of fat-free products, by the extent to which a person substituted low-fat for high-fat foods. Actual liking was best predicted by the effect of labeling and by expectations. The expected intensities of sensory attributes were uniformly higher in regular than in fat-free products. Both sensory and hedonic ratings of labeled samples changed in the direction of expectations, as compared to baseline values, supporting an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on sensory perception and consumer acceptance.

  2. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Rosqvist, Fredrik; Iggman, David; Kullberg, Joel; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Johansson, Hans-Erik; Larsson, Anders; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Arner, Peter; Dahlman, Ingrid; Risérus, Ulf

    2014-07-01

    Excess ectopic fat storage is linked to type 2 diabetes. The importance of dietary fat composition for ectopic fat storage in humans is unknown. We investigated liver fat accumulation and body composition during overfeeding saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LIPOGAIN was a double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial. Thirty-nine young and normal-weight individuals were overfed muffins high in SFAs (palm oil) or n-6 PUFAs (sunflower oil) for 7 weeks. Liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), total adipose tissue, pancreatic fat, and lean tissue were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Transcriptomics were performed in SAT. Both groups gained similar weight. SFAs, however, markedly increased liver fat compared with PUFAs and caused a twofold larger increase in VAT than PUFAs. Conversely, PUFAs caused a nearly threefold larger increase in lean tissue than SFAs. Increase in liver fat directly correlated with changes in plasma SFAs and inversely with PUFAs. Genes involved in regulating energy dissipation, insulin resistance, body composition, and fat-cell differentiation in SAT were differentially regulated between diets, and associated with increased PUFAs in SAT. In conclusion, overeating SFAs promotes hepatic and visceral fat storage, whereas excess energy from PUFAs may instead promote lean tissue in healthy humans.

  3. Associations of Dietary Fat, Regional Adiposity, and Blood Pressure in Men

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Terry, Richard B.; Garay, Susan C.; Vranizan, Karen M.; Ellsworth, Nancy; Wood, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean populations have low incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and hypertension that may be due, in part, to dietary factors, particularly a relatively high intake of monounsaturated fat as olive oil. In this study, nutritional components (as grams per 4200 kJ) (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) from three-day food records were examined in association with resting blood pressure in a cross-sectional survey of 76 sedentary middle-aged American men, aged 30 to 55 years, with resting blood pressures below 160/100 mm Hg. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly and inversely with monounsaturated fat consumption. Polyunsaturated fat consumption also correlated inversely with diastolic blood pressure; however, this relationship became nonsignificant when adjusted for an index of regional adiposity that characterizes the male-type obesity pattern. Detailed analyses of specific fatty acids showed that the correlations with monounsaturates were specific to oleic acid, and the correlation with polyunsaturates was specific to linoleic acid. Multiple regression analysis suggested that 18.2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 23.2% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure were related to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat consumption and regional adiposity. Thus, increased consumption of monounsaturated fat is related inversely to resting blood pressure, although causality remains to be determined. PMID:3586249

  4. Differential effect of severe and moderate social stress on blood immune and endocrine measures and susceptibility to collagen type II arthritis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Stefanski, Volker; Hemschemeier, Susanne K; Schunke, Kerstin; Hahnel, Anja; Wolff, Christine; Straub, Rainer H

    2013-03-01

    The effects of social stress on several blood immune measures and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were investigated in Wistar rats using the resident-intruder confrontation paradigm to induce stress of different intensity. Male intruders were exposed for one week to a dominant opponent either repeatedly for 4h daily (moderate stress) or continuously (severe stress). Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of collagen type II (CII) into the tail skin at the end of day 3 of confrontation. Only severe stress was associated with decreased CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in granulocyte numbers and body mass loss was more pronounced under these conditions. Only severe stress reduced the susceptibility to arthritis by about 50%. Severity scores did not differ in the first five days after disease onset between all groups. Subsequent experiments focused on severely stressed rats indicated that disease progressed until day 10 only in control animals, but not in severely stressed males. Stressor exposure resulted in increased blood monocyte numbers, but these males failed to accumulate macrophages into the skin at the site of CII injection. High numbers of attacks experienced by intruders correlated with delayed disease onset in severely stressed rats. We hypothesize that severe stress persisting after disease induction exhibits beneficial effects on the susceptibility of CIA and propose that the specific endocrine and immunological profile associated with severe stress is an important factor for disease outcome--a factor which probably explains many of the conflicting data of previous stress studies on CIA.

  5. Effects of training and testosterone on muscle fiber types and locomotor performance in male six-lined racerunners (Aspidoscelis sexlineata).

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jennifer L; McBrayer, Lance D; Higham, Timothy E; Husak, Jerry F; Moore, Ignacio T; Rostal, David C

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) is thought to affect a variety of traits important for fitness, including coloration, the size of sexual ornaments, aggression, and locomotor performance. Here, we investigated the effects of experimentally elevated T and locomotor training on muscle physiology and running performance in a nonterritorial male lizard species (Aspidoscelis sexlineata). Additionally, several morphological attributes were quantified to examine other characters that are likely affected by T and/or a training regimen. Neither training alone nor training with T supplementation resulted in increased locomotor performance. Instead, we found that T and training resulted in a decrease in each of three locomotor performance variables as well as in hematocrit, ventral coloration, and testis size. Strikingly, neither the size nor the fiber composition of the iliofibularis or gastrocnemius muscles was different among the two treatments or a group of untrained control animals. Hence, the relationships among T, training, and associated characters are not clear. Our results offer important insights for those hoping to conduct laboratory manipulations on nonmodel organisms and highlight the challenges of studying both training effects and the effects of steroid hormones on locomotor performance.

  6. Tissue-specific inhibition of urokinase-type plasminogen activator expression in the testes of mice by inducible lentiviral RNA interference causes male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Liu, Yan; Xiong, Zhe; Hu, Lian; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2017-03-16

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is involved in many physiological processes, including male infertility. To explore the effects of uPA in male reproduction, we constructed an inducible uPA short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system expressed by lentiviral vectors. After proving inhibition of uPA expression in the mouse Sertoli cell line TM4 by 1μgmL-1 doxycycline (Dox), two lentivirus (pLenti4-shRNA and pLenti6/TR) were co-microinjected into mouse testes to produce TetR&shuPA mice model. Though oral gavage by 0.75mgmL-1 Dox each day for 1 week, the Plau mRNA expression, uPA protein level and uPA enzyme activity in mice testis decreased significantly in TetR&shuPA mice model. After Dox induction of 1 week, the TetR&shuPA mice mated with female mice. Our results show that the pregnancy rate was reduced by approximately 40% and the sperm motility also decreased significantly. These data indicated that downregulation of uPA could decrease the fertility of male mice, which may be caused by a reduction in sperm motility. To investigate the reversible effect and safety of the inducible uPA shRNA system, we withdraw Dox and found the mating rate and sperm motility gradually recovered after 2 weeks. The histopathology structure of the testis, epididymis, and main organs was not altered significantly. The results of the present study indicating that uPA may be regarded as a novel target for the regulation of male fertility.

  7. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (P<.05). This effect was more pronounced for SF group compared to USF group (P<.05). These findings establish that SF causes sustained induction of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes and extensive metabolism of this toxicant. As a consequence, B(a)P metabolites were generated to a greater extent in colon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen.

  8. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with chlorogenic acid is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Considine, Michael J; Croft, Kevin D; Matthews, Vance B

    2013-05-08

    The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome requires a greater need for therapeutic and prevention strategies. Higher coffee consumption is consistently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in population studies. Dietary polyphenols have been linked to benefits on several features of the metabolic syndrome. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a major component of coffee, is one of the most consumed polyphenols in the diet. In our study, we conducted a controlled dietary intervention over 12 weeks in male mice. There were three dietary groups: (i) normal diet, (ii) high-fat diet, and (iii) high-fat diet + CGA. We assessed the effect of CGA at a physiologically obtainable dose (1 g/kg of diet) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and also fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling in C57BL/6 male mice. Supplementation of CGA in the high-fat diet did not reduce body weight compared to mice fed the high-fat diet alone (p = 0.32). CGA resulted in increased insulin resistance compared to mice fed a high-fat diet only (p < 0.05). CGA resulted in decreased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (p < 0.001) and acetyl carboxylase β (ACCβ), a downstream target of AMPK (p < 0.05), in liver. The liver of mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with CGA had a higher lipid content (p < 0.05) and more steatosis relative to mice fed a high-fat diet only, indicating impaired fatty acid oxidation. This study suggests that CGA supplementation in a high-fat diet does not protect against features of the metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice.

  9. Transgenic expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (fat-1) in C57/BL6 mice: Effects on glucose homeostasis and body weight.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaonin; Hardy, Robert W; Wood, Philip A

    2009-07-01

    The fat-1 gene, derived from Caenorhabditis elegans, encodes for a fatty acid n-3 desaturase. In order to study the potential metabolic benefits of n-3 fatty acids, independent of dietary fatty acids, we developed seven lines of fat-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6) controlled by the regulatory sequences of the adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) gene for adipocyte-specific expression (AP-lines). We were unable to obtain homozygous fat-1 transgenic offspring from the two highest expressing lines, suggesting that excessive expression of this enzyme may be lethal during gestation. Serum fatty acid analysis of fat-1 transgenic mice (AP-3) fed a high n-6 unsaturated fat (HUSF) diet had an n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio reduced by 23% (P < 0.025) and the n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration increased by 61% (P < 0.020). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was increased by 19% (P < 0.015) in white adipose tissue. Male AP-3-fat-1 line of mice had improved glucose tolerance and reduced body weight with no change in insulin sensitivity when challenged with a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. In contrast, the female AP-3 mice had reduced glucose tolerance and no change in insulin sensitivity or body weight. These findings indicate that male transgenic fat-1 mice have improved glucose tolerance likely due to increased insulin secretion while female fat-1 mice have reduced glucose tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Finally the inability of fat-1 transgenic mice to generate homozygous offspring suggests that prolonged exposure to increased concentrations of n-3 fatty acids may be detrimental to reproduction.

  10. Impaired fear extinction retention and increased anxiety-like behaviours induced by limited daily access to a high-fat/high-sugar diet in male rats: Implications for diet-induced prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-12-01

    Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet. The HFHS-fed rats displayed diet-induced changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function which were detected by altered expression of GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons and the stable transcription factor ΔFosB which accumulates in the PFC in response to chronic stimuli. Immunohistochemical analyses of the medial PFC revealed that animals fed the HFHS diet had fewer parvalbumin-expressing cells and increased levels of FosB/ΔFosB expression in the infralimbic cortex, a region implicated in the consolidation of fear extinction. There was a trend towards increased IBA-1 immunoreactivity, a marker of microglial activation, in the infralimbic cortex after HFHS diet exposure but expression of the extracellular glycoprotein reelin was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that a HFHS diet during adolescence is associated with reductions of prefrontal parvalbumin neurons and impaired fear inhibition in adulthood. Adverse effects of HFHS diets on the mechanisms of fear regulation may precipitate a vulnerability in obese individuals to the development of anxiety disorders.

  11. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and ectopic fat deposition develop in the face of hyperadiponectinemia in young obese rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of reduced adiponenctin signaling in childhood obesity is unclear. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were overfed a high fat diet via total enteral nutrition. Excessive caloric intake led to increased weight and fat mass; dyslipidemia; ectopic fat deposition; and hyperinsulinemia (P less th...

  13. C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) signaling protects neonatal male mice with hypoxic-ischemic hippocampal damage from developing spatial learning deficits.

    PubMed

    Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro M; Michaud, Jean-Philippe; Rivest, Serge

    2015-06-01

    Chemokines are a family of cytokines involved in the chemotaxis of leukocytes and other target cells by binding to specific G-protein-coupled receptors on their membranes. As such, the activation of C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) is involved in the mobilization of "inflammatory" monocytes from bone marrow and in their recruitment to the brain under inflammatory/pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether CCR2 signaling could affect the progression of learning deficits and hippocampal damage in a model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Postnatal day 3 wild-type (WT) and CCR2 knockout (KO) mice of both sexes were subjected to the Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and were followed for up to 14 weeks. HI CCR2 KO male mice were the only animals to exhibit long-term spatial learning deficits in the T-water maze task, compared to their corresponding sham-operated controls. CCR2 KO mouse pups of both sexes had a lower number of circulating monocytes, although only HI CCR2 KO male mice exhibited reduced numbers of activated macrophages/microglia in the damaged hippocampus, compared to WT mice. However, no differences were observed in hippocampal atrophy between HI CCR2 KO and HI WT mice. These results suggest that CCR2 signaling can protect neonatal mice from developing spatial learning deficits after a HI insult, in a sex-specific fashion.

  14. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in immigrant male-to-female transsexual sex workers with HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Colasante, Chiara; De Maddalena, Chiara; Bernini, Flavia; Savasi, Valeria; Persico, Tiziana; Merli, Stefania; Ridolfo, Annalisa; Santambrogio, Sara; Moroni, Mauro; Galli, Massimo

    2004-10-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) infections in Europe are limited to intravenous drug users and migrants coming from areas in which they are endemic. A survey was undertaken of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections in 393 recent immigrants: 167 HIV-1 positive subjects (including 52 male-to-female transsexual sex workers) and 226 pregnant HIV-1 negative women. The prevalence of HTLV-1 was 3.6% in the HIV-1 positive group and 0.9% in the HIV-1 negative group. The highest HTLV-1 prevalence in both groups was found in persons from Latin America, particularly those born in Peru (up to 26% in the HIV-1 positive group). All of the HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infected individuals were male-to-female transsexual sex workers in whom the overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection was 11.5%. HTLV-2 was only found in the HIV-1 positive group (prevalence 1.2%); all of the infected subjects were transsexual sex workers from Brazil (overall prevalence 6.4%). Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the HTLV-1 isolates were of the cosmopolitan type, clustering with other strains circulating in the patients' birthplaces; the HTLV-2 isolates were of subtype 2a, and clustered significantly with other Brazilian strains. These results suggest the independent origin of each infection in the patient's birthplace. The data raise concerns about the further spread of HTLV infections mainly through the sexual route.

  15. Myocyte androgen receptors increase metabolic rate and improve body composition by reducing fat mass.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Shannon M; Rao, Pengcheng; Niel, Lee; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Stagljar, Marijana; Monks, D Ashley

    2010-07-01

    Testosterone and other androgens are thought to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men by activating the androgen receptor. However, the clinical potential of androgens for improving body composition is hampered by our limited understanding of the tissues and cells that promote such changes. Here we show that selective overexpression of androgen receptor in muscle cells (myocytes) of transgenic male rats both increases lean mass percentage and reduces fat mass. Similar changes in body composition are observed in human skeletal actin promoter driving expression of androgen receptor (HSA-AR) transgenic mice and result from acute testosterone treatment of transgenic female HSA-AR rats. These shifts in body composition in HSA-AR transgenic male rats are associated with hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers and decreased size of adipocytes. Metabolic analyses of transgenic males show higher activity of mitochondrial enzymes in skeletal muscle and increased O(2) consumption by the rats. These results indicate that androgen signaling in myocytes not only increases muscle mass but also reduces fat body mass, likely via increases in oxidative metabolism.

  16. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  17. Beneficial effect of a weight-stable, low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index diet to reduce liver fat in older subjects.

    PubMed

    Utzschneider, Kristina M; Bayer-Carter, Jennifer L; Arbuckle, Matthew D; Tidwell, Jaime M; Richards, Todd L; Craft, Suzanne

    2013-03-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and can progress to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. We sought to determine whether dietary fat and saturated fat content alter liver fat in the absence of weight change in an older population. Liver fat was quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after 4 weeks on an isoenergetic low-fat/low-saturated fat/low-glycaemic index (LGI) (LSAT: 23 % fat/7 % saturated fat/GI < 55) or a high-fat/high-saturated fat/high-GI (HSAT: 43 % fat/24 % saturated fat/GI>70) diet in older subjects. In the present study, twenty subjects (seven males/thirteen females; age 69.3 (SEM 1.6) years, BMI 26.9 (SEM 0.8) kg/m2) were randomised to the LSAT diet and fifteen subjects (six males/nine females; age 68.6 (SEM 1.8) years, BMI 28.1 (SEM 0.9) kg/m2) to the HSAT diet. Weight remained stable. Liver fat decreased significantly on the LSAT diet (median 2.2 (interquartile range (IQR) 3.1) to 1.7 (IQR 1.8) %, P= 0.002) but did not change on the HSAT diet (median 1.2 (IQR 4.1) to 1.6 (IQR 3.9) %). The LSAT diet lowered fasting glucose and total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and raised TAG (P< 0.05), while the HSAT diet had no effect on glucose or HDL-cholesterol but increased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P< 0.05). Fasting insulin and homeostasis model of insulin resistance did not change significantly on either diet, but the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity improved on the LSAT diet (P< 0.05). Assignment to the LSAT v. HSAT diet was a predictor of changes in lipid parameters but not liver fat. We conclude that diet composition may be an important factor in the accumulation of liver fat, with a low-fat/low-saturated fat/LGI diet being beneficial.

  18. MCT8 Deficiency in Male Mice Mitigates the Phenotypic Abnormalities Associated With the Absence of a Functional Type 3 Deiodinase.

    PubMed

    Stohn, J Patrizia; Martinez, M Elena; Matoin, Kassey; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan; Galton, Valerie Anne; St Germain, Donald; Hernandez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Mice deficient in the type 3 deiodinase (D3KO mice) manifest impaired clearance of thyroid hormone (TH), leading to elevated levels of TH action during development. This alteration causes reduced neonatal viability, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism. Here we examined how these phenotypes are affected by a deficiency in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8), which is a major contributor to the transport of the active thyroid hormone, T3, into the cell. MCT8 deficiency eliminated the neonatal lethality of type 3 deiodinase (D3)-deficient mice and significantly ameliorated their growth retardation. Double-mutant newborn mice exhibited similar peripheral thyrotoxicosis and increased brain expression of T3-dependent genes as mice with D3 deficiency only. Later in neonatal life and adulthood, double-mutant mice manifested central and peripheral TH status similar to mice with single MCT8 deficiency, with low serum T4, elevated serum TSH and T3, and decreased T3-dependent gene expression in the hypothalamus. In double-mutant adult mice, both thyroid gland size and the hypothyroidism-induced rise in TSH were greater than those in mice with single D3 deficiency but less than those in mice with MCT8 deficiency alone. Our results demonstrate that the marked phenotypic abnormalities observed in the D3-deficient mouse, including perinatal mortality, growth retardation, and central hypothyroidism in adult animals, require expression of MCT8, confirming the interdependent relationship between the TH transport into cells and the deiodination processes.

  19. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    PubMed

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  20. Impact of Physical Inactivity on Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Metabolism in Healthy Young Male Offspring of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Højbjerre, Lise; Sonne, Mette Paulli; Alibegovic, Amra Ciric; Dela, Flemming; Vaag, Allan; Meldgaard, Jens Bruun; Christensen, Karl Bang; Stallknecht, Bente

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Physical inactivity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and may be more detrimental in first-degree relative (FDR) subjects, unmasking underlying defects of metabolism. Using a positive family history of type 2 diabetes as a marker of increased genetic risk, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of physical inactivity on adipose tissue (AT) metabolism in FDR subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 13 FDR and 20 control (CON) subjects participated in the study. All were studied before and after 10 days of bed rest using the glucose clamp technique combined with measurements of glucose uptake, lipolysis, and lactate release from subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and femoral (SCFAT) adipose tissue by the microdialysis technique. Additionally, mRNA expression of lipases was determined in biopsies from SCAAT. RESULTS Before bed rest, the FDR subjects revealed significantly increased glucose uptake in SCAAT. Furthermore, mRNA expression of lipases was significantly decreased in the SCAAT of FDR subjects. Bed rest significantly decreased lipolysis and tended to increase glucose uptake in the SCFAT of both CON and FDR subjects. In response to bed rest, SCAAT glucose uptake significantly increased in CON subjects but not in FDR subjects. CONCLUSIONS FDR subjects exhibit an abnormal AT metabolism including increased glucose uptake prior to bed rest. However, the differences between FDR and CON subjects in AT metabolism were attenuated during bed rest due to relatively more adverse changes in CON subjects compared with FDR subjects. Physical inactivity per se is not more deleterious in FDR subjects as compared with CON subjects with respect to derangements in AT metabolism. PMID:20823100

  1. The prospective association between different types of exercise and body composition

    PubMed Central

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, there remains controversy on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. Methods A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28±4 years), participating in an ongoing observational study, provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat (BF) was calculated and used to differentiate between normal fat, over fat and obese participants. At each measurement time point participants reported engagement (min/week) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise. Results Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent BMI after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected lean mass (p<0.01) and fat mass (p<0.01), while aerobic exercise only affected fat mass (p<0.01). Any exercise type positively affected lean mass in normal fat participants (p<0.04). In overfat and obese participants fat mass was reduced with increasing resistance exercise (p≤0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (p≥0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Conclusion Despite the limited effects on BMI, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased lean mass in normal fat participants and reduced fat mass in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise. PMID:25970664

  2. Effect of zinc on copper and iron bioavailability as influenced by dietary copper and fat source

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, A.C.; Jones, B.P.; Lin, F.; Sinthusek, G.; Frimpong, N.A.; Wu, S.

    1986-03-05

    In a number of experiments, they have observed that liver copper levels of young male rats fed low zinc diets were essentially the same as liver copper levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Liver iron levels of rats fed low zinc diets, however, tended to be markedly higher than liver iron levels of rats fed adequate zinc. Increases in dietary zinc (up to 200 ppm) were generally associated with decreases in liver iron deposition, but had little effect on liver copper deposition. Iron bioavailability appeared to be enhanced when fat sources high in saturated fatty acids were used, and there was evidence that the type of dietary fat influenced the effect of zinc on iron bioavailability. Liver copper deposition, however, did not appear to be markedly affected by the type of dietary fat suggesting that copper bioavailability is less affected by fat source. Increases in dietary copper were associated with increases in liver copper levels and decreases in liver iron levels of rats fed increasing levels of zinc. These data suggest that potential interrelationships between dietary factors not being considered as experimental variables could have significant effects on results and on the interrelationships between dietary variables which are being studied.

  3. Taurine Treatment Modulates Circadian Rhythms in Mice Fed A High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Ana Lucia C.; Figueiredo, Hugo; Rebuffat, Sandra A.; Vieira, Elaine; Gomis, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Close ties have been made among certain nutrients, obesity, type 2 diabetes and circadian clocks. Among nutrients, taurine has been documented as being effective against obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of taurine on circadian clocks has not been elucidated. We investigated whether taurine can modulate or correct disturbances in daily rhythms caused by a high-fat diet in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided in four groups: control (C), control + taurine (C+T), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD + taurine (HFD+T). They were administered 2% taurine in their drinking water for 10 weeks. Mice were euthanized at 6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00. HFD mice increased body weight, visceral fat and food intake, as well as higher levels of glucose, insulin and leptin, throughout the 24 h. Taurine prevented increments in food intake, body weight and visceral fat, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and reduced disturbances in the 24 h patterns of plasma insulin and leptin. HFD downregulated the expression of clock genes Rev-erbα, Bmal1, and Per1 in pancreatic islets. Taurine normalized the gene and protein expression of PER1 in beta-cells, which suggests that it could be beneficial for the correction of daily rhythms and the amelioration of obesity and diabetes. PMID:27857215

  4. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.

  5. Does the early social environment affect structure and consistency of personality in wild-type male's rat?

    PubMed

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2011-09-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating the sex ratio of the litter, at postnatal day (pnd) 3, in wild-type rats, on personality traits in adulthood. We measured the treatment effects on aggression, defensive burying, and open field behavior at pnd 90 and 120, as well as on their contextual generality, and stability over time (differential and structural consistency). Main effects of litter composition were found on open field behavior at pnd 120 but not on the other behaviors. Since correlations between behaviors changed over time irrespective of the specific treatment, whereas in previous studies on unmanipulated litters this was not the case we suggest that early handling may disrupt adult personality traits. Overall the data indicate that personality is less stable over time that often assumed, having both proximate and ultimate implications.

  6. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  7. Effects of parathyroid hormone on bone mass, bone strength, and bone regeneration in male rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Christine; Picke, Ann-Kristin; Campbell, Graeme M; Balyura, Mariya; Rauner, Martina; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Bornstein, Stefan R; Glüer, Claus-C; Ludwig, Barbara; Hofbauer, Lorenz C

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased skeletal fragility and impaired fracture healing. Intermittent PTH therapy increases bone strength; however, its skeletal and metabolic effects in diabetes are unclear. We assessed whether PTH improves skeletal and metabolic function in rats with T2DM. Subcritical femoral defects were created in diabetic fa/fa and nondiabetic +/+ Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats and internally stabilized. Vehicle or 75 μg/kg/d PTH(1-84) was sc administered over 12 weeks. Skeletal effects were evaluated by μCT, biomechanical testing, histomorphometry, and biochemical markers, and defect regeneration was analyzed by μCT. Glucose homeostasis was assessed using glucose tolerance testing and pancreas histology. In diabetic rats, bone mass was significantly lower in the distal femur and vertebrae, respectively, and increased after PTH treatment by up to 23% in nondiabetic and up to 18% in diabetic rats (P < .0001). Diabetic rats showed 23% lower ultimate strength at the spine (P < .0005), which was increased by PTH by 36% in normal and by 16% in diabetic rats (P < .05). PTH increased the bone formation rate by 3-fold in normal and by 2-fold in diabetic rats and improved defect regeneration in normal and diabetic rats (P < .01). PTH did not affect serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin, glucose tolerance, and islet morphology. PTH partially reversed the adverse skeletal effects of T2DM on bone mass, bone strength, and bone defect repair in rats but did not affect energy metabolism. The positive skeletal effects were generally more pronounced in normal compared with diabetic rats.

  8. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  9. Anthropometric measurements as predictors of intraabdominal fat thickness.

    PubMed

    Roopakala, M S; Suresh, Anagha; Ashtalakshmi; Srinath; Ashok; Giridhar; Anand; Silvia, Wilma Delphine

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is known to be an important risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and intraabdominal fat thickness has been found to be a reliable indicator of central obesity. Many anthropometric indicators have been suggested for measuring intraabdominal fat. The aim of this study was to relate various anthropometric measurements to intraabdominal fat thickness and to determine which among these is a better predictor of intra abdominal fat in normal subjects. This cross sectional study was carried out. in 60 healthy subjects (32 males and 28 females) in the age group of 25-55 years. Anthropometric measurements such as BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio were assessed by using standard methods. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured 1 cm above umbilicus by ultrasonography. Intraabdominal fat thickness was correlated with the anthropometric measures by Pearson's test. Multivariate linear regression test was used to find the best anthropometric measurement as a predictor of abdominal fat. Waist circumference showed a significant positive correlation with subcutaneous fat and visceral fat. Waist circumference was found to be the best predictor of intraabdominal fat thickness in normal subjects and therefore of central obesity.

  10. Insulin sensitivity and regional fat gain in response to overfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, S. B.; Jensen, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Although insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes are associated with upper body fat distribution, it is unknown whether insulin resistance predisposes to upper body fat gain or whether upper body fat gain causes insulin resistance. Our objective was to determine whether insulin sensitivity predicts abdominal (subcutaneous and/or visceral) fat gain in normal weight adults. Twenty-eight (15 men) lean (BMI = 22.1±2.5 kg/m2), healthy adults underwent ~8 weeks of overfeeding to gain ~4 kg fat. Body composition was assessed before and after overfeeding using DXA and abdominal CT to measure total and regional (visceral, abdominal, and lower body subcutaneous) fat gain. We assessed insulin sensitivity with an IV glucose tolerance test and the 24h insulin area-under-the-curve(AUC). We found a wide range of insulin sensitivity and a relatively narrow range of body fat distribution in this normal weight cohort. Participants gained 3.8±1.7 kg of body fat (4.6±2.2 kg body weight). The baseline 24h AUC of insulin concentration was positively correlated with percent body fat (r=0.43, p<0.05). The contribution of leg fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 29–79%, while the contributions of abdominal subcutaneous fat and visceral fat gain to total fat gain ranged from 17–69% and −5–22%, respectively. Baseline insulin sensitivity, whether measured by an IVGTT or the 24h AUC insulin Si, did not predict upper body subcutaneous or visceral fat gain in response to overfeeding. We conclude that reduced insulin sensitivity is not an obligate precursor to upper body fat gain. PMID:21127472

  11. The effect of dietary sodium on right ventricular failure-induced ascites, gain and fat deposition in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Julian, R J; Caston, L J; Leeson, S

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were carried out using various levels of sodium (Na+) from NaCl or NaHCO3 to determine: 1) the level of Na+ required to induce ascites alone or in combination with cold temperature and 2) the effect of Na+ on weight gain and fat deposition in broiler chickens. In experiment 1, there were no cases of ascites using levels of Na+, from NaCl at 0.14% to 0.44% in the feed from day 3 or using added Na+, from NaCl at 0.0% to 0.12% in the water from day 3 with a level of 0.14% in the feed. There was no significant difference in 21 or 42 day body weight, feed conversion, or right ventricle:total ventricle (RV:TV) ratio between treatment groups. Day 3 to 4 body weight gains were significantly increased in all treatment groups with added Na+ (p less than 0.01). In experiment 2, with levels of added Na+, from NaCl, at 0.0% to 0.12% in the water with a level of 0.20% in the feed there were two cases of ascites, one at day 7 and one at day 40 at the 0.12% level. There were no significant differences in body weight at days 21 or 42 or in the RV:TV ratios between groups. Feed conversions were improved (p less than 0.01) with the lowest and highest levels of Na+ and a significant increase in day 3 to 4 body weight gain, with increasing Na+ in all treatment groups, was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1423057

  12. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you eat? From ... some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the Fats Quiz II - and be sure to check out Face ...

  13. Fatness QTL on chicken chromosome 5 and interaction with sex

    PubMed Central

    Abasht, Behnam; Pitel, Frédérique; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Le Roy, Pascale; Demeure, Olivier; Vignoles, Florence; Simon, Jean; Cogburn, Larry; Aggrey, Sammy; Vignal, Alain; Douaire, Madeleine

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting fatness in male chickens were previously identified on chromosome 5 (GGA5) in a three-generation design derived from two experimental chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. A new design, established from the same pure lines, produced 407 F2 progenies (males and females) from 4 F1-sire families. Body weight and abdominal fat were measured on the F2 at 9 wk of age. In each sire family, selective genotyping was carried out for 48 extreme individuals for abdominal fat using seven microsatellite markers from GGA5. QTL analyses confirmed the presence of QTL for fatness on GGA5 and identified a QTL by sex interaction. By crossing one F1 sire heterozygous at the QTL with lean line dams, three recombinant backcross 1 (BC1) males were produced and their QTL genotypes were assessed in backcross 2 (BC2) progenies. These results confirmed the QTL by sex interaction identified in the F2 generation and they allow mapping of the female QTL to less than 8 Mb at the distal part of the GGA5. They also indicate that fat QTL alleles were segregating in both fat and lean lines. PMID:16635451

  14. Reality television and the muscular male ideal.

    PubMed

    Dallesasse, Starla L; Kluck, Annette S

    2013-06-01

    Although researchers have examined the negative effects of viewing reality television (RTV) on women's body image, this research has not been extended to men. Exploring the extent to which RTV depicts men who embody the muscular ideal may enhance our understanding of the potential influence of this media genre. We explored the extent to which RTV depicted men who embodied the muscular ideal using a quantitative content analysis. Based on binomial tests, the primary male cast members of programs airing on networks popular among young adult men during the Fall 2009 broadcast season were more muscular, with lower levels of body fat, than average U.S. men. The chest-to-waist and shoulder-to-waist ratios of these cast members did not differ as a function of program type (i.e., reality drama, endurance, and romance). Young men who view RTV programs included in the present study would be exposed to an unrepresentative muscular ideal.

  15. Dietary fat, fat subtypes and hepatocellular carcinoma in a large European cohort.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Fedirko, Veronika; Stepien, Magdalena; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; His, Mathilde; Boeing, Heiner; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Valanou, Elissavet; Kritikou, Maria; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sieri, Sabina; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Skeie, Guri; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ardanaz, Eva; Bonet, Catalina; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, J Ramón; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wennberg, Maria; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Wareham, Nick; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Romieu, Isabelle; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc; Lu, Yunxia; Jenab, Mazda

    2015-12-01

    The role of amount and type of dietary fat consumption in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, despite suggestive biological plausibility. The associations of total fat, fat subtypes and fat sources with HCC incidence were investigated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which includes 191 incident HCC cases diagnosed between 1992 and 2010. Diet was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-hr diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for measurement error calibration. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV) status and biomarkers of liver function were assessed separately in a nested case-control subset with available blood samples (HCC = 122). In multivariable calibrated models, there was a statistically significant inverse association between total fat intake and risk of HCC (per 10 g/day, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.99), which was mainly driven by monounsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55-0.92) rather than polyunsaturated fats (per 5 g/day, HR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). There was no association between saturated fats (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.34) and HCC risk. The ratio of polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fats to saturated fats was not significantly associated with HCC risk (per 0.2 point, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.73-1.01). Restriction of analyses to HBV/HCV free participants or adjustment for liver function did not substantially alter the findings. In this large prospective European cohort, higher consumption of monounsaturated fats is associated with lower HCC risk.

  16. Identification of Genes Potentially Associated with the Fertility Instability of S-Type Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize via Bulked Segregant RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jinfeng; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhang, Ruyang; Li, Chunhui; Duan, Minxiao; Luo, Meijie; Shi, Zi; Zhao, Jiuran

    2016-01-01

    S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) is the largest group among the three major types of CMS in maize. CMS-S exhibits fertility instability as a partial fertility restoration in a specific nuclear genetic background, which impedes its commercial application in hybrid breeding programs. The fertility instability phenomenon of CMS-S is controlled by several minor quantitative trait locus (QTLs), but not the major nuclear fertility restorer (Rf3). However, the gene mapping of these minor QTLs and the molecular mechanism of the genetic modifications are still unclear. Using completely sterile and partially rescued plants of fertility instable line (FIL)-B, we performed bulk segregant RNA-Seq and identified six potential associated genes in minor effect QTLs contributing to fertility instability. Analyses demonstrate that these potential associated genes may be involved in biological processes, such as floral organ differentiation and development regulation, energy metabolism and carbohydrates biosynthesis, which results in a partial anther exsertion and pollen fertility restoration in the partially rescued plants. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in two potential associated genes were validated to be related to the fertility restoration phenotype by KASP marker assays. This novel knowledge contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the partial fertility restoration of CMS-S in maize and thus helps to guide the breeding programs. PMID:27669430

  17. Association of an Exon SNP of SLC2A9 Gene with Hyperuricemia Complicated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the Chinese Male Han Population.

    PubMed

    Xing, Shi-Chao; Wang, Xu-Fu; Miao, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Zheng, Jun; Yuan, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Several recent genome-wide association studies and following studies have identified that genetic variants of SLC2A9 are associated with hyperuricemia (HUA) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Here, we set to investigate whether the exon 9 of SLC2A9 gene variations is associated with HUA complicated with Type 2 DM (T2DM) in the Chinese male Han population. The present study was designed to study rs2280205 polymorphism in exon 9 of SLC2A9 in 232 Chinese male subjects. Rs2280205 locus was genotyped in 52 T2DM subjects, 65 HUA subjects, 55 subjects with HUA complicated with T2DM, as well as 60 control subjects in this study. DNA from peripheral blood was purified and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were then digested by restriction enzyme MSPI, and part of PCR products was sequenced and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the levels of cholesterol, creatinine, and urea nitrogen between the Control Group and the HUA group. There was also no significant difference in levels of cholesterol between the DM group and Control Group. No significant difference in cholesterol and uric acid was observed between the HUA group and the HUA accompanied with DM group (P > 0.05). However, there was no statistical significance in the genotype frequency in these groups (P > 0.01). Results of the present study suggest that the exon 9 of SLC2A9 gene 109C/T polymorphism is not associated with HUA and diabetes in population living in the coastal area of Shandong province, China.

  18. Effects of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Rhus coriaria (Sumac) Seeds on Reproductive Complications of Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin Induced Type-2 Diabetes in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Ehsan, Ghaedi; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rhus coriaria seeds on the reproductive system of nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic mice. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 56 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice were randomly divided into seven groups (n=8): control; diabetic mice; diabetic mice administered glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg); diabetic mice who received the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds (200 and 400 mg/kg groups); and normal mice who received this extract (200 and 400 mg/kg groups). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) 15 minutes after an injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). Then, glibenclamide and the above mentioned extract were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, serum samples, the testes, and the cauda epididymis were removed immediately for hormonal, testis morphology, and sperm parameter assessments. Results Body and testicular weight, sperm count and viability, and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the diabetic mice (p<0.05). The diabetic mice treated with 400 mg/kg of the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds recovered from these reductions (p<0.05). Further, glibenclamide alleviated hormonal and sperm count depletion in diabetes-induced mice (p<0.05). Conclusions The present results indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. coriaria seeds has anti-infertility effects in diabetic males. PMID:25606564

  19. Voglibose administration regulates body weight and energy intake in high fat-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Do, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taeon; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Ji Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-17

    We tested whether long-term administration of voglibose (VO) prevents diet induced obesity in addition to hypoglycemic effects in high fat fed mice and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which voglibose exerts its weight lowering effect. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks with the control diet (CTL), high-fat diet (HFD) or the HFD with VO supplementations. Blood lipid profile, plasma leptin levels and hepatic triglyceride content, as well as expressions of genes involved in appetite and mitochondrial function were examined. The results showed that VO significantly reduced body weight, fat mass and energy intakes in high fat fed mice. VO showed improved metabolic profiles including blood glucose, triglyceride and free fatty acid. Elevated levels of plasma leptin in HFD were significantly reduced with the VO, furthermore, VO modulated the hypothalamic expressions of leptin receptors and appetite related genes. VO showed the upregulated expressions of PGC-1 in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue. In conclusion, VO may exert antiobesity properties through reductions in energy intake and improvement in mitochondrial function, indicating that VO has potential therapeutic use in patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related complications.

  20. Fat body protein granules and storage proteins in the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia.

    PubMed

    Tojo, S; Betchaku, T; Ziccardi, V J; Wyatt, G R

    1978-09-01

    Fat body cells of silkmoth pupae (Hyalophora cecropia ) contain granules, showing a less dense outer zone and a denser, often crystalline, inner portion appear after cocoon spinning and increase until the larval-pupal ecdysis; more granules are formed in females than in males. Urate granules, appearing fibrous in internal structure, first form about the same time, but their accumulation is more gradual, and continues in the pupa. Both types have been isolated by centrifugation. Protein granules dissolve in buffers to yield proteins 1 and 2, with distinct electrophoretic and antigenic properties. These proteins have been isolated individually from pupal fat body extracts by using their different thermal stabilities in phosphate buffer containing MgCl2 and (NH4)2SO4, respectively, and purification was completed by gel chromatography. Protein 1 has a molecular weight of 480,000 and a subunit of 85,000 daltons, while protein 2 gives values of 530,000 and 89,000, respectively. Their amino acid compositions are similar but distinct. Proteins 1 and 2 accumulate in the hemolymph, beginning 3 days before spinning, reach maximal levels at spinning, and then decline in the hemolymph while granules are formed in the fat body, although the total hemolymph protein concentration does not decline at this time. It is concluded that the fat body of the late, feeding larva synthesizes two related "storage proteins" and secretes them in partially crystalline granules as protein reserves for metamorphosis.

  1. Effects of Lewis lung carcinoma on trabecular microstructural changes in wild-type and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficient mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bone is a major target organ of metastasis. The present study investigated the effects of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) on trabecular microstructural changes, using tomographic analysis, in distal femur and lumbar 4 vertebra from LLC-bearing wild-type and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) defi...

  2. STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETES PARTIALLY ATTENUATES THE EFFECTS OF A HIGH-FAT DIET ON LIVER AND BRAIN FATTY ACID COMPOSITION IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Levant, Beth; Ozias, Marlies K.; Guilford, Brianne L.; Wright, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study addresses the effects of a high-fat diet on liver and brain fatty acid compositions and the interaction of that diet with diabetes in a type 1 mouse model. Adult, male, normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice were fed standard (14% kcals from fat) or high-fat (54% kcals from fat, hydrogenated vegetable shortening and corn oil) diets for 8 weeks. Liver and whole brain total phospholipid fatty acid compositions were then determined by TLC/GC. In the liver of non-diabetic mice, the high-fat diet increased the percentages of 18:1n-9, 20:4n-6, and 22:5n-6 and decreased 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3. Diabetes increased 16:0 in liver, and decreased 18:1n-7 and 20:4n-6. The effects of the high-fat diet on liver phospholipids in diabetic mice were similar to those in non-diabetic mice, or were of smaller magnitude. In the brain, the high-fat diet increased 18:0 and 20:4n-6 of non-diabetic, but not diabetic mice. Brain 22:5n-6 acid was increased by the high-fat diet in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice, but this increase was smaller in diabetic mice. Diabetes alone did not alter the percentage of any individual fatty acid in brain. This indicates that the effects of a high-fat diet on liver and brain phospholipid fatty acid compositions are mitigated by concomitant hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia. PMID:23893338

  3. Predicting fat, lean and the weights of primal cuts for growing pigs of different genotypes and sexes using computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Carabús, A; Sainz, R D; Oltjen, J W; Gispert, M; Font-i-Furnols, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to find single equations to predict the amounts of fat, lean, and the weights of the primal cuts (ham, loin, belly, and shoulder) as well as ham composition of pigs from 30 to 120 kg BW of different genotypes (GEN; Exp. 1) and sexual conditions (SEX; Exp. 2). Two types of regression equations, taking into account different work situations, were developed: 1) research applications, using computed tomography (CT) parameters, and 2) potential on-farm applications, which could be obtained using easily accessible equipment. Two data sets were used: Exp. 1 included 90 gilts from 3 different GEN: 30 Duroc × (Landrace × Large White), 30 Pietrain × (Landrace × Large White), and 30 Landrace × Large White, and Exp. 2 included 92 Pietrain × (Landrace × Duroc) pigs of different SEX: 24 each of females, entire males, castrated males, and 20 immunocastrated males. Pigs were fully CT scanned in vivo at 30, 70, 100, and 120 kg BW. A subsample of pigs of each GEN ( = 5) or SEX ( = 4) were slaughtered at 30, 70, and 100 kg BW, and all remaining pigs were slaughtered after weighing and scanning at 120 kg BW. For all the slaughtered pigs, the 4 main cuts were fully (GEN) or partially dissected (SEX). CT images were analyzed and used to predict the lean and fat contents as well as the weights of the primal cuts and the composition of the ham. Total amounts of fat and lean for both populations were predicted with high levels of accuracy ( = 0.994 and 0.993, respectively) and proportions of random error for GEN and SEX effects (0.998 and 0.946 for the fat and 0.997 and 0.836 for the lean predictions, respectively). Moreover, the composition of ham (fat, lean, and bone) was very well predicted with high proportions (> 80%) of random error for GEN and SEX effect using CT and potential on-farm predictors.

  4. What Are Solid Fats?

    MedlinePlus

    ... stick margarine shortening hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils* coconut oil* palm and palm kernel oils* * The starred items are ... and from fish. A few plant oils, including coconut oil and palm oil, are high in saturated fats and for ...

  5. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  6. Fecal Fat: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... ordered. This is a better evaluation of fat digestion and absorption. There are two reasons for this: ... normally and that the person may have impaired digestion or malabsorption . Malabsorption is seen with a wide ...

  7. Dietary fats explained

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, ice cream, cream, and fatty meats. Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, ... fats can help lower your LDL cholesterol. Most vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature have unsaturated ...

  8. Fats and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Reduce Your Intake Public Health Concerns Carbohydrates Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar Fiber Added Sugar in the Diet Low-Carbohydrate Diets Sustainability Healthy Weight Measuring Fat The Best ...

  9. Apparent metabolisable energy and digestibility of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) fat, cocoa (Theobroma cacao) fat and soybean oil in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Dei, H K; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to determine and compare the apparent lipid digestibility coefficient and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) value of shea nut (Vitellaria paradoxa, Gaertn.) fat in broiler chickens with that of soybean oil and cocoa fat. 2. One hundred and sixty 13-d-old male broiler chicks were used in a randomised complete block design. The fats were added at 30, 60 and 90 g/kg to a basal diet. A tenth dietary treatment was the basal feed with no added fats or oils. The birds were fed on the diets for 8 d and all droppings were collected for the final 4 d. 3. The mean coefficient of apparent lipid digestibility for shea fat (0.58) was similar to that of cocoa fat (0.54) but lower than that of soybean oil (0.95). There was evidence of a lipid x concentration interaction with the 90 g/kg shea fat diet having low lipid digestibility (0.43). 4. There was an interaction between the effects of dietary lipid concentration and test lipid on AME but, at dietary levels of 60 g/kg and below, the AME of shea fat (22.0 MJ/kg DM) and cocoa fat (26.4 MJ/kg DM) was significantly lower than that of soybean oil (39.8 MJ/kg DM).

  10. Fat embolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Robin R.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonary, cerebral and cutaneous dysfunction and confirmed by the demonstration of arterial hypoxemia in the absence of other disorders. Treatment of fat embolism syndrome consists of general supportive measures, including splinting, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and the administration of oxygen. Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilatory assistance can be indicated. The role of corticosteroids remains controversial. Early stabilization of long bone fractures has been shown to decrease the incidence of pulmonary complications. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that the exact method of fracture fixation plays a minor role in the development of pulmonary dysfunction. As more is learned about the specifics of the various triggers for the development of fat embolism syndrome, it is hoped that the prospect of more specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of this disorder will become a reality. PMID:9336522

  11. Whole body fat: content and distribution.

    PubMed

    Thomas, E L; Fitzpatrick, J A; Malik, S J; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Bell, J D

    2013-08-01

    Obesity and its co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases, have become one of the biggest health issues of present times. The impact of obesity goes well beyond the individual and is so far-reaching that, if it continues unabated, it will cause havoc with the economies of most countries. In order to be able to fully understand the relationship between increased adiposity (obesity) and its co-morbidity, it has been necessary to develop proper methodology to accurately and reproducibly determine both body fat content and distribution, including ectopic fat depots. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as the gold-standard for accomplishing this task. Here, we will review the use of different MRI techniques currently being used to determine body fat content and distribution. We also discuss the pros and cons of MRS to determine ectopic fat depots in liver, muscle, pancreas and heart and compare these to emerging MRI techniques currently being put forward to create ectopic fat maps. Finally, we will discuss how MRI/MRS techniques are helping in changing the perception of what is healthy and what is normal and desirable body-fat content and distribution.

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