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Sample records for male-specific sterility defect

  1. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  2. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Herbert B

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, sterilization (tubal sterilization and vasectomy) is used by more people than any other method of contraception. All techniques of tubal sterilization in widespread use in the United States have low risks of surgical complications. Although tubal sterilization is highly effective, the risk of pregnancy varies by age and method of occlusion. Pregnancies can occur many years after the procedure, and when they do, the risk of ectopic gestation is high. There is now strong evidence against the existence of a post-tubal ligation syndrome of menstrual abnormalities. Although women who have undergone tubal sterilization are more likely than other women to undergo hysterectomy subsequently, there is no known biologic basis for this relationship. Although sterilization is intended to be permanent, expressions of regret and requests for reversal are not uncommon and are much more likely to occur among women sterilized at young ages. Tubal sterilization has little or no effect on sexual function for most women. Vasectomy is less likely than tubal sterilization to result in serious complications. Minor complications, however, are not uncommon. Vasectomy does not increase the risk of heart disease, and available evidence argues against an increase in the risk of prostate cancer, testicular cancer, or overall mortality. Whether a postvasectomy pain syndrome exists remains controversial. Although the long-term effectiveness of vasectomy is less well-studied than that for tubal sterilization, it seems likely to be at least as effective. Intrauterine devices and progestin implants are long-acting, highly effective alternatives to sterilization.

  3. Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rioux, M H

    1979-05-01

    The history of sterilization in North America has included enactment of laws in 37 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces allowing the procedure to be performed to eliminate undesirable, genetically-transmitted traits. These eugenic laws applied to any of the following categories of persons: mentally regarded, mentally ill, epileptic, criminal, alcoholic, or poor people. Pressure from geneticists, lawyers, and others concerned with the implications of such laws, led to their repeal in many places. Noneugenic and nontherapeutic sterilization is today a recognized medical practice. Legally, such procedures must meet the following criteria: 1) informed consent; 2) individual benefit; and 3) performance with reasonable care and skill. If these criteria are met, doctors are protected from legal liability. The most legal, social, and ethical ambiguities arise in cases where nontherapeutic sterilization is performed on individuals unable to give consent, e.g., minors or mentally handicapped persons.

  4. Innovative Approach for Identifying Root Causes of Glass Defects in Sterile Drug Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Lukas; Svensson, Alexander; Graser, Andreas; Luemkemann, Joerg; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Schmidt, Rainer; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2017-03-14

    In sterile drug product manufacturing, scratched and broken glass containers (i.e., vials) cause product losses, glass particles, equipment contamination and additional cleaning efforts. However, mechanical resistance and exposure of vials to mechanical stress are not sufficiently understood, and no systematic approach for reducing glass-related losses is established. Manufacturers may tackle glass-related losses more rationally if (i) frequencies for inflicting disqualifying damages to drug product containers are known for given forces, (ii) actual exposure in industrial filling lines is quantified and (iii) process enhancements are derived based on collected information. In this work, an innovative approach for exploiting these opportunities, identifying glass defect root causes and reducing glass defects is provided. Devices for quantifying (i) damaging frequencies and (ii) actual exposure are presented and then applied in an industrial case study on sterile drug product manufacturing; finally, (iii) process enhancements are derived and implemented. In the case study, frequencies for scratching vials at given forces as well as breaking forces have been determined. Peak exposure in the investigated filling line was detected at 6 Newton. As a result of the case study, key machine parts were identified and adjusted.

  5. Interspecific amphiploid-derived alloplasmic male sterility with defective anthers, narrow disk florets, and small ray flowers in sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS)/fertility-restoration system is important for hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed production. Two novel alloplasmic CMSs, designated CMS GRO1 and CMS MAX3 with defective anthers, narrow disk florets with no swollen corolla, and short, narrow ray flowers,...

  6. Characterization of the skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mouse showing axial skeleton abnormalities caused by defects of embryonic skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs.

  7. Characterization of the Skeletal Fusion with Sterility (sks) Mouse Showing Axial Skeleton Abnormalities Caused by Defects of Embryonic Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs. PMID:24521859

  8. Suppression of F1 Male-Specific Lethality in Caenorhabditis Hybrids by cbr-him-8.

    PubMed

    Ragavapuram, Vaishnavi; Hill, Emily Elaine; Baird, Scott Everet

    2015-12-31

    Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary to Haldane's Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids are frequently less fit than their homogametic siblings, and that asymmetric results are often obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane's Rule and Darwin's Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality in this combination of species. This result implicates epigenetic meiotic silencing in the suppression of F1 male-specific lethality. It is also shown that F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome are fertile. When crossed to C. briggsae hermaphrodites or F1 females derived from C. briggsae hermaphrodites, viable F2 and backcross (B2) progeny were obtained. Sibling males that possessed a C. nigoni X chromosome were sterile. Therefore, the sterility of F1 males bearing a C. nigoni X chromosome must result from dysgenic interactions between the X chromosome of C. nigoni and the autosomes of C. briggsae. The fertility of F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome provides an opportunity to identify C. nigoni loci that prevent spermatogenesis, and hence hermaphroditic reproduction, in diplo-X hybrids. Copyright © 2016 Ragavapuram et al.

  9. Male-specific sesquiterpenes from Phyllotreta flea beetles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flea beetles in several genera are known to possess male-specific sesquiterpenes, at least some of which serve as aggregation pheromones that attract both sexes. In continuing research on the chemical ecology of Phyllotreta flea beetles, six new male-specific sesquiterpenes were identified, one fro...

  10. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How long does ... with stitches and a bandage. What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? Often, the type ...

  11. Suppression of F1 Male-Specific Lethality in Caenorhabditis Hybrids by cbr-him-8

    PubMed Central

    Ragavapuram, Vaishnavi; Hill, Emily Elaine; Baird, Scott Everet

    2015-01-01

    Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary to Haldane’s Rule are the observations that heterogametic F1 hybrids are frequently less fit than their homogametic siblings, and that asymmetric results are often obtained from reciprocal hybrid crosses. In Caenorhabditis, Haldane’s Rule and Darwin’s Corollary have been observed in several hybrid crosses, including crosses of Caenorhabditis briggsae and C. nigoni. Fertile F1 females are obtained from reciprocal crosses. However, F1 males obtained from C. nigoni mothers are sterile and F1 males obtained from C. briggsae die during embryogenesis. We have identified cbr-him-8 as a recessive maternal-effect suppressor of F1 hybrid male-specific lethality in this combination of species. This result implicates epigenetic meiotic silencing in the suppression of F1 male-specific lethality. It is also shown that F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome are fertile. When crossed to C. briggsae hermaphrodites or F1 females derived from C. briggsae hermaphrodites, viable F2 and backcross (B2) progeny were obtained. Sibling males that possessed a C. nigoni X chromosome were sterile. Therefore, the sterility of F1 males bearing a C. nigoni X chromosome must result from dysgenic interactions between the X chromosome of C. nigoni and the autosomes of C. briggsae. The fertility of F1 males bearing a C. briggsae X chromosome provides an opportunity to identify C. nigoni loci that prevent spermatogenesis, and hence hermaphroditic reproduction, in diplo-X hybrids. PMID:26721896

  12. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  13. Reversible Sterilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largey, Gale

    1977-01-01

    Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)

  14. Male-specific insecticide resistance and mosquito transgene dispersal.

    PubMed

    Sinkins, Steven P; Hastings, Ian M

    2004-09-01

    There is a need to develop methods to spread disease-blocking transgenes through mosquito populations. This article discusses the possibility of linking transgenes to insecticide-resistant alleles engineered to be expressed only in males. The resulting increase in mean longevity of males carrying the construct under insecticide treatment could easily outweigh any fitness costs in females, so that the construct would spread rapidly. It should be possible to produce constructs where any potential risk of loss of male-specific expression would be negligible.

  15. Sterilization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.

  16. BASICS OF STERILE COMPOUNDING: Sterilization Methods in Sterile Product Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Sterilization methods to produce sterile preparations include heat, gas, radiation, and filtration. This article focuses on heat, gas, and radiation sterilization, plus a brief introduction to bright-light sterilization. Microbiology basics and microbial death kinetics, key to understanding why these sterilization methods work, will also be briefly discussed. Filtration sterilization will be covered in a separate article.

  17. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  18. Tubal Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnancy. Tubal sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. It is one of the most effective options for preventing pregnancy. But it is difficult to reverse. It doesn’t protect against sexually ...

  19. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a few hours or days following delivery. For women who have had a cesarean delivery, it is done right after the baby is born. How is postpartum sterilization performed? For women who have had a vaginal delivery, a small ...

  20. The male-specific factor Sry harbors an oncogenic function.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Chishima, S; Uemoto, H; Sakamoto, E; Sato, T; Kurabe, N; Kawasaki, Y; Shibata, T; Akiyama, H; Tashiro, F

    2014-06-05

    Sgf29, a component of the SPT-ADA-GCN5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) complex, binds H3K4me2/3 marks and leads to histone H3 acetylation. Previously, we found that downregulation of Sgf29 suppresses c-Myc-mediated malignant transformation. Nonetheless, the upstream regulator of the Sgf29 gene is not yet known. Here, we report that Sry (sex-determining region Y), an HMG (high-mobility group) domain containing transcription factor, directly upregulates Sgf29 gene expression. Sry expression was deregulated in two out of the four tested male rodent hepatocellular carcinoma (rHCC) cell lines. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that Sry could bind HMG-boxes in the proximal promoter region of the Sgf29 gene. Knockdown of Sry robustly lowered anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness and tumorigenicity of rHCC cells, whereas ectopic expression of Sry conferred more malignant properties. Thus, these data show that Sry is involved in male-specific malignant conversion of rHCCs via Sgf29 upregulation.

  1. Sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.

    2016-06-21

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  2. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  3. Hysteroscopic sterilization.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J M

    1992-06-01

    After a brief history of sterilization, this article is devoted to hysteroscopic techniques and instrumentation, and a presentation of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques: electrocoagulation techniques, hysteroscopic injection of chemicals, and hysteroscopically directed placement of intratubal mechanical devices (ceramic plugs, polyethylene plugs, preformed silicone plugs, nylon intratubal plugs, and formed-in-place silicone rubber plugs. Problems are identified that are common to all hysteroscopic sterilization techniques. There are also practical considerations which limit the development of hysteroscopic sterilization techniques, and these considerations are presented. Various means have been used historically to block the tubal ostia, including the insertion of nitric acid in 1984, but it was not until 1927 that the hysteroscope was used for sterilization. Hysteroscopy itself was discovered in 1869 for diagnosis of intrauterine diseases. Even with the hysteroscope and the 1934 procedure of using an electric current in the tubal ostia, hysteroscopic sterilization was little used. In 1973 a convention was convened to discuss the use of the procedure and the ramifications. Currently, the hysteroscope is a modified cytoscope with a 4 mm wide telescope with a fore-oblique lens, a 7 mm wide metallic sheath, a fiberoptic bundle for transmission of light, and additional instruments for intrauterine manipulation or surgical intervention. Under local anesthesia, sterilization is effected by 1) destruction of the interstitial portion of the oviduct by thermal energy, 2) injection techniques for the delivery of sclerosing substances or tissue adhesives, or 3) mechanical occlusive devices or plugs to block the oviduct. Recent uterine, cervical, or adnexal infections and pregnancy prevent the performance of sterilization, because infections are exacerbated by the procedure. Uterine perforation is a complication. Other complications involve allergic reactions to the

  4. An efferocytosis-induced, IL-4–dependent macrophage-iNKT cell circuit suppresses sterile inflammation and is defective in murine CGD

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Melody Yue; Pham, Duy; Bagaitkar, Juhi; Liu, Jianyun; Otero, Karel; Shan, Ming; Wynn, Thomas A.; Brombacher, Frank; Brutkiewicz, Randy R.; Kaplan, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages following tissue injury is fundamental to the resolution of inflammation and initiation of tissue repair. Using a sterile peritonitis model in mice, we identified interleukin (IL)-4–producing efferocytosing macrophages in the peritoneum that activate invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells to produce cytokines including IL-4, IL-13, and interferon-γ. Importantly, IL-4 from macrophages contributes to alternative activation of peritoneal exudate macrophages and augments type 2 cytokine production from NKT cells to suppress inflammation. The increased peritonitis in mice deficient in IL-4, NKT cells, or IL-4Rα expression on myeloid cells suggested that each is a key component for resolution of sterile inflammation. The reduced NAD phosphate oxidase is also critical for this model, because in mice with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) that lack oxidase subunits, activation of iNKT cells by X-CGD peritoneal exudate macrophages was impaired during sterile peritonitis, resulting in enhanced and prolonged inflammation in these mice. Therefore, efferocytosis-induced IL-4 production and activation of IL-4–producing iNKT cells by macrophages are immunomodulatory events in an innate immune circuit required to resolve sterile inflammation and promote tissue repair. PMID:23426944

  5. Sterile connector.

    PubMed

    Tenczar, F J

    1976-01-01

    Fabrication of a sterile connector for joining a supply source to an independent delivery location through a contaminated environment requires four design steps: 1) alignment of connector housings; 2) exclusion of the contaminated environment; 3) sterilization of the excluded region; and 4) penetration within the sterilized area followed by coupling of the protected internal conduits. Protective covers for connectors now in use may be modified to provide penetrable terminal barrier membranes that can be joined to exclude the environment. An adhesive containing an antimicrobiologic agent would set the stage for a controlled mechanical penetration of the decontaminated fused barriers. In another design concept, plastic barrier membranes without preliminary adhesions are simultaneously fused, sterilized, and penetrated by a nichrome wire heated to approximately 288 C. A system can be designed that is compatible, at the option of the user, with either of these methods. The more economical mechanical approach could then be used for parenteral fluid therapy while the nichrome wire technique would be reserved for more complex processing methods (frozen erythrocytes) or when storage of the resulting component is a factor.

  6. Sterilization 1. The changing attitude.

    PubMed

    Teper, S

    1977-01-01

    Since the end of World War 2 in the U.S., there has been a marked change in attitude towards and treatment of the mentally handicapped, and the result - in terms of sterilization - is that many States no longer use their compulsory sterilization laws and some have repealed them. In any event, the incidence of compulsory sterilization has decreased markedly. Yet, in the past decade there have been occasional attempts to resort to the procedure for punitive reasons. These efforts have generally involved women with illegitimate children who are supported by welfare payments. Over the same decade there has been in the U.S. a remarkable growth in the use of voluntary and contraceptive sterilization as the means of preventing additional children. Preliminary results from the national Survey of Family Growth 1973 revealed that 29% of couples between the ages of 15 and 44 years who did not want more children were sterilized - males and females about equally. In Britain the development of sterilization has followed a somewhat different path. During the 1st decades of the 20th century the people in Britain were very concerned about the extensiveness of mental subnormality in the population and with the care of this group. In 1930 the Eugenics society made its 1st formal statement on the use of sterilization, advocating its use for those individuals who might transmit severe physical or mental defects which might affect the health of their progeny. More evidence was determined needed before there would be an attempt made to initiate legislation, and no legislation was ever effected. Also, from 1925 onwards, there was a debate in medical and legal circles on the consequences for patients and doctors of sterilizing operations and on the risks of litigation in the criminal and civil courts. The most marked change came in 1972 when the National Health Service (Family Planning) Act empowered local authorities to provide facilities for vasectomy on the same basis as other

  7. Male-specific splicing of the silkworm Imp gene is maintained by an autoregulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masataka G; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Aoki, Fugaku

    2014-02-01

    Sexual differentiation in the silkworm Bombyx mori is controlled by sex-specific splicing of Bmdsx, in which exons 3 and 4 are skipped in males. B. mori insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein (Imp) is a factor involved in the male-specific splicing of Bmdsx. In this study, we found that the male-specific Imp mRNA is formed as a result of the inclusion of exon 8 and the promoter-distal poly(A) site choice, whereas non-sex-specific polyadenylation occurs at the promoter-proximal poly(A) site downstream of exon 7. Recent studies revealed that Drosophila Sxl, tra in several dipteran and hymenopteran insects, and fem in Apis mellifera, play a central role in sex determination and maintain their productive mode of expression via an autoregulatory function. To determine whether Imp protein is required for the maintenance of the male-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA, we knocked down endogenous Imp in male cells and assessed the male-specific splicing of an exogenous Imp minigene. Knockdown of endogenous Imp inhibited the male-specific splicing of the Imp minigene transcript. In contrast, overexpression of Imp in female cells induced the male-specific splicing of the Imp minigene transcript. Moreover, deletion of adenine-rich (A-rich) sequences located downstream of the proximal poly(A) site repressed the male-specific splicing of the Imp minigene transcript. Finally, gel shift analysis demonstrated that Imp binds to the A-rich sequences. These data suggest that Imp binds to the A-rich sequences in its own pre-mRNA to induce the male-specific splicing of its pre-mRNA.

  8. Misregulation of Sex-Lethal and Disruption of Male-Specific Lethal Complex Localization in Drosophila Species Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Pal Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal; Birchler, James A.

    2006-01-01

    A major model system for the study of evolutionary divergence between closely related species has been the unisexual lethality resulting from reciprocal crosses of Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Sex-lethal (Sxl), a critical gene for sex determination, is misregulated in these hybrids. In hybrid males from D. melanogaster mothers, there is an abnormal expression of Sxl and a failure of localization of the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to the X chromosome, which causes changes in gene expression. Introduction of a Sxl mutation into this hybrid genotype will allow expression of the MSL complex but there is no sequestration to the X chromosome. Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), which allows hybrid males from this cross to survive, corrects the SXL and MSL defects. The reciprocal cross of D. simulans mothers by D. melanogaster males exhibits underexpression of Sxl in embryos. PMID:16951071

  9. [Optimal terms for sterilization].

    PubMed

    Ribic-Pucelj, M

    1980-01-01

    Sterilization can be performed in the immediate postpartum, post abortion, or as an interval procedure. Traditionally, postpartum sterilization should be performed within the first two days after delivery, thereafter the risk for infection is believed to increase. Sterilization and artificial abortion are performed as concomitant procedures, while interval sterilization is carried out at least six weeks after the termination of pregnancy. Though many authors consider the sterilization in the immediate postpartum and postabortion period safe enough, the comparative studies show that interval sterilization has less complications. Postpartum (postabortion) sterilization has much more disadvantages than advantages in comparison to interval sterilization. The main advantage of postpartum sterilization is only one hospitalization while disadvantages are the increased risk of hemorrhage, uterine perforation, thromboembolic disease, infection, technical difficulties, and psychological problems. For these reasons interval sterilization is recommended.

  10. Sterilization of glycerin.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V

    2008-06-15

    The sterilization of glycerin is described. Glycerin is used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical formulations, including oral, otic, ophthalmic, topical, and parenteral preparations. Of the myriad uses for glycerin, some require a sterile solution. Due to the nature of dry heat sterilization with resulting equipment and validation needs, sterile filtration is the preferred sterilization method for glycerin at the Mayo Clinic Pharmacy Services Production Laboratory in Rochester, Minnesota. A practical procedure was attained with the use of a chemically compatible 0.22-microm capsule filter, peristaltic pump, and sterile tubing. The sterile tubing is attached firmly, with a twisting motion, to the hose barb ends of the filter. The peristaltic pump is set at minimum speed, and a sterile syringe is used to capture the sterile glycerin filtrate. After filtration, filter integrity testing using the bubble point test is performed on the filter used to sterilize the solution. Packaging was then completed by placing glycerin aliquots into unit-of-use sterile syringes, placing a sterile tip cap on each syringe, and labeling the syringe. End testing is needed for preparations, such as sterile glycerin, that are made from nonsterile components, regardless of sterilization technique. This quality-control testing includes but is not limited to visual checks, pH checks, and tests for bacterial endotoxins, particulate matter, and sterility. Beyond-use dating is then assigned based on chemical, physical, microbiological, and packaging considerations. A practical method for sterilization of glycerin by compounding pharmacists is attainable through the use of membrane filtration. Sterility assurance is achieved through appropriate validation, and quality-control checks must be completed before release of the injectable preparation.

  11. CHROMOSOMAL LOCATION AND GENE PAUCITY IN THE MALE SPECIFIC REGION ON PAPAYA Y CHROMOSOME

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sex chromosomes in flowering plants evolved recently and many of them remain homomorphic, including those in papaya. We investigated the chromosomal location of papaya’s small male specific region of the hermaphrodite Y (Yh) chromosome (MSY) and its genomic features. We conducted chromosome fluoresc...

  12. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  13. [Complications of tubal sterilization].

    PubMed

    Schreiner, W E

    1986-05-01

    In Europe and the US, tubal sterilization by laparoscopy has become the most widely used technique for female sterilization. The overall rate of intra- and postoperative complications differs between 0.145% and 0.85% in the numerous studies which have been done. This means 1 severe complication in 120-700 laparoscopic sterilizations. The lethality of tubal sterilization by laparoscopy lies between 3-10 deaths/100,000 interventions. The so-called "post-tubal ligation syndrome" is a rare complication. The overall pregnancy rate after tubal sterilization is 3-10/1000 women. The rate of ectopic pregnancy is very high and varies between 13.6% and 90%. Only 5% of the sterilized women show dissatisfaction. Several factors are relevant with regard to psychological sequelae and must be considered before tubal sterilization can be performed. 1 of the most important is the individual comprehensive counselling of the female or the couple prior to the sterilization.

  14. Apparatus Circulates Sterilizing Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.; Schwarz, Ray P.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus circulates sterilizing gas containing ethylene oxide and chlorofluorocarbon through laboratory or medical equipment. Confines sterilizing gas, circulating it only through parts to be treated. Consists of two units. One delivers ethylene oxide/chlorofluorocarbon gas mixture and removes gas after treatment. Other warms, humidifies, and circulates gas through equipment to be treated. Process provides reliable sterilization with negligible residual toxicity from ethylene oxide. Particularly suitable for sterilization of interiors of bioreactors, heart/lung machines, dialyzers, or other equipment including complicated tubing.

  15. The backcross sterility technique

    Treesearch

    V. C. Mastro; A. Pellegrini-Toole

    1991-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) and the induced inherited (F1) sterility technique have been investigated for a number of lepidopterous pests, including the gypsy moths. Another technique, backcross sterility, which could potentially prove as or more useful for control of pest species has been developed for the control of only one lepidopteran...

  16. Plasma-Based Sterilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-20

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014940 TITLE: Plasma-Based Sterilization DISTRIBUTION: Approved for...compilation report: ADP014936 thru ADP015049 UNCLASSIFIED Plasma-Based Sterilization Mounir Laroussi Electrical & Computer Engineering Department Old...Dominion University Norfolk, VA 23529 Rapid, safe, and effective sterilization is of the utmost importance when it comes to protecting the public in

  17. Rapid male-specific regulatory divergence and down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila species hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jennifer; Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids.

  18. Rapid Male-Specific Regulatory Divergence and Down Regulation of Spermatogenesis Genes in Drosophila Species Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Jennifer; Gomes, Suzanne; Civetta, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In most crosses between closely related species of Drosophila, the male hybrids are sterile and show postmeiotic abnormalities. A series of gene expression studies using genomic approaches have found significant down regulation of postmeiotic spermatogenesis genes in sterile male hybrids. These results have led some to suggest a direct relationship between down regulation in gene expression and hybrid sterility. An alternative explanation to a cause-and-effect relationship between misregulation of gene expression and male sterility is rapid divergence of male sex regulatory elements leading to incompatible interactions in an interspecies hybrid genome. To test the effect of regulatory divergence in spermatogenesis gene expression, we isolated 35 fertile D. simulans strains with D. mauritiana introgressions in either the X, second or third chromosome. We analyzed gene expression in these fertile hybrid strains for a subset of spermatogenesis genes previously reported as significantly under expressed in sterile hybrids relative to D. simulans. We found that fertile autosomal introgressions can cause levels of gene down regulation similar to that of sterile hybrids. We also found that X chromosome heterospecific introgressions cause significantly less gene down regulation than autosomal introgressions. Our results provide evidence that rapid male sex gene regulatory divergence can explain misexpression of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids. PMID:23593487

  19. Exposure of conjugative plasmid carrying Escherichia coli biofilms to male-specific bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    May, Thithiwat; Tsuruta, Kenji; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli carrying a natural conjugative F-plasmid generates F-pili mating pairs, which is important for early biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of male-specific filamentous single stranded DNA bacteriophage (f1) and RNA bacteriophage (MS2) on the formation of biofilms by E. coli carrying a natural conjugative F-plasmid. We showed that the early biofilm formation was completely inhibited by addition of the f1 phage, but not the MS2 phage. This suggests that the tip of F-pili is the specific attachment site for mating pairs formation and the side of F-pili has a non-obligatory role during biofilm formation. The inhibitory effect of the f1 phage was dependent on the time of addition during the biofilm formation. No inhibitory effect was observed when the f1 phages were added to the mature biofilms. This resistant mechanism of the mature biofilms could be attributed to the biofilm-specific phenotypes representing that the F-pili mating pairs were already formed and then the curli production commenced during the biofilm maturation. The pre-formed mating pairs seemed to resist the f1 phages. Altogether, our results indicate a close relationship between the presence of conjugative plasmid and male-specific bacteriophages within sessile biofilm communities, as well as the possibility of using the male-specific bacteriophages to control biofilm formation. PMID:20962879

  20. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar

    2014-03-01

    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  1. Another look at sterilization.

    PubMed

    Willson, P D

    1977-03-01

    R.T. Ravenhol, Director of Office of Population at the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), reports that voluntary sterilization is currently the foremost means of fertility control in the world. According to AID estimates, 65,000,000 couples had chosen voluntary sterilization by the end of 1975. In order to expand its support for voluntary sterilization, AID wants to offer more of its resources to services, equipment, biomedical research, physician training, and public education. The International Project of the Association for Voluntary Sterilization has been most active in the provision of voluntary sterilization. Funded by AID it has spent over $6 million on voluntary sterilization services, equipment, physician training, and conferences in over 50 countries since it was established in 1972. There is concern that the current acceptance of voluntary sterilization maybe jeopardized by lack of understanding about and sensitivity to sterilization's use. Voluntary and compulsory sterilization are at opposite ends of a spectrum, and for those involved in family planning in developing countries, there is the question of whether there is really massive demand for voluntary sterilization in developing countries and whether sterilization is truly voluntary. There has also been concern about voluntarism and informed consent in the U.S. domestic programs, and this has affected international projects. To stress the importance of voluntarism, AID contracts and grants, effective 1977, must include an extensive statement regarding voluntarism to ensure compliance with the court decision prohibiting federally funded sterilizations for minors and mental or legal incompetents. Additionally, AID contracts must require documented informed consent, and individuals choosing sterilizations need to receive a description of the risks and benefits as well as a statement that the procedure is irreversible.

  2. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. Results An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. Conclusions A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP

  3. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Meza, J Salvador; Schetelig, Marc F; Zepeda-Cisneros, C Silvia; Handler, Alfred M

    2014-01-01

    Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP fluorescent protein marker, and was

  4. Abnormalities of male-specific FRU protein and serotonin expression in the CNS of fruitless mutants in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, G; Hall, J C

    2001-01-15

    The fruitless gene in Drosophila produces male-specific protein (FRU(M)) involved in the control of courtship. FRU(M) spatial and temporal patterns were examined in fru mutants that exhibit aberrant male courtship. Chromosome breakpoints at the locus eliminated FRU(M). Homozygous viable mutants exhibited an intriguing array of defects. In fru(1) males, there were absences of FRU(M)-expressing neuronal clusters or stained cells within certain clusters, reductions of signal intensities in others, and ectopic FRU(M) expression in novel cells. fru(2) males exhibited an overall decrement of FRU(M) expression in all neurons normally expressing the gene. fru(4) and fru(sat) mutants only produced FRU(M) in small numbers of neurons at extremely low levels, and no FRU(M) signals were detected in fru(3) males. This array of abnormalities was inferred to correlate with the varying behavioral defects exhibited by these mutants. Such abnormalities include courtship among males, which has been hypothesized to involve anomalies of serotonin (5-HT) function in the brain. However, double-labeling uncovered no coexpression of FRU(M) and 5-HT in brain neurons. Yet, a newly identified set of sexually dimorphic FRU(M)/5-HT-positive neurons was identified in the abdominal ganglion of adult males. These sexually dimorphic neurons (s-Abg) project toward regions of the abdomen involved in male reproduction. The s-Abg neurons and the proximal extents of their axons were unstained or absent in wild-type females and exhibited subnormal or no 5-HT immunoreactivity in certain fru-mutant males, indicating that fruitless controls the formation of these cells or 5-HT production in them.

  5. [Sterilization of women].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, H A

    1984-09-01

    Voluntary sterilization is a permanent method of contraception. Therefore medical counseling of patients desiring sterilization is of utmost importance and should include documented incidence of failure (i.e., pregancy), complication risks, and if necessary, the various factors influencing successful reversal, although it should be emphasized that reversal can never be guaranteed. Laproscopic sterilization has proven very successful. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the most used methods appears in Table 7. The most commonly used method is bipolar electrocoagulation in the isthmic tubal section. Unipolar electrocoagulation should not be used. Hysterectomy is too major an operation to be used solely for sterilization purposes, and is indicated only when other procedures have been eliminated. Pregnancy in failed sterilizations is approximately 8-10/1000 using the current methods, and an overwhelming number of these pregnancies are extrauterine. The rate of complications is lowest in laparoscopic interval sterilizations using local anesthesia. Approximately 1% of sterilized women desired reversal, despite preoperative counseling. The success rate of reversal is most favorable when the sterilization was perfomed in the isthmic tubal section with little destruction of tissue (by the clip method), the tubal segments are long, and the time since sterilization is less than 5 years. Reversal is not possible after fimbriectomy.

  6. Sterilization. Disciplined microbial control.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H

    1991-04-01

    The goal of instrument processing is to protect patients by preventing cross-contamination from instruments. The processing involves a series of sequential steps aimed at removing and killing microbes on contaminated instruments and maintaining those instruments in an aseptic state until they are reused. These steps must be conducted carefully to assure success and to reduce chances of disease spread or physical injury to those handling the contaminated instruments. Presoaking begins the cleaning process and facilitates terminal cleaning by ultrasonic or manual scrubbing. If instruments are not properly cleaned, subsequent sterilization may be jeopardized by insulation of blood- or saliva-coated microbes from the sterilizing agent. Items that would be destroyed by heat should be cleaned and sterilized in a properly prepared glutaraldehyde solution. Cleaned instruments must be packaged prior to heat sterilization to protect them from recontamination after sterilization and before reuse. Sterilization of cleaned, packaged instruments in steam, chemical vapor, or dry heat sterilizers must involve proper loading, processing, drying, and cooling. Routine use of spore tests and chemical indicators will provide quality assessment of packaging procedures and operation of the sterilizer, as well as assist in identifying processed packages during distribution. Using the results of sterilization monitoring to adjust procedures as a means of assuring sterilization provides quality assurance to the office staff and to the patients that the instruments have been properly processed. Carefully handling storage and distribution of the sterilized instrument packs or trays reduces the chances for recontamination until the instruments are reused. Instrument processing is a major part of the office infection control program. It must be performed in a controlled manner with proper monitoring to achieve the desired outcome of patient protection.

  7. Male-Specific Fruitless Isoforms Target Neurodevelopmental Genes to Specify a Sexually Dimorphic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Megan C.; Nojima, Tetsuya; Ashley, Elizabeth; Parker, Darren J.; Walker, John; Southall, Tony; Van de Sande, Bram; Marques, Ana C.; Fischer, Bettina; Brand, Andrea H.; Russell, Steven; Ritchie, Michael G.; Aerts, Stein; Goodwin, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In Drosophila, male courtship behavior is regulated in large part by the gene fruitless (fru). fru encodes a set of putative transcription factors that promote male sexual behavior by controlling the development of sexually dimorphic neuronal circuitry. Little is known about how Fru proteins function at the level of transcriptional regulation or the role that isoform diversity plays in the formation of a male-specific nervous system. Results To characterize the roles of sex-specific Fru isoforms in specifying male behavior, we generated novel isoform-specific mutants and used a genomic approach to identify direct Fru isoform targets during development. We demonstrate that all Fru isoforms directly target genes involved in the development of the nervous system, with individual isoforms exhibiting unique binding specificities. We observe that fru behavioral phenotypes are specified by either a single isoform or a combination of isoforms. Finally, we illustrate the utility of these data for the identification of novel sexually dimorphic genomic enhancers and novel downstream regulators of male sexual behavior. Conclusions These findings suggest that Fru isoform diversity facilitates both redundancy and specificity in gene expression, and that the regulation of neuronal developmental genes may be the most ancient and conserved role of fru in the specification of a male-specific nervous system. PMID:24440396

  8. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  9. Plasma-Aided Sterilization*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Rader, Mark; Dyer, Fred; Dever, Maureen; Alexeff, Igor

    1996-11-01

    The use of plasma as a sterilization agent was known for some time.In this paper we present recent work using atmospheric pressure plasmas to sterilize liquid and solid matter: The plasma can be a glow discharge or a corona discharge. The results show that sterilization occurs with treatment times which vary from a few seconds to a few minutes. The forseen applications of this method are in the medical, pharmaceutical, and food packaging industry. *Work supported in part by The Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  10. Georgia Supreme Court invalidates involuntary sterilization statute.

    PubMed

    Harper, T D

    1983-11-01

    In the US, the concept of eugenics has been limited to restrictions on the reproductive capabilities of criminals and the mentally defective. Moreover, the rights of persons subject to this restriction have been enhanced by recent judicial recognition of procreation as a fundamental right. Constitutional challenges have been mounted on the grounds that sterilization statutes constitute cruel or unusual punishment, a violation of the Equal Protection clause, an unlawful delegation of legislative or judicial powers, a bill of attainder, or a violation of the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. These challenges have resulted in a reduction in the number of state-mandated sterilizations. This paper reviews the Georgia Supreme Court's recent invalidation of a 1970 statute authorizing the sterilization of mentally incompetent persons (O.C.G.A. 31-20-3). Motes v. Hall County Department of Family and Children Services, filed on behalf of a 21-year old retarded woman, challenged the statute as a violation of Motes' constitutional rights to due process and equal protection and contended that the state was required to prove the necessity of sterilization by more than a simple preponderance of the evidence. The Georgia Supreme Court negated both the sterilization order and the statute upon which it was based. In its decision, the Court recognized that an intrusion upon so fundamental a right as the ability to bear children requires proof by the state of at least "clear and convincing evidence" of the necessity of such an act.

  11. Male-Specific Alleviation of Iron-Induced Striatal Injury by Inhibition of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsieh, Ya-Ching; Lo, Steven; Hsu, Chin

    2015-01-01

    Men exhibit a worse survival rate than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), however, no sex-specific management has been concerned. In a rat model involving infusion of ferrous citrate (FC) that simulates iron accumulation after hemorrhage, a higher degree of autophagy associated with higher injury severity was observed in striatum of males than in females. Since the imbalance between the levels of autophagy and energy demand may lead to cell death, we proposed that FC-induced autophagy is detrimental in a male specific manner and autophagy modulation affects injury severity in a sex-dependent manner. Rapamycin, an autophagy inducer, and conditional knockout gene of autophagy-related protein 7 (Atg7) in dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) neurons were used to test our hypothesis using a mouse model with striatal FC infusion. The result showed that the levels of autophagic cell death and injury severity were higher in male than in female mice. Pre-treatment of FC-infused females with rapamycin increased the FC-induced behavioral deficit and DRD2 neuron death. However, DRD2 neuron-specific knockout of Atg7 decreased FC-induced injury severity and the number of TUNEL(+) DRD2 neurons in males. These results suggest that autophagy in FC-infusion males is overactive with maladaptive consequences and inhibition of autophagy decreases the severity of FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings present prospects for male-specific therapeutic strategy that targets autophagy in patients suffering from iron overload. PMID:26147959

  12. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  13. Sterilization of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  14. Female Sterilization (Tubal Ligation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... when you want to have it done. Some women are sterilized right after they have a baby or an abortion, ... videos on Youtube © 1998-2017 | Center for Young Women's Health, Boston Children's Hospital. All rights reserved.

  15. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  16. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    McMartin, K

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly

  17. Subtractive and differential hybridization molecular analyses of Ceratitis capitata XX/XY versus XX embryos to search for male-specific early transcribed genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, is a fruit crop pest of very high economic relevance in different continents. The strategy to separate Ceratitis males from females (sexing) in mass rearing facilities is a useful step before the sterilization and release of male-only flies in Sterile Insect Technique control programs (SIT). The identification of genes having early embryonic male-specific expression, including Y-linked genes, such as the Maleness factor, could help to design novel and improved methods of sexing in combination with transgenesis, aiming to confer conditional female-specific lethality or female-to-male sexual reversal. We used a combination of Suppression Subtractive Hybrydization (SSH), Mirror Orientation Selection (MOS) and differential screening hybridization (DSH) techniques to approach the problem of isolating corresponding mRNAs expressed in XX/XY embryos versus XX-only embryos during a narrow developmental window (8-10 hours after egg laying, AEL ). Here we describe a novel strategy we have conceived to obtain relatively large amounts of XX-only embryos staged at 8-10 h AEL and so to extract few micrograms of polyA+ required to apply the complex technical procedure. The combination of these 3 techniques led to the identification of a Y-linked putative gene, CcGm2, sharing high sequence identity to a paralogous gene, CcGm1, localized either on an autosome or on the X chromosome. We propose that CcGm2 is a first interesting putative Y-linked gene which could play a role in sex determination. The function exterted by this gene should be investigated by novel genetic tools, such as CRISPR-CAS9, which will permit to target only the Y-linked paralogue, avoiding to interfere with the autosomal or X-linked paralogue function. PMID:25472628

  18. Subtractive and differential hybridization molecular analyses of Ceratitis capitata XX/XY versus XX embryos to search for male-specific early transcribed genes.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Marco; D'Amato, Rocco; Petrella, Valeria; Ippolito, Domenica; Ventre, Giuseppe; Zhang, Ying; Saccone, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural pest Ceratitis capitata, also known as the Mediterranean fruit fly or Medfly, is a fruit crop pest of very high economic relevance in different continents. The strategy to separate Ceratitis males from females (sexing) in mass rearing facilities is a useful step before the sterilization and release of male-only flies in Sterile Insect Technique control programs (SIT). The identification of genes having early embryonic male-specific expression, including Y-linked genes, such as the Maleness factor, could help to design novel and improved methods of sexing in combination with transgenesis, aiming to confer conditional female-specific lethality or female-to-male sexual reversal. We used a combination of Suppression Subtractive Hybrydization (SSH), Mirror Orientation Selection (MOS) anddifferential screening hybridization (DSH) techniques to approach the problem of isolating corresponding mRNAs expressed in XX/XY embryos versus XX-only embryos during a narrow developmental window (8-10 hours after egg laying, AEL ). Here we describe a novel strategy we have conceived to obtain relatively large amounts of XX-only embryos staged at 8-10 h AEL and so to extract few micrograms of polyA+ required to apply the complex technical procedure. The combination of these 3 techniques led to the identification of a Y-linked putative gene, CcGm2, sharing high sequence identity to a paralogous gene, CcGm1, localized either on an autosome or on the X chromosome. We propose that CcGm2 is a first interesting putative Y-linked gene which could play a role in sex determination. The function exterted by this gene should be investigated by novel genetic tools, such as CRISPR-CAS9, which will permit to target only the Y-linked paralogue, avoiding to interfere with the autosomal or X-linked paralogue function.

  19. Male-specific association of the FCGR2A His167Arg polymorphism with Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Chang; Kim, Jae-Jung; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Kim, Gi Beom; Han, Myung-Ki; Song, Min Seob; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Ha, Kee-Soo; Sohn, Sejung; Ebata, Ryota; Hamada, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Ito, Kaoru; Onouchi, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis that can potentially cause coronary artery aneurysms in some children. KD occurs approximately 1.5 times more frequently in males than in females. To identify sex-specific genetic variants that are involved in KD pathogenesis in children, we performed a sex-stratified genome-wide association study (GWAS), using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad BeadChip data (249 cases and 1,000 controls) and a replication study for the 34 sex-specific candidate SNPs in an independent sample set (671 cases and 3,553 controls). Male-specific associations were detected in three common variants: rs1801274 in FCGR2A [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, P = 9.31 × 10−5], rs12516652 in SEMA6A (OR = 1.87, P = 3.12 × 10−4), and rs5771303 near IL17REL (OR = 1.57, P = 2.53 × 10−5). The male-specific association of FCGR2A, but not SEMA6A and IL17REL, was also replicated in a Japanese population (OR = 1.74, P = 1.04 × 10−4 in males vs. OR = 1.22, P = 0.191 in females). In a meta-analysis with 1,461 cases and 5,302 controls, a very strong association of KD with the nonsynonymous SNP rs1801274 (p.His167Arg, previously assigned as p.His131Arg) in FCGR2A was confirmed in males (OR = 1.48, P = 1.43 × 10−7), but not in the females (OR = 1.17, P = 0.055). The present study demonstrates that p.His167Arg, a KD-associated FCGR2A variant, acts as a susceptibility gene in males only. Overall, the gender differences associated with FCGR2A in KD provide a new insight into KD susceptibility. PMID:28886140

  20. Male-Specific Association between a γ-Secretase Polymorphism and Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    van Loo, Karen M. J.; Dejaegere, Tim; van Zweeden, Martine; van Schijndel, Jessica E.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Trip, Mieke D.; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a common multifactorial disease resulting from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. The causative genes that contribute to atherosclerosis are elusive. Based on recent findings with a Wistar rat model, we speculated that the γ-secretase pathway may be associated with atherosclerosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We have tested for association of premature coronary atherosclerosis with a non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the γ-secretase component APH1B (Phe217Leu; rs1047552), a SNP previously linked to Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of a Dutch Caucasian cohort (780 cases; 1414 controls) showed a higher prevalence of the risk allele in the patients (odds ratio (OR) = 1.35), albeit not statistically different from the control population. Intriguingly, after gender stratification, the difference was significant in males (OR = 1.63; p = 0.033), but not in females (OR = 0.50; p = 0.20). Since Phe217Leu-mutated APH1B showed reduced γ-secretase activity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the genetic variation is likely functional. Conclusion/Significance We conclude that, in a male-specific manner, disturbed γ-secretase signalling may play a role in the susceptibility for premature coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:18987747

  1. Epitope selection to male specific antigens for sex selection in swine.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Azarm Akhavien; Tetro, Jason A; Filion, Lionel G

    2011-04-01

    Immunological approaches to gender selection have been contemplated since the discovery of the family of male-specific H-Y antigens found only on the surface of male cells. H-Y antigens are able to elicit an immune reaction when cells or tissues from a male donor are grafted to a female recipient. We describe here the development and testing of an inexpensive approach using polyclonal antibodies against four specific H-Y outer membrane proteins male enhanced antigen 1 (MEA 1), male enhanced antigen 2 (MEA 2), sex determining region Y (SRY) and testis determining factor (TDF). Epitopes based on hydrophilic primary sequences of the proteins were synthesized, N-terminal biotin-labeled, linked to streptavidin and mixed with a Ribi adjuvant prior to immunization in rabbits. The antiserum was tested to determine affinity to swine spermatozoa using anti-motility, flow cytometry and motility and sedimentation chambers. Fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the percentage of motile spermatozoa that contained the Y chromosome. We found that the polyclonal antibodies had high affinity to the spermatozoa leading to a cessation of motility. Furthermore, the majority of these non-motile spermatozoa contained the Y chromosome. We conclude that the use of polyclonal antiserum against synthetic H-Y peptide antigens may be an inexpensive and simple means to inhibit the motility of swine spermatozoa bearing the Y chromosome.

  2. Male-specific (Z)-9-tricosene stimulates female mating behaviour in the spider Pholcus beijingensis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Xu; Li, Shu-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signals play an important role in spider sexual communication, yet the chemistry of spider sex pheromones remains poorly understood. Chemical identification of male-produced pheromone-mediating sexual behaviour in spiders has also, to our knowledge, not been reported before. This study aimed to examine whether chemically mediated strategies are used by males of the spider Pholcus beijingensis for increasing the probability of copulation. Based on data from gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis, electroantennography assay and a series of behavioural tests, we verified that (Z)-9-tricosene is a male-specific compound in the spider P. beijingensis. This compound acts as an aphrodisiac: it increases the likelihood that a female will mate. Mate-searching males release (Z)-9-tricosene to stimulate sexual behaviour of conspecific females. In the two-choice assay, however, sexually receptive females show no preference to the chambers containing (Z)-9-tricosene. This indicates that the male pheromone of P. beijingensis is not an attractant per se to the conspecific females. This is, to our knowledge, the first identification of a male-produced aphrodisiac pheromone in spiders. PMID:20462911

  3. Male-specific phosphorylated SR proteins in adult flies of the Mediterranean fruitfly Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Giuseppe; Louis, Christos; Zhang, Hongyou; Petrella, Valeria; Di Natale, Manuela; Perri, Maria; Salvemini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a widely used mechanism of gene regulation in sex determination pathways of Insects. In species from orders as distant as Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, female differentiation relies on the activities of conserved splicing regulators, TRA and TRA-2, promoting female-specific expression of the global effector doublesex (dsx). Less understood is to what extent post-translational modifications of splicing regulators plays a role in this pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster phosphorylation of TRA, TRA-2 and the general RBP1 factor by the LAMMER kinase doa (darkener of apricot) is required for proper female sex determination. To explore whether this is a general feature of the pathway we examined sex-specific differences in phosphorylation levels of SR splicing factors in the dipteran species D. melanogaster, Ceratitis capitata (Medfly) and Musca domestica (Housefly). We found a distinct and reproducible pattern of male-specific phosphorylation on protein extracts enriched for SR proteins in C. capitata suggesting that differential phosphorylation may also contribute to the regulation of sex-specific splicing in the Medfly.

  4. Male specific expression of a cytochrome P450 (Cyp312a1) in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi

    2003-01-24

    Using cDNA array techniques, the transcriptional levels of Drosophila cytochrome P450 (P450) genes were compared between male and female flies. Of the 86 P450s, 15 isoforms were picked up and the levels of transcription were confirmed by the real time quantitative RT-PCR. Cyp315a1 and Cyp302a1, which had been reported as P450s involved in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis, were included in the 15 isoforms and expression of these P450s was 8.6- and 7.9-fold higher in females than in males, respectively. In addition, we confirmed that expression of Cyp312a1 was 82-fold higher in adult males than females. This gene expression was observed mostly in the abdomen and its transcription level gradually increased from pupal stage and peaked in the 5-day-old adult. Furthermore, the male specific expression of Cyp312a1 was universally observed in three Drosophila strains originated from the USA (Oregon R), China (Canton S), and Japan (HKJ), suggesting possible involvement of this P450 in significant endogenous catalytic reaction(s). This is the first report of a P450 enzyme being predominantly expressed in male Drosophila.

  5. The sterile inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rock, Kenneth L; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, it plays a key role in initial host defense, particularly against many infections. On the other hand, its aim is imprecise, and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. Although there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation-specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses.

  6. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  7. A Simple Genetic Incompatibility Causes Hybrid Male Sterility in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Sweigart, Andrea L.; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1–hms2 incompatibility. PMID:16415357

  8. Karlson ozone sterilizer. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, E.

    1984-05-07

    The authors have a functional sterilization system employing ozone as a sterilization agent. This final report covers the work that led to the first medical sterilizer using ozone as the sterilizing agent. The specifications and the final design were set by hospital operating room personnel and public safety standards. Work on kill tests using bacteria, viruses and fungi determined the necessary time and concentration of ozone necessary for sterilization. These data were used in the Karlson Ozone Sterilizer to determine the length of the steps of the operating cycle and the concentration of ozone to be used. 27 references.

  9. Sterilization by dry heat

    PubMed Central

    Darmady, E. M.; Hughes, K. E. A.; Jones, J. D.; Prince, D.; Tuke, Winifred

    1961-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of three forms of dry heat sterilization are discussed. In addition a fourth method, consisting of heating by infrared rays in vacuo, is described. This method is particularly suitable for instruments used in the operating theatre, since it can replace an autoclave where a supply of steam is not available. Recommended times and temperatures for dry heat sterilization are detailed, and are related to the thermal death point of Cl. tetani. The dangers of recontamination during the cooling process are discussed. PMID:13719782

  10. Male-specific lethal complex in Drosophila counteracts histone acetylation and does not mediate dosage compensation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lin; Fernandez, Harvey R.; Donohue, Ryan C.; Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin; Birchler, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Dosage compensation is achieved in male Drosophila by a twofold up-regulation of the single X chromosome to reach the level of the two X chromosomes in females. A popular hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is that the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which is present at high levels on the male X, mediates this modulation of gene expression. One member of the complex, MOF, a histone acetyltransferase, acetylates lysine 16 of histone H4 and another, MSL2, which is only expressed in males, triggers its assembly. Here, we find that when a GAL4-MOF fusion protein is targeted to an upstream-activating sequence linked to a miniwhite reporter, up-regulation occurs in females but down-regulation in males, even though in the latter the whole MSL complex is recruited to the reporter genes and produces an increased histone acetylation. The expression of a GAL4-MSL2 fusion protein does not cause dosage compensation of X and autosomal reporters in females, although its expression causes the organization of the MSL complex on the reporter genes, leading to increased histone acetylation. RNAseq analysis of global endogenous gene expression in females with ectopic expression of MSL2 to coat the X chromosomes shows no evidence of increased expression compared with normal females. These data from multiple approaches indicate that the MSL complex does not mediate dosage compensation directly, but rather its activity overrides the high level of histone acetylation and counteracts the potential overexpression of X-linked genes to achieve the proper twofold up-regulation in males. PMID:23382189

  11. Primary Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster Does Not Rely on the Male-Specific Lethal Complex.

    PubMed

    Erickson, James W

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is active in Drosophila melanogaster embryos of both sexes prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Elevated gene expression from the two X chromosomes of female embryos is proposed to facilitate the stable establishment of Sex-lethal (Sxl) expression, which determines sex and represses further activity of the MSL complex, leaving it active only in males. Important supporting data included female-lethal genetic interactions between the seven msl genes and either Sxl or scute and sisterlessA, two of the X-signal elements (XSE) that regulate early Sxl expression. Here I report contrary findings that there are no female-lethal genetic interactions between the msl genes and Sxl or its XSE regulators. Fly stocks containing the msl3(1) allele were found to exhibit a maternal-effect interaction with Sxl, scute, and sisterlessA mutations, but genetic complementation experiments showed that msl3 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the female-lethal interactions, which appear to be due to an unidentified maternal regulator of Sxl. Published data cited as evidence for an early function of the MSL complex in females, including a maternal effect of msl2, have been reevaluated and found not to support a maternal, or other effect, of the MSL complex in sex determination. These findings suggest that the MSL complex is not involved in primary sex determination or in X chromosome dosage compensation prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Evolution of self-compatibility in Arabidopsis by a mutation in the male specificity gene.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimatsu, Takashi; Suwabe, Keita; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Isokawa, Sachiyo; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Städler, Thomas; Suzuki, Go; Takayama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masao; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2010-04-29

    Ever since Darwin's pioneering research, the evolution of self-fertilisation (selfing) has been regarded as one of the most prevalent evolutionary transitions in flowering plants. A major mechanism to prevent selfing is the self-incompatibility (SI) recognition system, which consists of male and female specificity genes at the S-locus and SI modifier genes. Under conditions that favour selfing, mutations disabling the male recognition component are predicted to enjoy a relative advantage over those disabling the female component, because male mutations would increase through both pollen and seeds whereas female mutations would increase only through seeds. Despite many studies on the genetic basis of loss of SI in the predominantly selfing plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it remains unknown whether selfing arose through mutations in the female specificity gene (S-receptor kinase, SRK), male specificity gene (S-locus cysteine-rich protein, SCR; also known as S-locus protein 11, SP11) or modifier genes, and whether any of them rose to high frequency across large geographic regions. Here we report that a disruptive 213-base-pair (bp) inversion in the SCR gene (or its derivative haplotypes with deletions encompassing the entire SCR-A and a large portion of SRK-A) is found in 95% of European accessions, which contrasts with the genome-wide pattern of polymorphism in European A. thaliana. Importantly, interspecific crossings using Arabidopsis halleri as a pollen donor reveal that some A. thaliana accessions, including Wei-1, retain the female SI reaction, suggesting that all female components including SRK are still functional. Moreover, when the 213-bp inversion in SCR was inverted and expressed in transgenic Wei-1 plants, the functional SCR restored the SI reaction. The inversion within SCR is the first mutation disrupting SI shown to be nearly fixed in geographically wide samples, and its prevalence is consistent with theoretical predictions regarding the evolutionary

  13. Heat sterilization of wood

    Treesearch

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  14. Sterilization of Native Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)

  15. Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Hamitouche, Katia; Maltar-Strmečki, Nadica; Kos, Karmen; Pucić, Irina; Britvić-Budicin, Smiljana; Ražem, Dušan

    2005-06-01

    Radiation sterilization of ketoprofen (KP) dry powder was investigated by selected physico-chemical methods. High-performance liquid chromatography, ultraviolet spectrophotometry, infrared spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and electron spin resonance spectroscopy did not show any significant degradation at sterilization dose 25 kGy. To determine the nature, extent and direction of radiation-induced changes, KP was irradiated to extremely high doses, much higher than necessary to achieve sterility. The irradiated KP did not show any difference of XRD patterns up to 200 kGy; with DSC and IR some changes were detected only above 1000 and 2000 kGy, respectively; HPLC has shown about 5% destruction at 2000 kGy. Acetyl benzophenon (AcBph) was generated by irradiation with G(AcBph)=(1.6±0.1)×10 -8 mol J -1. Ames test has shown no mutagenicity of KP irradiated with 3000 kGy or of the oily mixure of radiolytic products isolated from it. Solid KP has proven to be very stable on irradiation, and irradiation has been found to be a suitable method for its sterilization.

  16. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  17. Sterilization surgery - making a decision

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002138.htm Sterilization surgery - making a decision To use the sharing features on this page, ... about all the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure. Alternative Names Deciding ...

  18. Permanent uncoupling of male-specific CYP2C11 transcription/translation by perinatal glutamate

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Giffear, Kelly A.; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2015-04-01

    Perinatal exposure of rats and mice to the typically reported 4 mg/g bd wt dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG) results in a complete block in GH secretion as well as obesity, growth retardation and a profound suppression of several cytochrome P450s, including CYP2C11, the predominant male-specific isoform — all irreversible effects. In contrast, we have found that a lower dose of the food additive, 2 mg/g bd wt on alternate days for the first 9 days of life results in a transient neonatal depletion of plasma GH, a subsequent permanent overexpression of CYP2C11 as well as subnormal (mini) GH pulse amplitudes in an otherwise normal adult masculine episodic GH profile. The overexpressed CYP2C11 was characterized by a 250% increase in mRNA, but only a 40 to 50% increase in CYP2C11 protein and its catalytic activity. Using freshly isolated hepatocytes as well as primary cultures exposed to the masculine-like episodic GH profile, we observed normal induction, activation, nuclear translocation and binding to the CYP2C11 promoter of the GH-dependent signal transducers required for CYP2C11 transcription. The disproportionately lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein were associated with dramatically high expression levels of an aberrant, presumably nontranslated CYP2C11 mRNA, a 200% increase in CYP2C11 ubiquitination and a 70–80% decline in miRNAs associated, at normal levels, with a suppression of CYP2C expression. Whereas the GH-responsiveness of CYP2C7 and CYP2C6 as well as albumin was normal in the MSG-derived hepatocytes, the abnormal expression of CYP2C11 was permanent and irreversible. - Highlights: • A “low” neonatal dose of MSG causes an immediate but transient growth hormone depletion. • Adult circulating growth hormone contains mini pulses in an otherwise male profile. • CYP2C11 is permanently overexpressed > 250%; CYP2C6, 2C7 and albumin remain normal. • The bulk of the overexpressed CYP2C11 mRNA consists of an intron-retained form. • SOCS2

  19. A Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay to Distinguish the Four Genogroups of Male-Specific (F+) RNA Coliphages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goals of reducing fecal contamination in recreational, drinking, shellfishing and other waters and accurately assessing risk from exposure can best be attained if tools to distinguish between sources of pollution are available. The male-specific RNA coliphage (FRNA) genogroups h...

  20. A Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay to Distinguish the Four Genogroups of Male-Specific (F+) RNA Coliphages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Goals of reducing fecal contamination in recreational, drinking, shellfishing and other waters and accurately assessing risk from exposure can best be attained if tools to distinguish between sources of pollution are available. The male-specific RNA coliphage (FRNA) genogroups h...

  1. Light sterile neutrinos from a late phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchi, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Light sterile neutrinos represent a well-motivated extension of the 3-neutrino paradigm. However, the impressive agreement between standard cosmology and data casts doubts on their existence. Here, we present a class of scenarios that robustly avoids this tension. In these models the sterile neutrinos are light, chiral states of a new sector interacting with the Standard Model via the right-handed neutrino portal, and crucially active-sterile neutrino oscillations require a phase transition in the hidden sector. We explore the hidden-couplings/critical-temperature plane and identify regions where several sterile neutrinos can be accommodated. A late phase transition is usually preferred and may also ward off a potential threat posed by the formation of topologically stable defects.

  2. Neuroendocrinology of a Male-Specific Pattern for Depression Linked to Alcohol Use Disorder and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Andreas; Rice, Timothy; Kufert, Yael; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show low rates of diagnosed depression in men compared to women. At the same time, high rates of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and completed suicide are found among men. These data suggest that a male-specific pattern for depression may exist that is linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. To date, no underlying neuroendocrine model for this specific pattern of male depression has been suggested. In this paper, we integrate findings related to this specific pattern of depression with underlying steroid secretion patterns, polymorphisms, and methylation profiles of key genes in order to detail an original neuroendocrine model of male-specific depression. Low circulating levels of sex steroids seem to increase the vulnerability for male depression, while concomitant high levels of glucocorticoids further intensify this vulnerability. Interactions of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis-related hormones seem to be highly relevant for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. Moreover, genetic variants and the epigenetic profiles of the androgen receptor gene, well-known depression related genes, and HPA axis-related genes were shown to further interact with men’s steroid secretion and thus may further contribute to the proposed male-specific pattern for depression. This mini-review points out the multilevel interactions between the HPG and HPA axis for a male-specific pattern of depression linked to AUDs and suicidal behavior. An integration of multilevel interactions within the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience concludes the review. PMID:28096796

  3. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical device...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6850 - Sterilization wrap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical device...

  5. Sterilization of Medical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-06

    possible use with medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is developing an...Project: DARPA - Sterilization of Medical Instruments Contract: # FA9550-06-C-0054 Principal Investigator: Joseph Birmingham Report: FINAL Report 1...as medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is proposing a compact, low maintenance

  6. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Adir José; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Zambon, Luis da Silva; da Silva, Mônica Valero; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-01

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Hysteroscopic Tubal Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. In contrast to the laparoscopic technique, a hysteroscope is used to pass permanent microinserts through the cervix and place them in the fallopian tubes. This procedure does not require local or general anesthesia and can be performed in an office setting. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to determine, based on published literature, the cost-effectiveness of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization (HS) compared with laparoscopic tubal ligation (LS) for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A systematic literature search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2008, and December 11, 2012. Review Methods Potentially relevant studies were identified based on the title and abstract. Cost-utility analyses (studies that report outcomes in terms of costs and quality-adjusted life-years) were prioritized for inclusion. When not available, cost-effectiveness, cost-benefit, and cost-consequence analyses were considered. Costing studies were considered in the absence of all other analyses. Results A total of 33 abstracts were identified. Three cost analyses were included. A retrospective chart review from Canada found that HS was $111 less costly than LS; a prospective activity-based cost management study from Italy reported that it was €337 less costly than LS; and the results of an American decision model showed that HS was $1,178 less costly than LS. Limitations All studies had limited applicability to the Ontario health care system due to differences in setting, resource use, and costs. Conclusions Three cost analyses found that, although the HS procedure was more expensive due to the cost of the microinserts, HS was less costly than LS overall due to the shorter recovery time required. Plain Language Summary Hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to conventional tubal

  8. [Studies on the method of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. 1. Sterilization procedure and sterilizing effect].

    PubMed

    Arimoto, H; Ukisu, S; Yamada, Y; Sano, K; Kanri, T

    1989-12-01

    Undertaken to ensure perfection of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas (EO gas) in routine clinical laboratory practice, an investigation was made of the relationship between sterilization procedure and sterilizing effect using the film bag delivery system and chamber system. Using a biological indicator as a monitor of sterilizing effect, the efficiency of sterilization was studied under various likely conditions and compared. The results led to the following conclusions: 1. Sterilization with EO gas by the film bag delivery system, because of this procedure being unable to be performed at a constant temperature, was shown to prove inadequate due to insufficient exposure to gas especially in winter season (when room temperature fell below 10 degrees C). 2. With the EO gas sterilization method using the film bag delivery system, which is believed to be effective within the ordinary range of humidity of the atmosphere, sterilizing effect was recognized to be affected by excess wetting of an object of sterilization that was caused by inadvertent manipulation or due to a predisposing attribute of the object, such as shape or outline. 3. All materials are sterilized upon being packaged. It is necessary therefore to make best choice of package material with respect of texture and size. Reuse influence to sterilizing effect. 4. The method of sterilization with EO gas using the chamber system has the advantage in that operating conditions are all automatically controlled. For this reason, there was not a single instance of failure to sterilize due to inappropriateness of temperature and humidity. From these results it is concluded that sterilising effect was affected by sterilization procedure and condition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Flagellar mitochondrial association of the male-specific Don Juan protein in Drosophila spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Santel, A; Blümer, N; Kämpfer, M; Renkawitz-Pohl, R

    1998-11-01

    The Drosophila don juan gene encodes a basic protein (Don Juan protein), which is solely expressed postmeiotically during spermiogenesis in elongated spermatids and in mature sperm. Transgenic expression of a GFP-tagged Don Juan protein (DJ-GFP) in the male germ line showed an association of the fusion protein with the sperm tail. Detailed examination of DJ-GFP localization revealed novel insights into its distinct temporal and spatial distribution along the sperm tail during the last phase of spermatid maturation. Co-localization of DJ-GFP with actin-labeled cysts demonstrated its emergence in elongated spermatids during individualization. Additionally, the endogenous Don Juan protein was detected with epitope-specific antibodies in finally elongated nuclei of spermatids. After completion of nuclear shaping Don Juan is no longer detectable in the sperm heads with the onset of individualization. Mislocalization of the DJ-GFP protein in flagella of a mutant with defective mitochondrial differentiation provides evidence of mitochondrial association of the fusion protein with flagellar mitochondrial arrays. Ectopically expressed DJ-GFP in premeiotic germ cells as well as salivary gland cells confirmed the capability of the fusion protein to associate with mitochondria. Therefore we suppose that Don Juan is a nuclear-encoded, germ-cell specifically expressed mitochondrial protein, which might be involved in the final steps of mitochondrial differentiation within the flagellum.

  10. Male-specific region of the Y chromosome and cardiovascular risk: phylogenetic analysis and gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Lisa D S; Nelson, Christopher P; Eales, James; Denniff, Matthew; Christofidou, Paraskevi; Debiec, Radoslaw; Moore, Jasbir; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Goodall, Alison H; Thompson, John; Samani, Nilesh J; Charchar, Fadi J; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    Haplogroup I of male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is associated with 50% increased risk of coronary artery disease. It is not clear to what extent conventional cardiovascular risk factors and genes of the male-specific region may explain this association. A total of 1988 biologically unrelated men from 4 white European populations were genotyped using 11 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and classified into 13 most common European haplogroups. Approximately 75% to 93% of the haplotypic variation of the Y chromosome in all cohorts was attributable to I, R1a, and R1b1b2 lineages. None of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index, blood pressures, lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, creatinine, and insulin resistance, was associated with haplogroup I of the Y chromosome in the joint inverse variance meta-analysis. Fourteen of 15 ubiquitous single-copy genes of the male-specific region were expressed in human macrophages. When compared with men with other haplogroups, carriers of haplogroup I had ≈ 0.61- and 0.64-fold lower expression of ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat, Y-linked gene (UTY) and protein kinase, Y-linked, pseudogene (PRKY) in macrophages (P=0.0001 and P=0.002, respectively). Coronary artery disease predisposing haplogroup I of the Y chromosome is associated with downregulation of UTY and PRKY genes in macrophages but not with conventional cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Reversible lacrimal gland-protective regulatory T-cell dysfunction underlies male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of Sjögren syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Scott M; Kreiger, Portia A; Koretzky, Gary A

    2015-06-01

    CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to maintain immunological tolerance; however, defects in specific organ-protective Treg cell functions have not been demonstrated in organ-specific autoimmunity. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice spontaneously develop lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity and are a well-characterized model of Sjögren syndrome. Lacrimal gland disease in NOD mice is male-specific, but the role of Treg cells in this sex-specificity is not known. This study aimed to determine if male-specific autoimmune dacryoadenitis in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren syndrome is the result of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cell dysfunction. An adoptive transfer model of Sjögren syndrome was developed by transferring cells from the lacrimal gland-draining cervical lymph nodes of NOD mice to lymphocyte-deficient NOD-SCID mice. Transfer of bulk cervical lymph node cells modelled the male-specific dacryoadenitis that spontaneously develops in NOD mice. Female to female transfers resulted in dacryoadenitis if the CD4(+) CD25(+) Treg-enriched population was depleted before transfer; however, male to male transfers resulted in comparable dacryoadenitis regardless of the presence or absence of Treg cells within the donor cell population. Hormone manipulation studies suggested that this Treg cell dysfunction was mediated at least in part by androgens. Surprisingly, male Treg cells were capable of preventing the transfer of dacryoadenitis to female recipients. These data suggest that male-specific factors promote reversible dysfunction of lacrimal gland-protective Treg cells and, to our knowledge, form the first evidence for reversible organ-protective Treg cell dysfunction in organ-specific autoimmunity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An international overview of sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dourlen-Rollier, A M

    1977-05-01

    Sterilization, both male and female, for family planning purposes developed very rapidly, beginning in Puerto Rico and Japan between 1940 and 1950 and continuing in India and Pakistan on a large scale after the mid-1950s. The legal status of voluntary sterilization around the world is confused, but recent developments show a trend toward liberalization of the laws. Certain countries still consider sterilization punishable under the criminal law, but there is a gap between the law and the practice. Certain countries have made the issue of consent relevant under the law. Certain other governments are studying the question of sterilization officially. Countries with heavy population pressures are employing incentives to encourage sterilization and others, specifically European countries, have legally authorized sterilization. The procedure is becoming increasingly accepted.

  13. Misregulation of spermatogenesis genes in Drosophila hybrids is lineage-specific and driven by the combined effects of sterility and fast male regulatory divergence.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S; Civetta, A

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid male sterility is a common outcome of crosses between different species. Gene expression studies have found that a number of spermatogenesis genes are differentially expressed in sterile hybrid males, compared with parental species. Late-stage sperm development genes are particularly likely to be misexpressed, with fewer early-stage genes affected. Thus, a link has been posited between misexpression and sterility. A more recent alternative explanation for hybrid gene misexpression has been that it is independent of sterility and driven by divergent evolution of male-specific regulatory elements between species (faster male hypothesis). The faster male hypothesis predicts that misregulation of spermatogenesis genes should be independent of sterility and approximately the same in both hybrids, whereas sterility should only affect gene expression in sterile hybrids. To test the faster male hypothesis vs. the effect of sterility on gene misexpression, we analyse spermatogenesis gene expression in different species pairs of the Drosophila phylogeny, where hybrid male sterility occurs in only one direction of the interspecies cross (i.e. unidirectional sterility). We find significant differences among genes in misexpression with effects that are lineage-specific and caused by sterility or fast male regulatory divergence. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Sterilization in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927

  15. Sterile neutrinos: fact or fiction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this talk I will critically review some of the anomalies which in combination could point to the existence of a eV-scale sterile neutrino. Each of these anomalies is well below the 5 sigma level individually and may have explanations besides sterile neutrinos. At the same time each anomaly requires a separate explanation if it is not caused by a sterile neutrino. To further complicate the gpicture, some data sets are in mutual disagreement.

  16. Post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lethbridge, D J

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on post-tubal sterilization syndrome. Although studies have shortcomings they suggest the majority of women undergoing tubal sterilization do not experience changes in menstrual patterns after the procedure, but a minority do. Suggestions are made for further research, conducted from a nursing perspective. Implications for practice are suggested, given the tentative information on post-tubal sterilization syndrome.

  17. New disinfection and sterilization methods.

    PubMed Central

    Rutala, W. A.; Weber, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    New disinfection methods include a persistent antimicrobial coating that can be applied to inanimate and animate objects (Surfacine), a high-level disinfectant with reduced exposure time (ortho-phthalaldehyde), and an antimicrobial agent that can be applied to animate and inanimate objects (superoxidized water). New sterilization methods include a chemical sterilization process for endoscopes that integrates cleaning (Endoclens), a rapid (4-hour) readout biological indicator for ethylene oxide sterilization (Attest), and a hydrogen peroxide plasma sterilizer that has a shorter cycle time and improved efficacy (Sterrad 50). PMID:11294738

  18. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  19. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  20. Ethylene Oxide Gaseous Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.

    1962-01-01

    The duration of the equilibration period between admission of water vapor and subsequent introduction of gaseous ethylene oxide to an evacuated sterilizer chamber was studied with respect to its effect on the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger under simulated practical conditions. Introduction of a water-adsorbing cotton barrier between the spores and an incoming gas mixture of water vapor and ethylene oxide caused a marked increase in the observed thermochemical death time of the spore populations. This effect was negated by admission of water vapor one or more minutes prior to introduction of ethylene oxide gas. Increases in temperature and relative humidity of the system promoted passage of water vapor through the cotton barriers and diminished their effect. PMID:13890660

  1. Sterile Inflammation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Zeeshan; Liu, Dawei; Gregory, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The study of immune responses in Drosophila has already yielded significant results with impacts on our understanding of vertebrate immunity, such as the characterization of the Toll receptor. Several recent papers have focused on the humoral response to damage signals rather than pathogens, particularly damage signals from tumour-like tissues generated by loss of cell polarity or chromosomal instability. Both the triggers that generate this sterile inflammation and the systemic and local effects of it are only just beginning to be characterized in Drosophila. Here we review the molecular mechanisms that are known that give rise to the recruitment of Drosophila phagocytes, called hemocytes, as well as the signals, such as TNFα, that stimulated hemocytes emit at sites of perceived damage. The signalling consequences of inflammation, such as the activation of JNK, and the potential for modifying this response are also discussed. PMID:25948885

  2. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  3. Steam sterilization of laparoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Voyles, C R; Sanders, D L; Simons, J E; McVey, E A; Wilson, W B

    1995-04-01

    Because of the intricate internal parts of laparoscopic instruments, questions have been raised about the efficacy of cleaning and sterilization techniques. To assess these risks, hamburger meat was inoculated with high concentrations of vegetative pathogens and packed into laparoscopic cannulas. All openings of the cannulas were sealed during steam sterilization cycles ranging from 3 to 10 min in different experiments; cultures were obtained after cooling. Experiments were then performed using heat-resistant spore forms. Our studies showed that both the standard 10-min cycle and the 3-min "flash" were uniformly successful in killing all pathogenic microorganisms. A 7-min steam sterilization was necessary to kill spores within sealed cannulas. We conclude that a standard 10-min cycle within the steam autoclave provides complete sterilization of laparoscopic instruments; the 3-min "flash" sterilization is appropriate and safe for instruments that have been inadvertently contaminated or dropped during a surgical procedure.

  4. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  5. Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R

    1998-12-01

    Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters.

  6. Occurrence of Male-Specific Bacteriophage in Feral and Domestic Animal Wastes, Human Feces, and Human-Associated Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Calci, Kevin R.; Burkhardt, William; Watkins, William D.; Rippey, Scott R.

    1998-01-01

    Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602

  7. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, Irina; Dalmay, Tamas; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Pucci, Anna; Mazzucato, Andrea; Večeřová, Vendula; Sedlářova, Michaela; Fellner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested a general impact of the 7B-1 mutation on metabolic processes, such as proteolysis and carbohydrate catabolic process. Sixteen candidates with key roles in regulation of anther development were subjected to further analysis using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cytological studies showed several defects associated with anther development in the 7B-1 mutant, including unsynchronized anther maturation, dysfunctional meiosis, arrested microspores, defect in callose degradation and abnormal tapetum development. TUNEL assay showed a defect in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells in 7B-1 anthers. The present study provides insights into the transcriptome of the 7B-1 mutant. We identified several genes with altered expression level in 7B-1 (including beta-1,3 glucanase, GA2oxs, cystatin, cysteine protease, pectinesterase, TA29, and actin) that could potentially regulate anther developmental processes, such as meiosis, tapetum development, and cell-wall formation/degradation. PMID:28178307

  8. In silico prediction of structure and functions for some proteins of male-specific region of the human Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Saha, Chinmoy; Polash, Ahsan Habib; Islam, Md Tariqul; Shafrin, Farhana

    2013-12-01

    Male-specific region of the human Y chromosome (MSY) comprises 95% of its length that is functionally active. This portion inherits in block from father to male offspring. Most of the genes in the MSY region are involved in male-specific function, such as sex determination and spermatogenesis; also contains genes probably involved in other cellular functions. However, a detailed characterization of numerous MSY-encoded proteins still remains to be done. In this study, 12 uncharacterized proteins of MSY were analyzed through bioinformatics tools for structural and functional characterization. Within these 12 proteins, a total of 55 domains were found, with DnaJ domain signature corresponding to be the highest (11%) followed by both FAD-dependent pyridine nucleotide reductase signature and fumarate lyase superfamily signature (9%). The 3D structures of our selected proteins were built up using homology modeling and the protein threading approaches. These predicted structures confirmed in detail the stereochemistry; indicating reasonably good quality model. Furthermore the predicted functions and the proteins with whom they interact established their biological role and their mechanism of action at molecular level. The results of these structure-functional annotations provide a comprehensive view of the proteins encoded by MSY, which sheds light on their biological functions and molecular mechanisms. The data presented in this study may assist in future prognosis of several human diseases such as Turner syndrome, gonadal sex reversal, spermatogenic failure, and gonadoblastoma.

  9. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  10. Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-17

    No external power required • Gas-phase sterilant generated by chemical reaction • Sterilant is chlorine dioxide, ClO2 • Rapid, proven effective in...earlier studies • Solutions of ClO2 in water are effective against VX and HD on surfaces; no data for gaseous ClO2 with CW agents • ClO2 is effective...ingredients • Sterilizer bag design (single use) • Indicators • Vent with ClO2 scavenger • Overwrap TDA R e s e a r c h Generation of ClO2 • Widely

  11. Sterile Keratitis following Collagen Crosslinking.

    PubMed

    Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Feizi, Sepehr

    2014-01-01

    To report a keratoconic eye that developed severe sterile keratitis and corneal scar after collagen crosslinking necessitating corneal transplantation. A 26-year-old man with progressive keratoconus underwent collagen crosslinking and presented with severe keratitis 72 hours after the procedure. The initial impression was infectious corneal ulcer and a fortified antibiotic regimen was administered. However, the clinical course and confocal microscopy results prompted a diagnosis of sterile keratitis. The eye developed severe corneal scars leading to reduced visual acuity and necessitating corneal transplantation. Sterile keratitis may develop after collagen crosslinking resulting in profound visual loss leading to corneal transplantation.

  12. Food irradiation and sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  13. Synergistic Effects in Sonochemical Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Raymond M. G.; Pisano, Michael A.; Tortora, George; Sawicki, Edward

    1967-01-01

    The synergistic effects observed during the sterilization of Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 by the combined action of ethylene or propylene oxide with high-intensity airborne sound waves (34.8 kc/sec) were investigated. It has been shown that the number of surviving spores deposited on paper strips decreases exponentially with the sound intensity at sample level. Reductions of the order of one-third of the time required for standard propylene oxide sterilization have been observed by using the combined action of sound waves with gaseous sterilization. At the present time, maximal synergistic effects seem to be achieved for the following experimental conditions: propylene oxide concentration, 500 to 1,000 mg/liter; acoustic intensity, 161 to 162 db; contact time, 80 min; temperature, 60 C; and relative humidity, 40%. The basic mechanism involved in sonochemical sterilization seems to be more of a physical (accelerated gas diffusion) than a chemical nature. PMID:4965941

  14. A PORTABLE DENTAL STERILIZING CYLINDER

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes an aluminum cylinder in which dental instruments could be sterilized under emergency field conditions and at the same time be...protected against corrosion. The procedure involves loading the cylinder with dental instruments, flushing it with ethylene oxide-Freon gas, closing it...and then immersing it in boiling water for l hour. In preliminary experiments with a prototype of the sterilizing cylinder, dental instruments were

  15. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  16. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  17. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  18. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  19. 21 CFR 880.6880 - Steam sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Steam sterilizer. 880.6880 Section 880.6880 Food... § 880.6880 Steam sterilizer. (a) Identification. A steam sterilizer (autoclave) is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of pressurized steam....

  20. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  1. Inactivation of Adenovirus Type 5, Rotavirus WA and Male Specific Coliphage (MS2) in Biosolids by Lime Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jacqueline J.; Warden, Paul S.; Margolin, Aaron B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively) following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 ± 5°C and 4 ± 2°C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism. PMID:17431317

  2. Inactivation of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and male specific coliphage (MS2) in biosolids by lime stabilization.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jacqueline J; Warden, Paul S; Margolin, Aaron B

    2007-03-01

    The use of lime to reduce or eliminate pathogen content is a cost-effective treatment currently employed in many Class B biosolids production plants in the United States. A bench scale model of lime stabilization was designed to evaluate the survival of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and the male specific bacteriophage, MS2, in various matrices. Each virus was initially evaluated independently in a reverse osmosis treated water matrix limed with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide for 24-hr at 22 +/- 5 degrees C. In all R/O water trials, adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa and MS2 were below detectable levels (<100.5 TCID50/mL and <1 PFU/mL respectively) following 0.1-hr of liming. Adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and MS2, were inoculated into composted, raw and previously limed matrices, representative of sludge and biosolids, to achieve a final concentration of approximately 104 PFU or TCID50/mL. Each matrix was limed for 24-hr at 22 +/- 5 degrees C and 4 +/- 2 degrees C. In all trials virus was below detectable levels following a 24-hr incubation. The time required for viral inactivation varied depending on the temperature and sample matrix. This research demonstrates reduction of adenovirus type 5, rotavirus Wa, and male-specific bacteriophage, in water, sludge and biosolids matrices following addition of an 8% calcium hydroxide slurry to achieve a pH of 12 for 2-hr reduced to 11.5 for 22-hr by addition of 0.1 N HCl. In these trials, MS2 was a conservative indicator of the efficacy of lime stabilization of adenovirus Type 5 and rotavirus Wa and therefore is proposed as a useful indicator organism.

  3. Molecular Detection and Genotyping of Male-Specific Coliphages by Reverse Transcription-PCR and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Vinjé, Jan; Oudejans, Sjon J. G.; Stewart, Jill R.; Sobsey, Mark D.; Long, Sharon C.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of male-specific or F+ coliphages as indicators of microbial inputs to source waters. Sero- or genotyping of these coliphages can also be used for microbial source tracking (MST). Among the male-specific coliphages, the F+ RNA (FRNA) viruses are well studied, while little is known about the F+ DNA (FDNA) viruses. We have developed a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) assay which allows for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of both FRNA as well as FDNA coliphages. These assays included a novel generic duplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay for FRNA viruses as well as a generic PCR for FDNA viruses. The RT-PCR assays were validated by using 190 field and prototype strains. Subsequent DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of RT-PCR products revealed the classification of six different FRNA clusters, including the well-established subgroups I through IV, and three different FDNA clusters, including one (CH) not previously described. Within the leviviruses, a potentially new subgroup (called JS) including strains having more than 40% nucleotide sequence diversity with the known levivirus subgroups (MS2 and GA) was identified. We designed subgroup-specific oligonucleotides that were able to genotype all nine (six FRNA, three FDNA) different clusters. Application of the method to a panel of 351 enriched phage samples from animal feces and wastewater, including known prototype strains (MS2, GA, Qβ, M11, FI, and SP for FRNA and M13, f1, and fd for FDNA), resulted in successful genotyping of 348 (99%) of the samples. In summary, we developed a novel method for standardized genotyping of F+ coliphages as a useful tool for large-scale MST studies. PMID:15466543

  4. Little qualitative RNA misexpression in sterile male F1 hybrids of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis

    PubMed Central

    Reiland, Jane; Noor, Mohamed AF

    2002-01-01

    Background Although the genetics of hybrid sterility has been the subject of evolutionary studies for over sixty years, no one has shown the reason(s) why alleles that operate normally within species fail to function in another genetic background. Several lines of evidence suggest that failures in normal gene transcription contribute to hybrid dysfunctions, but genome-wide studies of gene expression in pure-species and hybrids have not been undertaken. Here, we study genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pseudoobscura, D. persimilis, and their sterile F1 hybrid males using differential display. Results Over five thousand amplifications were analyzed, and 3312 were present in amplifications from both of the pure species. Of these, 28 (0.5%) were not present in amplifications from adult F1 hybrid males. Using product-specific primers, we were able to confirm one of nine of the transcripts putatively misexpressed in hybrids. This transcript was shown to be male-specific, but without detectable homology to D. melanogaster sequence. Conclusion We tentatively conclude that hybrid sterility can evolve without widespread, qualitative misexpression of transcripts in species hybrids. We suggest that, if more misexpression exists in sterile hybrids, it is likely to be quantitative, tissue-specific, and/ or limited to earlier developmental stages. Although several caveats apply, this study was a first attempt to determine the mechanistic basis of hybrid sterility, and one potential candidate gene has been identified for further study. PMID:12223116

  5. Costs of low-temperature plasma sterilization compared with other sterilization methods.

    PubMed

    Adler, S; Scherrer, M; Daschner, F D

    1998-10-01

    Plasma sterilization is a new technique for decontaminating thermolabile products without the severe drawbacks associated with gas sterilization methods (residues, environment compatibility). The actual costs, per sterilization unit, of three sterilization techniques--plasma, ethylene oxide and formaldehyde--were compared. As plasma sterilization is an alternative to steam sterilization for sterilizing thermostable but easily corroding products or electronic instruments, costs for steam sterilization were calculated and compared as well. If one considers only the cost of the sterilization procedure itself, without taking into account the time-saving element of plasma sterilization, then ethylene oxide sterilization proves to be the most expensive procedure, followed by plasma sterilization; sterilization with formaldehyde was the least expensive. Inclusion of the time required to sterilize an instruments, however, altered the relative costs of the three methods. Because plasma sterilization takes less time to perform than either ethylene oxide or formaldehyde sterilization, fewer instruments need be procured. In order to measure and compare the time-saving advantage that plasma sterilization affords, five groups of instruments were assembled and the total cost of sterilizing an instrument of each group was calculated. The five groups included (1) disposable, (2) electronic, (3) endoscopic, (4) sharp and (5) standard instruments. In all cases, ethylene oxide sterilization was the most expensive method. Formaldehyde sterilization was, in four out of five cases, more expensive than plasma sterilization. Steam sterilization proved to be the cheapest method of sterilizing a laparoscopic set, even when costs due to damage inflicted on the optical instruments were calculated. In the case of a vitrectome, however, plasma sterilization costs were nearly the same as steam sterilization when the lower rate of damage by plasma sterilization was taken into account.

  6. Genomic Networks of Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M.; White, Michael A.; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci (“Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities”). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven ‘hotspots,’ seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL—but not cis eQTL—were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a ‘fertile’ subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  7. The limits of sterility assurance.

    PubMed

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-09-03

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10(-6) is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10(-6). By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10(-6) is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10(-6) corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into "High-level disinfection", "Intermediate-level disinfection" and "Low-level disinfection". The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options.In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10(-3) is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of at least 2

  8. Bacterial Sterilization Using Cavitating Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Yohei; Kato, Hiroharu; Usami, Ron; Fukushima, Tadamasa

    In this paper, a new sterilization method using cavitating flow is presented. Water with bacteria was pressurized up to 105 MPa and flushed out through two very small nozzles 0.1-0.31 mm in diameter, where a cavitating jet was generated containing bubbles that collapsed downstream. First, the effects of jet velocity and cavitation number on the sterilization rate of Escherichia coli JCM1649T (E. coli) were examined. The sterilization rate increased with jet velocity. The rate was proportional to the 3rd power of the velocity. All the E. coli cells were killed by three successive treatments at V=355.7 m/s and cavitation number σ=0.154. The sterilization rate has a peak depending on cavitation number at the low-jet-velocity region of less than 300 m/s. An experiment was also performed to compare two types of bacteria, E. coli, as typical Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis JCM1465T (B. subtilis), as typical Gram-positive bacteria. Additional tests were performed using Pseudomonas putida JCM13063T, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus halodurans JCTM9153, Gram-positive bacteria. The sterilization rate of the Gram-positive bacteria was much lower than that of the Gram-negative bacteria under the same experimental conditions. Gram-positive bacteria have a thicker peptidoglycan layer than Gram-negative bacteria. This may be the reason why B. subtilis is more resistant to the mechanical stress caused by cavitating flow.

  9. Are all sterilization processes alike?

    PubMed

    Muscarella, L F

    1998-05-01

    Automated processes designed to sterilize reusable medical instruments use heat and low-temperature chemicals. Several factors, including the physical properties of the sterilizing agents and whether all of the instruments' surfaces can be adequately cleaned, can cause significant variations in the reliability and effectiveness of the sterilization processes. Instruments exposed to heat-based sterilization processes pose the lowest probability of transmitting diseases between patients. Heat can conduct through many different types of materials and can destroy microorganisms embedded under layers of patient debris. Studies have demonstrated, however, that--unlike heat--low-temperature chemicals require direct contact with the microorganisms to be effective. Moreover, the complex designs of some instruments can adversely affect the low-temperature sterilization processes' outcomes by hindering cleaning and preventing the flow of low-temperature chemicals to all of the instruments' contaminated surfaces. This article will explore the differences between heat-based and low-temperature chemical processes to help health care providers minimize the risk of cross-infection.

  10. Sterile versus non-sterile glove use and aseptic technique.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ashley

    There is evidence indicating that improvements in infection control practice can reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infection. This article explores the evidence base for glove use and aseptic technique. There is a lack of evidence regarding the influence of sterile versus clean gloves in clinical care. Therefore in practice, clean and aseptic techniques are often used interchangeably. Nurses must learn to select clean or aseptic technique, and therefore clean or sterile gloves, using a risk assessment protocol. Regular audits of aseptic technique and education are needed to improve care.

  11. Male X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster are compensated independently of the Male-Specific Lethal complex.

    PubMed

    Philip, Philge; Stenberg, Per

    2013-10-26

    In organisms where the two sexes have unequal numbers of X-chromosomes, the expression of X-linked genes needs to be balanced not only between the two sexes, but also between X and the autosomes. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is believed to produce a 2-fold increase in expression of genes on the male X, thus restoring this balance. Here we show that almost all the genes on the male X are effectively compensated. However, many genes are compensated without any significant recruitment of the MSL-complex. These genes are very weakly, if at all, affected by mutations or RNAi against MSL-complex components. In addition, even the genes that are strongly bound by MSL rely on mechanisms other than the MSL-complex for proper compensation. We find that long, non-ubiquitously expressed genes tend to rely less on the MSL-complex for their compensation and genes that in addition are far from High Affinity Sites tend to not bind the complex at all or very weakly. We conclude that most of the compensation of X-linked genes is produced by an MSL-independent mechanism. Similar to the case of the MSL-mediated compensation we do not yet know the mechanism behind the MSL-independent compensation that appears to act preferentially on long genes. Even if we observe similarities, it remains to be seen if the mechanism is related to the buffering that is observed in autosomal aneuploidies.

  12. DNA methylation and heterochromatinization in the male-specific region of the primitive Y chromosome of papaya

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenli; Wang, Xiue; Yu, Qingyi; Ming, Ray; Jiang, Jiming

    2008-01-01

    Sex chromosomes evolved from autosomes. Recombination suppression in the sex-determining region and accumulation of deleterious mutations lead to degeneration of the Y chromosomes in many species with heteromorphic X/Y chromosomes. However, how the recombination suppressed domain expands from the sex-determining locus to the entire Y chromosome remains elusive. The Y chromosome of papaya (Carica papaya) diverged from the X chromosome approximately 2–3 million years ago and represents one of the most recently emerged Y chromosomes. Here, we report that the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) spans ∼13% of the papaya Y chromosome. Interestingly, the centromere of the Y chromosome is embedded in the MSY. The centromeric domain within the MSY has accumulated significantly more DNA than the corresponding X chromosomal domain, which leads to abnormal chromosome pairing. We observed four knob-like heterochromatin structures specific to the MSY. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence assay revealed that the DNA sequences associated with the heterochromatic knobs are highly divergent and heavily methylated compared with the sequences in the corresponding X chromosomal domains. These results suggest that DNA methylation and heterochromatinization play an important role in the early stage of sex chromosome evolution. PMID:18593814

  13. Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production.

  14. Chemical identification, emission pattern and function of male-specific pheromones released by a rarely swarming locust, Schistocerca americana.

    PubMed

    Stahr, Christiane; Svatoš, Aleš; Seidelmann, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones serve key functions in the biology of swarming locusts. However, research has focused largely on the mass-swarming desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. We extended these investigations to the pheromonal profile of the rarely swarming American bird grasshopper, S. americana (Drury). The headspace of mature gregarious S. americana males contained three characteristic electroantennogram-active components: (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, (Z)-2-octen-1-ol, and nonanal. These substances were accompanied by aromatics such as phenol that are also released by females and immatures. Male-specific pheromone components were released independently from epidermal gland cells, with the highest emission rate being for (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol from the abdomen and legs. The emission of the major compound, (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol, is stress-sensitive, and coincides with sexual maturity and crowding. The emission pattern strongly supports a role of (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol in the reproductive biology of S. americana. The pheromone is involved in courtship-inhibition and is used as mate assessment pheromone in cryptic female choice. In double mating experiments, females choose sperm of males with high (Z)-3-nonen-1-ol emission. Furthermore the pheromone accelerated maturation of immature adults and supports synchronization of sexual development.

  15. Review of Sterilization Techniques and Clinical Updates.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nisse V; Endicott, Scott P; Jorgensen, Elisa M; Hur, Hye-Chun; Lockrow, Ernest G; Kern, Mary E; Jones-Cox, Candice E; Dunlow, Susan G; Einarsson, Jon I; Cohen, Sarah L

    2017-09-19

    Sterilization is the most common form of contraception used worldwide and is highly effective in preventing unintended pregnancy. Several sterilization methods exist, each with unique advantages and disadvantages that influence the preferred approach for an individual patient. Salpingectomy for sterilization has popularized in recent years with mounting evidence suggesting a protective effect against ovarian cancers that originate from the fallopian tube. At the same time, Essure® hysteroscopic sterilization has come under scrutiny due to increasing reports of adverse effects that may be related to the device. This paper reviews clinical updates in sterilization, with a focus on salpingectomy and Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cytoplasmic Sterility Factors in VICIA FABA L

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, J. R.; Bond, D. A.; Christie, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    Tissues of cytoplasmic male sterile, maintainer, restorer, and restored lines, and sterile plants which reverted to fertility in Vicia faba were examined in ultrathin sections. Cytoplasmic spherical bodies (CSB), ca. 70 nm in diameter, were observed in tissues of all sterile plants but not in tissues of maintainer, restorer or restored sterile plants. No CSB were observed in a reverted fertile branch of a tiller-sterile plant, nor in 5 of 6 reverted fertile plants. One reverted fertile plant contained CSB in ovules. It is proposed that the CSB are the sites of, or possibly, products of, sterility factors in Vicia faba. PMID:17248701

  17. Portable Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. R.; Mathis, R. G.

    1969-01-01

    A portable ethylene oxide sterilization chamber was designed, constructed, and tested for use in the sterilization of embolectomy catheters. The unit can accommodate catheters up to 40 inches (101.6 cm) in length and can be operated for less than 4 cents per cycle. A constant concentration of 500 mg of ethylene oxide per liter of space and holding periods of 4 and 6 hr at 43 and 22 C, respectively, were adequate when tested with B. subtilis spores. The estimated cost of construction was $165.00. If temperature control is unnecessary, the cost is approximately $80.00. Images PMID:4977644

  18. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility.

    PubMed

    Catteruccia, Flaminia; Crisanti, Andrea; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-11-16

    The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  19. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  20. Radappertization (Radiation Sterilization) of Foods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    Street, Westport, c·r 06880; 1974. S-78-P EVALUATION OF THE TINPLATE CONTAINER FOR PACKAGING OF IRRADIA- TION STERILIZED FOODS. J. J. Killoran, E... TINPLATE CAN FOR PACKAGING OF RADAPPERTIZED BEEF UNDER PRODUCTION CONDITIONS. J. J. Killoran, J. J. Hawker, and E. Wierbicki. 5-12𔄂-P RELIABILITY OF

  1. Firebreak Maintenance With Soil Sterilants

    Treesearch

    James K. Brown

    1966-01-01

    In 1959 and 1962 the Minnesota Division of Forestry and the North Central Forest Experiment Station established a series of tests to determine the effectiveness of several herbicides in maintaining firebreaks free of vegetation. The primary objectives of these tests were to determine: (1) how long one application of soil sterilant can keep firebreaks satisfactorily...

  2. Microwave powered sterile access port

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor); Dahl, Roger W. (Inventor); Garmon, Frank C. (Inventor); Lunsford, Teddie D. (Inventor); Michalek, William F. (Inventor); Wheeler, Jr., Richard R. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A device and method for elimination of contamination during transfer of materials either into or from bioreactors, food containers, or other microbially vulnerable systems. Using microwave power, thermal sterilizations of mating fixtures are achieved simply, reliably, and quickly by the volatilization of small quantities of water to produce superheated steam which contacts all exposed surfaces.

  3. Sterile pyuria: a forgotten entity

    PubMed Central

    Persad, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results. PMID:26425144

  4. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  5. Sterilization beneath rings on dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Miller, C H; Sheldrake, M A

    1991-12-01

    This study determined the effectiveness of standard methods of instrument sterilization beneath instrument rings. Sets of three types of dental instruments were contaminated with known amounts of bacterial spores (Bacillus stearothermophilus or Bacillus subtilis). Instrument rings were placed over the contamination and the instruments processed through standard cycles in a steam autoclave, an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer, a standard dry heat sterilizer, an ethylene oxide gas sterilizer or a 2.0% alkaline glutaraldehyde solution. Controls consisted of spore-contaminated instruments without rings that were not processed through any sterilizing method and that were processed through each sterilizing method. All instruments and their associated rings were cultured for the presence of live spores. The results indicate that the reliability of sterilization beneath the instrument rings used is greatest if the ringed instruments are processed through a steam autoclave or an unsaturated chemical vapor sterilizer.

  6. The limits of sterility assurance

    PubMed Central

    von Woedtke, Thomas; Kramer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterility means the absence of all viable microorganisms including viruses. At present, a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10–6 is generally accepted for pharmacopoeial sterilization procedures, i.e., a probability of not more than one viable microorganism in an amount of one million sterilised items of the final product. By extrapolating the reduction rates following extreme artificial initial contamination, a theoretical overall performance of the procedure of at least 12 lg increments (overkill conditions) is demanded to verify an SAL of 10–6. By comparison, other recommendations for thermal sterilization procedures demand only evidence that the difference between the initial contamination and the number of test organisms at the end of the process amount to more than six orders of magnitude. However, a practical proof of the required level of sterility assurance of 10–6 is not possible. Moreover, the attainability of this condition is fundamentally dubious, at least in non-thermal procedures. Thus, the question is discussed whether the undifferentiated adherence to the concept of sterility assurance on the basis of a single SAL of 10–6 corresponds with the safety requirements in terms of patient or user safety, costs and energy efficiency. Therefore, in terms of practical considerations, a concept of tiered SALs is recommended, analogous to the comparable and well-established categorization into “High-level disinfection”, “Intermediate-level disinfection” and “Low-level disinfection”. The determination of such tiered SALs is geared both to the intended application of the sterilized goods, as well as to the characteristics of the products and the corresponding treatment options. In the case of aseptic preparation, filling and production procedures, a mean contamination probability of 10–3 is assumed. In automated processes, lower contamination rates can be realized. In the case of the production of re-usable medical devices, a reduction of

  7. Molecular Characterization and Evolution of a Gene Family Encoding Both Female- and Male-Specific Reproductive Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; Findlay, Geoffrey D.; Sitnik, Jessica L.; Frasheri, Dorina; Avila, Frank W.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the evolution of new reproductive proteins. However, in most cases, each resulting paralog continues to function within the same sex. To investigate the possibility that seminal fluid proteins arise through duplicates of female reproductive genes that become “co-opted” by males, we screened female reproductive genes in Drosophila melanogaster for cases of duplication in which one of the resulting paralogs produces a protein in males that is transferred to females during mating. We identified a set of three tandemly duplicated genes that encode secreted serine-type endopeptidase homologs, two of which are expressed primarily in the female reproductive tract (RT), whereas the third is expressed specifically in the male RT and encodes a seminal fluid protein. Evolutionary and gene expression analyses across Drosophila species suggest that this family arose from a single-copy gene that was female-specific; after duplication, one paralog evolved male-specific expression. Functional tests of knockdowns of each gene in D. melanogaster show that one female-expressed gene is essential for full fecundity, and both female-expressed genes contribute singly or in combination to a female’s propensity to remate. In contrast, knockdown of the male-expressed paralog had no significant effect on female fecundity or remating. These data are consistent with a model in which members of this gene family exert effects on females by acting on a common, female-expressed target. After duplication and male co-option of one paralog, the evolution of the interacting proteins could have resulted in differential strengths or effects of each paralog. PMID:24682282

  8. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s) and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs) and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes. PMID:22424303

  9. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the Male-Specific Lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Philip, Philge; Pettersson, Fredrik; Stenberg, Per

    2012-03-19

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s) and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs) and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  10. Multiple roles of a male-specific compound in the sexual behavior of the dried bean beetle, Acanthoscelides obtectus.

    PubMed

    Vuts, József; Powers, Stephen J; Caulfield, John C; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Males of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) emit methyl (E,R)-2,4,5-tetradecatrienoate that attracts females for mating. This study identified further roles for this compound in the sexual behavior of A. obtectus. Earlier observations revealed that males touched females with their antennae while tandem-running with them and initiated mounting and copulation, whereas they showed no such behavior toward other males. A series of subsequent laboratory choice tests were set up to establish if certain cuticular compounds aid contact sex recognition in A. obtectus. Males chose virgin females over other males. The activity toward females could be eliminated by rinsing with hexane, but was regained by application of female extract onto previously rinsed females. Gas chromatographic (GC) comparison of hexane extracts revealed the presence of two male-specific compounds, methyl (E,R)-2,4,5-tetradecatrienoate and octadecanal, which were absent from the behaviorally active female samples. Of the two compounds, methyl (E,R)-2,4,5-tetradecatrienoate was found to be responsible for the inhibition of male sexual behavior, similar to that observed with crude male extracts applied to virgin females. Furthermore, males preferred virgin over mated females. GC analyses revealed the presence of methyl (E,R)-2,4,5-tetradecatrienoate in mated females in amounts sufficient to curtail mating attempts. It appears that methyl (E,R)-2,4,5-tetradecatrienoate, besides being a male-produced sex pheromone, acts as a male-recognition signal in A. obtectus. Males also transfer it onto females during mating, resulting in mated females being avoided by courting males.

  11. Sterile neutrinos at the CNGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donini, Andrea; Maltoni, Michele; Meloni, Davide; Migliozzi, Pasquale; Terranova, Francesco

    2007-12-01

    We study the potential of the CNGS beam in constraining the parameter space of a model with one sterile neutrino separated from three active ones by an Script O(eV2) mass-squared difference, Δ mSBL2. We perform our analysis using the OPERA detector as a reference (our analysis can be upgraded including a detailed simulation of the ICARUS detector). We point out that the channel with the largest potential to constrain the sterile neutrino parameter space at the CNGS beam is νμ→ντ. The reason for that is twofold: first, the active-sterile mixing angle that governs this oscillation is the less constrained by present experiments; second, this is the signal for which both OPERA and ICARUS have been designed, and thus benefits from an extremely low background. In our analysis we also took into account νμ→νe oscillations. We find that the CNGS potential to look for sterile neutrinos is limited with nominal intensity of the beam, but it is significantly enhanced with a factor 2 to 10 increase in the neutrino flux. Data from both channels allow us, in this case, to constrain further the four-neutrino model parameter space. Our results hold for any value of Δ mSBL2gtrsim0.1 eV2, i.e. when oscillations driven by this mass-squared difference are averaged. We have also checked that the bound on θ13 that can be put at the CNGS is not affected by the possible existence of sterile neutrinos.

  12. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  13. Plasma Sterilization Technology for Spacecraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, S. J.; Olson, R. L.; Leavens, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The application of plasma gas technology to sterilization and decontamination of spacecraft components is considered. Areas investigated include: effective sterilizing ranges of four separate gases; lethal constituents of a plasma environment; effectiveness of plasma against a diverse group of microorganisms; penetrating efficiency of plasmas for sterilization; and compatibility of spacecraft materials with plasma environments. Results demonstrated that plasma gas, specifically helium plasma, is a highly effective sterilant and is compatible with spacecraft materials.

  14. New developments in disinfection and sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Craig A

    2016-05-02

    A review of regulatory clearances for selected new sterilization and disinfection products for the period January 2012-June 2015 indicates continued leverage of established technologies for steam and low-temperature sterilization, and high-level disinfection. New products in these areas were typically modified and improved versions of existing products, with the exception of a new combination hydrogen peroxide/ozone sterilizer. Development of new low-temperature sterilization technologies to address continued evolution of complex medical devices is expected to continue.

  15. The surgical solution: the writings of activist physicians in the early days of eugenical sterilization.

    PubMed

    Reilly, P

    1983-01-01

    A belief in the heritability of degeneracy and the extreme fecundity of degenerate persons emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Concern that an ever-greater proportion of the population would be burdened with defective germ plasm and an ever-rising portion of the nation's wealth would be diverted to covering the costs of the behavior and institutional care of these persons led to the formulation of 4 alternative solutions: marriage restriction laws, indefinite segregation in institutions, castration, and sterilization. This paper examines the role played by physicians in the development of a eugenical sterilization policy. In the 1907-13 period, 12 states (Indiana, Washington, California, Connecticut, Nevada, Iowa, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Michigan, Kansas, and Wisconsin) enacted sterilization laws. A review of the medical journals from this period suggests that a handful of activist physicians were outspoken lobbyists for involuntary sterilization. They educated their profession about the need for social control measures to stop the spread of defective germ plasm and frequently exaggerated the curative powers of vasectomy in this regard. Despite physicians' efforts, only 1422 sterilizations of institutionalized persons were performed pursuant to state law in 1907-17, and all eugenic sterilization laws were declared invalid in 1918.

  16. Assessment of Residual Moisture and Maintenance of Sterility in Surgical Instrument Sets after Sterilization.

    PubMed

    Fayard, Camille; Lambert, Christophe; Guimier-Pingault, Catherine; Levast, Marion; Germi, Raphaelle

    2015-08-01

    Good sterilization practices include discarding items containing residual moisture after steam sterilization. In this small laboratory study, however, the presence of residual water did not appear to compromise the sterility of surgical instruments in 2 commonly used types of packaging during routine storage after steam sterilization.

  17. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply...

  18. 45 CFR 96.73 - Sterilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply...

  19. Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  20. Effect of microorganism characteristics on leak size critical to predicting package sterility.

    PubMed

    Keller, Scott; Marcy, Joseph; Blakistone, Barbara; Hackney, Cameron; Carter, W Hans; Lacy, George

    2003-09-01

    The effects of microorganism size and motility on the leak size critical to the sterility of a package, along with the imposed pressure required to initiate liquid flow for the critical leak size, were measured. Pseudomonas fragi Lacy-1052, Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 49337, and Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 29007 were employed to assess package sterility. One hundred twenty-six 7-mm-long microtubes with interior diameters of 5, 10, and 20 microm were used to simulate package defects. Forty-two solid microtubes were used as controls. No significant differences were found between sizes or motility statuses of test organisms with respect to loss of sterility as a result of microbial ingress into test cells with microtube interior diameters of 5, 10, and 20 microm (P > 0.05). Interactions between the initiation of liquid flow as a result of applied threshold pressures and sterility loss for test cells were significant (P < 0.05).

  1. Microwave Sterilization and Depyrogenation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time

  2. Eugenic sterilization: a discussion of certain legal, medical, and moral aspects of present practices in our public mental institutions.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, M

    1961-03-18

    Eugenic sterilization is defined as sterilization of a person who is either mentally ill or mentally defective and will either severely handicap any future offspring through heredity or is unable to properly care for a child. When an institutionalized mentally disordered person of reproductive age reaches a stage when he is able to return to the community, 3 possibilities arise: 1) eugenic surgical sterilization; 2) eugenic institutional sterilization, where the patient is effectively sterilized by being kept in the institution; and 3) discharge without eugenic sterilization. 3 cases of patients discharged without sterilization are presented. A review of the law of eugenic surgical sterilization reveals that 22 states have laws that permit compulsory eugenic sterilization without patient consent. Even though a state does not specifically authorize eugenic sterilization, it does not mean that such a procedure cannot be done legally. However, fewer and fewer eugenic sterilizations are being performed. Decisions relating to sterilization more often are made by medical men than by judges. Medically, the Committee of the American Neurological Association for the Investigation of Eugenical Sterilization, in a report made 25 years ago, condemned on both medical and philosophical grounds widespread eugenic surgical sterilizations except in certain cases. Morally, the author believes that patients and physicians are incapable of acting as moral beings in dealing with the question of eugenic sterilization because of 1) lack of proper facilities to allow freedom of choice, and 2) lack of knowledge of available relevant facts. With respect to the 3 alternatives for dealing with mental patients who are capable of reproducing, the author asks: Is it morally just to sterilize a person without first offering adequate treatment, rehabilitation, and follow-up that a well-equipped institution could offer? Is it just to incarcerate a patient without offering the personnel and

  3. Meta-Analysis of the Reduction of Norovirus and Male-Specific Coliphage Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M; Woods, Jacquelina; Plante, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Goblick, Gregory; Roberts, Christopher; Locas, Annie; Hajen, Walter; Stobo, Jeffrey; White, John; Holtzman, Jennifer; Buenaventura, Enrico; Burkhardt, William; Catford, Angela; Edwards, Robyn; DePaola, Angelo; Calci, Kevin R

    2015-07-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and Canada. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents impacting bivalve mollusk-growing areas are potential sources of NoV contamination. We have developed a meta-analysis that evaluates WWTP influent concentrations and log10 reductions of NoV genotype I (NoV GI; in numbers of genome copies per liter [gc/liter]), NoV genotype II (NoV GII; in gc/liter), and male-specific coliphage (MSC; in number of PFU per liter), a proposed viral surrogate for NoV. The meta-analysis included relevant data (2,943 measurements) reported in the scientific literature through September 2013 and previously unpublished surveillance data from the United States and Canada. Model results indicated that the mean WWTP influent concentration of NoV GII (3.9 log10 gc/liter; 95% credible interval [CI], 3.5, 4.3 log10 gc/liter) is larger than the value for NoV GI (1.5 log10 gc/liter; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.4 log10 gc/liter), with large variations occurring from one WWTP to another. For WWTPs with mechanical systems and chlorine disinfection, mean log10 reductions were -2.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.9, -1.1 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -2.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.6, -1.9 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -2.9 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -3.4, -2.4 log10 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Comparable values for WWTPs with lagoon systems and chlorine disinfection were -1.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.3, 0.5 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, -1.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, -3.1, -0.3 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and -3.6 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, -4.8, -2.4 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Within WWTPs, correlations exist between mean NoV GI and NoV GII influent concentrations and between the mean log10 reduction in NoV GII and the mean log10 reduction in MSCs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Meta-Analysis of the Reduction of Norovirus and Male-Specific Coliphage Concentrations in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pouillot, Régis; Van Doren, Jane M.; Woods, Jacquelina; Plante, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Goblick, Gregory; Roberts, Christopher; Locas, Annie; Hajen, Walter; Stobo, Jeffrey; White, John; Holtzman, Jennifer; Buenaventura, Enrico; Burkhardt, William; Catford, Angela; Edwards, Robyn; DePaola, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States and Canada. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents impacting bivalve mollusk-growing areas are potential sources of NoV contamination. We have developed a meta-analysis that evaluates WWTP influent concentrations and log10 reductions of NoV genotype I (NoV GI; in numbers of genome copies per liter [gc/liter]), NoV genotype II (NoV GII; in gc/liter), and male-specific coliphage (MSC; in number of PFU per liter), a proposed viral surrogate for NoV. The meta-analysis included relevant data (2,943 measurements) reported in the scientific literature through September 2013 and previously unpublished surveillance data from the United States and Canada. Model results indicated that the mean WWTP influent concentration of NoV GII (3.9 log10 gc/liter; 95% credible interval [CI], 3.5, 4.3 log10 gc/liter) is larger than the value for NoV GI (1.5 log10 gc/liter; 95% CI, 0.4, 2.4 log10 gc/liter), with large variations occurring from one WWTP to another. For WWTPs with mechanical systems and chlorine disinfection, mean log10 reductions were −2.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.9, −1.1 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, −2.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.6, −1.9 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and −2.9 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, −3.4, −2.4 log10 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Comparable values for WWTPs with lagoon systems and chlorine disinfection were −1.4 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.3, 0.5 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GI, −1.7 log10 gc/liter (95% CI, −3.1, −0.3 log10 gc/liter) for NoV GII, and −3.6 log10 PFU per liter (95% CI, −4.8, −2.4 PFU per liter) for MSCs. Within WWTPs, correlations exist between mean NoV GI and NoV GII influent concentrations and between the mean log10 reduction in NoV GII and the mean log10 reduction in MSCs. PMID:25934626

  5. Birth Control, Sterilization and Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Lawrence J.; Prichard, Lorraine; Fuller, Scott; Atkinson, Leslie

    1974-01-01

    A questionnaire comprising case histories was administered to 27 Protestant and 27 Catholic clergymen in the San Diego area to test their attitudes toward the use of birth control, sterilization and abortion in families with specific genetic problems. The responses indicated: • Catholic and Protestant clergymen do not always follow the official positions of their churches in these matters, although the majority of them do. • Protestant clergymen were more likely to approve of birth control, sterilization, and abortion than Catholic clergymen. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not greatly influenced by whether the illness variables involved high Mendelian risk, high psychological cost, high social cost, or poor prognosis. • The approval responses of Protestant and Catholic clergymen were not significantly influenced by the socio-ethnic background of the families. PMID:4813802

  6. Counseling issues in tubal sterilization.

    PubMed

    Baill, I Cori; Cullins, Vanessa E; Pati, Sangeeta

    2003-03-15

    Female sterilization is the number one contraceptive choice among women in the United States. Counseling issues include ensuring that the woman understands the permanence of the procedure and knowing the factors that correlate with future regret. The clinician should be aware of the cumulative failure rate of the procedure, which is reported to be about 1.85 percent during a 10-year period. Complications of tubal sterilization include problems with anesthesia, hemorrhage, organ damage, and mortality. Some women who undergo tubal ligation may experience increased sexual satisfaction. While the procedure is commonly performed postpartum, it can be done readily, without relation to recent pregnancy, by laparoscopy or, when available, by minilaparotomy. Surgery should be timed immediately postpartum, or coincide with the first half of the woman's menstrual cycle or during a time period when the woman is using a reliable form of contraception.

  7. Gene Mapping and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Complete Genome from 30 Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male-specific ssRNA (FRNA) coliphages belong to the family Leviviridae. Two genera subdivided into four genogroups (Levivirus, genogroups I and II and Allolevivirus, genogroups III and IV) comprise the lower taxonomic levels. Strains isolated from several continents have been p...

  8. Design and Assessment of a Real Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Method to Genotype Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate the four genogroups of male-specific ssRNA coliphages (FRNA) (family Leviviridae). As FRNA display a trend of source-specificity (human sewage or animal waste) at the genogroup level, this assa...

  9. Design and Assessment of a Real Time Reverse Transcription-PCR Method to Genotype Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae).

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was developed to differentiate the four genogroups of male-specific ssRNA coliphages (FRNA) (family Leviviridae). As FRNA display a trend of source-specificity (human sewage or animal waste) at the genogroup level, this assa...

  10. Gene Mapping and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Complete Genome from 30 Single-Stranded RNA Male-Specific Coliphages (Family Leviviridae)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male-specific ssRNA (FRNA) coliphages belong to the family Leviviridae. Two genera subdivided into four genogroups (Levivirus, genogroups I and II and Allolevivirus, genogroups III and IV) comprise the lower taxonomic levels. Strains isolated from several continents have been p...

  11. Implementing AORN recommended practices for sterilization.

    PubMed

    Graybill-D'Ercole, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Any hospital or facility in which surgery and other invasive procedures are performed should have accommodations for cleaning, decontaminating, disinfecting, and sterilizing instruments, equipment, and other essential supplies that are used for patient procedures. Sterilization is essential to reducing or preventing the risk of surgical site infections. This is a collaborative process and should include all health care providers who handle these instruments, including perioperative nurses. The revised AORN "Recommended practices for sterilization," which became effective June 15, 2012, includes updates on sterilizing single-use items, inspecting critical items before sterilization, using low-temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods, and immediate use steam sterilization. This RP document is the first AORN document to be evidence rated and accepted for inclusion in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality National Guideline Clearinghouse. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Method of sterilization using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Methods of using ozone have been developed which sterilize instruments and medical wastes, oxidize, organics found in wastewater, clean laundry, break down contaminants in soil into a form more readily digested by microbes, kill microorganisms present in food products, and destroy toxins present in food products. The preferred methods for killing microorganism and destroying toxins use pressurized, humidified, and concentrated ozone produced by an electrochemical cell.

  13. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  14. Observation of Effectiveness of Clinical Sterilization by CASP-80A Low-Temperature Plasma Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si; Zhang, Yangde; Liu, Weidong

    2006-09-01

    The influence on the effectiveness of sterilization by low-temperature plasma sterilizer CASP-80A was investigated so as to provide a theoretical basis for reducing medical costs and achieving ideal sterilization effectiveness. To conduct the on-site simulation test, a clinical material sterilization test and a test of the influence of organic substance were conducted, the former by using the representative of Bacillus Stearothermophilus, preparing the bacteria-contaminated carrier through polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) simulated hose endoscopes, and the latter by using calf serum as the influence factor of the organic substance. The results show that the CASP-80A low-temperature plasma sterilizer could achieve effective sterilization by either the short-cycle or the long-cycle sterilization method depending on different materials, apparatus, and extent of contamination. The organic substances could influence the effectiveness of sterilization by the low-temperature plasma (H2O2) sterilizer.

  15. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  16. Comparison of liquid chemical sterilization with peracetic acid and ethylene oxide sterilization for long narrow lumens.

    PubMed

    Alfa, M J; DeGagne, P; Olson, N; Hizon, R

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how well peracetic acid liquid chemical sterilization (LCPAS) killed test organisms in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.65% salt challenge (RPMI-S) compared with a 100% ethylene oxide (ETO) sterilizer and an ETO hydrochlorofluorocarbon (ETO-HCFC) sterilization method with long (125 cm), narrow (3-mm internal diameter) flexible lumens as the test carrier. The inoculated lumens were dried overnight before processing. The test organisms included Mycobacterium chelonei, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. For all 3 organisms tested, the LCPAS process resulted in a 6 log10 reduction in bacterial load compared with a 2.5 log10 to 6 log10 reduction for the 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilizers. Sterilization was achieved for 100%, 61%, and 67% of the lumen test carriers for the LCPAS, 100% ETO, and ETO-HCFC sterilizers, respectively. The data indicate that of the sterilization methods evaluated, LCPAS was the most effective for sterilizing narrow flexible lumens in the presence of residual inorganic and organic soil. This effectiveness was achieved through a combination of organism wash-off and peracetic acid sterilant killing of organisms. Salt was the major compounding factor for effective ETO gas sterilization, because carriers inoculated with organisms in 10% fetal bovine serum alone all were sterilized by both 100% ETO and ETO-HCFC sterilization methods. Our data support the critical need to ensure adequate precleaning of narrow flexible lumen endoscopes before any sterilization method.

  17. Surgical sterilization, regret, and race: contemporary patterns.

    PubMed

    Shreffler, Karina M; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L; Johnson, David R

    2015-03-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4592 women ages 25-45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation. PMID:24936306

  19. Radiation sterilization of new drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Abuhanoğlu, Gürhan; Ozer, A Yekta

    2014-06-01

    Radiation sterilization has now become a commonly used method for sterilization of several active ingredients in drugs or drug delivery systems containing these substances. In this context, many applications have been performed on the human products that are required to be sterile, as well as on pharmaceutical products prepared to be developed. The new drug delivery systems designed to deliver the medication to the target tissue or organ, such as microspheres, nanospheres, microemulsion, and liposomal systems, have been sterilized by gamma (γ) and beta (β) rays, and more recently, by e-beam sterilization. In this review, the sterilization of new drug delivery systems was discussed other than conventional drug delivery systems by γ irradiation.

  20. Surgical Sterilization, Regret, and Race: Contemporary Patterns*

    PubMed Central

    Shreffler, Karina M.; McQuillan, Julia; Greil, Arthur L.; Johnson, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical sterilization is a relatively permanent form of contraception that has been disproportionately used by Black, Hispanic, and Native American women in the United States in the past. We use a nationally representative sample of 4,609 women ages 25 to 45 to determine whether sterilization continues to be more common and consequential by race for reproductive-age women. Results indicate that Native American and Black women are more likely to be sterilized than non-Hispanic White women, and Hispanic and Native American women are more likely than non-Hispanic White women to report that their sterilization surgeries prevent them from conceiving children they want. Reasons for sterilization differ significantly by race. These findings suggest that stratified reproduction has not ended in the United States and that the patterns and consequences of sterilization continue to vary by race. PMID:25592919

  1. Sterilization of products contaminated with Pyronema domesticum.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Carol M; Hansen, Joyce M; Rymer, Therese M; Sargent, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Product recalls due to non-sterility occurred between 1993 and 1994 among manufacturers that were sterilizing cotton products sourced from China using ethylene oxide (EO). The primary contaminant was identified as a pyrophilous mold from the class Discomycetes, Pyronema domesticum. Multiple references suggest this organism has special needs for reproducing and maintaining the two assumed resistant stages of this organism (ascospores and sclerotia). Sterilization resistance studies were performed using a China-sourced cotton product that was naturally contaminated with P. domesticum. These studies showed the organisms to have: 1) a low resistance to moist heat sterilization at 250 degrees F (121 degrees C); a resistance to radiation no greater than that predicted by the bioburden-based resistance model (i.e., Population C) used for dose determination Method 1 described in ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137-2:2006--Sterilization of health care products--Radiation--Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose; and 3) a high resistance to EO processing.

  2. Lipid extracted freeze-dried bank bone sterilized with low temperature plasma.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, K; Yano, H; Nakamura, E; Kaku, N

    2001-01-01

    Ethylene oxide gas (EOG) is widely used for sterilization of freeze-dried bone. Recently EOG is regulated for clinical use because of cytotoxicity and environmental pollution concerns. Low Temperature Plasma Sterilization (LTPS) has no toxicity and mutagenicity working with a hydrogen peroxide gas plasma at 45 degrees centigrade. We have now used this method experimentally and clinically to sterilize freeze-dried bone. Cortical bone with a thickness of 5 mm and cancellous bone with a 10 mm cubic size were prepared, washed, defatted, dehydrated by freeze drying and finally sterilized by LTPS. As a Microbiological test, defatted freeze-dried bone was contaminated with B. subtilis, and after then the contaminated bone was treated with LTPS and the bacteria was proven inactive. Mechanical testing on rabbit cortical bone was investigated by compression testing using a mechanical testing machine. No differences between EOG treated and LTPS treated bone were found. From December 1996, 52 patients who had small and middle bone defects were treated with defatted, freeze-dried and LTPS sterilized bone. Clinical result was good. No deep infections, no transmission of virus infections or severe graft absorption were noted. The LTPS bank bone is safe and useful to reconstruction to small bone defects.

  3. Perspective on the combined use of an independent transgenic sexing and a multifactorial reproductive sterility system to avoid resistance development against transgenic Sterile Insect Technique approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an accepted species-specific genetic control approach that acts as an insect birth control measure, which can be improved by biotechnological engineering to facilitate its use and widen its applicability. First transgenic insects carrying a single killing system have already been released in small scale trials. However, to evade resistance development to such transgenic approaches, completely independent ways of transgenic killing should be established and combined. Perspective Most established transgenic sexing and reproductive sterility systems are based on the binary tTA expression system that can be suppressed by adding tetracycline to the food. However, to create 'redundant killing' an additional independent conditional expression system is required. Here we present a perspective on the use of a second food-controllable binary expression system - the inducible Q system - that could be used in combination with site-specific recombinases to generate independent transgenic killing systems. We propose the combination of an already established transgenic embryonic sexing system to meet the SIT requirement of male-only releases based on the repressible tTA system together with a redundant male-specific reproductive sterility system, which is activated by Q-system controlled site-specific recombination and is based on a spermatogenesis-specifically expressed endonuclease acting on several species-specific target sites leading to chromosome shredding. Conclusion A combination of a completely independent transgenic sexing and a redundant reproductive male sterility system, which do not share any active components and mediate the induced lethality by completely independent processes, would meet the 'redundant killing' criteria for suppression of resistance development and could therefore be employed in large scale long-term suppression programs using biotechnologically enhanced SIT. PMID:25471733

  4. Hysteroscopic Sterilization: History and Current Methods

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, James A

    2008-01-01

    For many practicing obstetrician-gynecologists, tubal ligation was the gold standard by which female sterilization techniques were measured. Yet gynecologic surgeons have simultaneously sought to occlude the fallopian tubes transcervically to avoid discomfort and complications associated with transabdominal approaches. In this review, the history of transcervical sterilization is discussed. Past, current, and upcoming techniques are reviewed. This article focuses on interval sterilization techniques, thus removing post-vaginal and post-cesarean delivery tubal ligations from the discussion. PMID:19015762

  5. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  6. The Status of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2017-01-01

    The sterile neutrino is a particle dark matter candidate with a host of observable signatures that is close to being fully tested. I will first review the implications for structure formation, comparing predictions of sterile neutrino cosmologies against observations. I will then review analyses of X-rays from dark matter concentrations in search of mono-energetic photons predicted from sterile neutrino dark matter decays. Structure formation and X-rays offer important complementary probes, and I will highlight the recent rapid progress in testing the sterile neutrino parameter space. I will also discuss implications of analyses leading to the detection of X-ray lines from clusters of galaxies and Andromeda.

  7. A DNA methylation site in the male-specific P450 (Cyp 2d-9) promoter and binding of the heteromeric transcription factor GABP.

    PubMed Central

    Yokomori, N; Kobayashi, R; Moore, R; Sueyoshi, T; Negishi, M

    1995-01-01

    The Cyp 2d-9 gene encodes the male-specific steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase in mouse liver and shares a conserved regulatory element (-100TTCCGGGC-93) with another male-specific Slp promoter. As shown with the Slp promoter (N. Yokomori, R. Moore, and M. Negishi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:1302-1306, 1995), the male-preferential demethylation also occurs at CpG/-97 in the Cyp 2d-9 promoter. The transcription factor which specifically binds to the demethylated element has been purified. The peptide sequences reveal that the factor consists of GABP alpha and GABP beta 1 with Ets and Notch motifs, respectively. Both DNase I footprinting and gel shift assays indicate that the bacterially expressed glutathione S-transferase-GABP fusion proteins bind to the regulatory element only when CpG/-97 is demethylated. Moreover, Cyp 2d-9 promoter is trans-activated by coexpression of GABP proteins in HepG2 cells. Given the additional results that CpG/-50 of the female-specific steroid 15 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp 2a-4) promoter is preferentially demethylated in the females, the sex-specific expressions of the P450 genes correlate very well with DNA demethylation. We also conclude that GABP is a methylation-sensitive transcription factor and is a potential transcription activator of the male-specific Cyp 2d-9 promoter. PMID:7565685

  8. Preliminary Source Tracking of Male-Specific (F(+)) RNA Coliphage on Lettuce as a Surrogate of Enteric Viruses Using Reverse Transcription-PCR.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Mojgan; Yavarmanesh, Masoud; Bahreini, Masumeh; Mohebbi, Mohebbat

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this research was to preliminary track fecal source male-specific F(+)RNA coliphages including human and animals in lettuce. At first, two published virus extraction procedures of ultracentrifugation and PEG precipitation were compared using DAL assay for determining the recovery efficiency in lettuce spiked artificially with three concentrations (10(2), 10(4), 10(6) pfu/100 ml) of MS2 coliphage. The results showed that PEG precipitation had the highest recovery in which the recovery efficiency at the spiked level of 10(6) pfu/100 ml was 16.63 %. Aqueous phase obtained from the final step of PEG method was applied for enumeration of coliphage and viral RNA extraction in naturally contaminated lettuce samples (N = 30) collected from two sources (market and farm). The samples were then analyzed based on (I, II, III, and IV primer sets) using RT-PCR method. Coliphages were detected in 9 (60 %) and 12 (80 %) out of 15 market and farm samples, respectively, using DAL assay, whereas male-specific F(+)RNA coliphages were detected using the RT-PCR method in 9 (60 %) and 13 (86.6 %) out of 15 samples of market and farm, respectively. Based on the results, only genotype I of male-specific F(+)RNA coliphages was detected in lettuce samples and no sample tested was positive for other genotypes (II, III, and IV).

  9. Ramifications of a sterile Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2011-10-01

    The seldom considered ramifications of a sterile Mars are explored. Very much is now known about the environment on Mars. Herein, the individual and collective environmental parameters are examined with particular consideration of those that might be inimical to life as we know it, or as might reasonably be assumed to be so to alien life. It is shown that no single measurement or combination of them precludes the ability of Mars to support even a wide number of terrestrial microbial species, let alone the likely greater tolerance and/or adaptability of possible alien life forms. Some yet unknown factor or combination of factors would have to be responsible for Mars' failure to generate life or to successfully harbor viable forms received from space. Since Mars is so Earth-like, the red planet's sterility could deliver a fatal blow to the growing concept of a cosmic Biologic Imperative, and would raise the daunting prospect that Earth is a unique or a very rare habitat.

  10. Steam quality and effective sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sedlacek, R S; Rose, E F

    1985-01-01

    Faced with using steam from a commercial utility having boilers greater than 5 miles distant and being the last user on the system resulted in ineffective sterilization. A three phase testing program was established utilizing: Direct physical measurements - an Ellison model 915A portable steam calorimeter. Direct microbiology - Autoclaved feed pellets were aseptically placed in fluid thioglycolate medium and incubated at 37 degrees C. Indirect microbiology - Feces from "defined flora" mice fed the autoclaved pelleted feed were tested. Colorimetric measurements verified that the steam sometimes contained greater than 5% entrained water. During periods of wet steam it was impossible to maintain consistent sterility of the mouse pellets even using a cycle of 126 degrees C for 60 minutes. One spore-forming Gram positive rod, Clostridium perfringens type D was the predominant bacterium isolated. Lactating mice, or mice stressed experimentally came down with diarrhea within days of eating pellets treated with wet steam (calorimetric measurements) and a subsequent positive culture. These mice voided stools predominantly showing Clostridium perfringens type D.

  11. Factors Influencing the Activity of Sterile Filtered and Heat-Sterilized Trypsin Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R. A.; Poole, G. M.

    1974-01-01

    The mode of sterilization (filtration or heat) was found to significantly affect the activity of trypsin solutions. Trypsin activity was substantially reduced in the initial fractions of filtrate passed through asbestos filter pads; heat-sterilized trypsin was satisfactory for transfer of cell cultures grown on glass. Heat-sterilized trypsin may be useful when elimination of filterable organisms is required. PMID:4844278

  12. Intrauterine infections and birth defects.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yi-Fei; Xu, Chen; Chen, Gong; Xin, Ruo-Lei; Chen, Jia-Peng; Hu, Xu-Mei; Yang, Qing; Song, Xin-Ming; Pang, Li-Hua; Ji, Ying; Sun, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ju-Fen; Guo, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yan

    2004-12-01

    Intrauterine infection is an important cause of some birth defects worldwide. The most common pathogens include rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. General information about these pathogens in epidemiology, consequence of birth defects, and the possible mechanisms in the progress of birth defects, and the interventions to prevent or treat these pathogens' infections are described. The infections caused by rubella virus, cytomegaloviurs, ureaplasma urealyticum, toxoplasma, etc. are common, yet they are proved to be fatal during the pregnant period, especially during the first trimester. These infections may cause sterility, abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, and affect multiple organs that may induce loss of hearing and vision, even fetal deformity and the long-term effects. These pathogens' infections may influence the microenvironment of placenta, including levels of enzymes and cytokines, and affect chondriosome that may induce the progress of birth defect. Early diagnosis of infections during pregnancy should be strengthened. There are still many things to be settled, such as the molecular mechanisms of birth defects, the effective vaccines to certain pathogens. Birth defect researches in terms of etiology and the development of applicable and sensitive pathogen detection technology and methods are imperative.

  13. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  14. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  15. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  16. An inexpensive laparoscopy system for female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Wheeless, C R

    1975-12-01

    Laparoscopy has become an established procedure for female sterilization. The cost of the equipment remains excessively high, thereby reducing its availability to all physicians and patients who desire and need it. We have described an inexpensive--but highly effective--female sterilization system utilizing equipment that should cost in the range of $400.00.

  17. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  18. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  19. 9 CFR 109.2 - Sterilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sterilizers. 109.2 Section 109.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STERILIZATION AND PASTEURIZATION...

  20. Paraformaldehyde for Surface Sterilization and Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Larry A.; Barbeito, Manuel S.; Gremillion, Gardner G.

    1969-01-01

    Paraformaldehyde powder, depolymerized by heat, produced formaldehyde gas that was effective in sterilizing laboratory rooms, a mobile laboratory trailer, various surfaces, fiberglass filter medium, and specialized laboratory equipment. A sporulating and nonsporulating strain of bacteria, a virus, and a bacterial toxin were used as test agents. The dissemination procedures and equipment, the assay techniques, and the facilities and equipment sterilized were described. PMID:4977223

  1. Heat sterilization times of red pine boards

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the time required to heat the center of red pine boards to various temperatures for sterilization. This information will serve as a guideline for those concerned with heat sterilizing wood pallets and other wood shipping containers to meet heat treatment requirements for protection against invasive pests. Red pine boards, 4...

  2. Higgs production through sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    In scenarios with sterile (right-handed) neutrinos with an approximate “lepton-number-like” symmetry, the heavy neutrinos (the mass eigenstates) can have masses around the electroweak scale and couple to the Higgs boson with, in principle, unsuppressed Yukawa couplings, while the smallness of the light neutrinos’ masses is guaranteed by the approximate symmetry. The on-shell production of the heavy neutrinos at lepton colliders, together with their subsequent decays into a light neutrino and a Higgs boson, constitutes a resonant contribution to the Higgs production mechanism. This resonant mono-Higgs production mechanism can contribute significantly to the mono-Higgs observables at future lepton colliders. A dedicated search for the heavy neutrinos in this channel exhibits sensitivities for the electron neutrino Yukawa coupling as small as ˜ 5 × 10-3. Furthermore, the sensitivity is enhanced for higher center-of-mass energies, when identical integrated luminosities are considered.

  3. Disinfection, sterilization, and antisepsis: An overview.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2016-05-02

    All invasive procedures involve contact by a medical device or surgical instrument with a patient's sterile tissue or mucous membranes. The level of disinfection or sterilization is dependent on the intended use of the object: critical (items that contact sterile tissue such as surgical instruments), semicritical (items that contact mucous membrane such as endoscopes), and noncritical (devices that contact only intact skin such as stethoscopes) items require sterilization, high-level disinfection and low-level disinfection, respectively. Cleaning must always precede high-level disinfection and sterilization. Antiseptics are essential to infection prevention as part of a hand hygiene program as well as several other uses such as surgical hand antisepsis and pre-operative skin preparation.

  4. Care and sterilization of endourologic instruments.

    PubMed

    Gregory, E; Simmons, D; Weinberg, J J

    1988-08-01

    All endourologic instruments must be handled properly if they are to continue to function properly. Care must be taken in washing and sterilizing of this equipment, as not all endoscopic equipment can endure all methods, and people who are working with these instruments must be taught the proper care and sterilization methods of each. For example, fiberoptic telescopes and light cables must never be autoclaved; ethylene oxide is the method of choice. Disinfectant is an alternative. Loops, sheaths, high-frequency cables, resectoscopes, and working elements should be sterilized by ethylene oxide. Loops and high-frequency cables should not be soaked in a disinfectant, but other instruments may be soaked. All instruments should be dried before sterilization. Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance of proper storage of these very fragile fiberoptic instruments. With proper care and sterilization, these instruments will need fewer repairs and function properly for a longer time.

  5. Vapor Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack

    For interplanetary missions landing on a planet of potential biological interest, United States NASA planetary protection currently requires that the flight system must be assembled, tested and ultimately launched with the intent of minimizing the bioload taken to and deposited on the planet. Currently the only NASA approved microbial reduction method is dry heat sterilization process. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements. The VHP sterilization technology is widely used by the medical industry, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material compatibility. The goal of our study is determine the minimum VHP process conditions for PP acceptable microbial reduction levels. A series of experiments were conducted using Geobacillus stearothermophilus to determine VHP process parameters that provided significant reductions in spore viability while allowing survival of sufficient spores for statistically significant enumeration. In addition to the obvious process parameters -hydrogen peroxide concentration, number of pulses, and exposure duration -the investigation also considered the possible effect of environmental pa-rameters. Temperature, relative humidity, and material substrate effects on lethality were also studied. Based on the results, a most conservative D value was recommended. This recom-mended D value was also validated using VHP "hardy" strains that were isolated from clean-rooms and environmental populations collected from spacecraft relevant areas. The efficiency of VHP at ambient condition as well as VHP material compatibility will also be

  6. Disruption of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB26 results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    PubMed

    Steiner-Lange, Sabine; Unte, Ulrike S; Eckstein, Luca; Yang, Caiyun; Wilson, Zoe A; Schmelzer, Elmon; Dekker, Koen; Saedler, Heinz

    2003-05-01

    A male sterile mutant with a defect in anther dehiscence was identified in an Arabidopsis thaliana population mutagenized with the Zea mays transposon En-1/Spm. Mutants produce viable pollen that can fertilize when released mechanically from the anthers. Mutant stamens are of normal size and shape, but lack cell wall fortifications in the endothecial cell layer of the anther, which are required for the dehiscence process. The mutant phenotype was shown to be caused by a transposon insertion in AtMYB26, disrupting the putative DNA-binding domain of this R2R3-type MYB transcription factor. RT-PCR revealed that expression of AtMYB26 is restricted to inflorescences. Sterility was shown to be stable under several environmental conditions. The high stability of the sterile phenotype, together with the fact that pollen is functional, makes AtMYB26 and its orthologs a valuable tool for manipulating male fertility in higher plants.

  7. Sterilization: women fit to be tied.

    PubMed

    Caress, B

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization abuse is both systematic and widespread. Frequently, women are misled about the dangers of surgery, misinformed about its permanence, and coerced while under the stress of labor or abortion. Generally, instances of abuses in the health system are treated as illegitimate, illegal aberations of an otherwise decent health care system. Careful examination of these so called abuses would reveal that each can be causally connected to particular aspects of the care of America's health system. Sterilization abuse stems from a combination of factors inherent in the health system plus 1 critical additional factor. Besides resulting from teaching and research imperatives, profit making, and the fee for service systems, such abuse is the most widespread example of medicine as an instrument of social control. Sterilization is the most extreme form of birth control and birth control is official US government policy. There were about 500,000 sterilizations performed on American women in 1973. None of the sterilization methods is innocuous, and each is associated with some physical and psychological side effects. General agreement exists in the medical literature that some risk is attendant to each procedure. Sterilization is the most dangerous and the fastest growing method of birth control. Since 1970 the figures show an almost 3-fold increase in the incidence of female sterilization, from 192,000 in 1970 to 548,000 in 1974. Much evidence exists to suggest that the increase in the number of sterilizations has fueled a trend toward the sterilization of younger women with fewer children. Official accommodation to liberalization of sterilization practices in the US came in 1969, when the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) withdrew its age parity formula. This liberalization of sterilization guidelines opened the floodgates to abuse. Some of the increase in the number of operations performed is due to increased demand, some of it is the result

  8. Problems in sterilization of unmanned space vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, L D

    1964-01-01

    The probability of achieving and maintaining sterility of an unmanned spacecraft with varied suggested procedures is examined in detail, as are alternative techniques for avoiding biological contamination of the planets. The required degree of assurance against contamination of Mars, Venus and the Moon with Earth organisms is also considered. For Mars landers and orbiters, sterilization of the spacecraft or capsule by dry heat, with no subsequent access, is found to be desirable. For the present, sterilization of Venus landers still seems desirable. For Mars flybys, and for Venus orbiters and flybys, control of the trajectory to minimize the chance of unintentionally entering the planetary atmosphere appears the method of choice. For the Moon, sterilization seems unnecessary, but microbial counts should be kept low. Sterilization lowers spacecraft and system reliability. It reduces the chance of launching within periods fixed by astronomical constraints and increases costs. The gain which should be achieved through spacecraft sterilization, in return of significant biological information about the planets, must be balanced against these losses. In particular, one should keep in mind the loss in return of biological data occasioned by failure of a spacecraft to fulfill its mission; the probability of such failure is increased by sterilization.

  9. Characteristics of Surface Sterilization using ECR Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonesu, Akira; Hara, Kazufumi; Nishikawa, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plasma sterilization techniques have superior characteristics such as a short treatment times, non-toxicity and low thermal damages on the sterilized materials. In plasma sterilization, microorganisms can be sterilized by active radicals, energetic charged particles, and vacuum UV radiation. The influence of each factor depends on the plasma operating parameters. Microwave discharges under the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) condition produce higher electron temperature and density plasma as compared with other plasma generation techniques. In the present study, characteristics of surface sterilization using ECR plasma have been investigated.The experiment was performed in the vacuum chamber which contains a magnet holder. A pair of rectangular Sm-Co permanent magnets is aligned parallel to each other within the magnet holder. The region of the magnetic field for ECR exists near the magnet holder surface. When the microwave is introduced into the vacuum chamber, a ECR plasma is produced around surface of the magnet holder. High energy electrons and oxygen radicals were observed at ECR zone by electric probe method and optical spectroscopic method. Biological indicators (B.I.) having spore of 106 was sterilized in 2min for oxygen discharge. The temperature of the B.I. installation position was about 55°. The sterilization was achieved by the effect of oxygen radicals and high energy electrons.

  10. Parameters governing steam sterilization of deadlegs.

    PubMed

    Young, J H; Ferko, B L; Gaber, R P

    1994-01-01

    Use of saturated steam for sterilization-in-place (SIP) is limited by factors effecting displacement of air from deadlegs. Effects of tube diameter, length, orientation and position within a deadleg were quantitatively studied by examining temperature profiles and rates of kill of Bacillus stearothermophilus spores. Tube diameter had the greatest effect on sterilization. For small diameter tubes, 0.4 cm inside diameter (ID), air displacement was minimal and due mainly to diffusion. 8.8 cm long tubes with 0.4 cm IDs could not be sterilized at 121 degrees C. As tube diameter was increased and buoyant driven convective flow became dominant over viscous forces, sterilization was achieved and tube orientation became critical. Sterilization time, as defined by a twelve log reduction in spore population, was 75 minutes in a 19.0 cm long vertical tube with 1.7 cm ID, whereas 167 minutes were required for an 8.8 cm long tube with 1.0 cm ID. For 8.8 cm long tubes, only the 1.7 cm ID tube could be sterilized when orientated 5 degrees above horizontal. Data show that length to diameter ratios, L/Ds, do not provide a general guideline which can be used to predict sterilization. In the absence of steam bleeders, equipment should be designed to assure strong buoyancy driven convective flow to assure adequate air removal. This requires elimination of small diameter deadlegs (0.4 cm ID and less) and vertical positioning of deadlegs.

  11. New sterilization technologies alternative to ethylene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabrizian, Maryam; Lerouge, Sophie; Debrie, Anne; Yahia, L'Hocine

    1997-06-01

    Sterilization of biomedical devices may induce bulk and surface modification, responsible for the decrease or loss of their biofunctionality. Pure ethylene oxide (EO) at low temperature and new alternative techniques such as cold gas plasma sterilization have been developed for heat-sensitive polymers. There is a lack of the knowledge concerning their safety in terms of materials damage and consequences on the biofunctionality of sterilized devices. The objective of our work consists in studying bulk and surface changes in biomedical devices induced by these two sterilization techniques. Samples from PVC, Polyurethane, Polyacrylate and Polyethylene-based medical devices are subjected to 1, 5, and 10 sterilization cycles by Steri-Vac-3M (pure EO), Sterrad-100$TM, J&J (gas plasma + H2O2), and studied by X-rays photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary results show an increasing in Oxygen/Carbon ratio by a factor of 1.3 to 4.4 between the first and tenth cycle indicating the surface oxidation by gas plasma sterilization processes. Some changes in C-C chemical bounding are associated with EO sterilization.

  12. An investigation of a sterile access technique for the repair and adjustment of sterile spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, F. H.; Fuller, H. V.; Hueschen, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A description is presented of a unique system for the sterilization and sterile repair of spacecraft and the results of a test program designed to assess the biological integrity and engineering reliability of the system. This trailer-mounted system, designated the model assembly sterilizer for testing (MAST), is capable of the dry-heat sterilization of spacecraft and/or components less than 2.3 meters in diameter at temperatures up to 433 K and the steam sterilization of components less than 0.724 meter in diameter. Sterile access to spacecraft is provided by two tunnel suits, called the bioisolator suit systems (BISS), which are contiguous with the walls of the sterilization chambers. The test program was designed primarily to verify the biological and engineering reliability of the MAST system by processing simulated space hardware. Each test cycle simulated the initial sterilization of a spacecraft, sterile repair of a failed component, removal of the spacecraft from the MAST for mating with the bus, and a sterile recycle repair.

  13. The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a new sterilization technique.

    PubMed

    Höller, C; Martiny, H; Christiansen, B; Rüden, H; Gundermann, K O

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of low temperature plasma (LTP) sterilization, a newly developed sterilization procedure was tested. Following experiments were carried out: Determination of the most resistant test organism, influence of 10% and 20% defibrinated sheep blood or varying salt concentrations on the efficacy of the sterilization process, influence of the carrier position in the sterilization chamber and in the sterilization pouches, influence of a loaded sterilization chamber, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, steel carriers with a blood burden of 0%, 5% and 10%, comparative efficacy of EO and LTP, strip carriers in endoscopes, blood burden 0% and 10%, with and without adaptors, evaluation of two bioindicator models. B. pumilus was the test spore that overall seemed to be most resistant to the sterilization procedure. Supplementation of the test suspension with blood or saline crystals resulted in significantly reduced efficacy and has to be avoided in practical operation. The fully loaded sterilization chamber or the position of germ carriers on the shelves had no negative influence on the effectivity of the sterilization process. There were no significant differences between EO and LTP, the blood burden not exceeding 5%. 10% blood burden resulted in a significantly weaker action of LTP. For sterilization of long lumens adaptors containing hydrogen peroxide are necessary. An appropriate bioindicator tube model is introduced.

  14. Complications of female sterilization: immediate and delayed.

    PubMed

    Huggins, G R; Sondheimer, S J

    1984-03-01

    Surgical sterilization in women has changed dramatically over the past 20 years. The development of laparoscopy and minilaparotomy have made the procedure readily available even in developing countries. In the United States, changing social values and changes in hospital regulations have done as much as technology to account for the tremendous increases in the number of women undergoing sterilization. Improved sterilization procedures have resulted in lower costs for sterilization and lowered morbidity and mortality rates. Hysterectomy for sterilization alone carries unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Originally, laparoscopic techniques utilized unipolar cautery. However, bowel burns, a rare but serious complication, were reported, and this led to newer techniques. These techniques, using bands, clips, and bipolar cautery, have gained increasing popularity and have eliminated many of the serious complications of female sterilization. Historically, there has been concern that tubal sterilization by any method produces, in significant numbers of patients, the subsequent gynecologic and psychologic problems called "post-tubal ligation syndrome." A review of earlier literature indicates that many of these studies have serious methodologic problems, including recall bias, inappropriate control groups, failure to elicit prior history of gynecologic or psychologic problems, and failure to account for the use of oral contraceptives or IUDs. More recent large prospective epidemiologic studies that have controlled for prior gynecologic problems and contraceptive usage have failed to show increased incidence of gynecologic sequelae in large numbers of women. However, there are some data to support the concept that in certain individuals, sterilization may result in disruption of ovarian blood or nerve supply, producing gynecologic sequelae. Additional data from these ongoing large-scale studies and others should help to elucidate this problem in the future. Pregnancy

  15. Chemical sterilization of allograft dermal tissues.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Abigail; Vaynshteyn, Edward; Kowalski, John B; Ngo, Manh-Dan; Merritt, Karen; Osborne, Joel; Chnari, Evangelia

    2017-08-10

    Common terminal sterilization methods are known to alter the natural structure and properties of soft tissues. One approach to providing safe grafts with preserved biological properties is the combination of a validated chemical sterilization process followed by an aseptic packaging process. This combination of processes is an accepted method for production of sterile healthcare products as described in ANSI/AAMI ST67:2011. This article describes the validation of the peracetic acid and ethanol-based (PAAE) chemical sterilization process for allograft dermal tissues at the Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF, Edison, NJ). The sterilization capability of the PAAE solution used during routine production of aseptically processed dermal tissue forms was determined based on requirements of relevant ISO standards, ISO 14161:2009 and ISO 14937:2009. The resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium sporogenes, Mycobacterium terrae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus to the chemical sterilization process employed by MTF was determined. Using a worst-case scenario testing strategy, the D value was calculated for the most resistant microorganism, Bacillus. The 12D time parameter determined the minimum time required to achieve a SAL of 10(-6). Microbiological performance qualification demonstrated a complete kill of 10(6) spores at just a quarter of the full cycle time. The validation demonstrated that the PAAE sterilization process is robust, achieves sterilization of allograft dermal tissue to a SAL 10(-6), and that in combination with aseptic processing secures the microbiological safety of allograft dermal tissue while avoiding structural and biochemical tissue damage previously observed with other sterilization methods such as ionizing irradiation.

  16. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  17. Relationship between lumen diameter and length sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Sylvie; Leblond, Hélène; Chaunet, Marc

    2008-05-01

    A safe alternative to ethylene oxide for reprocessing heat-sensitive lumen medical devices, such as endoscopes, is needed. The effectiveness of a new, safe, low-cost, and environmentally friendly low-temperature sterilization process using ozone was assessed. Rigid lumen devices were used to assess the maximum length of lumens of different internal diameters that can be sterilized in the TSO(3) model 125L ozone sterilizer. Two inoculation techniques were used. An inoculated wire was placed inside lumens with internal diameters of 0.8 mm and larger, whereas lumens with an internal diameter of 0.5 mm were inoculated directly. Lumens with internal diameters of 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm with lengths varying between 45 and 70 cm can be sterilized with ozone. Calculation of the log reduction value for each size demonstrated the achievement of a sterility assurance level of 10(-6). Experimental results demonstrated a linear relationship (with r(2) = 0.990) between the length of lumen that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer and its internal diameter. Effective sterilization of an ACMI ureteroscope that is more challenging in terms of sterilant penetration in a small lumen (0.8 mm) compared with the stated lumen claims confirms that the relationship can conservatively be used to predict the length of a lumen device that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer for a given diameter. Intermediate sizes of lumen devices that can be sterilized in the 125L ozone sterilizer can be interpolated from the linear relationship between diameter and length found in the present study.

  18. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  19. Comparative study of different techniques for the sterilization of poly-L-lactide electrospun microfibers: effectiveness vs. material degradation.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Alberto; Centola, Matteo; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Gherardi, Giovanni; Genovese, Jorge A; Licoccia, Silvia; Trombetta, Marcella

    2010-02-01

    Electrospinning of biopolymeric scaffolds is a new and effective approach for creating replacement tissues to repair defects and/or damaged tissues with direct clinical application. However, many hurdles and technical concerns regarding biological issues, such as cell retention and the ability to grow, still need to be overcome to gain full access to the clinical arena. Interaction with the host human tissues, immunogenicity, pathogen transmission as well as production costs, technical expertise, and good manufacturing and laboratory practice requirements call for careful consideration when aiming at the production of a material that is available off-the-shelf, to be used immediately in operative settings. The issue of sterilization is one of the most important steps for the clinical application of these scaffolds. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have been performed to systematically investigate how sterilization treatments may affect the properties of electrospun polymers for tissue engineering. This paper presents the results of a comparative study of different sterilization techniques applied to an electrospun poly-L-lactide scaffold: soaking in absolute ethanol, dry oven and autoclave treatments, UV irradiation, and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma treatment. Morphological and chemical characterization was coupled with microbiological sterility assay to validate the examined sterilization techniques in terms of effectiveness and modifications to the scaffold. The results of this study reveal that UV irradiation and hydrogen peroxide gas plasma are the most effective sterilization techniques, as they ensure sterility of the electrospun scaffolds without affecting their chemical and morphological features.

  20. Access to postpartum sterilization in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, B; Higgins, J E; Clopton, D C; Nakamura, M S; Brown, M L

    1982-05-01

    All women hospitalized for delivery over a ten-week period at the largest maternity hospital in Campinas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, were questioned about their interest in and plans for sterilization. Results from a categorical data analysis indicate that among the study variables, cesarean delivery was the necessary condition for postpartum sterilization and was significantly associated with the patient's ability to pay for services. Further, the variability in the proportion of women sterilized postpartum was almost perfectly explained by a linear model with main effects for parity and for the patient's ability to pay for services.

  1. Basics of sterile compounding: bubble point testing.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Compounding pharmacies that compound sterile preparations must choose sterile filters that are approved for human use. They may rely on the filter manufacturer's Certificate of Quality to ensure the sterile filter is pyrogen free and has been tested for bacterial retention. The Certificate of Quality from the filter manufacturer also contains other useful information about the filter such as: flow rate and maximum pressure drop, thermal and hydraulic stress, and membrane results of the initial integrity test performed on the filter membrane with water, if a hydrophilic membrane. This article discusses the integrity test, which is often called the water bubble point test.

  2. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  3. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  4. Understanding current steam sterilization recommendations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Spry, Cynthia

    2008-10-01

    Processing surgical instruments in preparation for surgery is a complex multistep practice. It is impractical to culture each and every item to determine sterility; therefore, the best assurance of a sterile product is careful execution of every step in the process coupled with an ongoing quality control program. Perioperative staff nurses and managers responsible for instrument processing, whether for a single instrument or multiple sets, must be knowledgeable with regard to cleaning; packaging; cycle selection; and the use of physical, chemical, and biological monitors. Nurses also should be able to resolve issues related to loaner sets, flash sterilization, and extended cycles.

  5. Permeation barrier coating and plasma sterilization of PET bottles and foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) offer various advantages over glass or metal containers. Beside this they only offer poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf-live of packaged food is reduced. Additionally, common sterilization methods like heat, hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid may not be applicable due to reduced heat or chemical resistance of the plastic packaging material. For the plasma sterilization and permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils, a microwave driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna. The dependencies of important plasma parameters, such as gas mixture, process pressure, power and pulse conditions on oxygen permeation through packaging foil are investigated. A residual permeation as low as J = 1.0 ±0.3 cm^3m-2day-1bar-1 for 60 nm thick silicon oxide (SiOx) coated PET foils is achieved. To discuss this residual permeation, coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrate. A defect density of 3000 mm-2 is revealed responsible for permeation. For plasma sterilization, optimized plasma parameters based on fundamental research of plasma sterilization mechanisms permit short treatment times of a few seconds.

  6. Knockout of ho-1 protects the striatum from ferrous iron-induced injury in a male-specific manner in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Chin

    2016-01-01

    Men have worse survival than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). After ICH, overproduction of iron associated with induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in brain was observed. Rodent ICH model using ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion into the striatum to simulate iron overload, showed a higher degree of injury severity in males than in females. However, the participation of HO-1 in sex-differences of iron-induced brain injury remains unknown. The present results showed a higher level of HO-1 expression associated with more severe injury in males compared with females after FC-infusion. Estradiol (E2) contributed to lower levels of FC-induced HO-1 expression in females compared with males. Heterozygote ho-1 KO decreased the levels of FC-induced injury severity, histological lesions, behavioral deficits, autophagy and autophagic cell death in the striatum of males but not in females. Moreover, ho-1 deficiency enhanced the neuroprotection by E2 only in males. These results suggested that over induction of HO-1 plays a harmful role in FC-induced brain injury in a male-specific manner. Suppression of HO-1 combined with E2 exhibits a synergistic effect on neuroprotection against FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings open up the prospect for male-specific neuroprotection targeting HO-1 suppression for patients suffering from striatal iron overload. PMID:27198537

  7. Male human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance is enhanced by a brief intervention that emphasizes both male-specific vaccine benefits and altruistic motives.

    PubMed

    Bonafide, Katherine E; Vanable, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance has been widely studied, research on vaccine uptake among boys and men is needed. Male HPV vaccination can provide both individual and community-level benefit by offering recipients personal health protection while concurrently minimizing HPV transmission and ultimately providing female health protection. As such, male vaccine acceptance may be enhanced by emphasizing both altruistic motives (female health protection) and personal health benefits. A university-based sample of young men completed computer-administered surveys and viewed informational interventions that varied in the inclusion or exclusion of altruistic motives and in the level of emphasis on male-specific HPV-related illnesses and vaccine benefits. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance was assessed immediately after intervention. Participants who received the intervention emphasizing both altruistic motives and male-specific information endorsed the greatest vaccine acceptance (mean [SD], 3.6 [1.0]). Provider and community-level interventions highlighting both altruistic motives and personal health vaccine benefits may enhance HPV vaccine uptake among young men.

  8. The sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome gene (sdY) is a conserved male-specific Y-chromosome sequence in many salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Ayaka; Nicol, Barbara; Jouanno, Elodie; Quillet, Edwige; Fostier, Alexis; Guyomard, René; Guiguen, Yann

    2013-01-01

    All salmonid species investigated to date have been characterized with a male heterogametic sex-determination system. However, as these species do not share any Y-chromosome conserved synteny, there remains a debate on whether they share a common master sex-determining gene. In this study, we investigated the extent of conservation and evolution of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) master sex-determining gene, sdY (sexually dimorphic on the Y-chromosome), in 15 different species of salmonids. We found that the sdY sequence is highly conserved in all salmonids and that sdY is a male-specific Y-chromosome gene in the majority of these species. These findings demonstrate that most salmonids share a conserved sex-determining locus and also strongly suggest that sdY may be this conserved master sex-determining gene. However, in two whitefish species (subfamily Coregoninae), sdY was found both in males and females, suggesting that alternative sex-determination systems may have also evolved in this family. Based on the wide conservation of sdY as a male-specific Y-chromosome gene, efficient and easy molecular sexing techniques can now be developed that will be of great interest for studying these economically and environmentally important species. PMID:23745140

  9. Knockout of ho-1 protects the striatum from ferrous iron-induced injury in a male-specific manner in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Chin

    2016-05-20

    Men have worse survival than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). After ICH, overproduction of iron associated with induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in brain was observed. Rodent ICH model using ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion into the striatum to simulate iron overload, showed a higher degree of injury severity in males than in females. However, the participation of HO-1 in sex-differences of iron-induced brain injury remains unknown. The present results showed a higher level of HO-1 expression associated with more severe injury in males compared with females after FC-infusion. Estradiol (E2) contributed to lower levels of FC-induced HO-1 expression in females compared with males. Heterozygote ho-1 KO decreased the levels of FC-induced injury severity, histological lesions, behavioral deficits, autophagy and autophagic cell death in the striatum of males but not in females. Moreover, ho-1 deficiency enhanced the neuroprotection by E2 only in males. These results suggested that over induction of HO-1 plays a harmful role in FC-induced brain injury in a male-specific manner. Suppression of HO-1 combined with E2 exhibits a synergistic effect on neuroprotection against FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings open up the prospect for male-specific neuroprotection targeting HO-1 suppression for patients suffering from striatal iron overload.

  10. Sterile post-traumatic immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Nahidul; Bradley, Benjamin A; Ceredig, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    After major trauma, the human immune system initiates a series of inflammatory events at the injury site that is later followed by suppression of local inflammation favoring the repair and remodeling of the damaged tissues. This local immune response involves complex interactions between resident cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells, soluble mediators such as cytokines and chemokines, and recruited cells such as neutrophils, monocytes and mesenchymal stromal cells. If of sufficient magnitude, these initial immune responses nevertheless have systemic consequences resulting in a state called post-traumatic immunosuppression (PTI). However, controversy exists regarding the exact immunological changes occurring in systemic compartments triggered by these local immune responses. PTI is one of the leading causes of post-surgical mortality and makes patients vulnerable to hospital-acquired infections, multiple organ failure and many other complications. In addition, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, immunesenescence and immunosuppressant drugs aggravate PTI. PTI has been intensively studied, but published results are frequently cloudy. The purpose of this review is to focus on the contributions made by different responsive modalities to immunosuppression following sterile trauma and to try to integrate these into an overall scheme of PTI. PMID:27195120

  11. [Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    PubMed

    Minella

    1998-03-30

    The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and demographic variables was recorded, along with subjective data associated with women's representations of the post-sterilization period. We concluded that there was no consensus as to the consequences of sterilization, since a number of the women (11/40), mostly sterilized before the age of 30, perceived changes in their health status after surgery.

  12. Risk of wound and pelvic infection after laparoscopic tubal sterilization: instrument disinfection versus sterilization.

    PubMed

    Huezo, C M; DeStefano, F; Rubin, G L; Ory, H W

    1983-05-01

    To determine if disinfection, rather than sterilization, of laparoscopic equipment leads to an increase in the risk of postlaparoscopy infection, the authors analyzed data from a multicenter prospective study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control on the safety of sterilizing operations. From September 1978 through July 1981, 3903 women underwent laparoscopic tubal sterilization procedures in which the equipment was sterilized with ethylene oxide (58%) or disinfected with glutaraldehyde (42%). The overall risk of wound infection in each group was 1.5 per 100 women. The relative risk of wound infection for disinfection versus sterilization of the equipment was 0.5 when adjusted for differences in the two groups. The corresponding relative risk of pelvic infection was 1.2. These results suggest that laparoscopy equipment disinfected with glutaraldehyde is not associated with an increased risk of wound or pelvic infection compared with equipment sterilized with ethylene oxide.

  13. Evaluation removes obstacles to sterilization in Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-01-01

    In 1978, Centro de Pesquisas de Assitencia Integrada a Mulher e a Crianca (CPAIMC) in Rio de Janeiro began to offer interval sterilizations in an attempt to increase the access of poor women to sterilization services. By the end of 1984, the program had provided in excess of 19,000 sterilizations, making CPAIMC Brazil's largest single source of voluntary interval sterilization. Despite the program's success, CPAIMC was concerned that obstacles still existed in the poor woman's path to sterilization access. A study was conducted by Family Health International (FHI) in collaboration with the Pathfinder Fund and CPAIMC's Department of Information, Evaluation and Research to locate possible barriers. The study indicated that less than half of the women who requested sterilization between June 1 and August 31, 1983 actually had the procedure. During that period, 1256 women requested sterilization at the CPAIMC clinic. Of these, 925 were approved, and 639 were scheduled for surgery. Only 559 were actually sterilized within 3 months of receiving approval. 1 possible reason why women were not receiving the surgery was that the women requesting sterilization actually were not highly motivated to obtain the service. Yet, study results indicate this probably was not the reason. During initial interviews at the clinic, many women said they had thought very carefully about being sterilized, and more than 40% reported deciding to have a tubal ligation before their last pregnancy. Almost 3/4 of the women reported that they did not plan their last pregnancy, and almost 2/3 indicated that the pregnancy was unwanted. About 63% were contracepting, and many were using effective methods. More than half of the non-contraceptors were not using a method because they had just ended a pregnancy and were not sexually active. As a group, the women requesting sterilization were highly motivated to avoid having more children. Age and number of children were the most important criteria used by

  14. Low-temperature sterilization and new technologies.

    PubMed

    Goveia, Vania Regina; Pinheiro, Silma Maria Cunha; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2007-01-01

    The new low-temperature sterilization technologies are presented as an alternative to the use of ethylene oxide. This review was performed in order to identify evidences of the antimicrobial activity, toxicity, adverse events and the applicability of these technologies. The research was carried through the electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS up to 2005. The authors analyzed 10 articles in this survey. The studies about the efficacy of these sterilization methods constitute experimental and comparative research that showed the influence of the extension and diameter of the lumen, besides the presence of crystal salts. Thus, choosing the correct equipment is essential, as well as the assurance of the cleansing of the devices, which interfere with the effectiveness of the low-temperature sterilization. These technologies present limitations regarding the sterilization of graft bone and affect the materials properties.

  15. Ethylene oxide sterilization: the way ahead.

    PubMed

    Peacock, R

    1999-01-01

    Despite many predictions about the demise of ethylene oxide as a sterilization method, it continues to be used for increasing volumes of medical devices. This article examines why this has happened and what the future holds.

  16. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: Sterilization to polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu

    1995-09-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization.

  17. Cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petraki, Kalliopi

    The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. The interplay among the new couplings introduced in the Standard Model can accommodate the neutrino oscillation data for a variety of choices: the new particles can be extremely heavy and practically unobservable, or they can be light, in which case they can solve several long-standing puzzles. It has been shown, for example, that sterile neutrinos in some range of masses can account for dark matter, their emission from a supernova can explain pulsar kicks, arid their decays can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. Though indirect, these clues indicate that sterile neutrinos can be the minimal solution to a variety of unsolved problems. This emphasizes the importance of investigating further the consequences of these new degrees of freedom for cosmology and astrophysics. In this dissertation, I explore the possible role of sterile neutrinos of different mass scales in some cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge- singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce a relic population of keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. The latter can account for the dark matter of the universe. The mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. Relic sterile neutrinos produced via decays at the electroweak scale constitute colder dark matter than those produced via other previously suggested mechanisms. The primordial thermal content of dark matter has important implications for the formation of cosmic structures, such as clusters and galaxies. The assessment of the relevant properties suggests that sterile neutrinos produced at the electroweak scale are a

  18. Standard aeration for gas-sterilized plastics.

    PubMed Central

    White, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    In an effort to provide guidelines for standardizing aeration times for plastics sterilized with ethylene oxide, an Aeration Index has been developed. Based on the rate of diffusion of ethylene oxide in selected polymers, the Index provides an indication of the aeration time at ambient temperature (23 degrees C) for the ethylene oxide concentration in freshly sterilized plastics to drop to 50 parts/10(6). PMID:269198

  19. Ethylene Oxide Gas Sterilization of Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2017-01-01

     Ethylene oxide gas is an agent in the sterilization of medical devices due to its effectiveness and compatibility with most materials. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as its recommended uses, are explored in this review article. The variables and their relevance on process optimization are described, the types of processing cycles are detailed and emphasis is given to the design and validation of the sterilization process.

  20. [Experimental tests of a microwave sterilization system].

    PubMed

    Rosaspina, S; Liguori, G; Anzanel, D; Finzi, G; Salvatorelli, G

    1994-01-01

    Data obtained in our experiments indicate that the microwave sterilization system utilized may be considered as a practical and rapid method for decontaminating steel surgical instruments. For the tested organisms (7 Gram- and 2 Gram+ genera) a 3' exposure time to microwaves provides successful sterilization. Microwave irradiation also had a killing action against Bacillus subtilis spores. A study by SEM of microwave treated spores shows typical morphological alterations of spore surfaces.

  1. Low-energy sterile neutrinos: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Several experimental anomalies seem to point towards the existence of light sterile neutrinos. We focus on the low-energy anomalous results (the so-called gallium and reactor anomalies), which indicate a non-zero admixture U of the electron neutrino with a fourth (mostly) sterile mass eigenstate ν4. We point out that solar sector data, in combination with the precision measurement of θ13, provide the constraint |<0.041 (90% C.L.), independent of the reactor flux determinations.

  2. Experimental Study of Sterilizing Molds by Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jin-lian; Niu, Yong

    1998-02-01

    An ultrasound method of sterilizing aspergillus flavus and fusarium is proposed and demonstrated. The dependence of sterilizing effect on ultrasonic intensity, frequency, and treatment time is experimentally investigated. The density of surviving spores decreases first with increasing ultrasonic frequency and then increases with the further increase of the frequency, that is to say, there exists the optimum frequency 26 kHz at which the killing rate is near 100%. The killing rate seems proportional to the intensity and the time.

  3. Methods of Sterilization and Monitoring of Sterilization AcrossSelected Dental Practices in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hina

    2015-10-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization.

  4. Fundamental aspects in the plasma surface interaction during plasma sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Keudell, A.

    2008-07-01

    The inactivation of bacteria in oxygen or hydrogen containing low pressure plasmas is investigated by mimicking the plasma exposure with a dedicated beam experiment employing argon ions, oxygen molecules/atoms and hydrogen atoms . Thereby, fundamental inactivation mechanisms can be revealed. It is shown that the impact of O atoms or H atoms has no effect on the viability of bacterial spores and that no etching of the spore coat occurs up to an O and H atom fluence of 3.5 x 10^19 cm^-2. The impact of argon ions with an energy of 200 eV does not cause significant erosion for fluences up to 1.15 x 10^18 cm^-2. However, the combined impact of argon ions and oxygen molecules/atoms or H atoms causes significant etching of the spores and significant inactivation. This is explained by the process of chemical sputtering, where an ion induced defect at the surface of the spore reacts with either the incident bi-radical O_2 or with an incident O atom or H atom. This leads to the formation of CO, CO_2 and H_2O and thus to erosion. This beam results are compared to a broad sterilization campaign using an ICP reactor in a European round robin experiment BIODECON. Strategies for optimizing the plasma sterilization processes will be presented.

  5. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat....

  6. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  7. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  8. 21 CFR 522.44 - Sterile sodium acetazolamide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterile sodium acetazolamide. 522.44 Section 522....44 Sterile sodium acetazolamide. (a) Specifications. Sterile sodium acetazolamide contains acetazolamide sodium complying with United States Pharmacopeia as a sterile powder with directions...

  9. [Low-temperature sterilization for the surgical infection prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Kornev, I I; Baranov, G A; Ul'ianov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The comparative characteristic of the accepted methods of low-temperature sterilization of medical equipment is given. Special attention is devoted to the surgical infection prophylaxis. The efficacy, expediency and safety of gas sterilization with ethilenoxide is proved. Plasmic methods of sterilization is recommended for use together with other methods of low-temperature sterilization.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6870 - Dry-heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dry-heat sterilizer. 880.6870 Section 880.6870... Devices § 880.6870 Dry-heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. A dry-heat sterilizer is a device that is intended for use by a health care provider to sterilize medical products by means of dry heat. (b...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  18. Sterile neutrinos facing kaon physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, A.; Bečirević, D.; Sumensari, O.; Weiland, C.; Funchal, R. Zukanovich

    2017-04-01

    We discuss weak kaon decays in a scenario in which the Standard Model is extended by massive sterile fermions. After revisiting the analytical expressions for leptonic and semileptonic decays we derive the expressions for decay rates with two neutrinos in the final state. By using a simple effective model with only one sterile neutrino, compatible with all current experimental bounds and general theoretical constraints, we conduct a thorough numerical analysis which reveals that the impact of the presence of massive sterile neutrinos on kaon weak decays is very small, less than 1% on decay rates. The only exception is B (KL→ν ν ) , which can go up to O (10-10), thus possibly within the reach of the KOTO, NA62 and SHIP experiments. Plans have also been proposed to search for this decay at the NA64 experiment. In other words, if all the future measurements of weak kaon decays turn out to be compatible with the Standard Model predictions, this will not rule out the existence of massive light sterile neutrinos with non-negligible active-sterile mixing. Instead, for a sterile neutrino of mass below mK, one might obtain a huge enhancement of B (KL→ν ν ), otherwise negligibly small in the Standard Model.

  19. Sterilization chosen by 11 million Americans.

    PubMed

    1979-12-01

    Nearly 11 million Americans have chosen surgical sterilization as their contraceptive method; about 1,131,000 procedures were obtained in 1978, 670,000 women and 461,000 men. In 1960 the ratio of male to female sterilizations was 40% to 60%. In 1969 The Association for Voluntary Sterilization (AVS) opened the first vasectomy clinic in the U.S. at the Margaret Sanger Center, New York City. During 1970-71 more vasectomy clinics were established around the country. The medical profession began to provide vasectomy as an office procedure. The peak of the vasectomy movement occurred in 1971 when 6700,000 vasectomies were performed. Newer techniques for female sterilization appeared, minilap and laparotomy, which required less hospitalization and facilitated quicker recovery. It is unrealistic to expect sterilization to become the number 1 method for people who are under 29 or 30. The sterilization boom has peaked, and although the numbers of acceptors has increased every year since the 1960's, the level of growth has reached a plateau.

  20. Performance evaluation of solar water sterilization system

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Takeo; El-Ghetany, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    In most countries, the contaminated water is the major cause of most of the water-born diseases. Solar energy can be used in this field because the inactivation of micro-organisms is done by the ultraviolet solar radiation. A pilot solar system for sterilizing the contaminated water is designed, constructed and tested. The experimental data showed good viability for using solar energy in the sterilization process. A mathematical model of the solar sterilizer is also presented. The governing equations are solved numerically using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The effects of environmental conditions (ambient temperature, wind speed and solar radiation) on the solar sterilizer performance are examined. It is found that the system is affected by the ambient temperature, wind speed, ultraviolet solar radiation intensity, level of contamination of water, quantity of water being exposed, contact area between the transparent water container in the solar sterilizer and absorber plate and system geometrical parameters. It is pointed that, for a partial cloud condition, low ambient temperature and high wind speed the thermal efficiency of the solar sterilizer was minimum.

  1. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. Methods: This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Results: Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. Conclusion: According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers. PMID:27390714

  2. Health technology assessment: Off-site sterilization.

    PubMed

    Dehnavieh, Reza; Mirshekari, Nadia; Ghasemi, Sara; Goudarzi, Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossain; Moshkani, Zahra; Noori Hekmat, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Every year millions of dollars are expended to equip and maintain the hospital sterilization centers, and our country is not an exception of this matter. According to this, it is important to use more effective technologies and methods in health system in order to reach more effectiveness and saving in costs. This study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the technology of regional sterilization centers. This study was done in four steps. At the first step, safety and effectiveness of technology was studied via systematic study of evidence. The next step was done to evaluate the economical aspect of off-site sterilization technology using gathered data from systematic review of the texts which were related to the technology and costs of off-site and in-site hospital sterilization. Third step was conducted to collect experiences of using technology in some selected hospitals around the world. And in the last step different aspects of acceptance and use of this technology in Iran were evaluated. Review of the selected articles indicated that efficacy and effectiveness of this technology is Confirmed. The results also showed that using this method is not economical in Iran. According to the revealed evidences and also cost analysis, due to shortage of necessary substructures and economical aspect, installing the off-site sterilization health technology in hospitals is not possible currently. But this method can be used to provide sterilization services for clinics and outpatients centers.

  3. Evaluation of contemporary female sterilization methods.

    PubMed

    Brenner, W E

    1981-09-01

    Different methods of sterilization were evaluated. Laparoscopic techniques were the most satisfactory because they had lower pelvic and incision infection rates and shorter hospitalization and convalescent times than laparotomy lower pelvic infection rates than culdoscopy and culpotomy. Via laparoscopy, sterilization by coagulation and cutting, spring-loaded clips and bands was an effective, safe method. Mechanical problems with the applicator and optics and decreased visibility resulted in more technical failures and difficulties and more misapplication with the clip applicator. Although the total complication rates were similar with all methods, bleeding from the tubes and wound and pelvic infections were more frequent with silastic-band technique. Long-term complications, such as dysmenorrhea and menometrorrhagia and especially those resulting in hysterectomy after laparoscopy, are infrequent. Pregnancy rates are low after laparoscopic sterilization with coagulation and silastic bands as compared to the clip. Rates of complications with sterilization combined with abortion or delivery are only slightly higher than after abortion without sterilization and much less than the combined complications that would be anticipated from abortion and interval sterilization. To make colpotomy, culdoscopy and minilaparotomy easier and potentially safer, mechanical techniques using the spring-loaded clip and silastic band are being evaluated. Simplified techniques that can be administered via the cervix, such as Quinacrine, may be practical in the future.

  4. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze; /Ljubljana U.

    2005-11-01

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments (including the recent BOOMERANG-2K2 results), large scale structure (LSS) and Lyman-{alpha} forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless + 1 massive neutrino case we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to m{sub s} < 0.55eV at 95% c.l.. These results exclude at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We then generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses (which tightens the limit to m{sub s} < 0.51eV) and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the constraints in the (mass, density) plane are non-trivial. For a mass of > 1eV or < 0.05eV the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be {omega}{sub {nu}} < 0.005 at 95% c.l.. However, for a sterile neutrino mass of {approx} 0.25 eV, {omega}{sub {nu}} can be as large as 0.015.

  5. Choosing a low-temperature sterilization technology.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Low-temperature sterilization technologies are used instead of steam for sterilizing heat-sensitive or moisture-intolerant surgical equipment and supplies. In this Guidance Article, we describe several common alternatives, but we focus specifically on the two that have generated the most interest in recent years: ethylene oxide (EtO) and gas plasma sterilization. Ethylene oxide has been used as a low-temperature sterilization technology since the 1950s. Although EtO can be used safely, exposure to this gas is known to be a health hazard, and the emissions from certain EtO sterilizers are known to pollute the atmosphere. For these reasons, the use of EtO is regulated--more strictly in some regions than in others--and many healthcare facilities have decided to investigate alternative technologies. Gas plasma sterilization emerged in the 1990s as one promising alternative. This method appears to pose fewer health and environmental risks, and it offers faster turnaround times. However, this technology also has some limitations. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of both methods, along with the factors to consider when selecting from among these alternatives, in this Guidance Article.

  6. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chiu Man; Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C.M.

    2007-04-23

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is tau(dec)=2/Gamma(aa), but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Gamma(1)=Gamma(aa)cos^2theta(m); Gamma(2)=Gamma(aa)sin^2theta(m) where Gamma(aa) is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and theta(m) the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the"polarization vector" and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  7. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of radiation-sterilized bone allografts in reconstructive oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Kamiński, Artur; Zadurska, Małgorzata; Piekarczyk, Piotr; Fiedor, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Bone grafting allows reconstruction of the atrophied or destroyed alveolar process. In orthopaedics and traumatology allogeneic grafting has been used to restore defects of osseous tissue for over 60 years. In order to improve safety of the graft recipient, sterilized allogeneic grafts have been use. The aim of the study was to assess the direct and long-term outcomes following augmentation of atrophied alveolar processes with the use of radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts. Sixty-eight patients were surgically treated between 2004 and 2011: 29 underwent open sinus floor elevation, post-extraction alveoli augmentation was performed in 16 subjects and 23 underwent reconstruction of the atrophied alveolar process. Augmentation of bone defects used bone granulate in 63 patients and bone blocks stabilized with titanium screws in 5 patients. PRF membranes collected from the patient's blood were also used in all the procedures. In each of the cases optimal dimensions of the alveolar process were obtained allowing embedment of BIOMET 3I dental implant/-s. In all the patients the defects were successfully restored with implant-supported prostheses. Radiation-sterilized allogeneic bone grafts proved to be safe and effective for the patients and manageable for the surgeon constituting a good alternative to autogeneic material.

  8. Electroporation System for Sterilizing Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype of an electroporation system for sterilizing wastewater or drinking water has been developed. In electroporation, applied electric fields cause transient and/or permanent changes in the porosities of living cells. Electroporation at lower field strengths can be exploited to increase the efficiency of chemical disinfection (as in chlorination). Electroporation at higher field strengths is capable of inactivating and even killing bacteria and other pathogens, without use of chemicals. Hence, electroporation is at least a partial alternative to chlorination. The transient changes that occur in micro-organisms at lower electric-field strengths include significantly increased uptake of ions and molecules. Such increased uptake makes it possible to achieve disinfection at lower doses of chemicals (e.g., chlorine or ozone) than would otherwise be needed. Lower doses translate to lower costs and reduced concentrations of such carcinogenic chemical byproducts as trichloromethane. Higher electric fields cause cell membranes to lose semipermeability and thereby become unable to function as selective osmotic barriers between the cells and the environment. This loss of function is the cause of the cell death at higher electric-field intensities. Experimental evidence does not indicate cell lysis but, rather, combined leaking of cell proteins out of the cells as well as invasion of foreign chemical compounds into the cells. The concept of electroporation is not new: it has been applied in molecular biology and genetic engineering for decades. However, the laboratory-scale electroporators used heretofore have been built around small (400-microliter) cuvettes, partly because the smallness facilitates the generation of electric fields of sufficient magnitude to cause electroporation. Moreover, most laboratory- scale electroporators have been designed for testing static water. In contrast, the treatment cell in the present system is much larger and features a flow

  9. Discovery of a novel cytoplasmic male-sterility and its restorer lines in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Pyo; Park, Suhyung; Lim, Chaewan; Kim, Hyojung; Lim, Heerae; Ahn, Youngsoon; Sung, Soon-Kee; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung; Kim, Sunggil

    2008-10-01

    A male-sterile (MS) radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was found in an accession collected from Uzbekistan. Unlike Ogura MS radishes in which no pollen grain is typically visible during anthesis, a small number of pollen grains stuck together in the dehiscing anthers was observed in the newly identified MS radish. Fluorescein diacetate tests and scanning electron micrographs showed that pollen grains in the new MS radish were severely deformed and non-viable. Cytological examination of pollen development stages showed a clear difference in the defective stage from that seen in Ogura male-sterility. Reciprocal cross-pollination with diverse male-fertile lines indicated that pollen grains of the new MS radish were completely sterile, and the female organs were fully fertile. When the new MS radish and Ogura MS lines were cross-pollinated with a set of eight breeding lines, all F1 progeny originating from crosses with the new MS radish were male-sterile. In contrast, most of the F1 progeny resulting from crosses with Ogura MS lines were male-fertile. These results demonstrated that factors associated with induction of the newly identified male-sterility are different from those of Ogura male-sterility. The lack of restorer lines for the newly identified male-sterility led us to predict that it might be a complete cytoplasmic male-sterility without restorer-of-fertility genes in nuclear genomes. However, cross-pollination with more diverse radish germplasm identified one accession introduced from Russia that could completely restore fertility, proving the existence of restorer-of-fertility gene(s) for the new male-sterility. Meanwhile, the PCR amplification profile of molecular markers for the classification of radish mitochondrial genome types revealed that the new MS radish contained a novel mitotype.

  10. Using high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization as a model for studying gaseous sterilization.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Gregg A

    2008-01-01

    This study uses the high-temperature formaldehyde sterilization system provided by the Harvey Chemiclave, manufactured by Barnstead Thermolyne Corporation (Dubuque, IA), as a model to investigate certain phenomena associated with gaseous chemical sterilization systems. Although formaldehyde sterilization presents some unique and complex system attributes, the current studies provide helpful insights into general sterilization methods by chemicals in the gaseous state. Both population recovery and fraction negative (FN) techniques were used to assay surviving populations from biological indicators of the organism Geobacillus stearothermophilus following exposure to incremental Chemiclave cycles. Models 5500 and 6000 of the Barnstead/Thermolyne Chemiclave were used in the study. Reusable instruments such as scalers, explorers, and various hinged pieces were tested in minimum versus maximum load studies. Population recovery study results demonstrated that lethality rates increase with time throughout the Chemiclave sterilization process and that there are significant variations in lethality according to load location. The population recovery data in conjunction with the FN studies and temperature data confirm that one-half the full-cycle time is not a good estimator of one-half the full-cycle lethality because lethality curves are concave downward and lethality varies by load location. This conclusion can also be applied to other types of gaseous, chemical sterilization such as ethylene oxide. The work outlined in this study was a result of investigations into the parameters affecting formaldehyde chemical vapor sterilization with the Harvey Chemiclave sterilizer. During these studies, it became apparent that results clearly depicted the effects of continued acceleration of the rate of microbial lethality, as well as variations in delivered lethality as a function of position in the sterilizer load. This publication focuses on these observations because they are

  11. Sterilization techniques for biodegradable scaffolds in tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zheng; Ronholm, Jennifer; Tian, Yiping; Sethi, Benu; Cao, Xudong

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds have been extensively studied due to their wide applications in biomaterials and tissue engineering. However, infections associated with in vivo use of these scaffolds by different microbiological contaminants remain to be a significant challenge. This review focuses on different sterilization techniques including heat, chemical, irradiation, and other novel sterilization techniques for various biodegradable scaffolds. Comparisons of these techniques, including their sterilization mechanisms, post-sterilization effects, and sterilization efficiencies, are discussed. PMID:27247758

  12. Method and apparatus for sterilizing and charging batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, H.A.

    1987-02-03

    An apparatus is described for providing at least one sterile, charged battery for use in a sterile field comprising: a container adapted to permit the entrance of a sterilant and to prevent the entrance of contaminants, the container being adapted to house the battery during sterilization and storage. The container has means of charging the battery therein while maintaining the battery in a sterile state.

  13. Thermal Profile of Metallic Beads in a Bead Sterilizer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    another commonly used chairside sterilization method, principally for endodontic instruments. The bead sterilizer consists of a heated chamber containing...sterilization of endodontic instruments. However, several investigators have shown sterilization times ranging from 3 seconds to 14 minutes, are...et.al. The effect of autoclave sterilization on endodontic files. Oral Surg 55(2): 204-207, 1983. 3. Parkes, R. B. and Kolstad, R. A. Effects of

  14. (1R,2S,6R)-Papayanal: a new male-specific volatile compound released by the guava weevil Conotrachelus psidii (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Romero-Frías, Alicia; Murata, Yasuhiro; Simões Bento, José Maurício; Osorio, Coralia

    2016-05-01

    The guava weevil, Conotrachelus psidii is an aggressive pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.) that causes irreparable damages inside the fruit. The volatile compounds of male and female insects were separately collected by headspace solid-phase microextraction or with dynamic headspace collection on a polymer sorbent, and comparatively analyzed by GC-MS. (1R,2S,6R)-2-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane (papayanol), and (1R,2S,6R)-2,6-dimethyl-3-oxabicyclo[4.2.0]octane-2-carbaldehyde (papayanal) were identified (ratio of 9:1, respectively) as male-specific guava weevil volatiles. Papayanal structure was confirmed by comparison of spectroscopic (EIMS) and chromatographic (retention time) data with those of the synthetic pure compound. The behavioral response of the above-mentioned compounds was studied in a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay, and their role as aggregation pheromone candidate components was suggested in this species.

  15. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth defects & other health conditions > Neural tube defects Neural tube defects E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the ...

  16. Isolation of the Male-Specific Transformer Exon as a Method for Immature Specimen Sex Identification in Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Smith, J L; Wells, J D

    2017-03-01

    Being able to efficiently differentiate between male and female individuals in the immature forms of insects allows for investigations into sexually dimorphic patterns of growth rates and gene expression. For species lacking sex-specific morphological characteristics during these periods, alternative methods must be devised. Commonly, isolation of sex determination genes reveals sex-specific band patterns and allows for markers that can be used in insect control. For blow flies, a family that includes flies of medical and forensic importance, sex has previously been identified in some members using the male-specific exon in the transformer gene. This gene is relatively conserved between members of the genera Cochliomyia and Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and we isolated a portion of this gene in an additional forensically and medically important blow fly genus using the widespread Chrysomya megacephala (F.). We found a relatively high level of conservation between exons 1 and 2 of transformer and were able to amplify a region containing the male-specific exon in C. megacephala. A sex-specific molecular diagnostic test based on the presence of sexually dimorphic PCR product bands showed the expected genotype for adults and intrapuparial period specimens of known sex. The same result could be obtained from single third-instar larval specimens, opening up the possibility to not only determine if development rates are sex dependent, but also to investigate the development of sexually dimorphic traits of interest in C. megacephala. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Control of gonadotropin secretion in the ovine fetus. IV. Male-specific entrainment of the hypothalamic control of luteinizing hormone secretion by testosterone in the female ovine fetus.

    PubMed

    Matwijiw, I; Faiman, C

    1991-09-01

    The role of testosterone (T) in the sex-specific entrainment of hypothalamic LH regulation was studied in five castrate and four sham-castrate chronically catheterized female fetuses androgenized by the prior administration of T cypionate (200 mg, im, every 2 weeks) to pregnant ewes from 30-86 days gestation (term = 147 days). Eight female and three male castrate fetuses served as controls. After a 2-week washout period all fetuses were operated upon in utero between 106-116 days and were studied longitudinally over a 2- to 35-day period. LH pulsatility was determined from blood samples obtained every 15 min over a standard 3-h observation period and assayed for LH by RIA (NIH LH-S16 standard). LH pulse frequency in the castrate androgenized females (41 pulses in 19 observation periods; 1 pulse/1.4 h) was significantly higher than that in non-androgenized female controls (18 pulses in 28 observation periods; 1 pulse/4.7 h observation), but was similar to that in castrate males (23 pulses in 28 observation periods; 1 pulse/1.3 h). Furthermore, LH pulse frequency in the sham castrate androgenized females (26 pulses in 13 observation periods; 1 pulse/1.5 h) was comparable to that in castrate androgenized females as well as that in castrate males. The enhanced LH pulsatility in androgenized female fetuses strongly suggests that T exposure between 30-86 days results in male-specific entrainment of hypothalamic LH regulation. Moreover, the comparable enhancement of LH pulse frequency in both sham castrate and castrate androgenized female groups suggests that in the T-exposed fetus T withdrawal alone is sufficient to result in enhanced LH pulsatility. These findings strongly suggest that T of fetal testicular origin results in male-specific entrainment of hypothalamic function and may be an important feature of male neural organization in this species.

  18. Anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization.

    PubMed

    Fishburne, J I

    1983-04-01

    This issue of the Bulletin deals with the principles of anesthesia for outpatient female sterilization with emphasis on techniques for laparoscopy and minilaparotomy. General anesthesia techniques provide analgesia, amnesia, and muscle relaxation and are particularly useful for managing the anxious patient. Disadvantages include increased expense, need for specialized equipment, and highly trained personnel, and delayed recovery. Complications, though relatively rare, can be life-threatening and include aspiration of stomach contents, hypoxia, hypercarbia, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiorespiratory arrest, and death. There is no single preferred technique of general anesthesia, athough most anesthetists employ methods that allow rapid recovery of faculties, enabling the patient to be discharged soon after surgery. To accomplish this end, light anesthesia with sodium thiopental induction and nitrous oxide maintenance is often used. Short duration muscle relaxation with an agent such as succinylcholine supplements this technique. Other techniques include light anesthesia with inhalational anesthetic agents and the use of intravenous ketamine. Local anesthesia augmented by systemic and/or inhalational analgesia is supplanting general anesthesia techniques for laparoscopy in many locales. This approach is also particularly well-suited for minilaparotomy in developing countries, where it has achieved its greatest popularity. The local technique carries with it reduced morbidity and mortality but may not entirely relieve discomfort. The primary danger of local anesthesia is respiratory depression due to excessive narcosis and sedation. The operator must be alert to the action of the drugs and should always use the minimal effective dose. Although toxicity due to overdosage with local anesthetic drugs is occasionally experienced, allergic reactions to the amide-linkage drugs such as lidocaine or bupivacaine are exceedingly rare. For outpatient

  19. Sterilization Performance and Material Compatibility of Sterilizer for Dental Instruments using RF Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Liu, Zhen; Hayashi, Nobuya; Goto, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    The sterilization performance and material compatibility of low-pressure RF plasma sterilization method for dental instruments were investigated. RF electrode used in this experiment has been optimized for sterilization of dental instruments. The vial-type biological indicator (BI) simulating tiny space of dental instrument was used for evaluation of the sterilization performance. The pressure in the stainless chamber was fixed at 60 Pa. Sterilization of BI was achieved in shortest time 40 min at 80 W, and the sterilization effect was confirmed using three BIs. Light emission spectra of oxygen plasma indicated that production of atomic oxygen and excited oxygen molecule are maximum at pressure of 20 Pa and 200 Pa, respectively. Sterilization results of BIs indicated that successful rate increases with the oxygen pressure towards 200 Pa. Therefore, the excited oxygen molecule is deduced to be a major factor of the sterilization of BI. Surface morphology of dental instruments such as diamond bar was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The deterioration of fine crystals of diamond bar has not observed after the plasma irradiation for 120 min with RF input power was 60W and pressure was 200 Pa.

  20. Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Tamil; Albert, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forced and coerced sterilization is an internationally recognized human rights violation reported by women living with HIV (WLHIV) around the globe. Forced sterilization occurs when a person is sterilized without her knowledge or informed consent. Coerced sterilization occurs when misinformation, intimidation tactics, financial incentives or access to health services or employment are used to compel individuals to accept the procedure. Methods Drawing on community-based research with 285 WLHIV from four Latin American countries (El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua), we conduct thematic qualitative analysis of reports of how and when healthcare providers pressured women to sterilize and multivariate logistic regression to assess whether social and economic characteristics and fertility history were associated with pressure to sterilize. Results A quarter (23%) of the participant WLHIV experienced pressure to sterilize post-diagnosis. WLHIV who had a pregnancy during which they (and their healthcare providers) knew their HIV diagnosis were almost six times more likely to experience coercive or forced sterilization than WLHIV who did not have a pregnancy with a known diagnosis (OR 5.66 CI 95% 2.35–13.58 p≤0.001). WLHIV reported that healthcare providers told them that living with HIV annulled their right to choose the number and spacing of their children and their contraceptive method, employed misinformation about the consequences of a subsequent pregnancy for women's and children's health, and denied medical services needed to prevent vertical (mother-to-child) HIV transmission to coerce women into accepting sterilization. Forced sterilization was practiced during caesarean delivery. Conclusions The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker

  1. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  2. Congenital Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Allen S.; And Others

    There are two general categories (not necessarily mutually exclusive) of congenital defects: (1) abnormalities that have an hereditary basis, such as single and multiple genes, or chromosomal abberration; and (2) abnormalities that are caused by nonhereditary factors, such as malnutrition, maternal disease, radiation, infections, drugs, or…

  3. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Martínez, Enrique Fernández; Lattanzi, Massimiliano E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  4. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    PubMed

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  5. Is cosmology compatible with sterile neutrinos?

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Slosar, Anze

    2006-07-28

    By combining data from cosmic microwave background experiments (including the recent WMAP third year results), large scale structure, and Lyman-alpha forest observations, we constrain the hypothesis of a fourth, sterile, massive neutrino. For the 3 massless+1 massive neutrino case, we bound the mass of the sterile neutrino to ms<0.26 eV (0.44 eV) at 95% (99.9%) C.L., which excludes at high significance the sterile neutrino hypothesis as an explanation of the LSND anomaly. We generalize the analysis to account for active neutrino masses and the possibility that the sterile abundance is not thermal. In the latter case, the contraints in the plane are nontrivial. For a mass of >1 or <0.05 eV, the cosmological energy density in sterile neutrinos is always constrained to be omeganu<0.003 at 95% C.L., but for a mass of approximately 0.25 eV, omeganu can be as large as 0.01.

  6. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, A F; Nøhr, K; Boisen, F; Nøhr, J

    2002-01-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem as chemical methods can no longer be recommended and fuel wood is becoming increasingly scarce. It seems obvious, therefore, to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. It was tested by physical, chemical and microbiological methods and, after successful testing, installed in a rural clinic. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 degrees C. On days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization. The chemical indicators, Browne's tubes type 3 and 5, also changed colour. It was difficult to reach the right value for the sterilization effect during months with a low sun position. A moveable oven, or two ovens, must be installed to solve this problem. The solar oven has proven to be a realistic method for the sterilization of instruments. The solar oven is easy to make and use. It saves fuel and can be used in most tropical areas.

  7. [The influence of autoclave sterilization on surface characteristics and cyclic fatigue resistance of 3 nickel-titanium rotary instruments].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-fen; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Li; Su, Qin

    2015-12-01

    imperfections in all instruments were intensified greatly after 10 cycles of sterilization. Cycle fatigue resistance is different among instruments of different brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase fatigue resistance of the 3 brands. Autoclave sterilization may increase the surface roughness and inner defects in cross section.

  8. Immediate use steam sterilization: it's all about the process.

    PubMed

    Nania, Paula

    2013-07-01

    Proper reprocessing of surgical instrumentation assists in infection prevention efforts. Immediate use steam sterilization, previously known as flash sterilization, is an effective method of sterilization if it is performed according to manufacturers' validated instructions. Items that undergo immediate use steam sterilization are subject to the same cleaning and decontamination requirements that apply to preparing items for terminal sterilization, and manufacturers' instructions for use must be strictly followed. In 2009, The Joint Commission revised its position statement on flash sterilization and emphasized that three critical steps of reprocessing must be followed to ensure sterility (ie, cleaning and decontamination, sterilization, aseptic transfer) and that complete documentation must be available for each immediate use steam sterilization cycle so that the device is traceable to the patient if problems arise. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-01-01

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts. PMID:27158422

  10. Light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2014-06-24

    Cosmological and terrestrial data suggests the number of light neutrinos may be greater than 3, motivating a careful reexamination of cosmological bounds on extra light species. Big bang nucleosynthesis constrains the number of relativistic neutrino species present during nucleosynthesis, N{sub eff}{sup BBN}, while measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum constrain the effective energy density in relativistic neutrinos at the time of matter-radiation equality, N{sub eff}{sup CMB}. We review a scenario with two sterile neutrinos and explore whether partial thermalization of the sterile states can ease the tension between cosmological constraints on N{sub eff}{sup BBN} and terrestrial data. We conclude that, still, two additional light sterile neutrinos species cannot fit all the data at the 95% confidence level.

  11. Radiation sterilization of tissue allografts: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer; Singh, Antaryami

    2016-04-28

    Tissue substitutes are required in a number of clinical conditions for treatment of injured and diseased tissues. Tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and soft tissues obtained from human donor can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Allograft tissues from human donor provide an excellent alternative to autografts. However, major concern with the use of allografts is the risk of infectious disease transmission. Therefore, tissue allografts should be sterilized to make them safe for clinical use. Gamma radiation has several advantages and is the most suitable method for sterilization of biological tissues. This review summarizes the use of gamma irradiation technology as an effective method for sterilization of biological tissues and ensuring safety of tissue allografts.

  12. Female sterilization by Falope ring ligation.

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    Sterilization with the Falope Ring may be performed by means of laparoscopy of the minilaparotomy. This technique avoids the potential hazards of electrocoagulation, such as intestinal burns. Among the 825 cases reported in this paper there was only one serious complication, an ectopic pregnancy. One other patient had an undetected early pregnancy at the time of sterilization. Two patients became pregnant 4 and 42 month after the procedure. In most cases a diagnostic dilatation and curettage was done before hand. Pathological study of the fallopian tubes of one patient 28 days after the ring was applied revealed complete occlusion of the buckled segment of each tube. Falope Ring sterilization is simple, effective and safe, and the rate of subsequent pregnancy is lower than with conventional burning or clipping techniques. Images FIG. 7 FIG. 8 PMID:7059889

  13. Sterilization and disinfection in the physician's office.

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, D C; Skidmore, A G

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the principles and practice of sterilization and disinfection of medical instruments in the office setting. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE for articles published from 1980 to 1990 on disinfection, sterilization, cross infection, surgical instruments and iatrogenic disease, bibliographies, standard texts and reference material located in a central processing department. STUDY SELECTION: We reviewed surveys of decontamination practices in physicians' offices, reviews of current recommendations for office decontamination procedures, case reports of cross infection in offices and much of the standard reference material on decontamination theory and practice. DATA SYNTHESIS: There have been few surveys of physicians' decontamination practices and few case reports of cross infection. Office practitioners have little access to practical information on sterilization and disinfection. CONCLUSION: The increasing threat of cross infection from medical instruments calls for greater knowledge about decontamination. We have adapted material from various sources and offer a primer on the subject. PMID:1913427

  14. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  15. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Biological Sterilization of Returned Mars Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Albert, F. G.; Combie, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Kuebler, K.; Wang, A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Morris, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    Martian rock and soil, collected by robotic spacecraft, will be returned to terrestrial laboratories early in the next century. Current plans call for the samples to be immediately placed into biological containment and tested for signs of present or past life and biological hazards. It is recommended that "Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials from Mars should occur only if rigorous analyses determine that the materials do not constitute a biological hazard. If any portion of the sample is removed from containment prior to completion of these analyses it should first be sterilized." While sterilization of Mars samples may not be required, an acceptable method must be available before the samples are returned to Earth. The sterilization method should be capable of destroying a wide range of organisms with minimal effects on the geologic samples. A variety of biological sterilization techniques and materials are currently in use, including dry heat, high pressure steam, gases, plasmas and ionizing radiation. Gamma radiation is routinely used to inactivate viruses and destroy bacteria in medical research. Many commercial sterilizers use Co-60 , which emits gamma photons of 1.17 and 1.33 MeV. Absorbed doses of approximately 1 Mrad (10(exp 8) ergs/g) destroy most bacteria. This study investigates the effects of lethal doses of Co-60 gamma radiation on materials similar to those anticipated to be returned from Mars. The goals are to determine the gamma dose required to kill microorganisms in rock and soil samples and to determine the effects of gamma sterilization on the samples' isotopic, chemical and physical properties. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  17. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F.; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A. S.; Colaço, Rogério; Pinto, Terezinha J. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles. PMID:28002493

  18. STERILIZED in the Name of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Alexandra Minna

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the history of involuntary sterilization in California, I connect the approximately 20 000 operations performed on patients in state institutions between 1909 and 1979 to the federally funded procedures carried out at a Los Angeles County hospital in the early 1970s. Highlighting the confluence of factors that facilitated widespread sterilization abuse in the early 1970s, I trace prosterilization arguments predicated on the protection of public health. This historical overview raises important questions about the legacy of eugenics in contemporary California and relates the past to recent developments in health care delivery and genetic screening. PMID:15983269

  19. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  20. [Treatment of anovulatory cycle induced sterility].

    PubMed

    Botella Llusia, J

    1983-03-01

    Of all the clinical aspects of human sterility, the anovulatory cycle is undoubtedly 1 that has produced the widest range of therapuetic successes. While in other fields progress has been very slow (male sterility or tubal obstruction), ovarian pharmacoendocrinology has shown several advances over recent years. This progress is due partly to new chemicals such as urinary menopausal gonadotropins, LH-RH, and their analogues Clomiphene and Bromocriptine. Contributing further to these good results is a greater knowledge of the etiology of anovulation and a more accurate selection of cases for treatment.

  1. Sterile infiltrates after cross-linking.

    PubMed

    García de Oteyza, G; Álvarez de Toledo, J

    2017-09-01

    A 20 year-old woman presented with an asymmetric bilateral keratoconus. Cross-linking of the right eye was performed due of its topographic and pachymetric conditions. Three days after the procedure, the patient presented with some corneal infiltrates that where classified as sterile. Cross-linking is known for its efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, there can be complications. Sterile infiltrates have already been described, although their aetiology is still not clear. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological Aspects of Ethylene Oxide Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Kereluk, K.; Gammon, R. A.; Lloyd, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    A specially built thermochemical death-rate apparatus is described which can be used to determine the resistance of microorganisms to ethylene oxide under controlled conditions. The apparatus was designed to provide instantaneous exposure of microorganisms to ethylene oxide and to eliminate variables that could result in errors when death kinetic reaction rates are calculated. The apparatus is used to obtain ethylene oxide resistance data which are useful in evaluating and developing sterilizing cycles for materials with known bacterial concentrations, as well as for calculating probability factors on which a given test condition can be expected to provide sterilization. PMID:4984364

  3. Solar neutrino detectors as sterile neutrino hunters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, Marco; Borexino-SOX Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Altenmüller, K.; Appel, S.; Atroshchenko, V.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Berton, N.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Carlini, M.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; Cloué, O.; Cribier, M.; D’Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Durero, M.; Etenko, A.; Farinon, S.; Fischer, V.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Gaffiot, J.; Galbiati, C.; Gschwender, M.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Houdy, Th.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jany, A.; Jedrzejczak, K.; Jeschke, D.; Jonquères, N.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kornoukhov, V.; Kryn, D.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lasserre, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Link, J.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Maricic, J.; Mention, G.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montuschi, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Musenich, R.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Ortica, F.; Papp, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Reinert, Y.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Scola, L.; Semenov, D.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Veyssière, C.; Vishneva, A.; Vivier, M.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The large size and the very low radioactive background of solar neutrino detectors such as Borexino at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy offer a unique opportunity to probe the existence of neutrino oscillations into new sterile components by means of carefully designed and well calibrated anti-neutrino and neutrino artificial sources. In this paper we briefly summarise the key elements of the SOX experiment, a program for the search of sterile neutrinos (and other short distance effects) by means of a 144Ce-144Pr anti-neutrino source and, possibly in the medium term future, with a 51Cr neutrino source.

  4. Nursing concerns and hospital product sterilization.

    PubMed

    Rock, R B; Anderson, N A

    1981-01-01

    Nurses and other health care professionals must be aware of the rationale and methodology for in-hospital health care product standardization, including consideration of the hospital standardization committee composition, pilot-study prerequisites, and general evaluation criteria. They must be familiar with the techniques of product sterilization, their effectiveness, and the materials required to maintain sterile product shelf-life until a product is used. Hospital standardization committees can assist in the product-use decisionmaking process. Product evaluation criteria should include considerations pertaining to cost, quality, service, and comparison to similar products.

  5. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by the release of sterile males or sterile females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The suppressive effects of trapping adult sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus, and releasing sterile males (SMRT) or females (SFRT) into a closed system were expressed in deterministic models. Suppression was modeled as a function of the proportion of the population removed by trapping, the number of sterile animals released, the reproductive rate and sex ratio of the population, and (for the SFRT) the rate of polygyny. Releasing sterile males reduced populations more quickly than did the release of sterile females. For a population in which 30% are trapped, sterile animals are initially released at ratio of 10 sterile to 1 fertile animal, 5 adult progeny are produced per fertile mating, 60% are male, and males mate with an average of 1.65 females, the initial population is reduced 87% by SMRT and 68% by SFRT in one generation. The extent of suppression achieved is most sensitive to changes in the initial sterile release ratio. Given the current status of sea lamprey populations and trapping operations in the Great Lakes, the sterile-male-release technique has the best chance for success on a lake-wide basis if implemented in Lake Michigan. The effectiveness of the sterile-female-release technique should be investigated in a controlled study. Advancing trapping technology should be a high priority in the near term, and artificial rearing of sea lampreys to the adult stage should be a high priority in the long term. The diligent pursuit of sea lamprey suppression over a period of several decades can be expected to yield great benefits.

  6. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  7. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E; Zhao, Dazhong

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants.

  8. A PCR assay detects a male-specific duplicated copy of Anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) in the lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus).

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Eric B; Laurie, Cassandra V; Johnson, Stewart C; Koop, Ben F

    2016-04-22

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) or Müllerian-inhibiting substance (mis) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family of hormones. This gene plays a key role in vertebrate male sex-determination by inhibiting the development of the Müllerian ducts, and has been shown to be the master sex-determinant in the Patagonian pejerrey. In the lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, both males and females share one copy of amh, however we have identified a second duplicate copy that appears solely in the male individuals. We have developed a PCR-based assay targeting the TGF-β domain of amh that provides a simple method with which to sex lingcod from a small amount of tissue. An analysis across 57 individuals gave a 100% success rate in identifying the phenotypic sex. We present a simple method to sex lingcod through non-lethal tissue sampling. A third, independent, male-specific duplication of amh in a teleost fish has been identified in the lingcod.

  9. The Drosophila roX1 RNA gene can overcome silent chromatin by recruiting the male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Richard L; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila MSL complex consists of at least six proteins and two noncoding roX RNAs that mediate dosage compensation. It acts to remodel the male's X chromatin by covalently modifying the amino terminal tails of histones. The roX1 and roX2 genes are thought to be nucleation sites for assembly and spreading of MSL complexes into surrounding chromatin where they roughly double the rates of transcription. We generated many transgenic stocks in which the roX1 gene was moved from its normal location on the X to new autosomal sites. Approximately 10% of such lines displayed unusual sexually dimorphic expression patterns of the transgene's mini-white eye-color marker. Males often displayed striking mosaic pigmentation patterns similar to those seen in position-effect variegation and yet most inserts were in euchromatic locations. In many of these stocks, female mini-white expression was very low or absent. The male-specific activation of mini-white depended upon the MSL complex. We propose that these transgenes are inserted in several different types of repressive chromatin environments that inhibit mini-white expression. Males are able to overcome this silencing through the action of the MSL complex spreading from the roX1 gene and remodeling the local chromatin to allow transcription. The potency with which an ectopic MSL complex overcomes silent chromatin suggests that its normal action on the X must be under strict regulation. PMID:12807777

  10. Male-specific DNA markers provide genetic evidence of an XY chromosome system, a recombination arrest and allow the tracing of paternal lineages in date palm.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Emira; Zehdi, Salwa; Castillo, Karina; Chabrillange, Nathalie; Abdoulkader, Sabira; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Santoni, Sylvain; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Glémin, Sylvain; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Whether sex chromosomes are differentiated is an important aspect of our knowledge of dioecious plants, such as date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In this crop plant, the female individuals produce dates, and are thus the more valuable sex. However, there is no way to identify the sex of date palm plants before reproductive age, and the sex-determining mechanism is still unclear. To identify sex-linked microsatellite markers, we surveyed a set of 52 male and 55 female genotypes representing the geographical diversity of the species. We found three genetically linked loci that are heterozygous only in males. Male-specific alleles allowed us to identify the gender in 100% of individuals. These results confirm the existence of an XY chromosomal system with a nonrecombining XY-like region in the date palm genome. The distribution of Y haplotypes in western and eastern haplogroups allowed us to trace two male ancestral paternal lineages that account for all known Y diversity in date palm. The very low diversity associated with Y haplotypes is consistent with clonal paternal transmission of a nonrecombining male-determining region. Our results establish the date palm as a biological model with one of the most ancient sex chromosomes in flowering plants. © 2012 IRD. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The C. elegans protein CEH-30 protects male-specific neurons from apoptosis independently of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Hillel T; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-12-01

    The developmental control of apoptosis is fundamental and important. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans Bar homeodomain transcription factor CEH-30 is required for the sexually dimorphic survival of the male-specific CEM (cephalic male) sensory neurons; the homologous cells of hermaphrodites undergo programmed cell death. We propose that the cell-type-specific anti-apoptotic gene ceh-30 is transcriptionally repressed by the TRA-1 transcription factor, the terminal regulator of sexual identity in C. elegans, to cause hermaphrodite-specific CEM death. The established mechanism for the regulation of specific programmed cell deaths in C. elegans is the transcriptional control of the BH3-only gene egl-1, which inhibits the Bcl-2 homolog ced-9; similarly, most regulation of vertebrate apoptosis involves the Bcl-2 superfamily. In contrast, ceh-30 acts within the CEM neurons to promote their survival independently of both egl-1 and ced-9. Mammalian ceh-30 homologs can substitute for ceh-30 in C. elegans. Mice lacking the ceh-30 homolog Barhl1 show a progressive loss of sensory neurons and increased sensory-neuron cell death. Based on these observations, we suggest that the function of Bar homeodomain proteins as cell-type-specific inhibitors of apoptosis is evolutionarily conserved.

  12. Effects of Sterilizing Agents on Microorganisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1963-03-01

    vided either is valid at high temperatures. (4) Radiation La Bree, T. R., Fields, M. L., Desrosier, N. W. sterilization may become useful in the beverage ...e’sters, nisin , (’thhvln oxide, diepoxvbutane, (ight chemical formulations upon microbial numbers in hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde

  13. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  14. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) The sterility test must be appropriate to the material being tested such that the material does not... inhibitors, neutralizers, and preservatives, if present, in the tested material; (5) For a culture-based test method, the volume of test material that results in a dilution of the product that is not...

  15. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) The sterility test must be appropriate to the material being tested such that the material does not... inhibitors, neutralizers, and preservatives, if present, in the tested material; (5) For a culture-based test method, the volume of test material that results in a dilution of the product that is not...

  16. Molecular analysis of cytoplasmic male sterility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ultimate aims of the project are to understand the molecular mechanism of the disruption in pollen development which occurs in cytoplasmic male sterile plants and to understand the control of respiratory energy flow in the higher plant cell. A mitochondrial locus termed S-pcf segregates with sterility and with an alteration in respiration in Petunia. This cloned locus contains three genes, an abnormal fused gene termed pcf, a gene for a subunit of an NADH dehydrogenase complex, and a small ribosomal subunit protein. The pcf gene is comprised of partial sequences of ATPase subunit 9, cytochrome oxidase subunit II, and an unidentified reading frame. Components of the S-Pcf locus will be introduced into the nuclear of a fertile genotype under the control of appropriate regulatory signals, and polypeptide products of introduced genes will be directed to the mitochondrion with a transit peptide. By examining transgenic plants, we can determine what elements of the locus are critical for altered respiration or sterility. Such knowledge could explain how mitochondrial DNA affects pollen development in the large number of plant species which exhibit the agronomically important trait of male sterility. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Advances in Sterilization and Decontamination: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Recent technical advances made in the field of sterilization and decontamination and their applicability to private and commercial interests are discussed. Government-sponsored programs by NASA produced the bulk of material presented in this survey. The summary of past and current research discussed is detailed to enhance an effective transfer of technology from NASA to potential users.

  18. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  19. Sterilization: A Conference and a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillingham, Brint

    1978-01-01

    This article continues a series on Native American sterilization, based on a conference of the National Council of Churches' Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization (IFCO). Also included are an article and a report by the American Civil Liberties Union. (Author/RTS)

  20. Heat sterilization times of five hardwood species

    Treesearch

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Heat sterilization of lumber, timbers, and pallets is currently used to kill insects, thus preventing their transfer between countries in international trade. An important factor in this treatment is the time required for the center of any wood configuration to reach the temperature necessary to kill the insect. This study explored the effect of size (1-, 1.5-, and 2.0...

  1. New technology for sterilization and disinfection.

    PubMed

    Nyström, B

    1991-09-16

    Sterilization with low temperature steam and formaldehyde is a well-known process in many European countries, but little known in the United States. It sterilizes reliably and reproducibly at temperatures greater than or equal to 65 degrees C. With a well-designed cycle, it leaves residues of formaldehyde on sterilized items below 5 micrograms/cm2, measured on a standard filter paper. Formaldehyde levels in air near the autoclave are well below official exposure limits, if at all measurable. Occurrence of late growers in bioindicators, and penetration of the sterilizing media into long narrow lumina, should be validated for new processes. Automated cleaning and disinfection in closed washer-disinfectors and flushing disinfectors are likewise processes relatively little known in the United States. Disinfection is achieved by a final rinse with hot water or steam. Washer-disinfectors are used for surgical instruments, nondisposable anesthesia and other equipment, flushing disinfectors for nondisposable bedpans, wash-bowls, urinals, and similar equipment. They clean well, washer-disinfectors excellently so, and disinfect reliably. With the use of such equipment in wards, surgical departments, and other areas, reliance on chemical germicides can be dramatically reduced and disposables can be replaced by disinfectable nondisposables.

  2. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sterility test of the product. Fluid Thioglycollate Medium shall be stored in the dark at room temperature... for Whole Blood, Cryoprecipitated AHF, Platelets, Red Blood Cells, Plasma, Source Plasma, Smallpox Vaccine, Reagent Red Blood Cells, Anti-Human Globulin, or Blood Grouping Reagent. (ii) Where a...

  3. 21 CFR 610.12 - Sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sterility test of the product. Fluid Thioglycollate Medium shall be stored in the dark at room temperature... for Whole Blood, Cryoprecipitated AHF, Platelets, Red Blood Cells, Plasma, Source Plasma, Smallpox Vaccine, Reagent Red Blood Cells, Anti-Human Globulin, or Blood Grouping Reagent. (ii) Where a...

  4. Sterile Neutrino Experiments I: Accelerator-based

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toups, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model is the theory that describes the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. Despite its great success, there still exists evidence for a wide range of phenomena, which lie outside the framework of the Standard Model. Among these, neutrino flavor oscillations hold great promise to bring insight to the field towards a theory that transcends the Standard Model. The discovery of light, sterile neutrinos that mix with the three active neutrino flavors and modify the standard three-neutrino oscillation probabilities in vacuum and matter would be a major breakthrough for the field and contribute to our overall understanding of neutrino mass and mixing. Current indications for light sterile neutrinos come from a variety of experiments reporting anomalies. The accelerator-based LSND and MiniBooNE experiments, for example, reported an excess of electron-type neutrinos over short baselines, which if interpreted as due to νμ ->νe (or νμ ->νe) oscillations, would imply the existence of a fourth light neutrino mass state. On the other hand, null results from other accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments searching for sterile neutrinos have put constraints on the possible existence of these particles. This talk will review the accelerator-based searches for light, sterile neutrinos as well as the prospects for confirming or refuting their existence in the coming years.

  5. Surface sterilization of hybrid poplar cuttings

    Treesearch

    Alma M. Waterman

    1954-01-01

    Fungus diseases of hybrid poplars may be spread by spores that lodge in the resinous coating of buds of dormant cuttings, and in the lenticels. Surface sterilization by dipping the cuttings in fungicides was tested to determine whether such treatment would prevent the germination of spores of the canker-producing fungi Septoria musiva and Dothichiza populea and the...

  6. [Laparoscopic sterilization using tubal rings and clips].

    PubMed

    Borko, E; Breznik, R; Ivanisević, V; Herzmansky, M

    1980-01-01

    From 1978 to April 1980, 36 laparoscopic sterilization procedures were completed at the Gynecological Department in Maribor. For tubal occlusion in 16 cases Tupla clips and in 20 cases the Tubal Falope ring were used. It appears that the incidence of complications and other technical difficulties is somewhat more frequent with clips. There have been no pregnancies in all these cases.

  7. [Anesthesia for laparoscopy in sterile patients].

    PubMed

    Schönrath, B; Borgwardt, D; Langanke, D; Alexander, H; Baier, D; Haake, K W

    1990-01-01

    During 5 years 382 laparoscopies were carried through in female patients with sterility in different kinds of anaesthesia (Intubation anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia, and i.v. anaesthesia). We found the most advantageous results in the cases of i.v. anaesthesia with Ketamin and Diazepam.

  8. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  9. Compulsory sterilization. (Letter to the editor).

    PubMed

    Nixon, R K

    1972-10-16

    Angela R. Holder's conclusion (221: 229, 1972) that a decline in forced sterilization cases exists because "any system of compulsory sterilization is too near naziism to be acceptable in a democratic society" ignores present realities. At no time in American history has there been greater acceptance of the idea that human procreation must be regulated by coercive means. Many leaders of the movement for population control, for example, openly advocate mandatory sterilization, abortion, and birth control as part of their crash program for population stabilization. Simultaneously, a growing number of those concerned with genetic "quality" demand that individual rights be subordinated or destroyed for the good of society and the species. Meanwhile, the increasing minimization of the enormous complexities of the abortion issue to a morally and medically neutral therapeutic procedure, threatens to make abortions, as well as sterilization, innocu ous public health measures that could be forced on society if circumstan ces dictate. Moreover, as the public is conditioned to believe that these measures lack ethical ramifications, the day is hastened when they can be imposed without significant opposition. full text

  10. Steam sterilization of air turbine dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Edwardsson, S; Svensäter, G; Birkhed, D

    1983-12-01

    The efficacy of autoclaving high-speed dental handpieces was tested in two types of downward displacement steam sterilizers (instrument autoclaves), commonly used in the dentist's office. Eight series of experiments were performed with various sterilization schedules. Lubrication oils with or without antimicrobial agent were used in four of the series. Each handpiece was inoculated with 1 ml of a suspension containing equal amounts of saliva and spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus (approx. 10(6) spores/ml). Neither sterilization at 120-124 degrees C for 20 min nor at 134-136 degrees C for 10 min resulted in complete inactivation of the spores in series in which the instruments were tested without oil or with oil containing no antimicrobial agent. However, when the handpieces were lubricated with oil containing isopropanol and formaldehyde and the schedule 134-136 degrees C/10 min was used, no growth was observed. The results indicate that instrument autoclaves with built-in programs of 120-124 degrees C/20 min and 134-136 degrees C/10 min could have insufficient capacity to sterilize lubricated or unlubricated dental handpieces. The use of oils containing an antimicrobial agent can overcome this problem.

  11. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  12. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Sterile soil from Antarctica: organic analysis.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, N H; Bauman, A J; Cameron, R E; Geiger, P J; Hubbard, J S; Shulman, G P; Simmonds, P G; Westberg, K

    1969-05-30

    Soils from the dry-valley region of Antarctica can be sterile by the usual microbiological criteria and yet contain significant amounts of organic carbon. Examination of one such soil shows that the organic material is finely divided anthracite coal. These findings have significant implications for the biological exploration of Mars.

  14. Light sterile neutrinos after BICEP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen; Fornengo, Nicolao; Gariazzo, Stefano; Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it E-mail: marco.laveder@pd.infn.it

    2014-06-01

    The recent discovery of B-modes in the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background by the BICEP2 experiment has important implications for neutrino physics. We revisit cosmological bounds on light sterile neutrinos and show that they are compatible with all current cosmological data provided that the mass is relatively low. Using CMB data, including BICEP-2, we find an upper bound of m{sub s} < 0.85 eV (2σ Confidence Level). This bound is strengthened to 0.48 eV when HST measurements of H{sub 0} are included. However, the inclusion of SZ cluster data from the Planck mission and weak gravitational measurements from the CFHTLenS project favours a non-zero sterile neutrino mass of 0.44{sup +0.11}{sub −0.16} eV. Short baseline neutrino oscillations, on the other hand, indicate a new mass state around 1.2 eV. This mass is highly incompatible with cosmological data if the sterile neutrino is fully thermalised (Δχ{sup 2} > 10). However, if the sterile neutrino only partly thermalises it can be compatible with all current data, both cosmological and terrestrial.

  15. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  16. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  17. Hyperhomocysteinemia in women with unexplained sterility or recurrent early pregnancy loss from Southern Italy: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    D'Uva, Maristella; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Strina, Ida; Alviggi, Carlo; Iannuzzo, Mariateresa; Ranieri, Antonio; Mollo, Antonio; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia has been described as a risk factor for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Increased levels of homocysteine may be due to inadequate dietary intake of folate and vitamin B12 and inherited defects within the methionine-homocysteine pathway such as MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. However, the association between hyperhomocysteinemia and sterility problems have been underlined only for recurrent pregnancy loss while a relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and female sterility is still matter of discussion. Aim This study sought to find out a possible relationship between sterility (primary sterility or secondary sterility due to recurrent pregnancy loss) and homocysteine metabolism. Patients and Methods We selected 20 patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, 20 patients with unexplained female sterility and 20 healthy women as control group. Several whole blood samples were collected by venipuncture. Firstly homocysteinemia and other related variables were tested (i.e. folate and vitamin B12 levels); thereafter DNA was extracted by a further whole blood sample collected in EDTA in order to screen MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. Statistical analysis was performed by chi square test; differences were considered to be significant if p < 0.05. Results The median fasting total plasma homocysteine concentration was 19.2 ± 6.14 μM for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss, while was 21.05 ± 8.78 μM for patients with unexplained sterility, vs 7.85 ± 3.31 μM of control group (p < 0.05). Fifteen patients with unexplained female sterility showed MTHFR C677T homozigosity vs 17 with recurrent pregnancy loss and 3 in the control group (p < 0.05). On the other hand no significant differences were found in the levels of vitamin B 12 in the three groups, while reduced folate concentrations were found in women with unexplained female sterility and recurrent pregnancy loss (p < 0.05 vs control group. Discussion MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism is

  18. System for sterilizing objects. [cleaning space vehicle systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Wright, E. E., Jr.; Moyers, C. V. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A system for producing a stream of humidified sterilizing gas for sterilizing objects such as the water systems of space vehicles and the like includes a source of sterilant gas which is fed to a mixing chamber which has inlet and outlet ports. The level of the water only partially fills the mixing chamber so as to provide an empty space adjacent the top of the chamber. A heater is provided for heating the water in the chamber so as to produce a humidified atmosphere. The sterilant gas is fed through an arcuate shaped tubular member connected to the inlet port of the mixing chamber for producing a vortex type of flow of sterilant gas into the chamber for humidification. A tubular member extends from the mixing chamber for supplying the humidified sterilant gas to the object for being sterilized. Scrubbers are provided for removing the sterilant gas after use.

  19. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Treesearch

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  20. Validation of a microwave sterilizer for injection ampules.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Honda, W; Ohsawa, S; Miyake, Y; Kawashima, Y

    1999-01-01

    A program for validating the microwave sterilizer, which is a new type of sterilizer, was established and implemented. This program includes the following tests specific to microwave sterilizers: the internal pressure strength of ampules, the acceptable range of sterilizing temperature, performance and calibration of the infrared thermometer and the plane blackbody, maintaining of sterilizing temperature, the processing speed (sterilizing time), the unacceptable ampules selection mechanism, microwave leaks, and a microbiological challenge test of the ampule head space using a biological indicator. Injectable preparations of mecobalamin and diprophylline were used as models for validation of the microwave sterilizer. The bioburden approach was used for injectable mecobalamin preparation, and the over-kill approach was used for injectable diprophylline preparation. The basis for practical use of this microwave sterilizer has been confirmed by the establishment and implementation of this validation program.

  1. Selection of biological indicator for validating microwave heating sterilization.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Mori, Y; Honda, W; Miyake, Y

    1998-01-01

    For the purpose of selecting an appropriate biological indicator for evaluation of the effects of microwave heating sterilization, we examined aerobic bacterial spores to determine whether microwaves have non-thermal sterilization effects. After microwave irradiation on dry bacterial spores (three species), none of the bacterial spores were killed. The survival rate of the spores after microwave irradiation of spore suspensions (twelve species) was compared with that after heating by a conventional method. The order of heat resistance in the bacterial species was similar between the two heating methods. Bacillus stearothermophilus spores were the most heat-resistant. These results suggest that microwaves have no non-thermal sterilization effects on bacterial spores, the specific resistant spores to microwave heating, and microwave heating sterilization can be evaluated in the same way as for conventional heating sterilization. As a biological indicator for evaluation of overkill sterilization, B. stearothermophilus spores may be appropriate for microwave heating sterilization as well as steam sterilization.

  2. Sterilization Efficiency of Spore forming Bacteria in Powdery Food by Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas Sterilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagata, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Masashi; Kikuchi, Yusuke

    2015-09-01

    To provide food sterilization method capable of killing highly heat resistant spore forming bacteria, we have studied effects of plasma treatment method at atmospheric pressure in order to develop a new high speed plasma sterilization apparatus with a low cost and a high efficiency. It is also difficult even for the plasma treatment to sterilize powdery food including spices such as soybean, basil and turmeric. This paper describes that an introduction of mechanical rotation of a treatment space increases the efficiency so that perfect inactivation of spore forming bacteria in these materials by a short treatment time has been demonstrated in our experiments. We also will discuss the sterilization mechanism by dielectric barrier discharge.

  3. Genetic sperm defects.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Genetic sperm defects are specific sperm defects, which have been shown to have a genetic mode of transmission. Such genetic linkage, either direct or indirect, has been associated with a number of sperm defects in different species, with this number increasing with improved diagnostic capabilities. A number of sperm defects, which have proven or suspected genetic modes of transmission are discussed herein, with particular emphasis on cattle. These include: 1. Acrosome defects (knobbed, ruffled and incomplete); 2. Head defects (abnormal condensation, decapitated, round head, rolled head, nuclear crest); 3. Midpiece abnormalities ("Dag" defect, "corkscrew" defect, "pseudo-droplet" defect); 4. Tail defects ("tail stump" defect, primary ciliary dyskinesia).

  4. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  5. Orthodontic instrument sterilization with microwave irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Yezdani, Arif; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of microwave sterilization of orthodontic instruments and molar bands immersed in plain distilled water with and without oral rinse, and to ascertain the minimum time of exposure required to sterilize. Materials and Methods: The orthodontic instruments (hinged and nonhinged), molar bands and mouth mirrorsused in the patient 's mouth were selected for the study. The instruments were divided into two groups – Group I with oral rinse-set A (0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate) and set B (0.025% betadine) and Group II (included sets C and D without oral rinse). The instruments of set A, B and C were microwaved at 2,450 MHz, 800 W for 5 min, whereas, set D was microwaved for 10 min at the same above mentioned specifications. The efficacy of sterilization was assessed by stab inoculation of the instruments onto trypticase soya agar plates. The plates were checked for bacterial growth following incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. For sterility control,Geobacillus stearothermophilus (MTCC 1518) was included. Results: No growth was observed in the plates that were inoculated with the microwaved orthodontic instruments of sets A, B and D, whereas scanty bacterial growth was observed in the plates inoculatedwith the microwaved set C instruments. Conclusion: Effective sterilization was achieved when the orthodontic instruments and molar bands were immersed in distilled water without oral rinse and microwaved for 10 min as also for those that were immersed in distilled water with oral rinse and microwaved for 5 min. PMID:26015686

  6. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02504.001 PMID:25487987

  7. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  8. Fracture resistance behaviour of gamma-irradiation sterilized cortical bone protected with a ribose pre-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodside, Carman Mitchell

    Structural bone allograft reconstructions are often implemented to repair large skeletal defects. To ensure the biological safety of the patient, allograft material is routinely sterilized with gamma-irradiation prior to implantation. The sterilization process damages the tissue, specifically the collagen protein network, leading to severe losses in the mechanical properties of the bone. Our lab has begun developing a ribose pre-treatment that can protect bone from these harmful effects. The goals of the present study were to develop a method to measure the fracture toughness of bone, an important clinical failure mode, and implement it to determine the effectiveness of the ribose pre-treatment on fracture toughness. We have shown that the ribose pre-treatment is successful at protecting some of the original fracture toughness of sterilized bone, and that the connectivity of the collagen network is an important contributor to the fracture resistance of bone.

  9. The Propensity of Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes to Evolve into Restorers of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Gaborieau, Lydiane; Brown, Gregory G.; Mireau, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a widespread phenotype in plants, which present a defect in the production of functional pollen. The male sterilizing factors usually consist of unusual genes or open reading frames encoded by the mitochondrial genome. CMS can be suppressed by specific nuclear genes called restorers of fertility (Rfs). In the majority of cases, Rf genes produce proteins that act directly on the CMS conferring mitochondrial transcripts by binding them specifically and promoting processing events. In this review, we explore the wide array of mechanisms guiding fertility restoration. PPR proteins represent the most frequent protein class among identified Rfs and they exhibit ideal characteristics to evolve into restorer of fertility when the mechanism of restoration implies a post-transcriptional action. Here, we review the literature that highlights those characteristics and help explain why PPR proteins are ideal for the roles they play as restorers of fertility. PMID:27999582

  10. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  11. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  12. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  13. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  14. 42 CFR 441.255 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 441.255 Section 441... Sterilizations § 441.255 Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) FFP is not available in expenditures for a hysterectomy if— (1) It was performed solely for the purpose of rendering an individual permanently incapable...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872.6710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  18. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  19. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  20. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  1. Committee opinion no. 530: access to postpartum sterilization.

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Postpartum tubal sterilization is one of the safest and most effective methods of contraception. Women who desire this type of sterilization typically undergo thorough counseling and informed consent during prenatal care and reiterate their desire for postpartum sterilization at the time of their hospital admission. Not all women who desire postpartum sterilization actually undergo the surgical procedure, and women with unfulfilled requests for postpartum sterilization have a high rate of repeat pregnancy (approaching 50%) within the following year. Potentially correctable barriers to obtaining postpartum sterilization include patient and health care provider factors, as well as hospital and health care system issues. Given the consequences of a missed procedure and the limited time frame in which it may be performed, postpartum sterilization should be considered an urgent surgical procedure. In addition, women with government insurance face barriers to sterilization procedures based on cumbersome consent requirements. The differences in the requirements surrounding consent for sterilization procedures based on the type of insurance a patient has must be addressed in order to establish fair and equitable access to sterilization procedures for all women. Policies and procedures that remove barriers to and increase efficiency in performing postpartum sterilization could reduce cancellations of the procedure. Improving consistency in accomplishing desired postpartum sterilization is an important strategy to reduce high rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States.

  2. MSI's unique, multi-functional contract sterilization facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganstern, Kennard H.

    Medical Sterilization Inc. is a unique company supplying sterilization services to regional hospitals in the New York area and also providing contract sterilization and radiation processing services to industry. The evolution from a concept to an operational entity is reviewed in this report.

  3. The Coercive Sterilization of Aboriginal Women in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stote, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the coercive sterilization of Aboriginal women in legislated and non-legislated form in Canada. I provide an historical and materialist critique of coercive sterilization. I argue for coercive sterilization to be understood as one of many policies employed to undermine Aboriginal women, to separate Aboriginal peoples from…

  4. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1484 - Neomycin sulfate sterile solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. 522.1484... § 522.1484 Neomycin sulfate sterile solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 35 milligrams of neomycin base).1...

  8. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  9. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  10. Development of male-sterile lines for breeding hybrid rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice is a self-pollinated crop that depends on male-sterility for F1 hybrid seed production. As an alternative to accessing existing male-sterile lines from other hybrid breeding programs, the program in Arkansas has created its own novel male-sterile sources. These were developed out of germplasm...

  11. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  12. 21 CFR 872.6710 - Boiling water sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Boiling water sterilizer. 872.6710 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6710 Boiling water sterilizer. (a) Identification. A boiling water sterilizer is an AC-powered device that consists of a container for boiling...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO)...

  18. Development of male sterile Eruca sativa carrying a Raphanus sativus/Brassica oleracea cybrid cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Nothnagel, Thomas; Klocke, Evelyn; Schrader, Otto; Linke, Bettina; Budahn, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Alloplasmic male sterile breeding lines of Eruca sativa were developed by intergeneric hybridization with CMS- Brassica oleracea, followed by recurrent backcrosses and determination of the breeding value. Male sterile breeding lines of rocket salad (Eruca sativa) were developed by intergeneric hybridization with cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) followed by recurrent backcrosses. Five amphidiploid F1 plants (2n = 2x = 20, CE), achieved by manual crosses and embryo rescue, showed an intermediate habit. The plants were completely male sterile and lacked seed set after pollination with the Eruca parent. Allotetraploid F1-hybrid plants (4n = 4x = 40, CCEE) obtained after colchicine treatment were backcrossed six times with pollen of the Eruca parent to select alloplasmic diploid E. sativa lines. The hybrid status and the nucleo-cytoplasmic constellation were continuously controlled by RAPD and Southern analysis during subsequent backcrosses. The ploidy level was investigated by flow cytometry and chromosome analysis. Premeiotic (sporophytic) and postmeiotic (pollen abortive) defects during the anther development were observed in the alloplasmic E. sativus plants in comparison to the CMS-cauliflower donor. No further incompatibilities were noticed between the CMS-inducing cybrid cytoplasm and the E. sativa nuclear genome. The final alloplasmic E. sativa lines were diploid with 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes and revealed complete male sterility and restored female fertility. Plant vigor and yield potential of the CMS-E. sativa BC5 lines were comparable to the parental E. sativus line. In conclusion, the employed cybrid-cytoplasm has been proven as a vital source of CMS for E. sativa. The developed lines are directly applicable for hybrid breeding of rocket salad.

  19. The robustness of Caenorhabditis elegans male mating behavior depends on the distributed properties of ray sensory neurons and their output through core and male-specific targets.

    PubMed

    Koo, Pamela K; Bian, Xuelin; Sherlekar, Amrita L; Bunkers, Meredith R; Lints, Robyn

    2011-05-18

    Many evolutionarily significant behaviors, such as mating, involve dynamic interactions with animate targets. This raises the question of what features of neural circuit design are essential to support these complex types of behavior. The Caenorhabditis elegans male uses 18 ray sensilla of the tail to coordinate mate apposition behavior, which facilitates a systematic search of the hermaphrodite surface for the vulva. Precisely how ray neuron types, A and B, robustly endow the male with a high degree of spatial and temporal precision is unknown. We show that the appositional postures that drive the search trajectory reflect the complex interplay of ray neuron type-induced motor outputs. Cell-type-specific ablations reveal that the A-neurons are required for all appositional postures. Their activity is instructive because the A-neurons can induce scanning- and turning-like appositional postures when artificially activated with channel rhodopsin (ChR2). B-neurons are essential only for initiation of the behavior in which they enhance male responsiveness to hermaphrodite contact. When artificially activated using ChR2, A- and B-neurons produce different tail ventral curl postures. However, when coactivated, A-neuron posture dominates, limiting B-neuron contributions to initiation or subsequent postures. Significantly, males lacking the majority of rays retain a high degree of postural control, indicating significant functional resilience in the system. Furthermore, eliminating a large number of male-specific ray neuron targets only partially attenuates tail posture control revealing that gender-common cells make an important contribution to the behavior. Thus, robustness may be a crucial feature of circuits underlying complex behaviors, such as mating, even in simple animals.

  20. The importance of location and orientation of male specific lethal complex binding sites of differing affinities on reporter gene dosage compensation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Schiemann, Anja H; Weake, Vikki M; Li, Fang; Laverty, Corey; Belikoff, Esther J; Scott, Maxwell J

    2010-11-26

    The male specific lethal (MSL) complex is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila. The complex binds to most actively transcribed X-linked genes in males and upregulates expression. High resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have identified over one hundred high affinity binding sites on the X chromosome. One of the first high affinity sites discovered is at cytological location 18D11. The MSL complex binds weakly to a single copy of a 510bp fragment from 18D11 but strongly to a tetramer of the fragment. Here we have investigated the effect of insertion of sites of differing affinities, either upstream or within the transcribed gene, on complex binding and transcription upregulation. Insertion of four copies of the 18D11 fragment upstream or at the 3' end of a reporter gene led to strong MSL complex binding and increased expression in males. In contrast, the MSL complex did not bind consistently to autosomal transgenes that contained a single copy of the 18D11 site upstream of the gene promoter. However, MSL complex binding was observed in all lines if the single 18D11 fragment was inserted into the 3' end of the reporter gene in either orientation. This is consistent with previous studies that showed gene transcription facilitates MSL complex binding. Surprisingly, transcription elevation in males was only observed if the 18D11 fragment was in the forward orientation and only in some lines. Our results suggest that MSL complex binding to weaker sites and transcription enhancement is influenced by gene transcription, binding site orientation and the local chromatin environment. In contrast, strong binding sites do not need to be transcribed to recruit sufficient complex to cause transcription elevation of nearby genes.

  1. Subunit composition and substrate specificity of a MOF-containing histone acetyltransferase distinct from the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji; Swanson, Selene K; Cole, Michael D; Choi, Seung Hyuk; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C

    2010-02-12

    Human MOF (MYST1), a member of the MYST (Moz-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2-Tip60) family of histone acetyltransferases (HATs), is the human ortholog of the Drosophila males absent on the first (MOF) protein. MOF is the catalytic subunit of the male-specific lethal (MSL) HAT complex, which plays a key role in dosage compensation in the fly and is responsible for a large fraction of histone H4 lysine 16 (H4K16) acetylation in vivo. MOF was recently reported to be a component of a second HAT complex, designated the non-specific lethal (NSL) complex (Mendjan, S., Taipale, M., Kind, J., Holz, H., Gebhardt, P., Schelder, M., Vermeulen, M., Buscaino, A., Duncan, K., Mueller, J., Wilm, M., Stunnenberg, H. G., Saumweber, H., and Akhtar, A. (2006) Mol. Cell 21, 811-823). Here we report an analysis of the subunit composition and substrate specificity of the NSL complex. Proteomic analyses of complexes purified through multiple candidate subunits reveal that NSL is composed of nine subunits. Two of its subunits, WD repeat domain 5 (WDR5) and host cell factor 1 (HCF1), are shared with members of the MLL/SET family of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase complexes, and a third subunit, MCRS1, is shared with the human INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex. In addition, we show that assembly of the MOF HAT into MSL or NSL complexes controls its substrate specificity. Although MSL-associated MOF acetylates nucleosomal histone H4 almost exclusively on lysine 16, NSL-associated MOF exhibits a relaxed specificity and also acetylates nucleosomal histone H4 on lysines 5 and 8.

  2. A Gene Catalogue of the Euchromatic Male-Specific Region of the Horse Y Chromosome: Comparison with Human and Other Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Pearks Wilkerson, Alison J.; O'Brien, Patricia C. M.; Ferguson-Smith, Malcom A.; Love, Charles C.; Arnold, Carolyn; Rakestraw, Peter; Murphy, William J.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the Y chromosome in primates, rodents and carnivores provide compelling evidence that the male specific region of Y (MSY) contains functional genes, many of which have specialized roles in spermatogenesis and male-fertility. Little similarity, however, has been found between the gene content and sequence of MSY in different species. This hinders the discovery of species-specific male fertility genes and limits our understanding about MSY evolution in mammals. Here, a detailed MSY gene catalogue was developed for the horse – an odd-toed ungulate. Using direct cDNA selection from horse testis, and sequence analysis of Y-specific BAC clones, 37 horse MSY genes/transcripts were identified. The genes were mapped to the MSY BAC contig map, characterized for copy number, analyzed for transcriptional profiles by RT-PCR, examined for the presence of ORFs, and compared to other mammalian orthologs. We demonstrate that the horse MSY harbors 20 X-degenerate genes with known orthologs in other eutherian species. The remaining 17 genes are acquired or novel and have so far been identified only in the horse or donkey Y chromosomes. Notably, 3 transcripts were found in the heterochromatic part of the Y. We show that despite substantial differences between the sequence, gene content and organization of horse and other mammalian Y chromosomes, the functions of MSY genes are predominantly related to testis and spermatogenesis. Altogether, 10 multicopy genes with testis-specific expression were identified in the horse MSY, and considered likely candidate genes for stallion fertility. The findings establish an important foundation for the study of Y-linked genetic factors governing fertility in stallions, and improve our knowledge about the evolutionary processes that have shaped Y chromosomes in different mammalian lineages. PMID:21799735

  3. Sterilization project offers model for better care.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1993-08-01

    India's experiences with sterilization indicate that quality of care is an essential feature of appropriate, voluntary family planning services. Good quality of care reduces the problems associated with services and increases client's acceptability and continuation rates. The Center for Excellence in India has established a model that emphasis matching the right method with each client's circumstances. The model first developed standards, which were based on international guidelines and expertise, and then developed and implemented a training program for providers; finally, a quality assurance system was established in order to promote compliance with standards. At present, there is not 100% agreement among international guidelines on standards for sterilization or other methods. In 1992, Family Health International (FHI) published a comparison on 8 major sets of service, delivery, guidelines, and were used around the world; FHI world wide variations in guidelines. A USAID study group is currently reviewing scientific evidence on oral contraceptives, injectables, Norplant, and IUDS. There is difficulty in reaching international consensus and even greater difficulty in changing approaches and policies of specific countries. It is much easier to institute quality of care issues at the beginning of program development or when methods are first introduced. In India, the Centers of Excellence program developed its own national standards on sterilization, and the resulting document is specifically suited to India. The standards emphasize the client's choice and human issues such as counseling and communication. Sterilization reversal, which is not always successful, will be provided, even though sterilization will be promoted as a permanent procedure. 4 regional centers have been set up through medical colleges in Delhi, Calcutta, Bombay and Madras. 12 additional state level centers will be established in the future. Good training was considered an essential part of the

  4. Coelioscopic and Endoscope-Assisted Sterilization of Chelonians.

    PubMed

    Proença, Laila M; Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Elective sterilization is a safe and well-established surgical procedure performed in dogs and cats worldwide. Conversely, chelonian sterilization has been mostly performed therapeutically, because of the intricate anatomy and difficult access to the reproductive organs, and consequently, reproductive problems and diseases remain common. With the advance of veterinary endoscopy, novel techniques of soft tissue prefemoral coelioscopic and endoscope-assisted sterilization have been published, and preventative chelonian sterilization is now a reality. Nevertheless, extrapolations between species should be carefully considered, and further studies are warranted. This article summarizes and describes the current coelioscopic and coelioscope-assisted sterilization techniques for chelonia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modelling releases of sterile mosquitoes with different strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Yuan, Zhiling

    2015-01-01

    To prevent the transmissions of malaria, dengue fever, or other mosquito-borne diseases, one effective weapon is the sterile insect technique in which sterile mosquitoes are released to reduce or eradicate the wild mosquito population. To study the impact of the sterile insect technique on disease transmission, we formulate discrete-time mathematical models, based on difference equations, for the interactive dynamics of the wild and sterile mosquitoes, incorporating different strategies in releasing sterile mosquitoes. We investigate the model dynamics and compare the impact of the different release strategies. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate rich dynamical features of the models.

  6. A double inductively coupled plasma for sterilization of medical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfmann, H.; Bibinov, N.; Wunderlich, J.; Awakowicz, P.

    2007-07-01

    A double inductively coupled low pressure plasma for sterilization of bio-medical materials is introduced. It is developed for homogeneous treatment of three-dimensional objects. The short treatment times and low temperatures allow the sterilization of heat sensitive materials like ultra-high-molecular-weight-polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride. Using a non-toxic atmosphere reduces the total process time in comparision with common methods. Langmuir probe measurements are presented to show the difference between ICP- and CCP-mode discharges, the spatial homogeneity and the influence on the sterilization efficiency. To know more about the sterilization mechanisms optical emission is measured and correlated with sterilization results.

  7. Incidence of infection after Mohs micrographic and dermatologic surgery before and after implementation of new sterilization guidelines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Austin; Lawrence, Naomi

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines regarding surgical instrument sterilization established by accrediting organizations should be based on peer-reviewed scientific literature. Few data exist in the scientific literature to support the changes in sterilization protocols imposed by accrediting organizations. We sought to determine whether recently established guidelines for the sterilization of surgical instruments have had any clinical impact on postsurgical infection rates. Infections rates after excisional and Mohs micrographic surgery before and after implementation of new Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations sterilization guidelines were examined retrospectively. All surgeries were performed at an academic outpatient office. In all, 1415 patients underwent a total of 1688 surgeries. No significant differences were observed in mean patient age (P = .113), mean number of Mohs micrographic surgical levels (P = .067), final defect size (P = .305), patient gender (P = .072), repair type (P = .691), or infection rate (P = .453). No major differences in predisposing factors were identified in patients who developed postsurgical infections. This was a retrospective study conducted at a single academic institution. In our practice, recent changes in surgical instrument sterilization protocols have had no impact on postsurgical infection rates. The implementation of such guidelines places an additional burden on the health care system without providing any improvement in patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  9. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufeng; Wang, Qian; Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  10. Application of a Dense Gas Technique for Sterilizing Soft Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Yoganathan, Roshan; Mammucari, Raffaella; Park, Hyoungshin; Cox, Julian; Zeitels, Steven M.; Langer, Robert; Foster, Neil R.

    2017-01-01

    Sterilization of soft biomaterials such as hydrogels is challenging because existing methods such as gamma irradiation, steam sterilization, or ethylene oxide sterilization, while effective at achieving high sterility assurance levels (SAL), may compromise their physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. New methods that effectively sterilize soft biomaterials without compromising their properties are therefore required. In this report, a dense-carbon dioxide (CO2)-based technique was used to sterilize soft polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogels while retaining their structure and physicochemical properties. Conventional sterilization methods such as gamma irradiation and steam sterilization severely compromised the structure of the hydrogels. PEG hydrogels with high water content and low elastic shear modulus (a measure of stiffness) were deliberately inoculated with bacteria and spores and then subjected to dense CO2. The dense CO2-based methods effectively sterilized the hydrogels achieving a SAL of 10−7 without compromising the viscoelastic properties, pH, water-content, and structure of the gels. Furthermore, dense CO2-treated gels were biocompatible and non-toxic when implanted subcutaneously in ferrets. The application of novel dense CO2-based methods to sterilize soft biomaterials has implications in developing safe sterilization methods for soft biomedical implants such as dermal fillers and viscosupplements. PMID:21337339

  11. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  12. [Sterile insect technique: targeted control without insecticide].

    PubMed

    Boyer, S

    2012-03-01

    Sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of disease vector control technique that consists of releasing overwhelming numbers of sterile males. This method provides an environmentally friendly alternative to insecticides. Another advantage of SIT in comparison with other methods is to provide a targeted species-specific approach. In Reunion Island, SIT has been proposed as a basis for developing a viable method of vector control against Aedes albopictus and Anopheles arabiensis. The technique has already been successfully tested on fly and mosquito species for more than 40 years. The CRVOI (Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les Maladies Emergentes dans l'Océan Indien) is carrying out studies to determine the feasibility of SIT for control of Anopheles arabiensis (vector of malaria) and Aedes albopictus (vector of chikungunya and dengue) on Reunion Island and other islands in the Indian Ocean region.

  13. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, mhdmeff < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ Neff < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in Neff and mhdmeff, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  14. Can sterile neutrinos be the dark matter?

    PubMed

    Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; McDonald, Patrick; Trac, Hy

    2006-11-10

    We use the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum measured by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and high-resolution spectroscopy observations in combination with cosmic microwave background and galaxy clustering constraints to place limits on a sterile neutrino as a dark matter candidate in the warm dark matter scenario. Such a neutrino would be created in the early Universe through mixing with an active neutrino and would suppress structure on scales smaller than its free-streaming scale. We ran a series of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations with varying neutrino masses to describe the effect of a sterile neutrino on the Ly-alpha forest power spectrum. We find that the mass limit is m(s) >13 keV at 95% C.L. (9 keV at 99.9%), which is above the upper limit allowed by x-ray constraints, excluding this candidate from being all of the dark matter in this model.

  15. Light Sterile Neutrino Search at Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Jiajie; Daya Bay Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    It has been well established through neutrino oscillation that neutrinos have masses and their flavors mix. In 2012, The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment discovered that the last unknown neutrino mixing angle θ13 is non-zero. With more than one million reactor antineutrino interactions recorded since December 2011, besides the most precise measurement of sin2 2θ13 , the Daya Bay experiment also has high sensitivity in sterile neutrino search due to its multiple baselines. In this talk, I will discuss the spectral analysis of the light sterile neutrino search in the largely unexplored region of 10-3 eV2 < | Δm2 | < 0 . 3 eV2 at Daya Bay through the electron antineutrino disappearance channel.

  16. Light sterile neutrinos and inflationary freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M. E-mail: giunti@to.infn.it

    2015-04-01

    We perform a cosmological analysis in which we allow the primordial power spectrum of scalar perturbations to assume a shape that is different from the usual power-law predicted by the simplest models of cosmological inflation. We parameterize the free primordial power spectrum with a ''piecewise cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial'' (PCHIP). We consider a 3+1 neutrino mixing model with a sterile neutrino having a mass at the eV scale, which can explain the anomalies observed in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We find that the freedom of the primordial power spectrum allows to reconcile the cosmological data with a fully thermalized sterile neutrino in the early Universe. Moreover, the cosmological analysis gives us some information on the shape of the primordial power spectrum, which presents a feature around the wavenumber k=0.002 Mpc{sup −1}.

  17. A Sterile Robotic Mars Soil Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.; Miller, Joseph D.; Straat, Patricia Ann; Hoover, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Since the 1976 Viking Mission to Mars, follow-on efforts to resolve its controversial life detection results have been thwarted by two heretofore insurmountable difficulties: the huge expense of sterilizing the entire spacecraft to protect the integrity of life detection experiments; and the lack of a practical robotic life detection package that could produce results acceptable as unambiguous by the scientific community. We here present a method that assures sterility and the complete integrity of robotic life detection experiments, all at a negligible cost. Second, we propose a candidate set of integrated, highly sensitive experiments that we believe could produce results acceptable to the vast majority of scientists. In addition to the biology-chemistry issue, the extensively debated oxidative state of the Martian surface and other chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian soil would be determined. We present our concept for a miniaturized instrument that could carry out a number of candidate experiments to achieve the objective.

  18. Psychosexual adjustment following sterilization: a prospective study on Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Tang, C S; Chung, T K

    1997-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify significant predictors of Chinese women's psychosexual adjustment after sterilization. One hundred fifteen multiparous Chinese women, aged 25-51 years, were interviewed before and after elective laparoscopic or postpartum sterilization. Eight-seven women were also interviewed about their pshychosexual adjustment at 1 year after sterilization. Results showed that the fear of negative evaluation by others, family cohesion and adaptability, and preoperative psychological distress were robust predictors of adverse psychosexual outcome immediately and 1 year after sterilization. There was significant improvement in women's mental health following sterilization, and their sexual adjustment such as coital frequency and sexual satisfaction were not adversely affected at 1 year follow-up. Women with either elective or postpartum sterilization had similar adjustment throughout, except the latter group tended to experience more physical discomfort at 1 year follow-up. About 3.4% of the women experienced regret at 12 months after sterilization.

  19. The sterilization efficacy of reprocessed single use diathermy pencils.

    PubMed

    Batista Neto, Simone; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Kawagoe, Júlia Yaeko

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil, single use diathermy pencils (SUDP) are among the most common reused devices. This study assesses the sterilization efficacy of reprocessing SUDP using two cleansing methods (manual or automated), followed by one of three of the low-temperature sterilization methods: Hydrogen Peroxide Plasma (HPP), Ethylene Oxide (ETO) or Low-Temperature Steam Formaldehyde (LTSF). The sample was composed of 360 SUDP after their first use. The probability of sterilization failure was estimated considering the number of positive microbiological results obtained by cultures of the studied devices. The overall sterilization failure probability for SUDP was 0.26. The sterilization method, which presented the lowest failure probability was the LTSF (0.01), followed by ETO (0.21) and HPP (0.56). Automated cleansing obtained a better result than manual cleansing. This trial demonstrated that the probability of sterilization in reprocessed SUDP is highly dependent on both the type of cleansing and the sterilization method applied.

  20. Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) for Surgical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    reactions, either individually or in combination, to effect sterilization of contaminated objects. The first system is a scaled up version of the...production by chemical reaction Ti quantities of heat, steam, and chlorine dioxide are produce that act in concert to effect the destruction of the...contaminating microorganisms. In fact, the conditions of heat and humidity created inside the PCS intensify the effectiveness of ClO2 as a lethal

  1. Mechanism for ordinary-sterile neutrino mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Langacker, P.

    1998-11-01

    Efficient oscillations between ordinary (active) and sterile neutrinos can occur only if Dirac and Majorana mass terms exist which are both small and comparable. It is shown that this can occur naturally in a class of string models, in which higher-dimensional operators in the superpotential lead to an intermediate scale expectation value for a scalar field and to suppressed Dirac and Majorana fermion masses. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Malaney, R.A. ); Fuller, G.M. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  3. A Flash Sterilizer using Peracetic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    REPORT 7606 / A FLASH STERILIZER USING PERACETIC ACID H. BRUCE CRANFORD, JR. C Reproduced From Best Available Copy US ARMY MEDICAL BIOENGINEERING...Operating Room area whereby an accidentally contaminated Instrument can be * rapidly resterilized using peracetic acid and returned to use was designedand...Pvoperties of Peracetic Acid 5 S..Proposed Design Approach 6 "Equipment 11 SUMM•ARY 17 BIBLIOGRAPHY 19 A*?ENDICES 23 A. Ltr, HQDA. (SGRD-SDM), WASH, DC, A-1

  4. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-09

    chicken piece placed at the cold spot in chicken- dumpling pouches at the end of complete thermal process. PA 3679 # 308 Clos- tridium sporogenes spore ...crop was used to calculate average D-values for the dif- ferent temperatures and determine the z-value of PA 3679 spores in chicken breast. Process...the developed MW sterilization processing delivered expected lethality to C. sporogenes PA 3679 spores . Forty chicken-dumpling pouches processed in

  5. Sterilization of women: benefits vs risks.

    PubMed

    Rioux, J E

    Voluntary sterilization is the birth control method most widely practiced throughout the world. The last ten years have witnessed great improvements in techniques and perfection of innovations, explaining the important role that it now plays in the regulation of fertility. Different methods are examined and it is concluded that hysterectomy is the best, if medically indicated; conventional laparotomy is not justified unless required by concomitant intraabdominal pathology; minilaparotomy is mostly suitable postpartum; colpotomy is better left to specialists; laparoscopy is ideal for nonpregnant patients; culdoscopy is a relic of the past; and hysteroscopy, although still experimental, may be the way of the future. The advantages of voluntary sterilization lie in its remarkable and immediate efficiency, freedom from ongoing motivation, the convenience of a one-time operation, the absence of side effects and the reduction of total costs. Its disadvantages are the complexity of any surgical intervention for a woman, its indisputable finality, its uncertain legality and the risks inherent in any operation. Hysterectomy and tubal ligation are practically never fatal, so this argument does not influence the choice of either method. However, incidence of morbidity is higher following hysterectomies, which must therefore be justified. The balance is clearly in favor of voluntary sterilization for the woman who is convinced that the size of her family is complete.

  6. Sterilization of laparoscopes. Is soaking sufficient?

    PubMed

    Corson, S L; Block, S; Mintz, C; Dole, M; Wainwright, A

    1979-08-01

    Controversy exists over the proper methods of sterilizing laparoscopic telescopes. An edict requiring gas sterilization rather than solution soaking of these instruments is in force in all federal hospitals. This rule has necessitated capital investments for new instruments and has led to a severe reduction in the number of cases of laparoscopy that may be scheduled in one day. Fear of contamination is based on theoretical considerations and rusn counter to the actual, observed safety record seen with laparoscopes soaked in activated glutaraldehyde between cases. In an effort to dispassionately approach this problem, cultures of the umbilical area, the laparoscope and the pelvic serosal surfaces were taken to document the type of organisms commonly encountered under clinical conditions. Cultures for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as for fungi were taken after soaking the telescope in activated glutaraldehyde. The results demonstrated growth of common skin organisms even after skin preparation with povidone-iodine and ethyl alcohol. Similar organisms were recovered in some cases from the laparoscope and the pelvic surfaces. The actual degree of contamination suggested by a colony count falls well within the range of the healthy peritoneum to cope with these organisms. Recommendations for laparoscopic sterilization or disinfection are based on the results obtained.

  7. Plasma sterilization using the RF glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqing; Chen, Jierong; Gao, Junling; Guo, Yafei

    2009-08-01

    In the present work, glow discharge oxygen plasma was used to sterilize the Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets. In a self-designed plasma reaction equipment, active species (electron, ion, radical, UV light, etc.) were separated effectively, and the discharge area, afterglow area and remote area were plotted out in the plasma field. Before and after plasma treatment the cell morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that after treatment of 30 s the germicidal effect is 4.26, 3. 84, 2.61, respectively in the three areas on the following conditions: discharge power was 40 W and gas flux was 20 cm 3/min. SEM results revealed the cell morphology before and after plasma treatment. The walls or cell membrane cracking was testified by determining the content of protein using coomassie light blue technique. The results from electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and double Langmuir electron probe showed that electron, ion and oxygen free radical played important roles in sterilization in the discharge area, but only oxygen radicals acted to sterilize the bacteria in the afterglow area and the remote area.

  8. Sterile Neutrino Search with the PROSPECT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surukuchi Venkata, Pranava Teja

    2017-01-01

    PROSPECT is a multi-phased short-baseline reactor antineutrino experiment with primary goals of performing a search for sterile neutrinos and making a precise measurement of 235U reactor antineutrino spectrum from the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PROSPECT will provide a model independent oscillation measurement of electron antineutrinos by performing relative spectral comparison between a wide range of baselines. By covering the baselines of 7-12 m with Phase-I and extending the coverage to 19m with Phase-II, the PROSPECT experiment will be able to address the current eV-scale sterile neutrino oscillation best-fit region within a single year of data-taking and covers a major portion of suggested parameter space within 3 years of Phase-II data-taking. Additionally, with a Phase-II detector PROSPECT will be able to distinguish between 3+1 mixing, 3+N mixing and other non-standard oscillations. In this talk, we describe the PROSPECT oscillation fitting framework and expected detector sensitivity to the oscillations arising from eV-scale sterile neutrinos. DOE

  9. Post-ablation-tubal sterilization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Townsend, D E; McCausland, V; McCausland, A; Fields, G; Kauffman, K

    1993-09-01

    To determine the cause of unilateral or bilateral pelvic pain associated with vaginal spotting in women who had previously undergone tubal ligation followed by roller-ball endometrial ablation. Women who had undergone previous tubal sterilization followed by rollerball endometrial ablation were evaluated laparoscopically and hysteroscopically when they presented with a symptom complex of intermittent vaginal bleeding associated with severe cramping pain in the lower abdomen. During a 1.5-year observation period, six women with the symptom complex had laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. In all cases, marked endometrial scarring was noted. In every case, the proximal portions of either one or both fallopian tubes were swollen, and two cases had the appearance of an early ectopic pregnancy. In the remaining cases, the fallopian tubes were rubbery and swollen to as much as twice normal size. Symptoms in five of six patients subsided after laparoscopic removal of the oviduct. It appears that women who have had a tubal sterilization followed by endometrial ablation are at risk of developing an ectopic-like symptom complex. Salpingectomy appears to be effective in relieving symptoms. Whether this represents a new syndrome or just an unusual association between tubal sterilization and endometrial ablation remains to be seen.

  10. Radiation Sterilization of Prototype Military Foods

    PubMed Central

    Anellis, Abe; Berkowitz, D.; Jarboe, C.; El-Bisi, H. M.

    1967-01-01

    Ten lots of diced cured ham, packed in cans, were inoculated with approximately 106Clostridium botulinum spores per can. Each lot was seeded with a different strain (five type A and five type B strains). All cans were irradiated to various dose levels with Co60. Evidence provided by swelling, toxicity, and recoverable C. botulinum with 6,350 cans demonstrated that: (i) 4.5 Mrad was more than adequate as a sterilization dose; (ii) the minimal experimental sterilizing dose (ESD) based on nonswollen nontoxic endpoints was 2.0 < ESD ≤ 2.5 Mrad, and based on non-spoiled sterile cans was 3.0 < ESD ≤ 3.5 Mrad (the latter was supported by the computed theoretical 12D dose); (iii) D values calculated from botulinal survival data indicated that, as a group, the type A strains were more radioresistant than type B strains; strains 12885A and 41B, with respective D values of 0.242 and 0.175, represented the most resistant of each type; (iv) swollen cans did not always contain toxin, nor were toxic cans always swollen; (v) viable C. botulinum can exist for 6 months at 30 C without producing visible or toxic spoilage at doses of 3.0 Mrad and lower, including, in some instances, 0.0 Mrad; and (vi) a phenomenon similar to heat activation of spores occurred at sublethal radiation doses. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5340164

  11. [Principles of antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Navarrete, María-Jesús; Celorrio-Pascual, José-Miguel; Lapresta Moros, Carlos; Solano Bernad, Victor-Manuel

    2014-12-01

    This article aims to provide a brief review of the main concepts on which the prevention and control of infection are based. Antisepsis comprises a set of techniques aimed at the total sterilization, or at most, disinfection, removing germs that contaminate an environment. Both procedures must be preceded by an environmental cleanup in the location in which they intend to be applied. The disinfection is carried out using biocides or germicides. Antimicrobial chemicals, that have mechanisms of action and resistances very similar to antibiotics, are generating concern due to the possibility of crossing genetic information that aggravates the problem of bacterial resistance. Most biocides can act as antiseptics, and applied to skin tissue, or disinfectants on inanimate materials. The spectrum of action of germicides depends on the product itself and external controllable factors: temperature, concentration, exposure time, etc. Sterilization techniques are primarily physical, by exposing the material to steam, or sterilizing gas, using autoclaves. Major advances are the use of low temperatures with shorter exposure times, in parallel with technological advances in instrumentation in order to avoid high temperatures and high use rotations due to workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Sterile neutrinos as subdominant warm dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Palazzo, A.; Cumberbatch, D.; Slosar, A.; Silk, J.

    2007-11-15

    In light of recent findings which seem to disfavor a scenario with (warm) dark matter entirely constituted of sterile neutrinos produced via the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we investigate the constraints attainable for this mechanism by relaxing the usual hypothesis that the relic neutrino abundance must necessarily account for all of the dark matter. We first study how to reinterpret the limits attainable from x-ray nondetection and Lyman-{alpha} forest measurements in the case that sterile neutrinos constitute only a fraction f{sub s} of the total amount of dark matter. Then, assuming that sterile neutrinos are generated in the early universe solely through the Dodelson-Widrow mechanism, we show how the x-ray and Lyman-{alpha} results jointly constrain the mass-mixing parameters governing their production. Furthermore, we show how the same data allow us to set a robust upper limit f{sub s} < or approx. 0.7 at the 2{sigma} level, rejecting the case of dominant dark matter (f{sub s}=1) at the {approx}3{sigma} level.

  13. Theory of oscillations and sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    We present a concise review of the theoretical status of neutrino oscillations within the (standard) 3-flavor framework and the (non-standard) 4-flavor scheme endowed with one additional sterile species (the so-called 3+1 scheme). We emphasize the slight overall preference that recently emerged for CP-violation in the 3-flavor analysis and highlight the unique role of the global data combination in the near future. After a brief introduction of the motivations for light (eV) sterile neutrinos, we discuss the bounds on their mixing with the electron neutrinos, attainable from the solar sector. The upper limit so obtained is independent of the reactor neutrino fluxes, whose calculations are affected by systematic uncertainties not completely under control. Finally, we highlight the possibility to explore sub-eV "super-light" sterile neutrinos exploiting the θ13-dedicated reactor experiments also commenting on the robustness of the 3- flavor results within the enlarged 3+1 scheme.

  14. Dental burs and endodontic files: are routine sterilization procedures effective?

    PubMed

    Morrison, Archie; Conrod, Susan

    2009-02-01

    The complex miniature architecture of dental burs and endodontic files makes precleaning and sterilization difficult. Devising a sterilization protocol for endodontic files and dental burs requires care, and some have suggested that these instruments be considered single-use devices. One purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of various sterilization techniques currently used in dentistry for the resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. The second aim was to determine whether new dental burs and endodontic files, as supplied in packages from the manufacturer, are sterile. The sterility of new (unused) and used dental burs and endodontic files before and after various sterilization procedures was analyzed. New burs and files were tested immediately after removal from manufacturers" packaging, with or without prior sterilization. Burs and files that had been used in various dental offices were precleaned, packaged, resterilized and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was individually removed from the sterilization packaging, transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37 degrees C for 72 hours and observed for bacterial growth. Sterilization procedures were 100% effective for unused burs and unused files but were less than 100% effective for all other test groups. Contamination rates following sterilization ranged from 15% for one group of used burs (p = 0.01) to 58% for one group of used files (p < 0.001). Dental burs and endodontic files, as packaged by the manufacturer, are not sterile and should therefore be sterilized before first use. The resterilization procedures tested here were not adequate, and more rigorous sterilization procedures are needed. If such procedures cannot be devised, these instruments should perhaps be considered single-use devices.

  15. Surgical sterilization: an underutilized procedure for evaluating the merits of induced sterility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennelly, James J.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite more than 4 decades of effort, development of effective wildlife damage control programs based on sterilization of target species has met with limited success. This is partly due to the fact that investigators have assumed, rather than empirically tested, whether the reproductive strategies of the target populations were vulnerable to the planned treatment. Equally important, methods selected to include sterility usually involve a chemical agent that can affect sociosexual behaviors of the nuisance population. In this report, we illustrate how surgically induced sterility circumvents both problems--how the concept without the potentially confounding secondary effects of a chemical. We assessed the merits of initiating research to develop a male chemosterilant for Norway rats, red-winged blackbirds, beaver, and Canada geese by inducing sterility surgically. The infidelity of many red-winged females to their polygynous territorial male was surprising and argued against searching for a male sterilant. On the other hand, beaver and Canada goose studies confirmed previous reports that both form par-bonds and are monogamous. Both should be vulnerable to a male chemosterilant approach, and research toward this goal is justified.

  16. [Calcium distribution in fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage].

    PubMed

    Xie, Chao-Tian; Yang, Yan-Hong; Qiu, Yi-Lan; Ge, Li-Li; Tian, Hui-Qiao

    2005-12-01

    Potassium antimonite was used to locate calcium in the fertile and sterile anthers of a genic male sterile Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) to probe the relation between Ca(2+) and fertility and sterility of anthers of the cabbage. During fertile anther development, calcium granules increase in number in anther wall cells after meiosis, and then appeared also in locule, suggesting a calcium influx into locule from anther wall cells (Plate I-4). Then the number of calcium granules in microspore cytoplasm also increased at early stage (Plate II-1), accumulated mainly on the membrane of small vacuoles which were fusing to form big ones to make a polarity in the cell and to prepare asymmetric division of microspore (Plate II-3,4). After microspore division and the big vacuole decomposition, many calcium granules accumulated again on the membrane of the vacuoles (Plate III-1,2), displaying calcium regulates vacuole formation and decomposition during pollen development. In sterile anthers, abnormal distribution of calcium granules first appeared in callus wall of microspore mother cell (Plate IV-1). However, only a few calcium granules appeared in early microspores, which then could not form small vacuoles and finally a big vacuole (Plate IV-2,3). The aborting microspores degenerate by cytoplasm shrinking (Plate IV-5,6). The difference pattern of distribution of calcium granules between the fertile and sterile anthers indicates that anomalies in the distribution of calcium accumulation are correlated with the failure of pollen development and pollen abortion.

  17. Sterile Insect Technique and F1 Sterility in the European Grapevine Moth, Lobesia botrana

    PubMed Central

    Saour, George

    2014-01-01

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300- or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana. PMID:25373155

  18. Sterile insect technique and F₁ sterility in the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Saour, George

    2014-01-23

    Newly emerged adults of the European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermuller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were irradiated with various doses of gamma radiation and crossed to unirradiated counterparts of the opposite sex. Fecundity was decreased when unirradiated females were mated with either 300-or 350-Gy-irradiated males. Adult males that were irradiated with 400 Gy and mated with unirradiated females retained a residual fertility of 2.7%. The radiation dose at which irradiated females were found to be 100% sterile when mated with unirradiated males was 150 Gy. The inherited effects in the F1 progeny of irradiated male parents were examined at 100, 150, and 200 Gy. Fecundity and fertility of the F1 progeny of males irradiated with 150 Gy and inbred or crossed with irradiated and unirradiated moths were also recorded. A significant reduction in fertility was observed when F1 males mated with either F1 or unirradiated females. According to sterility index, F1 females who mated with F1 males had greater sterility than when F1 females were crossed to 150-Gy-irradiated males. Based upon the results of this study, 150 Gy of gamma radiation would be the optimal dose to use in a sterile insect technique and F1 sterility program against L. botrana.

  19. Sterilizing Endodontic Files by four different sterilization methods to prevent cross-infection - An In-vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Raju, T B V G; Garapati, Satish; Agrawal, Rupika; Reddy, Sridhara; Razdan, Ankur; Kumar, S Kishore

    2013-12-01

    Aim of the study was to compare 4 different methods of sterilizing endodontic files in dental practice. The present study was performed on 100 K-files, 21 mm long and of size 25. Of these, 20 files were taken as control group, and the remaining 80 files were divided into 4 groups of 20 files each and they were tested for the efficacy of sterilization with different methods: Autoclave, glass bead, glutaraldehyde and CO2 laser. The study showed that the files sterilized by autoclave and lasers were completely sterile. Those sterilized by glass bead were 90% sterile and those with glutaraldehyde were 80% sterile. The study concluded that autoclave or laser could be used as a method of sterilization in clinical practice and in advanced clinics; laser can be used also as a chair side method of sterilization. How to cite this article: Raju TB, Garapati S, Agrawal R, Reddy S, Razdan A, Kumar SK. Sterilizing Endodontic Files by four different sterilization methods to prevent cross-infection - An In-vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):108-12 .

  20. Male-specific association between MT-ND4 11719 A/G polymorphism and ulcerative colitis: a mitochondria-wide genetic association study.

    PubMed

    Dankowski, Theresa; Schröder, Torsten; Möller, Steffen; Yu, Xinhua; Ellinghaus, David; Bär, Florian; Fellermann, Klaus; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Sina, Christian; Ibrahim, Saleh M; König, Inke R

    2016-10-03

    complex I, which is pivotal for ATP production and might therefore contribute to mucosal energy deficiency. The male-specific association indicates differences between males and females concerning the impact of mitochondrial gene polymorphisms on the development of UC. Further investigations of the functional mechanism underlying this association and the relevance of the gender-specificity are highly warranted.

  1. A Mutation of the Prdm9 Mouse Hybrid Sterility Gene Carried by a Transgene.

    PubMed

    Mihola, O; Trachtulec, Z

    2017-01-01

    PRDM9 is a protein with histone-3-methyltransferase activity, which specifies the sites of meiotic recombination in mammals. Deficiency of the Prdm9 gene in the laboratory mouse results in complete arrest of the meiotic prophase of both sexes. Moreover, the combination of certain PRDM9 alleles from different mouse subspecies causes hybrid sterility, e.g., the male-specific meiotic arrest found in the (PWD/Ph × C57BL/6J)F1 animals. The fertility of all these mice can be rescued using a Prdm9-containing transgene. Here we characterized a transgene made from the clone RP24-346I22 that was expected to encompass the entire Prdm9 gene. Both (PWD/Ph × C57BL/6J)F1 intersubspecific hybrid males and Prdm9-deficient laboratory mice of both sexes carrying this transgene remained sterile, suggesting that Prdm9 inactivation occurred in the Tg(RP24-346I22) transgenics. Indeed, comparative qRT-PCR analysis of testicular RNAs from transgene-positive versus negative animals revealed similar expression levels of Prdm9 mRNAs from the exons encoding the C-terminal part of the protein but elevated expression from the regions coding for the N-terminus of PRDM9, indicating that the transgenic carries a new null Prdm9 allele. Two naturally occurring alternative Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were overexpressed in Tg(RP24-346I22), one formed via splicing to a 3'-terminal exon consisting of short interspersed element B2 and one isoform including an alternative internal exon of 28 base pairs. However, the overexpression of these alternative transcripts was apparently insufficient for Prdm9 function or for increasing the fertility of the hybrid males.

  2. The abundance of sterile transcripts in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Elmendorf, Heidi G.; Singer, Steven M.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia synthesizes a diverse and surprisingly abundant array of sterile transcripts unable to code for proteins. Random sampling of cDNAs from two evolutionarily divergent Giardia strains indicates that ∼20% of cDNAs in the libraries represent polyadenylated sterile transcripts. RNase protection analysis and northern blot hybridization of three sterile transcript loci demonstrated that both the sterile transcript and a complementary mRNA were made in each case, further categorizing these sterile transcripts as antisense transcripts. Investigation of the genomic loci for these same three sterile antisense transcripts showed typical transcription units for the sense transcripts, but still failed to reveal a usable open reading frame for the sterile antisense transcripts. 5′-RACE mapped the transcription start site for one of the sterile antisense transcripts to an AT-rich region, as is typical for Giardia. It is unclear whether these sterile transcripts represent errors in transcription or whether they have regulatory functions within the cell, although preliminary investigations failed to reveal evidence for a role in developmental gene regulation. In either case, the presence of such a large pool of sterile antisense transcripts is dramatic evidence of the unusual molecular machinery of the early diverging protist G.lamblia. PMID:11713317

  3. The abundance of sterile transcripts in Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Elmendorf, H G; Singer, S M; Nash, T E

    2001-11-15

    The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia synthesizes a diverse and surprisingly abundant array of sterile transcripts unable to code for proteins. Random sampling of cDNAs from two evolutionarily divergent Giardia strains indicates that approximately 20% of cDNAs in the libraries represent polyadenylated sterile transcripts. RNase protection analysis and northern blot hybridization of three sterile transcript loci demonstrated that both the sterile transcript and a complementary mRNA were made in each case, further categorizing these sterile transcripts as antisense transcripts. Investigation of the genomic loci for these same three sterile antisense transcripts showed typical transcription units for the sense transcripts, but still failed to reveal a usable open reading frame for the sterile antisense transcripts. 5'-RACE mapped the transcription start site for one of the sterile antisense transcripts to an AT-rich region, as is typical for GIARDIA: It is unclear whether these sterile transcripts represent errors in transcription or whether they have regulatory functions within the cell, although preliminary investigations failed to reveal evidence for a role in developmental gene regulation. In either case, the presence of such a large pool of sterile antisense transcripts is dramatic evidence of the unusual molecular machinery of the early diverging protist G.lamblia.

  4. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleghorn, Denise A.; Nablo, Sam V.

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. most of these products are filled under aseptic conditions so that for qualification as a sterile product, techniques are often required only for treatment of the container surfaces and package interior. Gas sterilization (ETO) is often used for this purpose but is beset with difficulties known to the reader, especially for critical "contact" products such as in the ophthalmic field. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and x-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating x-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Some of these data illustrating package: parenteral ratios of 10 5:1 have been reported (Rangwalla et al, 1985; Aaronson and Nablo, 1988). Standard techniques have been developed for the validation of the process and are reported here. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed.

  5. Some aspects of the sterilization program in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Arshat, H; Ali, J; Noor Laily Abu Bakar

    1984-06-01

    Sterilization is most often indicated when the desired family size is reached and no more children are desired. Because of technical advances and societal changes surgical sterilization is increasingly becoming the most utilized method of contraception. Since female sterilization is more common, several methods have been devised to make it safe and reliable. The traditional large abdominal incision (laparotomy) is now replaced by minilaparotomy, which is a small abdominal incision. Other techniques, such as transvaginal and trancervical approaches require no incision at all. These method permit occlusion of any part of the fallopian tube. Minilapatomy is the recommended method of female sterilization for 3rd world countries. Laparoscopic sterilization appears to be more psychologically acceptable to 3rd world women who have an inherent dread of surgery. A higher incidence of hematoma formation has been reported in puerperal laparoscopic sterilizations and the failure rate is also higher than in other methods. Other complications associated with laparoscopic sterilization include wound sepsis, surgical emphysema of the parieties and uterine perforation. Laparoscopic sterilizations can be performed under local, general, spinal or epidural anesthesia. Local and general anesthesia is the commonest. Both tubal ligations and vasectomies have been available in Malaysia since the 1960s. Laparoscopy was 1st introduced in Malaysia in the early 1970s. Several laparoscopy centers have been established in Malaysia to provide specialized family planning services. Outpatient laparoscopic sterilization is a feature of the Kuala Lumpur Specialist Center. Traditonally doctors and specialists in Malaysia received their practical training in sterilization techniques during their internship or residency. Since 1980, however, a formal training program was initiated. Because laparoscopy provides interval sterilization without major abdominal surgery, this procedure has played a major

  6. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  7. Facts about Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a ...

  8. Birth Defects (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... there is a problem with a baby's body chemistry, it is called a metabolic birth defect. Metabolic defects prevent the body from properly breaking down food to create energy. Examples of metabolic defects include ...

  9. Atrial septal defect (ASD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... other heart defects of the ventricular septum and mitral valve . Secundum defects can be a single, small ... Sometimes, open-heart surgery may be needed to repair the defect. The type of surgery is more ...

  10. Tetracycline-suppressible female lethality and sterility in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens.

    PubMed

    Schetelig, M F; Targovska, A; Meza, J S; Bourtzis, K; Handler, A M

    2016-08-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) involves the mass release of sterile males to suppress insect pest populations. SIT has been improved for larval pests by the development of strains for female-specific tetracycline-suppressible (Tet-off) embryonic lethal systems for male-only populations. Here we describe the extension of this approach to the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, using a Tet-off driver construct with the Tet-transactivator (tTA) under embryo-specific Anastrepha suspensa serendipity α (As-sry-α) promoter regulation. In the absence of tetracycline, tTA acts upon a Tet-response element linked to the pro-apoptotic cell death gene lethal effector, head involuation defective (hid), from A. ludens (Alhid(Ala2) ) that contains a sex-specific intron splicing cassette, resulting in female-specific expression of the lethal effector. Parental adults double-homozygous for the driver/effector vectors were expected to yield male-only progeny when reared on Tet-free diet, but a complete lack of oviposited eggs resulted for each of the three strains tested. Ovary dissection revealed nonvitellogenic oocytes in all strains that was reversible by feeding females tetracycline for 5 days after eclosion, resulting in male-only adults in one strain. Presumably the sry-α promoter exhibits prezygotic maternal expression as well as zygotic embryonic expression in A. ludens, resulting in a Tet-off sterility effect in addition to female-specific lethality.

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide-based sterilization of decellularized heart valves.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Ryan S; Jana, Soumen; Tefft, Brandon J; Helder, Meghana R; Young, Melissa D; Hennessy, Rebecca R; Stoyles, Nicholas J; Lerman, Amir

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this research project encompasses finding the most efficient and effective method of decellularized tissue sterilization. Aortic tissue grafts have been utilized to repair damaged or diseased valves. Although, the tissues for grafting are collected aseptically, it does not eradicate the risk of contamination nor disease transfer. Thus, sterilization of grafts is mandatory. Several techniques have been applied to sterilize grafts; however, each technique shows drawbacks. In this study, we compared several sterilization techniques: supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide for impact on the sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Valve sterility was characterized by histology, microbe culture, and electron microscopy. Uniaxial tensile testing was conducted on the valve cusps along their circumferential orientation to study these sterilization techniques on their integrity. Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves were found to be sterile. The tensile strength of supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves (4.28 ± 0.22 MPa) was higher to those valves treated with electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide (1.02 ± 0.15, 1.25 ± 0.25, 3.53 ± 0.41 and 0.37 ± 0.04 MPa, respectively). Superior sterility and integrity were found in the decellularized porcine aortic valves with supercritical carbon dioxide sterilization. This sterilization technique may hold promise for other decellularized soft tissues. Sterilization of grafts is essential. Supercritical carbon dioxide, electrolyzed water, gamma radiation, ethanol-peracetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide techniques were compared for impact on sterility and mechanical integrity of porcine decellularized aortic valves. Ethanol-peracetic acid and supercritical carbon dioxide treated valves were found to be sterile using histology, microbe

  12. BEST sensitivity to O(1) eV sterile neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barinov, Vladislav; Gavrin, Vladimir; Gorbunov, Dmitry; Ibragimova, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous anomalous results in neutrino oscillation experiments can be attributed to the interference of an ˜1 eV sterile neutrino. The Baksan Experiment on Sterile Transitions (BEST), specially designed to fully explore the Gallium anomaly, starts next year. We investigate the sensitivity of BEST in search of a sterile neutrino mixed with an electron neutrino. Then, performing the combined analysis of all the Gallium experiments (SAGE, GALLEX, BEST), we find the region in the model parameter space (sterile neutrino mass and mixing angle) which will be excluded if BEST agrees with no sterile neutrino hypothesis. For the opposite case, if BEST observes the signal as it follows from the sterile neutrino explanation of the Gallium (SAGE and GALLEX) anomaly, we show how BEST will improve upon the present estimates of the model parameters.

  13. Social and psychological perspectives on voluntary sterilization: a review.

    PubMed

    Philliber, S G; Philliber, W W

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews social science research on the antecedents and consequences of voluntary sterilization. The major conclusions are that socioeconomic status has little impact on the decision to be sterilized and that sterilizations are rare among those without sons and among male non-whites. Significant others are important sources of encouragement and information, and good marital relations increase the likelihood of having the procedure performed. Most acceptors experience no change in sexual activity, quality of marital relationships, or work-related behavior, and few regret their choice. Negative consequences are more likely among those in India, those coerced into having a sterilization, those who did not understand the consequences of the procedure, those with health complications after sterilization, and those couples who have unstable marriages or who disagree about sterilization.

  14. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, T; Tomoda, R; Nakajima, T; Nakamura, N; Komine, T

    1988-06-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO2 powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of a TiO2-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E. coli (10(2) cells per ml) was sterilized to less than 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1,800 microeinsteins/m2 per s). We found that this system was reusable.

  15. Characterization of a new VHF-CCP for Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapelmann, Katharina; Bibinov, Nikita; Wunderlich, Joachim; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Plasma sterilization is an upcoming alternative to common sterilization methods. Reduced process times combined with a low treatment temperature lead to proper sterilization and decontamination results even for heat-sensitive materials. The capabilities of plasma sterilization were demonstrated in several laboratory setups. Based on these experiences, a new plasma reactor was developed and realized as capacitive coupled plasma discharge with a variable frequency range between 76 and 80 MHz. The reactor concept is designed to meet industrial needs. Therefore, a specialized chamber design was developed: it is composed of PEEK, a high-performance plastic, and it is shaped like a drawer to make the sterilization process easy and uncomplicated for application. Optical Emission Spectroscopy was performed to obtain detailed information about the plasma parameters. According spectra, intensities and plasma parameters will be presented in comparison to a well established ICP laboratory setup. These data are used for optimization of sterilization efficiency. Furthermore, first microbiological tests were carried out at optimized conditions.

  16. Assessment of performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P V

    2002-02-01

    Paper presents a technique for performance of UV sterilizer for room air bacteria. Patterns of decay of room air bacteria concentration during sterilization and build-up there after as a function of time is studied. Decay process seems to follow exponential pattern. Half-lives during decay are estimated. For single sterilizer unit with a dose of 16 W the decay half-life is around 8.6 min. For the dose of 32 W (2 sterilizers), half-life is estimated to be 6.18 min. The removal rates of room air bacteria due to sterilizer are compared with the natural decay of aerosols at steady state. The importance of decay half-life in the assessment has been stated. The bacteria concentration buildup process after putting off the sterilizers seems to be sigmoidal in nature. The buildup half-life is estimated to be around 53 min for present experimental conditions.

  17. Continuous-sterilization system that uses photosemiconductor powders. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, T.; Tomoda, R.; Nakajima, T.; Nakamura, N.; Komine, T.

    1988-06-01

    We report a novel photochemical sterilization system in which Escherichia coli cells were sterilized with photosemiconductor powders (titanium oxide). For sterilization that could be used in practice, it was necessary to separate the TiO/sub 2/ powders from the cell suspension. Therefore, semiconductor powders were immobilized on acetylcellulose membranes. We constructed a continuous-sterilization system consisting of TiO/sub 2/-immobilized acetylcellulose membrane reactor, a mercury lamp, and a masterflex pump. As a result, under the various sterilization conditions examined, E.coli (10/sup 2/ cells per ml) was sterilized to < 1% survival when the cell suspension flowed in this system at a mean residence time of 16.0 min under irradiation (1800 microeinsteins/m/sup 2/ per s). We found that this system was reusable.

  18. Xenotransplantation exposes the etiology of azoospermia factor (AZF) induced male sterility.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justinn; Gordon, Daniel; Schedl, Paul; Deshpande, Girish

    2015-03-01

    Ramathal et al. have employed an elegant xenotransplantation technique to study the fate of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from fertile males and from males carrying Y chromosome deletions of the azoospermia factor (AZF) region. When placed in a mouse testis niche, hiPSCs from fertile males differentiate into germ cell-like cells (GCLCs). Highlighting the crucial role of cell autonomous factors in male sterility, hiPSCs derived from azoospermic males prove to be less successful under similar circumstances. Their studies argue that the agametic "Sertoli cell only" phenotype of two of the AZF deletions likely arises from a defect in the maintenance of germline stem cells (GSCs) rather than from a defect in their specification. These observations underscore the importance of the dialogue between the somatic niche and its inhabitant stem cells, and open up interesting questions concerning the functioning of the somatic niche and how it communicates to the GSCs. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Sterilization of the biological safety cabinet

    PubMed Central

    Newsom, S. W. B.; Walsingham, B. M.

    1974-01-01

    Test strips comprising B subtilis spores or M phlei cells dried on aluminium foil (some serum-coated) were used to test sterilizing processes currently advised for safety cabinets. Exposure to formalin from a bowl, boiling excess formalin with the fan running, and ultraviolet radiation were all found to be unreliable, as was glutaraldehyde. Vaporization of 2 ml of formalin per 0·028 m3 followed by exposure for 18 hours at ambient temperatures was 100% successful, and the depolymerization of paraformaldehyde tablets with a hair drier was a simple, very effective alternative method. PMID:4216601

  20. Investigating CPT Conservation in Sterile Neutrino Fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignarra, Christina

    2010-02-01

    We investigate compatibility between neutrino and antineutrino short-baseline oscillation experiments under a two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis due to a sterile neutrino at δm^2˜1 eV^2. We explore the preliminary MINOS antineutrino disappearance results as well as antineutrino oscillation results from LSND, MiniBooNE, KARMEN, Bugey, and Chooz, and neutrino oscillation results from NOMAD, MiniBooNE, CCFR84, and CDHS. We find that a combined fit of the antineutrino data yields a high chi-squared probability, while the global fit including neutrino and antineutrino data yields high incompatibility. CPT-violating fits within this scenario are also explored. )

  1. Search for sterile neutrinos at reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Osamu

    2011-09-01

    The sensitivity to the sterile neutrino mixing at very short baseline reactor neutrino experiments is investigated. In the case of conventional (thermal neutron) reactors it is found that the sensitivity is lost for ∆ m 2 ≳ 1 eV2 due to smearing of the reactor core size. On the other hand, in the case of an experimental fast neutron reactor Joyo, because of its small size, sensitivity to sin2 2 θ 14 can be as good as 0.03 for ∆ m 2 ˜ several eV2 with the Bugey-like detector setup.

  2. Urinary mycobacterium avium presenting as sterile pyuria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Samplaski, Mary; Mazzulli, Tony; Lo, Kirk; Grober, Ethan; Jarvi, Keith Allen

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old healthy woman presented with persistent, asymptomatic sterile pyuria detected by her family physician. While she did not have symptoms, the patient recounts that she has had cloudy urine for years. Cultures of the urine for bacteria showed no growth and no fungi were identified. First-morning urine samples were sent for both tuberculosis and nontuberculosis mycobacterium species testing. The culture grew genotypically identified Mycobaterium avium complex (MAC). Mantoux skin testing was positive. No urological abnormalities were detected by ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) imaging of the urinary tract. PMID:27790302

  3. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    PubMed

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    The degree to which voluntary sterilization (VS) is accepted as a form of fertility control throughout the world was assessed by examining the prevalence and legal status of VS in all countries for which information was available and by examining current religious and traditional attitudes toward VS. Information on VS prevalence for 73 countries indicates that in 28 countries, 10% of all eligible couples rely on VS. In a number of countries, including Korea, New Zealand, Panama, US, and Puerto Rico, 25% or more of all currently married women of reproductive age rely on VS. VS prevalence rates tend to be higher in Asian countries than in African, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries. In a number of countries, the average age and family size of VS acceptors is declining. Information on the legal status of VS for 124 countries indicates that 22 countries have laws which permit or encourage VS. These countries contain 13.4% of the world's population. In 54 countries, representing 60% of the world's population, there are no laws restricting VS, and VS is generally assumed to be legal. In 29 countries, representing 14% of world's population, the legal status of VS is unclear. In the remaining 29 countries, sterilization is forbidden except for medical or eugenic reasons. The degree to which these laws actually restrict VS varies from country to country. For example in Indonesia VS is illegal but widely practiced. Although some religious teachings discourage sterilization, the impact of religion on VS varies considerably from country to country. In the Catholic countries of Panama, Dominican Republic, and Philippines the prevalence of VS is high, and in the Catholic countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay the prevalence of VS is low. VS prevalence is generally low in Muslim countries, but high in the Muslim countries of Tunisia, Indonesia, and Bangladesh. VS prevalence is high in the Buddhist country of Thailand but low in the Buddhist country of Burma

  4. Mitochondria and cytoplasmic male sterility in plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Huang, Wenchao; Huang, Qi; Qin, Xiaojian; Yu, Changchun; Wang, Lili; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Renshan; Zhu, Yingguo

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondria are essential organelles in cells not only because they supply over 90% of the cell's energy but also because their dysfunction is associated with disease. Owing to the importance of mitochondria, there are many questions about mitochondria that must be answered. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a mysterious natural phenomenon, and the mechanism of the origin of CMS is unknown. Despite successful utilization of CMS and restoration of fertility (Rf) in practice, the underlying mechanisms of these processes remain elusive. This review summarizes the genes involved in CMS and Rf, with a special focus on recent studies reporting the mechanisms of the CMS and Rf pathways, and concludes with potential working models.

  5. [Laparoscopic abdominal drainage by sterile destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N A; Rodoman, G V; Shalaeva, T I; Trefilova, O I; Sosikova, N L

    2009-01-01

    90 patients with acute pancreatitis were observed, in 60 of them laparoscopic drainage was performed. The procedure by sterile pancreatonecrosis is indicated only in presence of extent amount of exudate in abdominal cavity. Duration of draining the abdominal cavity should be strictly limited because of the high risk of septic complications. Contraindications for the abdominal drainage by acute necrotic pancreatitis are not only adhesions in the abdomen and shock state of the patient at the moment of procedure necessity, but also unstable hemodynamics in anamnesis and even by the arterial pressure downtrend.

  6. The incubation period in sterility testing.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, H; Lazzari, D; Cameron, H; McKay, D

    1993-01-01

    Sterility test results gathered over a ten year period have been analysed to determine the effects of the incubation period. Overall there was no difference between the membrane filtration test and direct inoculation in the time required for visible growth of contaminants. Growth occurred earlier if products had no preservative or antimicrobial substances. However use of the membrane filtration method did not significantly enhance the efficiency of detection at seven days incubation. Regardless of the nature of the product or the method of test an unacceptable proportion of contaminants would be missed by limiting incubation to seven days.

  7. Search for sterile neutrinos at RENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, In Sung; RENO Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The RENO experiment was designed to measure a neutrino mixing angle, θ13, by detecting electron antineutrinos emitted from the Hanbit nuclear reactors in Korea, and succeeded to measure θ13 from the disappearance mode in three neutrino frame. We investigate the possibility of sterile neutrinos existence at RENO experiment and compare data with Monte Carlo generated in four neutrino frame. In this talk, we present some recent results using chi-square analysis method. The probability deficit curve as a function of an effective baseline and the excluded contour plot in sin2(2 θ14) – Δ(m41)2 space will be shown.

  8. Light sterile neutrinos from large extra dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, E.; Rajasekaran, G.; Sarkar, U.

    2000-12-01

    An experimentally verifiable Higgs-triplet model of neutrino masses from large extra dimensions was recently proposed. We extend it to accommodate a light sterile neutrino which also mixes with the three active neutrinos. Another extension without the Higgs triplet allows the specific realization of a previously proposed phenomenological model of neutrino oscillations with decay to account for the LSND data, which is now the only viable such model now left, in view of the latest atmospheric and solar neutrino-oscillation data from the Super-Kamiokande collaboration.

  9. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  10. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, E.G. Jr.; Phillips, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection.

  11. On the intrinsic sterility of 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kaitlin J.; Zaman, Luis; Tung, Emily; Pudlo, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture. PMID:27920950

  12. Sterilization analysis of contaminated healing abutments and impression copings.

    PubMed

    Browne, Vanessa; Flewelling, Michael; Wierenga, Mark; Wilson, Alisa; Aprecio, Ray; Richardson, Paul; Angelov, Nikola; Johnson, Neal

    2012-05-01

    This study investigated sterilization of used implant impression copings and healing abutments. Components were analyzed after contamination with Enterococcus foecalis, followed by multiple rounds of sterilization by both steam autoclave and Chemiclave protocols. The authors' results demonstrated that used components showed sterility equal to new components without any visible distortion. These data suggest that component resterilization and reuse may be justified or at least considered in clinical practice. Also, implications for cost savings in the placement of implants are advanced.

  13. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  14. Evaluation of sterility and fertility of male sterile lines in the USPB farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybrid rice has proven to have a yield advantage of 15–20% over the best inbred cultivars at the commercial scale worldwide. At present, two methods have been successfully commercialized; the three-line and two-line systems. The three-line system consists of the male sterile (MS), maintainer and res...

  15. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-10-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16-60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species.

  16. The impact of relapsing sterile icodextrin-associated peritonitis on peritoneal dialysis outcome.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; De Padova, Francesco; Montanaro, Alessio; Giordano, Rosa

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) has shifted from a therapy with short-term goals to one of prolonging the life of the peritoneal membrane. Icodextrin (ICO), a starch-derived glucose polymer that is metabolized to maltose, is a valuable osmotic agent in the treatment of PD patients with defective ultrafiltration. However, ICO can cause sterile peritonitis. The manufacturer has recently withdrawn a series of batches of ICO solutions due to evidence of bacterial contamination (a bacterial cell wall breakdown, peptidoglycan). Some cases have been reported of culture-negative ICO-associated peritonitis which relapse on re-challenge. We started to use ICO in chronic uremic PD patients in 1997. Ten patients out of 82 treated in our PD unit were exposed to ICO from 1997-2002. We registered 50 peritonitis episodes in this period: 34 were bacterial and 16 culture-negative. Among the 16 episodes of sterile peritonitis, 6 occurred in patients treated with ICO. Four of the 6 ICO treated patients experienced relapsing culture-negative episodes of peritonitis. We reviewed the records of the four patients. The first episodes of sterile ICO-associated peritonitis occurred between February-May 2002. These were clinically very mild and the only sign was abdominal discomfort and a cloudy dialysate containing a number of WBC/mm(3) ranging from 500-800. Cultures were negative. All the ICO solutions were from the batches withdrawn by the manufacturer. ICO (with new batches of solution) was re-introduced in all patients some weeks later to improve ultrafiltration. A new episode of sterile peritonitis occurred with the same characteristics as described above. Three of the four patients were re-challenged with new batches of ICO solution and again sterile peritonitis occurred. One patient was switched directly to hemodialysis (HD); the others were transferred to a program of automated PD including hypertonic glucose solutions. In 8 months all patients were switched to HD because of

  17. [A survey of ethylene oxide sterilization in a hospital].

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, K; Mori, K; Inoue, N

    1991-09-01

    The health and environmental problems of ethylene oxide gas sterilization in a hospital are reported. Eight nurses who had been engaged in the gas sterilization, sometimes operated the auto-sterilizer in an inadequate manner; they exposed more than several hundred ppm of ethylene oxide once or twice a week. The main acute effects on these nurses after massive exposure were headaches, general fatigue and irritation of the eyes and throat. But no signs of polyneuropathy were seen. This survey suggests that there is a great risk of ethylene oxide poisoning while sterilizing instruments in a hospital.

  18. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa.

  19. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yi-Lei; Zhu, Shou-hua

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲ 100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y N between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger ΩDM h 2 so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  20. Application of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization to endoscope.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2009-03-01

    An advantage of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) is that it can readily react to form reactive free radicals, which perform the sterilization and form water and hydrogen by catalyst. Absorptive hydrophilic materials such as cellulosics hinder penetration due to hydrogen bonding and necessitate the use of hydrophobic materials, i.e., polyethylene or polypropylene, as packaging materials. The 8h TWA (time-weight-average) is 1 ppm. Hydrogen peroxide sterilization is now being used for the sterilization of gloveboxes, freeze dryers, isolators and endoscopes and so on. This paper focuses on the application of VPHP to the sterilization of the endoscopes.

  1. System and method of applying energetic ions for sterilization

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, John A.

    2003-12-23

    A method of sterilization of a container is provided whereby a cold plasma is caused to be disposed near a surface to be sterilized, and the cold plasma is then subjected to a pulsed voltage differential for producing energized ions in the plasma. Those energized ions then operate to achieve spore destruction on the surface to be sterilized. Further, a system for sterilization of a container which includes a conductive or non-conductive container, a cold plasma in proximity to the container, and a high voltage source for delivering a pulsed voltage differential between an electrode and the container and across the cold plasma, is provided.

  2. Sterility Test Method for Petrolatum-Based Ophthalmic Ointments

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Stapert, E. M.; Robertson, John H.; Waiyaki, Peter M.

    1970-01-01

    A sensitive sterility testing procedure for the detection of microbial contamination in petrolatum-based ointments is described. The method involves dissolving the ointment in filter-sterilized isopropyl myristate and filtering through a membrane filter. Improved sensitivity is obtained by blending the membrane in Trypticase Soy Broth before incubation. Filter-sterilized isopropyl myristate is shown to be less toxic to microorganisms than heat-sterilized isopropyl myristate. The isopropyl myristate method is more sensitive than the polyethylene glycol-ether method for the detection of microbial contamination. PMID:4991924

  3. Aeration time following ethylene oxide sterilization for reusable rigid sterilization containers: concentration of gaseous ethylene oxide in containers.

    PubMed

    Nakata, S; Umeshita, K; Ueyama, H; Takashina, M; Noguchi, S; Murata, A; Ochi, T

    2000-01-01

    Because ethylene oxide (EO) gas is toxic to humans, restrictions have been imposed on its use for sterilization, specifying allowable levels of residual EO remaining in sterilized apparatus and materials. However, the aeration time that optimizes the removal of the remaining EO when a rigid sterilizing container is used for a vessel had not been identified. Therefore, polyvinyl chloride, which easily adsorbs EO, was placed in rigid sterilizing containers, and aeration was carried out after 1, 8, 12, 17, and 24 hours. After standard EO sterilization, the EO concentrations remaining in the air in the rigid containers were measured. The results indicate that a period of 17 hours of aeration is appropriate when a rigid sterilizing container is used.

  4. Targeted Gene Silencing to Induce Permanent Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Lomniczi, Alejandro; Boudreau, Ryan L.; Chen, Yong Hong; Davidson, Beverly L.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2012-01-01

    Contents A nonsurgical method to induce sterility would be a useful tool to control feral populations of animals. Our laboratories have experience with approaches aimed at targeting brain cells in vivo with vehicles that deliver a payload of either inhibitory RNAs or genes intended to correct cellular dysfunction. A combination/modification of these methods may provide a useful framework for the design of approaches that can be used to sterilize cats and dogs. For this approach to succeed it has to meet several conditions: It needs to target a gene essential for fertility. It must involve a method that can selectively silence the gene of interest. It also needs to deliver the silencing agent via a minimally invasive method. Finally, the silencing effect needs to be sustained for many years, so that expansion of the targeted population can be effectively prevented. In this article we discuss this subject and provide a succinct account of our previous experience with: a) molecular reagents able to disrupt reproductive cyclicity when delivered to regions of the brain involved in the control of reproduction, and b) molecular reagents able to ameliorate neuronal disease when delivered systemically using a novel approach of gene therapy. PMID:22827375

  5. Sterile neutrinos at a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Pavon, Jacobo

    2010-03-30

    We study the potential of a Neutrino Factory (NF) to constrain the parameters of the (3+1)-scheme with a O(1)eV{sup 2} largest mass square difference, considering two set-ups: a NF with 50 GeV (20 GeV) stored muons, with two detectors of the Hybrid-MIND type located at L = 3000(4000), 7500 km. We show that the best sensitivity to sterile neutrinos can be achieved through the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub m}u and the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channels which can constrain theta{sub 34}<=12 deg. (14 deg.) and theta{sub 24}<=7.5 deg. (8 deg.) with the 50 GeV (20 GeV) NF. We also study the CP-violation in this new context showing that the CP-asymmetries in the nu{sub m}u->nu{sub t}au channel can give us the chance to see a clear new CP-violation signal associated with the sterile neutrinos.

  6. Daughters mimic sterile neutrinos (almost!) perfectly

    SciTech Connect

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2014-09-01

    Since only recently, cosmological observations are sensitive to hot dark matter (HDM) admixtures with sub-eV mass, m{sub hdm}{sup eff} < eV, that are not fully-thermalised, Δ N{sub eff} < 1. We argue that their almost automatic interpretation as a sterile neutrino species is neither from theoretical nor practical parsimony principles preferred over HDM formed by decay products (daughters) of an out-of-equilibrium particle decay. While daughters mimic sterile neutrinos in N{sub eff} and m{sub hdm}{sup eff}, there are opportunities to assess this possibility in likelihood analyses. Connecting cosmological parameters and moments of momentum distribution functions, we show that—also in the case of mass-degenerate daughters with indistinguishable main physical effects—the mimicry breaks down when the next moment, the skewness, is considered. Predicted differences of order one in the root-mean-squares of absolute momenta are too small for current sensitivities.

  7. Sterile hypopyon secondary to ultrasonic cleaning solution.

    PubMed

    Richburg, F A; Reidy, J J; Apple, D J; Olson, R J

    1986-05-01

    During a 20-week period, 21 cases of sterile hypopyon occurred 24 hours after uncomplicated extracapsular cataract extraction and in-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation at the Valley Eye Institute. While all cases responded to steroid treatment and exhibited no residual ocular effects, the cause of the hypopyon remained a mystery despite an on-going reevaluation of the surgical procedure and sterilization techniques. Several suspected causes were investigated and eliminated. It was clinically determined that surgical instruments placed in older ultrasonic cleaning solution caused the hypopyons. Further analysis at the Center for Intraocular Research at the University of Utah revealed that the instruments were contaminated by a heat-stable endotoxin that remained on the instruments through the autoclaving process. Surgeons currently using ultrasonic instrument cleaners should be aware that, with some models, following the manufacturer's recommended fluid changing procedures could result in endotoxic contamination of surgical instruments which could, in turn, cause severe inflammatory reactions in the immediate postoperative period.

  8. Sterile Neutrino Search at the NEOS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Y. J.; Kim, B. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, B. Y.; Jang, C. H.; Jeon, E. J.; Joo, K. K.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, Jaison; Lee, J. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Oh, Y. M.; Park, H. K.; Park, H. S.; Park, K. S.; Seo, K. M.; Siyeon, Kim; Sun, G. M.; NEOS Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    An experiment to search for light sterile neutrinos is conducted at a reactor with a thermal power of 2.8 GW located at the Hanbit nuclear power complex. The search is done with a detector consisting of a ton of Gd-loaded liquid scintillator in a tendon gallery approximately 24 m from the reactor core. The measured antineutrino event rate is 1976 per day with a signal to background ratio of about 22. The shape of the antineutrino energy spectrum obtained from the eight-month data-taking period is compared with a hypothesis of oscillations due to active-sterile antineutrino mixing. No strong evidence of 3 +1 neutrino oscillation is found. An excess around the 5 MeV prompt energy range is observed as seen in existing longer-baseline experiments. The mixing parameter sin22 θ14 is limited up to less than 0.1 for Δ m412 ranging from 0.2 to 2.3 eV2 with a 90% confidence level.

  9. Sterilization of skin allografts by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Bourroul, Selma Cecília; Herson, Marisa Roma; Pino, Eddy; Matho, Monica Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    The skin has a fundamental role in the viability of human body. In the case of extensive wounds, skin allografts provide an alternative to cover temporarily the damaged areas. After donor screening and preservation in glycerol 85%, the skin can be stored in a Skin Bank. Glycerol at this concentration has a bacteriostatic effect after certain time of preservation. On the other hand, skin sterilization by ionizing radiation may reduce the quarentine period for transplantation in patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate allograft sterilization using two sources of ionizing radiation. Through the analysis of stress-strain, it was intended to verify possible effects of the radiation on the structure of preserved grafts. Three groups of skin samples were selected. The first group was maintained in the initial conditions, not irradiated. The second was exposed to cobalt-60, while the third one was irradiated using an Dynamitron Accelerator JOB188 electron beam. The irradiation dose was 25 kGy for both tests. Both irradiation sources, and the Instron Universal Machine used for biomechanical experiments, are installed at the Centro de Tecnologia das Radiações/Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (São Paulo, Brazil). According to the preliminary results, biomechanical characteristics of the samples irradiated seem to be maintained with regard to the non irradiated group.

  10. Sterile Neuroinflammation and Strategies for Therapeutic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sterile neuroinflammation is essential for the proper brain development and tissue repair. However, uncontrolled neuroinflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of various disease processes. The endogenous intracellular molecules so called damage-associated molecular patterns or alarmins or damage signals that are released by activated or necrotic cells are thought to play a crucial role in initiating an immune response. Sterile inflammatory response that occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, or traumatic brain injury (TBI) creates a vicious cycle of unrestrained inflammation, driving progressive neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation is a key mechanism in the progression (e.g., AD and PD) or secondary injury development (e.g., stroke, hemorrhage, stress, and TBI) of multiple brain conditions. Hence, it provides an opportunity for the therapeutic intervention to prevent progressive tissue damage and loss of function. The key for developing anti-neuroinflammatory treatment is to minimize the detrimental and neurotoxic effects of inflammation while promoting the beneficial and neurotropic effects, thereby creating ideal conditions for regeneration and repair. This review outlines how inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of major nonpathogenic neuroinflammatory conditions and discusses the complex response of glial cells to damage signals. In addition, emerging experimental anti-neuroinflammatory drug treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:28127491

  11. Cytoplasmic male sterility in Brassicaceae crops.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Hiroshi; Bhat, Shripad R

    2014-05-01

    Brassicaceae crops display strong hybrid vigor, and have long been subject to F1 hybrid breeding. Because the most reliable system of F1 seed production is based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), various types of CMS have been developed and adopted in practice to breed Brassicaceae oil seed and vegetable crops. CMS is a maternally inherited trait encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and the male sterile phenotype arises as a result of interaction of a mitochondrial CMS gene and a nuclear fertility restoring (Rf) gene. Therefore, CMS has been intensively investigated for gaining basic insights into molecular aspects of nuclear-mitochondrial genome interactions and for practical applications in plant breeding. Several CMS genes have been identified by molecular genetic studies, including Ogura CMS from Japanese radish, which is the most extensively studied and most widely used. In this review, we discuss Ogura CMS, and other CMS systems, and the causal mitochondrial genes for CMS. Studies on nuclear Rf genes and the cytoplasmic effects of alien cytoplasm on general crop performance are also reviewed. Finally, some of the unresolved questions about CMS are highlighted.

  12. Sterile antineutrino search in the MINOS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui; Minos Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MINOS experiment is a long-baseline on-axis neutrino oscillation experiment. The two detectors are separated by 734km and optimised for sensitivity to the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos delivered by the NuMI beam at Fermilab. The MINOS detectors are magnetised, giving the experiment a unique ability to separate neutrinos and antineutrinos on an event-by-event basis. Thanks to the different possible NuMI beam configurations, MINOS has accumulated 10 . 56 ×1020 POT from a muon neutrino dominated beam and 3 . 36 ×1020 POT from a muon antineutrino enhanced beam. In this talk I will present an analysis of the muon antineutrino interactions collected in both beam configurations. The LSND and MiniBooNE experiments have observed non-standard electron antineutrino appearance in their oscillation analyses. A possible explanation for this is the 3+1 sterile neutrino model where one adds an additional neutrino to the current three-flavour model. MINOS is sensitive to this model through looking at the charged current neutrino and antineutrino energy spectra to probe any deviations from the three-flavour muon neutrino and antineutrino survival probabilities. In this talk, I will present new limits on sterile antineutrinos, using this 3+1 model.

  13. Evaluation of steam penetration and sterilization of natural latex wraps.

    PubMed

    Rossanese, Matteo; Gasson, James; Barker, Colin; Bowlt, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of steam and ethylene oxide (EtO) sterilization of Vetrap™ bandages. Prospective experimental study. Vetrap™ bandages (n = 70; 35 as supplied by the manufacturer, 35 unwound and tightly rewound). Vetrap™ bandage rolls (n = 60) marked with a 1 cm square were inoculated with 0.1 mL Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores, packaged in a pouch together with independent sterilization indicators and assigned into 3 sub-groups for sterilizer type: dynamic air removal, gravity displacement, and bench-top pre-vacuum and further sub-divided into 2 sterilization temperatures. Vetrap™ bandages rolls (n = 10) were inoculated with 0.1 mL Bacillus atrophaeus spores in the same manner and underwent EtO sterilization. After sterilization, the 1 cm marked square was aseptically resected to the level of the cardboard tube and enriched in a flask containing 10 mL tryptic soy broth for 24 hours at 60°C for G. stearothermophilus and 37°C for B. atrophaeus. Aliquots were subsequently plated on a Petri dish of tryptic soy agar and incubated at 60°C for G. stearothermophilus and 37°C for B. atrophaeus for 24 hours. Samples were scored positive if colonies of indicator organism were present on the nutrient agar after 24 hours. Three Vetrap™ bandages yielded post-sterilization growth of G. stearothermophilus: 2 from the dynamic air removal sterilizer at 134°C for 3.5 minutes, and 1 from the bench-top pre-vacuum sterilizer at 121°C for 15 minutes. After EtO sterilization, no positive samples were detected. Steam sterilization may be incomplete for Vetrap™ bandages whereas EtO showed complete destruction of resistant bacterial spores. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  14. Genetic analysis of a hybrid sterility gene that causes both pollen and embryo sac sterility in hybrids between Oryza sativa L. and Oryza longistaminata.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Zhao, Z; Liu, L; Kong, W; Lin, Y; You, S; Bai, W; Xiao, Y; Zheng, H; Jiang, L; Li, J; Zhou, J; Tao, D; Wan, J

    2017-09-01

    Oryza longistaminata originates from African wild rice and contains valuable traits conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, interspecific crosses between O. longistaminata and Oryza sativa cultivars are hindered by reproductive barriers. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) using indica variety RD23 as the recipient parent and O. longistaminata as the donor parent. Both pollen and embryo sac semi-sterility were observed in F1 hybrids between RD23 and NIL. Cytological analysis demonstrated that pollen abortion in F1 hybrids occurred at the early bi-nucleate stage due to a failure of the first mitosis in microspores. Partial embryo sacs in the F1 hybrids were defective during the functional megaspore formation stage. Most notably, nearly half of the male or female gametes were aborted in heterozygotes S40(i)S40(l), regardless of their genotypes. Thus, S40 was indicated as a one-locus sporophytic sterility gene controlling both male and female fertility in hybrids between RD23 and O. longistaminata. A population of 16 802 plants derived from the hybrid RD23/NIL-S40 was developed to fine-map S40. Finally, the S40 locus was delimited to an 80-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 1 in terms with reference sequences of cv. 93-11. Eight open reading frames (ORFs) were localized in this region. On the basis of gene expression and genomic sequence analysis, ORF5 and ORF8 were identified as candidate genes for the S40 locus. These results are helpful in cloning the S40 gene and marker-assisted transferring of the corresponding neutral allele in rice breeding programs.

  15. Genetics of reproductive isolation in the Drosophila simulans clade: DNA marker-assisted mapping and characterization of a hybrid-male sterility gene, Odysseus (Ods).

    PubMed

    Perez, D E; Wu, C I; Johnson, N A; Wu, M L

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we address the question of whether there exist major genes that cause complete male sterility in the interspecific hybrids of Drosophila and, if they do, how these genes may be characterized at the molecular level. Our approach is to introgress small segments of the X chromosome from Drosophila mauritiana (or Drosophila sechellia) into Drosophila simulans by repeated backcrosses for more than 20 generations. The introgressions are monitored by both visible mutations and a series of DNA markers. We compare the extent of introgressions that cause male sterility with those that do not. If a major sterility factor exists, there should be a sharp boundary between these two classes of introgressions and their breakpoints should demarcate such a gene. Furthermore, if male sterility is the only major fitness effect associated with the introgression, recombination analysis should yield a pattern predicted by the classical three-point cross. Both the genetic and molecular analyses suggest the presence of a major sterility factor from D. mauritiana, which we named Odysseus (Ods), in the cytological interval of 16D. We thus formalize three criteria for inferring the existence of a major gene within an introgression: (1) complete penetrance of sterility, (2) complementarity in recombination analysis, and (3) physical demarcation. Introgressions of Ods from D. sechellia do not cause sterility. Twenty-two introgressions in our collection have breakpoints in this interval of about 500 kb, making it possible to delineate Ods more precisely for molecular identification. The recombination analysis also reveals the complexity of the introgressed segments--even relatively short ones may contain a second male sterility factor and partial viability genes and may also interfere with crossovers. The spermatogenic defects associated with Ods and/or a second factor were characterized by phase-contrast microscopy.

  16. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  18. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  19. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  20. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  1. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50... Sterilization by hysterectomy. (a) Programs or projects to which this subpart applies shall not perform or arrange for the performance of any hysterectomy solely for the purpose of rendering an individual...

  2. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... resistance to the mode of sterilization, in or on a carrier and enclosed in a protective package. Subsequent...

  3. Long-term sterility of orthodontic-surgical appliances.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Nastri, Natalia; Mosca, Christian O; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term sterility of new dental appliances according to the non rigid wrapping employed and assess the effectiveness of sterilization in a steam autoclave at 134 degrees for 20 minutes using physical, chemical, and biological indicators. All the experimental (E) samples and the control samples (C) were assigned to one of three groups according to the type of packaging: paper bag (E1), paper/plastic pouch (E2), nylon tubing bag (E3). Each bag contained standardized orthodontic wires and brackets and sterility indicators. The samples were evaluated at the following experimental times: immediately, and 6, 12, 24 and 30 months post-sterilization. The samples were analyzed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in keeping with the protocol currently in use at the Department of Microbiology, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires. The group of control, non-sterilized samples (C1, C2, C3) were analyzed prior to the onset of the study, and were found to be contaminated. None of the sterilized samples in any of the three experimental groups evidenced contamination at any of the experimental times. The results showed that, under the present conditions, the packages and orthodontic appliances remained sterile for 30 months. These results show the importance of controlling sterility and the storage conditions over time for all the orthodontic/surgical appliances used in invasive treatments.

  4. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design. PMID:28004842

  5. [Research on sterilization of pathogens by high electrostatic voltage method].

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Ni, X; Xia, B; Xu, J; Du, Q

    1992-10-01

    An experimental research has been carried out on the sterilization of four kinds of pathogens by high electrostatic method along with an inquiry into the influence of voltage waveform and the treated time on sterilization. It is concluded that pathogens can be killed efficiently by corona discharge field.

  6. Efficacy in Microbial Sterilization of Pulsed Magnetic Field Treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sterilization effects of the pulsed magnetic field with a maximum intensity of 11.37 Tesla were investigated on Escherichia coli AS 1.129, Staphylococcus aureus AS 1.89, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATTC 7552 and Bacillus subtilis AS 1.921. The well-regulated fluctuations of sterilization effects with m...

  7. Parents' Attitudes toward Sterilization of Their Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lucille; Zarfas, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven parents' attitudes toward sterilization and the sexuality of their retarded offspring were identified. Parent and child characteristics associated with these attitudes were investigated. Findings indicated that parents substantially concurred with the principle of sterilization (71 percent for involuntary, 67 percent for…

  8. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  9. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  10. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  11. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  12. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section 880.2800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor adequacy of sterilization. The device consists of a known number of microorganisms, of...

  13. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  14. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  15. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  16. 21 CFR 800.10 - Contact lens solutions; sterility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Contact lens solutions; sterility. 800.10 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.10 Contact lens solutions... ophthalmic use, including contact lens solutions, should be sterile. It is further evident that...

  17. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females.

  18. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  20. Future short-baseline sterile neutrino searches with accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, J.

    2015-07-15

    A number of experimental anomalies in neutrino oscillation physics point to the existence of at least one light sterile neutrino. This hypothesis can be precisely tested using neutrinos from reactors, radioactive isotopes, and particle accelerators. The focus of these proceedings is on future dedicated short-baseline sterile neutrino searches using accelerators.