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Sample records for malignant acanthosis nigricans

  1. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment for Acanthosis Nigricans en español Acantosis nigricans Ruby is 17. Starting at age 9, she began ... which the skin thickens and darkens in places. Ruby found out that staying at a healthy weight ...

  2. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment for Acanthosis Nigricans en español Acantosis nigricans Ruby is 17. Starting at age 9, she began ... which the skin thickens and darkens in places. Ruby found out that staying at a healthy weight ...

  3. Generalized benign acanthosis nigricans in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Das, Dipti; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Dhiraj; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    The generalized form of acanthosis nigricans, especially in infants, is extremely rare. Herein we report a 1-year-old female child who developed generalized acanthosis nigricans without any evidence of internal malignancy or endocrine disorder. This case is being reported for its rarity. PMID:25593799

  4. Acanthosis nigricans: a practical approach to evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Steven P; Freemark, Michael; Prose, Neil S

    2008-09-15

    Acanthosis nigricans is a dermatosis characterized by thickened, hyperpigmented plaques, typically of the intertriginous surfaces and neck. Common in some populations, its prevalence depends on race. Clinicians should recognize acanthosis nigricans; it heralds disorders ranging from endocrinologic disturbances to malignancy. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of acanthosis nigricans and its clinical implications and management.

  5. An approach to acanthosis nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Phiske, Meghana Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is characterized by dark, coarse and thickened skin with a velvety texture, being symmetrically distributed on the neck, the axillae, antecubital and popliteal fossae, and groin folds, histopathologically characterized by papillomatosis and hyperkeratosis of the skin. A high prevalence of AN has been observed recently. Different varieties of AN include benign, obesity associated, syndromic, malignant, acral, unilateral, medication-induced and mixed AN. Diagnosis is largely clinical with histopathology needed only for confirmation. Other investigations needed are fasting lipoprotein profile, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin and alanine aminotransferase for obesity associated AN and radiological investigations (plain radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging/computerized tomography) for malignancy associated AN. The most common treatment modalities include retinoids and metformin. PMID:25165638

  6. [Acanthosis nigricans in children and Crouzon syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lagaude, M; Barreau, M; Jokic, M; Gerard, M; DiRocco, F; Hadj-Rabia, S; Dompmartin, A; Verneuil, L

    2014-11-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is a rare form of Crouzon syndrome in which craniosynostosis and facial dysmorphism are associated with acanthosis nigricans. Cutaneous examination of a 9-year-old child presenting bicoronal craniosynostosis revealed acanthosis nigricans of the cervical, axillar, inguinal and popliteal regions which appeared at the age of two. He had a dysmorphic face including a large forehead, hypertelorism, mid-face hypoplasia, prognathism and low-set ears. These clinical anomalies suggested a case of Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans, which was later confirmed by the finding of a mutation in the FGFR3 gene. Acanthosis nigricans in children is often a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance. However, it may also form part of diverse diseases, notably those of genetic origin. The association of craniosynostosis and acanthosis nigricans allows incrimination of the FGFR3 gene from the outset and diagnosis of Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans. In the present case, dermatological examination allowed an aetiology of craniosynostosis to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans usually have normal intelligence. Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is distinguished from ... qualified healthcare professional . About Selection Criteria for Links Data Files & API Site Map Customer Support USA.gov ...

  8. A newborn with acanthosis nigricans: can it be Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans?

    PubMed

    Sharda, Sheetal; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Kirti; Singhi, Sunit; Kumar, Rakesh

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is a craniosynostosis syndrome, characterized by cloverleaf skull, hypertelorism, exophthalmos, external strabismus, parrot-beaked nose, short upper lip, hypoplastic maxilla, and mandibular prognathism. The 5% of individuals with Crouzon syndrome who have pigmentary changes in the skin are said to have Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (CAN). Choanal atresia, hydrocephalus and the cranial features of Crouzon syndrome should suggest the diagnosis of CAN even before acanthosis appears. We present a 10-hour-old newborn who presented with bilateral choanal atresia, craniosynostosis and acanthosis nigricans. Molecular tests identified the FGFR3 Ala391Glu substitution confirming the diagnosis of CAN. Of the 35 cases of CAN reported in literature till date, only one child had acanthosis nigricans at birth. This is the first case from India to have been reported with this mutation.

  9. Screening for type 2 diabetes in children with acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Hardin, Dana S

    2006-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a physical finding of the skin that appears to be a marker for insulin resistance. Because of the association of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, acanthosis nigricans may also be a marker for type 2 diabetes. Some states have recommended statewide screening for acanthosis nigricans. However, this has led to a large referral of children to pediatric endocrinologists. Presented is a schema for primary care physicians and school nurses to use as a guideline for referral of children with acanthosis nigricans.

  10. Cutaneous features of Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Mir, Adnan; Wu, Timothy; Orlow, Seth J

    2013-06-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is a distinct disorder caused by a mutation in the FGFR3 gene, featuring craniosynostosis, characteristic facial features, and atypical and extensive acanthosis nigricans. Other cutaneous findings have not been thoroughly described. We report 6 cases and summarize the existing literature with regard to the cutaneous manifestations of this disorder. All patients have widespread, early-onset acanthosis nigricans. Patients often have prominent hypopigmented scars at surgical sites and nevi arising early in childhood. In addition to craniofacial malformations, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans results in characteristic cutaneous findings.

  11. Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

  12. [Acral acanthosis nigricans associated with taking growth hormone].

    PubMed

    Peña Irún, A

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a skin lesion characterized by the presence of a hyperpigmented, velvety cutaneous thickening that usually appears in flexural areas. Less frequently, it can occur in other locations, such as the dorsum of hands and feet. In this case it is called acral acanthosis nigricans. It is a dermatological manifestation of systemic disease. It is often associated with insulin resistance-mediated endocrine diseases. A case is presented on a patient with acanthosis nigricans secondary to the use of growth hormone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. [Woman 19-old with hirsutism, obesity and acanthosis nigricans].

    PubMed

    Kępczyńska-Nyk, Anna; Muszel, Marta; Radziszewski, Mikołaj; Wocial, Kamil

    2016-09-29

    19-year-old hirsute woman with obesity, skin lesions with features of acanthosis nigricans around neck, armpits, thoracic cage and wrists escalating for couple of months, elevated testosterone and insulin plasma levels was admitted to hospital to perform diagnostic approach. The final diagnosis was hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome (HAIR-AN syndrome), considered as a subtype of policystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and impaired glucose tolerance. HAIR-AN is characterized by coexistence of: hyperandrogenism (HA), insulin resistance (IR) and acanthosis nigricans (AN). These symptoms are result of increased insulin and androgens levels. Due to accompanying complications (obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, infertility) patients with HAIR-AN syndrome should be monitored and treated. Rarely acanthosis nigricans, especially when occurs rapidly and extensively, may be a paraneoplastic disorder. Life style modification with BMI reduction was recommended and metformin, a drug improving sensitivity to insulin, was administered. Patient should be monitored due to possible complications of obesity, diabetes and hyperinsulinemia.

  14. Acanthosis Nigricans Associated with an Adrenocortical Tumor in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadi, Filippina Filia; Barrows, Frank; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2013-01-01

    Malignant acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen primarily in adults with an underlying diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Malignant AN is characterized by hyperpigmentation and velvety hyperplasia of the epidermis. This condition is generally not associated with tumors in pediatric populations or in the adrenal gland. We present a case of malignant AN in a pediatric patient with a nonmalignant, functional adrenocortical tumor. PMID:23819073

  15. Acanthosis nigricans associated with an adrenocortical tumor in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Isaacoff, Elizabeth; Dimitriadi, Filippina Filia; Barrows, Frank; Pawel, Bruce; Mattei, Peter; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2013-01-01

    Malignant acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen primarily in adults with an underlying diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Malignant AN is characterized by hyperpigmentation and velvety hyperplasia of the epidermis. This condition is generally not associated with tumors in pediatric populations or in the adrenal gland. We present a case of malignant AN in a pediatric patient with a nonmalignant, functional adrenocortical tumor.

  16. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  17. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  18. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  19. Observing Anthropometric and Acanthosis Nigrican Changes among Children Over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Jennifer; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard; Lilly, Christa; Cottrell, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the anthropometrics and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in a sample of 7,337 children at two assessments. Four groups of children were identified based on the presence of AN at both time points: those who never had the marker, those who gained the marker, those who lost the marker, and those who maintained the marker. Group…

  20. Acanthosis Nigricans associated with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narvaez, Margarita Rosa Aveiga; Reis, Paola Vasconcellos Soares; Gomes, Augusto Cesar Marins; Paraskevopoulos, Daniela Kallíope de Sá; Santana, Frederico; Fugita, Oscar Eduardo Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN), an entity recognized since the 19th century, is a dermatopathy associated with insulin-resistant conditions, endocrinopathies, drugs, chromosome abnormalities and neoplasia. The latter, also known as malignant AN, is mostly related to abdominal neoplasms. Malignant AN occurs frequently among elderly patients. In these cases, the onset is subtle, and spreading involves the flexural regions of the body, particularly the axillae, palms, soles, and mucosa. Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most frequent associated neoplasia, but many others have been reported. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although already reported, is rarely associated with malignant AN. The authors report the case of a woman who was being treated for depression but presented a long-standing and marked weight loss, followed by darkening of the neck and the axillary regions. Physical examination disclosed a tumoral mass in the left flank and symmetrical, pigmented, velvety, verrucous plaques on both axillae, which is classical for AN. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a huge renal mass, which was resected and further diagnosed as a RCC. The post-operative period was uneventful and the skin alteration was evanescent at the first follow-up consultation. The authors call attention to the association of AN with RCC. PMID:27284539

  1. A case of acanthosis nigricans as a paraneoplastic syndrome with squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karakas, Yusuf; Esin, Ece; Lacin, Sahin; Ceyhan, Koray; Heper, Aylin Okcu; Yalcin, Suayib

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old man presented with oral mucosal ulcers, blackening of both hands, and hyperpigmentation on axillary, anal, and inguinal regions for the last 3 months, which were all progressive. The patient was referred to the oncology department with the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans for investigation of an underlying malignancy. He was a smoker. A computed tomography scan of thorax revealed enlarged mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a lesion on the left upper lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the mediastinal lesion was consistent with squamous cell carcinoma, and biopsies of the skin and oral mucosal lesion also further confirmed the diagnosis of acanthosis nigricans. After docetaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy, a significant improvement in his skin and mucosal lesions was observed with almost complete resolution of the pulmonary lesion and the mediastinal lymph nodes. PMID:27536145

  2. Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents: prevalence, impact, and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hak Yung

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in adolescence is a public health priority because it usually tracks into adulthood, resulting in enormous medical and social costs. This underscores the importance of early identification and intervention. Acanthosis nigricans (AN) was once considered a rare paraneoplastic dermatosis, but is now frequently observed in obese adolescents. Current understanding suggests that it is associated with insulin resistance and has a unique role in secondary prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive overview of AN in obese adolescents, covering its history, current knowledge on the condition, its clinical significance, management challenges, and the direction of future research. PMID:28031729

  3. Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dédjan, A. H.; Chadli, A.; El Aziz, S.; Farouqi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female hyperandrogenism is a frequent motive of consultation. It is revealed by hirsutism, acne or seborrhea, and disorders in menstruation cycle combined or not with virilisation signs. Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. Observation. A 20-year-old girl, having had a five-year-old secondary amenorrhea. The exam revealed a patient, normotensive with a body mass index at 30 kg/m2 and a waist measurement of 120 cm, a severe hirsutism assessed to be 29 according to Ferriman Gallwey scale, virilisation signs of male morphotype, clitoridic hypertrophy and frontal alopecia, and an acanthosis nigricans behind the neck, in the armpits and elbows. The assessment carried out revealed testosteronemia at 1.28 ng/mL, which is more than twice the upper norm of the laboratory. Imaging studies were negative for both ovarian and adrenal masses. The retained diagnosis is HAIR-AN syndrome probably related to ovarian hyperthecosis and she was provided with androcur 50 mg/day and estradiol pills 2 mg/day and under hygiene-dietetic conditions. Conclusion. This case proves that HAIR-AN syndrome could be responsible for severe hyperandrogenism with virilisation signs. It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. PMID:26229697

  4. A case of hyperpigmentation and acanthosis nigricans by testosterone injections.

    PubMed

    Karadag, As; Kavala, M; Demir, Ft; Turkoğlu, Z; Kartal, I; Zemheri, E

    2014-12-01

    Drug-related skin disorders may occur in many different ways. Despite pigmentary changes being less important for morbidity, these changes precipitate depressed mood and reduce self-confidence. Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group and primarily used for the treatment of hypogonadism in males. Testosterone replacement can cause skin problems like acne, hair loss, redness, pain, or infection at the injection site. The study was conducted on a 49-year-old man with adult onset idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, which is an acquired form of isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency. He was presented with lack of energy and decreased sexual function 10 years ago and was given an oil-based injectable blend of four esterized testosterone compounds as hormone replacement treatment in a urology polyclinic. He was referred to our polyclinic by endocrinologist because of progressive hyperpigmentation marked on his face and oral mucosa. In the present study, we report the first testosterone therapy-related facial and oral mucosal hyperpigmentation and acanthosis nigricans in the same patient. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Acanthosis nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children. Standardized health measures were collected in 2,520 K-12th-grade AI students for AN, BMI, and BP. Data were also collected on family history of diabetes and physical activity. Approximately, 9.7% of the participants were positive for AN. AN was associated with high BMI, abnormal BP, and diabetes family history. Sports participation was inversely associated with AN. Among children measured the prior year, relative risk (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) for obesity and incident AN was 9.8 (4.2-23.0) compared to normal weight. These findings suggest there is utility in measuring this marker of insulin resistance in this at-risk population.

  6. FGF21 Is Associated with Acanthosis Nigricans in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yueye; Yang, Jie; Li, Yan; Chen, Jiaqi; Song, Kexiu; Wang, Xingchun; Bu, Le; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jiying; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FGF21 and obesity-related acanthosis nigricans (AN). Methods. 40 obese patients without AN (OB group), 40 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 40 healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured. Serum FGF21 was measured by ELISA. Results. Compared with OB group, AN group had higher levels of fasting insulin and homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), but lower serum levels of blood glucose. The difference of FGF21 among three groups was significant and AN group showed the highest serum level of FGF21 (P < 0.05). Serum FGF21 was most positively correlated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Multiple logistic analysis showed that FGF21 was the independent risk factor for AN (OR 4.550; 95% CI 1.054–19.635; P = 0.042). Conclusion. AN patients had more serious hyperinsulinemia but better serum levels of blood glucose than OB. Increased FGF21 is associated with AN in obese patients and may be considered as compensatory response to the decreased insulin sensitivity. PMID:27190511

  7. Clearance of acanthosis nigricans associated with the HAIR-AN syndrome after partial pancreatectomy: an 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, S; Wilson, R; Gawkrodger, D

    1999-01-01

    We describe a woman with the syndrome characterised by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and acanthosis nigricans (the HAIR-AN syndrome), and an associated insulinoma (islet B-cell tumour), whose signs and symptoms cleared after partial pancreatectomy.


Keywords: acanthosis nigricans; insulinoma; HAIR-AN syndrome; hyperinsulinaemia PMID:10474728

  8. A STUDY OF PATHOGENESIS OF ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS AND ITS CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Neerja

    2011-01-01

    Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a dermatosis characterized by thickened, hyperpigmented plaques, typically on the intertriginous surfaces and neck. Common in some populations, its prevalence depends on race. Clinicians should recognize AN; it heralds disorders ranging from endocrinologic disturbances to malignancy. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of AN and its clinical implications and management. Materials and Methods: We selected 30 patients for the study. Diagnosis of associated disorders was established by history, physical examination, body mass index (BMI), hormone measurements by radioimmunoassays of thyroidnfunction tests, free testosterone, 17 (OH) progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, gonadotropins, prolactin, immunoreactive insulin, and C-peptide levels. Results and Discussion: In our study, the flexural involvement (flexures of groins, knees and elbows) was seen in 40% patients, lip involvement was seen in 6.6% patients, and dorsal involvement was seen in 3.3% patients each. Increased serum testosterone levels were seen in 13.3% patients and increased DHEAS levels were seen in 20% patients. Regarding the types of AN, obesity induced AN or pseudo-AN was seen 70% patients, syndromic AN was seen in 23.35% patients and malignant AN was seen in 6.6% patients. The commonest histopathological feature of patients with AN was hyperkeratosis, seen in 100% patients, papillomatosis was seen in 90% patients, dermal infiltrate of lymphocytes and plasma cells was seen in 60% patients, horn pseudocysts were seen in 30% patients, and irregular acanthosis was seen in 26.6% patients. PMID:22345770

  9. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  10. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa H.; Ficca, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a thickening and hyperpigmentation of the skin commonly found on the neck, axilla, or groin and is generally caused by hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of insulin resistance associated with obesity. Insulin resistance is a primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and…

  11. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  12. Increasing Body Mass Index, Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans Abnormalities in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A.; Rodriguez, Melinda C.; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression…

  13. A Comparison of Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index, and Acanthosis Nigricans in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Debra E.; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L.; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I.; Shelton, Margarette L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026…

  14. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  15. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lisa H.; Ficca, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a thickening and hyperpigmentation of the skin commonly found on the neck, axilla, or groin and is generally caused by hyperinsulinemia, a consequence of insulin resistance associated with obesity. Insulin resistance is a primary risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and…

  16. Acanthosis nigricans with severe obesity, insulin resistance and hypothyroidism: improvement by diet control.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, R; Sadamoto, Y; Imamura, M; Abe, Y; Higuchi, K; Kato, K; Koga, T; Furue, M

    1999-01-01

    We report on a 27-year-old man with acanthosis nigricans (AN) associated with severe obesity, insulin resistance and hypothyroidism. A very low-calorie diet treatment decreased his weight and then ameliorated the insulin-resistant state. These effects were followed by remarkable improvement of the AN prior to the correction of the hypothyroidism. This confirms that AN may be mainly attributed to insulin resistance rather than hypothyroidism per se.

  17. Syndrome of insulin resistance with acanthosis nigricans, acral hypertrophy and muscle cramps in an adolescent - a rare diagnosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Urmi; Thomas, Maya; Mathai, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    The authors report a 14-y-old boy with insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, acral hypertrophy and muscle cramps. While there was a dramatic response of the muscle cramps to phenytoin therapy, some other features of metabolic syndrome did not respond to phenytoin therapy alone.

  18. Crouzon syndrome associated with acanthosis nigricans: prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings and postnatal 3D CT findings

    PubMed Central

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Hagen, Casper Petri; Hove, Hanne; Dunø, Morten; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Kreiborg, Sven; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2012-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (CAN) is a very rare condition with an approximate prevalence of 1 per 1 million newborns. We add the first report on prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings in CAN. In addition we present the postnatal 3D CT findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular testing. PMID:23986840

  19. Crouzon syndrome associated with acanthosis nigricans: prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings and postnatal 3D CT findings.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard, Pernille; Hagen, Casper Petri; Hove, Hanne; Dunø, Morten; Nissen, Kamilla Rothe; Kreiborg, Sven; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2012-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (CAN) is a very rare condition with an approximate prevalence of 1 per 1 million newborns. We add the first report on prenatal 2D and 3D ultrasound findings in CAN. In addition we present the postnatal 3D CT findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by molecular testing.

  20. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents?: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Cilymol; Rozmus, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes is becoming a major health problem affecting children and adolescents in the United States. This article reviews the current literature examining the association between the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents. Ethnicity, family…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of Overweight, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans among Low-Income Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopping, Dana; Nevarez, Holly; Goto, Keiko; Morgan, Irene; Frigaard, Martin; Wolff, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans, and their associated factors in third through fifth grade students over 4 years. Participants consisted of 279 students who participated in health screenings in 2002 and 2006. Hispanic students had significantly higher rates of overweight and…

  3. Is Acanthosis Nigricans a Reliable Indicator for Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Obese Children and Adolescents?: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Cilymol; Rozmus, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes is becoming a major health problem affecting children and adolescents in the United States. This article reviews the current literature examining the association between the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents. Ethnicity, family…

  4. Acanthosis Nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... adrenal glands. Certain drugs and supplements. High-dose niacin, birth control pills, prednisone and other corticosteroids may ... http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 25, 2015. Niacin and niacinamide (vitamin B3). Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. ...

  5. Acanthosis nigricans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause any symptoms other than skin changes. Eventually, dark, velvety skin with very visible markings and creases ... your provider if you develop areas of thick, dark, velvety skin. Alternative Names AN; Skin pigment disorder - ...

  6. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Colorimetry as a Diagnostic Tool for Acanthosis Nigricans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U.; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Mahmoud, Bassel H.; Lim, Henry W.; Naik, Ratna

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify skin color changes due to Acanthosis Nigricans, a disorder common among prediabetic and obese individuals. The non-invasive optical technique diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) was used to determine skin melanin, oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin content through the measured absorption spectrum. Colorimetery was used to measure skin color based on the standard Tristimulus values (L*, a*, and b*). Data was obtained from eight patients, spanning eight months of treatment. Measurements were obtained from lesion tissue on the neck and healthy skin was used as a control. L*, a* and b* values showed significant differences between lesion and normal controls, whereas melanin was the only parameter which showed statistical significant differences in DRS measurements. Future work will use more sensitive chemometric methods to increase diagnostic accuracy based on the raw spectra of the DRS.

  7. A comparison of blood pressure, body mass index, and acanthosis nigricans in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Tijerina, Sandra L; Reyna, Maria Elena; Farooqi, Mohammad I; Shelton, Margarette L

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this retrospective quantitative study was to examine the relationships among acanthosis nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), school grade, and gender in children attending elementary school located in South West Texas. Data were collected by attending school district nurses. Researchers reviewed 7,026 previously collected records from a state mandated public school health screening program in elementary school Grades 3, 5, 7, and 9, conducted by school nurses. Of 7,026 records, 6,867 were included for the secondary analysis. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with the AN marker as the dependant variable and school grade, gender, BMI, and BP as the independent variables. The results of the study suggest that a direct relationship exists between the AN marker, BMI, and BP in school-age children. Further study is warranted based on the number of school-age children who are now found to be obese.

  8. Acanthosis nigricans as an indicator of insulin resistance in Chilean adult population.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, A C; Rojas, P; Carrasco, F; Gómez, P; Mayas, N; Morales, I

    2011-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is associated with a higher risk of multiple diseases and its early detection would allow to minimize the associated risk; the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) it's associated to the presence of IR. To evaluate the sensibility and specificity of AN to diagnose IR in a group of Chilean patients. We designed a cross-sectional study and it was included subjects that were attended at the Center for the Attention of Metabolic Diseases at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile. Sixty subjects (18-60 years age) were included. It was determined BMI and diagnosed AN and skin phototype; blood samples were taken and calculated the HOMA-IR. The normality of the variables where analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. There were used χ² and the diagnostic concordance between AN and IR was determined using the Kappa index and Pearson's correlation. Sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated and accepted p<0.05. The IR diagnose was 67% and AN was 43%. The major proportion of subjects diagnosed as positive for IR were also positive for AN (84.6%). The sensibility of AN to find IR was an 84% and specificity was 100%. Positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 89% respectively. It was observed a positive association between BMI and HOMA-IR (r=0.674; r²=0.454; p<0.001). To detect acanthosis nigricans in Chilean population may be effective for the early diagnose of insulin resistance and, therefore, reduce the associated cost of the late treatment of glucose metabolic disturbances.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  10. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  11. Social anxiety, depression and self-esteem in obese adolescent girls with acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN.

  12. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition.

  13. Increasing body mass index, blood pressure, and Acanthosis Nigricans abnormalities in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Otto, Debra E; Wang, Xiaohui; Garza, Viola; Fuentes, Lilia A; Rodriguez, Melinda C; Sullivan, Pamela

    2013-12-01

    This retrospective quantitative study examined the relationships among gender, Acanthosis Nigricans (AN), body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure (BP) in children attending school Grades 1-9 in Southwest Texas. Of the 34,897 health screening records obtained for the secondary analysis, 32,788 were included for the study. A logistic regression analysis was carried out with AN as the dependent variable, with year, gender, BMI, and BP as independent variables. The results indicate that the rate of children in each grade with three positive markers increased 2% during a 3-year period between 2008 and 2010. In the 5-year period between 2005 and 2010, a clear trend of significantly higher numbers of children with both AN and BMI markers was apparent. Gender played a significant role as females were more likely to have the AN marker than males. Further study is indicated based on the increasing trend of school-age children in Texas with positive markers for AN, increased BMI and BP.

  14. Parental perception of child bodyweight and health among Mexican-American children with acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun; Huang, Terry T-K; Anthony, Renaisa; Ramos, Athena; Toure, Drissa; Wang, Hongmei

    2014-10-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a cutaneous marker associated with elevated risk of type 2 diabetes. This study assesses mother-father differences in perception of child's bodyweight and health by Mexican-American parents with AN-positive children. The study used medical records in conjunction with survey data collected between 2011 and 2012 for 309 Mexican-American children with AN in South Texas. Multivariate logit models were estimated to assess mother-father differences in perception of child bodyweight and health controlling for selected child- and parent-level covariates. About 91 % of the children in the sample were obese and 6.5 % were overweight. One fifth of mothers and 38.5 % of fathers in the sample expressed no concern of their children's bodyweight. After adjusting for selected explanatory variables at both the child and parent level, the odds for fathers, relative to mothers, to be concerned about child's bodyweight were 82 % lower (OR = 0.18, p < 0.05). Similar findings also hold for parental awareness of child's AN (OR = 0.19, p < 0.05). Among Mexican-American families with AN-positive children, the lack of concern over child's bodyweight, unawareness of AN, and misconception of child's health on the part of many parents, especially of fathers, constitutes a challenge to diabetes prevention. Health education programs targeting Mexican-American families with AN-positive children might be more cost effective to consider mother-father differences in perception of child health and bodyweight.

  15. The Associations of Serum Uric Acid with Obesity-Related Acanthosis nigricans and Related Metabolic Indices

    PubMed Central

    Rampersad, Sharvan; You, Hui; Sheng, Chunjun; Yang, Peng; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Bu, Le

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Recent studies have shown that hyperuricemia (HUA) is associated with hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We aimed to examine the relationship of serum UA with Acanthosis nigricans (AN) and related metabolic indices in obese patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 411 obese patients recruited from our department was analyzed in this study. Weight, body mass index (BMI), UA, lipid profile, liver function, and renal function were measured in all participants. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and serum glucose, insulin, and C peptide were measured at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min. Results. AN group had higher serum UA levels than OB group. Circulating UA levels were associated with BMI, dyslipidemia, hypertension, IR, and AN. In logistic regression analyses (multivariable‐adjusted), a high serum UA level was associated with high odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AN in females (ORs = 3.00 and 95% CI [1.02–8.84]) and males (ORs = 6.07 and 95% CI [2.16–17.06]) in the highest quartile (Q4) of serum UA. Conclusions. Serum UA levels were positively associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities including obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and AN and may be an important risk factor in the development of AN; further evidences in vitro and in vivo are needed to investigate the direct or indirect relationship. PMID:28367214

  16. Acanthosis nigricans and insulin sensitivity in patients with achondroplasia and hypochodroplasia due to FGFR3 mutations.

    PubMed

    Alatzoglou, Kyriaki S; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Brain, Caroline; Torpiano, John; Dattani, Mehul T

    2009-10-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) has been reported in association with severe skeletal dysplasias due to activating mutations in FGFR3, including thanatophoric dysplasia, severe achondroplasia (ACH) with developmental delay and AN (SADDAN syndrome), and Crouzon syndrome with AN. There are isolated reports of patients with ACH and AN. In this series, we report clinical and biochemical data on five male patients, four with ACH and one with hypochondroplasia (HCH), who developed AN without SADDAN. We compared the results of a 1.75 g/kg oral glucose tolerance test performed in patients with ACH/HCH and AN with age-, sex-, and puberty-matched short children. Three of the patients were treated with recombinant human GH (dose range, 45-50 microg/kg/d), one patient had discontinued treatment 6 months before presentation, and one had never been treated. All patients had a fasting plasma glucose of less than 6 mmol/liter, and no patient had a plasma glucose greater than 7.8 mmol/liter at 2 h after ingestion of a glucose load. Although body mass index was higher in patients with skeletal dysplasia (28.9 +/- 7.3 vs. 20 +/- 0.6 kg/m(2); P = 0.01), mean fasting plasma insulin concentration was greater in controls (14.4 +/- 4.8 vs. 6.0 +/- 4.5 mU/liter; P = 0.03), as was homeostasis assessment index for insulin resistance (2.5 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.17 +/- 0.8; P = 0.05). Our findings suggest that the development of AN in patients with ACH/HCH is not due to insulin insensitivity either on its own or secondary to treatment with recombinant human GH. Whether the AN is due to altered melanocyte function in these individuals remains to be established.

  17. Serum Irisin Level is Higher and Related with Insulin in Acanthosis Nigricans-related Obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Fang, L J; Song, K X; Wang, X C; Huang, Y Y; Chai, S Y; Bu, L; Qu, S

    2016-03-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is proved to be a skin phenotype of hyperinsulinemia especially in obese patients. Irisin is a new myokine which plays an important role in metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The role of irisin in the development of AN-related obesity is not yet understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between irisin and AN-related obesity. Patients & Measurements: 30 obese patients without AN (OB group), 30 obese patients with AN (AN group), and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers (control group, CON) were included in this study. Weight, BMI, lipid profile, FFA, UA, and CRP were measured in all participants. Oral Glucose Tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed and serum glucose and plasma insulin were measured at 0, 30, 60,120 and 180 min. The AUC (area under curve) of glucose and insulin was calculated. Serum irisin was measured by ELISA. Hyperinsulinemia is found in both AN and OB groups. The AN group had higher levels of insulin but better blood glucose tolerance and insulin response. The difference in irisin levels between the 3 groups was statistically significant, with the AN group showing the highest serum level of irisin. Serum irisin levels were positively correlated with BMI, and fasting insulin. AN is a state of hyperinsulinmia and has better insulin response and glucose tolerance compared to obese patients without AN. Serum irisin may be a protective factor against impaired beta cell function in obesity with AN. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Acanthosis Nigricans as a Clinical Predictor of Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the utility of acanthosis nigricans (AN) severity as an index for predicting insulin resistance in obese children. Methods The subjects comprised 74 obese pediatric patients who attended the Department of Pediatrics at Chosun University Hospital between January 2013 and March 2016. Waist circumference; body mass index; blood pressure; fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels; lipid profile; aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, glycated hemoglobin, C-peptide, and uric acid levels; and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin check sensitivity index (QUICKI) scores were compared between subjects with AN and those without AN. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to investigate the utility of the AN score in predicting insulin resistance. HOMA-IR and QUICKI were compared according to AN severity. Results The With AN group had higher fasting insulin levels (24.1±21.0 mU/L vs. 9.8±3.6 mU/L, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR score (5.74±4.71 vs. 2.14±0.86, p<0.001) than the Without AN group. The AN score used to predict insulin resistance was 3 points or more (sensitivity 56.8%, specificity 83.9%). HOMA-IR scores increased with AN severity, from the Without AN group (mean, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72-2.57) to the Mild AN (mean, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.04-5.25) and Severe AN groups (mean, 7.22; 95% CI, 5.08-9.35; p<0.001). Conclusion Insulin resistance worsens with increasing AN severity, and patients with Severe AN (AN score ≥3) are at increased risk of insulin resistance. PMID:28090470

  19. Critical comparison of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colorimetry as dermatological diagnostic tools for acanthosis nigricans: a chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Devpura, Suneetha; Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Syed, Zain U; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna

    2011-06-01

    Quantification of skin changes due to acanthosis nigricans (AN), a disorder common among insulin-resistant diabetic and obese individuals, was investigated using two optical techniques: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and colorimetry. Measurements were obtained from AN lesions on the neck and two control sites of eight AN patients. A principal component/discriminant function analysis successfully differentiated between AN lesion and normal skin with 87.7% sensitivity and 94.8% specificity in DRS measurements and 97.2% sensitivity and 96.4% specificity in colorimetry measurements.

  20. Suppression of severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans by the p.Thr651Pro mutation.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Kandamurugu; Donoghue, Daniel J; Meyer, April N; Snyder, Pamela J; Prior, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans (SADDAN) is an extremely rare severe skeletal dysplasia characterized by significant developmental delay, brain structural abnormalities, hearing loss, and acanthosis nigricans. The disorder is the result of a single missense mutation at codon 650 (p.Lys650Met) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene (FGFR3). We describe a child who initially presented with a mild achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia like phenotype. Molecular analysis of the FGFR3 gene showed the common SADDAN mutation and a second novel mutation at codon 651 (p.Thr651Pro). Both mutations were shown to occur on the same allele (cis) and de novo. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 double mutant constructs show that the p.Thr651Pro mutation causes a dramatic decrease in constitutive receptor kinase activity than that observed by the p.Lys650Met mutation. Our data suggest that the molecular effect by the p.Thr651Pro is to elicit a conformational change that decreases the FGFR3 tyrosine kinase activity, which is constitutively activated by the SADDAN mutation. Due to the inheritance of both a gain-of-function and a loss-of-function mutation, we conclude that a reduction of constitutive activation caused the milder skeletal phenotype. Although the occurrence of double mutations are expected to be rare, the presence of other FGFR3 modifiers may be responsible for some of the clinically discrepant skeletal dysplasia cases.

  1. Association of metabolic syndrome with low birth weight, intake of high-calorie diets and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Bautista, Marlen; López-Sandoval, Joana Jazmín; González-Hita, Mercedes; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Cabrera-Valencia, Iris Zamihara; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The theory of fetal programming suggests that low birth weight (LBW) predisposes to greater food intake and increases the chance of overweight and obesity, which are in turn associated to conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and acanthosis nigricans. The study objective was to ascertain whether an association exists between MS, LBW, intake of high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A case-control was conducted on 100 children who attended the overweight and obesity outpatient clinic of the OPD Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde". Subjects were stratified in groups with and without MS based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for children aged less than 16 years. Data on LBW, intake of high-calorie diets for 24-hour dietary recalls (average 2 days a week), and acanthosis nigricans (Simone criteria) were obtained by questioning the parents. Frequencies and logistic regression were calculated using SPSS version 22. The results show that 82% of children and adolescents were obese and 18% overweight, and 73% had MS. MS was associated to LBW (OR: 4.83 [95% CI: 1.9-12.47]), high-calorie diets (OR:136.8 [95% CI: 7.7-2434]), and acanthosis nigricans (OR: 1872 [95% CI: 112.9-31028]). In children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, LBW, high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans are associated to a higher probability of MS. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel skeletal dysplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans is caused by a Lys650Met mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tavormina, P L; Bellus, G A; Webster, M K; Bamshad, M J; Fraley, A E; McIntosh, I; Szabo, J; Jiang, W; Jabs, E W; Wilcox, W R; Wasmuth, J J; Donoghue, D J; Thompson, L M; Francomano, C A

    1999-01-01

    We have identified a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) missense mutation in four unrelated individuals with skeletal dysplasia that approaches the severity observed in thanatophoric dysplasia type I (TD1). However, three of the four individuals developed extensive areas of acanthosis nigricans beginning in early childhood, suffer from severe neurological impairments, and have survived past infancy without prolonged life-support measures. The FGFR3 mutation (A1949T: Lys650Met) occurs at the nucleotide adjacent to the TD type II (TD2) mutation (A1948G: Lys650Glu) and results in a different amino acid substitution at a highly conserved codon in the kinase domain activation loop. Transient transfection studies with FGFR3 mutant constructs show that the Lys650Met mutation causes a dramatic increase in constitutive receptor kinase activity, approximately three times greater than that observed with the Lys650Glu mutation. We refer to the phenotype caused by the Lys650Met mutation as "severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans" (SADDAN) because it differs significantly from the phenotypes of other known FGFR3 mutations. PMID:10053006

  3. Overweight, elevated blood pressure, acanthosis nigricans and adherence to recommended dietary and physical activity guidelines among Hmong and white middle school students.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Julia; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted among low-income middle-school students (N = 426) in rural northern California to compare rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans (AN) between Hmong and white students. Associations among rates of overweight, elevated blood pressure, AN, and scores for adherence to recommended dietary guidelines were also examined. Fifty-two percent (52%) of white students were overweight/obese compared to 38% of Hmong students. Higher fruit consumption was associated with a lower BMI among white, but not Hmong students. Whereas 7% of white students were classified as pre-hypertensive/hypertensive, the rate for Hmong students was 17%. Additionally, at 13 versus 2%, six-fold more Hmong students had an elevated blood pressure with a normal BMI compared to white students, respectively. Ethnicity was also an independent predictive factor for AN. Hmong students appear to be at higher risk for both hypertension and AN than white students irrespective of BMI.

  4. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. Materials and Methods: It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Results: Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. Conclusion: We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases. PMID:27990384

  5. The Co-Occurrence of Obesity, Elevated Blood Pressure and Acanthosis Nigricans among American Indian School-children: Identifying Individual Heritage and Environment-level Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hearst, Mary O.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Himes, John H.; Butterbrodt, Mark; Sinaiko, Alan; Cloud, Richard Iron; Tobacco, Mary; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and explore the social and cultural etiologic roots of weight status, blood pressure and acanthosis nigricans among American Indian children on a reservation in South Dakota. Methods This observational study was conducted in 26 schools from 1998–2002 and included 5,422 observations representing 3,841 children, ages 3–19. Trained staff measured height, weight, blood pressure and assessed the presence of acanthosis nigricans (AN). Percent Indian heritage (PIH) was abstracted from tribal records. Sociodemographic environment (SDE) was calculated using the 2000 Census at the city/town level. Descriptive analyses were conducted using one measurement time point, including tests for trend and co-occurrence of risk factors using the kappa statistic. Hierarchical, multivariate logistic regression estimated associations with overweight/obesity status, accounting for multiple measures on individuals and SDE. Results The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 46%, of hypertension 9%, and of AN 14%. The co-occurrence of risk factors was moderate to high. PIH and AN were positively associated in unadjusted analysis. Controlling for sex, age, and SDE, higher PIH was a significant correlate of overweight/obesity, although when hypertension (OR=5.92, CI=3.27–10.72), pre-hypertension (OR=3.80, CI=1.99–7.26) and AN (OR=16.20, CI=8.08–32.48) were included in the model PIH was no longer significant. SDE was not significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion PIH appeared to be an important correlate of overweight and obesity, except when adjusted for the co-occurrence of high blood pressure and AN. Overall, the prevalence and co-occurrence of various risk factors in this population was high. Obesity prevention initiatives targeting families and communities are needed, as well as access to screening and treatment services. PMID:21445934

  6. A descriptive study of facial acanthosis nigricans and its association with body mass index, waist circumference and insulin resistance using HOMA2 IR.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shyam; Vasani, Resham; Joshi, Rajiv; Phiske, Meghana; Punjabi, Pritesh; Toprani, Tushar

    2016-01-01

    The term facial acanthosis nigricans (FAN) lacks definition of precise clinical and histopathological features. We present a descriptive study of patients with FAN to define pigmentary patterns and estimate the prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in these cases. It is a prospective study that included all patients with classical AN of the neck and/or other areas with facial acanthosis nigricans described as brown-to-black macular pigmentation with blurred ill-defined margins, found on the zygomatic and malar areas. The body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) of the included patients were used as parameters of obesity. Homeostatic Model of Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2 IR) was used as a parameter to evaluate insulin resistance. Histopathological features of the 6 skin biopsies that were possible were reviewed. Among the 102 included individuals, the patterns of facial pigmentation seen in addition to the classic pattern involving zygomatic and malar areas were a hyperpigmented band on the forehead in 59.80%, periorbital darkening in 17.64%, perioral darkening in 12.74%, and generalized darkening in 9.8% of cases. 85.29% of the males and 100% of the females were found to be obese. Varying degrees of insulin resistance was noted in 82.34% of the individuals. Six biopsies available for evaluation showed changes such as mild epidermal hyperplasia with prominent basal melanin, however, without the typical papillomatosis seen in AN of the flexures. We document an increased prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance in patients presenting with FAN and its presentations in addition to the classical description. We propose that FAN can be considered a cutaneous marker of insulin resistance and that HOMA2 IR can serve as a parameter of insulin resistance in such cases.

  7. Regression of acanthosis nigricans correlates with disappearance of anti-insulin receptor autoantibodies and achievement of euglycemia in type B insulin resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fareau, Gilbert G; Maldonado, Mario; Oral, Elif; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2007-05-01

    Autoantibodies directed against specific epitopes in the insulin receptor are rarely the cause of either recurrent hypoglycemia or a severe form of insulin resistance (type B insulin resistance). Type B insulin resistance occurs more commonly in women of African heritage and is frequently associated with a history of other autoimmune diseases. We present the unusual case of a 61-year-old African American woman with a background of autoimmune hypothyroidism and autoimmune hepatitis who developed type 2 diabetes mellitus and marked facial acanthosis nigricans (AN) over a period of weeks. Despite treatment with multiple oral antidiabetic agents, she rapidly developed severe, recalcitrant hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis, requiring hospitalization and intravenous insulin administration for 4 weeks at rates of up to 180 U/h. Immunologic testing revealed a high titer of anti-insulin receptor autoantibodies of both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A classes. After a recurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis despite aggressive management, the patient was treated with a short course of cyclophosphamide; within 10 weeks, she experienced striking improvement of her hyperglycemia as well as marked regression of the AN lesions. Subsequently, the patient also experienced episodes of fasting hypoglycemia, which resolved with a brief course of glucocorticoids. She has since remained euglycemic with no therapy for 5 years. We have documented, for the first time, regression of AN in temporal association with disappearance of circulating anti-insulin receptor autoantibodies and achievement of euglycemia in a patient with type B insulin resistance.

  8. Association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity Screening Tool with Weight Status, Percent Body Fat, and Acanthosis Nigricans in Children from a Low Socioeconomic, Urban Community.

    PubMed

    Yee, Kimbo E; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Turek, Kelly; Bakhoya, Marion; Carlson, Joseph J; Sharman, Mahesh; Lamb, Erin; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2015-11-05

    To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool with weight status, percent body fat, and acanthosis nigricans (AN) in 6- to 13-year-old children from a low socioeconomic, urban community. Children (n=415) from four elementary schools located around Flint, Michigan were assessed for body mass index, percent body fat, and AN. The FNPA screening tool was completed by parents. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess differences in FNPA score by sex and presence of AN. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the FNPA (tertiles) with weight status and AN. Children with AN (13.7%) had a significantly lower FNPA score (56.3 + 7.1) compared with children without AN (61.0 + 7.1; P<.05). Children with FNPA scores in the lowest tertile (high-risk) had odds ratios of 1.74 (95% CI =1.05 - 2.91) and 2.77 (95% CI =1.22 - 6.27) compared with children with FNPA scores in the highest tertile (low-risk) for being overfat and having AN, respectively. Although the FNPA screening tool did not predict risk for being overweight or obese, it was significantly associated with an increased odds of children at risk for being overfat or having AN.

  9. Comparison of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate in axillary acanthosis nigricans: A case series of patients in a before-after trial

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Amirhoushang; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mirshams Shahshahani, Mostafa; Hejazi, Seyede Pardis; Hosseini, Elhamsadat; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a brown to black, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin that usually involves cutaneous folds. Treatment of AN is important regarding cosmetic reasons and various therapeutic modalities have been used for these purposes. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate for treatment of axillary-AN. Methods: Fifteen patients with bilateral axillary-AN were studied in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Diagnosis was confirmed by two independent dermatologists. Each side skin lesion was randomly allocated to either topical mixed cream of tretinoin 0.05%- ammonium lactate 12% or long-pulsed alexandrite laser. Duration of treatment was 14 weeks. At endpoint, the mean percent reduction from baseline in pigmentation area was compared between the two groups. Results: The study population consisted of 15 patients three males and 12, females. The mean age of patients was 28.5±4.9 years. The mean percent reduction was 18.3±10.6%, in tretinoin/ammonium lactate group and 25.7±11.8% in laser group (P=0.004). Conclusion: These findings indicate that the application of alexandrite laser is a relative effective method for treatment of axillary-AN. However, this issue requires further studies with prolonged follow-up period. PMID:27999648

  10. Comparison of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate in axillary acanthosis nigricans: A case series of patients in a before-after trial.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Amirhoushang; Noormohammadpour, Pedram; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Mirshams Shahshahani, Mostafa; Hejazi, Seyede Pardis; Hosseini, Elhamsadat; Azizpour, Arghavan

    2016-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a brown to black, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin that usually involves cutaneous folds. Treatment of AN is important regarding cosmetic reasons and various therapeutic modalities have been used for these purposes. The goal of this study was to compare the effectiveness of long-pulsed alexandrite laser and topical tretinoin-ammonium lactate for treatment of axillary-AN. Fifteen patients with bilateral axillary-AN were studied in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Diagnosis was confirmed by two independent dermatologists. Each side skin lesion was randomly allocated to either topical mixed cream of tretinoin 0.05%- ammonium lactate 12% or long-pulsed alexandrite laser. Duration of treatment was 14 weeks. At endpoint, the mean percent reduction from baseline in pigmentation area was compared between the two groups. The study population consisted of 15 patients three males and 12, females. The mean age of patients was 28.5±4.9 years. The mean percent reduction was 18.3±10.6%, in tretinoin/ammonium lactate group and 25.7±11.8% in laser group (P=0.004). These findings indicate that the application of alexandrite laser is a relative effective method for treatment of axillary-AN. However, this issue requires further studies with prolonged follow-up period.

  11. Fatal malignant hyperthermia-like syndrome with rhabdomyolysis complicating the presentation of diabetes mellitus in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Abby S; Olney, Robert C; Blackett, Piers R; Marshall, Bess A

    2003-06-01

    This report describes a new fatal syndrome observed in adolescent males at the initial presentation of diabetes mellitus. The features include hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma complicated by a malignant hyperthermia-like picture with fever, rhabdomyolysis, and severe cardiovascular instability. Case series. Pediatric intensive care units of 3 tertiary care facilities in the United States. Six adolescent males, 5/6 obese with acanthosis nigricans, 4/6 black. Four of 6 patients died. Four of 6 patients did not have significant ketosis. Six of 6 patients had increased temperature after the administration of insulin. The underlying etiology of this syndrome remains unclear. Possibilities include an underlying metabolic disorder such as a fatty acid oxidation defect, an unrecognized infection, exposure to an unknown toxin, or a genetic predisposition to malignant hyperthermia. Evaluation for all these possibilities and empiric treatment with dantrolene should be considered for this type of patient until this syndrome is better characterized.

  12. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  13. Host regulation by the ectophagous parasitoid wasp Bracon nigricans.

    PubMed

    Becchimanzi, Andrea; Avolio, Maddalena; Di Lelio, Ilaria; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Grimaldi, Annalisa; de Eguileor, Magda; Pennacchio, Francesco; Caccia, Silvia

    2017-08-01

    The host regulation process has been widely investigated in endophagous parasitoid wasps, which in most cases finely interact with living hosts (i.e. koinobiont parasitoids). In contrast, only very limited information is available for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and rapidly suppress their victims (i.e. idiobiont parasitoids). Here we try to fill this research gap by investigating the host regulation by Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous idiobiont wasp species. Parasitism, mainly by venom action, is able to redirect host metabolism in order to enhance its nutritional suitability for the developing parasitoid larvae and to provide the required metabolic support to host tissues. The observed alterations of the host titers of haemolymph proteins, carbohydrates and acylglycerols are associated with a parasitoid-induced mobilization of nutrients stored in the fat body. This tissue undergoes a controlled degradation mediated by a close surface interaction with haemocytes, where a cathepsin L activity is localized, as demonstrated by immunolocalization, biochemical and transcriptional data. B. nigricans parasitism does not markedly influence the survival of haemocytes, even though a persistent suppression of the immune competence is observed in parasitized hosts, which show a reduced capacity to encapsulate and melanize non-self objects. These immune alterations likely allow a more efficient food uptake and use by the ectophagous larvae. The obtained results indicate that the host regulation process in basal lineages of parasitic Hymenoptera is more complex than expected and shares functional similarities with adaptive strategies occurring in derived koinobiont species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: SADDAN

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF Open All Close All Description SADDAN (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a ... Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans Other Diagnosis ...

  16. Calcivirus (SMSV-5) infection in experimentally inoculated Opaleye fish (Girella nigricans).

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Prato, C M; Bray, H L

    1981-01-01

    At 15 degrees C, San Miguel sea lion virus infected fish (Girella nigricans), producing 10(7).6 TCID50 per gram of spleen, replicated in Vero cells (10(8) TCID50/gm) and retained viability after 14 days exposure to salt water (10(5) TCID50/ml dropped to 10(2).

  17. Natural growth, otolith shape and diet analyses of Odontesthes nigricans Richardson (Atherinopsidae) from southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattuca, M. E.; Lozano, I. E.; Brown, D. R.; Renzi, M.; Luizon, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Age and growth, otolith shape and diet of Odontesthes nigricans were analysed in order to provide an insight into the life history of the species and furthermore, to assess their possible use as a tool for discriminating silverside populations from the South Atlantic Ocean (Punta María) and Beagle Channel waters (Varela Bay). The age and growth analysis was performed by counting daily increments and annual marks in sagittae otoliths. Length-at-age data of individuals <65 mm standard length (SL) were fitted to the Laird-Gompertz model (SLt = 6.22 exp 2.45 [1-exp (-0.02t)]), which provided an excellent description of the pattern of daily growth for O. nigricans juveniles from Varela Bay. The spawning period was also assessed through back-calculation of hatching dates and it extended from November to February. The count of annual marks in larger individuals identified 7 year classes (0+ to 6+) in Varela Bay and 6 year classes (0+ to 5+) in Punta María. The von Bertalanffy growth model explained more than 95% of the growth patterns observed in O. nigricans from Varela Bay (SLt = 245.49 [1 - exp -0.24(t+0.46)]) and Punta María (SLt = 345.09 [1 - exp -0.15(t+0.31)]). Particularly, k and SL∞ varied significantly between sampling sites; reaching Punta María a larger SL∞ value with a lower k. Otolith shape variation was also explored using elliptical Fourier analysis and it showed significant differences between Varela Bay and Punta María populations. Furthermore, gut content analysis characterized O. nigricans as an invertebrate predator, being benthic organisms the most important components of its diet, which also showed significant site dependence. The use of all these analyses contributed to a holistic approach which maximized the likelihood of correctly identifying both O. nigricans populations in the southernmost limit of the species distribution.

  18. Reference intervals for serum biochemistries of molting Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in Northern Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2017-01-01

    We determined reference intervals for nine serum biochemistries in samples from 329 molting, after-hatch-year, Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) in Alaska, US. Cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids differed by sex, but no other differences were noted.

  19. Overexpression of AQP3 and AQP10 in the skin exacerbates psoriasiform acanthosis.

    PubMed

    Soler, David C; Young, Andrew E; Griffith, Alexis D; Fu, Ping; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S; Popkin, Daniel L

    2017-01-23

    We previously observed that aquaporin-3 and aquaporin-10 are upregulated in the epidermis of hand dermatitis patients [1]. To address the functional relevance of this upregulation, we overexpressed AQP3/AQP10 in mice using the human K1 promoter. Combining imiquimod with detergent-containing water challenge, a common trigger in hand and other dermatidities, resulted in an increase in acanthosis in mice overexpressing AQP3 or AQP3 and AQP10. Aquaporin overexpression also drove a trend towards greater weight loss in these animals. These data support a role for cutaneous aquaporins in the pathogenesis of dermatitis and as a potential target in their treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraction of polysaccharides from Phellinus nigricans mycelia and their antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Chenyu; Quan, Yue

    2014-01-01

    In this study, response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction of polysaccharides from Phellinus nigricans mycelia. A central composite design was adopted to determine optimum parameters (extraction time, extraction temperature, extraction frequency, and ratio of water to raw material) that could yield a maximum polysaccharide. Results revealed the following optimum extraction conditions: extraction time, 2.8h; ratio of water to raw material, 28; extraction frequency, 5; and extraction temperature, 95 °C. Under optimized conditions, the experimental yield of P. nigricans mycelia polysaccharides was 15.33 ± 0.21%, which is consistent with the predicted yield. The antioxidant activity assay in vitro showed that the polysaccharides exhibited a high scavenging activity against superoxide anion, hydroxyl, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. These polysaccharides also exhibited a strong reducing power. Thus, these polysaccharides can be used as natural antioxidants in functional foods or medicine.

  1. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  2. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans.

    PubMed

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures.

  3. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    During the years after the invasion of Western Palaearctic tomato crops by the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous generalist parasitoids have been recorded on this new host. Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South American tomato leafminer. However, most of the available data on this species deal with taxonomic aspects and its recovery in faunistic surveys. The current study documents the biology of B. nigricans on South American tomato leafminer, and provides a scientific basis for its inclusion in South American tomato leafminer management programs in Afro-Eurasia. We studied several B. nigricans life-history traits relevant to juvenile development and reproduction by females. B. nigricans proved to be an idiobiont and a synovigenic ectoparasitoid of mature South American tomato leafminer larvae. Several B. nigricans reproductive traits were influenced by the age of the mothers; on average, the progeny had a slightly male-biased sex ratio (60% males) and a low rate of successful development (37%). Adult females lived 42.8 d and produced an average of 29.8 offspring. These biological parameters yielded an intrinsic rate of increase of 0.052. Females showed behavioral plasticity in host use, as initial host paralysis was followed by host-feeding, oviposition, or host rejection, with a consequent high mortality rate among hosts exposed to parasitism. Although further field studies are needed, these data, obtained in laboratory conditions, suggest that B. nigricans should be considered as a potential biological control agent of in newly invaded areas of the Palaearctic region.

  4. Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans grown diazotrophically on kerosene as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    García-Esquivel, Gabriela; Calva-Calva, Graciano; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Fernández-Linares, Luis Carlos; Vázquez, Refugio Rodríguez; Esparza-García, Fernando José

    2009-03-01

    Encystment of Azotobacter nigricans was induced by its diazotrophic cultivation on kerosene. Its growth and nitrogenase activity were affected by kerosene in comparison to cultures grown on sucrose. Electron microscopy of vegetative cells showed that when nitrogenase activity was higher and the poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules were not present to a significant extent, peripheral bodies were abundant. After 8 days of culture on kerosene, the presence of cysts with intracellular bunches of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate granules was observed. Germination of cysts bears germinating multicelled yet unbroken capsule cysts with up to three cells inside. This is the first report of encystment induction of Azotobacter species grown on kerosene.

  5. Use of immobilized cells of Rhizopus nigricans for the 11 alpha -hydroxylation of progesterone

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, I.S.; Dunnill, P.; Lilly, M.D.

    1981-02-01

    The filamentous fungus, Rhizopus nigricans, was immobilized in polyacrylamide, alginate, and agar gels and its ability to 11 Alpha -hydroxylate progesterone was examined. No activity was detected using polyacrylamide gel but both agar and alginate gels have proved capable of hydroxylation. Agar gels displayed faster rates and higher yields. It was possible to induce hydroxylase synthesis within agar and alginate gels, and microscopical examination provided evidence for hyphal growth within these gels. The concept of increased biomass was used to explain the observed increases in the rates of hydroxylase activity of the immobilized cells. Conversely, hyphal overcrowding was postulated for the rapid inactivation observed under some operating conditions.

  6. A new species of Myotis from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico, with comments on variation in Myotis nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.

    1978-01-01

    A new Myotis is described from the Islas Tres Marias, Nayarit, Mexico. the new species is distinct from related taxa n the adjacent Mexican mainland (M. californicus, M. leibii, and M. carteri), although most closely related to M. carteri as shown by univariate and canonical variates analyses. An analysis of six groups of M. nigricans from Middle and South America supports the elevation of M. nigricans carteri to specific status, confirms the distinctness of M. nigricus extremus, but fails to substantiate subspecific status for bats from Columbia and Ecuador, recent recognized as M. n. punensis.

  7. Mesothelioma - malignant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Mesothelioma - malignant; Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) Images Respiratory system References Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Pleural tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  8. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Species delimitation of three species within the Russula subgenus Compacta in Korea: R. eccentrica, R. nigricans, and R. subnigricans.

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Oh, Seung-Yoon; Jung, Paul Eunil; Seok, Soon Ja; Fong, Jonathan J; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing individual Russula species can be very difficult due to extensive phenotypic plasticity and obscure morphological and anatomical discontinuities. In this study, we use the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) markers to identify and study the genetic diversity of species in the Russula subgenus Compacta in Korea. We focus on two morphologically similar species that are often misidentified for each other: R. nigricans and R. subnigricans. Based on molecular phylogenetic analyses, we identify three subgroups of R. nigricans, with two from Asia and one from Europe/North America. Surprisingly, we find Korean R. subnigricans are more closely related to R. eccentrica from North America than the type specimen of R. subnigricans from Japan. These molecular data, along with habitat data, reveal that Korean R. subnigricans had previously been misclassified and should now be recognized as R. eccentrica. Both ITS and LSU exhibit high interspecific and low intraspecific variation for R. eccentrica, R. nigricans, and R. subnigricans. These markers provide enough resolutional power to differentiate these species and uncover phylogeographic structure, and will be powerful tools for future ecological studies of Russula.

  10. Habitat Fragmentation in Arid Zones: A Case Study of Linaria nigricans Under Land Use Changes (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  11. Malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant ... et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 17th ed. [online version]. New York, NY: McGraw ...

  12. Purification, partial characterization and antitumor effect of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenqian; Chen, Guochuang; Zhang, Pengying; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a homogeneous exopolysaccharide (EPS1-1) was purified from the fermentation broth of Rhizopus nigricans. EPS1-1 was composed of glucose, mannose, galactose and fructose in the molar ratio of 5.89:3.64:3.20:1.00 with weight average molecular weight of 9.7×10(3)g/mol. EPS1-1 could significantly inhibit proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells in vitro. EPS1-1 also induced S phase cell cycle arrest and increased sub-G0/G1 population, a hallmark of apoptosis. The results of morphological characterization and flow cytometry showed that EPS1-1 induced apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 cells. EPS1-1 caused dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulation of Bax and p53 mRNA expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 mRNA expression, which suggested that mitochondrial pathway was involved in the EPS1-1-induced apoptosis. These findings bring new insights into the potential use of EPS1-1 as antitumor drug against human colorectal carcinoma.

  13. Horizontal movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, R.T.; Wells, R.J.D.; Rooker, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined movements of Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the Gulf of Mexico based upon 42 pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags. Long deployments (including one 334-day track) revealed diverse movement patterns within the Gulf of Mexico. North-south seasonal changes in blue marlin distribution showed strong correspondence with established seasonal patterns of sea surface temperature and primary production. During the summer spawning season, blue marlin utilized outer shelf and shelf edge waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and longer duration tracks indicated overwintering habitats in the Bay of Campeche. Egress occurred throughout the year and was difficult to determine because some tracks ended in the Straits of Florida (n = 3) while other tracks recorded movement through it or the Yucatan Channel (n = 4). Our results indicate that Atlantic blue marlin have a more restricted geographic range of habitats than previously recognized and that the Gulf of Mexico provides spatially dynamic suitable habitat that is utilized year-round through seasonal movements. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Natal and breeding philopatry in a black brant, Branta bernicla nigricans, metapopulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Sedinger, James S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Rockwell, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    We estimated natal and breeding philopatry and dispersal probabilities for a metapopulation of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) based on observations of marked birds at six breeding colonies in Alaska, 1986–1994. Both adult females and males exhibited high (>0.90) probability of philopatry to breeding colonies. Probability of natal philopatry was significantly higher for females than males. Natal dispersal of males was recorded between every pair of colonies, whereas natal dispersal of females was observed between only half of the colony pairs. We suggest that female-biased philopatry was the result of timing of pair formation and characteristics of the mating system of brant, rather than factors related to inbreeding avoidance or optimal discrepancy. Probability of natal philopatry of females increased with age but declined with year of banding. Age-related increase in natal philopatry was positively related to higher breeding probability of older females. Declines in natal philopatry with year of banding corresponded negatively to a period of increasing population density; therefore, local population density may influence the probability of nonbreeding and gene flow among colonies.

  15. Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.; Ward, David H.

    2004-01-01

    In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

  16. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA detects highly divergent haplotypes in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    PubMed

    Finnerty, J R; Block, B A

    1992-06-01

    We were able to differentiate between species of billfish (Istiophoridae family) and to detect considerable intraspecific variation in the blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) by directly sequencing a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, 612-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Thirteen variable nucleotide sites separated blue marlin (n = 26) into 7 genotypes. On average, these genotypes differed by 5.7 base substitutions. A smaller sample of swordfish from an equally broad geographic distribution displayed relatively little intraspecific variation, with an average of 1.3 substitutions separating different genotypes. A cladistic analysis of blue marlin cytochrome b variants indicates two major divergent evolutionary lines within the species. The frequencies of these two major evolutionary lines differ significantly between Atlantic and Pacific ocean basins. This finding is important given that the Atlantic stocks of blue marlin are considered endangered. Migration from the Pacific can help replenish the numbers of blue marlin in the Atlantic, but the loss of certain mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in the Atlantic due to overfishing probably could not be remedied by an influx of Pacific fish because of their absence in the Pacific population. Fishery management strategies should attempt to preserve the genetic diversity within the species. The detection of DNA sequence polymorphism indicates the utility of PCR technology in pelagic fishery genetics.

  17. Geographic variation in the diet of opaleye (Girella nigricans) with respect to temperature and habitat.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Michael D; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    We studied diet variation in an omnivorous fish across its range, which allowed us to test predictions about the effect of ocean temperature and habitat on herbivory. Throughout most of its geographic range, from Southern California to central Baja California, the opaleye (Girella nigricans) fed primarily on red and green algae, but there was significant variation in the amount of algal material in the diet among sites. The proportion of algal material in the diet was related to habitat, with algae making up a larger proportion of a fish's diet in algal-dominated habitats than in urchin barrens. Independent of habitat, the proportion of algal material in the diet increased with environmental temperature. Analyses of stable isotopes revealed similar changes in trophic position and confirmed that these associations with diet persisted over relatively long time scales. The shift to a more herbivorous diet at warmer temperatures is in agreement with past laboratory studies on this species that show a diet-dependent change in performance with temperature and can indicate a diet shift across the species' geographic range to meet its physiological demands. A possible plastic response to herbivory was a longer gut relative to body size. The results of this study are consistent with past findings that associate temperature with increases in the relative diversity of herbivorous fishes in tropical parts of the ocean.

  18. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  19. Habitat fragmentation in arid zones: a case study of Linaria nigricans under land use changes (SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Peñas, Julio; Benito, Blas; Lorite, Juan; Ballesteros, Miguel; Cañadas, Eva María; Martinez-Ortega, Montserrat

    2011-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation due to human activities is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss. In Mediterranean areas the species have co-evolved with traditional farming, which has recently been replaced for more severe and aggressive practices. We use a methodological approach that enables the evaluation of the impact that agriculture and land use changes have for the conservation of sensitive species. As model species, we selected Linaria nigricans, a critically endangered plant from arid and semiarid ecosystems in south-eastern Spain. A chronosequence of the evolution of the suitable habitat for the species over more than 50 years has been reconstructed and several geometrical fragmentation indices have been calculated. A new index called fragmentation cadence (FC) is proposed to quantify the historical evolution of habitat fragmentation regardless of the habitat size. The application of this index has provided objective forecasting of the changes of each remnant population of L. nigricans. The results indicate that greenhouses and construction activities (mainly for tourist purposes) exert a strong impact on the populations of this endangered species. The habitat depletion showed peaks that constitute the destruction of 85% of the initial area in only 20 years for some populations of L. nigricans. According to the forecast established by the model, a rapid extinction could take place and some populations may disappear as early as the year 2030. Fragmentation-cadence analysis can help identify population units of primary concern for its conservation, by means of the adoption of improved management and regulatory measures.

  20. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  1. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cantin, R Y; Poole, A; Ryan, J F

    1986-10-01

    The increasing use of intravenous and inhalation sedation in the dental office has the potential of increasing the incidence of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in susceptible subjects. The object of this article is to present two cases of MH and to discuss its pathophysiology, its clinical picture, and its management in the light of the current literature. Stringent screening procedures should be adopted and maintained in order to channel suspected cases to appropriate centers for expert consultation and management. It is further advocated that a program of education for patients and their families be instituted, as it is an essential prerequisite of effective prophylaxis.

  2. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an uncommon, life-threatening pharmacogenetic disorder of the skeletal muscle. It presents as a hypermetabolic response in susceptible individuals to potent volatile anesthetics with/without depolarizing muscle relaxants; in rare cases, to stress from exertion or heat stress. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MHS) is inherited as an autosomally dominant trait with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. It is known that the pathophysiology of MH is related to an uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes resulting in hypermetabolism of the skeletal muscle. In most cases, defects in the ryanodine receptor are responsible for the functional changes of calcium regulation in MH, and more than 300 mutations have been identified in the RYR1 gene, located on chromosome 19q13.1. The classic signs of MH include increase of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, skeletal muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia and acidosis. Up to now, muscle contracture test is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of MHS though molecular genetic test is used, on a limited basis so far to diagnose MHS. The mortality of MH is dramatically decreased from 70-80% to less than 5%, due to an introduction of dantrolene sodium for treatment of MH, early detection of MH episode using capnography, and the introduction of diagnostic testing for MHS. This review summarizes the clinically essential and important knowledge of MH, and presents new developments in the field. PMID:23198031

  3. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Bandschapp, Oliver; Girard, Thierry

    2012-07-31

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a subclinical myopathy, usually triggered by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants. Clinical symptoms are variable, and the condition is sometimes difficult to identify. Nevertheless, rapid recognition and specific as well as symptomatic treatment are crucial to avoid a lethal outcome. Molecular genetic investigations have confirmed the skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor to be the major MH locus with more than 70% of MH families carrying a mutation in this gene. There is no screening method to test for MH, as current tests are invasive (open muscle biopsy) or restricted to MH families with known MH-associated mutations (molecular genetic testing). The prevalence of the MH trait is unknown, because the clinical penetrance after contact with triggering agents is very variable. More recently, MH mutations have been associated with rhabdomyolysis following statin therapy or with non-pharmacological triggering, such as exertional heat stroke.

  4. Anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide from Rhizopus nigricans on CT26 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Cao, Jianfeng; Chen, Guochuang; Xu, Yanghui; Lu, Jingbo; Fang, Fang; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-07-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Rhizopus nigricans. Our results showed EPS could significantly inhibit the tumor growth and increase the immune organs index of CT26 tumor-bearing mice. EPS treatment increased the productions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in serum. The increase of percentage of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells among total spleen T lymphocyte was also observed. Furthermore, EPS remarkably stimulate spleen lymphocytes proliferation in the absence or presence of mitogens. In addition, we found that EPS had synergistic effect with chemotherapy and improved immunosuppressive effect induced by 5-Fu. In summary, these findings indicated that the antitumor effects of EPS might be partly due to immune function activation and it might have potential to be used in the treatment for colorectal cancer.

  5. [Malignant hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Metterlein, T; Schuster, F; Graf, B M; Anetseder, M

    2014-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hereditary, mostly subclinical myopathy. Trigger substances, such as volatile anesthetic agents and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can induce a potentially fatal metabolic increase in predisposed patients caused by a dysregulation of the myoplasmic calcium (Ca) concentration. Mutations in the dihydropyridine ryanodine receptor complex in combination with the trigger substances are responsible for an uncontrolled release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This leads to activation of the contractile apparatus and a massive increase in cellular energy production. Exhaustion of the cellular energy reserves ultimately results in local muscle cell destruction and subsequent cardiovascular failure. The clinical picture of MH episodes is very variable. Early symptoms are hypoxia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia whereas the body temperature rise, after which MH is named, often occurs later. Decisive for the course of MH episodes is a timely targeted therapy. Following introduction of the hydantoin derivative dantrolene, the previously high mortality of fulminant MH episodes could be reduced to well under 10 %. An MH predisposition can be detected using the invasive in vitro contracture test (IVCT) or mutation analysis. Few elaborate diagnostic procedures are in the developmental stage.

  6. A time series analysis of Prochilodus nigricans landings caught by small-scale fisheries in the lower stretch of the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Santana, I F; Freitas, C E C

    2013-02-01

    We developed a time series analysis using data on curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans), which landed in Santarém, a small city located on the right banks of the Amazon River. A 10-year record of monthly average catches per day of P. nigricans was analyzed using forecasting procedures in the open-source software GRETL 1.7.8. We established two models from the identifications made with the correlograms of hyperparametrization and seasonal differences. The autoregressive terms of the model reach three years, indicating that individuals of the species are being caught around the age of three. This may indicate that the curimatãs in the landings at Santarém from 1992 to 2002 were more than two years old, potentially a sign of a lack of fishing pressure on the lower age groups.

  7. Preliminary investigation of a possible lung worm (Parafilaroides decorus), fish (Girella nigricans), and marine mammal (Callorhinus ursinus) cycle for San Miguel sea lion virus type 5.

    PubMed

    Smith, A W; Skilling, D E; Brown, R J

    1980-11-01

    Colostrum-deprived neonatal Northern fur seal pups (Callorhinus ursinus) were exposed to San Miguel sea lion virus type 5 (SMSV-5) by feeding them fish (Girella nigricans) infected with virus or fish infected with both the sea lion lung worm larvae (Parafilaroides decorus) and virus. Virus infection was demonstrated in 8 of 9 pups, and 1 of these developed a vesicular lesion on the flipper. In this sequence, P decorus larvae exposed to SMSV-5 were fed to G nigricans held at 15 C in a salt water aquarium; 32 days later, these fish were killed, then fed to the fur seal pups. The vesicle developed 22 days subsequent to this and SMSV-5 was reisolated from the lesion. The SMSV-5 was shown to persist for at least 23 days in infected neonatal fur seals. Attempts to establish P decorus infection in Northern fur seal pups were apparently unsuccessful.

  8. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Henry; Davis, Mark; James, Danielle; Pollock, Neil; Stowell, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with greater frequency. Dantrolene

  9. Repetitive DNAs in the slug Milax nigricans: association of ribosomal (18S-28S and 5S rDNA) and (TTAGGG)n telomeric sequences in the slug M. nigricans (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Vitturi, R; Sineo, L; Volpe, N; Lannino, A; Colomba, M

    2004-01-01

    Spermatocyte chromosomes of the slug Milax nigricans (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Pulmonata) were studied using silver staining (Ag-NOR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with four repetitive DNA probes [18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, (TTAGGG)n and (GATA)n]. Silver impregnation was inadequate to localize the chromosome sites of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) since no silver dots occurred on the chromosomes at spermatogonial metaphase and a diffuse silver stainability could be observed on the bivalents at metaphase-I. Unlike silver staining, single-colour rDNA FISH consistently mapped major ribosomal sites (18S-28S rDNA) on two small-sized chromosomes in spermatogonial cells and on the correspondent metaphase-I bivalent in spermatocytes. While telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence hybridized to all chromosomes, (GATA)n probe localized abundant hybridization sites, dispersed throughout the genome. Simultaneous double-colour FISH demonstrated a close chromosomal association of 18S-28S rDNA, 5S rDNA and (TTAGGG)n.

  10. Assessment of shoreline vegetation in relation to use by molting black brant Branta bernicla nigricans on the Alaska Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weller, Milton W.; Jensen, K.C.; Taylor, Eric J.; Miller, Mark W.; Bollinger, Karen S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Markon, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of large thaw lakes on the Alaska Coastal Plain for molting Pacific black brant Branta bernicla nigricans, distribution and life form of shoreline vegetation were assessed using several scales: satellite imagery, point-intercept transects, cover quadrats, and a parameter for water regime. Brant population and distribution estimates from aerial surveys were used to classify large lakes into high, moderate, and low use. Correlations between brant and abundance of their preferred feeding site - moss flats - were best demonstrated by satellite imagery. Intercepts and cover ratings were not correlated, presumably because these techniques were less efficient at assessing area. General observations suggested that the presence of islands, large ice floes, and possibly other physical attributes of the habitat, influenced brant distribution. This area is unique because of low-lying, drained-lake basins that have ideal combinations of moss flats and large water areas where brant seek protection disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain. in water or on ice floes. Protection of the area from disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain.

  11. Life-history implications of large-scale spatial variation in adult survival of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, James S.; Chelgren, Nathan; Lindberg, Mark S.; Obritchkewitch, Tim; Kirk, Morgan T.; Martin, Philip D.; Anderson, Betty A.; Ward, David H.

    2002-01-01

    We used capture-recapture methods to estimate adult survival rates for adult female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter “brant”) from three colonies in Alaska, two on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and one on Alaska's Arctic coast. Costs of migration and reproductive effort varied among those colonies, enabling us to examine variation in survival in relation to variation in these other variables. We used the Barker model in program MARK to estimate true annual survival for brant from the three colonies. Models allowing for spatial variation in survival were among the most parsimonious models but were indistinguishable from a model with no spatial variation. Point estimates of annual survival were slightly higher for brant from the Arctic (0.90 ± 0.036) than for brant from either Tutakoke River (0.85 ± 0.004) or Kokechik Bay (0.86 ± 0.011). Thus, our survival estimates do not support a hypothesis that the cost of longer migrations or harvest experienced by brant from the Arctic reduced their annual survival relative to brant from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. Spatial variation in survival provides weak support for life-history theory because brant from the region with lower reproductive investment had slightly higher survival.

  12. Small-scale spatial variation in the elemental composition of otoliths of Stegastes nigricans (Pomacentridae) in French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo-Yat, Alain; Meekan, Mark; Munksgaard, Niels; Parry, David; Planes, Serge; Wolter, Marten; Carleton, John

    2005-12-01

    Solution-based inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine if Stegastes nigricans collected from 15 sites in French Polynesia could be distinguished by the trace element composition of their otoliths. A total of 293 adults were collected by spearing and their otoliths were analysed. We found that elemental signatures differed significantly among sites within and between the islands of Tahiti and Moorea ( p<0.001), primarily due to variation in concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr and Y. The otoliths of fish collected within Papeete Harbour in Tahiti had distinctive elemental signatures characterised by relatively high concentrations of Mn. Otoliths of these fish could be distinguished from others that were collected only a small distance (200 m) from the harbour. This is the first time that differences in chemical composition of otoliths have been reported at such small spatial scales and this trait may prove useful for the studies of connectivity of populations at within reef scales.

  13. Visual fields, eye movements, and scanning behavior of a sit-and-wait predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans).

    PubMed

    Gall, Megan D; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Foraging mode influences the dominant sensory modality used by a forager and likely the strategies of information gathering used in foraging and anti-predator contexts. We assessed three components of visual information gathering in a sit-and-wait avian predator, the black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans): configuration of the visual field, degree of eye movement, and scanning behavior through head-movement rates. We found that black phoebes have larger lateral visual fields than similarly sized ground-foraging passerines, as well as relatively narrower binocular and blind areas. Black phoebes moved their eyes, but eye movement amplitude was relatively smaller than in other passerines. Black phoebes may compensate for eye movement constraints with head movements. The rate of head movements increased before attacking prey in comparison to non-foraging contexts and before movements between perches. These findings suggest that black phoebes use their lateral visual fields, likely subtended by areas of high acuity in the retina, to track prey items in a three-dimensional space through active head movements. These head movements may increase depth perception, motion detection and tracking. Studying information gathering through head movement changes, rather than body posture changes (head-up, head-down) as generally presented in the literature, may allow us to better understand the mechanisms of information gathering from a comparative perspective.

  14. [Malignant soft tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Schauer, A; Altmannsberger, M

    1984-01-01

    This article is a survey of actual aspects. With regard to frequency, the malignant fibrous histocytoma comes first, followed by lipo- and fibrosarcoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant schwannoma, malignant tumours proceeding from arteries and veins and the unstriated musculature. Staging and grading of these tumours are difficult. Until now their overall TNM-classification was not possible due to insufficient hard criteria.

  15. Reconciling patterns of inter-ocean molecular variance from four classes of molecular markers in blue marlin (Makaira nigricans).

    PubMed

    Buonaccorsi, V P; McDowell, J R; Graves, J E

    2001-05-01

    Different classes of molecular markers occasionally yield discordant views of population structure within a species. Here, we examine the distribution of molecular variance from 14 polymorphic loci comprising four classes of molecular markers within approximately 400 blue marlin individuals (Makaira nigricans). Samples were collected from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans over 5 years. Data from five hypervariable tetranucleotide microsatellite loci and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of whole molecule mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were reported and compared with previous analyses of allozyme and single-copy nuclear DNA (scnDNA) loci. Temporal variance in allele frequencies was nonsignificant in nearly all cases. Mitochondrial and microsatellite loci revealed striking phylogeographic partitioning among Atlantic and Pacific Ocean samples. A large cluster of alleles was present almost exclusively in Atlantic individuals at one microsatellite locus and for mtDNA, suggesting that, if gene flow occurs, it is likely to be unidirectional from Pacific to Atlantic oceans. Mitochondrial DNA inter-ocean divergence (FST) was almost four times greater than microsatellite or combined nuclear divergences including allozyme and scnDNA markers. Estimates of Neu varied by five orders of magnitude among marker classes. Using mathematical and computer simulation approaches, we show that substantially different distributions of FST are expected from marker classes that differ in mode of inheritance and rate of mutation, without influence of natural selection or sex-biased dispersal. Furthermore, divergent FST values can be reconciled by quantifying the balance between genetic drift, mutation and migration. These results illustrate the usefulness of a mitochondrial analysis of population history, and relative precision of nuclear estimates of gene flow based on a mean of several loci.

  16. Fidelity and breeding probability related to population density and individual quality in black brent geese Branta bernicla nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.; Lindberg, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    1. Patterns of temporary emigration (associated with non-breeding) are important components of variation in individual quality. Permanent emigration from the natal area has important implications for both individual fitness and local population dynamics. 2. We estimated both permanent and temporary emigration of black brent geese (Branta bernicla nigricans Lawrence) from the Tutakoke River colony, using observations of marked brent geese on breeding and wintering areas, and recoveries of ringed individuals by hunters. We used the likelihood developed by Lindberg, Kendall, Hines & Anderson 2001 (Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration. Biometrics, 57, 273-281) to assess hypotheses and estimate parameters. 3. Temporary emigration (the converse of breeding) varied among age classes up to age 5, and differed between individuals that bred in the previous years vs. those that did not. Consistent with the hypothesis of variation in individual quality, individuals with a higher probability of breeding in one year also had a higher probability of breeding the next year. 4. Natal fidelity of females ranged from 0.70 ?? 0.07-0.96 ?? 0.18 and averaged 0.83. In contrast to Lindberg et al. (1998), we did not detect a relationship between fidelity and local population density. Natal fidelity was negatively correlated with first-year survival, suggesting that competition among individuals of the same age for breeding territories influenced dispersal. Once females nested at the Tutakoke River, colony breeding fidelity was 1.0. 5. Our analyses show substantial variation in individual quality associated with fitness, which other analyses suggest is strongly influenced by early environment. Our analyses also suggest substantial interchange among breeding colonies of brent geese, as first shown by Lindberg et al. (1998).

  17. Survival and breeding advantages of larger Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) goslings: Within- and among-cohort variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between mass late in the first summer and survival and return to the natal breeding colony for 12 cohorts (1986-1997) of female Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). We used Cormack-Jolly-Seber methods and the program MARK to analyze capture-recapture data. Models included two kinds of residuals from regressions of mass on days after peak of hatch when goslings were measured; one based on the entire sample (12 cohorts) and the other based only on individuals in the same cohort. Some models contained date of peak of hatch (a group covariate related to lateness of nesting in that year) and mean cohort residual mass. Finally, models allowed survival to vary among cohorts. The best model of encounter probability included an effect of residual mass on encounter probability and allowed encounter probability to vary among age classes and across years. All competitive models contained an effect of one of the estimates of residual mass; relatively larger goslings survived their first year at higher rates. Goslings in cohorts from later years in the analysis tended to have lower first-year survival, after controlling for residual mass, which reflected the generally smaller mean masses for these cohorts but was potentially also a result of population-density effects additional to those on growth. Variation among cohorts in mean mass accounted for 56% of variation among cohorts in first-year survival. Encounter probabilities, which were correlated with breeding probability, increased with relative mass, which suggests that larger goslings not only survived at higher rates but also bred at higher rates. Although our findings support the well-established linkage between gosling mass and fitness, they suggest that additional environmental factors also influence first-year survival. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2007.

  18. Impact of the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence in the prostatic complex of the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-07-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression during the annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of total testicular regression on the prostatic morphophisyology and its regulation. The prostatic complex (PC) of animals from the four periods of the reproductive cycle (active, regressing, regressed, and recrudescence) was analyzed by different histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical procedures to characterize its variations, analyze its hormonal regulation and evaluate whether the prostate is affected by the processes of testicular regression and recrudescence. The results indicated a decrease in the prostatic parameters from the active to regressed periods, which are related to decreases in the testicular production of testosterone and in the prostatic expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα) and aromatase. However, in regressed-recrudescence periods, the prostatic expression of AR, ERα and aromatase increased, indicating the reactivation of the PC. Despite this, the PC appears to have a slower reactivation and seems not to follow the testicular recrudescence in morphological and morphometric terms. With these data, we demonstrate that the prostatic physiology is directly affected by total testicular regression and conclude that it is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, via the production of testosterone by the testes, its conversion to dihydrotestosterone by 5α-redutase and to estrogen by aromatase, and the activation/deactivation of AR and ERα in epithelial cells, which regulate cell expression and proliferation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Precursors to Lymphoproliferative Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Lynn R.; McMaster, Mary L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

    2013-01-01

    We review monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) as a precursor to chronic lymphocytic leukemia and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) as a precursor to plasma cell disorders. These conditions are present in the general population and increase with age. These precursors aggregate with lymphoproliferative malignancies in families suggesting shared inheritance. MBL and MGUS may share some of the same risk factors as their related malignancies but data are limited. While these conditions are characterized by enhanced risk for the associated malignancy, the majority of individuals with these conditions do not progress to malignancy. A key focus for current work is to identify markers that predict progression to malignancy. PMID:23549397

  20. Dermatology in the North American Indian/Alaska Native population.

    PubMed

    Kryatova, Maria S; Okoye, Ginette A

    2016-02-01

    Dermatology is greatly understudied in the American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) population. This topic deserves attention in light of the changing demographics of the United States and the healthcare disparities faced by AIAN, including access to dermatologic care. In this review, we discuss disorders that are more prevalent or otherwise important in the AIAN population, such as cutaneous malignancies, photodermatoses, acanthosis nigricans, connective tissue disorders, cutaneous infections, hypertrophic scar formation, and Heck's disease. We aim to provide an updated review and increase awareness of the dermatologic needs of the AIAN population.

  1. Breast Cancer Presenting as Paraneoplastic Erythroderma: An Extremely Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Katsantonis, Ioannis; Roussos, Nikolaos; Manoludaki, Kassiani; Antonopoulos, Stavros

    2014-01-01

    The skin may exhibit the first clinical evidence of a systemic disease and may provide the first clues to a diagnosis in malignancies. Erythroderma is defined as generalized redness and scaling and it is a clinical manifestation of a variety of underlying diseases including, rarely, solid tumors. Breast cancer is associated with a variety of skin paraneoplastic manifestations like acanthosis nigricans, erythromelalgia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, and scleroderma. However, in the literature, the correlation of erythroderma with breast cancer is quite infrequent. Here, we describe a case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with a paraneoplastic manifestation of erythroderma due to breast cancer. PMID:25295062

  2. Luteolin-7-glucoside inhibits IL-22/STAT3 pathway, reducing proliferation, acanthosis, and inflammation in keratinocytes and in mouse psoriatic model

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, R; Savini, I; Avigliano, L; Madonna, S; Cavani, A; Albanesi, C; Mauriello, A; Melino, G; Terrinoni, A

    2016-01-01

    The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which keratinocytes proliferate in the basal layer and undergo a tightly controlled differentiation while moving into the suprabasal layers. The balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is essential, and its perturbation can result in pathological changes. Some common skin diseases, such as psoriasis, are characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by inflammatory reactions, suggesting that molecules with topical anti-inflammatory and ROS scavenging abilities may be useful for their treatment. Here we investigate the potential of the flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside (LUT-7G) as a treatment for psoriasis. We show that LUT-7G leads to a modification of the cell cycle and the induction of keratinocyte differentiation, with modification of energy, fatty acid, and redox metabolism. LUT-7G treatment also neutralizes the proliferative stimulus induced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-22 and IL-6 in HEKn. Moreover, in the Imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis, topical administration of LUT-7G leads to a marked reduction of acanthosis and re-expression of epidermal differentiation markers. Dissection of the IL-22 signalling pathway, activated by IMQ treatment, demonstrates that LUT-7G impairs the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3, blocking the IL-22 signalling cascade. Thus LUT-7G appears to be a promising compound for the treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis. PMID:27537526

  3. Luteolin-7-glucoside inhibits IL-22/STAT3 pathway, reducing proliferation, acanthosis, and inflammation in keratinocytes and in mouse psoriatic model.

    PubMed

    Palombo, R; Savini, I; Avigliano, L; Madonna, S; Cavani, A; Albanesi, C; Mauriello, A; Melino, G; Terrinoni, A

    2016-08-18

    The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which keratinocytes proliferate in the basal layer and undergo a tightly controlled differentiation while moving into the suprabasal layers. The balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is essential, and its perturbation can result in pathological changes. Some common skin diseases, such as psoriasis, are characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by inflammatory reactions, suggesting that molecules with topical anti-inflammatory and ROS scavenging abilities may be useful for their treatment. Here we investigate the potential of the flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside (LUT-7G) as a treatment for psoriasis. We show that LUT-7G leads to a modification of the cell cycle and the induction of keratinocyte differentiation, with modification of energy, fatty acid, and redox metabolism. LUT-7G treatment also neutralizes the proliferative stimulus induced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-22 and IL-6 in HEKn. Moreover, in the Imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis, topical administration of LUT-7G leads to a marked reduction of acanthosis and re-expression of epidermal differentiation markers. Dissection of the IL-22 signalling pathway, activated by IMQ treatment, demonstrates that LUT-7G impairs the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3, blocking the IL-22 signalling cascade. Thus LUT-7G appears to be a promising compound for the treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis.

  4. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Beguelini, Mateus R.; Góes, Rejane M.; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R.

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa. PMID:26057377

  5. Impact of the Processes of Total Testicular Regression and Recrudescence on the Epididymal Physiology of the Bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Myotis nigricans is a species of vespertilionid bat, whose males show two periods of total testicular regression within the same annual reproductive cycle in the northwest São Paulo State, Brazil. Studies have demonstrated that its epididymis has an elongation of the caudal portion, which stores spermatozoa during the period of testicular regression in July, but that they had no sperm during the regression in November. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the total testicular regression in the epididymal morphophysiology and patterns of its hormonal regulation. The results demonstrate a continuous activity of the epididymis from the Active to the Regressing periods; a morphofunctional regression of the epididymis in the Regressed period; and a slow recrudescence process. Thus, we concluded that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans also impact the physiology of the epididymis, but with a delay in epididymal response. Epididymal physiology is regulated by testosterone and estrogen, through the production and secretion of testosterone by the testes, its conduction to the epididymis (mainly through luminal fluid), conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by the 5α-reductase enzyme (mainly in epithelial cells) and to estrogen by aromatase; and through the activation/deactivation of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor α in epithelial cells, which regulate the epithelial cell morphophysiology, prevents cell death and regulates their protein expression and secretion, which ensures the maturation and storage of the spermatozoa.

  6. Vasculitis associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Mertz, L E; Conn, D L

    1992-02-01

    A large variety of vasculopathic syndromes are uncommonly associated with malignancies. Vasculitis is usually manifested by skin lesions and is generally associated with hematologic malignancies rather than solid tumors. Evidence of autoantibodies, immune complexes, and complement consumption is typically absent. Myelodysplastic syndromes can be confidently linked to vasculitis on the basis of recent literature. The temporal relationship of malignancy to vasculitis development is variable except that vasculitis generally follows the discovery of hairy cell leukemia and splenectomy. Vasculitis may occasionally be a complication of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation. Occasionally, malignant disorders may mimic vasculitic syndromes. The etiopathogenesis of vasculitis in patients with malignant disorders is unknown. The recent literature on vasculitis and malignancy addresses predominantly case reports and small patient cohorts and identifies clinical characteristics rather than pathogenic mechanisms.

  7. Pediatric Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ord, Robert A; Carlson, Eric R

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric malignant salivary gland tumors are extremely rare. The percentage of malignant tumors is higher than that seen in adults, although the outcomes in terms of survival are better in pediatric patients. The mainstay of treatment is surgical excision with negative margins. This article reviews current concepts in demographics, etiology, management, and outcomes of malignant salivary tumors in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rheumatic Diseases and Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    BOJINCA, Violeta; JANTA, Iustina

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT There are many studies which demonstrate a higher risk for malignancy in patients with rheumatic diseases. There have been a number of possible explanations for the differences in the risk of certain malignancies in patients with rheumatic disease, compared with general population, but a clear mechanism is difficult to identify. Rheumatoid syndromes may be associated with malignancy as paraneoplastic conditions, which can antedate the neoplasm diagnosis. On the other hand, autoimmune rheumatic diseases have a higher risk of malignancy by themselves or because of the immunosuppressant treatments. PMID:23482881

  9. Malignant Vagal Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hamersley, Erin R S; Barrows, Amy; Perez, Angel; Schroeder, Ashley; Castle, James T

    2016-06-01

    Paragangliomas are rare, typically benign neuroendocrine tumors that represent a small portion of head and neck tumors. A small percentage of these are known to have malignant potential. They arise from the carotid body, jugular bulb or vagus nerves. There is limited literature discussing the management of malignant vagal paragangliomas. We present a case of a 25 year old female with a left malignant vagal paraganglioma. The following case presentation will describe the presentation, classic radiologic findings, and management of a malignant vagal paraganglioma along with a review of the literature.

  10. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  11. Malignant tumors —

    Cancer.gov

    Main criteria for malignancy include size over 5 mm in diameter, invasion of airways, blood or lymphatic vessels, regional and distant metastasis, and ability to grow upon transplantation. Nuclear and cellular atypia, and loss of architecture should be considered as ancillary criteria for defining malignancy.

  12. General Information about Malignant Mesothelioma

    MedlinePlus

    ... form in the lining of the chest or abdomen. Malignant mesothelioma is a disease in which malignant ( ... that examine the inside of the chest and abdomen are used to detect (find) and diagnose malignant ...

  13. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... knees — a cosmetic skin condition called acanthosis nigricans . Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in girls is also often associated with insulin resistance. PCOS is a hormone problem that can cause the ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neidich JA, Wilcox WR. Subtle radiographic findings of achondroplasia in patients with Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans ... of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 disorders: the achondroplasia family of skeletal dysplasias, Muenke craniosynostosis, and Crouzon ...

  15. Procaine in Malignant Hyperpyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, R. F. W.; Denborough, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The caffeine contracture of normal human muscle, which has been used as a model for malignant hyperpyrexia, is greatly potentiated by halothane. Prior administration of procaine markedly reduces the halothane-potentiated caffeine contracture, and procaine given at the height of the contracture induces relaxation. Lignocaine, on the other hand, produces a variable response and sometimes increases the contracture. The muscle from a patient with an inherited susceptibility to malignant hyperpyrexia contracted spontaneously with halothane alone, and this contracture was reversed by procaine. These experiments support the therapeutic use of procaine in malignant hyperpyrexia. PMID:4642792

  16. Documentation for the Computer Assisted Diagnostic Program for Dental Pain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-10

    palate) Amyloidosis *Sarcoidosis *Verruca vulgaris, mIultiple lesions Focal dermal hypcplasia syndrume Darier’s disease *Acanthosis nigricans * Crohn ’ s ...vulgaris, *Verucou carcincna *Xoplick spots (neasles) Verzucoas x0nthcmna Epidemid cyst Lyzrlioepithelial cyst Acanthosis nigricans *ai~er I s disease C-4...Carcinoma in situ *Squamous cell carcinoma syphilitic gloitis Discoid lupus erythematosus *Reiter’ s disease Oral psoriasis 11. Keratotic non

  17. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Antmann, K.; Aisner, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Radiology of Asbestosis and Related Neoplasms; Computed Tomography and Malignant Mesothelioma; Radiation Therapy for Pleural Mesothelioma; and Radiation Therapy of Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

  18. Gynecologic malignancy in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong Il

    2013-01-01

    Gynecologic malignancy during pregnancy is a stressful problem. For the diagnosis and treatment of malignancy during pregnancy, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. Patients should be advised about the benefits and risk of treatment. When selecting a treatment for malignancy during pregnancy, the physiologic changes that occur with the pregnancy should be considered. Various diagnostic procedures that do not harm the fetus can be used. Laparoscopic surgery or laparotomy may be safely performed. The staging approach and treatment should be standard. Systemic chemotherapy during the first trimester should be delayed if possible. Radiation therapy should preferably start postpartum. Although delivery should be delayed preferably until after 35 weeks of gestation, termination of pregnancy may be considered when immediate treatment is required. Subsequent pregnancies do not increase the risk of malignancy recurrence. PMID:24328018

  19. What Is Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... you learn about the treatment options and possible side effects, and point you to information and services to help you in your cancer journey. ... free PDFs of our malignant mesothelioma information ...

  20. Cutaneous manifestations of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Owen, Cindy England

    2016-06-01

    Skin findings can serve as a clue to internal disease. In this article, cutaneous manifestations of underlying lung malignancy are reviewed. Paraneoplastic dermatoses are rare, but when recognized early, can lead to early diagnosis of an underlying neoplasm. Malignancy-associated dermatoses comprise a broad group of hyperproliferative and inflammatory disorders, disorders caused by tumor production of hormonal or metabolic factors, autoimmune connective tissue diseases, among others. In this review, paraneoplastic syndromes associated with lung malignancy are discussed, including ectopic ACTH syndrome, bronchial carcinoid variant syndrome, secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy/digital clubbing, erythema gyratum repens, malignant acanthosis nigricans, sign of Leser-Trélat, tripe palms, hypertrichosis lanuginosa, acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, and dermatomyositis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794

  2. Hemostasis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Francis, J L; Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the hemostatic system is involved in the growth and spread of malignant disease. There is an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease in patients with cancers and hemostatic abnormalities are extremely common in such patients. Antihemostatic agents have been successfully used to treat a variety of experimental tumors, and several clinical trials in humans have been initiated. Although metastasis is undoubtedly multifactorial, intravascular coagulation activation and peritumor fibrin deposition seem to be important. The mechanisms by which hemostatic activation facilitates the malignant process remain to be completely elucidated. Of central importance may be the presence on malignant cells of tissue factor and urokinase receptor. Recent studies have suggested that these proteins, and others, may be involved at several stages of metastasis, including the key event of neovascularization. Tissue factor, the principal initiator of coagulation, may have additional roles, outside of fibrin formation, that are central to the biology of some solid tumors.

  3. Malignant Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, B.; Petchenik, L.; Williams, M.; Thomas, C.; Luken, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman underwent a translabyrinthine resection of a right intracanulicular acoustic neuroma, which had been detected in the work-up of sudden hearing loss. At the time of surgery, the tumor was roughly twice as large as indicated by the magnetic resonance scan taken only 2 months previously. The tumor eroded the vertical and transverse crests and extended well into the cerebellopontine angle. It was impossible to distinguish the facial nerve proximal to the geniculate ganglion. All visible tumor was resected, along with the facial nerve. Histological evaluation showed a highly cellular tumor, with many mitoses and areas of necrosis, meeting the criteria for malignant schwannoma. The patient has no stigmata of neurofibromatosis, and has no known relatives with that condition. This case is only the fourth reported of a malignant vestibular schwannoma. The relationships between vestibular schwannoma, neurofibromatosis, and malignancy are discussed. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171176

  4. Giant malignant insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karavias, Dimitrios; Habeos, Ioannis; Maroulis, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Chaveles, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Insulinomas are the most common pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Most insulinomas are benign, small, intrapancreatic solid tumors and only large tumors have a tendency for malignancy. Most patients present with symptoms of hypoglycemia that are relieved with the administration of glucose. We herein present the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with an acute hypoglycemic episode. Subsequent laboratory and radiological studies established the diagnosis of a 17-cm malignant insulinoma, with local invasion to the left kidney, lymph node metastasis, and hepatic metastases. Patient symptoms, diagnostic and imaging work-up and surgical management of both the primary and the metastatic disease are reviewed. PMID:25960993

  5. Envy and malignant envy.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1994-10-01

    Envy begins early in psychic development and is initially characterized by destructive primal hatred. With maturation, envy becomes modified in intensity. Its primal murderous quality is attenuated, and, as object relationships develop, it becomes partly transformed into jealousy. Malignant envy is a retention of, or regression to, the original primal murderous affective mix. Clinically, one sees in malignant envy the phenomenon of the subject feeling with delusional intensity that what the envied one has is not only urgently wanted but has been stolen from the self--an intensity that is reacted to defensively by projection and delusion formation. This operates as a formidable resistance in analytic work.

  6. Early malignant syphilis*

    PubMed Central

    Ortigosa, Yara Martins; Bendazzoli, Paulo Salomão; Barbosa, Angela Marques; Ortigosa, Luciena Cegatto Martins

    2016-01-01

    Early malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by lesions, which can suppurate and be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever, asthenia, myalgia, and torpor state. We report a diabetic patient with characteristic features of the disease showing favorable evolution of the lesions after appropriate treatment. PMID:28300925

  7. Malignant tumors of childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children.

  8. Malignant otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emin; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ibrahimov, Metin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Enver, Ozgün

    2012-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is a severe infection of the external auditory canal and skull base, which most often affects elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. This disease is still a serious disease associated with cranial nerve complications and high morbidity-mortality rate. Malignant otitis externa requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. The most effective treatment is to control the diabetes and to fight infection with the proper antibiotic and debridement necrotic tissue; sometimes, aggressive surgical management is done. We present our 5-year institutional experience in the management of this disease. The aim of this study was to present our experience with the management of malignant otitis externa. All patients' records with malignant otitis externa during the last 5 years (2007-2012) were retrieved and reviewed. Diabetes mellitus profile, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ear swab for culture and sensitivity, computed tomography, and scintigraphy using technetium 99 and gallium 67 were investigated for all patients. During the last 5 years (2007-2012), 10 patients with the diagnosis of malignant otitis externa were admitted to our clinic for investigation and treatment. There were 7 men and 3 women, all between 64 and 83 years of age, with severe persistent otalgia, purulent otorrhea, granulation tissue in the external auditory canal, and diffuse external otitis, and there were 4 patients with facial nerve palsy. Nine patients were confirmed to have a diabetes, and 4 of these 9 cases just had chronic renal failure and underwent dialysis; the remainder 1 case had no diabetes mellitus, but with chronic renal failure on dialysis. Ear swabs for culture and sensitivity usually revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Local debridement and local and systemic antibiotic treatment were sufficient to control the disease. Facial nerve decompression was done in facial paralysis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was performed in facial nervy palsy cases. Malignant otitis externa is

  9. Mercury in the Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the Southern Gulf of California: Tissue Distribution and Inter-Annual Variation (2005-2012).

    PubMed

    Vega-Sánchez, B; Ortega-García, S; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Frías-Espericueta, M; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Guzmán-Rendón, J

    2017-02-01

    With the aim of knowing annual variations of Hg concentrations in muscle and liver of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) from the southern Gulf of California, fish were collected between 2005 and 2012 in three areas. In general, Hg levels were more elevated in liver than in muscle. Variations of Hg concentrations in muscle and liver among the studied years were not significant. Hg levels in muscle and liver increased significantly with length and weight of fish. In comparison to other studies, Hg levels in muscle and liver were lower. With respect to maximum permissible limits (1.0 µg g(-1) wet weight) of Hg in Mexico, the average concentration (1.91 µg g(-1) wet weight) in the edible portion (muscle) of blue marlin was over the legal limit; this issue is worth research efforts in relation to the rate of ingestion of this species and the co-occurrence of selenium in the edible portion.

  10. Two periods of total testicular regression are peculiar events of the annual reproductive cycle of the black Myotis bat, Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Morielle-Versute, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Myotis nigricans presents few and controversial reproductive data, which indicate geographical variation in reproduction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the seasonal modifications in testicular and epididymal morphologies in a tropical environment, submitting these organs to morphometric and immunohistochemical analysis. The observations revealed that this species presents two peaks of spermatogenic activity followed by two periods of total testicular regression (a quiescent pre-pubertal-like morphology, where only Sertoli cells and spermatogonia could be observed), in the same annual reproductive cycle, which seem to be only indirectly influenced by abiotic factors. This testicular behaviour seems to be synchronised with the caput and corpus epididymidis, but not with the cauda epididymidis, which presents aspects of sperm storage in May-June. The control of this variation seems to be directly linked to the expression of the androgen receptor, since, throughout the year, it is high in periods of testicular recrudescence and low in periods of deactivation. It is not thought to be directly linked to apoptosis, which is more pronounced in periods of recrudescence than in periods of regression.

  11. Carry-over effects of winter location contribute to variation in timing of nest initiation and clutch size in black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamber, Jason L.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed carry-over effects from winter location on timing of nest initiation and clutch size of Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) using observations of individually marked brant breeding at the Tutakoke River colony in Alaska, and wintering along a latitudinal gradient at three areas on the Pacific coast of Baja California: northernmost Bahia San Quintin (BSQ), Laguna Ojo de Liebre (LOL), and southernmost Laguna San Ignacio (LSI). Black Brant initiated nests according to a north—south trend in winter location, although year was a stronger predictor of initiation date than was wintering site. Female Black Brant that wintered at BSQ initiated nests 2.2 days earlier than females from LSI. Conversely, Black Brant showed only a weak south—north trend in clutch size; individuals from LSI laid slightly larger clutches than individuals from BSQ, probably because a smaller proportion of only high-quality females from the southernmost wintering area in Baja California were able to attain the nutritional condition necessary to breed. These results indicate that winter location can influence individual reproductive performance and, potentially, limit population growth of southern segments of the wintering Black Brant population.

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, C.G.; Norman, J.; Cruse, C.W.; Reintgen, D.S.; Clark, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable.

  13. Malignancy from Radium

    PubMed Central

    Loutit, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    Human experience of the toxicity of radium acts as a guide for the setting of occupationally permissible levels for radioactive nucleides, especially bone-seekers. Reviewing the published statements and photomicrographs in early reports especially those of Martland (1931) one can make a case that malignancy was induced in bone-marrow (leukaemia, malignant myelosclerosis) as well as in bone (osteosarcoma) by radium, especially with large doses. Three case reports of radium intoxication in Britons are noted as compatible with this suggestion, after revised interpretation in two of them. ImagesFigs. 9-10Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 11-12Figs. 6-7Fig. 8Figs. 13-14 PMID:5271269

  14. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  15. Managing Malignant Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Sahuquillo, Juan; Sheth, Kevin N.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Walcott, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement Managing patients with malignant cerebral infarction remains one of the foremost challenges in medicine. These patients are at high risk for progressive neurologic deterioration and death due to malignant cerebral edema, and they are best cared for in the intensive care unit of a comprehensive stroke center. Careful initial assessment of neurologic function and of findings on MRI, coupled with frequent reassessment of clinical and radiologic findings using CT or MRI are mandatory to promote the prompt initiation of treatments that will ensure the best outcome in these patients. Significant deterioration in either neurologic function or radiologic findings or both demand timely treatment using the best medical management, which may include osmotherapy (mannitol or hypertonic saline), endotracheal intubation, and mechanical ventilation. Under appropriate circumstances, decompressive craniectomy may be warranted to improve outcome or to prevent death. PMID:21190097

  16. Managing malignant pericardial effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Buzaid, A C; Garewal, H S; Greenberg, B R

    1989-01-01

    The involvement of the pericardium by metastatic tumors is not uncommon, particularly in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphomas, leukemias, and melanomas. There are five therapeutic modalities for the treatment of malignant pericardial effusion, including pericardiocentesis, pericardial sclerosis, systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgical treatment. The optimal treatment selection is dependent principally on a patient's life expectancy; responsiveness of the tumor to chemotherapy, irradiation, or both; and whether or not cardiac tamponade is present at diagnosis. The overall prognosis of patients with malignant pericardial effusion is primarily influenced by the extent and histologic features of the underlying cancer. Although this condition is usually incurable, a reasonable period of useful palliation can be obtained in most patients. Images PMID:2471362

  17. Palliation of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stefanie M

    2006-03-01

    The management of recurrent, symptomatic malignant ascites can be problematic for physicians and patients. The most common, low-risk method is large-volume paracentesis. Patient disease progression often leads to rapid reaccumulation of ascites, which requires frequent return visits to the hospital for symptom management. Other techniques have been developed to achieve palliation of symptoms, including tunneled external drainage catheters, peritoneal ports, and peritoneovenous

  18. Lymphoscintigraphy in gynecologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is an easily performed noninvasive procedure that offers the potential to detect small numbers of ascitic tumor cells and early diaphragmatic tumor involvement. Moreover, it can be used to delineate and define abnormalities in lymph nodes that are not routinely visualized by bipedal contrast lymphangiography, ultrasound or computed tomography. Lymphoscintigraphy is recommended as an important investigative and adjunctive procedure in diagnosing gynecologic malignancies; there does not appear to be sufficient sensitivity and specificity to justify its routine clinical use.

  19. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  20. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  1. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Adjallé, R; Plouin, P F; Pacak, K; Lehnert, H

    2009-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective alpha-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive alpha- and/or beta-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of (123)I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of (131)I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to (131)I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested.

  2. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  3. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  4. [Hyperthermia of malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Terashima, Hiromi

    2004-04-01

    The results of hyperthermia in the malignant tumors were reviewed. It is well known that hyperthermia enhances the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for cancer patients. The clinical study on hyperthermia has been performed in the world since 1975. Several randomized clinical study revealed the benefits of hyperthermia in the head and neck cancers, recurrent breast cancers, and uterine cervical cancers. However, there are many difficulties to perform the hyperthermia in Japan because of lack of man-power and financial aid. Further clinical trials were recommended to obtain the evidences of hyperthermia.

  5. Disseminated Blastomycosis Mimicking Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jennifer L; Tjarks, B Joel; Berg, Aaron; Oliver, Tony

    2017-04-01

    Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection commonly found within the Mississippi and Ohio River basins and Great Lakes region. While patients typically present with acute pneumonia, Blastomyces dermatitidis has the potential to spread hematogenously, resulting in disseminated infection of multiple organs. In this report, we describe a 57-year-old male with disseminated blastomycosis acquired in South Dakota. The diagnostic evaluation was confounded by concern for malignancy given the involvement of multiple locations, including brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and testes. Despite aggressive therapy with amphotericin B, the patient succumbed to this infection. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  6. Radioimmunotherapy of malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, R.M. )

    1991-05-01

    The critical issues in radioimmunotherapy are highlighted, and novel ways of improving the therapeutic indexes of radioimmunotherapeutic agents are outlined. The use of radioactively labeled monoclonal antibodies to treat malignant tumors has been investigated in animals and humans. Radionuclides suitable for labeling antibodies for such use include iodine 125, iodine 131, yttrium 90, rhenium 188, and copper 67. Radiobiological factors to be considered in radioimmunotherapy include the size and density of the tumor and the ability of a radiolabeled antibody to penetrate the tumor nodule. The dose of radiation required to destroy a tumor varies; however, the whole-body dose must not exceed 200 rads to avoid irreversible toxicity to the bone marrow. Despite the theoretical inadequacy of radiation doses to tumors indicated by conventional dosimetry, responses have been observed in animals and humans. More reliable and accurate dosimetric methods are under development. The induction of human antimouse antibodies can alter the pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies. Improving the therapeutic index of radioimmunotherapeutic agents may be achieved through regional therapy, administering a secondary antibody to improve clearance, combining radioimmunotherapy with external-beam irradiation, using an avidin-biotin conjugate system to deliver the radiolabeled antibodies, and addressing the problem of tumor antigen heterogeneity. Researchers are working to reduce or eliminate the clinical problems associated with radioimmunotherapy. Hematologic malignancies, such as lymphomas, are more likely than solid tumors to respond satisfactorily. 110 refs.

  7. Prevention of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaidemenos, G; Stratigos, A; Papakonstantinou, M; Tsatsou, F

    2008-01-01

    The results of Primary Prevention programs, aiming at the decrease of melanoma incidence, were less encouraging than those of Secondary prevention which aims at an early diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Australia was the country with the best results obtained in both Prevention strategies, especially in avoiding intense, though intermittent, UV exposure. The success of these programs encouraged health authorities to initiate their application to other disorders. New sunscreens containing substances correcting the UV-damaged DNA may offer a promising result in the decades to come. However, so far no one epidemiological study has proved the prevention of malignant melanoma with the use of sun protecting agents. A meta-analysis verified the connection between melanoma and solarium use. The protective role of vitamin D in the development of prostate, breast and colon cancer was shown in a meta-analysis. The authors, however, suggest that fair-skinned persons should take oral supplementation of vitamin D, instead of exposing themselves to the sun. The Hellenic Society of Dermatology and Venereology published the results of 5-year-prevention programs in Greece. Their favorable results in the early diagnosis of melanoma justify an intense continuation of these efforts. PMID:18923759

  8. Translational advances in pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Georgios T

    2011-01-01

    Pleural malignancies, including primary malignant pleural mesothelioma and secondary pleural metastasis of various tumours resulting in malignant pleural effusion, are frequent and lethal diseases that deserve devoted translational research efforts for improvements to be introduced to the clinic. This paper highlights select clinical advances that have been accomplished recently and that are based on preclinical research on pleural malignancies. Examples are the establishment of folate antimetabolites in mesothelioma treatment, the use of PET in mesothelioma management and the discovery of mesothelin as a marker of mesothelioma. In addition to established translational advances, this text focuses on recent research findings that are anticipated to impact clinical pleural oncology in the near future. Such progress has been substantial, including the development of a genetic mouse model of mesothelioma and of transplantable models of pleural malignancies in immunocompetent hosts, the deployment of stereological and imaging methods for integral assessment of pleural tumour burden, as well as the discovery of the therapeutic potential of aminobiphosphonates, histone deacetylase inhibitors and ribonucleases against malignant pleural disease. Finally, key obstacles to overcome towards a more rapid advancement of translational research in pleural malignancies are outlined. These include the dissection of cell-autonomous and paracrine pathways of pleural tumour progression, the study of mesothelioma and malignant pleural effusion separately from other tumours at both the clinical and preclinical levels, and the expansion of tissue banks and consortia of clinical research of pleural malignancies. © 2010 The Author. Respirology © 2010 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Concurrent occurrence of Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum: an overlap in the spectrum of reactive dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Wasson, Sanjeev; Govindarajan, Gurushanker; Folzenlogen, Darcy

    2006-03-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum is very rare. We describe a case of a young male with a recent history of streptococcal infection who presented with concurrent Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum. Although the exact pathogenesis of these dermatoses is not yet clear, their similarities and simultaneous occurrence suggest a possible common underlying mechanism and may represent a continuum of reactive dermatoses. Evaluation of the role of cytokines in the etiopathogenesis of these conditions will be useful for further assessment and treatment of these conditions. Like the association of acanthosis nigricans and certain cancers and diabetes, Sweet's syndrome and erythema nodosum may be associated with certain malignancies, autoimmune disorders, or inflammatory bowel disease. Early recognition of these skin lesions can guide a search for underlying disorders. Patients with Sweet's syndrome should undergo an age-appropriate work-up for malignancy.

  10. Malignant lymphoma of bone.

    PubMed

    Dürr, Hans Roland; Müller, Peter Ernst; Hiller, Erhard; Maier, Markus; Baur, Andrea; Jansson, Volkmar; Refior, Hans Jürgen

    2002-02-01

    Malignant lymphoma of bone is rare. In many cases, its diagnosis is delayed because of unspecific clinical signs and equivocal radiographs. Therapy in general is multimodal, including surgery and radio- and chemotherapy. Our objective was to demonstrate the clinical and radiological aspects of the lesion to optimize diagnostic approaches and to evaluate treatment and prognostic factors. Thirty-six patients with malignant lymphoma of bone who were surgically treated over a 15-year-period were retrospectively reviewed. Seventeen of them showed a singular bone non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) which was classified as primary lymphoma of the bone (PLB). In 13 cases, dissemination of the disease with multiple bone or visceral involvement was apparent (dNHL). Six patients suffered from bone involvement due to Hodgkin's disease (HD). Surgical treatment was indicated for diagnostic reasons or complications due to the disease. Radiation and chemotherapy were part of the oncological treatment. The patients' mean age was 57 years. The main symptom in malignant bone lymphoma in 33 patients was pain, with an average duration of 8 months. In the secondary cases, bone involvement appeared on average 57 months after the initial diagnosis. An osteolytic pattern was seen in 58% of the lesions. Soft-tissue involvement was seen in 71% of cases (PLB 80%, dNHL 73%, HD 40%) and was the primary diagnostic sign associated with this disease. The 5-year survival rate was 61% (PLB 88%, dNHL 38%, HD 50%). Multiple vs solitary bone involvement was the most significant factor in the prognosis. Extraskeletal involvement significantly decreased survival. No correlation was found between gender, age, location, or histological subtypes and survival. Bone involvement in NHL appears late in the extraskeletal disease. The clinical appearance is nonspecific, and the delay between the onset of symptoms and diagnosis is often long. One of the major radiologic signs is the existence of a soft-tissue tumor

  11. Oral potentially malignant disorders: Is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    PubMed Central

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed. Key words:Oral potentially malignant disorders, oral leukoplakia, oral lichen planus. PMID:24905952

  12. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cedeño Diaz, Oderay Mabel; Leal, Roberto García; La Cruz Pelea, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24765293

  13. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Anne S.; Wistuba, Ignacio; Roth, Jack A.; Kindler, Hedy Lee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly disease that occurs in 2,000 to 3,000 people each year in the United States. Although MPM is an extremely difficult disease to treat, with the median overall survival ranging between 9 and 17 months regardless of stage, there has been significant progress over the last few years that has reshaped the clinical landscape. This article will provide a comprehensive discussion of the latest developments in the treatment of MPM. We will provide an update of the major clinical trials that impact mesothelioma treatment in the resectable and unresectable settings, discuss the impact of novel therapeutics, and provide perspective on where the clinical research in mesothelioma is moving. In addition, there are controversial issues, such as the role of extrapleural pneumonectomy, adjuvant radiotherapy, and use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy versus hemithoracic therapy that will also be addressed in this manuscript. PMID:19255316

  14. The malignant primate?

    PubMed

    de Grouchy, J

    1991-01-01

    Speciation and carcinogenesis result from genomic instability at the gametic or at the somatic levels. After an infinity of trials they occur, by chromosome rearrangements, in single individuals or in single cells and evolve by similar chromosomal or clonal evolutions. Loss of heterozygosity for the first event is essential in both processes: in evolution, a chromosomal rearrangement, a pericentric inversion or a Robertsonian fusion, must become homozygous to ensure a reproductive barrier for a new species; Knudson's two-event sequence is a similar situation in cancer. Position effect is equally important: we have shown overexpression of the SOD1 gene in the orangutan phylum probably by an intrachromosomal rearrangement; the t(9;22) in CML acts by typical position effect. Parental imprinting underlies the evolution of genome function and the unset of certain cancers. Evolution and malignancy are interweaved by viruses and oncogenes since the dawn of life. Cancer uses its intelligence to expand and to destroy the other tissues, using subtle metabolic pathways and a variety of tricks to metastasize other cells. It always wins but saws the branch on which it sits. Mankind also grows exponentially, killing thousands of other species, poisoning the oceans and soft waters, polluting the atmosphere, all for his egoistic needs. Man also travels and metastasizes other Earths. He modifies his genome or that of other species, and develops new technologies for his reproduction. He can destroy the planet in an eyeblink. To be or not to be the malignant primate, that will be the dilemma for the 21st Century.

  15. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate.

    PubMed

    Doublali, M; Chouaib, A; Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; El Fassi, M J; Farih, My H; Elfatmi, H; Bendahou, M; Benlemlih, A; Lamarti, O

    2010-05-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

  16. Oral potentially malignant disorders: is malignant transformation predictable and preventable?

    PubMed

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2014-07-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant disorder of the oral mucosa. The prevalence is approximately 1% while the annual malignant transformation ranges from 2% to 3%. At present, there are no reliable clinicopathological or molecular predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented. Furthermore, follow-up programs are of questionable value in this respect. Cessation of smoking habits may result in regression or even disappearance of the leukoplakia and will diminish the risk of cancer development either at the site of the leukoplakia or elsewhere in the mouth or the upper aerodigestive tract. The debate on the allegedly potentially malignant character of oral lichen planus is going on already for several decades. At present, there is a tendency to accept its potentially malignant behaviour, the annual malignant transformation rate amounting less than 0.5%. As in leukoplakia, there are no reliable predicting factors of malignant transformation that can be used in an individual patient and such event can not truly be prevented either. Follow-up visits, e.g twice a year, may be of some value. It is probably beyond the scope of most dentists to manage patients with these lesions in their own office. Timely referral to a specialist seems most appropriate, indeed.

  17. Malignant eroticized countertransference.

    PubMed

    Chessick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Gabbard (1994) divided the pathology of therapists, both male and female, who commit sexual boundary violations into those who are psychotic, those who are predatory psychopaths, those engaging in masochistic surrender, and those called "the lovesick therapist." Lovesick therapists are the most common type and manifest crucial narcissistic themes of "a desperate need for validation by their patients, a hunger to be loved and idealized, and a tendency to use patients to regulate their own self-esteem" (p. 127). Among the psychodynamic aspects of this curiously circumscribed area of loss of reality testing that makes it difficult for the therapist to see how self-destructive and harmful such enactment is, are an unconscious reenactment of incestuous longings, a misperception of the patient's wish for maternal nurturance as a sexual overture, enactments of rescue fantasies, a projected idealization of the self of the therapist, a confusion of the therapist's needs with the patient's needs, a fantasy that love is curative, acting out disavowed rage at the patient, or rage at an organization, an institute, or one's training analyst, a manic defense against mourning, a narcissistic fantasy that their sexual affair is an exception, insecurity regarding masculine identity, and assorted primitive preoedipal themes. Gabbard's (1991) erotized countertransference is one variety of what I have termed malignant eroticized countertransference. His variety is a development that occurs under the pressure of the patient's preemptive and compelling expressions of lust and love, the patient's erotic transference. But malignant eroticized countertransference can also occur without the patient having offered any such expressions; it can even occur on first meeting the patient when he or she walks into the office! This is akin to the romantic "love-at-first-sight" theme so favored in the movies and by novelists, but it is always pathological when it occurs in the therapeutic situation

  18. Primary cerebral malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Kong, Xiangyi; Mao, Gengsheng; Qiu, Ming; Zhu, Haibo; Zhou, Lei; Nie, Qingbin; Xu, Yi; Du, Shiwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs. We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma—a challenging diagnosis guided by clinical presentations, radiological features, and surgical biopsy results, aiming to emphasize the importance of considering primary melanoma when making differential diagnoses of intracranial lesions. We present a rare case of a primary cerebral melanoma in the left temporal lobe. The mass appeared iso-hypodense on brain computed tomography (CT), short signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI) and long signal on T2WI. It was not easy to make an accurate diagnosis before surgery. We showed the patient's disease course and reviewed related literatures, for readers’ reference. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary. After surgery, the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma. The patient was discharged without any complications and went on to receive adjuvant radiochemotherapy. It is difficult to diagnose primary cerebral melanoma in the absence of any cutaneous melanosis. A high index of clinical suspicion along with good pathology reporting is the key in diagnosing these extremely rare tumors. PMID:28121927

  19. Galectins in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Mirta; Croci, Diego O; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2013-07-01

    Galectins are a family of lectin molecules that have emerged as key players in inflammation and tumor progresssion by displaying intracellular and extracellular activities. This review describes the recent advances on the role of galectins in hematological neoplasms. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 are the best studied galectins in oncohematology. Increased expression of galectin-1 has been associated with tumor progression in Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, whereas galectin-3 plays a supporting role in chronic myelogenous leukemia and multiple myeloma. Functional studies have assigned a key role for galectin-1 as a negative regulator of T-cell immunity in Hodgkin's lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Of therapeutic interest is the development of agents with the capacity to interfere with galectin functions. Current knowledge indicates a key role for galectins in hematological neoplasms by favoring the growth and survival of tumor cells and facilitating tumor immune escape. Intervention using specific galectin inhibitors is emerging as an attractive therapeutic option to alter the course of these malignancies.

  20. Malignancy and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramon

    2003-01-01

    Increased incidence of cancer at various sites is observed in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Certain malignant diseases, such as lymphomas and carcinomas of the kidney, prostate, liver and uterus, show an enhanced prevalence compared with the general population. In particular, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) shows an excess incidence in ESRD patients. A multitude of factors, directly or indirectly associated with the renal disease and the treatment regimens, may contribute to the increased tumor formation in these patients. Patients undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT) are prone to develop acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may subsequently lead to the development of RCC. In pre-dialysis patients with coexistent renal disease, as in dialysis and transplant patients, the presence of ACKD may predispose to RCC. Previous use of cytotoxic drugs (eg, cyclophosphamide) or a history of analgesic abuse, are additional risk factors for malignancy. Malignancy following renal transplantation is an important medical problem during the follow-up. The most common malignancies are lymphoproliferative disorders (early after transplantation) and skin carcinomas (late after transplantation). Another important confounder for risk of malignancy after renal transplantation is the type of immunosuppression. The type of malignancy is different in various countries and dependent on genetic and environmental factors. Finally, previous cancer treatment in a uremic patient on the transplant waiting list is of great importance in relation to waiting time and post-malignancy screening.

  1. Malignant renal tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Thomas Ray; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Renal malignancies are common in children. While the majority of malignant renal masses are secondary to Wilms tumor, it can be challenging to distinguish from more aggressive renal masses. For suspicious renal lesions, it is crucial to ensure prompt diagnosis in order to select the appropriate surgical procedure and treatment. This review article will discuss the common differential diagnosis that can be encountered when evaluating a suspicious renal mass in the pediatric population. This includes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney, malignant rhabdoid tumor, renal medullary carcinoma and lymphoma. PMID:28326263

  2. Malignant hyperthermia: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Henry; Pollock, Neil; Schiemann, Anja; Bulger, Terasa; Stowell, Kathryn

    2015-08-04

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stressors such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:10,000 to 1: 250,000 anesthetics. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 400 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs and horses. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, hyperkalaemia, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. An increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide despite increased minute ventilation provides an early diagnostic clue. In humans the syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs it is autosomal recessive. Uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation leads to the pathophysiologic changes. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 400 variants have been identified in the RYR1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 34 are causal for MH. Less than 1 % of variants have been found in CACNA1S but not all of these are causal. Diagnostic testing involves the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and in some centres ryanodine and 4-chloro-m-cresol. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction of DNA testing for susceptibility to MH. Dantrolene sodium is a specific antagonist and should be available wherever general anesthesia is administered. Increased understanding of the clinical manifestation and pathophysiology of the syndrome, has lead to the

  3. Drugs Approved for Malignant Mesothelioma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for malignant mesothelioma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (2 links) King Denborough syndrome Malignant hyperthermia Educational Resources (5 links) ... Bird TD, Ledbetter N, Mefford HC, Smith RJH, Stephens K, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of ...

  5. Orbital exenteration in periorbital malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roche, Phoebe; Timon, Conrad

    2012-08-01

    Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring procedure most commonly performed for locally advanced or recurrent periorbital malignancies. We performed a retrospective review of 22 patients who underwent orbital exenteration for advanced periorbital malignancy at our institution, by the senior author over a seventeen-year period. Specifically, we have reviewed the tumour histology along with stage at presentation, patient age, history of previous surgical intervention and surgical outcomes. The review highlighted two main groups who required orbital exenteration - patients with recurrent or locally advanced periorbital skin cancers, and patients with malignancy of the sinus. We discuss the presentation and management of the two pathological processes and highlight the importance of aggressive early management of periorbital malignancy with a view to prevention of exenteration and improving survival. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-11-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull.

  7. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  8. [Current concepts in malignant glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Călugăru, M; Marin, C

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the main pathogenic types of anatomical blocking of the aqueous humor circulation in malignant glaucoma: pupillary, secondary iridolenticular, ciliovitreolenticular, iridociliovitreous blocks and in suprachoroidal effusion. The paper also presents some of the entities correlated with malignant glaucoma: glaucoma with blocked angle following the administration of miotics, traumatisms, the operations of scleral obstruction for retina detachment, panretinal photocoagulation and thrombosis of the retina central vein.

  9. Malignant tumours after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fahlenkamp, D; Reinke, P; Kirchner, S; Schnorr, D; Lindeke, A; Loening, S A

    1996-10-01

    In 1243 patients after renal transplantation, 39 malignant tumours were detected in 37 patients. The average latency period between transplantation and tumour disease was 72 months. Tumours included 8 malignant lymphomas, 7 dermatomas and 24 visceral tumours. The patients who developed a tumour had received fewer blood transfusions before transplantation than a tumour-free control group of 60 patients with renal transplants. Rejection crises occurred in a significantly smaller number of tumour patients compared with the control group.

  10. Molecular Diagnosis for Breast Malignancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    AD GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-94-J-4033 TITLE: Molecular Diagnosis for Breast Malignancy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Wen-Tien Chen, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Biomedical Laboratories. - Signature -^yjgf Wen-Tien Chen, Ph.D. Page 4 Molecular diagnosis for breast malignancy (1) FRONT COVER: (2) SF 298...June 8-9, 1995 (abstract). Chen, W.-T, Goldstein LA, Pineiro-Sänchez M, Howard L, Ghersi G, Salamone M, Flessate D, Yeh Y. 1977. " Molecular Diagnosis for

  11. Telomerase Activation in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ropio, Joana; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Soares, Paula; Chevret, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Telomerase expression and telomere maintenance are critical for cell proliferation and survival, and they play important roles in development and cancer, including hematological malignancies. Transcriptional regulation of the rate-limiting subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gen (hTERT) is a complex process, and unveiling the mechanisms behind its reactivation is an important step for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the main mechanisms of telomerase activation and the associated hematologic malignancies. PMID:27618103

  12. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Doublali, M.; Chouaib, A.; Khallouk, A.; Tazi, M. F.; El Fassi, M. J.; Farih, My. H.; Elfatmi, H.; Bendahou, M.; Benlemlih, A.; Lamarti, O.

    2010-01-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate. PMID:20882159

  13. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  14. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1) isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans) continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1) was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in the vaginal environment

  15. Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nathanson, L. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

  16. The cytologic criteria of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andrew H; Zhao, Chengquan; Li, Qing Kay; Gustafson, Karen S; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Tambouret, Rosemary; Benstein, Barbara; Savaloja, Lynnette C; Kulesza, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Cytology and cell biology are two separate fields that share a focus on cancer. Cancer is still diagnosed based on morphology, and surprisingly little is known about the molecular basis of the defining structural features. Cytology uses the smallest possible biopsy for diagnosis by reducing morphologic "criteria of malignancy" to the smallest scale. To begin to develop common ground, members of the American Society of Cytopathology Cell Biology Liaison Working Group classify some of the "criteria of malignancy" and review their relation to current cell biology concepts. The criteria of malignancy are extremely varied, apparently reflecting many different pathophysiologies in specific microenvironments. Criteria in Group 1 comprise tissue-level alterations that appear to relate to resistance to anoikis, alterations in cell adhesion molecules, and loss of apical-basal polarity. Criteria in Group 2 reflect genetic instability, including chromosomal and possibly epigenetic instability. Criteria in Groups 3 are subcellular structural changes involving cytoplasmic components, nuclear lamina, chromatin and nucleoli that cannot be accounted for by genetic instability. Some distinct criteria in Group 3 are known to be induced by cancer genes, but their precise structural basis remains obscure. The criteria of malignancy are not closely related to the histogenetic classification of cancers, and they appear to provide an alternative, biologically relevant framework for establishing common ground between cytologists and cell biologists. To understand the criteria of malignancy at a molecular level would improve diagnosis, and likely point to novel cell physiologies that are not encompassed by current cell biology concepts.

  17. Epidemiologic overview of malignant lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jooryung

    2012-06-01

    Malignant lymphoma encompasses a wide variety of distinct disease entities. It is generally more common in developed countries and less common in developing countries. The East Asia region has one of the lowest incidence rates of malignant lymphoma. The incidence of malignant lymphoma around the world has been increasing at a rate of 3-4% over the last 4 decades, while some stabilization has been observed in developed countries in recent years. The reasons behind this lymphoma epidemic are poorly understood, although improving diagnostic accuracy, the recent AIDS epidemic, an aging world population and the increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors are suggested as contributing factors. Etiologies of malignant lymphoma include infectious agents, immunodeficiency, autoimmune disease, exposure to certain organic chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The distribution of many subtypes exhibit marked geographic variations. Compared to the West, T/natural killer (NK) cell lymphomas (T/NK-cell lymphoma) and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) are relatively more common, whereas other B-cell lymphomas, particularly follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, are less common in Asia. Some subtypes of T/NK-cell lymphomas defined by Epstein-Barr virus association are predominantly Asian diseases, if not exclusively so. Both ethnic and environmental factors play roles in such diversity. In this review, we discuss the geographic distribution and etiology of malignant lymphoma, as well as the trend.

  18. Metabolic Syndrome and Skin: Psoriasis and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Garima

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Met S) is a clustering of risk factors comprising of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of Met S has been increasing in the last few years throughout the world. Psoriasis has consistently been associated with Met S as well as its various components. However, the association is no longer limited to psoriasis alone. Various dermatological conditions such as lichen planus, androgenetic alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and even cutaneous malignancies have also been found to be associated with this syndrome. Though chronic inflammation is thought to be the bridging link, the role of oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities has recently been proposed in bringing them together. PMID:23919003

  19. Metformin - For the dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Bubna, Aditya Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Metformin though primarily an antidiabetic drug, has found to play an important role in a number of cutaneous disorders. Because of its role in improving hyperinsulinemia, it has proven beneficial in hormonal acne, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) and acanthosis nigricans. Its antiandrogenic properties further serve as an add-on to the conventional management of hirsutism associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Very recently, systemic usage of metformin for psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies has shown promising results. Interestingly, metformin has also been topically used in hyperpigmentary disorders with pertinent levels of improvement and happens to be the most recent addition to the list of dermatologic indications. Though an oral hypoglycemic agent to begin with, metformin today has proven to be a boon for dermatologists. PMID:26997714

  20. Differential expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha and 17β-HSD associated with the processes of total testicular regression and recrudescence in the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-05-15

    Despite the worldwide distribution and many unique reproductive adaptations that bats present, many aspects of their reproductive hormonal regulation have not been adequately studied, especially in species that presented patterns of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the testicular expression of 17β-HSD type 1, aromatase and ERα in the bat Myotis nigricans, during the four periods of its reproductive cycle. Immunoreactivity for ERα was detected only in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids and in the nuclei of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Expression of aromatase was observed in round and elongated spermatids and in Sertoli and Leydig cells. Immunoreactivity for 17β-HSD was restricted to the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. The three expression patterns varied significantly during the four periods of the reproductive cycle. Expression of ERα and aromatase in spermatids was continuous, while expression of ERα in spermatogonia occurred only in initial types (Ap). Expression of ERα and aromatase in Sertoli cells varied, with expression only in periods of spermatogenetic activities; and the same variation was observed for the expression of aromatase and 17β-HSD in Leydig cells. We, therefore, propose that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans from September to January in the northwest of the São Paulo State of Brazil, are directly regulated by testosterone and estrogen. This occurs via the production of testosterone by 17β-HSD, its conversion into estrogen by aromatase, and activation/deactivation of Sertoli cells' AR and spermatogonia's ERα. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclosporin-A associated malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Durnian, Jonathan M; Stewart, Rosalind MK; Tatham, Richard; Batterbury, Mark; Kaye, Stephen B

    2007-01-01

    The use of cyclosporin is well established within the ophthalmology community, especially against sight threatening intraocular inflammation. It is well known however, that immunosuppression in general is a risk factor for the development of malignancy and numerous studies point to the risk imposed by cyclosporin. This article analyses and reviews all relevant studies with regard to the development of malignancy associated with the use of cyclosporin and extrapolates this into the ophthalmic setting. This is to enable clinicians to assess the risks in individual patients and to present a monitoring regime which can be used in patients undergoing cyclosporin treatment. The review is solely concerned with the risk of the development of malignancy following cyclosporin immunosuppression and not with any other adverse effect. PMID:19668519

  2. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  3. Eosinophilic Dermatosis of Hematologic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Truyols, S; Rodrigo-Nicolás, B; Lloret-Ruiz, C; Quecedo-Estébanez, E

    Dermatosis characterized by tissue eosinophilia arising in the context of hematologic disease is known as eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy. The most commonly associated malignancy is chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Eosinophilic dermatosis of hematologic malignancy is a rare condition with a wide variety of clinical presentations, ranging from papules, erythematous nodules, or blisters that simulate arthropod bites, to the formation of true plaques of differing sizes. Histology reveals the presence of abundant eosinophils. We present 4 new cases seen in Hospital Arnau de Vilanova, Valencia, during the past 7 years. Three of these cases were associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 1 with mycosis fungoides. It is important to recognize this dermatosis as it can indicate progression of the underlying disease, as was the case in 3 of our patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath

    2012-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy. PMID:23249860

  5. [Kinase inhibitors against hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tojo, Arinobu

    2014-06-01

    Dysregulation of protein phosphorylation, especially on tyrosine residues, plays a crucial role in development and progression of hematological malignancies. Since remarkable success in imatinib therapy of CML and Ph+ALL, extensive efforts have made to explore candidate molecular targets and next breakthrough drugs. Now that next generation ABL kinase inhibitors are available for CML, the therapeutic algorithm has been revolutionized. As for AML and lymphoid malignancies, many kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3, BTK and aurora-A are on early and late clinical trials, and a number of promising drugs including ibrutinib are picked up for further evaluation.

  6. Lenvatinib and Capecitabine in Patients With Advanced Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-23

    Advanced Cancer; Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Bone and Articular Cartilage; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Eye Brain and Other Parts of Central Nervous System; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Male Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract

  7. Cutavirus in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Fridholm, Helena; Vinner, Lasse; Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Friis-Nielsen, Jens; Asplund, Maria; Herrera, Jose A.R.; Steiniche, Torben; Mourier, Tobias; Brunak, Søren; Willerslev, Eske; Izarzugaza, Jose M.G.; Hansen, Anders J.; Nielsen, Lars P.

    2017-01-01

    A novel human protoparvovirus related to human bufavirus and preliminarily named cutavirus has been discovered. We detected cutavirus in a sample of cutaneous malignant melanoma by using viral enrichment and high-throughput sequencing. The role of cutaviruses in cutaneous cancers remains to be investigated. PMID:28098541

  8. Nematode infection mimicking paratesticular malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kallampallil, Jins; Wood, Sarah J; O'Dempsey, Timothy; Craigie, Ross J

    2013-12-10

    Paratesticular swellings pose a diagnostic dilemma due to concerns over malignancy. We present a case of paratesticular swelling in a 13-year-old boy as a result of Dirofilaria immitis infection. The boy presented with a 2-month history of right testicular discomfort associated with an irregular mass within the scrotum.

  9. Malignant tumors of Stensen's duct.

    PubMed

    Steiner, M; Gould, A R; Miller, R L; Johnson, J A

    1999-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in Stensen's duct is reported. The literature concerning malignant neoplasia originating in this site is reviewed, with attention given to the histopathologic diversity of neoplasms occurring in the duct, criteria for determination of origin in the duct, and outcomes of therapy.

  10. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Al Ansari, Afaf A; Al Hail, Fatima A; Abboud, Emad

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi - abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass.

  11. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass. PMID:25003044

  12. The Origin of Malignant Malaria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of malignant malaria, which is among the most severe human infectious diseases. Despite its overwhelming significance to human health, the parasite’s origins remain unclear. The favored origin hypothesis holds that P. falciparum and its closest known rel...

  13. Malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Stella M.; Millward-Sadler, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The features of four cases of malignant haemangioendothelioma involving the liver and other organs are described. Two cases were associated with a microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. The nature of the tumours and possible pathogenesis for the anaemias are discussed. Images PMID:4832301

  14. Skin: A mirror of internal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Kota, RahulKrishna S.; Diwan, Nilofar G.; Jivani, Nidhi B.; Gandhi, Shailee S.

    2016-01-01

    Skin manifestations are a reflection of many of the internal diseases. Sometimes, skin disease may be the only manifestation of the internal disease. Internal malignancies may give rise to a number of cutaneous manifestations through their immunological, metabolic, and metastatic consequences. Curth proposed criteria to establish a causal relationship between a dermatosis and a malignant internal disease. Malignancy can present with a plethora of cutaneous manifestations. Here, we describe in brief about various skin manifestations of internal malignancies. PMID:28144085

  15. Abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Delicata, M; Hambley, H

    2011-08-01

    Malignancy often results in clotting abnormalities. The aetiology of haemostasis problems in cancer is complex, and is still not completely understood. We describe a case of a patient with malignant mesothelioma, who was found to have elevated activated partial thromboplastin time, due to lupus anticoagulant. We suggest that patients with malignancy should have their coagulation checked prior to any invasive procedures.

  16. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  17. Malignant Transformation of Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Keum, Dong Yoon; Hwang, Il Seon

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma (PBML) is defined as metastasis of a leiomyoma to lung tissue. It was first reported in 1937. P BML is known as a benign disease, but can undergo malignant transformation. Only 1 case of the malignant transformation of PBML to leiomyosarcoma has been reported previously. In this report, we present a case of malignant transformation of PBML. PMID:28180107

  18. Gastrointestinal Malignancy and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Maria T.; Peek, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial species participate in the genesis of a substantial number of malignancies—in conservative estimates, at least 15% of all cancer cases are attributable to infectious agents. Little is known about the contribution of the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome to the development of malignancies. Resident microbes can promote carcinogenesis by inducing inflammation, increasing cell proliferation, altering stem cell dynamics, and producing metabolites such as butyrate, which affect DNA integrity and immune regulation. Studies in humans and rodent models of cancer have identified effector species and relationships among members of the microbial community in the stomach and colon that increase the risk for malignancy. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome, or the immune response to such bacteria, could be developed to prevent or treat certain GI cancers. PMID:24406471

  19. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  20. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient.

  1. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Morlino, A; Rossi, M T; Fabrizio, T; Scutari, F

    2010-03-01

    Malignant fibroous histiocytoma (MFH) is an aggressive soft tissue sarcoma, that most frequently occurs in the muscles of the extremities and in abdominal or in retroperitoneal space of young adults. It is seldom confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is rarely diagnosed before excision and pathological exam, and has an unfavorable prognostic in some cases. This work reports the case of a 94 years old patient with originally cutaneous MFH stressing the importance of the early diagnosis.

  2. Morphogens, morphostats, microarchitecture and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2007-06-01

    Morphogenetic fields organize tissue morphology in the embryo. By analogy, morphostatic fields maintain normal cell behaviour and normal tissue microarchitecture in the adult. The most prominent feature of cancer is the disruption of tissue microarchitecture. Cancer occurs much more frequently when morphostatic influences fail (metaplasia) or at the junction of two different morphostatic fields. This Review will describe what we know about morphostats and morphostasis, discuss the evidence for the role of disruption of morphostasis in malignancy, and address some testable hypotheses.

  3. Targeting hedgehog in hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Irvine, David A; Copland, Mhairi

    2012-03-08

    The Hedgehog pathway is a critical mediator of embryonic patterning and organ development, including hematopoiesis. It influences stem cell fate, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis in responsive tissues. In adult organisms, hedgehog pathway activity is required for aspects of tissue maintenance and regeneration; however, there is increasing awareness that abnormal hedgehog signaling is associated with malignancy. Hedgehog signaling is critical for early hematopoietic development, but there is controversy over its role in normal hematopoiesis in adult organisms where it may be dispensable. Conversely, hedgehog signaling appears to be an important survival and proliferation signal for a spectrum of hematologic malignancies. Furthermore, hedgehog signaling may be critical for the maintenance and expansion of leukemic stem cells and therefore provides a possible mechanism to selectively target these primitive cell subpopulations, which are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Indeed, phase 1 clinical trials of hedgehog pathway inhibitors are currently underway to test this hypothesis in myeloid leukemias. This review covers: (1) the hedgehog pathway and its role in normal and malignant hematopoiesis, (2) the recent development of clinical grade small molecule inhibitors of the pathway, and (3) the potential utility of hedgehog pathway inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in hemato-oncology.

  4. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  5. Temozolomide for Treating Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Hua; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Lou; Tang, Jian-Qin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant forms of skin cancer; with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Early-stage melanoma is curable, but advanced metastatic melanoma is almost always fatal, and patients with such advanced disease have short median survival. Surgery and radiotherapy play a limited role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Rather, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, although other approaches, including biotherapy and gene therapy, have been attempted. The authors hereby, evaluated the use of temozolomide (TMZ) for treating metastatic melanoma compared to dacarbazine (DTIC), the effectiveness of TMZ for treating brain metastases, as well as TMZ resistance and how the efficacy of TMZ in malignant melanoma can be increased. Two chemotherapeutic regimens are commonly used for palliative treatment of malignant melanoma: intravenous administration of DTIC and oral administration of the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). Compared to DTIC, TMZ is very well tolerated and has an advantage in terms of improving the quality of life of patients with metastatic melanoma. While the prognosis is currently unpromising, chemotherapy plays a palliative role for patients with metastatic melanoma. The toxicity of treatment regimens based on DTIC and TMZ do not differ significantly, although TMZ is costlier. These findings provide a reference for future researchers via a comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature.

  6. Malignant otitis externa: case series.

    PubMed

    Ali, T; Meade, K; Anari, S; ElBadawey, M R; Zammit-Maempel, I

    2010-08-01

    In the light of current concerns regarding ciprofloxacin resistance and the changing face of malignant otitis externa, we reviewed cases of malignant otitis externa treated in our centre, in order both to evaluate the current epidemiology of the condition and to assess the status of drug resistance in our patient population. Retrospective case review of all malignant otitis externa cases managed in a tertiary referral centre in the north-east of England between 2000 and 2009. Forty-one patients were identified, but the required data were available for only 37 cases. Patients' ages ranged from 51 to 101 years (median, 81 years). Diabetes was present in 51 per cent of patients (19/37), facial nerve palsy in 40 per cent (15/37) and multiple cranial nerve palsy in 24 per cent (9/37). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated organism (54 per cent), sensitive to ciprofloxacin in all cases. The incidence of cranial nerve palsy in our study was higher than in previous reports. The incidence of diabetes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in our cohort was much lower than previously reported. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated were all sensitive to ciprofloxacin, despite recent reports on emerging resistance.

  7. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  8. Naked megakaryocyte nuclei: a clue to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, M; Lefkowitz, E

    1977-10-01

    Bone marrow smears from 63 patients with various malignancies and a series of 51 controls were examined for the presence and percentage of naked megakaryocyte nuclei (NMN). Patients with malignancy had more than 15% NMN, which, when compared with the incidence in controls, was statistically significant. The etiology of this artifact is unknown. It is a clue to the presence of malignancy, and might be useful in following treated cases of malignancy for evidence of relapse. NMN should not be confused with metastatic malignant cells.

  9. Chromosome 7 and Haematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Cotter, F E; Johnson, E

    1997-01-01

    Abnormalities of chromosome 7 are the most common clonal chromosomal changes observed in myelodysplasia (MDS) and the second most frequent in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) [1-5]. These changes may consist of long arm deletion (7q-) or total loss of the whole chromosome (monosomy 7) from bone marrow cells [1, 4, 6-24] and was first reported in association with myeloid disease in 1964 with the report of 3 cases of refractory anaemia, granulocytic hyperplasia [25]. The association between chromosome 7 alterations, MDS and AML in children and adults is clear, however, a rare association with lymphoid malignancies has also been recently reported. The abnormalities may occur in de novo MDS/AML, secondary cases following exposure to drugs, radiotherapy and toxins and in addition in a range of constitutional disorders including Fanconi's anaemia, congenital neutropenia and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The broad spread of conditions in which this consistent genetic change can occur leads one to speculate that there is an underlying instability in chromosome 7 and that genes on this chromosome play a role in the development of malignancy. The loss of DNA associated with malignant progression suggests the presence of a tumour suppressor gene (or genes) [26, 27]. Patients with monosomy 7 usually present as classical MDS with abnormal erythroid, megakaryocyte and myeloid differentiation [7, 28]. From a mechanistic perspective, increased cell proliferation and apoptosis is a common feature possibly induced by the failure of normal haematopoietic maturation. In all groups the presence of chromosome 7 abnormalities defines a poor prognostic group [29]. The majority of patients with MDS transform to a form of acute leukaemia resistant to therapy, including bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has accelerated the study of these disorders at the cytogenetic and molecular levels, [4, 30, 31, 32, 33] no gene has been clearly

  10. Paraneoplastic hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita: uncommon or overlooked?

    PubMed

    Slee, P H T J; van der Waal, R I F; Schagen van Leeuwen, J H; Tupker, R A; Timmer, R; Seldenrijk, C A; van Steensel, M A M

    2007-12-01

    Acquired hypertrichosis lanugo-type or hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita (HLA) is often associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders and use of certain drugs. The occurrence of HLA with malignancy was first noted in 1865, and it has since been described in 56 patients as a paraneoplastic syndrome both in women and in men. Sometimes HLA occurs concurrent with acanthosis nigricans, papillary hypertrophy of the tongue, and glossitis. The predominance of female cases is striking. Malignancy-associated HLA seems to occur especially in the age group 40-70 years. In women with HLA the most frequent malignancy is colorectal cancer, followed in order by lung cancer and breast cancer; in men lung cancer is the malignancy most frequently associated with HLA, followed by colorectal cancer. In 3 years we saw 10 patients with HLA, in whom the malignancy was usually metastasized. Only one patient had local disease; after removal of the primary tumour it took 2 years before the lanugo hair recurred. The aetiology of the syndrome is not clear: no specific hormonal or biochemical abnormalities have been identified as yet. The difference between hirsutism and lanugo-type hypertrichosis is discussed. It is stressed that the appearance of lanugo-type hypertrichosis in body areas previously perceived by patients as 'hairless' is highly indicative of internal malignancy.

  11. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  12. MALIGNANT DEGENERATION IN BURN SCARS

    PubMed Central

    Castañares, Salvador

    1961-01-01

    The malignant potential of burn scars has been recognized since Marjolin's classical description of cancer arising in several types of post-traumatic scars. With improved burn therapy since the last war, there has been a higher survival rate of severe burns with proportionate increase in cancer associated with burn scars. This will create increasing problems of permanent disability and compensation. The younger the patient at the time of the burn, the longer the time required for the cancer to develop. Acute cancer development in burn scars has been reported after a four-week interval. Cancer may develop from six weeks to fifty years or more. The etiology of cancer in burn scars is not known. The most important clinical finding is the fact that most of the burn cancers occur in areas which were not grafted. The most common type of cancer encountered in burn scars is squamous cell carcinoma, which forms in Marjolin ulcers. Basal cell carcinoma may develop in the most superficial of burn scars. Treatment should be directed primarily to prompt and adequate skin grafting in all deep burns in order to prevent malignant degeneration of the burn scars. Once it has developed the treatment is the same as for other malignancies which are not associated with burns. Wide surgical excision with block dissection of the regional lymph nodes when they are involved is the treatment of choice. The prognosis of burn scar cancer is poor, once the process has extended because of early and distant metastasis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13691372

  13. Undiagnosed Pheochromocytoma Simulating Malignant Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Nisha S; Stoppacher, Robert; Morani, Ajaykumar C; Catanese, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. They are surgically curable but can be lethal if remain undiagnosed. We report a patient earlier diagnosed with malignant hyperthermia but later found to have pheochromocytoma on autopsy. After a preprocedural pain block for elective right shoulder arthroscopy, a 53-year-old hypertensive white man developed chest pain. In the operating room, he had increased blood pressure. Postoperatively, his blood pressures dropped from 220/100 to 80/30 mm Hg. He later developed high fever with core temperature reaching a peak of 42.2°C, rapid breathing, and died after unsuccessful attempts to stabilize him. Autopsy revealed a tumor in his right adrenal gland, measuring 10 cm in greatest dimension and weighing 530 g. It was red brown with a hemorrhagic and cystic cut surface. A thin rim of yellow-orange adrenal cortex was visible at the margin of the tumor, indicating that it originated from the underlying adrenal medulla. The left adrenal gland was unremarkable.Sections showed hypercellular tumor with zellballen architecture. The tumor cells were round to oval with finely granular basophilic cytoplasm and mild pleomorphism. A 24-hour urine sample collected before his death showed greater than 22727 μg/g Ratio to Creatinine metanephrines and normetanephrine, indicating that the tumor was active and secreted high levels of catecholamine. The cause of death was established as the complications of pheochromocytoma in the settings of general anesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy. The manner of death was natural. Pheochromocytoma can mimic malignant hyperthermia, and it should always be considered and managed appropriately in such scenarios to avoid untoward consequences. Pathologists must also be aware of this when conducting an autopsy in cases with a previous clinical diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia.

  14. Meningioma after radiotherapy for malignancy.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Peter F; Shah, Kalee; Dunkel, Ira J; Reiner, Anne S; Khakoo, Yasmin; Rosenblum, Marc K; Gutin, Philip

    2016-08-01

    Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RIM. Initial malignancies included acute lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%), medulloblastoma (26.7%) and glioma (16.7%) at a mean age of 8.1years (range 0.04-33years). The mean radiation dose was 34Gy (range 16-60Gy) and latency time to meningioma was 26years (range 8-51years). Twenty-one patients (70%) underwent surgery. Of these, 57.1% of tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) grade I while 42.9% were WHO II (atypical). The mean MIB-1 labeling index for patients with WHO I tumors was 5.44%, with 33.3% exhibiting at least 5% staining. Mean follow-up after meningioma diagnosis was 5.8years. Mortality was zero during the follow-up period. Meningioma is an important long-term complication of therapeutic radiation. While more aggressive pathology occurs more frequently in RIM than in sporadic meningioma, it remains unclear whether this translates into an effect on survival. Further study should be aimed at delineating the risks and benefits of routine surveillance for the development of secondary neoplasms after radiation therapy.

  15. Malignant external otitis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Espejo, Antonio; Valenciano-Moreno, Inmaculada; Ramírez-Llorens, Rafael; Pérez-Monteagudo, Palmira

    Malignant external otitis is a necrotizing infection, which extends from the squamous epithelium of the ear canal to the adjacent tissue. The objective of the study was to investigate its incidence and other epidemiological data in Spain, reporting the largest case series to date. A descriptive, retrospective study of the Spanish population was carried out using the minimum basic data set (MBDS) based on data of patients admitted to hospitals in the 2008-2013 period. Patients whose diagnosis (principal or secondary) at discharge was encoded as 380.14 (malignant external otitis), according to ICD-9-CM, were included as cases. The Spanish incidence rate was calculated for all its communities and provinces, as well as by season and mortality. A total of 355 patients (302 as principal diagnosis and 53 as secondary) were diagnosed. The incidence rate was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.44) per 106 inhabitants and year, although there were variations among geographical areas. The median age of cases with main diagnosis was 74 years (range 10-95 years). The predominant age group was in patients over 84 years old (19.3 cases per 10(6) inhabitants and year). The incidence was higher in men and the male-female relative risk was 2.4. Diabetes was present in 74.6% of patients. The diagnosis was predominant in the last quarter of the year. The gross in-hospital mortality rate was 3.7%. Malignant external otitis is seen mostly among male elderly and diabetic patients. The incidence and mortality rate are low in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Meningioma after radiotherapy for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Peter F.; Shah, Kalee; Dunkel, Ira J.; Reiner, Anne S.; Khakoo, Yasmin; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Gutin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Complications of radiation exposure have gained importance with increasing cancer survivorship. Secondary malignancies have been associated with cranial radiation exposure. We present our experience with intracranial radiation-induced meningioma (RIM) and discuss the implications of its presentation and natural history for patient management. Patients diagnosed with meningioma who had received radiation therapy between 1960 and 2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed for details of radiation exposure, previous malignancies, meningioma subtypes, multiplicity and pathologic descriptions, treatment and follow-up. Thirty patients were diagnosed with RIM. Initial malignancies included acute lymphocytic leukemia (33.3%), medulloblastoma (26.7%) and glioma (16.7%) at a mean age of 8.1 years (range 0.04–33 years). The mean radiation dose was 34 Gy (range 16–60 Gy) and latency time to meningioma was 26 years (range 8–51 years). Twenty-one patients (70%) underwent surgery. Of these, 57.1% of tumors were World Health Organization (WHO) grade I while 42.9% were WHO II (atypical). The mean MIB-1 labeling index for patients with WHO I tumors was 5.44%, with 33.3% exhibiting at least 5% staining. Mean follow-up after meningioma diagnosis was 5.8 years. Mortality was zero during the follow-up period. Meningioma is an important long-term complication of therapeutic radiation. While more aggressive pathology occurs more frequently in RIM than in sporadic meningioma, it remains unclear whether this translates into an effect on survival. Further study should be aimed at delineating the risks and benefits of routine surveillance for the development of secondary neoplasms after radiation therapy. PMID:27068012

  17. Second Malignancies Among Elderly Survivors of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hurria, Arti

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. population is aging, life expectancy is increasing, and cancer is a disease associated with aging. Advances in screening and therapeutics have led to a growing number of cancer survivors who are at risk for the development of secondary malignancies. Although the risks for the development of second malignancies following a first diagnosis of cancer are well described for survivors of childhood malignancies, there are fewer data for malignancies common in older adults. With the aging of the U.S. population, and with improving survival statistics in many adult malignancies, there is an increasing need to identify those second malignancies that might develop in the older adult survivor of cancer. In this paper, we describe the types and rates of second malignancies following cancers commonly seen in older adults and review the literature on these malignancies. Comparisons are made between older and younger adults with regard to the risks for developing treatment-related cancers with different modalities. Recommendations for early detection of second malignancies are summarized, though there remains an unmet need for evidence-based guidelines for screening for second malignancies in the older adult in particular. PMID:22042787

  18. Effect of Euphorbia cyparissias ointments on acanthosis.

    PubMed

    Cristina, Romeo T; Dumitrescu, Eugenia; Brezovan, Diana; Muselin, Florin; Chiurciu, Viorica

    2014-01-01

    A pharmaco-chemical investigation of the Euphorbia cyparissias plant was justified by its known multiple therapeutic valences. Numerous components from extracts and latex of Euphorbiacae were identified, revealing a large plant family with a polyvalent therapeutic activity. The aim of the study was to assess the skin tolerance level to irritation on different testing concentrations, of Euphorbia cyparissias extracts and ointments. Study was accomplished in rats and dogs, with the identification of all possible skin injuries and histological changes, after a simple patch test methodology. Ointment dermatological testing on rats, proved to be bearable on epilated skin at concentrations of 1, 2 and 5%. Ointments and mother tincture with higher concentrations (10% and 20%), led to irritation and cutis damages, and this was revealed through histology. Ointment tested on dog's skin was tolerable for epilated skin to concentrations of 1, 2 and/or 5%, additional testing on human volunteers confirmed the same situation.

  19. Radiation therapy for intrahepatic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Quick, Allison M; Lo, Simon S; Mayr, Nina A; Kim, Edward Y

    2009-10-01

    Historically, radiation was not used in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastasis because of the low tolerance of the liver to radiation. More recently, improvements in radiation delivery using advanced techniques, such as 3D conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, image-guided radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, proton-beam therapy and internal radiation therapy, have enabled partial and selective irradiation of the liver with promising response rates and toxicity profiles. This review will discuss the different techniques of radiation that can now be used to treat intrahepatic malignancies and the important clinical studies in the medical literature.

  20. TP53-Associated Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Emilia M.; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Figueiredo, Bonald C.; Zambetti, Gerard P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the majority of pediatric malignancies express wild-type p53, it is well established that germline TP53 mutations or functional inactivation of this pathway by other means contribute to childhood cancer. Epidemiology studies have revealed the existence of diverse inherited mutant TP53 alleles that display different levels of tumor suppressor activity, which correlate with cancer risk in terms of penetrance, age of onset, and tumor types. In this monograph, the authors describe those childhood cancers associated with functional inactivation of TP53 focusing on adrenocortical carcinoma as a model for tissues that are highly sensitive to loss of p53 activity. PMID:21779516

  1. [Lymphadenopathy: demarcation to malignant lymphomas].

    PubMed

    Feller, A C

    2013-05-01

    Recognition of the differential diagnosis between lymphadenitis and malignant lymphoma requires good knowledge of the basic forms of the disease as well in depth knowledge of the structure of the individual compartments. There are defined forms of lymphadenitis where the differential diagnosis to certain lymphoma entities is known. Other reactive structural alterations show indistinct limits so that a decision is only possible after using additional techniques, such as immunohistochemistry and molecular analyses. Finally, there are marginal areas which can only be clarified by including clinical data.

  2. Two new Myxidium species (Myxosporea: Myxidiidae) infecting the gallbladder of African flying fish, Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier, Caesio suevicus from the Red Sea, Egypt: a morphological and morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem Sh

    2009-08-01

    Myxidium maamouni sp. n. and Myxidium aydai sp. n. were described from the gallbladder of the African flying fish Cheilopogon nigricans and Suez fusilier Caesio suevicus, respectively. Fishes were collected from the Red Sea at Al-Quseir, Egypt. M. maamouni have irregular to mostly rounded polysporous plasmodia with diameter of 27 microm. Spores were sigmoid or S-shaped and sometimes spindle-shaped in the frontal view with smooth valves. They measured 13.5 x 8.0 x 8.2 microm in size. Their polar capsules were equal pyriform and measured 7.0 x 3.2 microm in size with nine to 12 coils. Spores of M. aydai were spindle-shaped in the frontal view with thin smooth valves. They measured 23.0 x 5.6 x 5.5 microm in size. Their polar capsules were pyriform and measured 7.2 x 3.4 microm in size with eight to nine coils.

  3. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwandin, Shanel; Labow, Daniel M.

    2017-01-01

    Mesothelioma is a malignancy of serosal membranes. It is most commonly encountered in the visceral pleura with the second most common location in the peritoneum. The diagnosis is very rare and has been linked to toxic exposure to industrial pollutants, especially asbestos. Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) commonly presents with diffuse, extensive spread throughout the abdomen with rare metastatic spread beyond the abdominal cavity. Due to its rarity and nonspecific symptoms, it is usually diagnosed late when the disease burden is extensive. Because pleural mesothelioma is more common than MPM, most research has been on the pleural variant and extrapolated for MPM. While treatment advances have been made for MPM, the disease is universally fatal from either abdominal complications secondary to the spread of disease or starvation. Untreated, the life expectancy is less than a year. Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has become the mainstay of therapy with systemic therapies still being developed. We will review the epidemiology of MPM and discuss diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:28706904

  4. Nimotuzumab treatment of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bode, Udo; Massimino, Maura; Bach, Ferdinand; Zimmermann, Martina; Khuhlaeva, Elena; Westphal, Manfred; Fleischhack, Gudrun

    2012-12-01

    In spite of new alkylating medication and recently accumulated knowledge about genomics, the prognosis of malignant gliomas remains poor. The introduction of single substances interfering with tumour proliferation dynamics has been disappointing and the lessons learned indicate that a complicated network of proliferation needs time consuming, in-depth analysis in order to more specifically treat now distinguishable subgroups of a disease, which too long was thought of as a uniform entity. The clinical trials using the EGFR antibody nimotuzumab in the treatment of malignant gliomas are reviewed. Pending conformation in future studies the antibody might be part of the treatment of MGMT-negative, EGFR-amplified, not completely resected gliomas of adulthood and juvenile DIPG (pontine gliomas). Upcoming genomic results of the different tumour entities may suggest certain combination partners of the antibody. Recent studies of nimotuzumab indicate the reason for the lack of toxicity, which is the most attractive argument for its clinical use besides modest efficacy. We await the final results on the use of the antibody together with vinorelbine and radiation therapy for the therapy of DIPG. Adult patients with MGMT-negative, EGFR amplified, not totally resected GBM may also profit from this combination therapy. TK-inhibitors combined with the antibody and irradiation may be an option for a therapeutic trial in paediatric patients.

  5. Malignant hyperthermia, a Scandinavian update.

    PubMed

    Broman, M; Islander, G; Müller, C R

    2015-09-01

    Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a rare pharmacogenetic disorder, triggered by halogenated anesthetics and/or succinylcholine. In susceptible individuals, these drugs can activate an explosive life threatening clinical reaction. Leading symptoms are hypercarbia, muscle rigidity, and metabolic acidosis. MH is inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner and linked to mutations in the large ryanodine 1 gene (RYR1) gene in the majority of cases. Very few MH patients have been found to carry mutations in the CACNA1S gene. For this review a large litterature search was carried out and the Swedish MH database consisting of 436 probands who have undergone in vitro muscle contraction test (IVCT) during 1984-2014 was analyzed. Twelve different MH causative mutations have been found in Swedish patients so far. These mutations lead to a disturbed calcium balance in striated muscle tissue. A muscle biopsy for the IVCT or finding of an approved causative mutation are required for the diagnosis. A Malignant Hyperthermia susceptible (MHS) patient should be anesthetized with trigger-free anesthesia. There are a few reports of MH-like reactions in patients unrelated to anesthesia. The outcome is dependent on early recognizing of the reaction and fast disconnection of the trigger agents and administration of dantrolene. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Meldi, Kristen M; Figueroa, Maria E

    2015-08-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers, including the myeloid malignancies acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The discovery of TET-mediated demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and technological advancements in next-generation sequencing have permitted the examination of other cytosine modifications, namely 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), in these myeloid malignancies on a genome-wide scale. Due to the prominence of mutations in epigenetic modifiers that can influence cytosine modifications in these disorders, including IDH1/2, TET2, and DNMT3A, many recent studies have evaluated the relative levels, distribution, and functional consequences of cytosine modifications in leukemic cells. Furthermore, several therapies are being used to treat AML and MDS that target various proteins within the cytosine modification pathway in an effort to revert the abnormal epigenetic patterns that contribute to the diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of cytosine modifications and selected technologies currently used to distinguish and analyze these epigenetic marks in the genome. Then, we discuss the role of mutant enzymes, including DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2, and the transcription factor, WT1, in disrupting normal patterns of 5mC and 5hmC in AML and MDS. Finally, we describe several therapies, both standard, front-line treatments and new drugs in clinical trials, aimed at inhibiting the proteins that ultimately lead to aberrant cytosine modifications in these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oncolytic Virotherapy for Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Bais, Swarna; Bartee, Eric; Rahman, Masmudur M.; McFadden, Grant; Cogle, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma (MM), and the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) primarily affect adults and are difficult to treat. For high-risk disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) can be used. However, in the setting of autologous HCT, relapse due to contamination of the autograft with cancer cells remains a major challenge. Ex vivo manipulations of the autograft to purge cancer cells using chemotherapies and toxins have been attempted. Because these past strategies lack specificity for malignant cells and often impair the normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, prior efforts to ex vivo purge autografts have resulted in prolonged cytopenias and graft failure. The ideal ex vivo purging agent would selectively target the contaminating cancer cells while spare normal stem and progenitor cells and would be applied quickly without toxicities to the recipient. One agent which meets these criteria is oncolytic viruses. This paper details experimental progress with reovirus, myxoma virus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, coxsackievirus, and vaccinia virus as well as requirements for translation of these results to the clinic. PMID:22312362

  8. Malignant lymphoma with cardiac involvement.

    PubMed

    Terakura, Seitaro; Onji, Masaaki; Iriyama, Chisako; Goto, Tatsunori; Ushijima, Yoko; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Hayakawa, Fumihiko; Murata, Makoto; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    Malignant lymphoma with cardiac involvement is difficult to diagnose and treatment selection decisions can be challenging, because patients usually present with atypical disease involvement and the incidence is low. Herein, we describe the clinical characteristics and courses of three non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients showing cardiac involvement. All three patients were male, ages 32, 74 and 64 years. All three patients had presented with cardiac involvement mainly in the right heart system. We promptly performed needle biopsies for patients 1 and 3, and open-heart biopsy for patient 2, which showed PMBL for patient 1, DLBCL for patients 2 and 3. Since we were concerned regarding possible transient exacerbation of heart failure or the occurrence of fatal arrhythmia, we chose to start with relatively low dose chemotherapeutic interventions or pre-phase steroid therapy. After one course of chemotherapy or pre-phase steroid therapy, symptoms associated with heart failure almost completely subsided, and we further administered full-dose chemotherapy thereafter, resulting in complete responses in 2 cases. This case series demonstrates that malignant lymphoma with cardiac involvement is a treatable disease, despite widespread involvement. Furthermore, rapid and appropriate diagnostic imaging and biopsy are important when this disease is suspected.

  9. Serum cholesterol in cerebral malignancies.

    PubMed

    Grieb, P; Ryba, M S; Jagielski, J; Gackowski, W; Paczkowski, P; Chrapusta, S J

    1999-01-01

    Reduced blood cholesterol levels were reported in patients with a variety of malignant peripheral tumors. This fact is likely related to increased cholesterol demand by proliferating tumor cells. The question arises whether this 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' occurs also in patients with brain tumors, and--if it does not--whether its absence can be related to the location of the tumors. We have compared fasting serum total cholesterol levels among three groups of patients: 52 patients with gliomas, 56 patients with symptomatic metastatic brain tumors, and 50 patients harboring malignant tumors of peripheral location but showing no clinical signs of brain metastases. Patients in the last group, despite being--on an average--more age-advanced, had lower total serum cholesterol levels than either the patients with gliomas, or the patients with brain metastases. No difference in the cholesterol levels was found between the two latter groups, and a majority of these patients had borderline or elevated cholesterol levels. This apparent absence of 'tumor-associated hypocholesterolemia' in brain tumor patients may be related to either brain tumors' ability to synthesize cholesterol de novo and their reduced dependence on peripheral cholesterol supply, the existence of brain tumor-blood barrier, effect of medications used to counteract brain edema and seizures, or a combination of these factors.

  10. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  11. Malignant melanoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, B. K.; Holman, C. D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) in sunlight is thought to be the main cause of malignant melanoma in lightly-pigmented populations. Individuals with fair skin, fair hair, blue eyes and/or a tendency to burn rather than tan when exposed to the sun are at particularly high risk of melanoma and should be given special attention in primary prevention programmes. Intermittent exposure to the sun, as in recreational exposure, may be a more potent cause of melanoma than more continuous exposure. Primary prevention offers the best prospects for a substantial reduction in mortality from malignant melanoma. However, there is little evidence available to judge the effectiveness of primary prevention of melanoma through reduction of exposure to the sun. Education for reducing exposure to the sun is common in high-risk populations but has never been evaluated adequately. Mortality from melanoma could also possibly be reduced by earlier diagnosis through education or screening of high-risk groups. Regular screening of patients with the familial dysplastic naevus syndrome should reduce their mortality from melanoma. PMID:3301043

  12. [Diabetes in patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Zoltán; Boér, Katalin; Halászlaki, Csaba; Németh, Zsuzsanna

    2013-09-01

    Disturbances of the carbohydrate metabolism are fairly common is patients with malignancy. On the other hand, diabetes appears to have an effect on the development and progression of various tumors. Malignant diseases and the therapies used in their treatment often have an impact on carbohydrate metabolism, while diabetes may hinder specific oncotherapy or influence oncological therapeutic decisions. Several complications of malignant diseases and some of the medications used in their treatment, such as steroids or parenteral nutrition, may raise blood glucose levels. The various obstacles of oral nutrition frequently seen in patients with malignancy can lead to hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. Our article endeavours to review the pathophysiological and clinical connection between diabetes and malignant diseases and the use of insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs and diet in patients with malignant disease.

  13. Cerebellar degeneration following neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lal, V.; Sardana, V.; Thussu, A.; Sawhney, I. M.; Prabhakar, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of bipolar affective disorder developed hyperpyrexia, rigidity and depressed consciousness (neuroleptic malignant syndrome) after commencing neuroleptic therapy. On regaining consciousness, she was mute and had signs suggesting pancerebellar involvement. Hyperpyrexia, which is a cardinal feature of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, may have caused cerebellar damage. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome needs both early recognition and prompt treatment to obviate devastating complications. PMID:9519191

  14. Malignant causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Foggo, Vanessa; Cavenagh, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    The presence of fever in malignancy usually indicates infection, though transfusion, thrombosis and drugs are also culprits. However, particularly in some tumour types, fever can also be a paraneoplastic syndrome, caused by the malignancy itself. This can be a difficult diagnosis to establish and presents a therapeutic challenge to the physician when the underlying malignancy is not easily treated. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  15. Atypical presentations of malignant otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Vourexakis, Z; Kos, M-I; Guyot, J-P

    2010-11-01

    Malignant otitis externa is a life-threatening infection of the skull base. Its presentation is not always typical. We report three cases of malignant otitis externa which illustrate the diversity of its clinical manifestations and the difficulties in its diagnosis. The perception of malignant otitis externa as an infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in diabetic patients is not always correct. The adoption of diagnostic criteria could be helpful in identifying atypical cases.

  16. Primary retroperitoneal malignant melanoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, GUO-BING; WU, GUANG-YAO; GHIMIRE, PRASANNA; ZHANG, ZAI-PENG

    2011-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma occurring at an extra cutaneous site is rare. A case of primary malignant melanoma located in the retroperitoneum of an 18-year-old female is presented in this study. Histopathological examination of the tissue biopsies at laparotomy with immunohistochemical stains confirmed a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Further extensive clinical and radiological investigations proved the retroperitoneum to be the primary site. PMID:22848275

  17. B-Cell Hematologic Malignancy Vaccination Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-28

    Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hematological Malignancies

  18. Diffuse Malignant Mesothelioma: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rom, William N.; Lockey, James E.

    1982-01-01

    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma is a signal tumor of asbestos exposure. Mesothelioma incidence has been steadily rising during the past two decades, reflecting the increases in asbestos use during and following World War II. The onset of the disease follows exposure by 25 to 40 years. The dose-response relationship appears to be much lower than that for asbestosis or lung cancer—it is not known whether current levels of exposure will entail a risk for disease 30 years hence. There is no synergistic or additive interaction with smoking for this tumor. Current knowledge indicates that pleural plaques, per se, do not increase the risk for this tumor beyond that of the previous asbestos exposure alone. Durable fibers with high aspect ratios, especially amphiboles, are associated with experimental tumor induction. Treatment modalities including surgical procedures and chemotherapy with doxorubicin and 5-azacytidine offer prospects for palliation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:6761970

  19. Secondary malignancies following cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, P; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    Many agents used in cancer chemotherapy are known carcinogens. However, few secondary malignancies have been definitely linked to chemotherapy, since studies on this problem are complicated by methodological problems. A causal relationship has been established between alkylating agents and leukaemia and between cyclophosphamide and bladder cancer. The risk of leukaemia peaks at 5-10 years after beginning of chemotherapy and declines steadily after its end. The interaction between chemotherapy and radiotherapy has not been fully clarified, nor has the leukaemogenic potency of individual drugs, although combinations without nitrogen mustard seem to entail a lower risk. Other tumours reported at increased incidence, in particular among Hodgkin's disease patients, for whom a carcinogenic effect of chemotherapy seems plausible, are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lung cancer. Other secondary solid tumors have also been reported, but for none of them an independent effect of chemotherapy has been demonstrated.

  20. Molecular Profiling of Endometrial Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Samarnthai, Norasate; Hall, Kevin; Yeh, I-Tien

    2010-01-01

    Molecular profiling of endometrial neoplasms reveals genetic changes in endometrial carcinomas that support the dualistic model, in which type I carcinomas are estrogen-dependent, low grade lesions and type II carcinomas are nonestrogen dependent and high grade. The molecular changes in type I endometrial carcinomas include mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, and β-catenin, along with microsatellite instability, whereas type II endometrial carcinomas are characterized by genetic alterations in p53, HER2/neu, p16, and E-cadherin. For endometrial neoplasms with a malignant mesenchymal component, C-MYC mutations and loss of heterozygosity are frequently seen in carcinosarcomas, and a fusion gene, JAZF1/JJAZ1, is distinctive for endometrial stromal sarcoma. In addition, p53 mutations may play an important role in tumorigenesis of undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma. These molecular changes can help in the diagnosis of endometrial neoplasms, as well as form the basis of molecular targeted therapy. PMID:20368795

  1. Isolated urachal malakoplakia mimicking malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Pakalapati, Saisriharsha; Parachuri, Sanjay; Kakarla, Venkateshwara Rao; Byrappa, Mahesh Babu

    2017-01-01

    Malakoplakia is an unusual inflammatory disease with uncertain pathogenesis affecting any organ in the body, but predominantly genitourinary tract, with specific predilection to the bladder. We report a rare case of isolated malakoplakia of the urachus in a 29-year-old male patient who presented with lower urinary tract symptoms without any hematuria. Investigations revealed sterile pyuria with no bacterial growth in urine. Radiological investigations revealed a mass in the urachal region. The patient underwent cystoscopy with biopsy followed by pelvic lymph node dissection and partial cystectomy with excision of the urachal mass. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed malakoplakia. Postoperative course was uneventful. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case report of isolated urachal malakoplakia without any concomitant malignancy or bladder involvement reported in our country and one of the very few reported worldwide. PMID:28216941

  2. Malignant Mesothelioma: Time to Translate?

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Andrea; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer largely associated with asbestos exposure. In this review, we will discuss the significant advancements in our understanding of its genetics and molecular biology and their translational relevance. Remarkable findings included the discovery of germline and somatic mutations of BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) in patients, and the genome-wide characterization of pathways altered in mesothelioma that could be potentially exploited to design novel therapeutic approaches. Nevertheless, the clinical translation of these molecular findings has been slow and insufficient. In order to rapidly move translation from the bench to the bedside, we believe that cooperative research efforts have to be further endorsed and promoted at all levels. PMID:28603777

  3. Malignant Mesothelioma: Development to Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Joyce; Westbom, Catherine; Shukla, Arti

    2013-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive cancer of the mesothelium caused by asbestos. Asbestos use has been reduced but not completely stopped. In addition, natural or man-made disasters will continue to dislodge asbestos from old buildings into the atmosphere and as long as respirable asbestos is available, MM will continue to be a threat. Due to the long latency period of MM development, it would still take decades to eradicate this disease if asbestos was completely removed from our lives today. Therefore, there is a need for researchers and clinicians to work together to understand this deadly disease and find a solution for early diagnosis and treatment. This article focuses on developmental mechanisms as well as current therapies available for MM. PMID:23959774

  4. Management of malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongbin; Brahmer, Julie

    2008-07-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) often presents in patients with cancer at an advanced stage and thus carries a poor prognosis. This review updates the current knowledge on the management of MPE, focusing on recent literature about the efficacy and safety of the most common methods, including pleurodesis by either thoracoscopy with talc insufflation or thoracostomy with talc slurry, use of an indwelling pleural catheter, and intrapleural chemotherapy. Talc remains the agent of choice in pleurodesis, although the use of alternative agents continues to be explored. The choice of procedure to achieve pleurodesis depends on careful patient selection based on predictive factors and individual characteristics. Talc pleuro-desis is relatively well tolerated and safe, as is an indwelling pleural catheter, in an appropriate patient population. Because MPE is a common problem in cancer patients, future research with more randomized, prospective designs and innovative interventions is needed.

  5. Clinical Management of Malignant Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Foreman-Larkin, Julie; Netland, Peter A.; Salim, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glaucoma remains one of the most challenging complications of ocular surgery. Although it has been reported to occur spontaneously or after any ophthalmic procedure, it is most commonly encountered after glaucoma surgery in eyes with prior chronic angle closure. The clinical diagnosis is made in the setting of a patent peripheral iridotomy and axial flattening of the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure is usually elevated, but it may be normal in some cases. Although the exact etiology of this condition is not fully understood, several mechanisms have been proposed and it is thought to result from posterior misdirection of aqueous humor into or behind the vitreous. This review discusses pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, imaging modalities, and current treatment strategies for this rare form of secondary glaucoma. PMID:26819754

  6. Glucosylceramidases and malignancies in mammals.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, Leonardo; Therville, Nicole; Colacios, Céline; Ségui, Bruno; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Levade, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    Sphingolipids represent a major class of lipids that are essential constituents of eukaryotic cells. They are predominantly located in plasma membrane microdomains, and play an important structural role in regulating membrane fluidity. They are also bioactive effectors involved in diverse key cellular functions such as apoptosis and proliferation. The implication of some sphingolipids in cancer is well established whereas that of some others is still a matter of intense investigation. Glucosylceramide is the backbone of more than 300 structurally different glycosphingolipids including gangliosides and sulfatides, and is essential for mammalian development. Therefore, glucosylceramidases (also named GBA1, GBA2 and GBA3 β-glucosidases), the enzymes that hydrolyse β-glucosylceramide, play important functions. GBA1 is a lysosomal hydrolase whose deficiency causes Gaucher disease, the most prevalent inherited lysosomal storage disorder. GBA2 is a ubiquitous non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase whose mutations have been associated with some forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. GBA3 is a cytosolic β-glucosidase, mostly present in the kidney, liver, spleen, intestine and lymphocytes of mammals, the function of which is still unclear. Whereas glucosylceramide synthase is implicated in multidrug resistance, the role of glucosylceramide breakdown in cancer is not yet fully appreciated. Defective GBA1 enzyme activity in humans, i.e., Gaucher disease, is associated with an increased risk of multiple myeloma and other malignancies. Putative molecular links between Gaucher disease and cancer, which might implicate the malignant cell and/or its microenvironment, are reviewed. The functions of GBA2 and GBA3 in cancer progression are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  7. Malignant transformation of breast fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor: long-term outcome of 36 malignant phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Abe, Makoto; Miyata, Satoshi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Iijima, Kotaro; Makita, Masujiro; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2011-10-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare neoplasm for which clinical findings remain insufficient for determination of optimal management. We examined the clinical behavior of these lesions in an attempt to determine appropriate management. We evaluated long-term outcome and clinical characteristics of malignant phyllodes tumors arising from fibroadenomas of the breast. A total of 173 patients were given a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor and underwent surgery at the Cancer Institute Hospital in Japan between January 1980 and December 1999. Of these patients, 39 (22.5%) were given a diagnosis of malignant phyllodes tumor; in three of these cases, detailed medical records were lost. Malignant phyllodes tumors were classified into two groups based on history of malignant transformation. Of the 36 malignant cases, 11 (30.6%) were primary and were given a diagnosis of fibroadenoma, experienced recurrence during the follow-up period, and were diagnosed with malignant phyllodes tumor (cases with a history of fibroadenoma). The other group was defined as cases without history of fibroadenoma and in whom lesions initially occurred as malignant phyllodes tumors. Based on differences between the two groups, overall survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan–Meier method, and statistical comparisons were performed using the log-rank test and Peto and Peto’s test. The outcome of cases with history of fibroadenoma was significantly better than that of cases without history of fibroadenoma. Patients with malignant phyllodes tumors but without prior history of malignant transformation who exhibit rapid growth within 6 months require aggressive treatment.

  8. Malignant gonadal tumour formation in intersexual states

    PubMed Central

    Pigott, H. W. S.

    1975-01-01

    Two cases of malignant tumour are reported in phenotypically male hermaphrodites. The importance of establishing the presence of persistent Müllerian duct structures in pseudo-hermaphrodites is discussed in relation to prophylactic castration in anticipation of malignant change. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197157

  9. ["Malignant" middle cerebral artery territory infarction].

    PubMed

    Mendel, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    The pathology, clinical course, outcome, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of dramatic malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction were presented. About 10% of stroke patients suffer from malignant middle cerebral artery territory infarction, mainly due to brain edema and herniation. This syndrome causes high mortality. The newest conservative and surgical treatment was presented.

  10. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed. PMID:26664775

  11. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed.

  12. [Malignized dermoid cyst of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Bützow, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mature germ cell derived cystic teratoma of the ovary, i.e. dermoid cyst, is a common ovarian neoplasm, seldom progressing to malignancy. Malignized dermoid cyst is most commonly diagnosed in a woman of approx. 50 years of age, either during or after an operation. Owing to the rarity of the disease, the lines of treatment are based on retrospective series of cases.

  13. Malignant ameloblastoma: classification, diagnostic, and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Andrew; Sapp, Philip; Huang, Catherine; Abemayor, Elliot

    2002-01-01

    Ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm of the mandible and maxilla that rarely exhibits malignant behavior. We report the case of an aggressive malignant ameloblastoma of the mandible that presented with an unusual multiphasic, histologic pattern. Initial fine needle aspiration and radiographic findings showed features consistent with a benign, fibro-osseous lesion. However, aggressive growth and the association of enlarged submandibular lymph nodes suggested a more malignant potential. Treatment consisted of an angle-to-angle composite mandibular resection, right modified neck dissection, left functional supraomohyoid neck dissection, and anterior chin skin resection with iliac crest osteocutaneous free flap reconstruction. Microscopic evaluation showed primarily malignant ameloblastoma without cellular atypia and extensive fields of fibro-osseous tissue with smaller fields of clear cell odontogenic tumor. This multiphasic, histologic arrangement may explain the perplexing preoperative microscopic diagnosis, suggesting a benign fibro-osseous lesion. Of the lymph nodes analyzed, one from the right submandibular triangle exhibited metastatic, benign-appearing ameloblastoma without fibro-osseous or clear cell features. The absence of cellular features of malignancy in the tumor mass and lymph node metastasis suggest that the lesion should be classified as malignant ameloblastoma rather than ameloblastic carcinoma or odontogenic carcinoma. A malignant ameloblastoma with all 3 of the aforementioned microscopic features has not been previously reported. We review the classification of epithelial odontogenic malignancies. Lesions showing multiphasic patterns can create diagnostic dilemmas and may require extensive surgical sampling and/or removal to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  14. Primary Ovarian Malignant PEComa: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Westaby, Joseph D; Magdy, Nesreen; Fisher, Cyril; El-Bahrawy, Mona

    2016-09-28

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by expression of both melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. PEComas are rarely encountered in the female genital tract. We here report a case of malignant primary PEComa of the ovary, and discuss the differential diagnosis. This represents the first case of primary typical malignant PEComa of the ovary.

  15. [Malignant schwannoma metastasizing to the heart].

    PubMed

    Menezes Júnior, A da S; Greco, O T; Fiorini, M; Pavarino, P; Corbucci, H; Caixeta, A M

    1992-01-01

    We introduce the case of a 34-year-old male with a malignant metastasizing tumor in the heart associated with skin manifestations. The patient was submitted to heart surgery to resect the tumor. The correct diagnosis was done by pathological findings and immunohistochemical methods and showed, malignant schwannoma.

  16. [Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid].

    PubMed

    Rossi, P; Ducasse, A; Pluot, M; Brugniart, C; Gotzamanis, A; Jouhaud, F

    2002-12-01

    Fibrous histiocytomas, mostly benign, have often been reported in the orbit, but only four lesions have been described on the eyelids, with only one malignant. The authors present a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the eyelid in a 76-year-old woman with a difficult histological diagnosis. Characteristics of this pathology are explained from data in the literature.

  17. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  18. Management of malignant hyperthermia: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Schneiderbanger, Daniel; Johannsen, Stephan; Roewer, Norbert; Schuster, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal inherited disorder characterized by disturbance of calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Volatile anesthetics and/or the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine may induce this hypermetabolic muscular syndrome due to uncontrolled sarcoplasmic calcium release via functionally altered calcium release receptors, resulting in hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, muscular rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Since the clinical presentation of malignant hyperthermia is highly variable, survival of affected patients depends largely on early recognition of the symptoms characteristic of malignant hyperthermia, and immediate action on the part of the attending anesthesiologist. Clinical symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic guidelines, as well as adequate management of anesthesia in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, are discussed in this review.

  19. Management of malignant hyperthermia: diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderbanger, Daniel; Johannsen, Stephan; Roewer, Norbert; Schuster, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a potentially lethal inherited disorder characterized by disturbance of calcium homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Volatile anesthetics and/or the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine may induce this hypermetabolic muscular syndrome due to uncontrolled sarcoplasmic calcium release via functionally altered calcium release receptors, resulting in hypoxemia, hypercapnia, tachycardia, muscular rigidity, acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyperthermia in susceptible individuals. Since the clinical presentation of malignant hyperthermia is highly variable, survival of affected patients depends largely on early recognition of the symptoms characteristic of malignant hyperthermia, and immediate action on the part of the attending anesthesiologist. Clinical symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic guidelines, as well as adequate management of anesthesia in patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, are discussed in this review. PMID:24868161

  20. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  1. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor in retroperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yihong; Chu, Xi; Yi, Ye; Tong, Liang; Dai, Yingbo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor occurs in various sites. Malignant SFT in retroperitoneum is extremely rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of malignant retroperitoneal SFT in a 59-year-old man presented with right flank pain for 1 month. Diagnoses, interventions and outcomes: A laparotomy and resection of the tumor were performed, the histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with malignant retroperitoneal SFT. No adjuvant treatment was performed, and the patient had no signs of recurrence or metastasis at the 12 months follow-up. Lessons: Complete surgical excision is the basic treatment principle for malignant retroperitoneal SFT. The histologic features and the Ki-67 label index are helpful for the diagnosis of malignant SFT. PMID:28296778

  2. A Comparison of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Fast-Attack Submariners with U.S. Civilian Males

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-14

    disease ( NAFLD ).1-6 Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an agreed-upon term for the collection of clinical abnormalities that have been...hypertension, NAFLD or acanthosis nigricans, (2) a family history of type 2 DM, hypertension or CVD, (3) history of glucose intolerance (4) non

  3. [Malignant and non-malignant cartilaginous tumours of the larynx].

    PubMed

    Garsta, Ewa; Stankiewicz, Czesław; Kowalska, Bożena; Narożny, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    Cartilaginous tumours of the larynx are rare. They usually involve cricoid cartilage, less frequently thyroid cartilage and other cartilages. The most significant clinical manifestations are hoarseness, dyspnea, dysphagia or a neck mass. On physical examination, tumour is found as a bulge with intact mucosa or a tumour situated in a part of the larynx also with fixation. CT scanning is the mainstay of radiographic imaging. The histopathologic diagnosis is made after the surgical excision. Prognosis for survival is good. The recurrences occur very often, also with malignant transformation and require laryngectomy. We presented 11 patients (including symptoms, involved cartilage, laryngoscopy examination, histopathologic diagnosis, treatment and the follow-up). 6 patients manifested hoarseness, 5 dyspnea, 3 dysphagia, 1 neck mass as the first symptom. In laryngoscopy a tumour with intact mucosa was situated in subglottis - 5 patients, in supraglottis - 2 patients and in half of the larynx with fixation - 4 patients. The majority of tumours involved the cricoid cartilage - in 9 cases, the rest arytenoid and epiglottic cartilage. The histopathology diagnosis were given after surgery, only in one case after biopsy. There were 7 patients with chondrosarcoma and four with chondroma. We did not observe lymph node or distant metastases. All patients were treated surgically. Follow-up of patients with chondrosarcoma were 5 to 17 years without recurrence. However, two recurrences of chondroma appeared to be chondrosarcomas and required laryngectomy. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of Some Charcoal-Black-Pigmented CDC Fermentative Coryneform Group 4 Isolates as Rothia dentocariosa and Some as Corynebacterium aurimucosum: Proposal of Rothia dentocariosa emend. Georg and Brown 1967, Corynebacterium aurimucosum emend. Yassin et al. 2002, and Corynebacterium nigricans Shukla et al. 2003 pro synon. Corynebacterium aurimucosum

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Maryam I.; Hollis, Dannie G.; Weyant, Robbin S.; Jordan, Jean G.; MacGregor, John P.; Morey, Roger E.; Whitney, Anne M.; Brenner, Don J.; Steigerwalt, Arnold G.; Helsel, Leta O.; Raney, Patti M.; Patel, Jean B.; Levett, Paul N.; Brown, June M.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-three clinical isolates of charcoal-black-pigmented, gram-positive coryneform rods were received for identification by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and were provisionally designated CDC fermentative coryneform group 4 (FCG4). Forty-five of these were characterized by morphological, physiologic, antimicrobial susceptibility, cellular fatty acids, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Nitrate reduction, cellular fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and DNA-DNA hybridization studies segregated these strains into two groups: FCG4a (8 strains) and FCG4b (37 strains). The FCG4a strains, only one of which was from a female genitourinary source, produced cellular fatty acid and biochemical profiles similar to those observed with reference strains of Rothia dentocariosa and Rothia mucilaginosa, while the FCG4b strains were similar to Corynebacterium species. DNA-DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated species-level relatedness among six FCG4a tested strains and showed that they were a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of R. dentocariosa. Sixteen isolates of the FCG4b group, mainly from female genitourinary tract specimens, as well as the type strains of two recently named species, Corynebacterium aurimucosum and Corynebacterium nigricans, were shown by DNA-DNA hybridization analysis and the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to be related at the species level and unrelated to the type strain of R. dentocariosa; therefore, the Corynebacterium-like strains were classified as a charcoal-black-pigmented variant of C. aurimucosum, because this name has nomenclatural priority over C. nigricans. These findings indicate that FCG4 represents a heterogeneous group that contains pigmented variants of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum; hence, the descriptions of both R. dentocariosa and C. aurimucosum have been amended to include charcoal-black-pigmented variants, and C. nigricans is a pro synonym of C. aurimucosum. PMID

  5. What's New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Malignant Mesothelioma About Malignant Mesothelioma What’s New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment? There is ... that has shown promise in some studies. Other new drugs have different targets. For example, some new ...

  6. [Management of malignant vulvar tumors].

    PubMed

    Mahjoub, S; Ben Brahim, F; Ben Hmid, R; Zghal, D; Kallel, N; Sébai, N; Zouari, Faouzia

    2008-12-01

    Vulva anatomy--FIGO classification--Vulva tumors anatomopathology--Tretments of vulva cancers. Our stady is a retrospective, longitudinal and continuous one. It concerns 11 malignant vulva tumors whith were treated in the département "C" of the centre of maternity of Tunis. The period of stady is fifty four months (2002-2006). The aim of our study is to analyse the charactéristics of the vulva cancer and to compare our results to littérature. Mean age of our patients is 67 years old. They are all menaused. The principal signs are vulva tuméfaction in 72.7% of the cases, vulva prurit in 27.3% of the cases and genital bleeding in 27.3% of the cases. The mean period of consultation is of 14 months. We have ten cases of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma and one melanoma. The treatment was surgical in the eleven cases (10 total vulvectomy and one hemivulvectomy) They all benefited of an inguinal bilateral curage. The adjuvant radiotérapie was indicated in 3 cases. A patient was classed stage Ib of FIGO, 7 stage II, one stage III and one stage IVa. Nine patients are in remission, 3 are dead: 2 because of their cancer and one due to a pulmonar embolism. The survival of 6 month is 72.2%. The prevention of this cancer passes by the close follow of dystrophic states and viral pathologies of the vulva.

  7. Childhood malignancies and decision making.

    PubMed

    Holder, A R

    1992-01-01

    Failure to obtain "adequate" medical care for a child constitutes child neglect, which may be used as the basis for prosecution of parents, removal of the child from the home, or court-ordered medical treatment. "Adequate" care is usually construed as that which is given by a licensed physician, but, in case of dispute, courts almost never engage in choosing one medical approach over another. The principle that parents may not refuse medical care, however, is made very difficult when children have malignancies--the long-term nature of the treatment means that, if the child is left at home, court order or not, the parents may flee with their child. Removing the child from the home, however, adds that trauma to the ill child's burdens. Questions should be asked before making a request to a court to order a therapy which will prolong but not save a child's life if the parents would prefer to spare their child the side effects. Parents, however, may always refuse to permit their child to participate in research studies, no matter how promising. Adolescents are increasingly believed to be capable of medical decision making; most courts, however, would not allow an adolescent to refuse life-saving treatment.

  8. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HAEMATOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES

    PubMed Central

    Kulhara, P.; Verma, S.C.; Bambery, P.; Nehra, R.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMMARY Sixty nine patients with various types of haematological malignancies were studied. Chronic myeloid leukaemia (n =32) was the commonest diagnosis. The patients were assessed on Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire and Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale and those who had scores above the cut off points for Hamilton Rating Scale and/or PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire were assessed on Present State Examination. The patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months interval. At 3 months 51 patients were re-assessed whilst at 6 months only 26 could be re-evaluated. There were no significant changes in scores of Hamilton Rating scale and PGI-N2 Health Questionnaire at intake and subsequent follow-up assessments. No significant correlations between stressful life experience and severity of illness emerged. Twenty nine patients were interviewed on Present State Examination and of these 20 had diagnosable depressive neuroses- From consultation liaison psychiatric point of view, provision of psychiatric help to these patients is discussed. PMID:21927472

  10. Novel immunotherapies in lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Batlevi, Connie Lee; Matsuki, Eri; Brentjens, Renier J.; Younes, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The success of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the treatment of lymphoid malignancies provided proof-of-principle for exploiting the immune system therapeutically. Since the FDA approval of rituximab in 1997, several novel strategies that harness the ability of T cells to target cancer cells have emerged. Reflecting on the promising clinical efficacy of these novel immunotherapy approaches, the FDA has recently granted ‘breakthrough’ designation to three novel treatments with distinct mechanisms. First, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy is promising for the treatment of adult and paediatric relapsed and/or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Second, blinatumomab, a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE®) antibody, is now approved for the treatment of adults with Philadelphia-chromosome-negative relapsed and/or refractory B-precursor ALL. Finally, the monoclonal antibody nivolumab, which targets the PD-1 immune-checkpoint receptor with high affinity, is used for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma following treatment failure with autologous-stem-cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin. Herein, we review the background and development of these three distinct immunotherapy platforms, address the scientific advances in understanding the mechanism of action of each therapy, and assess the current clinical knowledge of their efficacy and safety. We also discuss future strategies to improve these immunotherapies through enhanced engineering, biomarker selection, and mechanism-based combination regimens. PMID:26525683

  11. Malignant mesothelioma in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kwok C; Leung, Chi C; Tam, Cheuk M; Yu, Wai C; Hui, David S; Lam, Wah K

    2006-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (mesothelioma) is rare. We conducted the first systematic study of the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Hong Kong from 1988 to May 2002 by reviewing medical records. Mesothelioma patients were identified from the database of 12 out of 20 hospitals that would have admitted mesothelioma patients territory-wide. These 12 hospitals served 73% of the total hospital bed-years of the 20 hospitals. We identified 67 mesothelioma patients. The estimated annual incidence was one per million, which was similar to the background incidence of one to two per million among Caucasians. Occupational history was available in 43 subjects. Three quarters of mesothelioma patients with available occupational history had occupational asbestos exposure. Restricting analysis to 48 patients with accessible medical records and using 67 occupational asbestosis patients for comparison, the epidemiology of mesothelioma in Hong Kong shares similarities with the literature: mean age of 63 years upon diagnosis, mean latency of 46 years, median survival of 9.5 months, male predominance, selective presentation among women, high prevalence among workers in ships and dockyards, predominantly epithelioid type, lower prevalence of asbestos bodies, and negative association with pleural plaques. Asbestos consumption in Hong Kong rose in the 1970s and peaked in early 1980s and late 1990s. Hong Kong may encounter an epidemic of mesothelioma in the 2010s if effective occupational asbestos control measures are not in place.

  12. Adjuvant therapy of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dickler, M N; Coit, D G; Meyers, M L

    1997-10-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma continues to rise steadily in the United States, with approximately 40,300 new cases expected in 1997. A significant number of patients with deep primary lesions or regional lymph node metastases are at high risk for developing recurrent, metastatic disease despite adequate surgical intervention. Therefore, approaches to adjuvant therapy including immunotherapy, such as interferon, levamisole, and vaccines and chemotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy have been investigated in high-risk patients. The key adjuvant trials are reviewed, with emphasis placed on randomized trials. High-dose interferon-alpha has recently been shown to modestly improve disease-free and overall survival in a prospective randomized trial of high-risk patients and has been approved by the FDA for this indication. Vaccines, which currently remain experimental, may prove to be equally effective but less toxic options for adjuvant therapy. Also, the identification of more high-risk patients who might benefit from adjuvant therapy may be facilitated by sentinel lymph node biopsy and the reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for tyrosinase.

  13. Resistin: insulin resistance to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Codoñer-Franch, Pilar; Alonso-Iglesias, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ that secretes bioactive substances known as adipokines. Excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction lead to dysregulated adipokine production that can contribute to the development of obesity-related co-morbidities. Among the various adipokines, resistin, which was initially considered as a determinant of the emergence of insulin resistance in obesity, has appeared as an important link between obesity and inflammatory processes. Several experimental and clinical studies have suggested an association between increased resistin levels and severe conditions associated with obesity such as cardiovascular disease and malignancies. In this review, we present the growing body of evidence that human resistin is an inflammatory biomarker and potential mediator of obesity-associated diseases. A common pathway seems to involve the combined alteration of immune and inflammatory processes that favor metabolic disturbances, atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis. The mode of action and the signaling pathways utilized by resistin in its interactions with target cells could involve oxidative and nitrosative stress. Therefore, resistin could function as a key molecule in the complications of obesity development and could potentially be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel immunotherapies for hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system is designed to discriminate between self and tumor tissue. Through genetic recombination, there is fundamentally no limit to the number of tumor antigens that immune cells can recognize. Yet, tumors use a variety of immunosuppressive mechanisms to evade immunity. Insight into how the immune system interacts with tumors is expanding rapidly and has accelerated the translation of immunotherapies into medical breakthroughs. Herein, we appraise the state of the art in immunotherapy with a focus on strategies that exploit the patient’s immune system to kill cancer. We review various forms of immune-based therapies, which have shown significant promise in patients with hematological malignancies, including (i) conventional monoclonal therapies like rituximab, (ii) engineered monoclonal antibodies called bispecific T cell engagers (BiTEs), (iii) monoclonal antibodies and pharmaceutical drugs that block inhibitory T-cell pathways (i.e. PD-1, CTLA-4 and IDO), and (iv) adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy with T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or T-cell receptors (TCRs). We also assess the idea of using these therapies in combination and conclude by suggesting multi-prong approaches to improve treatment outcomes and curative responses in patients. PMID:25510273

  15. Dendritic cells in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico; Corazzelli, Gaetano; De Filippi, Rosaria; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are bone-marrow-derived immune cells accounted for a crucial role in initiating and modulating the adaptive immune response and supporting the innate immune response independently from T cells. While functioning as the most effective antigen-presenting cells within the immune system, DCs can otherwise induce tolerance in central and peripheral lymphoid organs acting therefore as suppressors rather than stimulators of the immune response. Within mechanisms regulating antitumor immunity, DCs can capture antigens from viable or damaged tumor cells and present the processed peptides to T-cells to prompt the generation and maintenance of an effective tumor-specific T-cell response. Upon a complex cross-talk with other cellular components of the tumor microenvironment, DCs can, on the other hand, exert a potent antigen-dependent and -independent tolerogenic function by favoring the process of tumor immune evasion. Due to this dual-role in balancing antitumor immunity and tolerance, possibly linked to distinct developmental stages and functional subsets, several studies have addressed the regulatory significance of DCs in different types of malignancies. This review summarizes the most significant pieces of evidence highlighting the critical relevance of bone marrow-derived DCs within the immune pathways regulating pathogenesis and progression of hemopoietic tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Esophageal malignancy: A growing concern

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianyuan; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is mainly found in Asia and east Africa and is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. However, it has not garnered much attention in the Western world due to its low incidence rate. An increasing amount of data indicate that esophageal cancer, particularly esophageal adenocarcinoma, has been rising by 6-fold annually and is now becoming the fastest growing cancer in the United States. This rise has been associated with the increase of the obese population, as abdominal fat puts extra pressure on the stomach and causes gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Long standing GERD can induce esophagitis and metaplasia and, ultimately, leads to adenocarcinoma. Acid suppression has been the main strategy to treat GERD; however, it has not been proven to control esophageal malignancy effectively. In fact, its side effects have triggered multiple warnings from regulatory agencies. The high mortality and fast growth of esophageal cancer demand more vigorous efforts to look into its deeper mechanisms and come up with better therapeutic options. PMID:23236223

  17. Pediatric malignancies in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Günay, U; Meral, A; Sevinir, B

    1996-01-01

    Turkey is among the countries affected by ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986. The northern part of Turkey, where the city of Bursa is located, is presumed to be more influenced by the nuclear catastrophe. The radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been examined at various intervals after May 1, 1986 and barium-140 and lanthanum-140, fission agents of uranium-235, have been found in the atmosphere. Their exact concentration could not be measured. The aim of this report is to review the pediatric malignancies diagnosed in our institution between 1986 and 1995, with a view on any significant increase in the number of these cases. The patients were divided into three groups: acute leukemia patients (101 cases), lymphomas (44 cases), and solid tumors (31 cases). All three groups showed a tendency to increase after 1986; the increase in leukemia cases between 1986 and 1995 was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) when compared with the years before 1986. The increase in lymphoma and solid tumor cases after 1986 was not found to be significant (p > 0.05). We cannot rule out environmental causes other than the effects of the Chernobyl accident, and we feel that more intense epidemiological studies should be carried out on this subject in other areas of Turkey.

  18. Improved radioimmunotherapy of hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Press, O.W.

    1992-03-24

    This research project proposes to develop novel new approaches of improving the radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignancies by augmenting retention of radioimmunoconjugates by tumor cells. The approaches shown to be effective in these laboratory experiments will subsequently be incorporated into out ongoing clinical trials in patients. Specific project objectives include: to study the rates of endocytosis, intracellular routing, and metabolic degradation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies targeting tumor-associated antigens on human leukemia and lymphoma cells; To examine the effects of lysosomotropic amines (e.g. chloroquine, amantadine), carboxylic ionophores (monensin, nigericin), and thioamides (propylthiouracil), on the retention of radiolabeled MoAbs by tumor cells; to examine the impact of newer radioiodination techniques (tyramine cellobiose, paraiodobenzoyl) on the metabolic degradation of radioiodinated antibodies; to compare the endocytosis, intracellular routing, and degradation of radioimmunoconjugates prepared with different radionuclides ({sup 131}Iodine, {sup 111}Indium, {sup 90}Yttrium, {sup 99m}Technetium, {sup 186}Rhenium); and to examine the utility of radioimmunoconjugates targeting oncogene products for the radioimmunotherapy and radioimmunoscintigraphy of cancer.

  19. Eyelid Malignancies- Always Quite Challenging

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Arumugham

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of eyelid cancers are quite challenging. Eyelid tumours are relatively rare diverse group of diseases varied in their presentation and extent. Many benign tumours and inflammatory conditions quite frequently masquerade eyelid cancers. Eyelid cancers are not single entity but comprise a wide range of tumours with extremes of tumour biology from indolent to very aggressive histopathologic types. Compromise on aesthetics and eyelids’ indispensable function of protecting the eyes during management, may lead to untoward cosmetic disfigurement and loss of vision. On the other hand, inadequate cancer clearance will also be vision threatening and life threatening due to loco regional recurrence and metastasis. To strike an optimal balance is a challenging task, to achieve ‘cancer cure’ with maximum preservation of function and cosmetics. In addition, the integration of other modalities of treatment, judicious selection and their sequencing require multidisciplinary discussion and joint management by different specialists. We are presenting four case scenarios, we met with in our teaching hospital with reference to literature review to emphasize that eyelid malignancies are not always simple with respect to diagnosis and management. PMID:28511494

  20. Noncoding RNAs in endocrine malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kentwell, Jessica; Gundara, Justin S; Sidhu, Stan B

    2014-05-01

    Only recently has it been uncovered that the mammalian transcriptome includes a large number of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that play a variety of important regulatory roles in gene expression and other biological processes. Among numerous kinds of ncRNAs, short noncoding RNAs, such as microRNAs, have been extensively investigated with regard to their biogenesis, function, and importance in carcinogenesis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have only recently been implicated in playing a key regulatory role in cancer biology. The deregulation of ncRNAs has been demonstrated to have important roles in the regulation and progression of cancer development. In this review, we describe the roles of both short noncoding RNAs (including microRNAs, small nuclear RNAs, and piwi-interacting RNAs) and lncRNAs in carcinogenesis and outline the possible underlying genetic mechanisms, with particular emphasis on clinical applications. The focus of our review includes studies from the literature on ncRNAs in traditional endocrine-related cancers, including thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine malignancies. The current and potential future applications of ncRNAs in clinical cancer research is also discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and future treatment.

  1. Impression cytology diagnosis of ulcerative eyelid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lyngdoh, A D; Pushker, N; Meel, R; Bajaj, M S; Chawla, B

    2015-02-01

    The utility of impression cytology in ocular diseases has predominantly been restricted to the diagnosis of dry eye, limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival neoplasias. Its role in malignant eyelid lesions remains largely unexplored. Although scrape cytology is more popular for cutaneous lesions, impression cytology, being non-traumatic, has an advantage in small and delicate areas such as the eyelid. The present study has been designed to evaluate its role in the diagnosis and management of malignant eyelid lesions. Thirty-two histopathologically proven malignant eyelid lesions diagnosed over a 2-year period, including 13 basal cell carcinomas, 11 sebaceous carcinomas, four squamous cell carcinomas, two malignant melanomas and two poorly differentiated carcinomas, formed the study group. The results of impression cytology were compared with those of histopathology in the study group and with an age- and sex-matched group of benign cases as controls. The sensitivity of impression cytology was 84% (27/32) for the diagnosis of malignancy and 28% (9/32) for categorization of the type of malignancy. Impression cytology is a simple, useful, non-invasive technique for the detection of malignant ulcerative eyelid lesions. It is especially useful as a follow-up technique for the detection of recurrences. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Malignant transformation in an anal condyloma acuminatum.

    PubMed

    Ejeckam, G C; Idikio, H A; Nayak, V; Gardiner, J P

    1983-03-01

    A 61-year-old man had malignant transformation of an anal condyloma acuminatum, demonstrated by light and electron microscopic studies. Intranuclear virus-like particles were seen in the benign condylomatous koilocytotic cells but these were absent in the malignant cells. Multinucleation, syncytial giant cells and nuclear atypia in a condyloma acuminatum are considered features of in-situ carcinomatous change. Anal condyloma acuminatum requires wide excision and thorough examination of anorectal canal in order to exclude hidden disease, which will predispose to recurrence. Homosexuality is considered a predisposing factor. The authors stress the importance of histopathologic examination of all anorectal warts to exclude malignant change.

  3. Malignant tumours in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tirelli, U.; Franceschi, S.; Carbone, A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important though somewhat neglected aspects of research in HIV infection concerns the development, clinicopathological characteristics, and treatment of malignant tumours in infected patients. With the improved survival of patients with AIDS owing to the better prevention and treatment of infectious complications there may well be an increase in AIDS related malignancies. This paper reviews the epidemiology, pathology, and treatment of malignant tumours in patients with HIV. Images p1149-a p1149-b p1149-c FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 p1151-a p1151-b p1151-c PMID:8173459

  4. Update on Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioisotope diagnosis and therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, B; Gross, M D; Shulkin, B

    2001-12-01

    The availability of radiopharmaceuticals to depict primary malignant pheochromocytoma and its metastases has markedly changed the approach to these unusual cancers. Whole body screening afforded by scintigraphy allows remote tumor involvement to be identified and provides staging information necessary to guide subsequent therapy. The avid accumulation by malignant pheochromocytoma of some radiopharmaceuticals used for scanning has shown promise in therapeutic trials. In this paper, we discuss radiopharmaceuticals presently employed in malignant pheochromocytoma for both diagnostic and therapeutic uses and potential future compounds that may find their way into clinical practice in the approach to these and other related neoplasms.

  6. Cutaneous malignancies in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ivette M Sosa; Zubair, Adeel; Brewer, Jerry D

    2014-01-01

    During the past century, organ transplantation has delivered the miracle of life to more than 500,000 patients in need. Secondary malignancies have developed as an unforeseen consequence of intense immunosuppressive regimens. Cutaneous malignancies have been recognized as the most frequent cancer that arises post-transplantation. Among organ transplant recipients (OTRs), skin cancer is a substantial cause of morbidity and potential mortality. The authors discuss epidemiology and clinical presentation of cutaneous malignancies; associated risk factors; recommendation for the care of immunosuppressed OTRs, and emerging therapies on the horizon.

  7. Benign breast lesions that mimic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Torous, Vanda F; Schnitt, Stuart J; Collins, Laura C

    2017-02-01

    Many benign and reactive lesions of the breast show morphological overlap with malignant lesions. These benign mimics of malignancy often present diagnostic challenges to even the most experienced pathologists. This review focuses on several benign lesions of the breast that mimic malignant entities. For each of these lesions, we describe the key morphological and immunohistochemical features, potential diagnostic pitfalls, and our approach to arriving at the correct diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Metastatic malignant phyllodes tumor involving the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Rowe, J Jordi; Prayson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases from malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are a rare occurrence. We report a patient with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the right breast which subsequently metastasized to the right lower lobe of the lung 1 year after initial presentation, and to the right cerebellar hemisphere 2 years after diagnosis of her breast mass. After both chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy the patient is tumor free at most recent follow-up, 116 months after the breast tumor diagnosis was made. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis of malignant spindle cell brain tumors is discussed.

  9. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  10. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-01-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases. The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years. PMID:20386624

  11. Malignant pleural mesothelioma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2009-08-01

    This study reviews a series of 811 malignant pleural mesothelioma cases, diagnosed at hospitals in Trieste and Monfalcone districts of north eastern Italy, a narrow coastal strip with a population of about three lakh, in the period 1968-2008. The diagnosis was based on histological examination in 801 cases, and cytological findings in 10. Necropsy was performed in 610 cases. Occupational histories were obtained directly from the patients or their relatives through personal or telephone interviews. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 500 cases. In 143 cases asbestos bodies were isolated and counted by chemical digestion of the lung tissue using the Smith-Naylor method. The series included 717 men and 94 women aged between 32 and 93 years (mean 69.2 years). Detailed occupational data was obtained for 732 cases.The majority of patients had marine jobs - shipbuilding (449 cases), maritime trades (56 cases), and port activities (39 cases). The nature of work of other patients included a variety of occupations, with non-shipbuilding industries being the most common. Thirty-four women cleaned the work clothes of family members occupationally exposed and hence had a history of asbestos exposure at home. Most of the patients had their first exposure to asbestos before 1960. The latency period ranged between 13 and 73 years (mean 48.2). Latency period among insulators and dock workers were shorter than other categories. Asbestos bodies were detected on routine lung sections in 343 cases (68.6%). Lung asbestos body burdens after isolation ranged between two to 10 millions bodies per gram of dried tissue. Despite some limitations in the use of asbestos in this area since the 1970s, the incidence of tumor remained high during the last years.

  12. Malignant rectal melanoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Morlino, Andrea; La Torre, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Giulia; Cammarota, Aldo

    2015-03-26

    Il Melanoma Anorettale è una malattia rara e aggressiva ed è il terzo tipo più comune di melanoma maligno dopo quello della cute e della retina. Il sintomo più comune è il sanguinamento rettale, che è spesso scambiato per sanguinamento associato a emorroidi. La diagnosi è molto difficile, e quella iniziale può essere corretta solo in circa 80% dei casi. Il caso clinico che proponiamo riguarda un uomo di 71 anni giunto alla nostra osservazione per dolore anale, tenesmo rettale, sanguinamento. L’eplorazione rettale ci ha mostrato una neofromazione dolorosa, di colorito brunastro nel canale anale. La colonscopia e la endoscopia hanno evidenziato la presenza di una grande massa stenotica interessante il canale anale ed il retto con un diametro di circa 90 mm. La biopsia è positiva per melanoma a cellule maligne pigmentate. La TAC ha mostrato un ispessimento della parete rettale e linfonodi nel tessuto adiposo, nel distretto otturatore bilaterale e metastasi polmonari bilaterali. Il dato di laboratorio del Ca 19-9 è nei livelli normali. Il paziente è stato sottoposto a resezione addomino-perineale con dissezione linfonodale. Non ci sono studi dimostranti che la resezione radicale del melanoma primario ano-rettale è associata ad un miglioramento del controllo locale e della sopravvivenza. I pazienti con malattia localizzata dovrebbero essere sottoposti a escissione locale ogniqualvolta ciò sia tecnicamente fattibile. Il ruolo predominante del trattamento chemio radioterapico preoperatorio è quello di ridurre le recidive locoregionale e della cavità pelvica, e per ottenere un più alto tasso di conservazione dell’apparato sfinteriale. Inoltre facilita la rimozione delle potenziali micrometastasi e riduce le metastasi a distanza.

  13. Improving vaccine efficacy against malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ladomersky, Erik; Genet, Matthew; Zhai, Lijie; Gritsina, Galina; Lauing, Kristen L.; Lulla, Rishi R.; Fangusaro, Jason; Lenzen, Alicia; Kumthekar, Priya; Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Binder, David C.; James, C. David; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effective treatment of adult and pediatric malignant glioma is a significant clinical challenge. In adults, glioblastoma (GBM) accounts for the majority of malignant glioma diagnoses with a median survival of 14.6 mo. In children, malignant glioma accounts for 20% of primary CNS tumors with a median survival of less than 1 y. Here, we discuss vaccine treatment for children diagnosed with malignant glioma, through targeting EphA2, IL-13Rα2 and/or histone H3 K27M, while in adults, treatments with RINTEGA, Prophage Series G-100 and dendritic cells are explored. We conclude by proposing new strategies that are built on current vaccine technologies and improved upon with novel combinatorial approaches. PMID:27622066

  14. [Early symptoms of childhood malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Papp, Zsuzsanna Erzsébet; Kelemen, Izabella; Horváth, Adrienne

    2017-05-01

    Childhood malignant diseases are rare in pediatric pathology. Early symptoms are not specific, fatigue, pallor, compression signs and bone marrow failure are often mentioned. To summarize the most frequent early symptoms of childhood malignancies in order to help the physicians in the early recognition. In our retrospective study, we processed a period of 5 years between 2012-2016, with an accent on the onset manifestations of malignancies. In this period 34 cases were admitted with a diagnosis of malignant disease to our department. The most important symptoms were fever, fatigue, weight loss, pain, adenopathy, infections, and signs of anemia or thrombocytopenia. Childhood acute leukemia mostly occurs with adenopathy, fever, bone pain and signs of anemia. Solid tumors in their early stages may present with fatigue, pain and compression symptoms. The responsibility of the first physician is major in recognizing the most important early signs. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(21): 829-834.

  15. Targeting immune checkpoints in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tete; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jingtao

    2017-01-01

    Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the bodys anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered immune privileged and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma. In this review, we focus on immune checkpoint inhibitors, specifically, antagonizing monoclonal antibodies for programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). We discuss advances in the working mechanisms of these immune checkpoint molecules, their status in malignant glioma, and current preclinical and clinical trials targeting these molecules in malignant glioma. PMID:27756892

  16. Oral metastasis in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Sproat, C P; Brown, A E; Lindley, R P

    1993-10-01

    A case is reported of a 48-year-old man with malignant sarcomatous pleural mesothelioma, who presented with a secondary deposit in the mandibular alveolus. We believe that this is the first reported case of this nature.

  17. Stereotaxic interstitial irradiation of malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gutin, P.H.; Leibel, S.A.

    1985-11-01

    The authors discuss the feasibility of treatment of malignant tumors with brachytherapy. The history of brain tumor brachytherapy, its present day use, and future directions are detailed. 24 references.

  18. Intrasellar malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Krayenbühl, N; Heppner, F; Yonekawa, Y; Bernays, R L

    2007-02-01

    Intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and intrasellar schwannomas are rare tumors. We describe a case of an intrasellar schwannoma with progression to a MPNST, a finding that, although very rare, extends the differential diagnosis of intrasellar lesions.

  19. Malignant transformation of persistent endometriosis after hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Bawazeer, Naif A; Al-Jifree, Hatim M; Gari, Abdulrahim M

    2014-11-01

    The malignant transformation of persistent endometriotic implants into endometrioid adenocarcinoma is rare, especially after remote hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), and there are few cases reported in the English language literature. Patients receiving estrogen replacement therapy are common among the reported cases. We present a case that demonstrates the possibility of malignant transformation in a 53-year-old female, known case of endometriosis, who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with no evidence of malignancy in the final pathology report. After 9 years, she presented with lower abdominal mass, and histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The possibility of malignant transformation and possible risk factors are discussed with a brief literature review. 

  20. Malignant transformation of persistent endometriosis after hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bawazeer, Naif A.; Al-Jifree, Hatim M.; Gari, Abdulrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    The malignant transformation of persistent endometriotic implants into endometrioid adenocarcinoma is rare, especially after remote hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH-BSO), and there are few cases reported in the English language literature. Patients receiving estrogen replacement therapy are common among the reported cases. We present a case that demonstrates the possibility of malignant transformation in a 53-year-old female, known case of endometriosis, who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with no evidence of malignancy in the final pathology report. After 9 years, she presented with lower abdominal mass, and histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The possibility of malignant transformation and possible risk factors are discussed with a brief literature review. PMID:25399218

  1. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  2. Malignant syphilis in an immunocompetent female patient*

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Camila Bueno; Orasmo, Cínthia Rosane; Ocanha, Juliana Polizel; Barraviera, Silvia Regina Catharino Sartore; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response. Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. PMID:25387504

  3. Malignant mesothelioma: Canadian perspective and research directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C.W.; Martin, J.; MacRae, R.; Tsao, M.S.; Nguyen, E.; Johnston, M.; Baas, P.; Laurie, S.; Feld, R.; Murray, N.; Shepherd, F.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the incidence of malignant mesothelioma in Canada has increased dramatically because of work-related asbestos exposures. Treatment options are limited. Although chemotherapy is now an accepted standard in the management of advanced disease, uncertainty surrounds the roles of radical surgery and radiation. In March 2007, a symposium was held in Vancouver, B.C., to review the current approach to malignant mesothelioma in Canada and to discuss development of a national clinical research strategy.

  4. Management of malignant (necrotising) otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Hollis, S; Evans, K

    2011-12-01

    Although malignant (necrotising) otitis externa is not a common diagnosis, there have been a number of recently reported cases with pathogens other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the causative organism. In addition, there are many published reports of resistance to antibiotics in cases of malignant otitis externa caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This review aims to assess the cases reported and to clarify the current opinion on the diagnostic criteria and management of such cases.

  5. Myelomalacia and hypoglycorrhachia in malignant atrophic papulosis.

    PubMed

    Label, L S; Tandan, R; Albers, J W

    1983-07-01

    A 25-year-old man with the skin lesions of malignant atrophic papulosis had clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of a multifocal asymmetric myelomalacia or polyradiculopathy in association with elevated CSF protein and hypoglycorrhachia. Autopsy findings included widespread infarctions and necrosis of brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. The combined clinical and laboratory findings were similar to those seen in systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, or meningeal carcinomatosis. Thus, malignant atrophic papulosis should be added to the differential diagnosis of either polyradiculopathy or myelomalacia.

  6. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  7. Intussusception Presenting with Malignant Hypertension and Lethargy

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Andra; Ashtiani, Nilou; Ahmadi, Nazanin; Bakx, Roel; de Vaate, Annelies Walrave-bij; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of malignant hypertension in children is renal or renovascular pathology. The combination with lethargy suggests a diagnosis of hypertensive crisis with hypertensive encephalopathy. Here, we present a case of severe hypertension with lethargy as the sole presenting symptoms of ileocecal intussusception. Both normalized following surgical repositioning. We conclude that malignant hypertension and lethargy can be presenting symptoms of intussusception. PMID:23914204

  8. Dual Primary Malignancy: A Rare Organ Combination

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Preetam; Ramakrishna, Anand; Kanchan, Tanuj; Magazine, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old female smoker was evaluated for lump over the right breast, fine needle aspiration cytology of which showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Investigations also revealed the presence of left upper lobe mass lesion, the biopsy of which suggested small cell carcinoma. The existence of two malignancies having different histopathologies at anatomically distinct sites suggests the diagnosis of dual primary malignancy involving the breast and the lung which, being a rare combination, prompted us to report the case. PMID:25400968

  9. Particulate debris osteolysis simulating malignant tumor.

    PubMed

    Brand, Richard A; Marsh, J Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Osteolysis induced by particulate debris from total joint implants is typically confined to bone and benign in radiographic appearance even when extensive. However, they can extend well beyond bone in which case they can simulate malignancies owing either to mass effects and pressure on adjacent tissues or owing to the radiographic appearance. We report two cases which presented as possible malignancy, and review the literature on extensive osteolysis. Recognition of this possibility may aid in interpretation of the clinical presentation and imaging studies.

  10. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Rizzitelli, Alexandra; Smoll, Nicolas R; Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma. Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma. The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival. To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  11. Incidence and Overall Survival of Malignant Ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Rizzitelli, Alexandra; Smoll, Nicolas R.; Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6–2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER) database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma. Method Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma. Results The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival. Conclusions To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years. PMID:25692490

  12. Malignant Melanoma of the External Auditory Canal

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prasanna; Ravikumar, A; Joseph, Leena Dennis; Rajendiran, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is rarely reported. Malignant melanoma of the ear is estimated to occur in 1-4% of all skin melanomas and about 7-20% of melanomas of the head and neck region. The pathophysiology of these tumours is different from other skin lesions because of their anatomical and functional characteristics. The case presented is of a 11 year old female child with malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal confined to the right side, who initially presented with right ear pain, bleeding, post auricular swelling and also a mass in the external auditory canal which was thought to be an aural polyp in the right ear. Excision of the tumour was accomplished by a radical mastoidectomy. It was confirmed to be malignant melanoma after histopathological examination and Immunohistochemistry. Despite all efforts, the patient succumbed to the disease after receiving three cycles of chemotherapy. Even though this malignancy is rarely found in the external auditory canal, it should be expanded into the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp and a post aural abscess. The incidence, symptoms, investigations, treatment and prognosis of malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal is discussed in this article. PMID:25302202

  13. Primary malignancies of the heart and pericardium.

    PubMed

    Burazor, Ivana; Aviel-Ronen, Sarit; Imazio, Massimo; Markel, Gal; Grossman, Yoni; Yosepovich, Ady; Adler, Yehuda

    2014-09-01

    Primary malignancies of the heart and pericardium are rare. All the available data come from autopsy studies, case reports, and, in recent years, from large, specialized, single-center studies. Nevertheless, if primary malignancy is present, it may have a devastating implication for patients. Malignancies may affect heart function, also causing left-sided or right-sided heart failure. In addition, they can be responsible for embolic events or arrhythmias. Today, with the widespread use of noninvasive imaging modalities, heart tumors become evident, even as an incidental finding. A multimodality imaging approach is usually required to establish the final diagnosis. Despite the increased awareness and improved diagnostic techniques, clinical manifestations of primary malignancy of the heart and pericardium are so variable that their occurrence may still come as a surprise during surgery or autopsy. No randomized clinical trials have been carried out to determine the optimal therapy for these primary malignancies. Surgery is performed for small tumors. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy can be of help. Partial resection of large neoplasms is performed to relieve mechanical effects, such as cardiac compression or hemodynamic obstruction. Most patients present with marginally resectable or technically nonresectable disease at the time of diagnosis. It seems that orthotopic cardiac transplantation with subsequent immunosuppressive therapy may represent an option for very carefully selected patients. Early diagnosis and radical exeresis are of great importance for long-term survival of a primary cardiac malignancy. This can rarely be accomplished, and overall results are very disappointing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 'Trained immunity': consequences for lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy B C; Netea, Mihai G; Kater, Arnon P; van der Velden, Walter J F M

    2016-12-01

    In hematological malignancies complex interactions exist between the immune system, microorganisms and malignant cells. On one hand, microorganisms can induce cancer, as illustrated by specific infection-induced lymphoproliferative diseases such as Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. On the other hand, malignant cells create an immunosuppressive environment for their own benefit, but this also results in an increased risk of infections. Disrupted innate immunity contributes to the neoplastic transformation of blood cells by several mechanisms, including the uncontrolled clearance of microbial and autoantigens resulting in chronic immune stimulation and proliferation, chronic inflammation, and defective immune surveillance and anti-cancer immunity. Restoring dysfunction or enhancing responsiveness of the innate immune system might therefore represent a new angle for the prevention and treatment of hematological malignancies, in particular lymphoid malignancies and associated infections. Recently, it has been shown that cells of the innate immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, harbor features of immunological memory and display enhanced functionality long-term after stimulation with certain microorganisms and vaccines. These functional changes rely on epigenetic reprogramming and have been termed 'trained immunity'. In this review the concept of 'trained immunity' is discussed in the setting of lymphoid malignancies. Amelioration of infectious complications and hematological disease progression can be envisioned to result from the induction of trained immunity, but future studies are required to prove this exciting new hypothesis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Genetic progression of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tímár, J; Vizkeleti, L; Doma, V; Barbai, T; Rásó, E

    2016-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the skin is the most aggressive human cancer given that a primary tumor a few millimeters in diameter frequently has full metastatic competence. In view of that, revealing the genetic background of this potential may also help to better understand tumor dissemination in general. Genomic analyses have established the molecular classification of melanoma based on the most frequent driver oncogenic mutations (BRAF, NRAS, KIT) and have also revealed a long list of rare events, including mutations and amplifications as well as genetic microheterogeneity. At the moment, it is unclear whether any of these rare events have role in the metastasis initiation process since the major drivers do not have such a role. During lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, the clonal selection process is evidently reflected by differences in oncogenic drivers in the metastases versus the primary tumor. Clonal selection is also evident during lymphatic progression, though the genetic background of this immunoselection is less clear. Genomic analyses of metastases identified further genetic alterations, some of which may correspond to metastasis maintenance genes. The natural genetic progression of melanoma can be modified by targeted (BRAF or MEK inhibitor) or immunotherapies. Some of the rare events in primary tumors may result in primary resistance, while further new genetic lesions develop during the acquired resistance to both targeted and immunotherapies. Only a few genetic lesions of the primary tumor are constant during natural or therapy-modulated progression. EGFR4 and NMDAR2 mutations, MITF and MET amplifications and PTEN loss can be considered as metastasis drivers. Furthermore, BRAF and MITF amplifications as well as PTEN loss are also responsible for resistance to targeted therapies, whereas NRAS mutation is the only founder genetic lesion showing any association with sensitivity to immunotherapies. Unfortunately, there are hardly any data on the

  16. Multiple primary malignancies in patients with prostate cancer: increased risk of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuura, Tomohiro; Tatebe, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hiroi, Keiji; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2013-12-01

    New treatment strategies for prostate cancer have recently been developed, but multiple malignancies remain a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of multiple malignancies and to analyze the risk of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. From 2000 to 2011, 150 patients with prostate cancer were treated with curative radiotherapy in our department. Patient age range was 54-92 years (median, 70 years), and the follow-up period was 4-142 months (median, 48 months). The incidence of multiple primary cancers was compared with the estimated incidence. A total of 147 patients (98 %) survived more than 12 months (12-142 months; median, 48 months); 20/150 patients (13 %) died within 10 years. Cause of death was recurrent prostate cancer in 11 patients, other primary malignancies in 7 patients, and cardiovascular disease in 2 patients. Multiple primary cancers were present in 26 of 150 patients (17 %), including 16 subsequent malignancies (11 %) with latent periods of 13-83 months (median, 43 months). The subsequent non-prostate malignancies were lung cancer in 4 patients, urinary bladder or ureter cancer in 4, stomach cancer in 3, malignant lymphoma in 2, and other in 3. Analysis of the observed incidence of secondary malignancies compared with the estimated incidence in the general population revealed a higher incidence of ureter cancer and malignant lymphoma. Close attention should be paid to secondary malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including malignancies occurring within 5 years, which could be attributable to radiotherapy.

  17. Distinguishing benign from malignant pulmonary nodules with helical chest CT in children with malignant solid tumors.

    PubMed

    McCarville, M Beth; Lederman, Henrique M; Santana, Victor M; Daw, Najat C; Shochat, Stephen J; Li, Chin-Shang; Kaufman, Robert A

    2006-05-01

    To retrospectively assess whether computed tomographic (CT) findings can indicate the benign or malignant nature of pulmonary nodules in pediatric patients with malignant solid primary tumors. With institutional review board approval, waived parental and patient consent, and HIPAA compliance, the authors determined the incidence of malignancy among 81 pulmonary nodules that were sampled at biopsy within 3 weeks after chest CT (January 1999 to September 2003) in 41 young patients with malignant solid tumors. Three radiologists independently and retrospectively reviewed these scans and the available previously obtained scans, classifying nodules as benign, malignant, or indeterminate on the basis of their number, unilateral versus bilateral distribution, size, margins (indistinct vs distinct), calcification, growth, and associated adenopathy. These classifications were compared with nodule histologic type, and interreviewer agreement was assessed. The median patient age was 14.8 years (mean, 13.7 years; range, 5-21 years). Twenty-four of the 41 patients (58%) had at least one biopsy-proved malignant nodule. Four (10%) patients had both benign and malignant nodules; 17 (42%) had only benign nodules. Reviewer 1 classified 65% (39 of 60) of nodules correctly; reviewer 2, 57% (37 of 65); and reviewer 3, 67% (43 of 64). Interreviewer agreement was slight to moderate (kappa malignant (P = .03) and nodule size was not associated with malignancy (P >/= .32). The frequency of benign nodules and the inconsistency of predictions based on CT features suggest the need for better predictors of pulmonary nodules being malignant or benign, so as to reduce unnecessary thoracotomy in pediatric patients with solid malignancy. . (c) RSNA, 2006.

  18. Concentrations of cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Blood and Fillets of Northern Hog Sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) from streams contaminated by lead-Zinc mining: Implications for monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, C.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Lead (Pb) and other metals can accumulate in northern hog sucker (Hypentelium nigricans) and other suckers (Catostomidae), which are harvested in large numbers from Ozark streams by recreational fishers. Suckers are also important in the diets of piscivorous wildlife and fishes. Suckers from streams contaminated by historic Pb-zinc (Zn) mining in southeastern Missouri are presently identified in a consumption advisory because of Pb concentrations. We evaluated blood sampling as a potentially nonlethal alternative to fillet sampling for Pb and other metals in northern hog sucker. Scaled, skin-on, bone-in "fillet" and blood samples were obtained from northern hog suckers (n = 75) collected at nine sites representing a wide range of conditions relative to Pb-Zn mining in southeastern Missouri. All samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), Pb, nickel (Ni), and Zn. Fillets were also analyzed for calcium as an indicator of the amount of bone, skin, and mucus included in the samples. Pb, Cd, Co, and Ni concentrations were typically higher in blood than in fillets, but Zn concentrations were similar in both sample types. Concentrations of all metals except Zn were typically higher at sites located downstream from active and historic Pb-Zn mines and related facilities than at nonmining sites. Blood concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Co were highly correlated with corresponding fillet concentrations; log-log linear regressions between concentrations in the two sample types explained 94% of the variation for Pb, 73-83% of the variation for Co, and 61% of the variation for Cd. In contrast, relations for Ni and Zn explained <12% of the total variation. Fillet Pb and calcium concentrations were correlated (r = 0.83), but only in the 12 fish from the most contaminated site; concentrations were not significantly correlated across all sites. Conversely, fillet Cd and calcium were correlated across the range of sites (r = 0.78), and the inclusion of calcium in the fillet

  19. Collecting and Storing Malignant, Borderline Malignant Neoplasms, and Related Samples From Young Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-23

    Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Other Myeloid Malignancies; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  20. Potentially malignant oral lesions: clinicopathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Haline Cunha de Medeiros; Pinto, Najara Alcântara Sampaio; Pereira, Joabe dos Santos; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the incidence of potentially malignant oral lesions, and evaluate and correlate their clinical and pathological aspects. Methods The sample consisted of cases clinically diagnosed as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, erythroleukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and oral lichen planus treated at a diagnostic center, between May 2012 and July 2013. Statistical tests were conducted adopting a significance level of 5% (p≤0.05). Results Out of 340 patients, 106 (31.2%) had potentially malignant oral lesions; and 61 of these (17.9%) were submitted to biopsy. Actinic cheilitis was the most frequent lesion (37.5%) and the lower lip was the most affected site (49.6%). Among 106 patients in the sample, 48 (45.3%) reported nicotine consumption, 35 (33%) reported alcohol intake and 34 (32.1%) sun exposure while working. When clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compared, oral erythroplakia and atypical ulcer were the lesions that exhibited greater compatibility (100% each). Conclusion In most cases, clinical and histopathological diagnoses were compatible. An association between the occurrence of erythroplakia, leukoplakia and erythroleukoplakia with smoking was observed. Similarly, an association between actinic cheilitis and sun exposure was noted. Erythroleukoplakia presented the highest malignancy grade in this study. Finally, dental surgeons should draw special attention to diagnosis of potentially malignant oral lesions, choose the best management, and control the lesions to avoid their malignant transformation. PMID:27074232

  1. Malignant neoplasms of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Paxton V; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2006-05-01

    Head and neck masses represent a common clinical entity in children. In general, these masses are classified as developmental, inflammatory, or neoplastic. Having a working knowledge of lesions within this region and conducting a thorough history and physical examination generally enables the clinician to facilitate an appropriate workup and establish a diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is broad, and expeditiously distinguishing benign from malignant masses is critical for instituting a timely multidisciplinary approach to the management of malignant lesions. Neoplasms of the head and neck account for approximately 5% of all childhood malignancies. A diagnosis of malignancy may represent a primary tumor or metastatic foci to cervical nodes. In this review, we discuss the general approach to evaluating suspicious masses and adenopathy in the head and neck region and summarize the most common malignant neoplasms of the head and neck with regard to their incidence, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, staging, and management. Thyroid, parathyroid, and salivary gland tumors are discussed elsewhere in this issue of Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

  2. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Budiyasa, Dewa Gde Agung; Wibawa, I Dewa Nyoman

    2008-10-01

    Mesothel is the cell lining of serosal surface of the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and testis. Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive tumor from mesothel that has a tendency to grow rapidly and invade locally. Although the incidence of malignant mesenterial mesothelioma is not so high, the case fatality rate is very high. The aim of this case report is to report the rare and difficult case with several complications. A Balinese man, 64 years old, came with chief complaint of weakness, abdominal enlargement, and nausea, with history of previous liver disease. On physical examination were found a decrease of conciousness, subfebrile, abdominal distension, ascites, negative traube space, and paralysis of the left side of the body. Laboratory examination results showed leukocytosis, hypochromic-micrositic anemia, trombocytosis, hypoalbuminemia, increase of alkaline phosphatase, and mild hyponatremia. Abdominal USG showed intraperitoneal mass which some of them attach to abdominal wall, possibly from mesenterium and ascites, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, skull CT scan showed small infarction at left parietal medulla and right basal ganglia, cytology showed spreaded and grouped mesothel with reactive lymphocyte and amorph back ground. FNAB result showed malignant mesothelioma, and normal colonoscopy. Based on the above data, the diagnoses were malignant mesenterial mesothelioma, reflux esofagitis and anthral erossive gastritis, and non hemorrhagic stroke. Malignant mesenterial mesothelioma should be considered in patient with the combination of unexplained ascites and abdominal pain. Although the result of treatment is very disappointing, the patient had to be treated optimally to increase quality of life.

  3. Resection for secondary malignancy of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hsia; Wang, Shin-E; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chen, Tien-Hua; Wu, Chew-Wun

    2012-01-01

    This study tried to clarify the role of pancreatic resection in the treatment of secondary malignancy with metastasis or local invasion to the pancreas in terms of surgical risk and survival benefit. Data of secondary malignancy of the pancreas from our 19 patients and cases reported in the English literature were pooled together for analysis. There were 329 cases of resected secondary malignancy of the pancreas, including 241 cases of metastasis and 88 cases of local invasion. The most common primary tumor metastatic to the pancreas and amenable to resection was renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (73.9%). More than half (52.3%) of the primary cancers with local invasion to the pancreas were colon cancer, and nearly half (40.9%) were stomach cancer. The median metastatic interval was 84 months (7 years) for overall primary tumors and 108 months (9 years) for RCC. The 5-year survival for secondary malignancy of the pancreas after resection was 61.1% for metastasis and 58.9% for local invasion, with 72.8% for RCC metastasis, 69.0% for colon cancer, and 43.8% for stomach cancer with local invasion to the pancreas. Pancreatic resection should not be precluded for secondary malignancy of the pancreas because long-term survival could be achieved with acceptable surgical risk in selected patients.

  4. Malignant skin lesions in Oshogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, Ganiyu Oyediran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde; Komolafe, Akinwumi Oluwole; Olaofe, Olaejirinde Olaniyi; Akinyemi, Hezekiah Adebola Morakinyo; Suleiman, Oreoluwa Adeola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to retrospectively assess the prevalence of some of skin malignancies in our environment and to provide a data base for creating awareness for prevention and early detection of the diseases in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with these skin lesions in our environment. Methods This is a retrospective study of all histologically diagnosed malignant skin lesions which presented at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital Osogbo Osun State between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Ninety- eight patients presented with skin cancers out of which 60 (61.2%)were males and 38 (38.8%) were females. Malignant melanoma ranked highest followed by squamous cell carcinoma, dermatofibrosarcoma and basal cell carcinoma in that order. Malignant melanoma affects male more than female and it commonly affects lower limbs. Conclusion Skin malignancies pose a burden to the economy of the country. Efforts should be directed toward prevention, early diagnosis and management in order to abolish or reduce morbidity, as well as mortality associated with late presentation of people in the developing countries. PMID:26161176

  5. Intercellular crosstalk in human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Szabo, Pavol; Kodet, Ondřej; Strnad, Hynek; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, Lukáš; Krejčí, Eliška; Naňka, Ondřej; Šedo, Aleksi; Smetana, Karel

    2017-05-01

    Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing globally. While the initial stages of tumors can be easily treated by a simple surgery, the therapy of advanced stages is rather limited. Melanoma cells spread rapidly through the body of a patient to form multiple metastases. Consequently, the survival rate is poor. Therefore, emphasis in melanoma research is given on early diagnosis and development of novel and more potent therapeutic options. The malignant melanoma is arising from melanocytes, cells protecting mitotically active keratinocytes against damage caused by UV light irradiation. The melanocytes originate in the neural crest and consequently migrate to the epidermis. The relationship between the melanoma cells, the melanocytes, and neural crest stem cells manifests when the melanoma cells are implanted to an early embryo: they use similar migratory routes as the normal neural crest cells. Moreover, malignant potential of these melanoma cells is overdriven in this experimental model, probably due to microenvironmental reprogramming. This observation demonstrates the crucial role of the microenvironment in melanoma biology. Indeed, malignant tumors in general represent complex ecosystems, where multiple cell types influence the growth of genetically mutated cancer cells. This concept is directly applicable to the malignant melanoma. Our review article focuses on possible strategies to modify the intercellular crosstalk in melanoma that can be employed for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Malignancies in bullous pemphigoid: A controversial association.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Riccardo; Magnano, Michela; La Placa, Michelangelo; Patrizi, Annalisa; Angileri, Luisa; Tengattini, Vera; Bardazzi, Federico

    2016-02-01

    Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder that has been reported to be associated with malignancies. Some authors described several cases of pemphigoid associated with malignancies (PAM); however, the evidence of this correlation still remains controversial. Several theories have been postulated to explain the relationship between malignant neoplasms and BP; the main theory suggests that antibodies directed against tumor-specific antigens of malignant cells may cross-react with antigens (like BP antigens) in the basement membrane zone leading to the formation of blisters. We performed an extensive review of the English published work focusing on the epidemiology, the pathogenetic theories and the clinical and histological aspects of the disease. We identified 40 cases of PAM: of these, seven cases were associated with hematological malignancies and 33 with solid tumors. Physicians should be aware of the existence of PAM and we suggest an oncological screening in early-onset pemphigoid, in patients with a former oncological history, in those with signs and symptoms that could be related to a neoplasm and in BP refractory to common immunosuppressive therapy. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  7. Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) parameters in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. PMID:25584229

  8. Malignant melanocytic neoplasm of pancreas with liver metastasis: Is it malignant melanoma or clear cell sarcoma?

    PubMed

    Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; George, Sam Varghese; Chacko, Raju Titus; Ramakrishna, Banumathi

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanocytic neoplasm, usually seen in soft tissues, is rare in a visceral location and presents as a diagnostic dilemma. We present a case of pancreatic malignant melanocytic neoplasm with liver metastasis. A 58-year-old man presented with left upper abdominal swelling and loss of appetite. Imaging revealed a large mass arising from the pancreatic tail, and this was diagnosed as malignant neoplasm with melanocytic differentiation on biopsy with the possible differentials of malignant melanoma, clear cell sarcoma (CCS), and perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm. The patient underwent distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy for the same. Follow-up imaging 6 months later showed a metastatic liver lesion, for which he also underwent a liver resection. BRAF mutational analysis was found to be negative. Both CCS and malignant melanoma have similar morphological features and melanocytic differentiation, but each harbors a distinct genetic background. Differentiation of both has diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  9. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic malignancies: part 2.

    PubMed

    Yuste Chaves, M; Unamuno Pérez, P

    2013-09-01

    The skin can be key to early diagnosis of systemic malignancies. In the second part of this review, we present various skin conditions that can, in certain contexts, reveal the presence of malignancy. The skin conditions are presented in groups based on a diverse range of morphological characteristics. Specifically, the following groups are analyzed: erosive and blistering lesions; inflammatory papules and nodules; xerosis, ichthyosis, and generalized exfoliative dermatitis; symptoms such as pruritus; abnormal hair distribution patterns; sweating disorders; benign tumors that can form part of hereditary syndromes associated with a risk of visceral cancer; and finally, oral and nail abnormalities. This review highlights the importance of the skin in the study of systemic malignancies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  10. Educational computer simulation of malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Schwid, H A; O'Donnell, D

    1992-07-01

    An educational graphic simulator was developed to provide an interactive learning environment to practice the diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia. The program incorporates a set of dynamically interacting models to present the physiologic changes associated with malignant hyperthermia and the simulated patient's response to management. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and temperature changes are presented through a graphic display of the operating room monitors. Mouse-driven input is used to manage the airway, control ventilation, manage cardiovascular and rhythm disturbances, and control fluids, electrolytes, and temperature. Medications, including dantrolene, antidysrhythmics, diuretics, and sodium bicarbonate, can be administered. Four simulated patients with different presentations of malignant hyperthermia are included to illustrate variations in the syndrome. Two of these patients are described in detail.

  11. Malignant hyperthermia during laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

    PubMed

    Chery, Josue; Shintaro, Chiba; Pratt, Ambibola; Kirkley, Ronell; Hearne, Barbara; Beyzman, Andrew; Gorecki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of malignant hyperthermia during laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. A 32-y-old female with no previous history of adverse reaction to general anesthesia underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Intraoperative monitoring revealed a sharp increase in end-tidal carbon dioxide, autonomic instability, and metabolic and respiratory acidosis, along with other metabolic and biochemical derangements. She was diagnosed with malignant hyperthermia. Desflurane, the anesthetic agent was discontinued, and the patient was started on intravenous dantrolene. The surgery was completed, and the patient was brought to the surgical intensive care unit for continued postoperative care. She developed muscle weakness and phlebitis that resolved prior to discharge. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia leads to favorable clinical outcome. This clinical entity can occur in the bariatric population with the widely used desflurane. Bariatric surgeons and anesthesiologists alike must be aware of the early clinical signs of this rare, yet potentially fatal, complication.

  12. [Malignant otitis externa caused by Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Malignant otitis externa is also referred to as skull base osteomyelitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common offending pathogen. However, fungal origin is not uncommon. 80-year-old patient having persistent left earache since two months despite adequate treatment. Otologic examination showed signs of inflammation in the auricular pavilion, ear canal stenosis with granulomas and purulent otorrhea. CT scan showed a filled otomastoid, extensive inflammatory process affecting the pre-auricular and retro-auricular tissues and lysis of the tympanic bulla. Given the lack of improvement, mycological examination was performed which revealed the presence of Candida Albicans. Cases of malignant otitis externa caused by Candida albicans are rarely reported. Fungal origin should be suspected in patients who have negative bacteriological samples and no improvement despite adequate antibiotic treatment. It should be confirmed by sometimes multiple mycological samples. Malignant otitis externa caused by Candida albicans is a rare potentially mortal infection.

  13. Epigenetics of hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Deqing; Shilatifard, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hematological malignancies comprise a diverse set of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms in which normal hematopoiesis has gone awry and together account for ∼10% of all new cancer cases diagnosed in the United States in 2016. Recent intensive genomic sequencing of hematopoietic malignancies has identified recurrent mutations in genes that encode regulators of chromatin structure and function, highlighting the central role that aberrant epigenetic regulation plays in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms for how alterations in epigenetic modifiers, specifically histone and DNA methylases and demethylases, drive hematopoietic cancer could provide new avenues for developing novel targeted epigenetic therapies for treating hematological malignancies. Just as past studies of blood cancers led to pioneering discoveries relevant to other cancers, determining the contribution of epigenetic modifiers in hematologic cancers could also have a broader impact on our understanding of the pathogenesis of solid tumors in which these factors are mutated. PMID:27798847

  14. Malignant pilomatricoma in the parietal area.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A 27-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2.5-cm nodular subcutaneous lesion in the parietal area. The nodule was well demarcated and situated in the dermis and subcutis. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilomatricoma. The tumor was excised, the postoperative course was uneventful, no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis was observed, and the patient continues to be under close follow-up. Malignant pilomatricoma, a locally aggressive counterpart of benign pilomatricoma, is also referred to as pilomatrix carcinoma. Most cases are excised as benign tumors; however, when the excision is incomplete local recurrence is likely, and distant metastases have also been reported. Histologically, the diagnosis can be challenging because no clear histologic criteria are available. Because of the rarity of malignant pilomatricoma, no welldefined standards in the surgical management of this neoplasm have been established. Moreover, since distant metastases have been described, close followup of the lesion is requisite.

  15. Role of RUNX1 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sood, Raman; Kamikubo, Yasuhiko; Liu, Paul

    2017-04-13

    RUNX1 is a member of the core-binding factor family of transcription factors and is indispensable for the establishment of definitive hematopoiesis in vertebrates. RUNX1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in a variety of hematological malignancies. Germ line mutations in RUNX1 cause familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancies. Somatic mutations and chromosomal rearrangements involving RUNX1 are frequently observed in myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemias of myeloid and lymphoid lineages, that is, acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. More recent studies suggest that the wild-type RUNX1 is required for growth and survival of certain types of leukemia cells. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current status of our understanding about the role of RUNX1 in hematological malignancies.

  16. Predictive models of malignant transudative pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Francisco; Toubes, María E.; Lama, Adriana; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; San-José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe, Antonio; Álvarez-Dobaño, José M.; Rábade, Carlos; Rodríguez-Núñez, Nuria; Díaz-Louzao, Carla; Valdés, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background There are no firm recommendations when cytology should be performed in pleural transudates, since some malignant pleural effusions (MPEs) behave biochemically as transudates. The objective was to assess when would be justified to perform cytology on pleural transudates. Methods Consecutive patients with transudative pleural effusion (PE) were enrolled and divided in two groups: malignant and non-MPE. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the probability of malignancy. Two prognostic models were considered: (I) clinical-radiological variables; and (II) combination of clinical-radiological and analytical variables. Calibration and discrimination [receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC)] were performed. Results A total of 281 pleural transudates were included: 26 malignant and 255 non-malignant. The AUC obtained with Model 1 (left PE, radiological images compatible with malignancy, absence of dyspnea, and serosanguinous appearance of the fluid), and Model 2 (the variables of Model 1 plus CEA) were 0.973 and 0.995, respectively. Although no false negatives are found in Models 1 and 2 to probabilities of 11% and 14%, respectively, by applying bootstrapping techniques to not find false negatives in 95% of other possible samples would require lowering the cut-off points for the aforementioned probabilities to 3% (Model 1) and 4% (Model 2), respectively. The false positive results are 32 (Model 1) and 18 (Model 2), with no false negatives. Conclusions The applied models have a high discriminative ability to predict when a transudative PE may be of neoplastic origin, being superior to adding an analytical variable to the clinic-radiological variables. PMID:28203412

  17. Labeled cells in patients with malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.

    1984-07-01

    Recently, new approaches for radiosotopic cell labeling have gained prominence in the investigation of various aspects of malignant diseases and in the clinical care of such patients. Isotopes such as indium-111 can be visualized with standard scanning techniques providing further information about the migration of normal and malignant cells has been discovered. In vivo studies have been performed with indium-111 in animals and humans, including comparisons of the migration of abnormal cells (malignant) and of lymphocytes to abnormal nodes. Evaluation and comparison of the migration of carcinoma cells, normal lymphoid cells, and malignant lymphoid cells in animals show markedly different patterns of distribution, which could have bearing on investigations of mechanisms of metastasis. In vivo human studies also have evaluated the migration patterns of lymphoid cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and well-differentiated lymphoma, showing very different migrating behavior between these two polarities of a similar diseases. There are concerns about the use of an isotope such as indium-111 for the labeling of long-lived cells such as lymphocytes. Laboratory studies have demonstrated impaired cell function at high concentrations of radioactivity. Some workers have expressed concern about long-term changes in cells that recirculate. Others cite precedents of other long-term uses of isotopes, therapeutically, without detrimental effects. These concerns continue to be investigated. Finally, an area of much interest in the use of indium-111 is the labeling of granulocytes. This technique has been useful diagnostically, to localize infections. The major value in patients with malignancy, primarily with hematologic malignancies, is to evaluate the potential benefit of granulocyte transfusions. Many of these patients develop prolonged granulocytopenia and become infected, and granulocyte transfusions may become a therapeutic consideration.

  18. Malignancies after mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Seuffert, Linda; Mäder, Uwe; Toyka, Klaus V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the therapy-related risk of malignancies in mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study included all mitoxantrone-treated patients with multiple sclerosis seen at our department between 1994 and 2007. We collected follow-up information on medically confirmed malignancies, life status, and cause of death, as of 2010. Malignancy rates were compared to the German national cancer registry matched for sex, age, and year of occurrence. Results: Follow-up was completed in 676 of 677 identified patients. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (interquartile range 6.8–11.2), corresponding to 6,220 person-years. Median cumulative mitoxantrone dose was 79.0 mg/m2 (interquartile range 50.8–102.4). Thirty-seven patients (5.5%) were diagnosed with a malignancy after mitoxantrone initiation, revealing a standardized incidence ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.08). Entities included breast cancer (n = 9), colorectal cancer (n = 7), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4, 0.6%), and others (each entity n = 1 or 2). The standardized incidence ratio of colorectal cancer was 2.98 (95% CI 1.20–6.14) and of acute myeloid leukemia 10.44 (95% CI 3.39–24.36). It was not increased for other entities including breast cancer. Multivariate Cox regression identified higher age at treatment initiation but neither cumulative mitoxantrone dose (>75 vs ≤75 mg/m2) nor treatment with other immunosuppressive drugs or sex as a risk factor. Fifty-five patients had died, among them 12 of a malignancy and 43 reportedly of other causes. Conclusions: While the overall incidence of malignancies was only mildly increased, the risk of leukemia and colorectal cancer was heightened. If confirmed, posttherapy colonoscopy could become advisable. PMID:27170571

  19. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  20. Advances in the management of malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mazen Y; Mapa, Marissa; Shin, Hyung Ju C; Shin, Dong M

    2003-07-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas are very aggressive tumors that originate from mesothelial cells, which form the serosal lining of the pleura, pericardial, and peritoneal cavities. Finding effective chemotherapeutic treatment for malignant mesothelioma is a challenge. There is no standard treatment because this tumor is relatively resistant to therapy. A resurgence of interest has been expressed in novel therapies and conventional treatments used in different ways. Several treatment modalities have been studied, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery, and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy can be administered systemically or directly into the pleura. This review presents the results of the most recent trials and highlights the most promising advances in the battle against this aggressive disease.

  1. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  2. Is metastatic pancreatic cancer an untargetable malignancy?

    PubMed Central

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Gharios, Joseph; Elkarak, Fadi; Antoun, Joelle; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (MPC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, known to be chemo-resistant and have been recently considered resistant to some targeted therapies (TT). Erlotinib combined to gemcitabine is the only targeted therapy that showed an overall survival benefit in MPC. New targets and therapeutic approaches, based on new-TT, are actually being evaluated in MPC going from immunotherapy, epigenetics, tumor suppressor gene and oncogenes to stromal matrix regulators. We aim in this paper to present the major causes rendering MPC an untargetable malignancy and to focus on the new therapeutic modalities based on TT in MPC. PMID:26989465

  3. Histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, T J

    1990-01-01

    The histogenesis of ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours, which includes the concept of metaplastic carcinoma, is controversial. Four such tumours were examined for evidence of metaplastic transition from carcinoma to sarcoma using morphology and reticulin stains. Consecutive sections were stained immunohistochemically using cytokeratin and vimentin to determine whether cells at the interface between carcinoma and sarcoma expressed both cytokeratin and vimentin. There was no evidence of morphological, architectural, or immunohistochemical transitions from carcinoma to sarcoma in the four tumours studied. This suggests that ovarian malignant mixed mesodermal tumours are not metaplastic carcinomas but are composed of histogenetically different elements. Images PMID:2160478

  4. Giant metastasizing malignant hidradenoma in a child

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sunil K; Misra, Ritu; Gupta, Rohini; Bansal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with a scalp swelling. The swelling was recurrent, reappearing everytime after local excision. She underwent surgery and the histopathologic diagnosis was malignant hidradenoma. This very rare and aggressive tumor is known to occur in elderly population and is histopathologically distinct from its commonly occuring benign counterpart. Malignant hidradenoma is resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We empahsize that being cognizant of the possibility of this rare tumor would assist in timely action in the form of wide resection, with possible reduction in morbidity and mortality. PMID:27730041

  5. Direct prenatal chromosome diagnosis of a malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hecht, F; Grix, A; Hecht, B K; Berger, C; Bixenman, H; Szucs, S; O'Keeffe, D; Finberg, H J

    1984-01-01

    A fetal tumor was suspected at 31 weeks of gestation. The occurrence of polyhydramnios led to an ultrasound examination, which revealed deformation of the fetal head, face, eye, and neck. This was confirmed by computerized tomography. Amniocentesis yielded cells with an inverted duplication of chromosome #1. This abnormality of chromosome #1 marked the malignant teratoma cells in the amniotic fluid. Cytogenetic analysis of tumor tissue and of normal tissue obtained postnatally confirmed that the abnormality of chromosome #1 observed in amniotic fluid cells was confined to the tumor. The constitutional karyotype was normal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the direct chromosomal detection of malignancy before birth.

  6. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  7. Renal malignancies with normal excretory urograms

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.A.; Hricak, H.; Davidson, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Four patients with malignant renal masses showed no abnormality of excretory urograms with tomography. Of the four lesions, two were primary renal cell carcinomas, one was a metastatic focus from a contralateral renal cell carcinoma, and one was a metastatic lesion from rectal adenocarcinoma. A normal excretory urogram should not be considered sufficient to exclude a clinically suspected malignant renal mass. In such an instance, diagnostic evaluation should be pursued using a method capable of topographic anatomic display, such as computed tomography or sonography.

  8. Pulmonary Hamartoma Mimicking Malignancy: A Cytopathological Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Manjari; Preeti; Deepak, Desh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary Hamartomas (PH) are benign tumour-like lesions of lung with an uncommon occurrence and pose a diagnostic challenge on chest radiograph. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) can lead to a definitive diagnosis as well as distinguishes these from malignant lung mass. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and incidentally detected on routine chest radiographs. We report a case of pulmonary hamartoma where the patient was symptomatic and a possibility of malignant neoplasm was considered until the FNAC concluded the diagnosis. PMID:28050379

  9. Malignancy in Children with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Karen R.; Whitlock, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Down syndrome (DS) display a unique spectrum of malignancies, with a 10 to 20-fold increased risk of acute leukemias, and a markedly decreased incidence of solid tumors. This review discusses current understanding of the basis for this distinctive pattern of cancer incidence, and the clinical and biologic features of the malignant disorders most frequent in DS: transient myeloproliferative disease, acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We also review distinctive pharmacogenetic issues, highlighting the differential chemosensitivity and toxicity profiles of DS patients compared to the general population; and epidemiologic studies of protective and adverse environmental risk factors for development of leukemia. PMID:19176633

  10. Cutaneous Manifestations of Internal Malignant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McLean, David I.

    1987-01-01

    The skin can provide clues to the well-being of our patients. Some skin changes, such as hypertrichosis lanuginosa acquisita or erythema gyratum repens, are so specific that there is a virtual certainty of internal malignancy. Other changes, such as severe pruritus, are significant management problems in late-stage lymphoma and leukemia. Still others, such as herpes zoster in a cancer patient in remission, may be a marker for recurrent malignant disease. This review will discuss many of the skin changes associated with systemic cancer. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:21263960

  11. [Modern diagnostic approaches to malignant hyperthermia susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, A A; Lebedinskiĭ, K M

    2014-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is a well-known rare life-threatening autosomal-dominant pharmacogenetic disease, The arti- cle deals with a halothane-caffeine contracture test. The test is a model of muscle reaction to triggers in-vitro and it is the "golden standard" for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) diagnosis. Genetic analysis is less invasive, but its sensitivity is significantly lower. The review discusses both the methods which are essential to be completely reproduced in Russia, and their role in modern approach to MHS diagnosis.

  12. Molecular targeting for malignant gliomas (Review).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yasuko; Hollingsworth, Emporia F; Kondo, Seiji

    2004-05-01

    With tendency to invade rapidly in the brain, malignant gliomas are very resistant to conventional therapies including radiation and chemotherapy. Recent advances in genetic and molecular techniques have made it possible to define characteristic molecular profiles of malignant gliomas. Based on the list of the molecules closely related to glioblastoma tissues, we reviewed strategies targeting them. Target molecules extensively studied include EGFR, PTEN, telomerase and signal pathway modulators for Ras/Raf/MAPK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways. Therapies targeting specific molecules may result in killing tumor cells effectively while keeping normal cells intact.

  13. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Lee, J H; Nam, J H; Lee, M C; Park, C S; Juhng, S W; Ro, J Y; Choi, C

    1999-12-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is rare. We have recently experienced a case of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in a 57-year-old man who complained of urinary retention for 1 year. The epithelial components were positive reactivity for prostate specific antigen. The stromal cells showed nuclear atypia with increased mitotic activity. The tumor was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor as it invaded into the urinary bladder and rectum, and grew rapidly immediately after operation. We describe the morphological features and immunohistochemical findings of malignant phyllodes tumor and review the literature.

  14. Are All Highly Malignant Cancer Cells Identical?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    F/G /5 N 1111 2Z111117 1 125iiI 1 1. 1111_L6. -11 O=M 1 MrCROCOP RErSOLUTICN TEST CHART N, APoP SN A’ ,- ARE ALL HIGHLY MALIGNANT CANCER CELLS...Greenstein and others, we raised the question, " Is it possible that cancer cells when they reach their ultimate state of autonomy and malignancy become... cancer cells: A. T241 (DMBA induced sarcoma); B. Kreb’s ( carcinoma of the inguinal region); C. Meth. A (fibrosarcoma); D. P4132 (reticulum cell

  15. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis: an unusual malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Prachi G; Mahajan, Sunanda A; Khopkar, Uday S; Kharkar, Vidya D

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, life-long heritable disease caused due to a unique susceptibility to human papilloma virus. The disseminated verrucous lesions and pityriasis versicolor-like lesions persist from early childhood and can transform into a cutaneous malignancy in a fourth of patients. Malignant transformation into syringoid eccrine carcinoma (SEC) has been reported only once so far. SEC is an extremely invasive, rare, locally destructive, slowly growing adnexal tumor. We hereby report the association of EV with SEC in a 29-year-old male.

  16. Particulate Debris Osteolysis Simulating Malignant Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Richard A; Marsh, J Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Osteolysis induced by particulate debris from total joint implants is typically confined to bone and benign in radiographic appearance even when extensive. However, they can extend well beyond bone in which case they can simulate malignancies owing either to mass effects and pressure on adjacent tissues or owing to the radiographic appearance. We report two cases which presented as possible malignancy, and review the literature on extensive osteolysis. Recognition of this possibility may aid in interpretation of the clinical presentation and imaging studies. PMID:15296216

  17. [Malignant pleural mesothelioma with multiple nodules].

    PubMed

    Asano, Michiko; Gemba, Kenichi; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Nishi, Hideyuki; Taguchi, Koji; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2011-12-01

    A 62-year-old man with left chest pain had left pleural effusion pointed out on a chest radiograph. Chest CT scans showed multiple nodules on the left parietal pleura and pleural effusion. He was referred to our hospital and we performed thoracoscopic examination. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (biphasic type) was diagnosed, based on the pathological findings of a parietal nodular mass, including immunohistological analysis. Chemotherapy using carboplatin and pemetrexed reduced the size of tumor and left pleural effusion. This is a rare case with atypical CT findings of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  18. Megakaryocytes, malignancy and bone marrow vascular niches.

    PubMed

    Psaila, B; Lyden, D; Roberts, I

    2012-02-01

    Dynamic interactions between hematopoietic cells and their specialized bone marrow microenvironments, namely the vascular and osteoblastic 'niches', regulate hematopoiesis. The vascular niche is conducive for thrombopoiesis and megakaryocytes may, in turn, regulate the vascular niche, especially in supporting vascular and hematopoietic regeneration following irradiation or chemotherapy. A role for platelets in tumor growth and metastasis is well established and, more recently, the vascular niche has also been implicated as an area for preferential homing and engraftment of malignant cells. This article aims to provide an overview of the dynamic interactions between cellular and molecular components of the bone marrow vascular niche and the potential role of megakaryocytes in bone marrow malignancy.

  19. Case Report: Pulmonary metastases of malignant meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Basunaid, Suhail; Franssen, Frits M.E.; Accord, Ryan; Hamid, Myrurgia Abdul; Mahesh, Shekar; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Schijns, Olaf E.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Meningioma accounts for approximately one-third of primary central nervous system tumors. Most meningiomas are benign, although up to one third are classified as atypical or malignant. We describe a 63-year Caucasian male presenting with pleural metastases from an intracranial meningioma. Distant metastases from meningiomas are infrequently found in clinical practice and mostly are associated with atypical or malignant meningiomas. There is no standard treatment; however surgical resection of both the primary and metastatic lesions is the safest therapy. The overall prognosis of atypical meningiomas is poor. Our patient died one week after discharge from our hospital. PMID:25254095

  20. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Carolina; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii. PMID:27882257

  1. A Hormonally Active Malignant Struma Ovarii.

    PubMed

    Lara, Carolina; Cuenca, Dalia; Salame, Latife; Padilla-Longoria, Rafael; Mercado, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a rare monodermal variant of ovarian teratoma that contains at least 50% thyroid tissue. Less than 8% of struma ovarii cases present with clinical and biochemical evidence of thyrotoxicosis due to ectopic production of thyroid hormone and only 5% undergo malignant transformation into a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Only isolated cases of hormonally active papillary thyroid carcinoma developing within a struma ovarii have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism as well as a left adnexal mass, which proved to be a thyroid hormone-producing, malignant struma ovarii.

  2. Malignant neoplasms in rats fed lasiocarpine.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. S.; Reddy, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Lasiocarpine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, was fed at a dietary concentration of 50/10(6) for 55 weeks, to 20 male F-344 rats. Malignant tumours developed in 17/20 animals between 48 and 59 weeks. Forty-five percent (9/20) developed angiosarcomas of the liver and 35% (7/20) had hepatocellular carcinomas. Other tumours included malignant adnexas tumour of the skin (1 rat) and lympohoma (1 rat). Lung metastases were observed in 4 animals with angiosarcoma of the liver and one animal with hepatocellular carcinoma. From one animal, angiosarcoma was successfully transplanted through 4 generations. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:204322

  3. Novel mutations c.28G>T (p.Ala10Ser) and c.189G>T (p.Glu63Asp) in WDR62 associated with early onset acanthosis and hyperkeratosis in a patient with autosomal recessive microcephaly type 2

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Yang, Zhiyun; Deng, Weiping; Chen, Dongna; Deng, Jianlian; Su, Yan; Li, Yang; Wu, Chao; Wang, Ye; Zeng, Hao; Wang, Yiming; Li, Xunhua

    2016-01-01

    Microcephaly (MCPH) is a developmental disorder characterized by reduced brain size and intellectual disability. A proportion of microcephaly is caused by defects in a single gene. Microcephaly 2 (MCPH2) is one of the most frequent subtypes of MCPH.WD repeat-containing protein 62 gene (WDR62) is the most frequently mutated gene in MCPH2 patients. Phenotypes involving dermatological changes in MCPH2 have not been reported. We have identified and investigated a 5-year-old Chinese girl with markedly reduced brain size (86% of normal size), intellectual disability and psychomotor developmental delay. The patient also exhibited spattered blisters and reduced hair density on her head, anisochromasia with reticular hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation on the trunk, which she has had since the age of 4 and had been found by her parents. Histological examination of a skin biopsy revealed acanthosis, hyperkeratosis and necrotic keratinocytes. Whole exome and Sanger sequencing identified two novel missense mutations, c.28G>T and c.189G>T, in the WDR62 gene. Both the mutations non-synonymously affect evolutionarily conserved amino acids and are predicted to be disease causing. We report the first case of MCPH2 that also presented with marked dermatological changes. Our findings expand the mutational and phenotypical spectra of MCPH2 and are valuable in the mutation-based pre- and post-natal screening and genetic diagnosis for MCPH2. PMID:27852057

  4. [Metachronous four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Bae, Jung Min; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Sang Woon; Song, Sun Kyo

    2009-06-01

    Multiple primary malignancy was reported firstly by Billroth in 1889. Recently, multiple primary malignancies are considered to increase due to improved survival rate of cancer patients, advanced diagnostic tools, and increased use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Korea, several cases of triple primary malignancies were reported. However, four primary malignancies in gastro-intestinal tract was rarely reported. Recently, we experienced a 70 year-old male who was diagnosed with metachronous four primary malignancies in rectum, ascending colon, stomach, and ampulla of Vater. We report this rare case of metachronous four primary malignancies with a review of literature.

  5. Malignant catarrhal fever: inching towards understanding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an often lethal infection of many species in the order Artiodactyla, caused by members of the MCF virus group within Gammaherpesvirinae. MCF is a worldwide problem and has a significant economic impact on highly disease-susceptible hosts, such as cattle, bison and ...

  6. Thrombotic microangiopathy in transplantation and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Qu, Lirong; Kiss, Joseph E

    2005-12-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) or solid-organ transplantation is a serious complication that may be associated with diverse clinical conditions. The reported incidence varies widely, in part due to different diagnostic criteria. Currently, the diagnosis is based mostly on clinical features and is often uncertain; many disease or therapy-related complications in transplantation and malignancy can manifest clinical features of TMA. Risk factors for TMA post HSCT include the type of conditioning regimen, the presence graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), the use of calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine and tacrolimus) for GVHD prophylaxis, and infection. Cyclosporin and tacrolimus are the most commonly reported agents associated with TMA in solid-organ (mainly kidney) transplantations. Cancer-related TMA may be associated with chemotherapy or the malignancy itself. Compared with idiopathic TMA (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), the outcome for patients with TMA post-HSCT or disseminated malignancy is poor. The efficacy of plasma exchange in the treatment of TMA post-HSCT or malignancy is uncertain. In the future, objective criteria integrating laboratory features (including tissue pathology, quantitative hematology, and endothelial cell functionality) with clinical features may assist in the diagnostic accuracy of TMA post HSCT, which would allow better evaluation of treatment modalities and better prediction of prognosis and outcomes.

  7. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lithium carbonate.

    PubMed Central

    Fava, S; Galizia, A C

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome that occurred in a patient on amitriptyline and lithium carbonate. They suggest that lithium-antidepressant combination can precipitate this syndrome. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction was a prominent feature in the patient in this study. PMID:7647084

  8. Ukrain monotherapy in malignant melanoma (case report).

    PubMed

    Hamler, F; Hiesmayr, W; Korsh, O; Melnyk, A

    1996-01-01

    A patient with a metastasizing malignant melanoma (stage III) was treated with Ukrain monotherapy. Before and during the first Ukrain course of treatment the patient excreted melanin in the urine. After the third course melanin was no more detectable and the patient has been without any symptoms of disease for the last 12 years.

  9. Thoracoscopic management of malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Colt, H G

    1995-09-01

    Thoracoscopy has been around for decades, advocated by some, but until recently, ignored by many. Not surprisingly, its diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy in patients with suspected or proven malignant pleural effusions has withstood the test of time. Today, the potential benefits of thoracoscopy must be weighed against its cost in patients with limited life expectancy. Although diagnostic thoracoscopy requires only overnight hospitalization, pleurodesis imposes a longer hospital stay. The discomfort of an indwelling chest tube, the need for hospitalization, and the financial burden of thoracoscopic procedures compared with less-invasive means of pleural investigation and pleurodesis must be taken into account on an individual basis. Thoracoscopy should not be performed for the sake of intervention. Its indications and all diagnostic or therapeutic alternatives should always be carefully examined. Its role, however, in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with malignant pleural effusions is undeniable. The diagnostic accuracy of thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is excellent. Several studies demonstrate that thoracoscopic talc pleurodesis is more frequently successful than other methods of pleurodesis. As a staging procedure, thoracoscopy helps determine extent of disease, and possibly, prognosis in patients with metastatic pleural carcinomatosis, lung cancer, and malignant mesothelioma. As this procedure is increasingly rediscovered by our medical and surgical communities, greater clinical and experimental investigation aimed at establishing successful management strategies in patients with malignant pleural effusions will hopefully occur.

  10. Mangement of malignant melanomas: an overview.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the management of malignant melanoma. It considers the value of wide reexcision relative to the depth of invasion of the melanoma. It considers the indications for elective lymphadenectomy and presents a critical review of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and other procedures, such as X ray. The conclusion is that surgery, wherever feasible, is still the best approach.

  11. Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

  12. Clinical review: Current treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tim; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel; Dralle, Henning; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2007-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of predominantly adrenal origin that often produce and secrete catecholamines. Malignancy occurs in a variable percentage of cases depending on genetic background and tumor location. Definitive diagnosis relies on the detection of distant metastases. Treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma include surgical debulking, pharmacological control of hormone-mediated symptoms, targeted methods such as external irradiation, and systemic antineoplastic therapy. Different agents and protocols for this purpose are reviewed, and their therapeutic potential is discussed. Literature on antineoplastic therapies for malignant pheochromocytoma was identified by searching the PubMed database with restriction to articles published in English during the past 30 yr. Because of the rarity of the condition, no randomized clinical trials concerning the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma have been performed. The strategy established best is [131I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy, which is well tolerated. Similar to cytotoxic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine, MIBG can induce remission for a limited period in a significant proportion of patients. Octreotide as a single agent seems to be largely ineffective. MIBG radiotherapy and cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy are comparable with respect to response rate and toxicity. It is unclear whether combining both can improve the outcome. Future developments may include new multimodal concepts with focus on inhibition of angiogenetic factors and heat shock protein 90. Any present or new therapeutic approach must take into account the highly variable natural course of the disease.

  13. Malignancy risk models for oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Ana-María; Brezzo, María-Magdalena; Secchi, Dante-Gustavo; Barra, José-Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) oral potentially malignant disorders group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP3 mutations. Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate.

  14. Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma: a rare malignant odontogenic tumor.

    PubMed

    Gilani, S M; Raza, A; Al-Khafaji, B M

    2014-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is a rare malignant odontogenic tumor. It can arise de novo, however one-third of cases may arise from a recurrent ameloblastic fibroma, in which case they appear to present at an older age. A 16-year-old female presented with one month history of right mandibular mass. Computerized tomography (CT) scan showed a large destructive mass. A biopsy of the mass was performed. Histologically, it consisted of a mixed epithelial-mesenchymal odontogenic neoplasm composed of benign islands of well-differentiated ameloblastic epithelium within a malignant fibrous stroma consisting of spindle cells or fibroblasts with a brisk mitotic activity. The malignant spindle cell proliferation showed positive staining with p-53 and a high proliferation index with ki-67. A diagnosis of AFS was rendered. The differential diagnosis includes other odontogenic sarcomas, ameloblastic carcinosarcoma and spindle cell carcinoma. Treatment of choice is wide surgical excision, with long-term follow-up. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been used successfully in a few reported cases. AFS is a locally aggressive malignant tumor, with regional and distant metastases being uncommon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Anesthetic malignant hyperthermia: what's new in 2012?].

    PubMed

    Nivoche, Y; Bruneau, B; Dahmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of anesthesia. Recent advances dealing with epidemiology of MH and the safe anesthetic course of MH susceptible patients are shortly presented here with a special insight into the preparation of modern anesthesia workstations, which they will share in operating room. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Systemic sarcoidosis mimicking malignant metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Irena; Sherson, David Lee; Davidsen, Jesper Roemhild

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of systemic sarcoidosis involving the liver, pancreas, lungs, mediastinal and intraabdominal lymph nodes and bones. Multiple organ system manifestations mimicked malignant metastatic disease. The diagnosis was established with clinical, radiological, and pathological findings after neoplasm was ruled out by pathological tests. The patient showed rapid symptom remission with systemic steroid treatment. PMID:26672956

  17. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Rodolfo J; Romao, Isabela; Valsamis, Ageliki; Weinerman, Stuart; Harris, Yael Tobi

    2016-02-01

    Our aim is to describe the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). Causes of hypercalcemia of malignancy include parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) secretion, local osteolysis, calcitriol production and ectopic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Hypercalcemia of malignancy in patients with CRCs is a rare scenario. A patient with anal squamous cell carcinoma was admitted with hypercalcemia, suppressed PTH and hypophosphatemia. He was found to have metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma to the liver. Further evaluation revealed elevated PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Over a 5-month course, the hypercalcemia responded poorly to bisphosphonates, transiently to prednisone, but showed marked improvement with chemotherapy. A review of English language publications in Pubmed and a reference search of retrieved articles revealed 29 cases of CRC causing PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia. Most patients were middle-aged men (mean ± SD: 56.7 ± 13.4 years), with advanced metastatic cancer (85% with hepatic metastasis) and severe hypercalcemia (mean ± SD: 15.6 ± 1.9 mg/dL, 62% with Ca > 14). This condition is associated with high mortality (79%) and short survival (median 54.5 days, CI: 21 - 168). Despite being uncommon, HHM (PTHrP-mediated) should be considered in patients with metastatic CRC presenting with hypercalcemia. Clinicians should be aware that combined etiologies may be present, particularly in cases of resistant hypercalcemia. Treatment of the underlying malignancy is essential for calcium control.

  18. Hypocalcaemic response to streptomycin in malignant hypercalcaemia

    PubMed Central

    Roediger, W. E. W.; Ludwin, D.; Hinder, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    We report a case of malignant hypercalcaemia associated with primary hepato-cellular carcinoma in whom streptomycin produced a notable and reproducible fall in serum calcium. A hypocalcaemic response to streptomycin has been reported from experimental animals but not previously from man. PMID:175360

  19. Malignant PEComa of the skull base.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Norman L

    2004-09-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare, usually benign lesions comprising a family of neoplasms including angiomyolipoma, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear cell "sugar" tumors, and clear cell myomelanocytic tumors. This report describes an apparent case of a malignant PEComa of the skull base in a 49-year-old woman, a previously undescribed location for this lesion.

  20. Cerebral metastasis from malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    El Molla, Mohamed; Gragnaniello, Cristian; Al-Khawaja, Darweesh; Chiribao-Negri, Concepcion; Eftekhar, Behzad

    2013-09-26

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon, highly invasive tumor derived from the mesothelial cells of pleura or peritoneum characterized by poor outcome. Mesothelioma was thought to metastasize locally only via direct invasion and not have distant spread. Distant metastases were discovered mostly on post-mortem examination. The authors present a case of 62-year-old man with pleural mesothelioma and brain metastasis.

  1. Epidemiology of thymoma and associated malignancies.

    PubMed

    Engels, Eric A

    2010-10-01

    Thymoma is a rare malignancy of unknown etiology. The author examined patterns in thymoma incidence in the US general population using data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries. Prior studies concerning the risk of additional malignancies in thymoma patients were reviewed. Based on cancer registry data, the overall incidence of thymoma in the US is 0.13 per 100,000 person-years. Thymoma is exceedingly uncommon in children and young adults, rises in incidence in middle age, and peaks in the seventh decade of life. Thymoma incidence is especially high among Asians and Pacific Islanders in the US. While several studies based at single treatment centers have suggested that thymoma patients have a broadly increased risk for other malignancies, follow up data from US cancer registries support a more limited spectrum of cancer risk. In particular, thymoma patients have a subsequently elevated risk for developing B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on limited data, thymoma patients may also have an elevated risk for developing soft tissue sarcomas. Thymoma is a rare malignancy. The excess risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is consistent with an effect of immune disturbance arising from the thymoma or its treatment. While descriptive epidemiologic data may yield clues to the etiology of thymoma, large multi-center case-control studies will be required to formally evaluate environmental and genetic risk factors.

  2. Primary Oral Malignancy Imitating Peri-Implantitis.

    PubMed

    Raiser, Vadim; Abu-El Naaj, Immad; Shlomi, Benjamin; Fliss, Dan M; Kaplan, Ilana

    2016-07-01

    To describe new cases of primary malignancy arising around dental implants. Three patients presented with asymptomatic lesions around longstanding dental implants that resembled peri-implantitis. One case was primary large B-cell lymphoma and the remaining cases were primary squamous cell carcinoma in patients with oral lichen planus. The literature was reviewed for cases mimicking peri-implantitis. Of 42 implant-associated malignancies reported from 2000 through 2014, 85.7% were squamous cell carcinoma (69% primary and 9.4% metastatic). Most patients presented with pre-existing risk factors for oral cancer. Lymphoma was not associated with dental implants. Primary and metastatic malignancies can occur in peri-implant mucosa, often with clinical and radiographic features resembling peri-implantitis. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for changes in peri-implant mucosa in patients with existing risk factors; however, rare cases such as lymphoma might present outside this risk population. Histopathologic analysis should be included in the management of selected peri-implant lesions to avoid delayed diagnosis of malignancy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  4. Sindbis viral vectors target hematopoietic malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Suzme, R; Tseng, J-C; Levin, B; Ibrahim, S; Meruelo, D; Pellicer, A

    2012-11-01

    Sindbis viral vectors target and inhibit the growth of various solid tumors in mouse models. However, their efficacy against blood cancer has not been well established. Here, we show that Sindbis vectors infect and efficiently trigger apoptosis in mouse BW5147 malignant hematopoietic T-cells, but only at low levels in human lymphoma and leukemia cells (Jurkat, Karpas, CEM, DHL and JB). The Mr 37/67 kD laminin receptor (LAMR) has been suggested to be the receptor for Sindbis virus. However, JB cells, which are infected by Sindbis at low efficiency, express high levels of LAMR, revealing that additional factors are involved in Sindbis tropism. To test the infectivity and therapeutic efficacy of Sindbis vectors against malignant hematopoietic cells in vivo, we injected BW5147 cells intraperitoneally into (C3HXAKR) F1 hybrid mice. We found that Sindbis vectors targeted the tumors and significantly prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice. We also tested the Sindbis vectors in a transgenic CD4-Rgr model, which spontaneously develop thymic lymphomas. However, infectivity in this model was less efficient. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Sindbis vectors have the potential to target and kill hematopoietic malignancies in mice, but further research is needed to evaluate the mechanism underlining the susceptibility of human lymphoid malignancies to Sindbis therapy.

  5. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposure and Malignant Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; van Gerwen, Maaike; Bonassi, Stefano; Taioli, Emanuela

    2017-07-01

    Although the association between exposure to asbestos and malignant mesothelioma (particularly malignant pleural mesothelioma) has been well established, the health impact of environmental exposure (EE) to asbestos has been less studied. This review summarizes the most recent studies on the association between malignant mesothelioma and EE with asbestos to identify features associated with EE and quantify the association with malignant mesothelioma. There were 44 studies from 18 countries that met our selection criteria, with a considerable amount of heterogeneity in their study design, measures of exposure, and health outcomes. The male-to-female ratio was close to or less than 1 and generally lower than the ratio reported when both occupational and environmental exposures were considered. Although recent studies have continued to improve our understanding of environmental exposure to asbestos, challenges remain. We have highlighted a few new research directions, such as a need for reliable matrices to identify common and less recognized types of EE, asbestos biomarker studies specifically focusing on EE, and research on populations and geographic areas that have not been previously studied. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired Neovascularization and Reduced Capillary Supply in the Malignant vs. Non-malignant Course of Experimental Renovascular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Andrea; Jagusch, Lisa; Cordasic, Nada; Amann, Kerstin; Veelken, Roland; Jacobi, Johannes; Hilgers, Karl F.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant hypertension develops in some cases of hypertension but not in others. We hypothesized that an impaired neovascularization and a reduced capillary supply characterizes the malignant course of experimental hypertension. Two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension was induced in rats; controls (sham) were sham operated. To distinguish malignant hypertension from non-malignant hypertension, we considered two factors: weight loss, and the number of typical vascular lesions (onion skin lesions and fibrinoid necroses) per kidney section of the nonclipped kidney. Animals in the upper half for both criteria were defined as malignant hypertensives. After 5 weeks, mean arterial blood pressure was elevated to the same degree in malignant hypertension and non-malignant hypertension whereas plasma renin and aldosterone were significantly higher in malignant hypertensives. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was elevated (up to 14-fold) in non-malignant but significantly more increased (up to 36-fold) in malignant hypertensive rats, compared to sham. As a bioassay for neovascularization, the area of granulation tissue ingrowth in polyvinyl discs (implanted subcutaneously) was reduced in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension and sham, while there was no difference between non-malignant hypertension and sham. The number of renal and left ventricular capillaries was significantly lower in malignant hypertension compared to non-malignant hypertension, as was the number of proliferating endothelial cells. We conclude that an impaired neovascularization and capillarization occurs in malignant renovascular hypertension but not in the non-malignant course of the disease despite comparable blood pressure levels. This might contribute to the unique vascular lesions and progressive target organ damage observed in malignant hypertension. PMID:27625610

  7. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  8. Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Zara, Tuba; Tüzün, Yalçın

    2013-01-01

    Anogenital malignancies and premalignancies are an important personal/public health problem due to their effects on individuals' physical, mental, and sexual health. Also, due to their etiological association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, anogenital malignancies and premalignancies constitute an immense public health burden. In addition to HPV infection, immunosuppression, HIV infection, chronic dermatoses, such as lichen sclerosis, previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments, and smoking, are the other important etiopathologic factors in the development of anogenital malignancies and premalignancies. The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has increased considerably in the past decade, mainly due to the growing number of cases in high-risk groups, such as men who have sex with men, immunosuppressed individuals, and patients with HIV infection. Also, an increase in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and VIN-related invasive vulvar cancer has been noted in women younger than age 50 years due to its association with HPV infections over the past decade. SCC of the scrotum seems to be the first cancer linked to occupational exposure. Bowen's disease, Bowenoid papulosis, and erythroplasia of Queyrat are the most widely seen premalignancies of anogenital region and are all forms of squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. Histopathologically, these conditions share identical histologic features of SCC in situ, but their clinical features differ. Early diagnosis is vital to improve prognosis, especially in anogenital malignancies. Also, if a delay occurs in diagnosis, treatment options used will be associated with significant negative effects on the patient's psychological well-being and quality of life; hence, management of anogenital malignancies and premalignancies should be organized in a multidisciplinary fashion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Malignant Tumors of Tongue in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Bastani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of oral cancers varies from one country to another, which can be clarified by the difference in the distribution of the risk factors and the possible etiologies. Tongue is a main segment of oral cavity and malignant lesions of this region accounts for nearly 30% of all oral cancers. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of tongue cancer in Iranian population and compared these findings with those previously reported in the other countries. Methods In this multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study recorded cases of the malignant tongue tumors in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were extracted. The patient records and their microscopic reports were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic types were evaluated. It is to be noted that the CRC has been serving as a cancer registry center for major hospitals all over the country since the year of 2003. Thus, the obtained statistics are highly reliable. Results During the years 2003 to 2008, a total number of 952 new cases of the tongue cancer were recorded in the CRC. Most cases are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. 450 cases (47.2%) occurred in men and 489 cases (51.36%) in women. Four different types of malignant lesions (epithelial, salivary gland, hematopoietic and mesenchymal) were diagnosed. Epithelial tumors were the most prevalent malignancies (93%) of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) made up 87.39% of all lesions. Salivary gland tumors had the second place with 3.15% of the total lesions. Conclusions In Iranian population, squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy of tongue and it is notable that the ratio of female to male population was equal. These lesions were prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thus screening examination of tongue by dentist especially in elderly patients is necessary for early detection of cancerous lesions. PMID:27761209

  10. Hypercalcemia of malignancy and new treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sternlicht, Hillel; Glezerman, Ilya G

    2015-01-01

    Hypercalcemia of malignancy affects up to one in five cancer patients during the course of their disease. It is associated with both liquid malignancies, commonly multiple myeloma, leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma and solid cancers, particularly breast and renal carcinomas as well as squamous cell carcinomas of any organ. The clinical manifestations of hypercalcemia are generally constitutional in nature and not specific to the inciting malignancy. Such physical manifestations can range from malaise to lethargy and confusion. Constipation and anorexia are common. Acute kidney injury is likely the most frequently encountered manifestation of end organ damage. Symptomatology is closely linked to both the absolute elevation of serum calcium levels and the rapidity of calcium rise. The majority of cases are humoral in etiology and related to parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Approximately 20% of cases are the result of direct bone metastasis with extra-renal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) and ectopic parathyroid hormone production likely accounting for less than 1% of cases. The diagnosis of hypercalcemia of malignancy is confirmed either by an elevated PTHrP or by an evidence of bone metastasis in the appropriate clinical setting. Treatment is predicated on the patient’s symptoms and absolute serum calcium level. Interventions are aimed at lowering the serum calcium concentration by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing urinary calcium excretion, the former accomplished via bisphosphonate therapy and the latter with aggressive hydration. Novel therapies for refractory disease include denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand, and the calcimimetic cinacalcet. Finally, anti-PTHrP antibodies have been successfully deployed in animal models of disease. Despite the efficacy of the above therapies, hypercalcemia of malignancy portends an ominous prognosis, indicating advanced and often refractory

  11. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS. PMID:27725556

  12. Advances in Optical Adjunctive Aids for Visualisation and Detection of Oral Malignant and Potentially Malignant Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Nirav; Lalla, Yastira; Vu, An N.; Farah, Camile S.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of screening for oral potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies involve a conventional oral examination with digital palpation. Evidence indicates that conventional examination is a poor discriminator of oral mucosal lesions. A number of optical aids have been developed to assist the clinician to detect oral mucosal abnormalities and to differentiate benign lesions from sinister pathology. This paper discusses advances in optical technologies designed for the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities. The literature regarding such devices, VELscope and Identafi, is critically analysed, and the novel use of Narrow Band Imaging within the oral cavity is also discussed. Optical aids are effective in assisting with the detection of oral mucosal abnormalities; however, further research is required to evaluate the usefulness of these devices in differentiating benign lesions from potentially malignant and malignant lesions. PMID:24078812

  13. Catatonic Symptoms Appearing before Autonomic Symptoms Help Distinguish Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome from Malignant Catatonia.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takayuki; Nomura, Tomohisa; Takami, Hiroki; Sakamoto, So; Mizuno, Keiko; Sekii, Hajime; Hatta, Kotaro; Sugita, Manabu

    A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas. Identifying the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms could aid in distinguishing malignant catatonia from NMS.

  14. Reactive oxygen metabolites can be used to differentiate malignant and non-malignant pleural efffusions

    PubMed Central

    Cobanoglu, Ufuk; Sayir, Fuat; Mergan, Duygu

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increase in reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and free radicals is an important cause of cell injury. In this study, we investigated whether determination of ROM in pleural fluids of patients with malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions can be used as a tumor marker indicating malignant effusions in the differential diagnosis. METHODS: Sixty subjects with exudative pleural effusion and 25 healthy individuals as the control group were included in the study. Of the subjects with pleural effusion, 50% were malignant and 50% were non-malignant. ROM was studied in the pleural fluids and sera of the subjects with pleural effusion and in the sera of those in the control group. The ROM values of smokers and non-smokers were compared in each group. The Student’s t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used in order to detect differences between groups for descriptive statistics in terms of pointed features. The statistical significance level was set at 5% in computations, and the computations were made using the SPSS (ver.13) statistical package program RESULTS: It was determined that the difference between the ROM values of subjects with malignant and non-malign pleural effusions and the sera of the control group was significant in the malignant group compared to both groups (P = 0.0001), and the sera ROM values of patients with non-malignant pleural effusion were significant compared to the control group (P = 0.0001), and the ROM values of smokers were significant compared to non-smokers in each of the three groups (P = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that sera ROM levels are increased considerably in patients with exudative effusions compared to that of the control group. This condition can be instructive in terms of serum ROM value being suggestive of exudative effusion in patients with effusions. Furthermore, the detection of pleural ROM values being significantly higher in subjects with malignant pleural effusions compared to non-malignant

  15. What Are the Key Statistics about Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mesothelioma About Malignant Mesothelioma What Are the Key Statistics About Malignant Mesothelioma? Mesothelioma is fairly rare in ... on survival rates can be found in Survival Statistics for Mesothelioma . Visit the American Cancer Society’s Cancer ...

  16. Evaluation of the phenotype pattern of macrophages isolated from malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Nowicka, Agata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Zurawski, Jakub; Batura-Gabryel, Halina; Sikora, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Macrophages are among the infiltrate components of most malignant tumors. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) may secrete a variety of humoral factors, which promote or inhibit tumor growth. In general, depending on their activation pathway, macrophages exhibit two different patterns of phenotype, M1 or M2. It is assumed that TAMs comprise pattern M2. In the malignant pleural effusion, macrophages are a frequent component of cytological evaluation. In this microenvironment, TAMs could be involved in the development of immunity. The phenotype of macrophages represented in malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions is unknown. In this study, macrophages were isolated from 38 pleural effusions (15 malignant and 23 non-malignant) and the expression of a variety of immune mediators and their receptors was assessed to determine the type of activation (M1 vs. M2). The expression of mRNA was analyzed for IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-18, TNFα, TGFβ1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, TLR2, TLR4, VLA4, CD62L, MMP2, MMP9, VEGFA, PDGFA, and PDGFB. In immunohistochemical evaluation, the expressions of CD68, mesothelin, MAC387, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNFα, and CD105 were assessed. The cytoplasmic expression of IFNγ, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 and the surface expression of CD11a, CD14, CD15, CD16, CD23, CD25, CD45, CD54, CD62L, CD69, VLA2, VLA3, VLA4, VLA6, TLR2, TLR4, and CCR7 were tested using flow cytometry. In supernatants from macrophages cultures, TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, MCP1, and VEGF were investigated by cytometric beads array method (CBA flex sets) and TGFβ1 by ELISA. Our results indicate that macrophages from malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions differ from each other and suggest that macrophages isolated from non-malignant effusions show a pattern comparable to M1 while those isolated from malignant effusions express similarity to M2 phenotype, but they have not shown a classical M2 pattern.

  17. A perspective on malignancy in the marrow.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Michaela R; Lian, Jane B; Rosen, Clifford J; Stein, Gary S

    2017-12-01

    Malignancies that grow in the bone marrow cause a cascade of devastating consequences and are almost always fatal. For researchers to make significant headway in finding cures and treatments for these tumors and the subsequent devastation of cancer-induced bone disease, novel strategies and creative solutions will have to be considered. Great progress has been made in treating hematologic and sold tumor malignancies that ultimately affect the bone marrow, although it is also obvious that multi-disciplinary teams are required to ultimately win the war on cancers that affect the bone. In this perspective, we review recent advances in the identification of molecular and cellular targets in the bone marrow niche. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Darshini A; Smith, Valerie; Hayden, Fiona; Cronin, Patricia

    2017-08-24

    Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration. In malignant wounds, with tissue degradation and death, there is proliferation of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The aim of antibiotic therapy is to successfully eliminate these bacteria, reduce associated symptoms, such as odour, and promote wound healing. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. We searched the following electronic databases on 8 March 2017: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched the clinical trial registries of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (apps.who.int/trialsearch) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 20 March 2017; and OpenSIGLE (to identify grey literature) and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (to retrieve dissertation theses related to our topic of interest) on 13 March 2017. Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of any systemic antibiotics on malignant wounds were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted study data. A third reviewer checked extracted data for accuracy prior to analysis. We identified only one study for inclusion in this review. This study was a prospective, double-blind cross

  19. Management of malignant melanoma: best practices.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Michael; Claveau, Joël; Alanen, Kenneth; Taillefer, Raymond; George, Ralph; Wong, Ralph; Mason, Warren P

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma is a commonly occurring cancer in Canada, with an estimated age-standardized incidence of 10 to 13 per 100,000. An estimated 4,300 new cases were diagnosed, and there were 800 reported deaths in 2005. The Canadian Expert Panel on Malignant Melanoma has developed best practices to improve the management of malignant melanoma. Sections include recommendations on primary diagnosis, dermatopathologic assessment, and reporting; use of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and an intraoperative gamma probe to map and biopsy the sentinel lymph node; indications for surgical resection, sentinel node biopsy, and surgery for advance disease; use of interferon-alpha adjuvant therapy and treatment options for stage IV disease; and management of central nervous system metastases.

  20. Imaging features of haematological malignancies of kidneys.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, K; Menias, C O; Verma, S; Abdelbaki, A; Shaaban, A; Elsayes, K M

    2016-03-01

    Haematological malignancies are relatively uncommon neoplasms of kidneys. Nevertheless, the incidence of these neoplasms is increasing, partly due to more widespread use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the clinical and imaging features of renal lymphoma, leukaemia, extra-osseous multiple myeloma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Although there is overlap of imaging features with other more common malignancies, such as transitional and renal cell cancers, the combination of imaging findings and the appropriate clinical picture should allow the radiologist to raise a provisional diagnosis of a haematological neoplasm. This has management implications including the preference for image-guided core biopsies and a shift towards medical rather than surgical therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcinosarcoma of parotid gland (malignant mixed tumor).

    PubMed

    Feng, Duan; Fidele, Nyimi Bushabu; Agustin, Mansthumba Milolo; Jian, Guan; Bourleyi, Sekele Isouradi; Augustin, Lamwe; Olivier, Ngueji Kakubu

    2015-01-01

    Salivary gland carcinosarcoma is a rare neoplasm; with a poor prognosis. The most common epithelial components are adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the most common mesenchymal components are chondrosarcoma. It should not be confused with the most common carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, in which the epithelial component alone is malignant. This condition might exhibit with a wide variety of presentation and symptoms along with associated conditions. We present a case of an old patient who presented with a very unusual type clinically with confusing presentation which was eventually diagnosed as carsinosarcoma. In addition, the literature is reviewed, and the possible clinical signs and management of malignant mixed tumor of the salivary gland are briefly discussed.

  2. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Yashiro, N.; Ohtomo, K.; Iio, M.

    1983-05-01

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy.

  3. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2013-01-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondria often rely on disruption of protein–protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion. PMID:22946430

  4. Targeting malignant mitochondria with therapeutic peptides.

    PubMed

    Constance, Jonathan E; Lim, Carol S

    2012-08-01

    The current status of peptides that target the mitochondria in the context of cancer is the focus of this review. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy used to kill tumor cells are principally mediated by the process of apoptosis that is governed by the mitochondria. The failure of anticancer therapy often resides at the level of the mitochondria. Therefore, the mitochondrion is a key pharmacological target in cancer due to many of the differences that arise between malignant and healthy cells at the level of this ubiquitous organelle. Additionally, targeting the characteristics of malignant mitochondira often rely on disruption of protein--protein interactions that are not generally amenable to small molecules. We discuss anticancer peptides that intersect with pathological changes in the mitochondrion.

  5. Malignant masses in the therapeutically irradiated breast

    SciTech Connect

    Paulus, D.D.; Libshitz, H.I.; Montague, E.D.

    1980-10-01

    Mammography is of value in following the response of malignant masses after radiation therapy. Clinical error in evaluating mass size may be considerable, particularly in large breasts or breasts that are contracted and firm. Mammograms of 40 patients treated primarily with irradiation for breast cancer, taken from 3 weeks to 130 months after treatment, were reviewed. The malignant mass markedly diminished or disappeared after radiation therapy in most patients. The rate at which such changes occur is temporally related to the irradiation. Residual radiographically or clinically identifiable mass may persist even in sterilized cancers. Scarring and/or distortion occur frequently. The necessity for mammographic evaluation to determine tumor response and possible recurrence is emphasized, and a mammographic schedule is suggested to facilitate follow-up.

  6. Treatment of malignant glioma using hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiahang; Guo, Mian; Pang, Hengyuan; Qi, Jingtao; Zhang, Jinwei; Ge, Yunlong

    2013-10-15

    Thirty pathologically diagnosed patients with grade III-IV primary or recurrent malignant glioma (tumor diameter 3-7 cm) were randomly divided into two groups. The control group underwent conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the hyperthermia group, primary cases received hyperthermia treatment, and patients with recurrent tumors were treated with hyperthermia in com-bination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Hyperthermia treatment was administered using a 13.56-MHz radio frequency hyperthermia device. Electrodes were inserted into the tumor with the aid of a CT-guided stereotactic apparatus and heat was applied for 1 hour. During 3 months after hyperthermia, patients were evaluated with head CT or MRI every month. Gliomas in the hyper-thermia group exhibited growth retardation or growth termination. Necrosis was evident in 80% of the heated tumor tissue and there was a decrease in tumor diameter. Our findings indicate that ra-dio frequency hyperthermia has a beneficial effect in the treatment of malignant glioma.

  7. [Multiple primary malignant tumors involving the liver].

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L; Tasnádi, T

    1993-01-31

    In the Department of Pathology of the Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University in Szeged during the last 30 years 1770 (19.4% of the cancers) primary malignant lung tumours were observed in autopsy material, from which 86 patients (4.9%) had other malignancies as well. In 81 cases other extrapulmonary and in 5 cases other primary lung tumours were observed. The male predominance in these cases was significant. All of the patients were heavy smokers. Amongst these synchronous tumour-associations the most frequent extrapulmonary tumours arose in the urogenital tract, in the head and neck, relatively frequently also in the breast, liver, stomach, intestine and thyroid. These cases caused diagnostic dilemmas both for the clinician and even for the pathologist. Several signs help to distinguish a new primary tumour from a metastasis. Multiplicity itself does not mean poorer prognosis. Each cancer should possibly receive adequate treatment.

  8. Actinic cheilosis: early intervention prevents malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishnan, Arvind; Bijai Kumar, Laliytha

    2017-03-20

    Potentially malignant disorders (PMD) have a high risk of malignant transformation. Habits such as tobacco and alcohol use predispose to PMD and subsequently to an oral carcinoma. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) can occur even without the usage of tobacco. Occupational exposure to actinic rays may predispose to the development of OSCC in the lip. People who are involved in farming or those exposed to an environmental background radiation, such as ultraviolet rays, develop a PMD called actinic cheilosis. A high proportion of patients with actinic cheilosis develop an oral carcinoma when not diagnosed and treated in early stages. This case depicts the clinical and histological changes in a 61-year-old Indian man with actinic cheilosis. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Treatment of Malignant Cutaneous Adnexal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Requena, L

    2017-10-05

    Malignant cutaneous adnexal neoplasms form a group of rare, typically low-grade-malignancy carcinomas with follicular, sebaceous, apocrine, or eccrine differentiation or a combination of the first 3 subtypes. Their clinical presentation is usually unremarkable, and biopsy is required to establish the differentiation subtype and the definitive diagnosis. Due to their rarity, no clear consensus has been reached on which treatment is most effective. Mohs micrographic surgery is considered to be the best option to prevent recurrence in the majority of patients. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been studied in very few cases and have rarely been shown to be effective. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Is there a malignant neurocardiogenic syncope?].

    PubMed

    Márquez, Manlio F

    2002-01-01

    There is a subset of patients with neurocardiogenic syncope among whom syncopal recurrences are frequent and without prodromic symptoms, or have a traumatic outcome. For this subgroup the term "malignant neurocardiogenic syncope" has been proposed. Frequently, these patients suffer from syncopes that are accompanied by profound bradycardia and prolonged asystole (more than 5 seconds). Although in the literature the term malignant is used as equal to syncope with prolonged asystole, this practice could lead to prognostic and therapeutic errors. The present article describes its clinical features, the usefulness of head-up tilt test for its therapeutic evaluation, and the wide variety of treatments that have been proposed including beta-adrenergic blockade, DDD pacemakers, and repeated tilt training program.

  11. Novel systemic therapy against malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Michael R; Neal, Joel W

    2017-06-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive tumor of the pleura with an overall poor prognosis. Even with surgical resection, for which only a subset of patients are eligible, long term disease free survival is rare. Standard first-line systemic treatment consists of a platinum analog, an anti-metabolite, and sometimes anti-angiogenic therapy, but there is currently no well-established standard therapy for refractory or relapsed disease. This review focuses on efforts to develop improved systemic therapy for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) including cytotoxic systemic therapy, a variety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their downstream effector pathways, pharmacologic targeting of the epigenome, novel approaches to target proteins expressed on mesothelioma cells (such as mesothelin), arginine depletion therapy, and the emerging role of immunotherapy. Overall, these studies demonstrate the challenges of improving systemic therapy for MPM and highlight the need to develop therapeutic strategies to control this disease.

  12. [Malignant insulinoma: recommendations for workup and treatment].

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric; Caron, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Tabarin, Antoine; Mitry, Emmanuel; Reznick, Yves; Taieb, David; Pattou, François; Goudet, Pierre; Vezzosi, Delphine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Cadiot, Guillaume; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Do Cao, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Insulinoma are malignant in 4 to 14 % of cases. Their rarity and the sparse data available in the literature have limited publication of specific guidelines for their management. The following review aim to provide up-to-date recommendations on initial evaluation including pathologic grading, measures to control hypoglycemia, antitumor strategies and long term follow-up. Will be discussed in detail respective indications of surgery, diazoxide, somatostatin analogs, everolimus, sunitinib, liver directed treatments including arterial embolization, chemotherapy and radiometabolic therapy. A Medline search using terms "insulinoma", "neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors", "islet cell carcinoma", "malignant insulinoma" was performed limiting the selection to English language articles and adult age cases, along with cross referencing.

  13. [Malignant phyllodes tumour : a case report].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, J; Burlet, O; Sylvestre, R M; Wetz, P; Delvenne, Ph

    2016-11-01

    A 28 year old woman has suffered over the previous month from a post-traumatic swelling sensation of the left breast. Ultrasonography demonstrates a 9 cm, sharply-cut, rounded, hypo-echogenic lesion. Surgery is performed, with the hypothesis of an haematoma. The pathological analysis of the lesion shows a malignant phyllodes tumour with heterologous rhabdomyosarcomatous features. No metastasis is found. A radical mastectomy is performed and the patient benefits from an adjuvant radio-chemotherapy. Phyllodes tumours represent up to 1 % of all mammary cancers, with 10-20 % of malignant lesions. These tumours behave differently from usual breast cancers. This atypical case, arising in a traumatic context, provides the opportunity to discuss the treatment and classification of phyllodes tumours of the breast.

  14. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in malignancy: a review.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Rodney E; Mayhall, Kim; Maxwell, Nicole M; Kandil, Emad; Coppola, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthesis. Both intracellular and extracellular Nampt (iNampt and eNampt) levels are increased in several human malignancies and some studies demonstrate increased iNampt in more aggressive/invasive tumors and in tumor metastases. Several different molecular targets have been identified that promote carcinogenesis following iNampt overexpression, including SirT1, CtBP, and PARP-1. Additionally, eNampt is elevated in several human cancers and is often associated with a higher tumor stage and worse prognoses. Here we review the roles of Nampt in malignancy, some of the known mechanisms by which it promotes carcinogenesis, and discuss the possibility of employing Nampt inhibitors in cancer treatment.

  15. BMI1: A Biomarker of Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A.

    2016-01-01

    BMI1 oncogene is a catalytic member of epigenetic repressor polycomb group proteins. It plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression pattern and consequently several cellular processes during development, including cell cycle progression, senescence, aging, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and importantly self-renewal of adult stem cells of several lineages. Preponderance of evidences indicates that deregulated expression of PcG protein BMI1 is associated with several human malignancies, cancer stem cell maintenance, and propagation. Importantly, overexpression of BMI1 correlates with therapy failure in cancer patients and tumor relapse. This review discusses the diverse mode of BMI1 regulation at transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational levels as well as at various critical signaling pathways regulated by BMI1 activity. Furthermore, this review highlights the role of BMI1 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several subtypes of hematologic malignancies and the importance to target this biomarker for therapeutic applications. PMID:27168727

  16. Vaccinations in patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tsigrelis, C; Ljungman, P

    2016-03-01

    Patients with hematological malignancies are at risk for a number of infections that are potentially preventable by vaccinations such as pneumococcal infections and influenza. Treatment, especially with anti-B-cell antibodies and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), negatively impacts the response to vaccination for several months. It is therefore recommended that patients be vaccinated before initiating immunosuppressive therapy if possible. The risk of side-effects with inactivated vaccines is low, but care has to be taken with live vaccines, such as varicella-zoster virus vaccine, since severe and fatal complications have been reported. HSCT patients require repeated doses of most vaccines to achieve long-lasting immune responses. New therapeutic options for patients with hematological malignancies that are rapidly being introduced into clinical practice will require additional research regarding the efficacy of vaccinations. New vaccines are also in development that will require well-designed studies to ascertain efficacy and safety.

  17. Experimental ocular malignant melanoma in Sinclair swine.

    PubMed

    Burns, R P; Tidwell, M

    1986-04-01

    An animal model of malignant melanoma of the eye was established by transplanting a cell suspension from cutaneous melanomas into the anterior chamber of the eye in Sinclair Farm miniature swine. The frequency of tumor takes in the eye was increased from 8.9% to 22% by treating the animals simultaneously with subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide. As an animal model for hematoporphyrin derivative--photoradiation treatment of human malignant melanoma of the eye, this does not appear to be a good research tool because of the sporadic incidence of tumor takes, the rapid growth of tumor within the eye causing glaucoma, and the dark iris pigmentation of successful tumor takes, which hides extensive underlying ciliary body tumor.

  18. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed. PMID:25914884

  19. Malignancy Risk Models for Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Ana M.; Brezzo, María M.; Secchi, Dante G.; Barra, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant. Study Design: Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) OPMD group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8). Results: An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC ? TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied. Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP53 mutations. Conclusions: Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate. Key words:TP53, oral potentially malignant disorders, risk factors, genotype, phenotype. PMID:23722122

  20. Disseminated nocardiosis masquerading as metastatic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Arjun, Rajalakshmi; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Reddy Attunuru, Bhanu Prakash; Gupta, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Nocardiosis is an uncommon gram-positive bacterial infection caused by aerobic actinomycetes of the genus Nocardia. It can be localized or systemic and is regarded as an opportunistic infection that is commonly seen in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of disseminated nocardiosis caused by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a patient with underlying malignancy in whom the clinical presentation was highly suggestive of a metastatic disease. PMID:27578940

  1. Livedo reticularis heralding hypercalcaemia of malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Sundriyal, Deepak; Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Gaurav; Walia, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    The term livedo reticularis is used to describe net-like purple rash usually on the lower limbs. It is an important clinical sign with diverse aetiologies. Hypercalcaemia is an uncommon but important clinical entity, sometimes associated with livedo reticularis. Generally, hypercalcaemia of renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism has been reported with this condition. We report a case of livedo reticularis heralding onset of hypercalcaemia of malignancy. PMID:24832704

  2. Functional MR Imaging in Chest Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Broncano, Jordi; Luna, Antonio; Sánchez-González, Javier; Alvarez-Kindelan, Antonio; Bhalla, Sanjeev

    2016-02-01

    With recent advances in MR imaging, its application in the thorax has been feasible. The performance of both morphologic and functional techniques in the evaluation of thoracic malignances has improved not only differentiation from benign etiologies but also treatment monitoring based on a multiparametric approach. Several MR imaging-derived parameters have been described as potential biomarkers linked with prognosis and survival. Therefore, an integral approach with a nonradiating and noninvasive technique could be an optimal alternative for evaluating those patients.

  3. Metalworking fluids and malignant melanoma in autoworkers.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sadie; Friesen, Melissa C; Christiani, David C; Eisen, Ellen A

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to mineral oil-based metalworking fluids has been consistently linked with skin conditions such as contact dermatitis and squamous cell skin cancer, especially of the scrotum. We examined the incidence of malignant melanoma in a study of autoworkers. We followed a cohort of autoworkers from 1985 through 2004 for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated in Cox models for cumulative exposure to total particulate of straight fluid (neat oil), soluble fluid (oil emulsified in water), and synthetic fluid (no oil). Exposure was partitioned into time windows by latency and by calendar periods defined by changes in the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the refined oils. The population was restricted to workers born after 1935. We examined the date-of-birth restriction in a sensitivity analysis. On the basis of 76 incident cases of malignant melanoma in the cohort of 14,139 white males, the HR was 1.99 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-3.96) for the highest category of straight fluid. Risk was greatest in the most recent time window. Penalized splines suggested a linear exposure-response over the full range of exposure. The change in HR for malignant melanoma per mg/m-year of straight fluid increased monotonically from 1.01 to 1.04, when the date-of-birth restriction increased from 1925 to 1945 in 5-year intervals. Results for soluble fluid were more modest. There was no association with synthetic fluid. Results provide evidence, based on quantitative measures of metalworking fluid, that oil-based fluid, particularly straight mineral oils, are associated with the incidence of malignant melanoma.

  4. [Multiple primary malignant tumors involving the liver].

    PubMed

    Tiszlavicz, L

    1991-11-17

    In the autopsy material of the Department of Pathology of Albert Szent-Györgyi Medical University 167 primary liver cancers were observed in 30 years, from which 13 patients (7.8%) had also other primary malignancies. The tumour-associations were mainly synchronously, there was strong male predominance. In 9 cases the hepatocellular carcinoma originated in cirrhotic liver. The most frequent extrahepatic tumours were found in the lungs (5 cases), smoking was among the anamnestic data.

  5. Hypercalcemia of Malignancy and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Rodolfo J.; Romao, Isabela; Valsamis, Ageliki; Weinerman, Stuart; Harris, Yael Tobi

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). Causes of hypercalcemia of malignancy include parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) secretion, local osteolysis, calcitriol production and ectopic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Hypercalcemia of malignancy in patients with CRCs is a rare scenario. A patient with anal squamous cell carcinoma was admitted with hypercalcemia, suppressed PTH and hypophosphatemia. He was found to have metastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma to the liver. Further evaluation revealed elevated PTHrP and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Over a 5-month course, the hypercalcemia responded poorly to bisphosphonates, transiently to prednisone, but showed marked improvement with chemotherapy. A review of English language publications in Pubmed and a reference search of retrieved articles revealed 29 cases of CRC causing PTHrP-mediated hypercalcemia. Most patients were middle-aged men (mean ± SD: 56.7 ± 13.4 years), with advanced metastatic cancer (85% with hepatic metastasis) and severe hypercalcemia (mean ± SD: 15.6 ± 1.9 mg/dL, 62% with Ca > 14). This condition is associated with high mortality (79%) and short survival (median 54.5 days, CI: 21 - 168). Despite being uncommon, HHM (PTHrP-mediated) should be considered in patients with metastatic CRC presenting with hypercalcemia. Clinicians should be aware that combined etiologies may be present, particularly in cases of resistant hypercalcemia. Treatment of the underlying malignancy is essential for calcium control. PMID:26998187

  6. Plastic biliary stents for malignant biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Inge; Fockens, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Plastic biliary endoprostheses have not changed much since their introduction more than 3 decades ago. Although their use has been challenged by the introduction of metal stents, plastic stents still remain commonly used. Much work has been done to improve the problem of stent obstruction but without substantial clinical success. In this review, the authors discuss the history of plastic biliary stent development and the current use of plastic stents for malignant biliary diseases.

  7. Primary malignant lymphoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Aigen, A B; Phillips, M

    1986-09-01

    A case of primary malignant lymphoma of the urinary bladder is described. The classic presentation of gross hematuria and dysuria with a benign clinical course is illustrated. From a review of the literature and our experience, we conclude that localized primary lymphoma of the bladder, especially those with favorable histologic findings, often does not require medical or surgical intervention. Persistent irritative bladder symptoms can be palliated adequately with external beam radiotherapy, while surgical intervention is rarely indicated.

  8. Economics of Malignant Gliomas: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Raizer, Jeffrey J.; Fitzner, Karen A.; Jacobs, Daniel I.; Bennett, Charles L.; Liebling, Dustin B.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Trifilio, Steven M.; Grimm, Sean A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Haleem, Meraaj S.; Ray, Paul S.; McKoy, Judith M.; DeBoer, Rebecca; Tulas, Katrina-Marie E.; Deeb, Mohammed; McKoy, June M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 18,500 persons are diagnosed with malignant glioma in the United States annually. Few studies have investigated the comprehensive economic costs. We reviewed the literature to examine costs to patients with malignant glioma and their families, payers, and society. Methods: A total of 18 fully extracted studies were included. Data were collected on direct and indirect costs, and cost estimates were converted to US dollars using the conversion rate calculated from the study's publication date, and updated to 2011 values after adjustment for inflation. A standardized data abstraction form was used. Data were extracted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results: Before approval of effective chemotherapeutic agents for malignant gliomas, estimated total direct medical costs in the United States for surgery and radiation therapy per patient ranged from $50,600 to $92,700. The addition of temozolomide (TMZ) and bevacizumab to glioblastoma treatment regimens has resulted in increased overall costs for glioma care. Although health care costs are now less front-loaded, they have increased over the course of illness. Analysis using a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-year suggests that the benefits of TMZ fall on the edge of acceptable therapies. Furthermore, indirect medical costs, such as productivity losses, are not trivial. Conclusion: With increased chemotherapy use for malignant glioma, the paradigm for treatment and associated out-of-pocket and total medical costs continue to evolve. Larger out-of-pocket costs may influence the choice of chemotherapeutic agents, the economic implications of which should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:25466707

  9. Targeting cell cycle regulators in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Aleem, Eiman; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies represent the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer in economically developed countries. In hematologic malignancies normal hematopoiesis is interrupted by uncontrolled growth of a genetically altered stem or progenitor cell (HSPC) that maintains its ability of self-renewal. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) not only regulate the mammalian cell cycle, but also influence other vital cellular processes, such as stem cell renewal, differentiation, transcription, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. Chromosomal translocations, amplification, overexpression and altered CDK activities have been described in different types of human cancer, which have made them attractive targets for pharmacological inhibition. Mouse models deficient for one or more CDKs have significantly contributed to our current understanding of the physiological functions of CDKs, as well as their roles in human cancer. The present review focuses on selected cell cycle kinases with recent emerging key functions in hematopoiesis and in hematopoietic malignancies, such as CDK6 and its role in MLL-rearranged leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia, CDK1 and its regulator WEE-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and cyclin C/CDK8/CDK19 complexes in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. The knowledge gained from gene knockout experiments in mice of these kinases is also summarized. An overview of compounds targeting these kinases, which are currently in clinical development in various solid tumors and hematopoietic malignances, is presented. These include the CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors (palbociclib, LEE011, LY2835219), pan-CDK inhibitors that target CDK1 (dinaciclib, flavopiridol, AT7519, TG02, P276-00, terampeprocol and RGB 286638) as well as the WEE-1 kinase inhibitor, MK-1775. The advantage of combination therapy of cell cycle inhibitors with conventional chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of AML, such as cytarabine, is discussed.

  10. Malignant seminoma in two unilaterally cryptorchid stallions.

    PubMed

    De Lange, V; Chiers, K; Lefère, L; Cools, M; Ververs, C; Govaere, J

    2015-06-01

    Two unilateral cryptorchid stallions were referred to the clinic because of chronic debilitating condition with emaciation. Rectal examination, and ultrasound and gross examination revealed in both animals an abdominal mass, caudally of the kidney, and multiple nodules spread over the abdomen. Histologic analysis revealed an intra-abdominal malignant seminoma with intraperitoneal and renal metastasis. Interestingly, a seminoma was also present in the descended testis of the draught horse. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Gall bladder malignancy: an unusual association.

    PubMed

    Appukutty, Sona J; Worthington, Tim; Bagwan, Izhar N

    2013-06-01

    Gall bladder malignancy predominantly comprises adenocarcinoma and is found mostly in a late stage whereas primary lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) within the gall bladder is exceedingly rare and has an incidental presentation. We report a case of well differentiated adenocarcinoma with MALT lymphoma of the gall bladder in an 83 year old woman. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a carcinoma and lymphoma occurring simultaneously in the gall bladder.

  12. Association Between Coeliac Disease and Risk of Any Malignancy and Gastrointestinal Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuehua; Chen, Wuzhen; Li, Peiwei; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Coeliac disease (CD) is reported to be associated with risk of malignancy; however, this association remains unclear. We aimed to systematically evaluate the association between CD and risk of all malignancies as well as gastrointestinal (GI) malignancy specifically. The PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched to identify eligible studies from 1960 to March 2015, without restriction. Two reviewers independently performed the study inclusion and data extraction methods. Odds ratios (ORs), risk ratios, or standardized incidence ratios were pooled using either a fixed- or a random-effects model. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were used to explore sources of heterogeneity. A total of 17 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR for risk of all malignancies was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–1.44), whereas the pooled OR for risk of GI malignancy was 1.60 (95% CI 1.39–1.84) and suggested an inverse association with CD. Moreover, patients with CD were at a higher risk of esophageal cancer (pooled OR = 3.72, 95% CI 1.90–7.28) and small intestinal carcinoma (pooled OR = 14.41, 95% CI 5.53–37.60), whereas no significant associations were observed for other GI cancers, including gastric, colorectal, liver, and pancreatic cancers. Subgroup analyses also indicated that the results were influenced by the CD diagnostic method, as well as the follow-up time after CD diagnosis. CD was associated with increased risk of all malignancies as well as GI malignancies, including esophageal cancer and small intestinal carcinoma. PMID:26402826

  13. Malignant transformation in 5071 southern Taiwanese patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral cancers can be preceded by clinically evident oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs). The current study evaluated the rate and the time of malignant transformation in the various OPMDs in a cohort of patients from southern Taiwan. Parameters possibly indicative for malignant transformation of OPMDs, such as epidemiological and etiological factors, and clinical and histopathological features were also described. Methods We followed-up 5071 patients with OPMDs—epithelial dysplasia with oral submucous fibrosis, epithelial dysplasia with hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis/epithelial hyperplasia, oral submucous fibrosis, lichen planus, and verrucous hyperplasia—between 2001 and 2010 for malignant transformation. Results Two hundred nineteen of these 5071 OPMD patients (202 men, 17 women; mean age: 51.25 years; range: 30–81 years) developed oral cancers (179 squamous cell carcinomas; 40 verrucous carcinomas) in the same sites as the initial lesions at least 6 months after their initial biopsies. The overall transformation rate was 4.32% (mean duration of transformation: 33.56 months; range: 6–67 months). Additionally, the mean time of malignant transformation was significantly shorter for lesions with than without epithelial dysplasia. The risk of malignant transformation was 1.89 times higher for epithelially dysplastic than non-dysplastic lesions. The anatomical site of OPMD and the presence of epithelial dysplasia were significantly associated with malignant transformation. The hazard rate ratio was 1.87 times larger for tongue lesions than for buccal lesions. Conclusion Patients with OPMDs require long-term follow up. PMID:25096230

  14. [SENTINEL LYMPH NODES DISSECTION IN GYNECOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Naaman, Yael; Goldenhersh, Limor; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has become an essential part of primary surgical treatment in a number of malignancies including breast cancer, melanoma and head-and-neck malignancies. Dye or radioactive substances are injected at the primary tumor site, followed by pre-operative and intra-operative mapping. During surgery only positive lymph nodes are being dissected instead of a complete dissection of the lymphatic basin. The advantages of sentinel lymph nodes dissection are reducing the side effects of extensive lymph nodes dissection, while maintaining high detection rates and sensitivity in identifying cases with lymphatic tumor spread. In the past years, the use of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has also been incorporated in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In vulvar cancer, it has been shown that sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is correlated with the same survival and recurrence rates as full groin lymph nodes dissection, while substantially lowering complications and especially morbid lymphedema. Preliminary experience in cervical cancer and carcinoma of the endometrium also displays the feasibility and liability of this method. Yet, there are still several controversies regarding the optimal detection method, site of injection and its oncological safety. In this article we present a review of the current literature on this evolving field.

  15. Malignant Clear Cell Hidradenoma of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Reddy, Pavan S; Kallail, K. James

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old female had a mass in the right breast palpable beneath the areola. A mammogram revealed a 1.5-centimeter soft tissue density that was confirmed with a subsequent ultrasound. The patient underwent a core needle biopsy which was initially reported as a moderately differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed negative staining for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2), mammaglobin, and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15). A wide local excision of the mass was performed. The pathology report stated the tumor had an infiltrative growth pattern with a desmoplastic stromal response with enhanced epithelial atypia consistent with malignant transformation of a nodular clear cell hidradenoma. Clear cell hidradenoma is a very rare tumor originating from the sweat gland and has a propensity for the face and extremities. The malignant variant of this tumor is extremely rare and has been reported to originate from the breast in few cases. This case represents the difficulty in diagnosing this tumor along with the radiographic and histologic features that can distinguish this malignancy from other entities. PMID:28409065

  16. [Infection in patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuhua; Cao, Peiguo

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the characters of infection in patients with malignant tumors, especially the distribution, yearly change of pathogens, and pathogen resistance to common antibacterial agents. We respectively analyzed the characters of infection in 489 patients with malignant tumors. The respiratory tract was the most frequent infection site (61.1%). The infection was mainly caused by opportunistic pathogens. The Gram-negative bacterias mainly consisted of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii (46.3%). The Gram-positive bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (29.9%), and the rest 23.8% of the infection was caused by different fungi, mainly consisting of Candida albicans. The ratio of the Gram-negative bacteria resistance to antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins (except ceftazidime), sulfanilamides, tetracyclines and quinolones was higher. The ratio of the Gram-positive bacteria resistance to antibiotics such as penicillins, macrolides and quinolones was higher. The ratio of fungus resistance to antibacterial agents such as fluconazol and itraconazole was higher. The infection caused by fungi obviously increased in the past 5 years. The infection in patients with malignant tumors is mainly caused by opportunistic pathogens, and the pathogen resistance to antibacterial agents is serious. The infection caused by fungi is increasing.

  17. Fertility issues in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Loren, Alison W

    2015-01-01

    An essential component of a cancer patient's comprehensive care is addressing potential threats to his or her reproductive health. Providers should discuss the risk of infertility with newly diagnosed patients and offer the chance to consult with a reproductive specialist as early as possible. Standard fertility preservation options include embryo or oocyte cryopreservation for women and sperm banking for men; all options for pre-pubertal children are experimental. Patients with hematologic malignancies are a distinct population in whom standard options may present special challenges, and alternative management strategies are being explored. Unique approaches in hematologic malignancy patients include experimental techniques, such as hormonal therapy, referrals to reproductive specialists after cancer treatment, or discontinuation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in appropriate chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Importantly, expedited communication between hematologists and reproductive specialists may greatly enhance the quality of care for these patients. Facilitation of referrals will both improve the quality-of-life and expand the prospect of parenthood in survivors. There are ample opportunities to advance the field of oncofertility through additional research, especially in hematologic malignancy patients.

  18. Malignant mental nerve neuropathy: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Galán Gil, Sónnica; Peñarrocha Diago, Maria; Peñarrocha Diago, Miguel

    2008-10-01

    Malignant mental neuropathy (MMN) is a neurological manifestation of cancer, characterized by the presence of hypoesthesia or anesthesia restricted to the territory of the mental branch of the mandibular nerve. A systematic review of the literature has been made on MMN, analyzing the etiology, pathogeny, clinical characteristics, complementary tests and the prognosis. Sixteen studies, providing 136 cases were selected. Breast cancer and lymphomas were the most frequently associated malignant diseases. The most frequent pathogenic mechanisms producing neurological involvement were: peripherally, mandibular lesions; and centrally, tumors at the base of the cranium. Regarding clinical characteristics, manifestation of MMN was the primary symptom of malignant disease in 27.7% of cases, and a first symptom of recurrence in 37.7%. The group of selected studies included 50 orthopantomographs, 9 mandibular computed tomographies and 50 radiographic examinations of the cranial region. The most affected region was the mandible. The appearance of MMN is an ominous prognosis for the progression of the disease, with a mortality of 78.5% within a mean of 6.9 months.

  19. [Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    A, Burgos; R, Kaplan; N, Rodríguez; Meza, Vetanzo; Morelatto, R; Piccinni, D

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm and it is only 0.5% of the malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity, and less than 10% of all the malignant melanomas. The mean age for patients with oral melanoma is from 40 to 70 years; with a higher frequency between the 50 and 60 years. Pigmentation areas are frequently noted before diagnosis of this neoplasm. Some predisposing factors are mechanical traumas resulting from not well adapted prostheses, solar radiation, and chem-icals. Although oral cavity melanomas can remain asymptomatic during a time, the clinical presentations include hemorrhage, ulceration and pain. Melanomas grow fast, generally in a vertical growth phase, with early invasion of bones and lymphatic nodes. The prognosis for patients with melanoma is poor with a 5-year survival rate. The election treatment is surgical. The early diagnosis, the recognition of the lesions for doctors and odontologists, and the biopsy of recent or old pigmentation areas in the mouth that they have some changes (ulceration, bleeding, etc.) will contribute to offer patients a more effective treatment and a higher survival rate. We will present the case study of a 78-year-old male patient with a tumor in the dental ridge surrounded by melanotic spots, which was diagnosed as invasive melanoma and confirmed with immunohistochemical techniques.

  20. [Systemic treatment of inoperable metastasized malignant melanoma].

    PubMed

    Gutzmer, R; Rauschenberg, R; Meier, F

    2016-07-01

    The medical therapy of inoperable malignant melanoma has changed dramatically over the last few years. The purpose of this article is to summarize the current state of systemic medical treatment of malignant melanoma. Clinical studies and guidelines in the therapy of malignant melanoma are reviewed. Medical therapy of inoperable melanoma changed due to developments in immunotherapies (checkpoint inhibitors) and molecular-targeted therapies (BRAF and MEK inhibitors). Checkpoint inhibitors are antibodies administered as infusions every 2-3 weeks, blocking the checkpoints PD-1 or CTLA-4, thus, preventing downregulation of the immune system. BRAF and MEK inhibitors are small molecules, they are given orally and block a certain signaling pathway in tumor cells. The activation of this pathway has to be demonstrated by molecular analysis of tumor tissue first. This strategy is currently registered for 40-50 % of melanomas harboring a BRAF V600 mutation, while the combination of a BRAF plus MEK inhibitor has been proven more efficient than a BRAF inhibitor alone. A fascinating development has started in the melanoma field due to immunotherapeutic and molecular-targeted treatment strategies. The continuation of this development needs further clinical and translational studies. This includes particular clinical studies with the new substances in the adjuvant situation, and sequences and combinations in the metastatic setting. Translational studies are needed to develop biomarkers for response and side effects.

  1. Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Mittal, V K; Bodzin, J H

    1980-09-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon and are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. A 10 year survey (1967 to 1977) of the clinical records at one hospital revealed 39 cases of primary malignant tumors of the small bowel. The most common symptoms were abdominal pain (89.7 percent) and weight loss (77 percent). Six patients presented with complications of enterovesical fistula, bleeding and perforation. Preoperative diagnosis was suspected in 27 cases (69.2 percent). Adenocarcinoma was the most common tumor, followed by carcinoid tumor, lymphoma, leiomyosarcoma and melanoma. The treatment of choice was surgical resection whenever possible. Curative resection was attempted in 25 cases. Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy was used in four patients with lymphoma. Twenty-seven patients (69.2 percent) are alive from 1 to 6 years after diagnosis and treatment. The 5 year survival rate is 35 percent. Earlier diagnosis is essential if the prognosis for patients with small bowel malignancy is to be improved.

  2. Monocyte esterase deficiency in malignant neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Markey, G M; McCormick, J A; Morris, T C; Alexander, H D; Nolan, L; Morgan, L M; Reynolds, M E; Edgar, S; Bell, A L; McCaigue, M D

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency in 4000 inpatients (including 808 with malignant neoplastic disease) and 474 normal controls was performed using an automated esterase method. A highly significant excess of patients with malignant disease and the deficiency was evident when compared with normal controls or all other patients. Within the group of patients with malignant disease the demonstrable excess occurred in B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma, and carcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. There was also a significant excess of patients with the deficiency attending the renal unit, both among patients who had had renal transplants and those who had not. A familial incidence of monocyte esterase deficiency was found in 19 (35%) of first degree relatives of those patients in whom family studies were done. It is suggested that the reason for the increased prevalence of the anomaly in these disorders might be that the diminution of esterase activity has a role in their development. PMID:2341564

  3. Bone resection for facial cutaneous malignancies.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Markus; Ch'ng, Sydney; Shannon, Kerwin; Clifford, Anthony; Ashford, Bruce; Elliott, Michael; Clark, Jonathan R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent bone resection for cutaneous malignancy of the face and scalp. We retrospectively collected patient data from 62 patients who underwent bone resection for craniofacial cutaneous malignancy of the face and scalp over the last 10 years. We investigated risk factors for disease progression and assessed the utility of pre-operative imaging to predict bone, dura, and brain infiltration. Out of all factors analyzed, brain invasion, surgical margin involvement, and dural margin involvement were found to significantly reduce survival. CT and MRI correctly predicted bone infiltration in 88% and 89% of cases. MRI correctly predicted dura invasion in 89% but grossly underestimated the amount of dural invasion in 23% of reports. Our data indicate that the resection of bone is a reasonable surgical option in the treatment of patients with advanced cutaneous malignancies of the face and scalp. Brain invasion and positive margins reduced the probability of survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Giant malignant phyllodes tumour of breast.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan; Savasere, Thejas; Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Babu, Rajashekhara; Shivaswamy, Sadashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    The term phyllodes tumour includes lesions ranging from completely benign tumours to malignant sarcomas. Clinically phyllodes tumours are smooth, rounded, and usually painless multinodular lesions indistinguishable from fibroadenomas. Percentage of phyllodes tumour classified as malignant ranges from 23% to 50%. We report a case of second largest phyllodes tumour in a 35-year-old lady who presented with swelling of right breast since 6 months, initially small in size, that progressed gradually to present size. Examination revealed mass in the right breast measuring 36×32 cms with lobulated firm surface and weighing 10 kgs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was reported as borderline phyllodes; however core biopsy examination showed biphasic neoplasm with malignant stromal component. Simple mastectomy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the core biopsy report. Postoperatively the patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient is on follow-up for a year and has not shown any evidence of metastasis or recurrence.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Panadero, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    There are three major challenges in the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma: mesothelioma must be distinguished from benign mesothelial hyperplasia; malignant mesothelioma (and its subtypes) must be distinguished from metastatic carcinoma; and invasion of structures adjacent to the pleura must be demonstrated. The basis for clarifying the first two aspects is determination of a panel of monoclonal antibodies with appropriate immunohistochemical evaluation performed by highly qualified experts. Clarification of the third aspect requires sufficiently abundant, deep biopsy material, for which thoracoscopy is the technique of choice. Video-assisted needle biopsy with real-time imaging can be of great assistance when there is diffuse nodal thickening and scant or absent effusion. Given the difficulties of reaching an early diagnosis, cure is not generally achieved with radical surgery (pleuropneumonectomy), so liberation of the tumor mass with pleurectomy/decortication combined with chemo- or radiation therapy (multimodal treatment) has been gaining followers in recent years. In cases in which surgery is not feasible, chemotherapy (a combination of pemetrexed and platinum-derived compounds, in most cases) with pleurodesis or a tunneled pleural drainage catheter, if control of pleural effusion is required, can be considered. Radiation therapy is reserved for treatment of pain associated with infiltration of the chest wall or any other neighboring structure. In any case, comprehensive support treatment for pain control in specialist units is essential: this acquires particular significance in this type of malignancy.

  6. The engima of circulating malignant cells.

    PubMed

    PEREZ, F M; YONEMOTO, R H

    1962-09-01

    There is no doubt that cancer cells do enter the circulating blood of persons with malignant lesions. Differentiation of them from other atypical cells found normally in the bloodstream is at present being studied. Investigators have expressed belief that most of the circulating malignant cells in the early stages of the disease are destroyed by host resistance. Surviving cells, however, develop into occult metastatic emboli which may remain quiescent until host defenses collapse. Clinical measures for the active control of these dormant implants have not been evolved as yet. Inasmuch as the mechanism of host resistance is still beyond clinical comprehension, the only known way to improve survival rates is the universal application of practical clinical methods for preventing iatrogenic disseminations, for devitalizing malignant cells and for apprehending emboli that may have left the main lesion just before surgical operation. Since it adequately eradicates primary sources of cell dissemination, conventional radical resection is still the treatment of choice for dealing with early solid neoplasms.

  7. Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Bordi, Cesare; D'Adda, Tiziana; Azzoni, Cinzia; Pizzi, Silvia; Bottarelli, Lorena; Mormandi, Francesca; Antonetti, Tommaso; Luong, Tu Vinh; Rindi, Guido

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols. The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate. Three main categories, one further subdivided into two subgroups, are considered: (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior; (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade. In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized. Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.

  8. Malignant external otitis: early scintigraphic detection

    SciTech Connect

    Strashun, A.M.; Nejatheim, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1984-02-01

    Pseudomonas otitis externa in elderly diabetics may extend aggressively to adjacent bone, cranial nerves, meninges, and vessels, leading to a clinical diagnosis of ''malignant'' external otitis. Early diagnosis is necessary for successful treatment. This study compares the findings of initial radiographs, thin-section tomography of temporal bone, CT scans of head and neck, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for detection of temporal bone osteomylitis in ten patients fulfilling the clinical diagnostic criteria of malignant external otitis. Skull radiographs were negative in all of the eight patients studied. Thin-section tomography was positive in one of the seven patients studied using this modality. CT scanning suggested osteomyelitis in three of nine patients. Both Tc-99m and Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy were positive in 10 of 10 patients. These results suggest that technetium and gallium scintigraphy are more sensitive than radiographs and CT scans for early detection of malignant external otitis.

  9. European Malignant Hyperthermia Group guidelines for investigation of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M; Rüffert, H; Snoeck, M M; Girard, T; Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Müller, C R; Urwyler, A

    2015-10-01

    It is 30 yr since the British Journal of Anaesthesia published the first consensus protocol for the laboratory diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group. This has subsequently been used in more than 10 000 individuals worldwide to inform use of anaesthetic drugs in these patients with increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia during general anaesthesia, representing an early and successful example of stratified medicine. In 2001, our group also published a guideline for the use of DNA-based screening of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. We now present an updated and complete guideline for the diagnostic pathway for patients potentially at increased risk of developing malignant hyperthermia. We introduce the new guideline with a narrative commentary that describes its development, the changes to previously published protocols and guidelines, and new sections, including recommendations for patient referral criteria and clinical interpretation of laboratory findings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Non-asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma. A review

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.T. Jr.; Greenberg, S.D.; Buffler, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is an uncommon, but increasingly important, neoplasm. The existing English-language medical literature concerning non-asbestos-related malignant mesotheliomas was reviewed for evidence of other agents associated with the induction of malignant mesothelioma. Both animal and human data were reviewed. In most reviews of malignant mesothelioma, there are a significant proportion of cases without documented asbestos exposure (range, 0% to 87%). Furthermore, there are several fairly well-documented agents other than asbestos that induce malignant mesothelioma in animals, and strong evidence exists that such is the case in man. In reviews of malignant mesothelioma, the percentage of cases with asbestos exposure varies, but a significant number are apparently not asbestos related. It is believed that sufficient evidence exists to suggest that non-asbestos agents can induce malignant mesotheliomas in man, and additional epidemiologic studies in this area are needed.

  11. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Aoe, Keisuke; Hiraki, Akio; Tanaka, Takehiro; Gemba, Ken-Ichi; Taguchi, Koji; Murakami, Tomoyuki; Sueoka, Naoko; Kamei, Toshiaki; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kazuro; Yoshino, Tadashi; Kishimoto, Takumi

    2006-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural neoplasm. Angiogenesis is an important component of a variety of pathological processes, including carcinogenesis and tumor metastases. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent known endothelial, cell specific mitogen. The authors assessed the relation between VEGF expression and clinicopathological variables or overall survival, in malignant mesothelioma. We studied 37 patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and found that 36 out of 37 (97.3%) malignant mesothelioma samples were stained positively for VEGF. An increased expression of VEGF was observed in the epithelioid type compared with the other histological types of malignant mesothelioma, including the biphasic and sarcomatoid types. No statistically significant association was observed between VEGF expression and gender, age, or clinical stage. Furthermore, the expression of VEGF did not impact on the survival of patients with malignant mesothelioma. Although VEGF expression might be important for tumor development and maintenance, it was not identified as a prognostic factor in malignant mesothelioma.

  12. Dynamic infrared imaging for the detection of malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Terry M.; Li, Haifang; Fisher, Paul; Rosenblatt, Ruth; Dulaimy, Khaldoon; Li, Song; O'Hea, Brian; Salvitti, Mathew; Geronimo, Veronica; Geronimo, Christine; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Carvelli, Paola; Weiss, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The potential for malignancy detection using dynamic infrared imaging (DIRI) has been investigated in an animal model of human malignancy. Malignancy was apparent in images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of tumour bearing mice. The observation of malignancy was removed by the administration of an agent that blocks vasodilation caused by nitric oxide (NO). Image patterns similar to those that characterize malignancy could be mimicked in normal mice using an NO producing agent. Apparently DIRI allows for cancer detection in this model through vasodilation caused by malignancy generated NO. Dynamic infrared detection of vasomotor and cardiogenic surface perfusion was validated in human subjects by a comparison with laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Dynamic infrared imaging technology was then applied to breast cancer detection. It is shown that dynamic infrared images formed at the vasomotor and cardiogenic frequencies of the normal and malignant breast have image pattern differences, which may allow for breast cancer detection.

  13. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment. PMID:23140511

  14. Malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis: a malignancy associated with recurrent epididymitis?

    PubMed

    Yen, Ching-Heng; Lee, Chun-Te; Su, Chung-Jen; Lo, Hua-Cheng

    2012-11-09

    A 53-year-old Taiwanese male had several episodes of left epididymitis with hydrocele refractory to antibiotic treatment. Partial epididymectomy plus preventive vasectomy were planned, and, incidentally, an ill-defined nodule was found lying on the tunica vaginalis near the epididymal head. The pathological diagnosis was malignant mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis testis. Radical orchiectomy with wide excision of the hemi-scrotal wall was performed. So far, there is no evidence of recurrence after more than 3 years of follow-up. Malignant tumor should be considered in the case of recurrent epididymitis refractory to empirically effective antibiotic treatment. Although the nature of this tumor is highly fatal, the malignancy can possibly be cured by early and aggressive surgical treatment.

  15. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Fabian; Grotzer, Michael A; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.

  16. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grotzer, Michael A.; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. PMID:27524931

  17. Cause-Specific Mortality Due to Malignant and Non-Malignant Disease in Korean Foundry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Ahn, Yeon-Soon

    2014-01-01

    Background Foundry work is associated with serious occupational hazards. Although several studies have investigated the health risks associated with foundry work, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with the exception of an increased lung cancer risk. The current study evaluated the mortality of Korean foundry workers due to malignant and non-malignant diseases. Methods This study is part of an ongoing investigation of Korean foundry workers. To date, we have observed more than 150,000 person-years in male foundry production workers. In the current study, we stratified mortality ratios by the following job categories: melting-pouring, molding-coremaking, fettling, and uncategorized production work. We calculated standard mortality ratios (SMR) of foundry workers compare to general Korean men and relative risk (RR) of mortality of foundry production workers reference to non-production worker, respectively. Results Korean foundry production workers had a significantly higher risk of mortality due to malignant disease, including stomach (RR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.41–11.06) and lung cancer (RR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.01–4.30), compared with non-production workers. High mortality ratios were also observed for non-malignant diseases, including diseases of the circulatory (RR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.18–3.14), respiratory (RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.52–21.42 for uncategorized production worker), and digestive (RR: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.22–4.24) systems, as well as for injuries (RR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.52–3.66) including suicide (RR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.32–10.01). Conclusion This study suggests that foundry production work significantly increases the risk of mortality due to some kinds of malignant and non-malignant diseases compared with non-production work. PMID:24505454

  18. The IASLC/ITMIG thymic malignancies staging project: development of a stage classification for thymic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Detterbeck, Frank C; Asamura, Hisao; Crowley, John; Falkson, Conrad; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Giroux, Dori; Huang, James; Kim, Jhingook; Kondo, Kazuya; Lucchi, Marco; Marino, Mirella; Marom, Edith M; Nicholson, Andrew; Okumura, Meinoshin; Ruffini, Enrico; van Schil, Paul; Stratton, Kelly

    2013-12-01

    The lack of an official-stage classification system for thymic malignancies is an issue that hampers progress in this rare disease. A collaborative effort by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer and the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group is underway to develop proposals for such a system. A database of more than 10,000 cases worldwide has been assembled to provide a solid basis for analysis. This report outlines the structure of the effort and the process that has been designed.

  19. Malignant Catatonia and Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome in Relation to Disulfiram Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kiran K.; Bondade, Swapna; Sattar, Fiaz Ahmed; Singh, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Disulfiram is a widely used drug in the management of alcohol dependence syndrome as an aversive agent. Although a drug of high efficacy, it has a large number of side effects. Disulfiram-induced catatonia is a known rare side effect of the drug and herein we report a case of what appeared to be the sequential development of malignant catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a patient with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome and co-morbid paranoid schizophrenia following disulfiram overdose. Clinicians need to be vigilant on the emergence of such rare side effects. PMID:27570348

  20. Synchronous double malignancy: adenocarcinoma of lung and malignant astrocytoma induced by asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Hashimoto, H; Ono, T; Okada, K

    1992-01-01

    A 54-year-old male died of cerebellar herniation induced by brain tumor. Radiological examination of this case showed two separate tumorous lesions in the brain and lung. Autopsy proved malignant astrocytoma in the brain and coincidental alveolar cell carcinoma in the lung. He had a history of asbestos exposure for 8 years doing piping work in a shipyard. Furthermore, we detected a large number of asbestos bodies in the lung and one asbestos body in the brain. Therefore, this rare case of double cancer (malignant astrocytoma and lung cancer) might have been induced by asbestos exposure.

  1. Surgery in (pre)malignant celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Jolanda MW; Nijeboer, Petula; de Baaij, Laura R; Zegers, Jessy; Bouma, Gerd; Visser, Otto J; van der Peet, Donald L; Mulder, Chris JJ; Meijerink, Wilhelmus JHJ

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To report the outcome of surgery in patients with (pre)malignant conditions of celiac disease (CD) and the impact on survival. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with (pre)malignant conditions of CD, ulcerative jejunitis (n = 5) and enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) (n = 35), who underwent surgery between 2002 and 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Data on indications, operative procedure, post-operative morbidity and mortality, adjuvant therapy and overall survival (OS) were collected. Eleven patients with EATL who underwent chemotherapy without resection were included as a control group for survival analysis. Patients were followed-up every three months during the first year and at 6-mo intervals thereafter. RESULTS: Mean age at resection was 62 years. The majority of patients (63%) underwent elective laparotomy. Functional stenosis (n = 13) and perforation (n = 12) were the major indications for surgery. In 70% of patients radical resection was performed. Early postoperative complications, mainly due to leakage or sepsis, occurred in 14/40 (35%) of patients. Eight patients required reoperation. More patients who underwent resection in the acute setting (n = 3, 20%) died compared to patients treated in the elective setting. With a median follow-up of 20 mo, seven patients (18%) required reoperation due to long-term complications. Significantly more patients who underwent acute surgery could not be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who first underwent surgical resection showed significantly better OS than patients who received chemotherapy without resection. CONCLUSION: Although the complication rate is high, the preferred first step of treatment in (pre)malignant CD consists of local resection as early as possible to improve survival. PMID:26604647

  2. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area.

  3. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  4. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  5. [Risks factors for pediatric malignant liver tumors].

    PubMed

    Ferrís I Tortajada, J; Ortega García, J A; Garcia I Castell, J; López Andreu, J A; Ribes Koninckx, C; Berbel Tornero, O

    2008-04-01

    Pediatric Hepatic Malignancies (PHMs) are the result of the interaction between constitutional and environmental risk factors (RFs). We review the evidence on the main RFs associated to PHMs. Systematic review of the literature published in the last 25 years on Medline, Embase, Cancerlit, Lilacs and SciElo using the following key words: "etiology/risk factor/epidemiology" and "malignant liver tumors/hepatic cancer" or "hepatoblastoma/hepatocarcionoma". PHMs account for 1 % of all pediatric malignancies. The main types, hepatoblastoma (HB) and hepatocarcionma (HCC) make up 98-99 % of PHM. The main constitutional RFs are: a) Beckwith-Wiedemann (BW) syndrome; b) isolated hemihyperplasia syndrome (IHS); c) adenomatous polyps of the colon; d) hemochromatosis; e) Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1; f) a -1-antitrypsin deficiency; g) porphyrias; h) cirrhosis; i) nonalcoholic steatosis; and j) primary sclerosing cholangitis. The main environmental RFs are: a) hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV); b) B1 aflatoxin (B1AF); c) ionizing radiation; d) alcohol; e) hormonal treatments; f) occupational exposure to pesticides, solvents, vinyl chloride and metals; g) smoking; h) arsenic; i) prematury and very low birth weight; and j) trematodes. The clinical, analytical and ultrasound screening facilitate the early diagnosis of HB in the previously mentioned genetic syndromes, particularly BW and IHS during the first years of life. HBV universal vaccination of newborns provides the biggest opportunity to prevent a substantial proportion of PHMs. Also systematic monitoring of HBV and HCV in blood, hemoderivates, donated organs and drug addicts, are very useful. Other effective measures are: the reduction/elimination of B(1)AF in food, zero alcohol intake during childhood and adolescence as well decreasing prenatal exposure to the tobacco, solvents, pesticides, vinyl chloride, metals, ionizing radiation and hormonal treatments.

  6. [Primary Malignant Cardiac Tumors: Surgical results].

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Joana; Antunes, Pedro Engrácia; Carvalho, Lina; Antunes, Manuel Jesus

    2016-04-01

    To characterize primary malignant cardiac tumors operated on in our center and to analyze patient survival. Between January 1994 and August 2014, 123 patients with cardiac tumors underwent surgery, of which 12 (9.8%) were primary malignant tumors - eight sarcomas (67%), three B-cell lymphomas (25%) and one epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (8.3%). The tumor affected the left atrium in five cases (42%), the right atrium in four (33%), the right ventricle in two (17%) and the pulmonary valve in one (8%). Patients' mean age was 55.4 ± 16.9 years, 67% were female and 75% presented in New York Heart Association class III-IV. Resection was complete (negative margins) in five cases and partial in seven (five sarcomas and two lymphomas), and 11 patients needed adjuvant therapy, surgery alone being curative in only one (epithelioid hemangioendothelioma). Mean follow-up was 41.7 ± 61.3 months: 24.8 ± 30.0 months (3.8-95.7) for sarcomas, 70.1 ± 118.0 months (1-206.3) for lymphomas and 91.9 months for the epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. During follow-up, 10 patients died (83%) and two were alive (17%). Overall survival at 30 days, six months, one year and two years was 91.7%, 66.7%, 58.3% and 41.7%, respectively. In the sarcoma group, 1-year and 2-year survival were 62.5% and 37.5%, respectively. Resection of primary malignant cardiac tumors, even partial, is safe, provides relief of obstructive symptoms and improves quality of life, but is rarely curative and has a low survival rate. Due to the rarity of such tumors, a multicenter database could improve knowledge and help clarify the indications for cardiac surgery as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Adoptive cell transfer therapy for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Eiichi; Takano, Shingo; Ohno, Tadao; Tsuboi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To date, various adoptive immunotherapies have been attempted for treatment of malignant gliomas using nonspecific and/or specific effector cells. Since the late 1980s, with the development of rIL-2, the efficacy of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell therapy with or without rIL-2 for malignant gliomas had been tested with some modifications in therapeutic protocols. With advancements in technology, ex vivo expanded tumor specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) or those lineages were used in clinical trials with higher tumor response rates. In addition, combinations of those adoptive cell transfer using LAK cells, CTLs or natural killer (NK) cells with autologous tumor vaccine (ATV) therapy were attempted. Also, a strategy of high-dose (or lymphodepleting) chemotherapy followed by adoptive cell transfer has been drawing attentions recently. The most important role of these clinical studies using cell therapy was to prove that these ex vivo expanded effector cells could kill tumor cells in vivo. Although recent clinical results could demonstrate radiologic tumor shrinkage in a number of cases, cell transfer therapy alone has been utilized less frequently, because of the high cost of ex vivo cell expansion, the short duration of antitumor activity in vivo, and the recent shift of interest to vaccine immunotherapy. Nevertheless, NK cell therapy using specific feeder cells or allergenic NK cell lines have potentials to be a good choice of treatment because of easy ex vivo expansion and their efficacy especially when combined with vaccine therapy as they are complementary to each other. Also, further studies are expected to clarify the efficacy of the high-dose chemotherapy followed by a large scale cell transfer therapy as a new therapeutic strategy for malignant gliomas.

  8. Diagnosis of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia with flanking DNA markers.

    PubMed Central

    Healy, S J; Heffron, J J; Lehane, M; Bradley, D G; Johnson, K; McCarthy, T V

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To define the region on human chromosome 19 carrying the gene for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and to evaluate the use of flanking DNA markers in diagnosing susceptibility. DESIGN--Prospective molecular genetic linkage studies in a large malignant hyperthermia pedigree. SETTING--Irish malignant hyperthermia testing centre. SUBJECTS--A large Irish malignant hyperthermia pedigree. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Routine diagnosis of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia with in vitro contracture test on muscle biopsy specimens and genetic linkage between susceptibility and polymorphic DNA markers in a malignant hyperthermia family. RESULTS--Genetic typing of polymorphic DNA markers in a large Irish malignant hyperthermia pedigree generated a lod score of greater than 3 for the marker D19S9 and showed that the gene for susceptibility is flanked by the markers D19S9 and D19S16. These tightly linked flanking markers allowed non-invasive presymptomatic diagnosis of susceptibility in five untested subjects in the large pedigree with an accuracy of greater than 99.7%. CONCLUSIONS--DNA markers flanking the gene for susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia can be used with high accuracy to diagnose susceptibility in subjects in large known malignant hyperthermia pedigrees and may replace the previous in vitro contracture test for diagnosing this inherited disorder in large families with malignant hyperthermia. PMID:1684123

  9. Molecular targeting in childhood malignancies using nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, Noriko; Barisone, Gustavo; Diaz, Elva; Nitin, Nitin; Nolta, Jan; Lam, Kit

    2012-06-01

    The goal of our project is to develop a new therapy for childhood malignancies using nanoformulated siRNA targeting Mxd3, a molecule in the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway, which we believe is important for cell survival. We plan to use cancer-specific ligands and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO NPs) to carry siRNA. This delivery system will be tested in mouse xenograft models that we developed with primary cancer tissues. Our current focus is acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common cancer in children. We report our progress to date.

  10. [Oral complications of chemotherapy of malignant neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Obralić, N; Tahmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Beslija, S

    1999-01-01

    Function and integrity disorders of the oral cavity fall into the most frequent complication of the chemotherapy of leucemias, malignant lymphomas and solid tumors. Complications associated with cancer chemotherapy can be direct ones, resulting from the toxic action of antineoplastic agents on the proliferative lining of the mouth, or indirect, as a result of myelosuppression and immunosuppression. The most frequent oral complications associated with cancer chemotherapy are mucositis, infection and bleeding. The principles of prevention and management of oral complications during cancer chemotherapy are considered in this paper.

  11. Bronchoscopic management of malignant airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick D; Kennedy, Marcus P

    2014-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with lung cancer will develop airway obstruction and many cancers lead to airway obstruction through meta stases. The treatment of malignant airway obstruction is often a multimodality approach and is usually performed for palliation of symptoms in advanced lung cancer. Removal of airway obstruction is associated with improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and lung function. Patient selection should exclude patients with short life expectancy, limited symptoms, and an inability to visualize beyond the obstruction. This review outlines both the immediate and delayed bronchoscopic effect options for the removal of airway obstruction and preservation of airway patency with endobronchial stenting.

  12. Toward automated detection of malignant melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Billy; Gareau, Daniel S.

    2009-02-01

    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy shows promise for the early detection of malignant melanoma (MM). Two hallmarks of MM have been identified: the presence of pagetoid melanocytes in the epidermis and the breakdown of the dermal papillae. For detection of MM, these features must be identified qualitatively by the clinician and qualitatively through automated pattern recognition. A machine vision algorithm was developed for automated detection. The algorithm detected pagetoid melanocytes and breakdown of the dermal/epidermal junction in a pre-selected set of five MMs and five benign nevi for correct diagnosis.

  13. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in a burn patient.

    PubMed

    Still, J; Friedman, B; Law, E; Deppe, S; Epperly, N; Orlet, H

    1998-09-01

    A 39 year old white male with a 55% total body surface burn who developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during his acute course is reported. The patient had several acute sinusitis and septic episodes during his acute course. On postburn day 31, he developed a temperature of 108.4 degrees F (42.4 degrees C). This responded promptly to Dantrolene and Bromocriptene. His recovery was uneventful. NMS is a drug-related response to various medications, such as Haloperidol, which the patient was receiving. NMS must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of fever in burn patients receiving medication known to cause the syndrome.

  14. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria.

    PubMed

    Samaila, Modupeola Omotara

    2009-01-01

    The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. An eight year (2000-2007) consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumours were characterised histologically into tissues of origin and categorised into three age groups; <1 year, 1-5 years and 6-15 years. 189 children with malignant tumours were analysed. They showed a male preponderance (M: F; 1.2: 1.0) and their ages ranged from 5 days to 15 years. Tumours of mesenchymal origin were the commonest (115: 60.8%) while epithelial tumours including germ cell tumours accounted for 74 (39.2%) cases. The age group 1-5 years had the highest epithelial tumours while age group 6-15 years had the most tumours with 102 (54%) cases overall. The five commonest tumours over-all were rhabdomyosarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and nephroblastoma. Germ cell tumours affected the ovary predominantly and two of the endodermal sinus tumour cases were seen in the testis of an eighteen month child and sacrococcygeum of a 5 year old girl, respectively. Of the six immature teratoma cases, four were cutaneous in distribution. The vascular tumours included epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, haemangioblastoma and Dabska tumour and they accounted for (5.8%) of all tumours seen. The commonest sites of occurrence of these tumours were the oculo-orbital, jaw, head and neck regions with 82 cases (43.4%) while lymph nodes were involved in 31 (16.4%) cases. The distribution and occurrence of malignant tumours in children is age related. Lymphomas were the commonest tumours overall while retinoblastoma and Burkitt lymphoma were the commonest tumours affecting children below 5 years and 6-10 years

  15. [Malignant thymoma associated with severe aplastic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Escobosa Sánchez, O M; Herrero Hernández, A; Acha García, T

    2009-01-01

    Malignant thymoma is a very rare neoplasm in paediatric patients; it is usually associated with para-neoplastic syndromes, the most frequent is myasthenia gravis; some haematological abnormalities may also be present, such as pure red cell aplasia or aplastic anaemia. We report a 12-year-old boy suffering from a very large thymoma, treated with multiple chemotherapy, and who developed a severe aplastic anaemia after surgery. He had a poor response to immunosuppressive treatment and later developed massive pulmonary bleeding as a complication.

  16. Radiation therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, K E; Giraud, P

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma with radiation has always been a technical challenge. For many years, conventional radiation therapy was delivered after extrapleural pneumonectomy with acceptable results. Novel radiation treatment techniques, such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were introduced, but the early experience with IMRT demonstrated troubling toxicity. Recent reports from institutions have demonstrated that with greater experience, IMRT, both in the setting of extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy, can be delivered safely. A recent study, SAKK 17/04, questions the role of using radiation after extrapleural pneumonectomy.

  17. Cutaneous aspergillosis in patients with haematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, D; Pagano, L; Girmenia, C; Parruti, G; Mele, L; Candoni, A; Ricci, P; Martino, P

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate skin infections caused by Aspergillus in patients with haematological malignancies. Fifteen cases of cutaneous aspergillosis are reported, 12 of which occurred among 4448 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia. Cutaneous involvement occurred in 4% of patients with documented Aspergillus infection. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis was diagnosed in five cases. Infection was fatal in 11 of 15 cases; the absence of additional sites of infection other than cutis at presentation appeared to be the only factor related to a favourable outcome.

  18. Breast feeding and childhood hematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, A K; Mishra, L; Bakhshi, Sameer; Arya, L S

    2004-05-01

    Breast milk is known to have anti-infective and immunomodulating effects on infants, but its association with childhood cancer has not been well studied. Artificial feeding may affect the immune response in carcinogenesis. In this communication the authors have reviewed different articles describing the association between breast feeding (BF) and subsequent development of childhood hematological malignancy. It appears that BF may have a protective effect on childhood cancer, both the duration of BF as well as the quantity of milk ingested is probably critical to the beneficial immunological effects of BF against childhood cancer if any.

  19. Chemotherapy in advanced malignant diseases in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Talib, Hussein

    1971-01-01

    This work discusses the experience of one surgical team in the Third Surgical Unit at the Republican Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, from 1967 to 1970. 112 patients with advanced malignant lesions in various parts of the body were dealt with. In 84, the intra-arterial route was adopted; in the remaining, systemic administration of cytotoxic agents either singly or in combination was employed. The results are reported in terms of subjective and objective response, and the various complications are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5137574

  20. Non-asbestos-related malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Asiye; Ozer Simsek, Zuhal; Tutar, Nuri; Yılmaz, Insu; Buyukoglan, Hakan; Canoz, Ozlem; Demir, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an uncommon tumor derived from mesothelial lining cells. MPM has been described as an insidious neoplasm because of its long latency period. The tumor is typically found in patients several decades after asbestos exposure. We herein describe a 26-year-old patient with MPM who presented with pleural effusion. The patient had not been exposed to asbestos or erionite. There are few case reports of non-asbestos-related MPM in young patients. We report this case to remind physicians to consider MPM in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion in young patients without exposure to asbestos or erionitis.