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Sample records for malignant human prostate

  1. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Michael T.; Yu, Evan Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR) has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types. PMID:28085048

  2. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Michael T; Yu, Evan Y

    2017-01-11

    In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR) has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types.

  3. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun; Kim, Kee-Hong; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Chu, Wei-Sing; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv; Ewing, Charles M.; Isaacs, William B.; Rhim, Johng S. . E-mail: jrhim@cpdr.org

    2006-04-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferative capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  4. Influence of zinc deficiency on AKT-MDM2-P53 signaling axes in normal and malignant human prostate cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With prostate being the highest zinc-accumulating tissue before the onset of cancer, the effects of physiologic levels of zinc on Akt-Mdm2-p53 and Akt-p21 signaling axes in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and malignant prostate LNCaP cells were examined. Cells were cultured for 6 d in...

  5. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate.

    PubMed

    Doublali, M; Chouaib, A; Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; El Fassi, M J; Farih, My H; Elfatmi, H; Bendahou, M; Benlemlih, A; Lamarti, O

    2010-05-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

  6. Frequency analysis of multispectral photoacoustic images for differentiating malignant region from normal region in excised human prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Saugata; Rao, Navalgund A.; Valluru, Keerthi S.; Chinni, Bhargava K.; Dogra, Vikram S.; Helguera, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Frequency domain analysis of the photoacoustic (PA) radio frequency signals can potentially be used as a tool for characterizing microstructure of absorbers in tissue. This study investigates the feasibility of analyzing the spectrum of multiwavelength PA signals generated by excised human prostate tissue samples to differentiate between malignant and normal prostate regions. Photoacoustic imaging at five different wavelengths, corresponding to peak absorption coefficients of deoxyhemoglobin, whole blood, oxyhemoglobin, water and lipid in the near infrared (NIR) (700 nm - 1000 nm) region, was performed on freshly excised prostate specimens taken from patients undergoing prostatectomy for biopsy confirmed prostate cancer. The PA images were co-registered with the histopathology images of the prostate specimens to determine the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to malignant and normal tissue. The calibrated power spectrum of each PA signal from a selected ROI was fit to a linear model to extract the corresponding slope, midband fit and intercept parameters. The mean value of each parameter corresponding to malignant and adjacent normal prostate ROI was calculated for each of the five wavelengths. The results obtained for 9 different human prostate specimens, show that the mean values of midband fit and intercept are significantly different between malignant and normal regions. In addition, the average midband fit and intercept values show a decreasing trend with increasing wavelength. These preliminary results suggest that frequency analysis of multispectral PA signals can be used to differentiate malignant region from the adjacent normal region in human prostate tissue.

  7. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Doublali, M.; Chouaib, A.; Khallouk, A.; Tazi, M. F.; El Fassi, M. J.; Farih, My. H.; Elfatmi, H.; Bendahou, M.; Benlemlih, A.; Lamarti, O.

    2010-01-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate. PMID:20882159

  8. Cellular distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 in benign and malignant human prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Reinicke, Karin; Sotomayor, Paula; Cisterna, Pedro; Delgado, Carolina; Nualart, Francisco; Godoy, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    Over-expression of hexose transporters (Gluts), specifically Glut-1, is a common event in human malignancies. In prostate cancer (CaP), however, expression of Gluts has been characterized poorly. In this study, expression and distribution of Glut-1 and Glut-5 proteins were characterized using immunohistochemistry in 76 specimens of benign prostate, 10 specimens of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and 28 specimens of CaP. In addition, mRNA expression of Glut-2, Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 was analyzed in a set of five specimens of benign prostate and CaP. In benign prostate, Glut-1 localized to the basal cells and to the basolateral membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of secretory/luminal epithelial cells. In HGPIN, Glut-1 was immunohistochemically undetectable. Glut-5, however, localized to the apical membrane of the neoplastic epithelial cells. In CaP, Glut-1 and Glut-5, were immunohistochemically undetectable. However, over-expression of GLUT1 was observed in some specimens of highly proliferative intraductal CaP. Glut-7, Glut-9, and Glut-11 mRNAs were detected in benign prostate and CaP, however, only Glut-11 mRNA was consistently up-regulated in CaP compared to benign prostate. Low levels of expression of Glut-1 protein in the majority of CaP could explain, at least in part, the limited clinical applicability of positron emission tomography using 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose for imaging CaP. Moreover, expression of Glut-5 in HGPIN suggested that fructose could be utilized as potential metabolic substrate in HGPIN. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation/dysregulation of Gluts in CaP could provide insight in the understanding of hexose metabolism in CaP.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- gamma expression in human malignant and normal brain, breast and prostate-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, J O; Robbins, M E

    2001-01-01

    The constitutive and gamma -linolenic acid (GLA)-induced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) immunoreactive protein in a panel of human malignant brain (U87MG, T98G); breast (MCF-7, MB MDA-231, MB MDA 435) and prostate (ALVA, DU-145, LNCaP, PC3) cell lines have been compared with those for their normal cell counterparts, the human normal astrocyte (NHA), mammary epithelial (HMEC) and prostate epithelial (PrEC) cells, respectively. Constitutive levels of expression for PPAR gamma protein were significantly higher in the malignant cell lines relative to their normal cells. GLA supplementation did not affect the protein expression in malignant cells but caused 6- and 3-fold increases in normal breast and prostate cells, respectively. Since activation of PPAR gamma protein in some human malignant cell lines has been demonstrated to induce tumour cell death, these findings signal the need to exploit the significantly elevated expression of this protein in the therapy of human cancer. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  10. Role of androgen and vitamin D receptors in endothelial cells from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ivy; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Buttyan, Ralph; Johnson, Candace S.; Smith, Gary J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years ago, Judah Folkman (Folkman. N Engl J Med 285: 1182–1186, 1971) proposed that tumor growth might be controlled by limiting formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) needed to supply a growing tumor with oxygen and nutrients. To this end, numerous “antiangiogenic” agents have been developed and tested for therapeutic efficacy in cancer patients, including prostate cancer (CaP) patients, with limited success. Despite the lack of clinical efficacy of lead anti-angiogenic therapeutics in CaP patients, recent published evidence continues to support the idea that prostate tumor vasculature provides a reasonable target for development of new therapeutics. Particularly relevant to antiangiogenic therapies targeted to the prostate is the observation that specific hormones can affect the survival and vascular function of prostate endothelial cells within normal and malignant prostate tissues. Here, we review the evidence demonstrating that both androgen(s) and vitamin D significantly impact the growth and survival of endothelial cells residing within prostate cancer and that systemic changes in circulating androgen or vitamin D drastically affect blood flow and vascularity of prostate tissue. Furthermore, recent evidence will be discussed about the expression of the receptors for both androgen and vitamin D in prostate endothelial cells that argues for direct effects of these hormone-activated receptors on the biology of endothelial cells. Based on this literature, we propose that prostate tumor vasculature represents an unexplored target for modulation of tumor growth. A better understanding of androgen and vitamin D effects on prostate endothelial cells will support development of more effective angiogenesis-targeting therapeutics for CaP patients. PMID:23548616

  11. Telomerase-immortalized non-malignant human prostate epithelial cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongzhen; Zhou Jianjun; Miki, Jun; Furusato, Bungo; Gu Yongpeng; Srivastava, Shiv; McLeod, David G.; Vogel, Jonathan C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding prostate stem cells may provide insight into the origin of prostate cancer. Primary cells have been cultured from human prostate tissue but they usually survive only 15-20 population doublings before undergoing senescence. We report here that RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells, a clonal cell line from hTERT-immortalized primary non-malignant tissue-derived human prostate epithelial cell line (RC170N/h), retain multipotent stem cell properties. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells expressed a human embryonic stem cell marker, Oct-4, and potential prostate epithelial stem cell markers, CD133, integrin {alpha}2{beta}1{sup hi} and CD44. The RC-170N/h/clone 7 cells proliferated in KGM and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 5 {mu}g/ml insulin (DMEM + 10% FBS + Ins.) medium, and differentiated into epithelial stem cells that expressed epithelial cell markers, including CK5/14, CD44, p63 and cytokeratin 18 (CK18); as well as the mesenchymal cell markers, vimentin, desmin; the neuron and neuroendocrine cell marker, chromogranin A. Furthermore the RC170 N/h/clone 7 cells differentiated into multi tissues when transplanted into the sub-renal capsule and subcutaneously of NOD-SCID mice. The results indicate that RC170N/h/clone 7 cells retain the properties of multipotent stem cells and will be useful as a novel cell model for studying the mechanisms of human prostate stem cell differentiation and transformation.

  12. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces malignant transformation of the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Isabel Arenas, M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2010-12-18

    The carcinogenic potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was analyzed in non-tumor human prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and in vivo xenografts. VIP induced morphological changes and a migratory phenotype consistent with stimulation of expression/activity of metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, decreased E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, and increased cell motility. VIP increased cyclin D1 expression and cell proliferation that was blocked after VPAC(1)-receptor siRNA transfection. Similar effects were seen in RWPE-1 tumors developed by subcutaneous injection of VIP-treated cells in athymic nude mice. VIP acts as a cytokine in RWPE-1 cell transformation conceivably through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), reinforcing VIP role in prostate tumorigenesis.

  14. Differential expression of metallothioneins (MTs) 1, 2, and 3 in response to zinc treatment in human prostate normal and malignant cells and tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Lin, Shufei; Xiao, Dakai; Franklin, Renty B; Feng, Pei

    2008-01-01

    Background The disturbance of zinc homeostasis featured with a significant decrease of cellular zinc level was well documented to associate with the development and progression of human prostate malignancy. We have previously reported that zinc treatment induces prostate malignant cell apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Metallothionein (MT) is a major receptor/donor of zinc in the cells. However, the studies on the expression of MT in association with the prostate pathological and malignant status are very limited, and the zinc regulation of MT isoform expression in prostate cells remains elusive. The goals of this study were to define the expression of endogenous MTs, the isoforms of MT 1, 2, 3 at both messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels; and to investigate the zinc effect on MT expression in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignant PC-3 cells, and in relevant human tissues. Cellular MT proteins were detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and Western blot analysis; reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the MT isoform-specific mRNAs. Results Our results demonstrated a significant suppression of endogenous levels of MT1/2 in malignant PC-3 cells (95% reduction compared to the normal prostate cells) and in human adenocarcinoma tissues (73% MT1/2 negative). A moderate reduction of MT1/2 expression was observed in BPH. Zinc treatment remarkably induced MT1/2 expression in PC-3 and BPH cells, which was accordant with the restored cellular zinc level. MT 3, as a growth inhibitory factor, was detected and up-regulated by zinc mainly in BPH cells. Conclusion This study provided evidence of the association of attenuated MT1/2 with prostate tumor progression, and the zinc induction of MT1/2 expression resulting in cellular zinc restoration. The results suggest the potential of MT1/2 as a candidate biomarker for prostate cancer and the utilization of zinc in prostate

  15. Evaluation of discoidin domain receptor-2 (DDR2) expression level in normal, benign, and malignant human prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Azemikhah, Mitra; Ashtiani, Hamidreza Ahmadi; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Rastegar, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) is a new member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. There are two isoforms of discoidin domain receptor (DDR), DDR1 and DDR2. These receptors play a major role in the adhesion, motility and cell proliferation. Due to the important role of DDR2 in the development of tumor extension, this receptor is pivotal in the field of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA and protein expression of DDR2, in the malignant, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal tissues of patients with prostate cancer. In this study the gene and protein expression of DDR2 in adjacent normal (n=40), BPH (n=40), and malignant (n=40) prostate tissue were measured using real-time PCR and Western blotting. Then, the correlation of DDR2 gene and protein expression with prognostic factors such as age, tumor grade, tumor stage, lymph node involvement, and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration were evaluated. The relative mRNA and protein expression level of DDR2 in malignant and benign prostate tissue was significantly higher than those of adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). This expression was found to increase approximately 3.5 and 2.1 fold for mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Spearman test indicated a significant correlation between DDR2 mRNA and protein expression with prognostic factors such as tumor grade, stage, lymph node involvement, and serum PSA concentration. However, significant correlation with age was not observed. These findings suggest that DDR2 is a cancer-related gene associated with the aggressive progression of prostate cancer patients.

  16. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Lee, J H; Nam, J H; Lee, M C; Park, C S; Juhng, S W; Ro, J Y; Choi, C

    1999-12-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the prostate is rare. We have recently experienced a case of phyllodes tumor of the prostate in a 57-year-old man who complained of urinary retention for 1 year. The epithelial components were positive reactivity for prostate specific antigen. The stromal cells showed nuclear atypia with increased mitotic activity. The tumor was diagnosed as a malignant phyllodes tumor as it invaded into the urinary bladder and rectum, and grew rapidly immediately after operation. We describe the morphological features and immunohistochemical findings of malignant phyllodes tumor and review the literature.

  17. Expression of the SIBLINGs and their MMP partners in human benign and malignant prostate neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Anunobi, Charles C.; Koli, Komal; Saxena, Geetu; Banjo, Adekunbiola A.; Ogbureke, Kalu U.E.

    2016-01-01

    The small integrin binding ligands n-linked glycoproteins (SIBLINGs) have emerged as potential diagnostic and prognostic indices, and as key targets, in cancer therapy. Three members of the SIBLING family: bone sialoprotein (BSP); osteopontin (OPN); and dentin matrix protein1 (DMP1), bind and interact with specific matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs): BSP-MMP2; OPN-MMP3; DMP1-MMP9, in biochemical and biologic systems. The other two family members are dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE). The specific SIBLING-MMP pairing reported in some cancers have not been reported in prostate neoplasms. In this study, we investigated SIBLING-MMP expression and potential interaction in prostate neoplasms. Chi square analysis of immunohistochemistry results showed significant upregulation of OPN (X2=25.710/p<0.001), BSP (X2=19.546/p<0.001), and DSPP (X2=8.720/p=0.003) in prostate adenocarcinoma (pAdC). MEPE was significantly upregulated in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH; X2=44.153/p<0.001). There were no significant differences in MMP expression between BPH and pAdC. Western blot analysis showed significantly elevated BSP and DSPP in prostate cancer-derived cells. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed BSP-MMP2, OPN-MMP3, and DMP1-MMP9 coexpression in two cancer-derived cell lines, whereas in situ proximity ligation assays confirmed potential BSP-MMP2, OPN-MMP3, and DMP1-MMP9 interactions in BPH and pAdC. Our reports provide evidence that SIBLING-MMP interaction may play a role in the progression of BPH to pAdC. PMID:27331624

  18. Selective apoptosis induction by the cancer chemopreventive agent N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide is achieved by modulating mitochondrial bioenergetics in premalignant and malignant human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Kepa, Jadwiga J

    2009-07-01

    Prostate tumorigenesis is coupled with an early metabolic switch in transformed prostate epithelial cells that effectively increases their mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) inhibits prostate cancer development in vivo, and triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent prostate cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. The possibility that 4HPR-induced ROS production is associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics and required for apoptosis induction in transformed prostate epithelial cells in vitro would advocate a prospective mechanistic basis for 4HPR-mediated prostate cancer chemoprevention in vivo. We investigated this tenet by comparing and contrasting 4HPR's effects on premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. 4HPR promoted a dose- and/or time-dependent apoptosis induction in PWR-1E and DU-145 cells, which was preceded by and dependent on an increase in mitochondrial ROS production. In this regard, the PWR-1E cells were more sensitive than the DU-145 cells, and they consumed roughly twice as much oxygen as the DU-145 cells suggesting oxidative phosphorylation was higher in the premalignant cells. Interestingly, increasing the [Ca(2+)] in the culture medium of the PWR-1E cells attenuated their proliferation as well as their mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity and 4HPR's cytotoxic effects. Correspondingly, the respiration-deficient derivatives (i.e., rho(0) cells lacking mitochondrial DNA) of DU-145 cells were markedly resistant to 4HPR-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Together, these observations implied that the reduction of mitochondrial bioenergetics protected PWR-1E and DU-145 cells against the cytotoxic effects of 4HPR, and support the concept that oxidative phosphorylation is an essential determinant in 4HPR's apoptogenic signaling in transformed human prostate epithelial cells.

  19. Selective apoptosis induction by the cancer chemopreventive agent N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide is achieved by modulating mitochondrial bioenergetics in premalignant and malignant human prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hail, Numsen; Chen, Ping; Kepa, Jadwiga J.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate tumorigenesis is coupled with an early metabolic switch in transformed prostate epithelial cells that effectively increases their mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) inhibits prostate cancer development in vivo, and triggers reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent prostate cancer cell apoptosis in vitro. The possibility that 4HPR-induced ROS production is associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics and required for apoptosis induction in transformed prostate epithelial cells in vitro would advocate a prospective mechanistic basis for 4HPR-mediated prostate cancer chemoprevention in vivo. We investigated this tenet by comparing and contrasting 4HPR's effects on premalignant PWR-1E and malignant DU-145 human prostate epithelial cells. 4HPR promoted a dose- and/or time-dependent apoptosis induction in PWR-1E and DU-145 cells, which was preceded by and dependent on an increase in mitochondrial ROS production. In this regard, the PWR-1E cells were more sensitive than the DU-145 cells, and they consumed roughly twice as much oxygen as the DU-145 cells suggesting oxidative phosphorylation was higher in the premalignant cells. Interestingly, increasing the [Ca2+] in the culture medium of the PWR-1E cells attenuated their proliferation as well as their mitochondrial bioenergetic capacity and 4HPR's cytotoxic effects. Correspondingly, the respiration-deficient derivatives (i.e., ρ0 cells lacking mitochondrial DNA) of DU-145 cells were markedly resistant to 4HPR-induced ROS production and apoptosis. Together, these observations implied that the reduction of mitochondrial bioenergetics protected PWR-1E and DU-145 cells against the cytotoxic effects of 4HPR, and support the concept that oxidative phosphorylation is an essential determinant in 4HPR's apoptogenic signaling in transformed human prostate epithelial cells. PMID:19421858

  20. The role of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin and EGF in normal and malignant acinar morphogenesis of human prostatic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bello-DeOcampo, D; Kleinman, H K; Webber, M M

    2001-09-01

    Complex multiple interactions between cells and extracellular matrix occur during acinar morphogenesis involving integrin receptors and growth factors. Changes in these interactions occur during carcinogenesis as cells progress from a normal to a malignant, invasive phenotype. We have developed human prostatic epithelial cell lines of the same lineage, which represent multiple steps in carcinogenesis, similar to prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent tumor progression. The non-tumorigenic, RWPE-1 and the tumorigenic WPE1-NB27 and WPE1-NB26 cell lines were used to examine their ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis in a 3-D cell culture model and its relationship to invasion, integrin expression and EGF presence. An inverse relationship between the degree of acinar formation and invasive ability was observed. The non-tumorigenic, non-invasive RWPE-1 and the low tumorigenic, low invasive, WPE1-NB27 cells show high and decreased acinar forming ability, respectively, while the more invasive WPE1-NB26 cells show a loss of acinar formation. While RWPE-1 acini show basal expression of alpha 6 beta 1 integrin, which correlates with their ability to polarize and form acini, WPE1-NB27 cells lack alpha 6 but show basal, but weaker expression of beta 1 integrin. WPE1-NB26 cells show loss alpha 6 and abnormal, diffused beta 1 integrin expression. A dose-dependent decrease in acinar formation was observed in RWPE-1 cells when cell proliferation was induced by EGF. Anti-functional antibody to EGF caused an increase in acinar formation in RWPE-1 cells. These results suggest that malignant cells lose the ability to undergo acinar morphogenesis and that the degree of this loss appears to be related to invasive ability, EGF levels and alterations in laminin-specific integrin expression. This model system mimics different steps in prostate carcinogenesis and has applications in the secondary and tertiary prevention of prostate cancer.

  1. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) as a method for identifying benign and malignant prostate biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Ling, Yuting; Lang, Stephen; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    Objectives. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in men. Digital rectal examination (DRE) - a known clinical tool based on alteration in the mechanical properties of tissues due to cancer has traditionally been used for screening prostate cancer. Essentially, DRE estimates relative stiffness of cancerous and normal prostate tissue. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) are new optical imaging techniques capable of providing cross-sectional imaging of tissue microstructure as well as elastogram in vivo and in real time. In this preliminary study, OCE was used in the setting of the human prostate biopsies ex vivo, and the images acquired were compared with those obtained using standard histopathologic methods. Methods. 120 prostate biopsies were obtained by TRUS guided needle biopsy procedures from 9 patients with clinically suspected cancer of the prostate. The biopsies were approximately 0.8mm in diameter and 12mm in length, and prepared in Formalin solution. Quantitative assessment of biopsy samples using OCE was obtained in kilopascals (kPa) before histopathologic evaluation. The results obtained from OCE and standard histopathologic evaluation were compared provided the cross-validation. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for OCE (histopathology was a reference standard). Results. OCE could provide quantitative elasticity properties of prostate biopsies within benign prostate tissue, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical hyperplasia and malignant prostate cancer. Data analysed showed that the sensitivity and specificity of OCE for PCa detection were 1 and 0.91, respectively. PCa had significantly higher stiffness values compared to benign tissues, with a trend of increasing in stiffness with increasing of malignancy. Conclusions. Using OCE, microscopic resolution elastogram is promising in diagnosis of human prostatic diseases. Further studies using this technique to improve the

  2. 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone induced ROS-signaling inhibits proliferation in human non-malignant prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Leena; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are environmental chemical contaminants which can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by auto-oxidation of dihydroxy PCBs as well as the reduction of quinones and redox-cycling. We investigate the hypothesis that 2-(4-chlorophenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone (4-Cl-BQ), a metabolite of 4-chlorobiphenyl (PCB3), induced ROS-signaling inhibits cellular proliferation. Monolayer cultures of exponentially growing asynchronous human non-malignant prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) were incubated with 0–6 micromolar of 4-Cl-BQ and harvested at the end of 72 h of incubation to assess antioxidant enzyme expression, cellular ROS levels, cell growth, and cell cycle phase distributions. 4-Cl-BQ decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, protein, and mRNA levels. 4-Cl-BQ treatment increased dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, which was suppressed in cells pre-treated with polyethylene glycol conjugated superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD). The increase in ROS levels was associated with a decrease in cell growth, and an increase in the percentage of S-phase cells. These effects were suppressed in cells pretreated with PEG-SOD. 4-Cl-BQ treatment did not change the protein levels of phosphorylated H2AX at the end of 72 h of incubation, suggesting that the inhibition in cell growth and accumulation of cells in S-phase at the end of the treatments were probably not due to 4-Cl-BQ induced DNA double strand break. These results demonstrate that MnSOD activity and ROS-signaling perturb proliferation in 4-Cl-BQ treated in vitro cultures of human prostate cells. PMID:20163859

  3. Hyaluronan in human malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sironen, R.K.; Tammi, M.; Tammi, R.; Auvinen, P.K.; Anttila, M.; Kosma, V-M.

    2011-02-15

    Hyaluronan, a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues, is intimately involved in the biology of cancer. Hyaluronan accumulates into the stroma of various human tumors and modulates intracellular signaling pathways, cell proliferation, motility and invasive properties of malignant cells. Experimental and clinicopathological evidence highlights the importance of hyaluronan in tumor growth and metastasis. A high stromal hyaluronan content is associated with poorly differentiated tumors and aggressive clinical behavior in human adenocarcinomas. Instead, the squamous cell carcinomas and malignant melanomas tend to have a reduced hyaluronan content. In addition to the stroma-cancer cell interaction, hyaluronan can influence stromal cell recruitment, tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hyaluronan receptors, hyaluronan synthases and hyaluronan degrading enzymes, hyaluronidases, are involved in the modulation of cancer progression, depending on the tumor type. Furthermore, intracellular signaling and angiogenesis are affected by the degradation products of hyaluronan. Hyaluronan has also therapeutic implications since it is involved in multidrug resistance.

  4. Inorganic Arsenic and Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We critically evaluated the etiologic role of inorganic arsenic in human prostate cancer. Data sources We assessed data from relevant epidemiologic studies concerning environmental inorganic arsenic exposure. Whole animal studies were evaluated as were in vitro model systems of inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in the prostate. Data synthesis Multiple studies in humans reveal an association between environmental inorganic arsenic exposure and prostate cancer mortality or incidence. Many of these human studies provide clear evidence of a dose–response relationship. Relevant whole animal models showing a relationship between inorganic arsenic and prostate cancer are not available. However, cellular model systems indicate arsenic can induce malignant transformation of human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. Arsenic also appears to impact prostate cancer cell progression by precipitating events leading to androgen independence in vitro. Conclusion Available evidence in human populations and human cells in vitro indicates that the prostate is a target for inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis. A role for this common environmental contaminant in human prostate cancer initiation and/or progression would be very important. PMID:18288312

  5. Antioxidant enzymes in malignant prostate cell lines and in primary cultured prostatic cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, K; Seidel, B; Rudolph, B; Lein, M; Cronauer, M V; Henke, W; Hampel, G; Schnorr, D; Loening, S A

    1997-01-01

    The antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in the androgen-response LNCaP and androgen-nonresponsive PC-3 and DU 145 cells as well as in prostatic epithelial cell cultures of benign and malignant human prostatic tissue. There were no differences between the enzyme activities of the human primary cell cultures from cancerous tissue and their normal counterparts. The enzyme activities of the three permanent cell lines were either higher (SOD, catalase, GR) or lower (GST, GPx) than in the primary cell cultures. In LNCaP cells catalase and GR were significantly higher, GST, in contrast, was significantly lower than in PC-3 and DU 145 cells. GST in PC-3 and DU 145 cells, and SOD in all the three cell lines showed no significant differences. Catalase, GPx and GR values were significantly different in the three permanent cell lines. The different enzymatic equipment of the prostate cancer cell lines provides the basis for experimental testing of new concepts of cancer treatment with the help of systematic modulations of the antioxidant defence systems in prostate cancer.

  6. Multiple primary malignancies in patients with prostate cancer: increased risk of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Matsuura, Tomohiro; Tatebe, Hitoshi; Fujiwara, Kazuhisa; Hiroi, Keiji; Hasegawa, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2013-12-01

    New treatment strategies for prostate cancer have recently been developed, but multiple malignancies remain a major concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of multiple malignancies and to analyze the risk of secondary malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. From 2000 to 2011, 150 patients with prostate cancer were treated with curative radiotherapy in our department. Patient age range was 54-92 years (median, 70 years), and the follow-up period was 4-142 months (median, 48 months). The incidence of multiple primary cancers was compared with the estimated incidence. A total of 147 patients (98 %) survived more than 12 months (12-142 months; median, 48 months); 20/150 patients (13 %) died within 10 years. Cause of death was recurrent prostate cancer in 11 patients, other primary malignancies in 7 patients, and cardiovascular disease in 2 patients. Multiple primary cancers were present in 26 of 150 patients (17 %), including 16 subsequent malignancies (11 %) with latent periods of 13-83 months (median, 43 months). The subsequent non-prostate malignancies were lung cancer in 4 patients, urinary bladder or ureter cancer in 4, stomach cancer in 3, malignant lymphoma in 2, and other in 3. Analysis of the observed incidence of secondary malignancies compared with the estimated incidence in the general population revealed a higher incidence of ureter cancer and malignant lymphoma. Close attention should be paid to secondary malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer, including malignancies occurring within 5 years, which could be attributable to radiotherapy.

  7. Aberrant microRNA Expression Likely Controls RAS Oncogene Activation During Malignant Transformation of Human Prostate Epithelial and Stem Cells by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Ngalame, Ntube N. O.; Tokar, Erik J.; Person, Rachel J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a human carcinogen, potentially targets the prostate. iAs malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to CAsE-PE cells, and a derivative normal stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem, to As-Cancer SC (As-CSC) line. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding but exert negative control on expression by degradation or translational repression of target mRNAs. Aberrant miRNA expression is important in carcinogenesis. A miRNA array of CAsE-PE and As-CSC revealed common altered expression in both for pathways concerning oncogenesis, miRNA biogenesis, cell signaling, proliferation, and tumor metastasis and invasion. The KRAS oncogene is overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells but not by mutation or promoter hypomethylation, and is intensely overexpressed in As-CSC cells. In both transformants, decreased miRNAs targeting KRAS and RAS superfamily members occurred. Reduced miR-134, miR-373, miR-155, miR-138, miR-205, miR-181d, miR-181c, and let-7 in CAsE-PE cells correlated with increased target RAS oncogenes, RAN, RAB27A, RAB22A mRNAs, and KRAS protein. Reduced miR-143, miR-34c-5p, and miR-205 in As-CSC correlated with increased target RAN mRNA, and KRAS, NRAS, and RRAS proteins. The RAS/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathways control cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and when dysregulated promote a cancer phenotype. iAs transformation increased expression of activated ERK kinase in both transformants and altered components of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway including decreased PTEN and increases in BCL2, BCL-XL, and VEGF in the absence of AKT activation. Thus, dysregulated miRNA expression may be linked to RAS activation in both transformants. PMID:24431212

  8. Differential vitamin D 24-hydroxylase/CYP24A1 gene promoter methylation in endothelium from benign and malignant human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Adam R; Omilian, Angela R; Bshara, Wiam; Tian, Lili; Tangrea, Michael A; Morrison, Carl D; Johnson, Candace S

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations occur in tumor-associated vessels in the tumor microenvironment. Methylation of the CYP24A1 gene promoter differs in endothelial cells isolated from tumors and non-tumor microenvironments in mice. The epigenetic makeup of endothelial cells of human tumor-associated vasculature is unknown due to difficulty of isolating endothelial cells populations from a heterogeneous tissue microenvironment. To ascertain CYP24A1 promoter methylation in tumor-associated endothelium, we utilized laser microdissection guided by CD31 immunohistochemistry to procure endothelial cells from human prostate tumor specimens. Prostate tissues were obtained following robotic radical prostatectomy from men with clinically localized prostate cancer. Adjacent histologically benign prostate tissues were used to compare endothelium from benign versus tumor microenvironments. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of CYP24A1 promoter region showed that the average CYP24A1 promoter methylation in the endothelium was 20% from the tumor microenvironment compared with 8.2% in the benign microenvironment (p < 0.05). A 2-fold to 17-fold increase in CYP24A1 promoter methylation was observed in the prostate tumor endothelium compared with the matched benign prostate endothelium in four patient samples, while CYP24A1 promoter methylation remained unchanged in two patient samples. In addition, there is no correlation of the level of CYP24A1 promoter methylation in prostate tumor-associated endothelium with that of epithelium/stroma. This study demonstrates that the CYP24A1 promoter is methylated in tumor-associated endothelium, indicating that epigenetic alterations in CYP24A1 may play a role in determining the phenotype of tumor-associated vasculature in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:21725204

  9. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epihelial Cells in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    environment and the grafting site. Several xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their...useful for studying xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors and human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the development of a

  10. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epithelial Cells In Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    grafting site. Several xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their derivative, the non... xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors and human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the development of a severe acute graft-vs

  11. Development of Methodology to Maintain Primary Cultures of Normal and Malignant Human Prostatic Epithelial Cells in Vivo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    xenotransplantation models were developed based on severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their derivative, the non-obese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mouse model. The...all T and B cells and NK function. This novel immunodeficient mouse proved to be useful for studying xenotransplantation of human plasmacytoid dendritic

  12. Silencing KRAS Overexpression in Cadmium-Transformed Prostate Epithelial Cells Mitigates Malignant Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ngalame, Ntube N O; Waalkes, Michael P; Tokar, Erik J

    2016-09-19

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potential human prostate carcinogen. Chronic Cd exposure malignantly transforms RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cells into CTPE cells by an unclear mechanism. Previous studies show that RWPE-1 can also be malignantly transformed by arsenic, and KRAS activation is key to causation and maintenance of this phenotype. Although Cd and arsenic can both transform prostate epithelial cells, it is uncertain whether their mechanisms are similar. Thus, here we determined whether KRAS activation is critical in causing and maintaining Cd-induced malignant transformation in CTPE cells. Expression of KRAS, miRNAs, and other genes of interest was analyzed by Western blot and RT-PCR. Following stable KRAS knockdown (KD) by RNA interference using shRNAmir, the malignant phenotype was assessed by various physical and genetic parameters. CTPE cells greatly overexpressed KRAS by 20-fold, indicating a likely role in Cd transformation. Thus, we attempted to reverse the malignant phenotype via KRAS KD. Two weeks after shRNAmir transduction, KRAS protein was undetectable in CTPE KD cells, confirming stable KD. KRAS KD reduced stimulated RAS/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways and markedly mitigated multiple physical and molecular malignant cell characteristics including: hypersecretion of MMP-2, colony formation, cell survival, and expression of cancer-relevant genes (reduced proliferation and cell cycle-related genes; activated tumor suppressor PTEN). However, KRAS KD did not reverse miRNA expression originally down-regulated by Cd transformation. These data strongly suggest KRAS is a key gene in development and maintenance of the Cd-induced malignant phenotype, at least in the prostate. It is not, however, the only genetic factor sustaining this phenotype.

  13. Human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in prostate cancer: Koilocytes indicate potential oncogenic influences of human papillomavirus in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Noel J; Glenn, Wendy K; Sahrudin, Arisha; Orde, Matthew M; Delprado, Warick; Lawson, James S

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine if high risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are both present in the same prostate cancer specimens. We used a range of analytical techniques including in situ polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) and standard liquid PCR followed by sequencing of the product to seek to identify HPV and EBV in normal, benign, and malignant prostate tissues. Both HPV type 18 and EBV gene sequences were identified in a high and approximately equal proportion of normal, benign, and prostate cancer specimens. These sequences were located in the nuclei of prostate epithelial cells. HPV associated koilocytes were identified in 24% of prostate cancer specimens. The presence of both HPV and EBV gene sequences in most of the same normal, benign, and malignant prostate specimens is particularly noteworthy because of recent experimental evidence demonstrating that EBV and HPV can collaborate to increase proliferation of cultured cervical cells. Because the presence of EBV and HPV in normal, benign, and malignant prostate tissues appears to be ubiquitous, it is possible that they are harmless. On the other hand HPV type 18 in particular, has high oncogenic potential and may be associated with some prostate cancers. The identification of HPV associated koilocytes in prostate cancer specimens is an indication of HPV infection and potential oncogenic influences of human papillomavirus in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors.

    PubMed

    Schlaberg, Robert; Choe, Daniel J; Brown, Kristy R; Thaker, Harshwardhan M; Singh, Ila R

    2009-09-22

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) was recently discovered in human prostate cancers and is the first gammaretrovirus known to infect humans. While gammaretroviruses have well-characterized oncogenic effects in animals, they have not been shown to cause human cancers. We provide experimental evidence that XMRV is indeed a gammaretrovirus with protein composition and particle ultrastructure highly similar to Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), another gammaretrovirus. We analyzed 334 consecutive prostate resection specimens, using a quantitative PCR assay and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with an anti-XMRV specific antiserum. We found XMRV DNA in 6% and XMRV protein expression in 23% of prostate cancers. XMRV proteins were expressed primarily in malignant epithelial cells, suggesting that retroviral infection may be directly linked to tumorigenesis. XMRV infection was associated with prostate cancer, especially higher-grade cancers. We found XMRV infection to be independent of a common polymorphism in the RNASEL gene, unlike results previously reported. This finding increases the population at risk for XMRV infection from only those homozygous for the RNASEL variant to all individuals. Our observations provide evidence for an association of XMRV with malignant cells and with more aggressive tumors.

  16. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  17. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  18. Malignant priapism: Penile metastasis originating on a primary prostate adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Gaspar, Sandro Roberto; Nunes, Alvaro; Dias, Jose Santos; Lopes, Tome

    2015-01-01

    Malignant priapism is a definition invented in 1938 by Peacock, defined as a persistent erection, not related with sexual activity, caused by cavernous sinus and associated venous systems invasion with malignant cells. Penile secondary lesions are rare entities. Primary locations are usually the pelvic cavity organs, namely the prostate and the bladder as the most common ones. Priapism as a first manifestation of these kinds of lesions is even rarer. The aim was to present a 52-year-old patient harboring a penile metastasis that originated in the primary prostate adenocarcinoma, manifesting itself as a “common” priapism. The patient referred to the emergency room presenting with a priapism and nodules at the coronal sulcus, without previous similar episodes. His evolution until properly diagnosed was catastrophic with multiple lymph nodes, bone and organ involvement, and with his demise soon after from serious bleeding and congestive heart failure, almost 2 months after he first came to the emergency room. We review the literature concerning malignant priapism, diagnosis, and current treatment and survival perspectives. PMID:26229335

  19. Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map.

    PubMed

    Datta, Dipamoy; Aftabuddin, Md; Gupta, Dinesh Kumar; Raha, Sanghamitra; Sen, Prosenjit

    2016-08-01

    Human prostate cancer is a complex heterogeneous disease that mainly affects elder male population of the western world with a high rate of mortality. Acquisitions of diverse sets of hallmark capabilities along with an aberrant functioning of androgen receptor signaling are the central driving forces behind prostatic tumorigenesis and its transition into metastatic castration resistant disease. These hallmark capabilities arise due to an intense orchestration of several crucial factors, including deregulation of vital cell physiological processes, inactivation of tumor suppressive activity and disruption of prostate gland specific cellular homeostasis. The molecular complexity and redundancy of oncoproteins signaling in prostate cancer demands for concurrent inhibition of multiple hallmark associated pathways. By an extensive manual curation of the published biomedical literature, we have developed Human Prostate Cancer Hallmarks Map (HPCHM), an onco-functional atlas of human prostate cancer associated signaling and events. It explores molecular architecture of prostate cancer signaling at various levels, namely key protein components, molecular connectivity map, oncogenic signaling pathway map, pathway based functional connectivity map etc. Here, we briefly represent the systems level understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with prostate tumorigenesis by considering each and individual molecular and cell biological events of this disease process.

  20. Characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells by Hoechst side population method.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K

    2009-01-01

    Recent technical progress in the field of cancer stem/progenitor cell research revealed that these malignant cells may provide critical roles for primary tumor growth, metastases at distant tissues and organs, treatment resistance, and disease relapse. The precise molecular oncogenic events that frequently occur in cancer stem/progenitor cells and their early progenies during the early and late stages of cancer progression as well as their contribution to the treatment resistance and disease recurrence remain poorly defined. This lack of information on the deregulated gene products that may be involved in the malignant transformation of tissue-resident adult stem/progenitor cells into highly tumorigenic and/or migrating cancer stem/progenitor cells emphasizes the urgent need to perform future investigations. Toward this direction, we describe in this book chapter the characterization of nonmalignant and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells from well-established cell lines by Hoechst side population method. This novel approach should help to establish novel in vitro and in vivo models of human cancer stem/progenitor cell mimicking more closely the genetic and phenotypic changes occurring during the different stages of prostate carcinogenesis and disease progression in clinical settings. Of therapeutic interest, the identification of new biomarkers and molecular targets specific to these prostatic cancer-initiating cells should also help to develop more effective diagnostic and prognostic tests and chemopreventive and therapeutic treatments for the patients diagnosed at early and late stages of disease progression.

  1. Differentially Expressed Genes and Signature Pathways of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer S.; von Lersner, Ariana K.; Robbins, Charles J.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2015-01-01

    Genomic technologies including microarrays and next-generation sequencing have enabled the generation of molecular signatures of prostate cancer. Lists of differentially expressed genes between malignant and non-malignant states are thought to be fertile sources of putative prostate cancer biomarkers. However such lists of differentially expressed genes can be highly variable for multiple reasons. As such, looking at differential expression in the context of gene sets and pathways has been more robust. Using next-generation genome sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, differential gene expression between age- and stage- matched human prostate tumors and non-malignant samples was assessed and used to craft a pathway signature of prostate cancer. Up- and down-regulated genes were assigned to pathways composed of curated groups of related genes from multiple databases. The significance of these pathways was then evaluated according to the number of differentially expressed genes found in the pathway and their position within the pathway using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis. The “transforming growth factor-beta signaling” and “Ran regulation of mitotic spindle formation” pathways were strongly associated with prostate cancer. Several other significant pathways confirm reported findings from microarray data that suggest actin cytoskeleton regulation, cell cycle, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and calcium signaling are also altered in prostate cancer. Thus we have demonstrated feasibility of pathway analysis and identified an underexplored area (Ran) for investigation in prostate cancer pathogenesis. PMID:26683658

  2. Can Decellularised Prostate Tissue Be Used to Model Tumour Malignancy?

    PubMed

    Maitland, Norman J

    2016-10-01

    This editorial discusses how feasible it will be to predict the invasive capacity of human prostate cancers by measuring their invasion into decellularised extracellular matrix and stresses the multiple factors that affect local metastasis, including immune and stromal cells. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral Raman imaging of human prostatic cells: An attempt to differentiate normal and malignant cell lines by univariate and multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musto, P.; Calarco, A.; Pannico, M.; La Manna, P.; Margarucci, S.; Tafuri, A.; Peluso, G.

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral Raman images of human prostatic cells have been collected and analysed with several approaches to reveal differences among normal and tumor cell lines. The objective of the study was to test the potential of different chemometric methods in providing diagnostic responses. We focused our analysis on the ν(Csbnd H) region (2800-3100 cm- 1) owing to its optimal Signal-to-Noise ratio and because the main differences between the spectra of the two cell lines were observed in this frequency range. Multivariate analysis identified two principal components, which were positively recognized as due to the protein and the lipid fractions, respectively. The tumor cells exhibited a modified distribution of the cytoplasmatic lipid fraction (mainly localized alongside the cell boundary) which may result very useful for a preliminary screening. Principal Component analysis was found to provide high contrast and to be well suited for image-processing purposes. Self-Modelling Curve Resolution made available meaningful spectra and relative-concentration values; it revealed a 97% increase of the lipid fraction in the tumor cell with respect to the control. Finally, a univariate approach confirmed significant and reproducible differences between normal and tumor cells.

  4. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Tanya C.; Rhim, Johng S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT2 PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27478826

  5. Intercellular communication and human prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carruba, Giuseppe; Stefano, Rosalba; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Saladino, Francesca; Di Cristina, Antonietta; Tokar, Erik; Quader, Salmann T A; Webber, Mukta M; Castagnetta, Luigi

    2002-06-01

    Gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC) is required for completion of embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and regulation of cell proliferation and death. Although, as emphasized in several reports, defects or disruption of GJIC may be important in carcinogenesis, the potential role of GJIC in the onset and progression of human prostate cancer remains ill-defined. The gap junction channel-forming connexins (Cx) comprise a multigene family of highly conserved proteins that are differentially expressed in a tissue- and development-specific manner; changes in connexin expression are also commonly seen during cellular differentiation. However, when multiple connexins are concurrently expressed, gap junction channels may consist of more than one connexin species. This is important, because only certain pairings give rise to functional channels. In our studies, we investigated GJIC in a panel of both nontumorigenic (RWPE-1) and malignant (RWPE-2, LNCaP, DU-145) human prostate epithelial cells, compared to a normal rat liver epithelial F344 (WB-1) cell line, as it was found to be junctionally proficient. In addition, expression and regulation of Cx43 and Cx32 were also inspected using western blot analysis. The ability of hormones, antihormones, and the antihypertensive drug forskolin to restore GJIC in nontumorigenic and malignant human prostate epithelial cells was examined by the scrape-loading/dye transfer (SL/DT) or fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) methods using an Ultima laser cytometer. Results from both assays showed that neither nontumorigenic nor malignant prostate cells have functional GJIC. However, both estrone (E1) and forskolin (FK) induced a significant increase (4.4- and 2.8-fold, respectively) in cell-cell communication only in the RWPE-1 cells. Interestingly, the use of Matrigel, a solubilized basement membrane, as substrate for cell attachment and growth resulted in the rescue of GJIC activity in RWPE-1 cells, as

  6. Synchronous Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor and Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bouropoulos, Konstantinos; Farmakis, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) of the prostate are extremely rare. A very unusual case of simultaneous adenocarcinoma and MPNST of the prostate is reported. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented for annual urologic examination. Digital rectal examination revealed a painless, toughish, and asymmetrically enlarged prostate. Serum prostate-specific antigen was 1 ng/mL. Radiologic examinations demonstrated a large mass, which was arising from the left peripheral lobe of the prostate. The patient underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate which revealed a smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential. Radical retropubic prostatectomy with en bloc removal of the mass and the seminal vesicles was performed and histology demonstrated low-grade MPNST and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous prostatic adenocarcinoma and MPNST in the English literature. PMID:27872787

  7. [Atypical stromal hyperplasia of the prostate (stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential)].

    PubMed

    Medina Pérez, M; Valero Puerta, J A; Pérez Martín, D

    2000-10-01

    To describe a case of atypical stromal hyperplasia of the prostate. A 62-year-old patient presented with prostatic syndrome. Physical examination disclosed an indurated prostate and PSA determination showed increased levels. A prostate biopsy was performed. The histological analysis showed atypical stromal proliferation with elongated nuclei and immunohistochemical expression for vimentine, smooth muscle actin and CD34 with glandular hyperplasia. The diagnosis was that of atypical stromal hyperplasia of the prostate (prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential). A careful histological study is necessary to make the correct diagnosis of prostatic stromal proliferation of uncertain malignant potential. CD34 expression is a characteristic finding. As its name indicates, its evolution is uncertain.

  8. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Kasic, Tihana; Gri, Giorgia; Gallana, Keti; Borsellino, Giovanna; Marigo, Ilaria; Battistini, Luca; Iafrate, Massimo; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Pagano, Francesco; Viola, Antonella

    2005-01-01

    Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the tumor environment using collagen gel matrix–supported organ cultures of human prostate carcinomas. Our results indicate that human prostatic adenocarcinomas are infiltrated by terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are, however, in an unresponsive status. We demonstrate the presence of high levels of nitrotyrosines in prostatic TIL, suggesting a local production of peroxynitrites. By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved. The metabolic control exerted by the tumor on TIL function was confirmed in a transgenic mouse prostate model, which exhibits similarities with human prostate cancer. These results identify a novel and dominant mechanism by which cancers induce immunosuppression in situ and suggest novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy. PMID:15824085

  9. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Kasic, Tihana; Gri, Giorgia; Gallana, Keti; Borsellino, Giovanna; Marigo, Ilaria; Battistini, Luca; Iafrate, Massimo; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Pagano, Francesco; Viola, Antonella

    2005-04-18

    Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the tumor environment using collagen gel matrix-supported organ cultures of human prostate carcinomas. Our results indicate that human prostatic adenocarcinomas are infiltrated by terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are, however, in an unresponsive status. We demonstrate the presence of high levels of nitrotyrosines in prostatic TIL, suggesting a local production of peroxynitrites. By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved. The metabolic control exerted by the tumor on TIL function was confirmed in a transgenic mouse prostate model, which exhibits similarities with human prostate cancer. These results identify a novel and dominant mechanism by which cancers induce immunosuppression in situ and suggest novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy.

  10. Evaluating Baculovirus as a Vector for Human Prostate Cancer Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Stephanie L.; Rivera, Guillermo C.; Dussupt, Vincent; Leadley, Regina M.; Hudson, Lucy C.; MA de Ridder, Corrina; Kraaij, Robert; Burns, Julie E.; Maitland, Norman J.; Georgopoulos, Lindsay J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy represents an attractive strategy for the non-invasive treatment of prostate cancer, where current clinical interventions show limited efficacy. Here, we evaluate the use of the insect virus, baculovirus (BV), as a novel vector for human prostate cancer gene therapy. Since prostate tumours represent a heterogeneous environment, a therapeutic approach that achieves long-term regression must be capable of targeting multiple transformed cell populations. Furthermore, discrimination in the targeting of malignant compared to non-malignant cells would have value in minimising side effects. We employed a number of prostate cancer models to analyse the potential for BV to achieve these goals. In vitro, both traditional prostate cell lines as well as primary epithelial or stromal cells derived from patient prostate biopsies, in two- or three-dimensional cultures, were used. We also evaluated BV in vivo in murine prostate cancer xenograft models. BV was capable of preferentially transducing invasive malignant prostate cancer cell lines compared to early stage cancers and non-malignant samples, a restriction that was not a function of nuclear import. Of more clinical relevance, primary patient-derived prostate cancer cells were also efficiently transduced by BV, with robust rates observed in epithelial cells of basal phenotype, which expressed BV-encoded transgenes faster than epithelial cells of a more differentiated, luminal phenotype. Maximum transduction capacity was observed in stromal cells. BV was able to penetrate through three-dimensional structures, including in vitro spheroids and in vivo orthotopic xenografts. BV vectors containing a nitroreductase transgene in a gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy approach were capable of efficiently killing malignant prostate targets following administration of the pro-drug, CB1954. Thus, BV is capable of transducing a large proportion of prostate cell types within a heterogeneous 3-D prostate tumour, can

  11. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology.

  12. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology. PMID:18715471

  13. Dying for love: Perimenopausal degeneration of vaginal microbiome drives the chronic inflammation-malignant transformation of benign prostatic hyperplasia to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2017-04-01

    Prostatic carcinoma is the second commonest cancer in males and is so common as to become almost holoendemic with advancing age. The recent demonstration that far from being benign, "benign" prostatic hypertrophy is a likely a reaction of the prostate to chronic untreated lower genital tract infection, and that this chronic inflammation is likely the usual precursor to the frequent occurrence of prostatic carcinoma has far reaching implications. The obvious source for the chronic inflammatory stimulus in the prostate is the documented dramatically altered lower female genital microbiota associated with the menopause. Hence the major hypothesis is that prostatic cancer may arise due to chronic infection and inflammation in the prostate gland consequent upon the altered microbiome of the menopausal female genital tract. This has implications for testing and diagnosis, treatment, population health and personal hygiene practices. It suggests that male dyspareunia, although almost never encountered in clinical practice may in fact be relatively common in older males, and in particular if diagnosed, represents a critical opportunity for therapeutic intervention to interrupt the chronic inflammation - cancer transformation and progression which has been well documented in other tissues. It implies that the coordinated application of next generation sequencing to the microbiome of the lower genital tracts of male and female couples, including seminal fluid, will have both research applications to further explore this sequence, as well as finding application as a potential population level screening procedure as is presently done for the "Thin Prep" cervical screening for human papillomavirus in females. Moreover this insight opens up new opportunities for chemointervention and chemoprevention for this important clinicopathological progression. These considerations give rise to the exciting possibility that prostatic malignancy may be preventable by various methods of local

  14. High Lysyl Oxidase (LOX) in the Non-Malignant Prostate Epithelium Predicts a Poor Outcome in Prostate Cancer Patient Managed by Watchful Waiting.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Hägglöf, Christina; Hammarsten, Peter; Thysell, Elin; Stattin, Pär; Egevad, Lars; Granfors, Torvald; Jernberg, Emma; Wikstrom, Pernilla; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) has been shown to both promote and suppress tumor progression, but its role in prostate cancer is largely unknown. LOX immunoreactivity was scored in prostate tumor epithelium, tumor stroma and in the tumor-adjacent non-malignant prostate epithelium and stroma. LOX scores in tumor and non-malignant prostate tissues were then examined for possible associations with clinical characteristics and survival in a historical cohort of men that were diagnosed with prostate cancer at transurethral resection and followed by watchful waiting. Men with a low LOX score in the non-malignant prostate epithelium had significantly longer cancer specific survival than men with a high score. Furthermore, LOX score in non-malignant prostate epithelium remained prognostic in a multivariable analysis including Gleason score. LOX score in prostate tumor epithelium positively correlated to Gleason score and metastases but was not associated with cancer survival. LOX score in tumor and non-malignant prostate stroma appeared unrelated to these tumor characteristics. In radical prostatectomy specimens, LOX immune-staining corresponded to LOX in-situ hybridization and LOX mRNA levels were found to be similar between tumor and adjacent non-malignant areas, but significantly increased in bone metastases samples. LOX levels both in tumors and in the surrounding tumor-bearing organ are apparently related to prostate cancer aggressiveness.

  15. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  16. The role of human papillomavirus infection in prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, Arezoo; Hamkar, Rasool; Parvin, Mahmoud; Ghavami, Nastaran; Nadri, Mahsa; Pakfetrat, Attesa; Banifazl, Mohammad; Eslamifar, Ali; Izadi, Nabiollah; Jam, Sara; Ramezani, Amitis

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with benign and malignant lesions of the female and male anogenital tract. Currently the possible role of HPV infections in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection in prostate carcinoma (PCa). The study included formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of 104 primary prostate adenocarcinoma cases and 104 control tissues of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). HPV-DNA was purified and amplified through MY09/MY11 and GP5(+)/GP6(+) primers and subsequently subjected to sequencing. HPV-DNA was found in 13 of 104 (12.5%) PCa and 8 of 104 (7.7%) BPH samples. High-risk HPVs were detected in 10 of 13 (76.9%) PCa and 5 of 8 (62.5%) BPH samples with positive HPV-DNA. Low-risk HPVs were detected in 3 of 13 (23.1%) PCa and 3 of 8 (37.5%) BPH specimens with positive HPV-DNA. There was no significant difference between PCa and BPH specimens regarding HPV-DNA presence or the detection of high-risk and low-risk types of HPV. Our data do not support the role of HPV infection in prostate carcinoma. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of HPV infection in human prostate carcinogenesis.

  17. Arachidonic acid metabolism in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    YANG, PEIYING; CARTWRIGHT, CARRIE A.; LI, JIN; WEN, SIJIN; PROKHOROVA, INA N.; SHUREIQI, IMAD; TRONCOSO, PATRICIA; NAVONE, NORA M.; NEWMAN, ROBERT A.; KIM, JERI

    2012-01-01

    The arachidonic acid pathway is important in the development and progression of numerous malignant diseases, including prostate cancer. To more fully evaluate the role of individual cyclooxygenases (COXs), lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their metabolites in prostate cancer, we measured mRNA and protein levels of COXs and LOXs and their arachidonate metabolites in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3 and DU145) prostate cancer cell lines, bone metastasis-derived MDA PCa 2a and MDA PCa 2b cell lines and their corresponding xenograft models, as well as core biopsy specimens of primary prostate cancer and nonneoplastic prostate tissue taken ex vivo after prostatectomy. Relatively high levels of COX-2 mRNA and its product PGE2 were observed only in PC-3 cells and their xenografts. By contrast, levels of the exogenous 12-LOX product 12-HETE were consistently higher in MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 cells and their corresponding xenograft tissues than were those in LNCaP cells. More strikingly, the mean endogenous level of 12-HETE was significantly higher in the primary prostate cancers than in the nonneoplastic prostate tissue (0.094 vs. 0.010 ng/mg protein, respectively; p=0.019). Our results suggest that LOX metabolites such as 12-HETE are critical in prostate cancer progression and that the LOX pathway may be a target for treating and preventing prostate cancer. PMID:22895552

  18. Endometase in Androgen-Repressed Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    intraepithelial neoplasia from multiple patients were significantly higher than those in prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, and normal prostate glandular...prostate cancer cell invasion. 3. We showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were significantly...inhibitors of MMP-26 block prostate cancer invasion. We have showed that the levels of MMP-26 protein in human prostate carcinomas from multiple patients were

  19. Differential expression of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) messenger RNAs and proteins in normal human prostate and prostatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Langat, Daudi K; Sue Platt, J; Tawfik, Ossama; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Hunt, Joan S

    2006-08-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a major histocompatibility complex class Ib gene expressed in normal organs and in some tumors. The glycoproteins encoded by this gene are best known for their immunosuppressive properties. Because isoform-specific expression of HLA-G in male reproductive organs has not been reported, we investigated HLA-G1, -G2, -G5, -G6 mRNAs and proteins in four-to-five samples of normal prostate glands, prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate adenocarcinomas using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. All tissues contained HLA-G1, -G2, -G5 and -G6 specific mRNAs, but only HLA-G5 protein was detectable. In normal prostate glands, HLA-G5 protein was prominent in the cytoplasm of tubuloglandular epithelia and in glandular secretions. Staining was reduced in samples of benign prostatic hyperplasia but remained localized to the cytoplasm of glandular epithelia and secretions. In prostatic adenocarcinomas, HLA-G5 protein was detectable mainly in the secretions. Thus, HLA-G5 but not HLA-G1, -G2 or -G6 is produced in the normal prostate and is present in prostatic secretions. In addition, normal cellular localization is disturbed in benign and malignant prostatic adenocarcinomas. The results are consistent with this molecule may influencing female immune receptivity to sperm and suggest that such immunosuppression could be disturbed in men with prostatic adenocarcinomas.

  20. A human prostatic bacterial isolate alters the prostatic microenvironment and accelerates prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Brian W; Durham, Nicholas M; Bruno, Tullia C; Grosso, Joseph F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Ross, Ashley E; Hurley, Paula J; Berman, David M; Drake, Charles G; Thumbikat, Praveen; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is associated with several diseases of the prostate including benign enlargement and cancer, but a causal relationship has not been established. Our objective was to characterize the prostate inflammatory microenvironment after infection with a human prostate-derived bacterial strain and to determine the effect of inflammation on prostate cancer progression. To this end, we mimicked typical human prostate infection with retrograde urethral instillation of CP1, a human prostatic isolate of Escherichia coli. CP1 bacteria were tropic for the accessory sex glands and induced acute inflammation in the prostate and seminal vesicles, with chronic inflammation lasting at least 1 year. Compared to controls, infection induced both acute and chronic inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia, stromal hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. In areas of inflammation, epithelial proliferation and hyperplasia often persist, despite decreased expression of androgen receptor (AR). Inflammatory cells in the prostates of CP1-infected mice were characterized at 8 weeks post-infection by flow cytometry, which showed an increase in macrophages and lymphocytes, particularly Th17 cells. Inflammation was additionally assessed in the context of carcinogenesis. Multiplex cytokine profiles of inflamed prostates showed that distinct inflammatory cytokines were expressed during prostate inflammation and cancer, with a subset of cytokines synergistically increased during concurrent inflammation and cancer. Furthermore, CP1 infection in the Hi-Myc mouse model of prostate cancer accelerated the development of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma, with 70% more mice developing cancer by 4.5 months of age. This study provides direct evidence that prostate inflammation accelerates prostate cancer progression and gives insight into the microenvironment changes induced by inflammation that may accelerate tumour initiation or progression. PMID:25348195

  1. Computational imaging reveals shape differences between normal and malignant prostates on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, Mirabela; Purysko, Andrei S.; Verma, Sadhna; Kiechle, Jonathan; Gollamudi, Jay; Ghose, Soumya; Herrmann, Karin; Gulani, Vikas; Paspulati, Raj; Ponsky, Lee; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Thompson, James; Stricker, Phillip; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-01-01

    We seek to characterize differences in the shape of the prostate and the central gland (combined central and transitional zones) between men with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer and men who were identified as not having prostate cancer either on account of a negative biopsy or had pelvic imaging done for a non-prostate malignancy. T2w MRI from 70 men were acquired at three institutions. The cancer positive group (PCa+) comprised 35 biopsy positive (Bx+) subjects from three institutions (Gleason scores: 6–9, Stage: T1–T3). The negative group (PCa−) combined 24 biopsy negative (Bx−) from two institutions and 11 subjects diagnosed with rectal cancer but with no clinical or MRI indications of prostate cancer (Cl−). The boundaries of the prostate and central gland were delineated on T2w MRI by two expert raters and were used to construct statistical shape atlases for the PCa+, Bx− and Cl− prostates. An atlas comparison was performed via per-voxel statistical tests to localize shape differences (significance assessed at p < 0.05). The atlas comparison revealed central gland hypertrophy in the Bx− subpopulation, resulting in significant volume and posterior side shape differences relative to PCa+ group. Significant differences in the corresponding prostate shapes were noted at the apex when comparing the Cl− and PCa+ prostates. PMID:28145532

  2. Incidental Malignancies identified during staging for Prostate Cancer with (68)Ga -PSMA HBED-CC PET imaging.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Andre; Nicholson, Cheryl; Rhee, Handoo; Gustafson, Sonja; Miles, Ken; Vela, Ian

    2017-03-20

    The rapid uptake of 68Ga Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) HBED-CC PET imaging for prostate cancer staging has led to concerns regarding its specificity, with uptake in both malignant and non-malignant tissues. We describe three separate malignancies identified on 68Ga PSMA HBED-CC PET imaging. The misnomer of "prostate specific membrane antigen" is demonstrated by this case and highlights the importance of continued investigation of the potential role for 68Ga PSMA HBED-CC PET in other malignancies.

  3. Differential expression of neuropilin-1 in malignant and benign prostatic stromal tissue.

    PubMed

    Vanveldhuizen, Peter J; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Banerjee, Snigdha; Cherian, Rachel; Saxena, Neela K; Rabe, Amy; Thrasher, J Brantley; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2003-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1), a co-receptor for VEGF165, is overexpressed in various prostate cancer cell lines and in advanced prostate tumors. However, distribution of the NRP-1 in prostate tumors has not yet been evaluated. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we evaluated 21 archival prostate tumors and 5 benign glands for the expression of NRP-1. In addition, we utilized a quantitative RT-PCR method to examine mRNA expression in 9 additional prostate tumors obtained from radical prostatectomy specimens and compared this expression to the adjacent normal tissue. The RT-PCR analyses demonstrated overexpression of NRP-1 mRNA in malignant tissue samples by 10.0-fold as compared to adjacent normal tissue. By immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein was undetected or minimally detected in the epithelial tumor cells. However, NRP-1 immuno-reaction was detected in the surrounding tumor stroma. Variable immuno-reaction for NRP-1 was also seen in the adjacent normal tumor stroma and the stroma of the benign prostate samples. These observations suggest that neuropilin-1 is expressed in the prostatic stromal cells, not epithelial tumor cells, and this expression is significantly increased in the malignant phenotype.

  4. Risk of malignant melanoma in men with prostate cancer: Nationwide, population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Frederik B; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Ingvar, Christian; Lambe, Mats; Stattin, Pär

    2016-05-01

    An increased risk of malignant melanoma has been observed in men with prostate cancer. To assess potential shared risk factors and confounding factors, we analysed risk of melanoma in men with prostate cancer including information on tumor characteristics and demographics including socioeconomic status. In The Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden, risk of melanoma was assessed in a cohort of men with prostate cancer and in a comparison cohort of prostate-cancer free men. Data on prostate cancer risk category, melanoma stage, basal cell carcinoma, location of residency, and socioeconomic status were obtained from nationwide registers. Melanoma was diagnosed in 830/108,145 (0.78%) men with prostate cancer and in 3,699/556,792 (0.66%) prostate cancer-free men. In multivariable Cox regression models, men with prostate cancer had a significantly increased risk of melanoma (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09-1.27), and so had married men, men with high education and income, and men residing in southern Sweden. The strongest associations were observed for stage 0 melanoma in men with low-risk prostate cancer (HR 1.45, 1.14-1.86), high education (HR 1.87, 1.60-2.18) and top income (HR 1.61, 1.34-1.93), respectively, whereas there was no association between these factors and late-stage melanoma. Men with prostate cancer also had an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma (HR 1.18, 1.15-1.22). In conclusion, men with low-risk prostate cancer, high education, high income and residency in southern Sweden had an increased risk of early-stage melanoma.

  5. The Complex Interplay Between Cholesterol and Prostate Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Keith R.; Freeman, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Research into the topic of the role of cholesterol and prostate disease has been ongoing for many years, however our mechanistic and translational understanding is still poor. Recent evidence indicates that cholesterol lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, however the studies in this area, performed over many years, reflect much controversy and uncertainty. Here we explore the entire literature on the relationship between circulating cholesterol and prostate cancer, with consideration and criticism of the older as well as the newer studies. We consider why low cholesterol is associated with both increased and decreased risk of advanced prostate cancer, and explain why both observations are probably correct. We discuss the conflicting results of randomized placebo-controlled trials of statin drugs vs. observational studies and demonstrate that a predominance of pravastatin in the randomized trials paints a distorted view of statin effects. Lastly, we discuss new data suggesting that a critical aspect of the role of cholesterol in prostate cancer progression is through its role in intratumoral steroidogenesis. With these points addressed, the data strongly point to hypercholesterolemia as a risk factor for prostate cancer progression and suggest clinical opportunities for the use of cholesterol lowering therapies to alter disease course. PMID:21798387

  6. Zinc-sensitive MRI contrast agent detects differential release of Zn(II) ions from the healthy vs. malignant mouse prostate

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo Jordan, M. Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Lubag, Angelo J. M.; Rofsky, Neil M.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2016-01-01

    Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols. PMID:27562169

  7. Zinc-sensitive MRI contrast agent detects differential release of Zn(II) ions from the healthy vs. malignant mouse prostate.

    PubMed

    Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Lubag, Angelo J M; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-09-13

    Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols.

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the malignant prostate gland after radiotherapy: a histopathologic study of diagnostic validity.

    PubMed

    Menard, C; Smith, I C; Somorjai, R L; Leboldus, L; Patel, R; Littman, C; Robertson, S J; Bezabeh, T

    2001-06-01

    Accurate spatial representation of tumor clearance after conformal radiotherapy is an endpoint of clinical importance. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can diagnose malignancy in the untreated prostate gland through measurements of cellular metabolites. In this study we sought to describe spectral metabolic changes in prostatic tissue after radiotherapy and validate a multivariate analytic strategy (based on MRS) that could identify viable tumor. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies from 35 patients were obtained 18-36 months after external beam radiotherapy. One hundred sixteen tissue specimens were subjected to 1H MRS, submitted to histopathology, and analyzed for correlation with a multivariate strategy specifically developed for biomedical spectra. The sensitivity and specificity of MRS in identifying a malignant biopsy were 88.9% and 92% respectively, with an overall classification accuracy of 91.4%. The diagnostic spectral regions identified by our algorithm included those due to choline, creatine, glutamine, and lipid. Citrate, an important discriminating resonance in the untreated prostate gland, was invisible in all spectra, regardless of histology. Although the spectral features of prostate tissue markedly change after radiotherapy, MRS combined with multivariate methods of analysis can accurately identify histologically malignant biopsies. MRS shows promise as a modality that could integrate three-dimensional measures of tumor response.

  9. Fluconazole penetration into the human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Finley, R W; Cleary, J D; Goolsby, J; Chapman, S W

    1995-01-01

    Fluconazole concentrations in the serum and prostate of human volunteers undergoing transurethral resection for benign prostatic hypertrophy were measured. There was a high correlation (r = 0.783) between serum (mean = 6.6 micrograms/ml) and tissue (mean = 1.9 micrograms/g) fluconazole concentrations, and these data were used to construct a model for local tissue concentrations. PMID:7726532

  10. Differential expression of galectins in normal, benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells: silencing of galectin-3 expression in prostate cancer by its promoter methylation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hafiz; Banerjee, Partha P; Vasta, Gerardo R

    2007-06-22

    Galectins (gal), a family of soluble beta-galactoside-binding proteins present at the cell surface, are involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Here we investigated the expression of several galectins in normal (PrEC), benign (BPH-1), and malignant (LNCaP) prostate epithelial cells and found that all galectins, except gal1 are differentially expressed. The gal3, 7, and 9 are highly expressed in PrEC, but not in LNCaP cells. Out of seven isoforms of gal8, the proto isoform gal8e and our newly discovered proto isoform gal8g were upregulated in LNCaP cells compared to PrEC, whereas the two tandem-repeat isoforms gal8a and gal8b were equally expressed in these cells. To determine if the silencing of gal3 in LNCaP cells was due to promoter methylation, LNCaP cells were treated with azacytidine. Azacytidine treatment induced the expression of gal3 in LNCaP cells, indicating that the gal3 gene was silenced by methylation of its promoter. To examine further, we evaluated cytosine methylation in gal3 promoter in LNCaP, normal prostate and placenta DNA and observed that it is highly methylated in LNCaP but not in normal cells and azacytidine completely abolished this methylation in LNCaP cells. Similar to prostate cancer cells, gal3 promoter was highly methylated in human prostate cancer tissue but not in normal tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that gal3 expression is regulated by promoter methylation in LNCaP cells and prostate tumors. The methylation of gal3 promoter may constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  11. Hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system for detection of prostate malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Brecht, H. P.-F.; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Gharieb, Reda R.; Conjusteau, Andre; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasound imaging is the current gold standard for guiding biopsy of prostate. Optoacoustic imaging yields higher contrast in detection of malignant tissues. The two techniques provide complementary information. We are currently developing a hybrid laser optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for prostate tumor detection (LOUIS-P). The optoacoustic part consists of a fiber-coupled Q-switched laser operating at either 757 nm or 1064 nm attached to a commercially-available 128-channel ultrasonic probe modified for optimal detection of optoacoustic signals, a digital signal processor with 128 independent channels, and software that uses the radial (filtered) backprojection algorithm to reconstruct tomographic images. We evaluated system-imaging performance using test objects submerged in milky water, and poly(vinyl-chloride) plastisol tissue phantoms simulating malignant lesions. LOUIS-P demonstrates potential as a clinical technique for minimally invasive imaging and diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  12. Malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate: retrospective review of specimens obtained by sequential transurethral resection.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masatoshi; Yamada, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroya; Imai, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Araki, Tomio; Shiraishi, Taizo

    2002-12-01

    A case of malignant phyllodes tumor of the prostate in a 67-year-old man is reported. The patient was referred to a hospital for urinary retention. From material taken at three transurethral resections of the prostate (TURP), a histological diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia was made. However, at the fourth TURP, phyllodes tumor was diagnosed due to the presence of elongated epithelial ducts and proliferating cellular stroma with mitosis and nuclear atypia. Two months later, total cystoprostatectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of dysplastic stromal cells and irregularly elongated epithelial ducts. Five months later the patient developed multiple lung and pelvic lymph node metastases and died. This report documents progression to a higher histological grade of prostatic phyllodes tumor documented with sequential pathological findings obtained from four TURP and surgical specimens over about 3 years.

  13. The role of human papilloma virus in urological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Borena, Wegene; Pichler, Renate

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cancer of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx. However, the role of HPV infection in urological tumors is not yet clarified. HPV appears not to play a major causative role in renal and testicular carcinogenesis. However, HPV infection should be kept in mind regarding cases of prostate cancer, as well as in a sub-group of patients with bladder cancer with squamous differentiation. Concerning the role of HPV in penile cancer incidence, it is a recognized risk factor proven in a large number of studies. This short review provides an update regarding recent literature on HPV in urological malignancies, thereby, also discussing possible limitations on HPV detection in urological cancer.

  14. Estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha promotes malignancy and osteoblastic tumorigenesis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sweta; Tai, Qin; Gu, Xiang; Schmitz, James; Poullard, Ashley; Fajardo, Roberto J; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Chen, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xueqiong; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2015-12-29

    The role of estrogen signaling in regulating prostate tumorigenesis is relatively underexplored. Although, an increasing body of evidence has linked estrogen receptor beta (ERß) to prostate cancer, the function of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in prostate cancer is not very well studied. We have discovered a novel role of ERα in the pathogenesis of prostate tumors. Here, we show that prostate cancer cells express ERα and estrogen induces oncogenic properties in prostate cancer cells through ERα. Importantly, ERα knockdown in the human prostate cancer PacMetUT1 cells as well as pharmacological inhibition of ERα with ICI 182,780 inhibited osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis in vivo. Co-culture of pre-osteoblasts with cancer cells showed a significant induction of osteogenic markers in the pre-osteoblasts, which was attenuated by knockdown of ERα in cancer cells suggesting that estrogen/ERα signaling promotes crosstalk between cancer and osteoblastic progenitors to stimulate osteoblastic tumorigenesis. These results suggest that ERα expression in prostate cancer cells is essential for osteoblastic lesion formation and lung metastasis. Thus, inhibition of ERα signaling in prostate cancer cells may be a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit the osteoblastic lesion development as well as lung metastasis in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

  15. ABCG2-mediated dyecycle violet efflux defined side population in benign and malignant prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Grinu; Timm, Earl A.; Sotomayor, Paula; Godoy, Alejandro; Montecinos, Viviana P.; Smith, Gary J.; Huss, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    The efflux of Hoechst 33342 by ATP-binding cassette protein G2 (ABCG2) membrane pump allows reproducible identification of a subpopulation of cells by flow cytometric analysis termed the “side population” (SP). The SP identified by constitutive Hoechst efflux contains the stem/progenitor cell population from bone marrow and many solid organs, including prostate. DyeCycle Violet (DCV) is a cell membrane permeable, fluorescent vital dye that intercalates into DNA and is a substrate for ABCG2-mediated efflux. Therefore, DCV was evaluated in this study as a tool for identification of the SP from prostate cancer cell lines and from freshly harvested human prostate tissue. SPs that demonstrated ABCG2-mediated efflux of DCV were identified in the human prostate cancer cell lines CWR-R1, DU-145 and RWPE-1, but not in the BPH-1, LAPC-4 or PC-3 cell lines. Additionally, a SP was identified in enzymatically disaggregated prostate tumors from Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP), human benign prostate tissue and human prostate cancer tissue. The causal role of ABCG2-mediated efflux of DCV in the identification of the SP was confirmed by loss of the SP by incubation with the specific inhibitor of ABCG2, Fumitremorgin C. Expression of ABCG2 in the SP cells was confirmed by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence analysis. Consequently, DCV represents an important new tool for isolation of viable candidate stem cells/cancer stem cells as a SP from cultured prostate cell lines, and prostate tissue specimens, without the requirement for instrumentation with ultra-violet excitation capability and minimizing the risk of damage to DNA in the sorted population. PMID:19270533

  16. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor of Prostate: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A mid-aged male presented with progressive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) for years. Huge prostate with low serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was detected. The specimen from transurethral resection revealed surprising pathology finding as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). Considering its huge size (more than 300 gm) and location, we prescribed neoadjuvant chemotherapy firstly. The tumor became regressive and then radical surgical resection was achieved. Adjuvant multimodality treatment including concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and target therapy was given. However, he expired about one year later. MPNST originating from prostate is very rare and seldom reported before. We here present this extremely rare disease and share our treatment experience. PMID:27872789

  17. Photo-Acoustic Ultrasound Imaging to Distinguish Benign from Malignant Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    An ultrasound transducer delivers a pulse of acoustic energy into the area of interest and listens for the echoes which return as the sound waves... ultrasound probe developed in this project (Figure 13C). The images from the IVUS probe are relatively low quality and highly scattering targets...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0137 TITLE: Photo-Acoustic Ultrasound Imaging to Distinguish Benign from Malignant Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL

  18. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Angelucci, S; Felaco, M; Grilli, A; Federici, G

    1990-01-01

    By using affinity-chromatography and isoelectric-focusing techniques, several forms of glutathione transferase (GSTs) were resolved from human prostate cytosol. All the three major classes of GST, i.e. Alpha, Mu and Pi, are present in human prostate. However, large inter-individual variation in the qualitative and quantitative expression of different isoenzymes resulted in the samples investigated. The most abundant group of prostate isoenzymes showed acid (pI 4.3-4.7) behaviour and were classified as Pi class GSTs on the basis of their immunological and structural properties. Immunohistochemical staining of Pi class GSTs was prevalently distributed in the epithelial cells surrounding the alveolar lumen. Class Mu GSTs are also expressed, although in small amounts and in a limited number of samples, by human prostate. The major cationic isoenzyme purified from prostate, GST-9.6; (pI 9.6; apparent subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa), appears to be different from the cationic GST alpha-epsilon forms isolated from human liver and kidney as evidenced by its structural, kinetical and immunological properties. This enzyme, which accounts for about 20-30% (on protein basis) of total amount of GSTs, is expressed by only 40% of samples. GST-9.6 has the ability to cross-react in immunoblotting analysis with antisera raised against rat liver GST 2-2, rather than with antisera raised against members of human Alpha, Mu and Pi class GSTs. Although prostate GST-9.6 shows close relationship with the human skin GST pI 9.9, it does not correspond to any other known human GST. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2241927

  19. Metachronous malignancies in men with previous prostate cancer in Umbria, Italy, 1994-2003.

    PubMed

    Cassetti, Tiziana; Stracci, Fabrizio; Minelli, Liliana; Scheibel, Massimo; Sapia, Ida Elena; La Rosa, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Data about second primary tumors after prostate carcinoma are controversial. Some authors emphasize an increased incidence of some cancer sites, others an overall diminution. With the aim to provide further information to define the issue, we have analyzed the frequency of second metachronous primary malignancies in patients with diagnosed prostate cancer in the Umbria region of Italy. A total of 410 metachronous cancers among 4528 prostate cancer patients were abstracted from incident cases of the RTUP, over the period 1994-2003. This cohort was compared with all cases (except prostate cancers) recorded in the RTUP archive. The expected number of cases was obtained from indirect standardization with regional incidence rates of several sites. The significance of the observed/expected ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were based on the Poisson distribution. A significant standardized incidence ratio was found for all sites but prostate, with 410/351 observed/expected cases. The significance disappears considering all sites except prostate and skin non-melanomas. Among several sites, significant standardized incidence ratios were found for skin non-melanomas, for bladder, for rectum, but not for colon cancers. Kidney, ureter and urethra showed a nonsignificant standardized incidence ratio. Nasopharynx showed a significant standardized incidence ratio, but the result was based on a very small number of cases. In our data, the increase in urinary bladder and rectal cancers, after prostate cancer diagnosis, seems to be real: it is plausible that the number of second cancers may be due to increased urologist surveillance, which, in our Region, does not seem to be reduced in elderly men.

  20. Androgen responsive adult human prostatic epithelial cell lines immortalized by human papillomavirus 18.

    PubMed

    Bello, D; Webber, M M; Kleinman, H K; Wartinger, D D; Rhim, J S

    1997-06-01

    Prostate cancer and benign tumors of the prostate are the two most common neoplastic diseases in men in the United States, however, research on their causes and treatment has been slow because of the difficulty in obtaining fresh samples of human tissue and a lack of well characterized cell lines which exhibit growth and differentiation characteristics of normal prostatic epithelium. Non-neoplastic adult human prostatic epithelial cells from a white male donor were immortalized with human papillomavirus 18 which resulted in the establishment of the RWPE-1 cell line. Cells from the RWPE-1 cell line were further transformed by v-Ki-ras to establish the RWPE-2 cell line. The objectives of this study were to: (1) establish the prostatic epithelial origin and androgen responsiveness of RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cell lines; (2) examine their response to growth factors; and (3) establish the malignant characteristics of the RWPE-2 cell line. Immunoperoxidase staining showed that both RWPE-1 and RWPE-2 cells express cytokeratins 8 and 18, which are characteristic of luminal prostatic epithelial cells, but they also coexpress basal cell cytokeratins. These cell lines show growth stimulation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) expression in response to the synthetic androgen mibolerone, which establishes their prostatic epithelial origin. Both cell lines also show a dose-dependent growth stimulation by EGF and bFGF and growth inhibition when exposed to TGF-beta, however, the transformed RWPE-2 cells are less responsive. RWPE-1 cells neither grow in agar nor form tumors when injected into nude mice with or without Matrigel. However, RWPE-2 cells form colonies in agar and tumors in nude mice. In the in vitro invasion assay, RWPE-1 cells are not invasive whereas RWPE-2 cells are invasive. Nuclear expression of p53 and Rb proteins was heterogeneous but detectable by immunostaining in both cell lines. The RWPE-1 cells, which show many normal cell

  1. GLO1 Overexpression in Human Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bair, Warner B; Cabello, Christopher M; Uchida, Koji; Bause, Alexandra S; Wondrak, Georg T

    2010-01-01

    Glyoxalase I [lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) encoded by GLO1] is a ubiquitous cellular defense enzyme involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. Accumulative evidence suggests an important role of GLO1 expression in protection against methylglyoxal-dependent protein adduction and cellular damage associated with diabetes, cancer, and chronological aging. Based on the hypothesis that GLO1 upregulation may play a functional role in glycolytic adaptations of cancer cells, we examined GLO1 expression status in human melanoma tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a cDNA tissue array containing 40 human melanoma tissues (stages III and IV) and 13 healthy controls revealed pronounced upregulation of GLO1 expression at the mRNA level. Immunohistochemical analysis of a melanoma tissue microarray confirmed upregulation of glyoxalase 1 protein levels in malignant melanoma tissue versus healthy human skin. Consistent with an essential role of GLO1 in melanoma cell defense against methylglyoxal cytotoxicity, siRNA interference targeting GLO1-expression (siGLO1) sensitized A375 and G361 human metastatic melanoma cells towards the antiproliferative, apoptogenic, and oxidative stress-inducing activity of exogenous methylglyoxal. Protein adduction by methylglyoxal was increased in siGLO1-transfected cells as revealed by immunodetection using a monoclonal antibody directed against the major methylglyoxal-derived epitope argpyrimidine that detected a single band of methylglyoxal-adducted protein in human LOX, G361, and A375 total cell lysates. Using 2D-proteomics followed by mass spectrometry the methylglyoxal-adducted protein was identified as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27; HSPB1). Taken together, our data suggest a function of GLO1 in the regulation of detoxification and target-adduction by the glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal in malignant melanoma. PMID:20093988

  2. Stiffness of benign and malignant prostate tissue measured by shear-wave elastography: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Melodelima, Christelle; Hoang Dinh, Au; Bratan, Flavie; Pagnoux, Gaele; Sanzalone, Thomas; Crouzet, Sébastien; Colombel, Marc; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Souchon, Rémi

    2017-05-01

    To measure benign and malignant prostate tissue stiffness using shear-wave elastography (SWE). Thirty consecutive patients underwent transrectal SWE in the axial and sagittal planes before prostatectomy. After reviewing prostatectomy specimens, two radiologists measured stiffness in regions corresponding to cancers, lateral and median benign peripheral zone (PZ) and benign transition zone (TZ). Cancers were stiffer than benign PZ and TZ. All tissue classes were stiffer on sagittal than on axial imaging, in TZ than in PZ, and in median PZ than in lateral PZ. At multivariate analysis, the nature of tissue (benign or malignant; P < 0.00001), the imaging plane (axial or sagittal; P < 0.00001) and the location within the prostate (TZ, median PZ or lateral PZ; P = 0.0065) significantly and independently influenced tissue stiffness. On axial images, the thresholds maximising the Youden index in TZ, lateral PZ and median PZ were respectively 62 kPa, 33 kPa and 49 kPa. On sagittal images, the thresholds were 76 kPa, 50 kPa and 72 kPa, respectively. SWE can distinguish prostate malignant and benign tissues. Tissue stiffness is influenced by the imaging plane and the location within the gland. • Prostate cancers were stiffer than the benign peripheral zone • All tissue classes were stiffer on sagittal than on axial imaging • All tissue classes were stiffer in the transition zone than in the peripheral zone • All tissue classes were stiffer in the median than in the lateral peripheral zone • Taking into account imaging plane and zonal anatomy can improve cancer detection.

  3. Sex Steroid Metabolism in Benign and Malignant Intact Prostate Biopsies: Individual Profiling of Prostate Intracrinology

    PubMed Central

    Gianfrilli, Daniele; Pierotti, Silvia; Leonardo, Costantino; Ciccariello, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies reveal that androgens, oestrogens, and their metabolites play a crucial role in prostate homeostasis. Most of the studies evaluated intraprostatic hormone metabolism using cell lines or preprocessed specimens. Using an ex vivo model of intact tissue cultures with preserved architecture, we characterized the enzymatic profile of biopsies from patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or cancer (PC), focusing on 17β-hydroxy-steroid-dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) and aromatase activities. Samples from 26 men who underwent prostate needle core biopsies (BPH n = 14; PC n = 12) were incubated with radiolabeled 3H-testosterone or 3H-androstenedione. Conversion was evaluated by TLC separation and beta-scanning of extracted supernatants. We identified three major patterns of conversion. The majority of BPHs revealed no active testosterone/oestradiol conversion as opposed to prostate cancer. Conversion correlated with histology and PSA, but not circulating hormones. Highest Gleason scores had a higher androstenedion-to-testosterone conversion and expression of 17β-HSD-isoenzymes-3/5. Conclusions. We developed an easy tool to profile individual intraprostatic enzymatic activity by characterizing conversion pathways in an intact tissue environment. In fresh biopsies we found that 17β-HSD-isoenzymes and aromatase activities correlate with biological behaviour allowing for morphofunctional phenotyping of pathology specimens and clinical monitoring of novel enzyme-targeting drugs. PMID:25184140

  4. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cátia; Catalán, Victoria; Hu, Pingzhao; Cunha, Virgínia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Fraga, Avelino; Príncipe, Paulo; Lobato, Carlos; Lobo, Francisco; Morais, António; Silva, Vitor; Sanches-Magalhães, José; Oliveira, Jorge; Pina, Francisco; Lopes, Carlos; Medeiros, Rui; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-09-25

    Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for prostate cancer progression.

  5. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Periprostatic (PP) adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW) and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean) and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia). Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated). Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis), whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH). Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable environment for

  6. Bradykinin promotes vascular endothelial growth factor expression and increases angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Shan; Wang, Shih-Wei; Chang, An-Chen; Tai, Huai-Ching; Yeh, Hung-I; Lin, Yu-Min; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2014-01-15

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a tendency for metastasis to distant organs. Angiogenesis is required for metastasis. Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator involved in tumor growth and metastasis, but its role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in human prostate cancer remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether BK promotes prostate cancer angiogenesis via VEGF expression. We found that exogenous BK increased VEGF expression in prostate cancer cells and further promoted tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Pretreatment of prostate cancer with B2 receptor antagonist or small interfering RNA (siRNA) reduced BK-mediated VEGF production. The Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways were activated after BK treatment, and BK-induced VEGF expression was abolished by the specific inhibitor and siRNA of the Akt and mTOR cascades. BK also promoted nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activity. Importantly, BK knockdown reduced VEGF expression and abolished prostate cancer cell conditional medium-mediated angiogenesis. Taken together, these results indicate that BK operates through the B2 receptor, Akt, and mTOR, which in turn activate NF-κB and AP-1, activating VEGF expression and contributing to angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.

  7. Cholesteryl esters in human malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Tosi, M R; Bottura, G; Lucchi, P; Reggiani, A; Trinchero, A; Tugnoli, V

    2003-01-01

    Cholesteryl esters (CholE) were detected in human malignant neoplasms by means of in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic analysis of the total lipid extracts obtained from cerebral tumors revealed appreciable amount of esterified cholesterol in high grade gliomas such as glioblastomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, characterized by prominent neovascularity. The finding that no CholE were detected in the healthy brain and in low grade and benign tumors supports a possible correlation between this class of lipids and histological vascular proliferation. Compared with high grade gliomas, renal cell carcinomas show higher levels of CholE, absent in the healthy renal parenchyma and in benign oncocytomas. In nefro-carcinomas, cytoplasmic lipid inclusions and prominent vascularization contribute to the increased levels of CholE present mainly as oleate. CholE are discussed as potential biochemical markers of cancer and as a target for new therapeutic strategies.

  8. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes.

  9. Response of Human Prostate Tissue to Hypofractionated Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Summary01-07-2011 Response of Human Prostate Tissue to Hypofractionated Ionizing Radiation Dr. Thomas Sroka University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85719 The aim...of this proposal is to determine the differences in radiobiological response of human prostate tissue to conventional and hypofractionated ...conventional and hypofractionated ionizing radiation. Data generated in the first year of study has shown that normal prostate tissue and prostate

  10. Virus, Oncolytic virus and Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang Bin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2016-12-15

    Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa. Traditional therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy are unable to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, which are a significant drawback and leads to toxicities for PCa patients undergoing treatment. So far, few other options are available for treating patients with advanced PCa. Virotherapy is being developed to be a novel therapy for cancers, which uses oncotropic and oncolytic viruses with their abilities to find and destroy malignant cells in the body. For PCa treatment, oncolytic virotherapy appears to be much more attractive, which uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cancer cell lysis through virus replication and expression of cytotoxic proteins. As oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents, several important barriers still exist on the road to the use of oncolytic viruses for PCa therapy. In this review, we first discuss the controversy of the contribution of virus infection to PCa, and subsequently summarize the development of oncolytic virotherapy for PCa in the past several years.

  11. Predicting Drug Response in Human Prostate Cancer from Preclinical Analysis of In Vivo Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanova, Antonina; Aytes, Alvaro; Zou, Min; Shen, Michael M; Abate-Shen, Cory; Califano, Andrea

    2015-09-29

    Although genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models are often used to evaluate cancer therapies, extrapolation of such preclinical data to human cancer can be challenging. Here, we introduce an approach that uses drug perturbation data from GEM models to predict drug efficacy in human cancer. Network-based analysis of expression profiles from in vivo treatment of GEM models identified drugs and drug combinations that inhibit the activity of FOXM1 and CENPF, which are master regulators of prostate cancer malignancy. Validation of mouse and human prostate cancer models confirmed the specificity and synergy of a predicted drug combination to abrogate FOXM1/CENPF activity and inhibit tumorigenicity. Network-based analysis of treatment signatures from GEM models identified treatment-responsive genes in human prostate cancer that are potential biomarkers of patient response. More generally, this approach allows systematic identification of drugs that inhibit tumor dependencies, thereby improving the utility of GEM models for prioritizing drugs for clinical evaluation.

  12. Melatonin as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth: potential mechanisms and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Chun W; Chan, Kwok W; Liu, Vincent W S; Pang, Bo; Yao, Kwok-Ming; Shiu, Stephen Y W

    2008-11-01

    Circannual variation in the human serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, a growth marker of the prostate gland, has been reported recently. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of the photoperiodic hormone melatonin (MLT) and its membrane receptors in the modulation of human prostate growth. Expression of MT(1) and MT(2) receptors was detected in benign human prostatic epithelial tissues and RWPE-1 cells. MLT and 2-iodomelatonin inhibited RWPE-1 cell proliferation and up-regulated p27(Kip1) gene and protein expression in the cells. The effects of MLT were blocked by the nonselective MT(1)/MT(2) receptor antagonist luzindole, but were not affected by the selective MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline. Of note, the antiproliferative action of MLT on benign prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells was effected via increased p27(Kip1) gene transcription through MT(1) receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in parallel, a signaling process which has previously been demonstrated in 22Rv1 prostate cancer cells. Taken together, the demonstration of the MT(1)/PKA+PKC/p27(Kip1) antiproliferative pathway in benign and malignant prostate epithelial cell lines indicated the potential importance of this MLT receptor-mediated signaling mechanism in growth regulation of the human prostate gland in health and disease. Collectively, our data support the hypothesis that MLT may function as a negative mitogenic hormonal regulator of human prostate epithelial cell growth.

  13. Hypoxia and Prx1 in Malignant Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    inorganic or organic selenium compounds to methylselenol (CH3SeH) is an essential step for selenium to exert its anti- cancer effect [64-66]. In the...whole animal (and in human), liver and kidney are the major organs for selenium metabo- lism. Methylselenolate is an avid protein redox modulator. At...physiological pH, methylselenol is present as anionic methylselenolate (CH3Se–). Depending on the redox poten- tial of the immediate microenvironment

  14. Hypoxia and Prx1 in Malignant Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    AR activation. Delineating the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia affects AR function will provide insight into the treatment resistance and... functional significance of the increased AR-ARE complex by hypoxia. PSA is one of the best- characterized genes regulated by AR. Since LNCaP cells...Accomplishments Cloning and characterization of the human Prx1 promoter Identifying the critical regulatory components responsible for Prx1 up-regulation

  15. GEOPHYSICS, ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS: Second-harmonic generation as a DNA malignancy indicator of prostate glandular epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Zheng-Fei; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Zhuo, Shuang-Mu; Yu, Bi-Ying; Deng, Xiao-Yuan

    2010-04-01

    This paper first demonstrates second-harmonic generation (SHG) in the intact cell nucleus, which acts as an optical indicator of DNA malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells. Within a scanning region of 2.7 μm×2.7 μm in cell nuclei, SHG signals produced from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (PC) tissues (mouse model C57BL/6) have been investigated. Statistical analyses (t test) of a total of 405 measurements (204 nuclei from BPH and 201 nuclei from PC) show that SHG signals from BPH and PC have a distinct difference (p < 0.05), suggesting a potential optical method of revealing very early malignancy in prostate glandular epithelial cells based upon induced biochemical and/or biophysical modifications in DNA.

  16. Immunoprevention of human papillomavirus-associated malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Wang1, Joshua W.; Hung, Chein-fu; Huh, Warner K.; Trimble, Cornelia L.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection by one of fifteen high risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) types is a necessary but not sufficient cause of 5% of all human cancers. This provides a remarkable opportunity for cancer prevention via immunization. Since Harald zur Hausen’s pioneering identification of hrHPV types 16 and 18, found in ~50% and ~20% of cervical cancers respectively, two prophylactic HPV vaccines containing virus-like particles (VLP) of each genotype have been widely licensed. These vaccines are beginning to impact infection and HPV-associated neoplasia rates after immunization campaigns in adolescents. Here we review recent progress and opportunities to better prevent HPV-associated cancers, including: broadening immune-protection to cover all hrHPV types, reducing the cost of HPV vaccines especially for developing countries that have the highest rates of cervical cancer, and immune-based treatment of established HPV infections. Screening based upon George Papanicolaou’s cervical cytology testing, and more recently detection of hrHPV DNA/RNA, followed by ablative treatment of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3) have substantially reduced cervical cancer rates, and we examine their interplay with immune-based modalities for the prevention and eventual elimination of cervical cancer and other HPV-related malignancies. PMID:25488410

  17. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging of Human Prostates ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Liang; Madden, John; Foo, Wen-Chi; Palmeri, Mark L.; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Polascik, Thomas J.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been challenging for clinicians using current imaging modalities to visualize internal structures and detect lesions inside human prostates. Lack of contrast among prostatic tissues and high false positive or negative detection rates of prostate lesions have limited the use of current imaging modalities in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In this study, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging is introduced to visualize the anatomic and abnormal structures in freshly excised human prostates. A modified Siemens Antares™ ultrasound scanner and a Siemens VF10-5 linear array were used to acquire ARFI images. The transducer was attached to a three-dimensional (3D) translation stage, which was programmed to automate volumetric data acquisition. A depth dependent gain (DDG) method was developed and applied to 3D ARFI datasets to compensate for the displacement gradients associated with spatially varying radiation force magnitudes as a function of depth. Nine human prostate specimens were collected and imaged immediately after surgical excision. Prostate anatomical structures such as seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, peripheral zone, central zone, transition zone and verumontanum were visualized with high spatial resolution and in good agreement with McNeal's zonal anatomy. The characteristic appearance of prostate pathologies, such as prostate cancerous lesions, benign prostatic hyperplasia, calcified tissues and atrophy were identified in ARFI images based upon correlation with the corresponding histological slides. This study demonstrates that ARFI imaging can be used to visualize internal structures and detecting suspicious lesions in the prostate and appears promising for image guidance of prostate biopsy. PMID:20350685

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Vitamin D 24-Hydroxylase/CYP24A1 in Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Karpf, Adam R.; Deeb, Kristin K.; Muindi, Josephia R.; Morrison, Carl D.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcitriol, a regulator of calcium homeostasis with antitumor properties, is degraded by the product of the CYP24A1 gene which is downregulated in human prostate cancer by unknown mechanisms. We found that CYP24A1 expression is inversely correlated with promoter DNA methylation in prostate cancer cell lines. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC) activates CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells. In vitro methylation of the CYP24A1 promoter represses its promoter activity. Furthermore, inhibition of histone deacetylases by trichostatin A (TSA) enhances the expression of CYP24A1 in prostate cancer cells. ChIP-qPCR reveals that specific histone modifications are associated with the CYP24A1 promoter region. Treatment with TSA increases H3K9ac and H3K4me2 and simultaneously decreases H3K9me2 at the CYP24A1 promoter. ChIP-qPCR assay reveals that treatment with DAC and TSA increases the recruitment of VDR to the CYP24A1 promoter. RT-PCR analysis of paired human prostate samples reveals that CYP24A1 expression is down-regulated in prostate malignant lesions compared to adjacent histologically benign lesions. Bisulfite pyrosequencing shows that CYP24A1 gene is hypermethylated in malignant lesions compared to matched benign lesions. Our findings indicate that repression of CYP24A1 gene expression in human prostate cancer cells is mediated in part by promoter DNA methylation and repressive histone modifications. PMID:20587525

  19. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus DNA in prostate carcinomas in patients from northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo-Neto, Ari P.; Ferreira-Fernandes, Hygor; Amaral, Carolina M.M.; Santos, Lina G.; Freitas, Antônio C.; Silva-Neto, Jacinto C.; Rey, Juan A.; Burbano, Rommel R.; da Silva, Benedito B.; Yoshioka, France K.N.; Pinto, Giovanny R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in western populations, and despite its high mortality, its etiology remains unknown. Inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of various types of tumors, and prostate inflammation, in particular, has been associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with benign and malignant lesions in the anogenital tract of both females and males. The possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV infections in prostate carcinomas of patients from northeastern Brazil. This study included 104 tissue samples from primary prostate carcinoma cases. HPV DNA was purified and then amplified using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ degenerate primer sets that detect a wide range of HPV types, and with specific PCR primers sets for E6 and E7 HPV regions to detect HPV 16. None of the samples showed amplification products of HPV DNA for primer sets MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+, or the specific primer set for the E6 and E7 HPV regions. HPV infection, thus, does not seem to be one of the causes of prostate cancer in the population studied. PMID:27007894

  20. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus DNA in prostate carcinomas in patients from northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Neto, Ari P; Ferreira-Fernandes, Hygor; Amaral, Carolina M M; Santos, Lina G; Freitas, Antônio C; Silva-Neto, Jacinto C; Rey, Juan A; Burbano, Rommel R; Silva, Benedito B da; Yoshioka, France K N; Pinto, Giovanny R

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in western populations, and despite its high mortality, its etiology remains unknown. Inflammatory processes are related to the etiology of various types of tumors, and prostate inflammation, in particular, has been associated with prostate cancer carcinogenesis and progression. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with benign and malignant lesions in the anogenital tract of both females and males. The possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis is a subject of great controversy. In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of HPV infections in prostate carcinomas of patients from northeastern Brazil. This study included 104 tissue samples from primary prostate carcinoma cases. HPV DNA was purified and then amplified using MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+ degenerate primer sets that detect a wide range of HPV types, and with specific PCR primers sets for E6 and E7 HPV regions to detect HPV 16. None of the samples showed amplification products of HPV DNA for primer sets MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+, or the specific primer set for the E6 and E7 HPV regions. HPV infection, thus, does not seem to be one of the causes of prostate cancer in the population studied.

  1. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  2. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women?

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy, which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. In this case-control study, ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with Histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut-off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 with sensitivity and specificity of 100%, 100% (area under the curve [AUC] =1, P < 0.001) and the best cut-off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% (AUC = 1, P < 0.001). After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.08, P < 0.001). Serum PSA level could be applied for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses.

  3. Characterization of normal and malignant prostate tissue by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pezzei, Christine; Pallua, Johannes D; Schaefer, Georg; Seifarth, Christof; Huck-Pezzei, Verena; Bittner, Lukas K; Klocker, Helmut; Bartsch, Georg; Bonn, Guenther K; Huck, Christian W

    2010-11-01

    Prostate cancer has become one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Morphological and histomorphological evaluation of this disease is a well established technique for the cancer classification and has remained relatively unchanged since several decades, although it remains a time consuming and subjective technique, with unsatisfactory levels of inter- and intra-observer discrepancy. Novel approaches for histological recognition are necessary to identify and to investigate cancer in detail. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has become an essential tool for the detection, identification and characterization of the molecular components of biological processes, such as those responsible for the dynamic properties of cancer progression. Major advantage of this new technique is the acquisition of local molecular expression profiles while maintaining the topographic integrity of the tissue and avoiding time-consuming extraction, purification and separation steps. By using this method it is possible to investigate the spatial distribution of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, cholesterols, nucleic acids, phospholipids and small molecules within biological systems by in situ analysis of tissue sections. We applied this technique on prostate cancer patients radical prostatectomy specimens in order to develop new tools for histomorphological analysis and the characterization of snap frozen prostate cancer tissues. As a first step, an optimization of sample preparation, tissue section thickness and IR slide material was performed. Special preparation methods for FTIR imaging are the essential requirements to maintain the spatial arrangement of compounds and avoid delocalization and degradation of the analytes. Subsequently, selected cancer samples were characterized with the prior optimized parameters and analyzed by univariate and cluster analysis. For the interpretation and calibration of the system we correlated the FTIR-images with the

  4. Metastasis in urothelial carcinoma mimicking prostate cancer metastasis in Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a case of synchronous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Gurudutt; Gandhi, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in man. It commonly presents with urinary symptoms, bone pain, or diagnosed with elevated prostate-specific antigen.(PSA) levels. Correct staging and early diagnosis of recurrence by a precise imaging tool are the keys for optimum management. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer with Ga-68 prostate-specific membrane antigen.(PSMA), positron emission tomography-computed tomography.(PET-CT) has recently received significant attention and frequently used with a signature to prostate cancer-specific remark. However, this case will highlight the more cautious use of it. A-72-year-old male treated earlier for synchronous double malignancy.(invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma right ureter and carcinoma prostate) presented with rising PSA.(0.51.ng/ml) and referred for Ga-68 PSMA PET-CT, which showed a positive enlarged left supraclavicular lymph node. Lymph node biopsy microscopic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed metastatic carcinoma favoring urothelial origin. Specificity of PSMA scan to prostate cancer has been seen to be compromised in a certain situation mostly due to neoangiogenesis, and false positives emerged in renal cell cancer, differentiated thyroid cancer, glioblastoma, breast cancer brain metastasis, and paravertebral schwannomas. Understanding the causes of false positive will further enhance the confidence of interpretating PSMA scans.

  5. Human herpesvirus 6 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenetic roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 in lymphoproliferative diseases have been of continued interest. Many molecular studies have tried to establish a pathogenic role for HHV-6 in lymphoid malignancies. However, whether HHV-6 plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear, as positive polymerase chain reaction results for HHV-6 in those studies may reflect latent infection or reactivation rather than presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic cells. A small number of studies have investigated HHV-6 antigen expression in pathologic specimens. As a result, the lack of HHV-6 antigen expression on neoplastic cells argues against any major pathogenic role of HHV-6. The role of HHV-6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has also been of interest but remains controversial, with 2 studies documenting higher levels of HHV-6 antibody in ALL patients, and another 2 large-scale studies finding no significant differences in HHV-6 seroprevalences between ALL patients and controls. Alternatively, HHV-6 is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. HHV-6 reactivation is common among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and is linked to various clinical manifestations. In particular, HHV-6 encephalitis appears to be significant, life-threatening complication. Most HHV-6 encephalitis develops in patients receiving transplant from an unrelated donor, particularly cord blood, typically around the time of engraftment. Symptoms are characterized by short-term memory loss and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows limbic encephalitis. Prognosis for HHV-6 encephalitis is poor, but appropriate prophylactic measures have not been established. Establishment of preventive strategies against HHV-6 encephalitis represents an important challenge for physicians involved with SCT.

  6. Second malignancies after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Mahar, Alyson L; Choo, Richard; Herschorn, Sender; Kodama, Ronald T; Shah, Prakesh S; Danjoux, Cyril; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between exposure to radiotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer and subsequent second malignancies (second primary cancers). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Data sources Medline and Embase up to 6 April 2015 with no restrictions on year or language. Study selection Comparative studies assessing the risk of second malignancies in patients exposed or unexposed to radiotherapy in the course of treatment for prostate cancer were selected by two reviewers independently with any disagreement resolved by consensus. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Outcomes were synthesized with random effects models and Mantel-Haenszel weighting. Unadjusted odds ratios and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios, when available, were pooled. Main outcome measures Second cancers of the bladder, colorectal tract, rectum, lung, and hematologic system. Results Of 3056 references retrieved, 21 studies were selected for analysis. Most included studies were large multi-institutional reports but had moderate risk of bias. The most common type of radiotherapy was external beam; 13 studies used patients treated with surgery as controls and eight used patients who did not undergo radiotherapy as controls. The length of follow-up among studies varied. There was increased risk of cancers of the bladder (four studies; adjusted hazard ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.55 to 1.80), colorectum (three studies; 1.79, 1.34 to 2.38), and rectum (three studies; 1.79, 1.34 to 2.38), but not cancers of the hematologic system (one study; 1.64, 0.90 to 2.99) or lung (two studies; 1.45, 0.70 to 3.01), after radiotherapy compared with the risk in those unexposed to radiotherapy. The odds of a second cancer varied depending on type of radiotherapy: treatment with external beam radiotherapy was

  7. Intercellular crosstalk in human malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Dvořánková, Barbora; Szabo, Pavol; Kodet, Ondřej; Strnad, Hynek; Kolář, Michal; Lacina, Lukáš; Krejčí, Eliška; Naňka, Ondřej; Šedo, Aleksi; Smetana, Karel

    2017-05-01

    Incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing globally. While the initial stages of tumors can be easily treated by a simple surgery, the therapy of advanced stages is rather limited. Melanoma cells spread rapidly through the body of a patient to form multiple metastases. Consequently, the survival rate is poor. Therefore, emphasis in melanoma research is given on early diagnosis and development of novel and more potent therapeutic options. The malignant melanoma is arising from melanocytes, cells protecting mitotically active keratinocytes against damage caused by UV light irradiation. The melanocytes originate in the neural crest and consequently migrate to the epidermis. The relationship between the melanoma cells, the melanocytes, and neural crest stem cells manifests when the melanoma cells are implanted to an early embryo: they use similar migratory routes as the normal neural crest cells. Moreover, malignant potential of these melanoma cells is overdriven in this experimental model, probably due to microenvironmental reprogramming. This observation demonstrates the crucial role of the microenvironment in melanoma biology. Indeed, malignant tumors in general represent complex ecosystems, where multiple cell types influence the growth of genetically mutated cancer cells. This concept is directly applicable to the malignant melanoma. Our review article focuses on possible strategies to modify the intercellular crosstalk in melanoma that can be employed for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Human Prostate Side Population Cells Demonstrate Stem Cell Properties in Recombination with Urogenital Sinus Mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Barbara A.; Gangavarapu, Kalyan J.; Mathew, Grinu; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Morrison, Carl D.; Miller, Austin; Huss, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell enrichment provides a tool to examine prostate stem cells obtained from benign and malignant tissue. Functional assays can enrich stem cells based on common stem cell phenotypes, such as high ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter mediated efflux of Hoechst substrates (side population assay). This functional assay is based upon mechanisms that protect cells from environmental insult thus contributing to the survival and protection of the stem cell population. We have isolated and analyzed cells digested from twelve clinical prostate specimens based on the side population assay. Prostate stem cell properties of the isolated cells were tested by serial recombination with rat urogenital mesenchyme. Recombinants with side population cells demonstrate an increase in the frequency of human ductal growth and the number of glands per recombinant when compared to recombinants with non-side population cells. Isolated cells were capable of prostatic growth for up to three generations in the recombination assay with as little as 125 sorted prostate cells. The ability to reproducibly use cells isolated by fluorescence activated cell sorting from human prostate tissue is an essential step to a better understanding of human prostate stem cell biology. ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2) was expressed in recombinants from side population cells indicating the side population cells have self-renewal properties. Epithelial cell differentiation of recombinants was determined by immunohistochemical analysis for expression of the basal, luminal, and neuroendocrine markers, p63, androgen receptor, prostate specific antigen, and chromogranin A, respectively. Thus, the ABCG2 expressing side population demonstrates multipotency and self-renewal properties indicating stem cells are within this population. PMID:23383057

  9. Hypomethylation of DNA from Benign and Malignant Human Colon Neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelz, Susan E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Feinberg, Andrew P.

    1985-04-01

    The methylation state of DNA from human colon tissue displaying neoplastic growth was determined by means of restriction endonuclease analysis. When compared to DNA from adjacent normal tissue, DNA from both benign colon polyps and malignant carcinomas was substantially hypomethylated. With the use of probes for growth hormone, γ -globin, α -chorionic gonadotropin, and γ -crystallin, methylation changes were detected in all 23 neoplastic growths examined. Benign polyps were hypomethylated to a degree similar to that in malignant tissue. These results indicate that hypomethylation is a consistent biochemical characteristic of human colonic tumors and is an alteration in the DNA that precedes malignancy.

  10. Is it possible to model the risk of malignancy of focal abnormalities found at prostate multiparametric MRI?

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Papillard, Matthieu; Girouin, Nicolas; Boutier, Romain; Rabilloud, Muriel; Riche, Benjamin; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Colombel, Marc; Gelet, Albert

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether focal abnormalities (FAs) depicted by prostate MRI could be characterised using simple semiological features. 134 patients who underwent T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI at 1.5 T before prostate biopsy were prospectively included. FAs visible at MRI were characterised by their shape, the degree of signal abnormality (0 = normal to 3 = markedly abnormal) on individual MR sequences, and a subjective score (SS(1) = probably benign to SS(3) = probably malignant). FAs were then biopsied under US guidance. 56/233 FAs were positive at biopsy. The subjective score significantly predicted biopsy results (P < 0.01). As compared to SS(1) FAs, the odds ratios (OR) of malignancy of SS(2) and SS(3) FAs were 9.9 (1.8-55.9) and 163.8 (11.5-2331). Unlike FAs' shape, a simple combination of MR signal abnormalities (into "low-risk", "intermediate" and "high-risk" groups) significantly predicted biopsy results (P < 0.008). As compared to "low risk" FAs, the OR of malignancy of "intermediate" and "high-risk" FAs were 4.5 (1.1-18.4) and 52.7 (6.8-407) in the overall population and 5.4 (1.1-27.2) and 118.2 (6.1-2301) in PZ. A simple combination of signal abnormalities of individual MR sequences can significantly stratify the risk of malignancy of FAs, holding promise of a more standardised interpretation of MRI by readers with varying experience. • Using multiparameter(mp)-MRI, experienced uroradiologists can stratify the malignancy risk of prostatic lesions • The shape of prostatic focal abnormalities in the peripheral zone does not help predicting malignancy. • A simple combination of findings at mp-MRI can help less-experienced radiologists.

  11. Methylation of Integrin α4 and E-Cadherin Genes in Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi-Pour, Z; Kianpour, S; Dehghani, M; Mokarram, P; Torabinejad, S; Monabati, A

    2015-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in men worldwide. Abnormal epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and histone modification play an important role in tumor initiation, progression and regulation of cancer-related genes such as integrin α4 and E-cadherin. Expression of these genes was determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR in prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, before and after treatment with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A. Laser capture microdissection microscopy was used to obtain exclusively affected epithelial cells from prostate gland biopsies of 30 patients with prostate cancer and 40 with benign prostate hyperplasia. DNA bisulfite modifications followed by methylation-specific PCR were used to evaluate the promoter methylation status of E-cadherin and α4 integrin genes in extracted DNA from patients and aforementioned cell lines. The integrin α4 promoter in DU145 was fully methylated, whereas in PC3 cells, partial methylation was detected. E-cadherin was expressed in both cell lines; trichostatin A and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment had no effect on E-cadherin expression, however the combined treatment of both drugs or 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine alone increased integrin α4 expression. Integrin α4 and E-cadherin were hypermethylated in 66.6 % and 6.6 % of prostate cancer cases, respectively; no hypermethylation was observed in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. These results together suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is one of the mechanisms involved in integrin α4 expression and may play an important role in human prostate carcinogenesis. In addition, the higher rate of integrin α4 gene methylation in prostate cancer patients elects it as a potential molecular tumor marker.

  12. Functions of normal and malignant prostatic stem/progenitor cells in tissue regeneration and cancer progression and novel targeting therapies.

    PubMed

    Mimeault, Murielle; Mehta, Parmender P; Hauke, Ralph; Batra, Surinder K

    2008-04-01

    This review summarizes the recent advancements that have improved our understanding of the functions of prostatic stem/progenitor cells in maintaining homeostasis of the prostate gland. We also describe the oncogenic events that may contribute to their malignant transformation into prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells during cancer initiation and progression to metastatic disease stages. The molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the intrinsic or the acquisition of a resistant phenotype by the prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their differentiated progenies with a luminal phenotype to the current therapies and disease relapse are also reviewed. The emphasis is on the critical functions of distinct tumorigenic signaling cascades induced through the epidermal growth factor system, hedgehog, Wnt/beta-catenin, and/or stromal cell-derived factor-1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 pathways as well as the deregulated apoptotic signaling elements and ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter. Of particular therapeutic interest, we also discuss the potential beneficial effects associated with the targeting of these signaling elements to overcome the resistance to current treatments and prostate cancer recurrence. The combined targeted strategies toward distinct oncogenic signaling cascades in prostatic cancer stem/progenitor cells and their progenies as well as their local microenvironment, which could improve the efficacy of current clinical chemotherapeutic treatments against incurable, androgen-independent, and metastatic prostate cancers, are also described.

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A promising tool for the diagnostics of human prostate cancer?☆

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Johannes; DeFeo, Elita; Cheng, Leo L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate Cancer (CaP) is one of the topmost diagnosed malignant diseases worldwide. In developed countries, early cancer detection methods have led to an increase of incidence rates over the last decades; however, with great variance of the prognosis. There is no diagnostic tool for an exact prediction of tumor aggressiveness, thus there is a lack of adequate and optimal treatment planning. Methods Electronic databases (Medline, PubMed) were scanned for scientific literature. Basic concepts of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), important results and its clinical applications were extracted and reviewed in this article. Conclusions MRS provides crucial information about the metabolic status of human prostate samples while preserving the specimens for further investigations. Single metabolites and metabolomic profiles can be quantified to distinguish benign from malignant tissue and to predict aggressiveness, such as the recurrence rates of CaP. Studies are also anticipating that MRS might be beneficially applicable for in vivo investigations in the future. PMID:21930088

  14. Response of Human Prostate Tissue to Hypofractionated Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    hypofractionated ionizing radiation. PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Thomas C. Sroka, M.D., Ph.D...April 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Response of human prostate tissue to hypofractionated ionizing radiation. 5b. GRANT NUMBER...of this proposal was to determine the differences in radiobiological response of human prostate tissue to conventional and hypofractionated

  15. Neural protein gamma-synuclein interacting with androgen receptor promotes human prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gamma-synuclein (SNCG) has previously been demonstrated to be significantly correlated with metastatic malignancies; however, in-depth investigation of SNCG in prostate cancer is still lacking. In the present study, we evaluated the role of SNCG in prostate cancer progression and explored the underlying mechanisms. Methods First, alteration of SNCG expression in LNCaP cell line to test the ability of SNCG on cellular properties in vitro and vivo whenever exposing with androgen or not. Subsequently, the Dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to evaluate whether the role of SNCG in LNCaP is through AR signaling. Last, the association between SNCG and prostate cancer progression was assessed immunohistochemically using a series of human prostate tissues. Results Silencing SNCG by siRNA in LNCaP cells contributes to the inhibition of cellular proliferation, the induction of cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, the suppression of cellular migration and invasion in vitro, as well as the decrease of tumor growth in vivo with the notable exception of castrated mice. Subsequently, mechanistic studies indicated that SNCG is a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator. It interacts with AR and promotes prostate cancer cellular growth and proliferation by activating AR transcription in an androgen-dependent manner. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that SNCG was almost undetectable in benign or androgen-independent tissues prostate lesions. The high expression of SNCG is correlated with peripheral and lymph node invasion. Conclusions Our data suggest that SNCG may serve as a biomarker for predicting human prostate cancer progression and metastasis. It also may become as a novel target for biomedical therapy in advanced prostate cancer. PMID:23231703

  16. Proteomic characterization of paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines distinguishes them by structural proteins.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jennifer S; Vallega, Karin A; White, Jason; Yu, Kaixian; Yates, Clayton C; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2017-07-11

    While many factors may contribute to the higher prostate cancer incidence and mortality experienced by African-American men compared to their counterparts, the contribution of tumor biology is underexplored due to inadequate availability of African-American patient-derived cell lines and specimens. Here, we characterize the proteomes of non-malignant RC-77 N/E and malignant RC-77 T/E prostate epithelial cell lines previously established from prostate specimens from the same African-American patient with early stage primary prostate cancer. In this comparative proteomic analysis of RC-77 N/E and RC-77 T/E cells, differentially expressed proteins were identified and analyzed for overrepresentation of PANTHER protein classes, Gene Ontology annotations, and pathways. The enrichment of gene sets and pathway significance were assessed using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Signaling Pathway Impact Analysis, respectively. The gene and protein expression data of age- and stage-matched prostate cancer specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed. Structural and cytoskeletal proteins were differentially expressed and statistically overrepresented between RC-77 N/E and RC-77 T/E cells. Beta-catenin, alpha-actinin-1, and filamin-A were upregulated in the tumorigenic RC-77 T/E cells, while integrin beta-1, integrin alpha-6, caveolin-1, laminin subunit gamma-2, and CD44 antigen were downregulated. The increased protein level of beta-catenin and the reduction of caveolin-1 protein level in the tumorigenic RC-77 T/E cells mirrored the upregulation of beta-catenin mRNA and downregulation of caveolin-1 mRNA in African-American prostate cancer specimens compared to non-malignant controls. After subtracting race-specific non-malignant RNA expression, beta-catenin and caveolin-1 mRNA expression levels were higher in African-American prostate cancer specimens than in Caucasian-American specimens. The "ECM-Receptor Interaction" and "Cell Adhesion Molecules", and the

  17. Variations in activin receptor, inhibin/activin subunit and follistatin mRNAs in human prostate tumour tissues

    PubMed Central

    Schaik, R H N van; Wierikx, C D J; Timmerman, M A; Oomen, M H; Weerden, W M van; Kwast, T H van der; Steenbrugge, G J van; Jong, F H de

    1999-01-01

    The possible role of activin in the regulation of malignant prostatic growth was studied using RNAase protection assays of activin receptors, inhibin/activin subunits and follistatin mRNAs in the human prostatic carcinoma cell lines LNCaP-FGC, -R and -LNO, in human prostatic carcinoma xenografts and in human prostatic tissue. Activin receptor types IA (ActRIA), IB (ActRIB), IIA (ActRIIA) and IIB (ActRIIB) mRNAs were generally expressed in prostate pithelial cells, with significantly lower levels of ActRIB mRNA in prostate tumour aterial when compared to non-malignant tissue (P< 0.05; Mann–Whitney U -test). Inhibin/activin βA- and βB-subunit mRNA expression was also found in prostate tissue. Androgen-independent xenografts expressed significantly lower amounts of βB-subunit mRNA when compared to androgen-dependent xenografts (P< 0.05). While βB-subunit mRNA was expressed by LNCaP-FGC and -LNO cells, virtually no expression was found in the androgen-independent LNCaP-R line. Inhibin α-subunit mRNA levels were low or undetectable in all samples investigated. Follistatin mRNA was undetectable in LNCaP-sublines, while low levels were found in prostatic tissues. In androgen-independent LNCaP-R cells, activin inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that prostate tumour progression is accompanied by a decrease of the inhibitory effect of locally produced activin by either a decrease in the expression of activin βB-subunit mRNA or by a decrease of ActRIB mRNA levels. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638976

  18. Expression analysis onto microarrays of randomly selected cDNA clones highlights HOXB13 as a marker of human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, S; Campbell, C; Flohr, P; Shipley, J; Giddings, I; te-Poele, R; Dodson, A; Foster, C; Clark, J; Jhavar, S; Kovacs, G; Cooper, C S

    2004-01-01

    In a strategy aimed at identifying novel markers of human prostate cancer, we performed expression analysis using microarrays of clones randomly selected from a cDNA library prepared from the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Comparisons of expression profiles in primary human prostate cancer, adjacent normal prostate tissue, and a selection of other (nonprostate) normal human tissues, led to the identification of a set of clones that were judged as the best candidate markers of normal and/or malignant prostate tissue. DNA sequencing of the selected clones revealed that they included 10 genes that had previously been established as prostate markers: NKX3.1, KLK2, KLK3 (PSA), FOLH1 (PSMA), STEAP2, PSGR, PRAC, RDH11, Prostein and FASN. Following analysis of the expression patterns of all selected and sequenced genes through interrogation of SAGE databases, a further three genes from our clone set, HOXB13, SPON2 and NCAM2, emerged as additional candidate markers of human prostate cancer. Quantitative RT–PCR demonstrated the specificity of expression of HOXB13 in prostate tissue and revealed its ubiquitous expression in a series of 37 primary prostate cancers and 20 normal prostates. These results demonstrate the utility of this expression-microarray approach in hunting for new markers of individual human cancer types. PMID:15583692

  19. Expression analysis onto microarrays of randomly selected cDNA clones highlights HOXB13 as a marker of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S; Campbell, C; Flohr, P; Shipley, J; Giddings, I; Te-Poele, R; Dodson, A; Foster, C; Clark, J; Jhavar, S; Kovacs, G; Cooper, C S

    2005-01-31

    In a strategy aimed at identifying novel markers of human prostate cancer, we performed expression analysis using microarrays of clones randomly selected from a cDNA library prepared from the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Comparisons of expression profiles in primary human prostate cancer, adjacent normal prostate tissue, and a selection of other (nonprostate) normal human tissues, led to the identification of a set of clones that were judged as the best candidate markers of normal and/or malignant prostate tissue. DNA sequencing of the selected clones revealed that they included 10 genes that had previously been established as prostate markers: NKX3.1, KLK2, KLK3 (PSA), FOLH1 (PSMA), STEAP2, PSGR, PRAC, RDH11, Prostein and FASN. Following analysis of the expression patterns of all selected and sequenced genes through interrogation of SAGE databases, a further three genes from our clone set, HOXB13, SPON2 and NCAM2, emerged as additional candidate markers of human prostate cancer. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated the specificity of expression of HOXB13 in prostate tissue and revealed its ubiquitous expression in a series of 37 primary prostate cancers and 20 normal prostates. These results demonstrate the utility of this expression-microarray approach in hunting for new markers of individual human cancer types.

  20. Infrared absorption spectra of human malignant tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Butra, V. A.

    2008-05-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study the molecular structure of tissues from human organs removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material from breast, thyroid, and lung are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, a change occurs in the hydrogen bonds of protein macromolecules found in the tissue of the studied organs. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathology.

  1. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Taran, Ludmila; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostrate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. Ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 and the best cut off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19. After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 vs 0.3, p<0.001). Serum PSA level could be applied for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses.

  2. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, John K; Phillips, John W; Smith, Bryan A; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M; Shokat, Kevan M; Gustafson, W Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N

    2016-04-11

    MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance, and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention.

  3. N-Myc Drives Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Initiated from Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John K.; Phillips, John W.; Smith, Bryan A.; Park, Jung Wook; Stoyanova, Tanya; McCaffrey, Erin F.; Baertsch, Robert; Sokolov, Artem; Meyerowitz, Justin G.; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Gustafson, W. Clay; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY MYCN amplification and overexpression are common in neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC). However, the impact of aberrant N-Myc expression in prostate tumorigenesis and the cellular origin of NEPC have not been established. We define N-Myc and activated AKT1 as oncogenic components sufficient to transform human prostate epithelial cells to prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC with phenotypic and molecular features of aggressive, late-stage human disease. We directly show that prostate adenocarcinoma and NEPC can arise from a common epithelial clone. Further, N-Myc is required for tumor maintenance and destabilization of N-Myc through Aurora A kinase inhibition reduces tumor burden. Our findings establish N-Myc as a driver of NEPC and a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27050099

  4. Enhancement of drug sensitivity of human malignancies by epidermal growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Kröning, R.; Jones, J. A.; Hom, D. K.; Chuang, C. C.; Sanga, R.; Los, G.; Howell, S. B.; Christen, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have previously shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) enhances the in vitro and in vivo sensitivity of human ovarian carcinoma 2008 cells to cisplatin. EGF was found to enhance selectively the in vivo toxicity of cisplatin to 2008 cell xenografts without altering the toxicity of cisplatin to non-malignant target tissues such as the kidney or bone marrow. We now show that recombinant human EGF (rhEGF) enhances the cisplatin sensitivity of cell lines representative of many other types of malignancies in addition to ovarian carcinoma, including cancers of the head and neck, cervix, colon, pancreas and prostate, as well as non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. In addition, rhEGF was found to sensitise cells to other platinum-containing drugs and several other classes of chemotherapeutic agents. rhEGF sensitised 2008 cells not only to cisplatin, but also to carboplatin and tetraplatin, as well as taxol, melphalan and 5-fluorouracil. We conclude that modulation of drug sensitivity by rhEGF is observed in cell lines representative of many human malignancies and for multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents, indicating that it alters one or more components of the cellular damage response that are both common between cell lines and classes of drugs and fundamental to survival. Images Figure 2 PMID:7669570

  5. Catechol estrogens induce proliferation and malignant transformation in prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Hisham A; Tolba, Mai F; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-07-18

    In the current study, the non-transformed prostatic epithelial cells (BPH-1) were exposed to the catechol estrogens (CE) 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2) or 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), or the parent hormone 17-β-estradiol (E2) at an equimolar concentration (1μM) for a period of 6 weeks. It was found that both 2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2 have more potent proliferation-enhancing effect than E2. Exposure to 2-OHE2, 4-OHE2 or E2 resulted in a significant increase in the protein abundance of cyclin D1 and c-myc. The treated cells exhibited a shift toward the proliferative phase as indicated by FACScan. BPH-1 cells treated with 4-OHE2 showed increased abundance of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and its downstream IGF-1R. Reduced abundance of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ) and its downstream tumor suppressor FOXO-1 were observed in cells exposed to E2, 2-OHE2 and, to a greater extent, 4-OHE2. Comet assay revealed that CE, especially 4-OHE2, elicited significant genotoxic effects as compared to E2. 4-OHE2 showed greater ability to neoplastically transform BPH-1 cells as indicated by increased colony forming capacity in soft agar and matrix invasion. In conclusion, in vitro exposure to CE could neoplastically transform human prostatic epithelial cells. Further, 4-OHE2 is more carcinogenic to prostate epithelial cells than the parent hormone E2.

  6. Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hoon Young; Byun, Jonghoe

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed. PMID:24009853

  7. Androgen Regulated Genes in Human Prostate Xenografts in Mice: Relation to BPH and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Love, Harold D.; Booton, S. Erin; Boone, Braden E.; Breyer, Joan P.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Revelo, Monica P.; Shappell, Scott B.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate carcinoma (CaP) are linked to aging and the presence of androgens, suggesting that androgen regulated genes play a major role in these common diseases. Androgen regulation of prostate growth and development depends on the presence of intact epithelial-stromal interactions. Further, the prostatic stroma is implicated in BPH. This suggests that epithelial cell lines are inadequate to identify androgen regulated genes that could contribute to BPH and CaP and which could serve as potential clinical biomarkers. In this study, we used a human prostate xenograft model to define a profile of genes regulated in vivo by androgens, with an emphasis on identifying candidate biomarkers. Benign transition zone (TZ) human prostate tissue from radical prostatectomies was grafted to the sub-renal capsule site of intact or castrated male immunodeficient mice, followed by the removal or addition of androgens, respectively. Microarray analysis of RNA from these tissues was used to identify genes that were; 1) highly expressed in prostate, 2) had significant expression changes in response to androgens, and, 3) encode extracellular proteins. A total of 95 genes meeting these criteria were selected for analysis and validation of expression in patient prostate tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of these genes were measured in pooled RNAs from human prostate tissues with varying severity of BPH pathologic changes and CaP of varying Gleason score. A number of androgen regulated genes were identified. Additionally, a subset of these genes were over-expressed in RNA from clinical BPH tissues, and the levels of many were found to correlate with disease status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility, and some of the problems, of using a mouse xenograft model to characterize the androgen regulated expression profiles of intact human prostate tissues. PMID:20027305

  8. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  9. Voltage-gated sodium channels were differentially expressed in human normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bin; Dong, Mei; Tang, He; Wang, Na; Zhang, Jin; Yan, Changqing; Jiao, Xiaocui; Zhang, Hailin; Wang, Chuan

    2014-07-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are expressed not only in excitable cells but also in numerous metastatic cells, particularly in certain types of cancer cells. In some types of cancer, including prostate cancer, the expression of VGSCs is associated with cancer migration, invasion and metastasis in vivo. However, the detailed expression profiles of VGSC α subunits in normal human prostate, in prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer remain controversial. In the present study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to systematically detect all subtypes of VGSC α subunits in normal human prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer cells. The expression profile of VGSC α subunits was observed to differ between these cell types. Nav1.5 was the major isoform expressed in normal human prostate tissue, while Nav1.5 and Nav1.2 were the predominant isoforms in BPH tissue. However, in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, two typical prostate cancer cell lines, Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 were abundantly expressed. By comparing the relative expression levels of Nav1.5, Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 in these cells, the mRNA levels of Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 were identified to be 6- to 27-fold higher in PC-3 and LNCaP cells than in either normal or BPH samples (P<0.05); however, Nav1.5 mRNA levels were relatively lower compared with those of Nav1.6 or Nav1.7 in all cells analyzed. To confirm whether Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 expression in cancer cells was functional, a patch-clamp technique was used to record whole-cell currents. A tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current was successfully recorded in PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. It was concluded that although all types of VGSC α subunits exhibited low expression levels in normal prostate and BPH cells, both Nav1.6 and Nav1.7 were significantly upregulated in the prostate cancer cell lines, suggesting these subtypes may be potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for certain types of prostate cancer in humans.

  10. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy.

    PubMed

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-02-14

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation.

  11. Giving AXL the axe: targeting AXL in human malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carl M; Balaji, Kavitha; Byers, Lauren Averett

    2017-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers. In the context of malignancy, evidence suggests that AXL overexpression drives wide-ranging processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition, tumour angiogenesis, resistance to chemotherapeutic and targeted agents, and decreased antitumor immune response. As a result, AXL is an attractive candidate not only as a prognostic biomarker in malignancy but also as a target for anticancer therapies. Several AXL inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. This article reviews the structure, regulation, and function of AXL; the role of AXL in the tumour microenvironment; the development of AXL as a therapeutic target; and areas of ongoing and future investigation. PMID:28072762

  12. Positive correlation between PEDF expression levels and macrophage density in the human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nelius, Thomas; Samathanam, Christina; Martinez-Marin, Dalia; Gaines, Natalie; Stevens, Jessica; Hickson, Johnny; de Riese, Werner; Filleur, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this study, we investigated the capacity of PEDF to modulate the recruitment and the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages both in vitro and in human prostate. METHODS Using Boyden chambers, we assessed PEDF effect on the migration of monocytes and chemically-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Normal, prostatitis and prostate cancer specimens were retrospectively selected and examined by immunohistochemistry for PEDF expression and infiltration of immune CD68+macrophagic cells. PEDF expression and macrophage density were then correlated with each other and clinicopathological parameters. M1 and M2 differentiation markers were quantified by qRT-PCR, western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS In chemotaxis, PEDF induced the migration of monocytes/macrophages. In immunohistochemistry, macrophages were markedly increased in prostatitis and malignant compared to normal tissues. PEDF was expressed at variable levels in the stroma and epithelium. PEDF mRNA was down-regulated in both prostate cancer and prostatitis compared to normal tissues. In correlation studies, macrophage density and PEDF expression were respectively positively and negatively associated with prostate size. Most importantly, PEDF expression positively correlated with macrophage density. Finally, PEDF stimulated the expression of iNOS, IL12 and TNFα; and inhibited IL10 and arginase 1 in mouse and human macrophages confirming a M1-type differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that PEDF acts directly on monocytes/macrophages by inducing their migration and differentiation into M1-type cells. These findings suggest a possible role of macrophages in PEDF anti-tumor properties and may support further development of PEDF-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23038613

  13. Tumor Initiation in Human Malignant Melanoma and Potential Cancer Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment. PMID:20184545

  14. Tumor initiation in human malignant melanoma and potential cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H

    2010-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointing to potential therapeutic promise of the CSC concept. Recent advances also show that CSCs can exert pro-angiogenic roles in tumor growth and serve immunomodulatory functions related to the evasion of host anti-tumor immunity. Thus, MMICs might initiate and sustain tumorigenic growth not only as a result of CSC-intrinsic self-renewal, differentiation and proliferative capacity, but also based on pro-tumorigenic interactions with the host environment.

  15. Human kallikrein 4 signal peptide induces cytotoxic T cell responses in healthy donors and prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ray; Woods, Katherine; D'Rozario, Rachael; Prue, Rebecca; Vari, Frank; Hardy, Melinda Y; Dong, Ying; Clements, Judith A; Hart, Derek N J; Radford, Kristen J

    2012-02-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising new treatment for patients with advanced prostate and ovarian cancer, but its application is limited by the lack of suitable target antigens that are recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Human kallikrein 4 (KLK4) is a member of the kallikrein family of serine proteases that is significantly overexpressed in malignant versus healthy prostate and ovarian tissue, making it an attractive target for immunotherapy. We identified a naturally processed, HLA-A*0201-restricted peptide epitope within the signal sequence region of KLK4 that induced CTL responses in vitro in most healthy donors and prostate cancer patients tested. These CTL lysed HLA-A*0201+ KLK4 + cell lines and KLK4 mRNA-transfected monocyte-derived dendritic cells. CTL specific for the HLA-A*0201-restricted KLK4 peptide were more readily expanded to a higher frequency in vitro compared to the known HLA-A*0201-restricted epitopes from prostate cancer antigens; prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP). These data demonstrate that KLK4 is an immunogenic molecule capable of inducing CTL responses and identify it as an attractive target for prostate and ovarian cancer immunotherapy.

  16. A comparison of vitamin D activity in paired non-malignant and malignant human breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Rachel J; Ho, Kristen; Jindal, Shalini; Manavis, Jim; Neilsen, Paul M; Pishas, Kathleen I; Rippy, Elisabeth; Bochner, Melissa; Kollias, James; Gill, P Grantley; Morris, Howard A; Callen, David F

    2012-10-15

    Links between a low vitamin D status and an increased risk of breast cancer have been observed in epidemiological studies. These links have been investigated in human tissue homogenates and cultured cell lines. We have used non-malignant, malignant and normal reduction mammoplasty breast tissues to investigate the biological and metabolic consequences of the application of vitamin D to intact ex vivo human breast tissue. Tissues were exposed to 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) (1,25D; active metabolite) and 25(OH)D (25D; pre-metabolite). Changes in mRNA expression and protein expression after vitamin D exposure were analysed. Results indicate that while responses in normal and non-malignant breast tissues are similar between individuals, different tumour tissues are highly variable with regards to their gene expression and biological response. Collectively, malignant breast tissue responds well to active 1,25D, but not to the inactive pre-metabolite 25D. This may have consequences for the recommendation of vitamin D supplementation in breast cancer patients.

  17. Isolation and analysis of discreet human prostate cellular populations

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Douglas W.; Aaron, LaTayia; Henry, Gervaise; Franco, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The use of lineage tracing in transgenic mouse models has revealed an abundance of subcellular phenotypes responsible for maintaining prostate homeostasis. The ability to use fresh human tissues to examine the hypotheses generated by these mouse experiments has been greatly enhanced by technical advances in tissue processing, flow cytometry and cell culture. We describe in detail the optimization of protocols for each of these areas to facilitate research on solving human prostate diseases through the analysis of human tissue. PMID:26546040

  18. Benzene and lymphohematopoietic malignancies in humans.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R B; Songnian, Y; Dosemeci, M; Linet, M

    2001-08-01

    Quantitative evaluations of benzene-associated risk for cancer have relied primarily on findings from a cohort study of highly exposed U.S. rubber workers. An epidemiologic investigation in China (NCI/CAPM study) extended quantitative evaluations of cancer risk to a broader range of benzene exposures, particularly at lower levels. We review the evidence implicating benzene in the etiology of hematopoietic disorders, clarify methodologic aspects of the NCI/CAPM study, and examine the study in the context of the broader literature on health effects associated with occupational benzene exposure. Quantitative relationships for cancer risk from China and the U.S. show a relatively smooth increase in risk for acute myeloid leukemia and related conditions over a broad dose range of benzene exposure (below 200 ppm-years mostly from the China study and above 200 ppm-years mostly from the U.S. study). Risks of acute myeloid leukemia and other malignant and nonmalignant hematopoietic disorders associated with benzene exposure in China are consistent with other information about benzene exposure, hematotoxicity, and cancer risk, extending evidence for hematopoietic cancer risks to levels substantially lower than had previously been established. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Influence of lycopene on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human prostate cancer and benign hyperplastic cells.

    PubMed

    Soares, Nathalia da Costa Pereira; Teodoro, Anderson Junger; Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Santos, Carlos Antonio do Nascimento; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Junior, Oswaldo Saback; Bianco, Mario; Junior, Antonio Palumbo; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Gimba, Etel Rodrigues Pereira; Borojevic, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men of the Western world. Lycopene has received attention because of its expcted potential to prevent cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of lycopene on cell viability, cell cycle, and apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells and benign prostate hyperplastic cells. Using MTT assay, we observed a decrease of cell viability in all cancer cell lines after treatment with lycopene, which decreased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase and increased in S and G2/M phases after 96 h of treatment in metastatic prostate cancer cell lineages. Flow citometry analysis of cell cycle revealed lycopene promoted cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase after 48 and 96 h of treatment in a primary cancer cell line. Using real time PCR assay, lycopene also induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells with altered gene expression of Bax and Bcl-2. No effect was observed in benign prostate hyperplasia cells. These results suggest an effect of lycopene on activity of human prostate cancer cells.

  20. Chromosomal structural variations during progression of a prostate epithelial cell line to a malignant metastatic state inactivate the NF2, NIPSNAP1, UGT2B17, and LPIN2 genes

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ankit; Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Hall, Ira M; Dutta, Anindya

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second highest cause of male cancer deaths in the United States. A significant number of tumors advance to a highly invasive and metastatic stage, which is typically resistant to traditional cancer therapeutics. In order to identify chromosomal structural variants that may contribute to prostate cancer progression we sequenced the genomes of a HPV-18 immortalized nonmalignant human prostate epithelial cell line, RWPE1, and compared it to its malignant, metastatic derivative, WPE1-NB26. There were a total of 34 large (>1 Mbp) and 38 small copy number variants (<100 kbp) in WPE1-NB26 that were not present in the precursor cell line. We also identified and validated 46 structural variants present in the two cell lines, of which 23 were unique to WPE1-NB26. Structural variants unique to the malignant cell line inactivated: (1) the neurofibromin2 (NF2) gene, a known tumor suppressor; (2) its neighboring gene NIPSNAP1, another putative tumor suppressor that inhibits TRPV6, an anti-apoptotic oncogene implicated in prostate cancer progression; (3) UGT2B17, a gene that inactivates dihydrotestosterone, a known activator of prostate cancer progression; and (4) LPIN2, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase and a co-factor of PGC1a that is important for lipid metabolism and for suppressing autoinflammation. Our results illustrate the value of comparing the genomes of defined related pairs of cell lines to discover chromosomal structural variants that may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:23792589

  1. SOCS2 correlates with malignancy and exerts growth-promoting effects in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoefer, Julia; Kern, Johann; Ofer, Philipp; Eder, Iris E; Schäfer, Georg; Dietrich, Dimo; Kristiansen, Glen; Geley, Stephan; Rainer, Johannes; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Klocker, Helmut; Culig, Zoran; Puhr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Deregulation of cytokine and growth factor signaling due to an altered expression of endogenous regulators is well recognized in prostate cancer (PCa) and other cancers. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) is a key regulator of the GH, IGF, and prolactin signaling pathways that have been implicated in carcinogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the expression patterns and functional significance of SOCS2 in PCa. Protein expression analysis employing tissue microarrays from two independent patient cohorts revealed a significantly enhanced expression in tumor tissue compared with benign tissue as well as association with Gleason score and disease progression. In vitro and in vivo assays uncovered the involvement of SOCS2 in the regulation of cell growth and apoptosis. Functionally, SOCS2 knockdown inhibited PCa cell proliferation and xenograft growth in a CAM assay. Decreased cell growth after SOCS2 downregulation was associated with cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In addition, we proved that SOCS2 expression is significantly elevated upon androgenic stimulation in androgen receptor (AR)-positive cell lines, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for high SOCS2 levels in PCa tissue. Consequently, SOCS2 expression correlated with AR expression in the malignant tissue of patients. On the whole, our study linked increased SOCS2 expression in PCa with a pro-proliferative role in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24280133

  2. Proteomic Upregulation of Fatty Acid Synthase and Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 and Identification of Cancer- and Race-Specific Pathway Associations in Human Prostate Cancer Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer S.; von Lersner, Ariana K.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    Protein profiling studies of prostate cancer have been widely used to characterize molecular differences between diseased and non-diseased tissues. When combined with pathway analysis, profiling approaches are able to identify molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer, group patients by cancer subtype, and predict prognosis. This strategy can also be implemented to study prostate cancer in very specific populations, such as African Americans who have higher rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality than other racial groups in the United States. In this study, age-, stage-, and Gleason score-matched prostate tumor specimen from African American and Caucasian American men, along with non-malignant adjacent prostate tissue from these same patients, were compared. Protein expression changes and altered pathway associations were identified in prostate cancer generally and in African American prostate cancer specifically. In comparing tumor to non-malignant samples, 45 proteins were significantly cancer-associated and 3 proteins were significantly downregulated in tumor samples. Notably, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (FABP5) were upregulated in human prostate cancer tissues, consistent with their known functions in prostate cancer progression. Aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) was also upregulated in tumor samples. The Metastasis Associated Protein 3 (MTA3) pathway was significantly enriched in tumor samples compared to non-malignant samples. While the current experiment was unable to detect statistically significant differences in protein expression between African American and Caucasian American samples, differences in overrepresentation and pathway enrichment were found. Structural components (Cytoskeletal Proteins and Extracellular Matrix Protein protein classes, and Biological Adhesion Gene Ontology (GO) annotation) were overrepresented in African American but not Caucasian American tumors. Additionally, 5

  3. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    following significant findings/observations: i) 3D culture of human prostate cancer cells with magnetic nanoparticles is not optimal for tumor initiation...include: magnetic nanoparticles and using a stable (non-transformed) human prostate fibroblast cell line as a feeder layer. The former uses inert magnetic... nanoparticles (3D Biosciences, Inc.) that passively diffuse into live cells that then allow 3D growth in an applied magnetic field1. Such a

  4. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    described in Task 1, was to expose pregnant female rats to vinclozolin and test if the inductive and instructive properties of the prostate stroma is...ethane dimethane sulphonate ) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health...BPH Benign prostate hyperplasia cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid DP Dorsal prostate EDC Endocrine disruptor E Estrogen FgF10

  5. High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Wendy K; Ngan, Christopher C; Amos, Timothy G; Edwards, Richard J; Swift, Joshua; Lutze-Mann, Louise; Shang, Fei; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2017-01-01

    Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer. HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26

  6. Relevance of lipids to heterotransplantation of human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Perez, R L; Mitchell, J R; Lozzio, B B

    1982-01-01

    Although the transplantation of human neoplasms in immunodeficient mice is now a well-established procedure, the majority of primary malignancies cannot be successfully maintained for long periods of time in adult athymic (nude) and asplenic-athymic (lasat) mice. Various lipids such as cholesterol, cholesterol oleate, stearic and palmitic acid esters markedly depress the RES phagocytic activity and immunocompetence of mammals. In view of the immunosuppressive properties of certain lipids and in order to graft and grow as many tumors as possible, further studies into the effects of lipids on the growth of heterotransplanted human tumors is warranted. Lipids may enhance local growth and facilitate the development of metastases rarely seen in nude and lasat mice bearing xenogeneic cancer cells. Lipids may accelerate human malignant cell proliferation in mice by both depressing further the defense of host and modifying the cancer cell membrane. The relationship of lipids to the onset and progression of 'spontaneous' tumors in humans is not known.

  7. DNA content and chromosomal composition of malignant human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bigner, S H; Bjerkvig, R; Laerum, O D

    1985-11-01

    A short review is given on DNA aberrations and chromosomal composition of malignant human gliomas. By flow cytometric DNA analysis, a wide range of different ploidies has been reported in biopsied gliomas, from diploid to strongly aneuploid nuclear DNA. However, with the preparation and analysis methods used so far, no clear relationship between the type of ploidy and histology or prognosis has been established. A high proportion of glioblastomas is near-diploid, indicating a high degree of biologic malignancy is not necessarily connected to aberration of the nuclear DNA content. It is possible that improved methods giving a higher degree of resolution will allow separation of the near-diploid populations of malignant human gliomas from normal diploid cells and permit the detection of subpopulations with small differences from the dominant DNA mode. Chromosomal studies of malignant gliomas have confirmed that the majority of them have near-diploid stemlines. These populations are seldom normal diploid, however, as both numerical and structural abnormalities are usually present. In addition, chromosomal analyses have shown that when gliomas are bimodal, the polyploid populations are usually doubled versions of the near-diploid ones. In contrast to the near-diploid populations that characterize biopsied malignant gliomas, both FCM studies and karyotyping have demonstrated that permanent cultured cell lines derived from malignant gliomas are usually near-triploid or near-tetraploid. Sequential karyotypic studies of these tumors from biopsy through establishment in vitro have shown an evolutionary pattern consisting of doubling of the original stemline, followed by gains or losses of individual chromosomes with new marker formation in late culture. Evaluation of biopsied malignant gliomas by karyotyping has also demonstrated that subgroups of them are characterized by specific numerical and structural deviations. These groupings may prove useful in predicting prognosis

  8. The human retrovirus XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Robert H; Nguyen, Carvell; Weight, Christopher J; Klein, Eric A

    2010-07-01

    Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is an authentic, newly recognized human retrovirus first identified in prostate cancer tissues from men with a deficiency in the innate immunity gene RNASEL. At present, studies have detected XMRV at widely different rates in prostate cancer cases (0-27%) and in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS; 0-67%). Indirect or direct modes of carcinogenesis by XMRV have been suggested depending on whether the virus was found in stroma or malignant epithelium. Viral replication in the prostate might be affected by androgens, which stimulate XMRV through a transcriptional enhancer site in viral DNA. By contrast, host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3 and tetherin, inhibit virus replication. Immune dysfunction mediated by XMRV has been suggested as a possible factor in CFS. Recent studies show that some existing antiretroviral drugs suppress XMRV infections and diagnostic assays are under development. Although other retroviruses of the same genus as XMRV (gammaretroviruses) cause cancer and neurological disease in animals, whether XMRV is a cause of either prostate cancer or CFS remains unknown. Emerging science surrounding XMRV is contributing to our knowledge of retroviral infections while focusing intense interest on two major human diseases.

  9. The molecular and cellular origin of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Packer, John R; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed male malignancy. Despite compelling epidemiology, there are no definitive aetiological clues linking development to frequency. Pre-malignancies such as proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) yield insights into the initiating events of prostate cancer, as they supply a background "field" for further transformation. An inflammatory aetiology, linked to recurrent prostatitis, and heterologous signalling from reactive stroma and infiltrating immune cells may result in cytokine addiction of cancer cells, including a tumour-initiating population also known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). In prostate tumours, the background mutational rate is rarely exceeded, but genetic change via profound sporadic chromosomal rearrangements results in copy number variations and aberrant gene expression. In cancer, dysfunctional differentiation is imposed upon the normal epithelial lineage, with disruption/disappearance of the basement membrane, loss of the contiguous basal cell layer and expansion of the luminal population. An initiating role for androgen receptor (AR) is attractive, due to the luminal phenotype of the tumours, but alternatively a pool of CSCs, which express little or no AR, has also been demonstrated. Indolent and aggressive tumours may also arise from different stem or progenitor cells. Castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains the inevitable final stage of disease following treatment. Time-limited effectiveness of second-generation anti-androgens, and the appearance of an AR-neuroendocrine phenotype imply that metastatic disease is reliant upon the plasticity of the CSC population, and indeed CSC gene expression profiles are most closely related to those identified in CRPCs.

  10. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Pelch, Katherine E.; Tokar, Erik J.; Merrick, B. Alex; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10 μM Cd for 11 weeks (CTPE) or 5 μM iAs for 29 weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (> 25-fold) and S100P (> 40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (> 15-fold) and NTM (> 1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • Cd and iAs are known human carcinogens, yet neither appears directly mutagenic. • Prior data suggest epigenetic modification plays a role in Cd or iAs induced cancer. • Altered methylation of four misregulated genes was found in Cd or iAs transformants. • The resulting altered gene expression may be relevant to cellular

  11. Expression in human prostate of drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes: association with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, J. A.; Martínez, C.; Olivera, M.; Gallardo, L.; Ladero, J. M.; Rosado, C.; Prados, J.; Rodriguez-Molina, J.; Resel, L.; Benítez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The role of two common polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and carcinogens was studied in relation to prostate cancer. The gene encoding one of these enzymes (NAT2) is located in an area where frequent allelic loss occurs in prostate cancer. Mutations at the genes CYP2D6 and NAT2 were analysed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction mapping in DNA from 94 subjects with prostate cancer and 160 male healthy control subjects. Eleven prostate specimens were analysed for genotype and enzymatic activities NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A by using the enzyme-specific substrates sulphamethazine and dextromethorphan. Enzyme activities with substrate specificities corresponding to NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A are present in human prostate tissue, with mean +/-s.d. activities of 4.8+/-4.4 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 156+/-91 and 112+/-72 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein respectively. The Km values for the prostate CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzyme activities corresponded to that of liver CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities, and the CYP2D6 enzyme activity is related to the CYP2D6 genotype. The N-acetyltransferase, in contrast, had a higher Km than NAT2 and was independent of the NAT2 genotype. The CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes, and an N-acetyltransferase activity that is independent of the regulation of the NAT2 gene, are expressed in human prostate tissue. The presence of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in human prostate with a high interindividual variability may be involved in the regulation of local levels of carcinogens and mutagens and may underlie interindividual differences in cancer susceptibility. Images Figure 1 PMID:9823980

  12. HCG variants, the growth factors which drive human malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    The term human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) refers to a group of 5 molecules, each sharing the common amino acid sequence but each differing in meric structure and carbohydrate side chain structure. The 5 molecules are each produced by separate cells and each having separate biological functions. hCG and sulfated hCG are hormones produced by placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and pituitary gonadotrope cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG is an autocrine produced by placental cytotrophoblast cells. Hyperglycosylated hCG drives malignancy in placental cancers, and in testicular and ovarian germ cell malignancies. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are autocrines produce by most advanced malignancies. These molecules, particularly the malignancy promoters are presented in this review on hCG and cancer. hCGβ and hyperglycosylated hCGβ are critical to the growth and invasion, or malignancy of most advanced cancers. In many ways, while hCG may appear like a nothing, a hormone associated with pregnancy, it is not, and may be at the center of cancer research. PMID:22206043

  13. Enoxacin penetration into human prostatic tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, M G; Roy, R; Lessard, C; Foucault, P

    1988-01-01

    Concurrent enoxacin concentrations in serum and prostatic tissue were determined in 14 patients. The mean ratios of enoxacin concentration in tissue over concentration in serum were 1.4 +/- 0.2 (standard error of the mean). The levels in serum and prostatic tissue were above the MICs for most urinary pathogens. PMID:3196004

  14. Xanthohumol impairs human prostate cancer cell growth and invasion and diminishes the incidence and progression of advanced tumors in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Venè, Roberta; Benelli, Roberto; Minghelli, Simona; Astigiano, Simonetta; Tosetti, Francesca; Ferrari, Nicoletta

    2012-12-06

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer, management of the disease, especially in the phase resistant to androgen ablation, remains a significant challenge. The long latency and high incidence of prostate carcinogenesis provides the opportunity to intervene with chemoprevention to prevent or eradicate prostate malignancies. In this study, we have used human hormone-resistant prostate cancer cells, DU145 and PC3, as an in vitro model to assess the efficacy of xanthohumol (XN) against cell growth, motility and invasion. We observed that treatment of prostate cancer cells with low micromolar doses of XN inhibits proliferation and modulates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and AKT phosphorylation leading to reduced cell migration and invasion. Oxidative stress by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was associated with these effects. Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) transgenic mice were used as an in vivo model of prostate adenocarcinoma. Oral gavage of XN, three times per week, beginning at 4 wks of age, induced a decrease in the average weight of the urogenital (UG) tract, delayed advanced tumor progression and inhibited the growth of poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma. The ability of XN to inhibit prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo suggests that XN may be a novel agent for the management of prostate cancer.

  15. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Involvement of human papillomavirus infections in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin

    2008-08-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are sexually transmitted and have been associated with several human carcinomas especially cervical and colorectal. On the other hand, a small number of studies have examined the presence of high-risk HPV in human prostate cancer tissues. Currently, the presence and role of high-risk HPV infections in prostate carcinogenesis remain unclear because of the limited number of investigations. This raises the question whether high-risk HPV infections play any role in human prostate cancer development. However, other investigators and our group were able to immortalize normal and cancer prostate epithelial cells in vitro by E6/E7 of HPV type 16. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that normal and cancer prostate epithelial cells are susceptible to persistent HPV infections; therefore, high-risk HPV infections play an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. We believe that an international collaboration of epidemiological studies and more molecular biology investigations are necessary to answer these important questions.

  17. Pim1 promotes human prostate cancer cell tumorigenicity and c-MYC transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The serine/threonine kinase PIM1 has been implicated as an oncogene in various human cancers including lymphomas, gastric, colorectal and prostate carcinomas. In mouse models, Pim1 is known to cooperate with c-Myc to promote tumorigenicity. However, there has been limited analysis of the tumorigenic potential of Pim1 overexpression in benign and malignant human prostate cancer cells in vivo. Methods We overexpressed Pim1 in three human prostate cell lines representing different disease stages including benign (RWPE1), androgen-dependent cancer (LNCaP) and androgen-independent cancer (DU145). We then analyzed in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity as well as the effect of Pim1 overexpression on c-MYC transcriptional activity by reporter assays and gene expression profiling using an inducible MYC-ER system. To validate that Pim1 induces tumorigenicity and target gene expression by modulating c-MYC transcriptional activity, we inhibited c-MYC using a small molecule inhibitor (10058-F4) or RNA interference. Results Overexpression of Pim1 alone was not sufficient to convert the benign RWPE1 cell to malignancy although it enhanced their proliferation rates when grown as xenografts in vivo. However, Pim1 expression enhanced the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenic potentials of the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145. Reporter assays revealed increased c-MYC transcriptional activity in Pim1-expressing cells and mRNA expression profiling demonstrated that a large fraction of c-MYC target genes were also regulated by Pim1 expression. The c-MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 suppressed the tumorigenicity of Pim1-expressing prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, 10058-F4 treatment also led to a reduction of Pim1 protein but not mRNA. Knocking-down c-MYC using short hairpin RNA reversed the effects of Pim1 on Pim1/MYC target genes. Conclusion Our results suggest an in vivo role of Pim1 in promoting prostate tumorigenesis although it displayed distinct oncogenic activities

  18. Pre-clinical Orthotopic Murine Model of Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shahryari, Varahram; Nip, Hannah; Saini, Sharanjot; Dar, Altaf A; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Colden, Melissa; Bucay, Nathan; Tabatabai, Laura Z; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-08-29

    To study the multifaceted biology of prostate cancer, pre-clinical in vivo models offer a range of options to uncover critical biological information about this disease. The human orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft mouse model provides a useful alternative approach for understanding the specific interactions between genetically and molecularly altered tumor cells, their organ microenvironment, and for evaluation of efficacy of therapeutic regimens. This is a well characterized model designed to study the molecular events of primary tumor development and it recapitulates the early events in the metastatic cascade prior to embolism and entry of tumor cells into the circulation. Thus it allows elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the initial phase of metastatic disease. In addition, this model can annotate drug targets of clinical relevance and is a valuable tool to study prostate cancer progression. In this manuscript we describe a detailed procedure to establish a human orthotopic prostate cancer xenograft mouse model.

  19. Hemoglobin enhances tissue factor expression on human malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, F A; Amirkhosravi, A; Amaya, M; Meyer, T; Biggerstaff, J; Desai, H; Francis, J L

    2001-04-01

    Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that complexes with factor VII/activated factor VII to initiate blood coagulation. TF may be expressed on the surface of various cells including monocytes and endothelial cells. Over-expression of TF in human tumor cell lines promotes metastasis. We recently showed that hemoglobin (Hb) forms a specific complex with TF purified from human malignant melanoma cells and enhances its procoagulant activity (PCA). To further study this interaction, we examined the effect of Hb on the expression of TF on human malignant (TF+) cells and KG1 myeloid leukemia (TF-) cells. Human melanoma A375 and J82 bladder carcinoma cells, which express TF at moderate and relatively high levels, respectively, were incubated with varying concentrations (0-1.5 mg/ml) of Hb. After washing, cells were analyzed for Hb binding and TF expression using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Hb bound to the cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased both TF expression and PCA. The human A375 malignant melanoma cells incubated with Hb (1 mg/ml) expressed up to six times more TF antigen than cells without Hb. This increase in TF expression and PCA of intact cells incubated with Hb was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide at a concentration of 10 microg/ml (P < 0.01). An increase in total cellular TF antigen content was demonstrated by specific immunoassay. In contrast, Hb (5 mg/ml) did not induce TF expression and PCA on KG1 cells as determined by flow cytometry and TF (FXAA) activity. We conclude that Hb specifically binds to TF-bearing malignant cells and increases their PCA. This effect seems to be at least partly due to de novo synthesis of TF and increased surface expression. However, the exact mechanism by which Hb binds and upregulates TF expression remains to be determined.

  20. Prostate pathology of genetically engineered mice: definitions and classification. The consensus report from the Bar Harbor meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Scott B; Thomas, George V; Roberts, Richard L; Herbert, Ron; Ittmann, Michael M; Rubin, Mark A; Humphrey, Peter A; Sundberg, John P; Rozengurt, Nora; Barrios, Roberto; Ward, Jerrold M; Cardiff, Robert D

    2004-03-15

    The Pathological Classification of Prostate Lesions in Genetically Engineered Mice (GEM) is the result of a directive from the National Cancer Institute Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium Prostate Steering Committee to provide a hierarchical taxonomy of disorders of the mouse prostate to facilitate classification of existing and newly created mouse models and the translation to human prostate pathology. The proposed Bar Harbor Classification system is the culmination of three meetings and workshops attended by various members of the Prostate Pathology Committee of the Mouse Models of Human Cancer Consortium. A 2-day Pathology Workshop was held at The Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, in October 2001, in which study sets of 93 slides from 22 GEM models were provided to individual panel members. The comparison of mouse and human prostate anatomy and disease demonstrates significant differences and considerable similarities that bear on the interpretation of the origin and natural history of their diseases. The recommended classification of mouse prostate pathology is hierarchical, and includes developmental, inflammatory, benign proliferative, and neoplastic disorders. Among the neoplastic disorders, preinvasive, microinvasive, and poorly differentiated neoplasms received the most attention. Specific criteria were recommended and will be discussed. Transitions between neoplastic states were of particular concern. Preinvasive neoplasias of the mouse prostate were recognized as focal, atypical, and progressive lesions. These lesions were designated as mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). Some atypical lesions were identified in mouse models without evidence of progression to malignancy. The panel recommended that mPIN lesions not be given histological grades, but that mPIN be further classified as to the absence or presence of documented associated progression to invasive carcinoma. Criteria for recognizing microinvasion, for classification of

  1. Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    DAMD17-02-1-0060 TITLE: Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles in Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Sarah Spiegel...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2 Jan 2002 – 31 Jul 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles ...important role in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer. Therefore, targeting this kinase, offers additional therapeutic benefits in treatment of

  2. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    for CB was added to the wells. Following several washes to remove unbound antibody-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution HRP (horse- radish ...prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 6: 3430-3433, 2000. 8 Guo Y, Sigman DB, Borkowski A and Kyprianou N: Racial differences in prostate cancer growth ...cystatins in tumor growth and progression. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler 1990;371 Suppl:193-198. 39. Yan S, Sloane BF. Molecular regulation of human cathepsin B

  3. Androgen-Sensitized Apoptosis of HPr-1AR Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Congcong; Dienhart, Jason A.; Bolton, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is crucial to the development and homeostasis of the prostate gland, and its dysregulation mediates common prostate pathologies. The mechanisms whereby AR regulates growth suppression and differentiation of luminal epithelial cells in the prostate gland and proliferation of malignant versions of these cells have been investigated in human and rodent adult prostate. However, the cellular stress response of human prostate epithelial cells is not well understood, though it is central to prostate health and pathology. Here, we report that androgen sensitizes HPr-1AR and RWPE-AR human prostate epithelial cells to cell stress agents and apoptotic cell death. Although 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment alone did not induce cell death, co-treatment of HPr-1AR cells with DHT and an apoptosis inducer, such as staurosporine (STS), TNFt, or hydrogen peroxide, synergistically increased cell death in comparison to treatment with each apoptosis inducer by itself. We found that the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer led to activation of the intrinsic/mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which is supported by robust cleavage activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Further, the dramatic depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential that we observed upon co-treatment with DHT and STS is consistent with increased mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) in the pro-apoptotic mechanism. Interestingly, the synergy between DHT and apoptosis inducer was abolished by AR antagonists and inhibitors of transcription and protein synthesis, suggesting that AR mediates pro-apoptotic synergy through transcriptional regulation of MOMP genes. Expression analysis revealed that pro-apoptotic genes (BCL2L11/BIM and AIFM2) were DHT-induced, whereas pro-survival genes (BCL2L1/BCL-XL and MCL1) were DHT-repressed. Hence, we propose that the net effect of these AR-mediated expression changes shifts the balance of BCL2-family proteins, such that

  4. Differential DNA methylation profile of key genes in malignant prostate epithelial cells transformed by inorganic arsenic or cadmium.

    PubMed

    Pelch, Katherine E; Tokar, Erik J; Merrick, B Alex; Waalkes, Michael P

    2015-08-01

    Previous work shows altered methylation patterns in inorganic arsenic (iAs)- or cadmium (Cd)-transformed epithelial cells. Here, the methylation status near the transcriptional start site was assessed in the normal human prostate epithelial cell line (RWPE-1) that was malignantly transformed by 10μM Cd for 11weeks (CTPE) or 5μM iAs for 29weeks (CAsE-PE), at which time cells showed multiple markers of acquired cancer phenotype. Next generation sequencing of the transcriptome of CAsE-PE cells identified multiple dysregulated genes. Of the most highly dysregulated genes, five genes that can be relevant to the carcinogenic process (S100P, HYAL1, NTM, NES, ALDH1A1) were chosen for an in-depth analysis of the DNA methylation profile. DNA was isolated, bisulfite converted, and combined bisulfite restriction analysis was used to identify differentially methylated CpG sites, which was confirmed with bisulfite sequencing. Four of the five genes showed differential methylation in transformants relative to control cells that was inversely related to altered gene expression. Increased expression of HYAL1 (>25-fold) and S100P (>40-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypomethylation near the transcriptional start site. Decreased expression of NES (>15-fold) and NTM (>1000-fold) in transformants was correlated with hypermethylation near the transcriptional start site. ALDH1A1 expression was differentially expressed in transformed cells but was not differentially methylated relative to control. In conclusion, altered gene expression observed in Cd and iAs transformed cells may result from altered DNA methylation status. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Potent anti-cancer effects of citrus peel flavonoids in human prostate xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Shu; Li, Shiming; Miyauchi, Yutaka; Suzawa, Michiko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Pan, Min-Hsiung

    2013-06-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. Fruit and vegetable consumption is a novel, non-toxic therapeutic approach that can be used to prevent and treat prostate cancer. Citrus peels and their extracts have been reported to have potent pharmacological activities and health benefits due to the abundance of flavonoids in citrus fruits, particularly in the peels. Our previous studies demonstrated that oral administration of Gold Lotion (GL), an extract of multiple varieties of citrus peels containing abundant flavonoids, including a large percentage of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), effectively suppressed azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic tumorigenesis. However, the efficacy of GL against prostate cancer has not yet been investigated. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of GL using a human prostate tumor xenograft mouse model. Our data demonstrated that treatment with GL by both intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection and oral administration dramatically reduced both the weights (57%-100% inhibition) and volumes (78%-94% inhibition) of the tumors without any observed toxicity. These inhibitory effects were accompanied by mechanistic down-regulation of the protein levels of inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2), metastasis (matrix metallopeptidase-2, MMP-2 and MMP-9), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), and proliferative molecules, as well as by the induction of apoptosis in prostate tumors. Our findings suggest that GL is an effective anti-cancer agent that may potentially serve as a novel therapeutic option for prostate cancer treatment.

  6. Quantification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) at sites of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brennen, W Nathaniel; Chen, Shuangling; Denmeade, Samuel R; Isaacs, John T

    2013-01-01

    Circulating bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs) have an innate tropism for tumor tissue in response to the inflammatory microenvironment present in malignant lesions. The prostate is bombarded by numerous infectious and inflammatory insults over a lifetime. Chronic inflammation is associated with CXCL12, CCL5, and CCL2, which are highly overexpressed in prostate cancer. Among other cell types, these chemoattractant stimuli recruit BM-MSCs to the tumor. MSCs are minimally defined as plastic-adhering cells characterized by the expression of CD90, CD73, and CD105 in the absence of hematopoietic markers, which can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs are immunoprivileged and have been implicated in tumorigenesis through multiple mechanisms, including promoting proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis, in addition to the generation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. We have demonstrated that MSCs represent 0.01-1.1% of the total cells present in core biopsies from primary human prostatectomies. Importantly, these analyses were performed on samples prior to expansion in tissue culture. MSCs in these prostatectomy samples are FAP-, CD90-, CD73-, and CD105-positive, and CD14-, CD20-, CD34-, CD45-, and HLA-DR-negative. Additionally, like BM-MSCs, these prostate cancer-derived stromal cells (PrCSCs) were shown to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. In contrast to primary prostate cancer-derived epithelial cells, fluorescently-labeled PrCSCs and BM-MSCs were both shown to home to CWR22RH prostate cancer xenografts following IV injection. These studies demonstrate that not only are MSCs present in sites of prostate cancer where they may contribute to carcinogenesis, but these cells may also potentially be used to deliver cytotoxic or imaging agents for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes.

  7. Localisation of malignant glioma by a radiolabelled human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, J; Alderson, T; Sikora, K; Watson, J

    1983-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced by fusing intratumoral lymphocytes from patients with malignant gliomas with a human myeloma line. One antibody was selected for further study after screening for binding activity to glioma cell lines. The patient from whom it was derived developed recurrent glioma. 1 mg of antibody was purified, radiolabelled with 131I, and administered intravenously. The distribution of antibody was determined in the blood, CSF and tumour cyst fluid and compared with that of a control human monoclonal immunoglobulin. Antibody localisation in the tumour was observed and confirmed by external scintiscanning. Images PMID:6101173

  8. Hyper-expression of PAX2 in human metastatic prostate tumors and its role as a cancer promoter in an in vitro invasion model.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takashi; Ito, Saya; Shiraishi, Takumi; Kulkarni, Prakash; Ueno, Akihisa; Nakagawa, Hideo; Kimura, Yasunori; Hongo, Fumiya; Kamoi, Kazumi; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2013-09-01

    Metastasis is a consequence of many biological events, during which cancer stem cells are shifted into a malignant state. Among these events, invasion of prostate cancer cells into host tissues is possible to be assessed by means of an in vitro invasion model, and is thought to be coupled to altered expression of membrane proteins. Dysregulated functions of the factors regulating organogenesis during embryogenesis are known to facilitate metastasis of many types of cancers. PAX2 (paired box 2) is a member of the PAX transcription factor family, which regulates prostatic ductal growth and branching in organogenesis of mammalian prostates. However, the role of PAX2 in prostate cancer development remains to be determined. PAX2 expression in human prostate cancers and normal prostate epithelium were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Matrigel invasion assay and a gene array analysis were performed using prostate cancer cell lines transfected with either control or PAX2 siRNA. In human prostate cancers, PAX2 was hyper-expressed in metastatic cancers, but was expressed at lower levels in non-metastatic cancers. Consistent with this, PAX2 knockdown repressed cell growth and invasion in a Matrigel invasion assay. Gene ontology analysis revealed that many cell membrane proteins were downregulated after PAX2 knockdown. Our data suggested that PAX2 hyper-expression promotes the development of the metastatic state in prostate cancer cells, presumably through upregulating the expression of cell membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bedia, Carmen Dalmau, Núria Jaumot, Joaquim Tauler, Romà

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  10. Localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the human prostate: pathological expression in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nassis, L; Frauman, A G; Ohishi, M; Zhuo, J; Casley, D J; Johnston, C I; Fabiani, M E

    2001-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common hyperplastic disease in man and it is characterized by increased cellular growth (stromal and epithelial hyperplasia) and enhanced local sympathetic tone, both of which are known to be augmented by activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in other tissues. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an integral component of the RAS that is responsible for the production of the active peptide angiotensin II from the inactive precursor angiotensin I. The present study was undertaken to map the anatomical localization of ACE protein and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in the normal human prostate and to establish whether their expression is pathologically altered in BPH. Human prostate samples were obtained at post-mortem and histologically defined as normal or hyperplastic. ACE protein binding/expression was determined by in vitro autoradiography and immunohistochemistry using the ACE-specific radioligand [125I]-MK351A and a mouse anti-ACE polyclonal antibody, respectively, whereas the spatiotemporal distribution of ACE mRNA was determined by in situ hybridization using 35S-labelled oligonucleotide probes. ACE protein was localized to the glandular epithelium in the human prostate. ACE binding and immunostaining were increased in BPH compared with normal (non-hyperplastic) prostate specimens [X-ray film autoradiography: normal 873+/-48 dpm/mm2 (n=8) vs. BPH 1631+/-274 dpm/mm2 (n=6), p<0.05; emulsion autoradiography: normal 3.1+/-0.5 grains/mm2 (n=6) vs. BPH 32.8+/-8.6 grains/mm2 (n=5), p<0.01]. ACE mRNA was also localized to glandular epithelial cells in the human prostate with a significant increase in ACE mRNA expression in BPH compared with the normal prostate [normal 11.04+/-2.03 grains/cell (n=220 cells total) vs. BPH 22.29+/-1.34 grains/cell (n=198 cells total), p<0.05]. The findings of the present study suggest that ACE is localized to the glandular epithelium of the human prostate and that its

  11. Eliminating malignant contamination from therapeutic human spermatogonial stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Dovey, Serena L.; Valli, Hanna; Hermann, Brian P.; Sukhwani, Meena; Donohue, Julia; Castro, Carlos A.; Chu, Tianjiao; Sanfilippo, Joseph S.; Orwig, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation has been shown to restore fertility in several species and may have application for treating some cases of male infertility (e.g., secondary to gonadotoxic therapy for cancer). To ensure safety of this fertility preservation strategy, methods are needed to isolate and enrich SSCs from human testis cell suspensions and also remove malignant contamination. We used flow cytometry to characterize cell surface antigen expression on human testicular cells and leukemic cells (MOLT-4 and TF-1a). We demonstrated via FACS that EpCAM is expressed by human spermatogonia but not MOLT-4 cells. In contrast, HLA-ABC and CD49e marked >95% of MOLT-4 cells but were not expressed on human spermatogonia. A multiparameter sort of MOLT-4–contaminated human testicular cell suspensions was performed to isolate EpCAM+/HLA-ABC–/CD49e– (putative spermatogonia) and EpCAM–/HLA-ABC+/CD49e+ (putative MOLT-4) cell fractions. The EpCAM+/HLA-ABC–/CD49e– fraction was enriched for spermatogonial colonizing activity and did not form tumors following human-to–nude mouse xenotransplantation. The EpCAM–/HLA-ABC+/CD49e+ fraction produced tumors following xenotransplantation. This approach could be generalized with slight modification to also remove contaminating TF-1a leukemia cells. Thus, FACS provides a method to isolate and enrich human spermatogonia and remove malignant contamination by exploiting differences in cell surface antigen expression. PMID:23549087

  12. Serum GADD45a methylation is a useful biomarker to distinguish benign vs malignant prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Reis, I M; Ramachandran, K; Speer, C; Gordian, E; Singal, R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer results in a large number of unnecessary prostate biopsies. There is a need for specific molecular markers that can be used in combination with PSA to improve the specificity of PSA screening. We examined GADD45a methylation in blood DNA as a molecular marker for prostate cancer diagnosis. Methods: The study included 82 men, with PSA levels >4 ng ml−1 and/or abnormal digital rectal exam, who underwent prostate biopsy. We compared GADD45a methylation in DNA from serum and buffy coat in 44 patients (22 prostate cancer and 22 benign). GADD45a methylation in serum DNA was examined in 82 patients (34 cancer and 48 benign). Results: There was no significant difference in buffy coat GADD45a methylation between cancer and benign patients. Serum GADD45a methylation was significantly higher in cancer than in benign patients. Classification and regression tree predictive model for prostate cancer including risk groups defined by PSA, free circulating DNA (fcDNA) level and GADD45a methylation yielded specificity of 87.5%, sensitivity of 94.1% and receiver operator characteristic curve area of 0.937. Conclusions: Serum GADD45a methylation in combination with PSA and fcDNA level was useful in distinguishing benign from prostate cancer patients. PMID:26171936

  13. Nonylphenol effects on human prostate non tumorigenic cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Di Lorenzo, Mariana; Carrizzo, Albino; Valiante, Salvatore; Vecchione, Carmine; Laforgia, Vincenza; De Falco, Maria

    2016-05-16

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an industrial chemical with estrogenic activity both in vivo and in vitro; estrogens play a critical role in the development of prostate and may be the cause of some pathological states, including cancer. In this study we examined the effects of NP on human prostate non tumorigenic epithelial cells (PNT1A) investigating on cell proliferation, interaction with estrogen receptors (ERs) and gene expression of genes involved in prostate diseases. We found that NP affects cell proliferation at 10(-6)M, promoting a cytoplasm-nucleus translocation of ERα and not ERβ, like the natural estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2). Moreover, we showed that NP enhances gene expression of key regulators of cell cycle. Estrogen selective antagonist ICI182780 in part reverted the observed effects of NP. These results confirm the estrogenic activity of NP and suggest that other transduction pathways may be involved in NP action on prostate.

  14. High resolution regional elasticity mapping of the human prostate.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yoshinobu; Omata, Sadao; Yajima, Toshikuni; Peng, Qiyu; Shishido, Keiichi; Peehl, Donna M; Constantinou, Christos E

    2007-01-01

    What is it that the clinician "feels" during a digital rectal examination? To answer this question, it is necessary to measure the elastic properties of the prostate and verify the stiffness values with histological examination. Therefore, we devised an Elasticity Mapping System to evaluate the elastic properties of various histopathological grades of prostate cancer in relation to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal tissue. The system consists of a micro tactile sensor, a three-axis (XYZ) with one (fine Z) micromanipulation stage, a stereoscope camera and a measurement chamber. Using this methodology we mapped the elasticity of human prostate cancer (CaP) and it was obviously observed that the node was significantly harder than surrounding normal tissues and had some textures.

  15. Human α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) epithelial prostate stem cells express low levels of active androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Stuart C; Hepburn, Anastasia C; Wilson, Laura; Coffey, Kelly; Ryan-Munden, Claudia A; Pal, Deepali; Leung, Hing Y; Robson, Craig N; Heer, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are thought to be the cell of origin in malignant transformation in many tissues, but their role in human prostate carcinogenesis continues to be debated. One of the conflicts with this model is that cancer stem cells have been described to lack androgen receptor (AR) expression, which is of established importance in prostate cancer initiation and progression. We re-examined the expression patterns of AR within adult prostate epithelial differentiation using an optimised sensitive and specific approach examining transcript, protein and AR regulated gene expression. Highly enriched populations were isolated consisting of stem (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE)), transiently amplifying (α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE)) and terminally differentiated (α(2)β(1)(LOW) CD133(-VE)) cells. AR transcript and protein expression was confirmed in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) and CD133(-VE) progenitor cells. Flow cytometry confirmed that median (±SD) fraction of cells expressing AR were 77% (±6%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells and 68% (±12%) in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(-VE) transiently amplifying cells. However, 3-fold lower levels of total AR protein expression (peak and median immunofluorescence) were present in α(2)β(1)(HI) CD133(+VE) stem cells compared with differentiated cells. This finding was confirmed with dual immunostaining of prostate sections for AR and CD133, which again demonstrated low levels of AR within basal CD133(+VE) cells. Activity of the AR was confirmed in prostate progenitor cells by the expression of low levels of the AR regulated genes PSA, KLK2 and TMPRSS2. The confirmation of AR expression in prostate progenitor cells allows integration of the cancer stem cell theory with the established models of prostate cancer initiation based on a functional AR. Further study of specific AR functions in prostate stem and differentiated cells may highlight novel mechanisms of prostate homeostasis and insights into tumourigenesis.

  16. Protein profiling of isolated leukocytes, myofibroblasts, epithelial, Basal, and endothelial cells from normal, hyperplastic, cancerous, and inflammatory human prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Zahraa I; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sahab, Ziad J; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2010-06-15

    In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prostate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  17. Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) crude extract induces apoptosis in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC 3).

    PubMed

    Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare; Baradaran, Behzad; Majidi, Jafar; Babaloo, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading malignancy worldwide and the second prominent cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Therefore, there is a serious necessity for finding advanced alternative therapeutic measures against this lethal malignancy. In this article, we report the cytotoxicity and the mechanism of cell death of the methanolic extract prepared from Echinophora platyloba DC plant against human prostate adenocarcinoma PC 3 cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells HUVEC cell line. Cytotoxicity and viability of the methanolic extract were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and dye exclusion assay. Cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to quantify the nucleosome production resulting from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determine whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. The cell death was identified as apoptosis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and DNA fragmentation gel electrophoresis. E. platyloba could decrease cell viability in malignant cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 values against PC 3 were determined as 236.136 ± 12.4, 143.400 ± 7.2, and 69.383 ± 1.29 μg/ml after 24, 36, and 48 h, respectively, but there was no significant activity in HUVEC normal cell (IC50 > 800 μg/ml). Morphological characterizations and DNA laddering assay showed that the methanolic extract treated cells displayed marked apoptotic characteristics such as nuclear fragmentation, appearance of apoptotic bodies, and DNA laddering fragment. Increase in an early apoptotic population was observed in a dose-dependent manner. PC 3 cell death elicited by the extract was found to be apoptotic in nature based a clear indication of TUNEL assay and gel electrophoresis DNA fragmentation, which is a hallmark of apoptosis. In summary, the E. platyloba extract attenuated the

  18. Percoll density gradient separation of cells from human malignant effusions.

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, A. W.; Dunn, F. E.; White, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    A simple method is described for the separation of cells derived from effusions of patients with adenocarcinomas in discontinuous density gradients of Percoll. After separation, cells from different fractions were analyzed by morphologic, histochemical and immunologic criteria. Total cell recovery from 27 experiments was 67 +/- 4%. Macrophages (82%) were recovered in the intermediate density fraction (1.056-1.067 g ml-1) with a purity of 90%. Recovered lymphocytes (98%) were found in the high density fraction (1.067-1.077 g ml-1) with a purity of 92%. The majority of the lymphocytes recovered were T cells. Malignant adenocarcinoma cells (90%) were recovered in the lowest density fractions (up to 1.056 g ml-1) with a purity of 79%. Use of effective cell separation procedures should facilitate the analysis of the functional capacities of both normal and neoplastic cells derived from human malignant effusions. PMID:2981542

  19. Characterizing the stiffness of Human Prostates using Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Liang; Madden, John; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Polascik, Thomas J.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has been previously reported to portray normal anatomic structures and pathologies in ex vivo human prostates with good contrast and resolution. These findings were based on comparison with histological slides and McNeal’s zonal anatomy. In ARFI images, the central zone (CZ) appears darker (smaller displacement) than other anatomic zones, and prostate cancer (PCa) is darker than normal tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ). Since displacement amplitudes in ARFI images are determined by both the underlying tissue stiffness and the amplitude of acoustic radiation force which varies with acoustic attenuation, one question that arises is: how are the relative displacements in prostate ARFI images related to the underlying prostatic tissue stiffness? In linear, isotropic elastic materials and in tissues that are relatively uniform in acoustic attenuation (e.g. liver), relative displacement in ARFI images has been shown to be correlated with underlying tissue stiffness. However, the prostate is known to be heterogeneous. Variations in acoustic attenuation of prostatic structures could confound the interpretation of ARFI images due to the associated variations in the applied acoustic radiation force. Therefore, in this study, co-registered three-dimensional (3D) ARFI datasets and quantitative shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) datasets were acquired in freshly excised human prostates to investigate the relationship between displacement amplitudes in ARFI prostate images and the matched reconstructed shear moduli. The lateral time-to-peak (LTTP) algorithm was applied to the SWEI data to compute the shear wave speed and reconstruct the shear moduli. Five types of prostatic tissue (PZ, CZ, transition zone (TZ) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PCa, and atrophy) were identified, whose shear moduli were quantified to be 4.1±0.8 kPa, 9.9±0.9 kPa, 4.8±0.6 kPa, 10.0±1.0 kPa and 8.0 kPa, respectively. Linear regression was

  20. Characterizing stiffness of human prostates using acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Liang; Madden, John; Foo, Wen-Chi; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Polascik, Thomas J; Palmeri, Mark L; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2010-10-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has been previously reported to portray normal anatomic structures and pathologies in ex vivo human prostates with good contrast and resolution. These findings were based on comparison with histological slides and McNeal's zonal anatomy. In ARFI images, the central zone (CZ) appears darker (smaller displacement) than other anatomic zones and prostate cancer (PCa) is darker than normal tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ). Since displacement amplitudes in ARFI images are determined by both the underlying tissue stiffness and the amplitude of acoustic radiation force that varies with acoustic attenuation, one question that arises is how the relative displacements in prostate ARFI images are related to the underlying prostatic tissue stiffness. In linear, isotropic elastic materials and in tissues that are relatively uniform in acoustic attenuation (e.g., liver), relative displacement in ARFI images has been shown to be correlated with underlying tissue stiffness. However, the prostate is known to be heterogeneous. Variations in acoustic attenuation of prostatic structures could confound the interpretation of ARFI images due to the associated variations in the applied acoustic radiation force. Therefore, in this study, co-registered three-dimensional (3D) ARFI datasets and quantitative shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) datasets were acquired in freshly-excised human prostates to investigate the relationship between displacement amplitudes in ARFI prostate images and the matched reconstructed shear moduli. The lateral time-to-peak (LTTP) algorithm was applied to the SWEI data to compute the shear-wave speed and reconstruct the shear moduli. Five types of prostatic tissue (PZ, CZ, transition zone (TZ) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), PCa and atrophy) were identified, whose shear moduli were quantified to be 4.1 +/- 0.8 kPa, 9.9 +/- 0.9 kPa, 4.8 +/- 0.6 kPa, 10.0 +/- 1.0 kPa and 8.0 kPa, respectively. Linear

  1. Isolation of cancer stem cells from human prostate cancer samples.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Samuel J; Quinn, S Aidan; de la Iglesia-Vicente, Janis; Bonal, Dennis M; Rodriguez-Bravo, Veronica; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Domingo-Domenech, Josep

    2014-03-14

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model has been considerably revisited over the last two decades. During this time CSCs have been identified and directly isolated from human tissues and serially propagated in immunodeficient mice, typically through antibody labeling of subpopulations of cells and fractionation by flow cytometry. However, the unique clinical features of prostate cancer have considerably limited the study of prostate CSCs from fresh human tumor samples. We recently reported the isolation of prostate CSCs directly from human tissues by virtue of their HLA class I (HLAI)-negative phenotype. Prostate cancer cells are harvested from surgical specimens and mechanically dissociated. A cell suspension is generated and labeled with fluorescently conjugated HLAI and stromal antibodies. Subpopulations of HLAI-negative cells are finally isolated using a flow cytometer. The principal limitation of this protocol is the frequently microscopic and multifocal nature of primary cancer in prostatectomy specimens. Nonetheless, isolated live prostate CSCs are suitable for molecular characterization and functional validation by transplantation in immunodeficient mice.

  2. Evaluation of the chemopreventive potential of retinoids using a novel in vitro human prostate carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Quader, S T; Bello-DeOcampo, D; Williams, D E; Kleinman, H K; Webber, M M

    2001-09-20

    The prevalence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and latent prostatic carcinoma, representing multiple steps in carcinogenesis and progression to invasive carcinoma, makes them relevant targets for prevention. A unique family of human prostate epithelial cell lines, which mimic steps in prostate carcinogenesis and progression, were used to evaluate the chemopreventive potential of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR). The effects of RA and 4-HPR on anchorage-dependent growth of an immortalized, non-tumorigenic cell line RWPE-1 and two tumorigenic cell lines, WPE1-NB14 and WPE1-NB11, derived from RWPE-1 by exposure to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), were examined. Both tumorigenic cell lines grow more rapidly than the parent RWPE-1 cell line in monolayer culture. Further, while RWPE-1 cells do not form colonies in agar, both tumorigenic cell lines do, with a colony forming efficiency (CFE) of 1.85 and 2.04% for WPE1-NB14 and WPE1-NB11 cells, respectively. Both RA and 4-HPR inhibited anchorage-dependent growth of all cell lines and anchorage-independent growth of WPE1-NB14 and WPE1-NB11 cells, in a dose-dependent manner, however, 10 times more RA than 4-HPR was required to produce the same effect. RWPE-1 cells are not invasive but WPE1-NB11 cells are significantly more invasive than WPE1-NB14 cells. Both RA and 4-HPR inhibited invasion in vitro by WPE1-NB11 and WPE1-NB14 cells where the more malignant WPE1-NB11 cells showed greater inhibition of invasion by 4-HPR than by RA. Overall, 4-HPR was more effective than RA in inhibiting growth and invasion but the response varied amongst the cell lines. These three cell lines mimic progressive steps in carcinogenesis and progression, from immortalized, non-tumorigenic RWPE-1 cells, to the less malignant WPE1-NB14 to the more malignant WPE1-NB11 cells, and provide powerful models for studies on secondary and tertiary prevention, i.e. promotion and progression stages, respectively

  3. [Expression and significance of ABCG2 in human malignant glioma].

    PubMed

    Chu, Liang; Huang, Qiang; Zhai, De-Zhong; Zhu, Qing; Huo, Hong-Mei; Dong, Jun; Qian, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Ai-Dong; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yi-Lu

    2007-10-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2 is a marker derived from hematopoietic stem cells. However, its role in tumorigenesis and malignant progression of glioma is unclear. This study was to investigate the expression and significance of ABCG2 in gliomas of different malignant grades. A microarray chip containing glioma tissues of different malignant grades, implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, spheroids of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells was prepared and examined for the expression of ABCG2 with immunohistochemical staining. The positive rate of ABCG2 was 26.8% in the 71 specimens of human glioma tissues, with 11.1% in grade I gliomas, 8% in grade II gliomas, 43.5% in grade III gliomas, and 42.9% in grade IV gliomas; it was significantly higher in grade III-IV gliomas than in grade I-II gliomas (chi2=10.710, P=0.001). The positive rate of ABCG2 was 100% in implanted glioma xenografts in nude mice, gliomas stem cells, and neural stem cells. It was also expressed in some normal tissues. The positive cells surrounded and invaded into vessels in glioma tissues. ABCG2 is overexpressed in glioma stem cells, glioma tissues of higher grades, and implanted glioma xenografts. The positive cells distribute around vessels in glioma tissues.

  4. Single cell genomics reveals activation signatures of endogenous SCAR's networks in aneuploid human embryos and clinically intractable malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-10-10

    Somatic mutations and chromosome instability are hallmarks of genomic aberrations in cancer cells. Aneuploidies represent common manifestations of chromosome instability, which is frequently observed in human embryos and malignant solid tumors. Activation of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-derived loci is documented in preimplantation human embryos, hESC, and multiple types of human malignancies. It remains unknown whether the HERV activation may highlight a common molecular pathway contributing to the frequent occurrence of chromosome instability in the early stages of human embryonic development and the emergence of genomic aberrations in cancer. Single cell RNA sequencing analysis of human preimplantation embryos reveals activation of specific LTR7/HERVH loci during the transition from the oocytes to zygotes and identifies HERVH network signatures associated with the aneuploidy in human embryos. The correlation patterns' analysis links transcriptome signatures of the HERVH network activation of the in vivo matured human oocytes with gene expression profiles of clinical samples of prostate tumors supporting the existence of a cancer progression pathway from putative precursor lesions (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) to localized and metastatic prostate cancers. Tracking signatures of HERVH networks' activation in tumor samples from cancer patients with known long-term therapy outcomes enabled patients' stratification into sub-groups with markedly distinct likelihoods of therapy failure and death from cancer. Genome-wide analyses of human-specific genetic elements of stem cell-associated retroviruses (SCARs)-regulated networks in 12,093 clinical tumor samples across 29 cancer types revealed pan-cancer genomic signatures of clinically-lethal therapy resistant disease defined by the presence of somatic non-silent mutations (SNMs), gene-level copy number changes, and transcripts and proteins' expression of SCARs-regulated host genes. More than 73% of all

  5. Cadmium induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl(2) and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl(2) concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis.

  6. Cadmium Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Prostate Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aimola, Pierpaolo; Carmignani, Marco; Volpe, Anna Rita; Di Benedetto, Altomare; Claudio, Luigi; Waalkes, Michael P.; van Bokhoven, Adrie; Tokar, Erik J.; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in cadmium-induced malignant transformation is acquisition of apoptotic resistance. We investigated the in vitro effects produced by cadmium exposure in normal or tumor cells derived from human prostate epithelium, including RWPE-1 and its cadmium-transformed derivative CTPE, the primary adenocarcinoma 22Rv1 and CWR-R1 cells and LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 metastatic cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 24 hours with different concentrations of CdCl2 and apoptosis, cell cycle distribution and expression of tumor suppressor proteins were analyzed. Subsequently, cellular response to cadmium was evaluated after siRNA-mediated p53 silencing in wild type p53-expressing RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells, and after adenoviral p53 overexpression in p53-deficient DU145 and PC-3 cell lines. The cell lines exhibited different sensitivity to cadmium, and 24-hour exposure to different CdCl2 concentrations induced dose- and cell type-dependent apoptotic response and inhibition of cell proliferation that correlated with accumulation of functional p53 and overexpression of p21 in wild type p53-expressing cell lines. On the other hand, p53 silencing was able to suppress cadmium-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that cadmium can induce p53-dependent apoptosis in human prostate epithelial cells and suggest p53 mutation as a possible contributing factor for the acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium prostatic carcinogenesis. PMID:22448262

  7. Actions of estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals on human prostate stem/progenitor cells and prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Nelles, Jason L; Prins, Gail S

    2012-05-06

    Estrogen reprogramming of the prostate gland as a function of developmental exposures (aka developmental estrogenization) results in permanent alterations in structure and gene expression that lead to an increased incidence of prostatic lesions with aging. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic activity have been similarly linked to an increased prostate cancer risk. Since it has been suggested that stem cells and cancer stem cells are potential targets of cancer initiation and disease management, it is highly possible that estrogens and EDCs influence the development and progression of prostate cancer through reprogramming and transforming the prostate stem and early stage progenitor cells. In this article, we review recent literature highlighting the effects of estrogens and EDCs on prostate cancer risk and discuss recent advances in prostate stem/progenitor cell research. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells and established that these cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and are direct targets of estrogen action. Further, using a chimeric in vivo prostate model derived from these normal human prostate progenitor cells, we demonstrated for the first time that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supported environment. We herein discuss these findings and highlight new evidence using our in vitro human prostasphere assay for perturbations in human prostate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by natural steroids as well as EDCs. These findings support the hypothesis that tissue stem cells may be direct EDC targets which may underlie life-long reprogramming as a consequence of developmental and/or transient adult exposures.

  8. Promotion of prostatic metastatic migration towards human bone marrow stoma by Omega 6 and its inhibition by Omega 3 PUFAs

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M D; Hart, C A; Gazi, E; Bagley, S; Clarke, N W

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown not only a relationship between the intake of dietary lipids and an increased risk of developing metastatic prostate cancer, but also the type of lipid intake that influences the risk of metastatic prostate cancer. The Omega-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid, Arachidonic acid, has been shown to enhance the proliferation of malignant prostate epithelial cells and increase the risk of advanced prostate cancer. However, its role in potentiating the migration of cancer cells is unknown. Here we show that arachidonic acid at concentrations ⩽5 μM is a potent stimulator of malignant epithelial cellular invasion, which is able to restore invasion toward hydrocortisone-deprived adipocyte-free human bone marrow stroma completely. This observed invasion is mediated by the arachidonic acid metabolite prostaglandin E2 and is inhibited by the Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at a ratio of 1 : 2 Omega-3 : Omega-6, and by the COX-2 inhibitor NS-398. These results identify a mechanism by which arachidonic acid may potentiate the risk of metastatic migration and secondary implantation in vivo, a risk which can be reduced with the uptake of Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:16523199

  9. Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Gerald J.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is straightforward and easily accomplished in clinical laboratories. Chronic bacterial prostatitis, and especially chronic idiopathic prostatitis (most often referred to as abacterial prostatitis), presents a real challenge to the clinician and clinical microbiologist. Clinically, the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is differentiated from that of acute prostatitis by a lack of prostatic inflammation and no “significant” (controversial) leukocytes or bacteria in the expressed prostatic secretions. Despite these diagnostic criteria, the etiology of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is unknown. While this review covers the entire spectrum of microbially caused acute prostatitis (including common and uncommon bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) and microbially associated chronic prostatitis, a special focus has been given to chronic idiopathic prostatitis. The idiopathic syndrome is commonly diagnosed in men but is poorly treated. Recent data convincingly suggests a possible bacterial etiology for the condition. Provocative molecular studies have been published reporting the presence of 16S rRNA bacterial sequences in prostate biopsy tissue that is negative for ordinary bacteria by routine culture in men with chronic idiopathic prostatitis. Additionally, special culture methods have indicated that difficult-to-culture coryneforms and coagulase-negative staphylococci are present in expressed prostatic secretions found to be negative by routine culture techniques. Treatment failures are not uncommon in chronic prostatitis. Literature reports suggest that antimicrobial treatment failures in chronic idiopathic prostatitis caused by organisms producing extracellular slime might result from the virulent properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci or other bacteria. While it is difficult to definitively extrapolate from animal models, antibiotic pharmokinetic studies with a murine model have

  10. Myosin VI contributes to malignant proliferation of human glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rong; Fang, Xu-hao

    2016-01-01

    Previously characterized as a backward motor, myosin VI (MYO6), which belongs to myosin family, moves toward the minus end of the actin track, a direction opposite to all other known myosin members. Recent researches have illuminated the role of MYO6 in human cancers, particularly in prostate cancer. However, the role of MYO6 in glioma has not yet been determined. In this study, to explore the role of MYO6 in human glioma, lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting MYO6 was designed to stably down-regulate its endogenous expression in glioblastoma cells U251. Knockdown of MYO6 signifi cantly inhibited viability and proliferation of U251 cells in vitro. Moreover, the cell cycle of U251 cells was arrested at G0/G1 phase with the absence of MYO6, which could contribute to the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, we firstly identified the crucial involvement of MYO6 in human glioma. The inhibition of MYO6 by shRNA might be a potential therapeutic method in human glioma. PMID:26937209

  11. The Isolation and Characterization of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    magnetic field.1 This technique is based on the cellular uptake and magnetic levitation of a...culture based on magnetic cell levitation . Nature nanotechnology;5(4):291-6. Appendix None. ...have focused attention on two alternative strategies: magnetic nanoparticles and human prostate fibroblasts

  12. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26285134

  13. Differential Utilization of Dietary Fatty Acids in Benign and Malignant Cells of the Prostate.

    PubMed

    Dueregger, Andrea; Schöpf, Bernd; Eder, Theresa; Höfer, Julia; Gnaiger, Erich; Aufinger, Astrid; Kenner, Lukas; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cells adapt via metabolic reprogramming to meet elevated energy demands due to continuous proliferation, for example by switching to alternative energy sources. Nutrients such as glucose, fatty acids, ketone bodies and amino acids may be utilized as preferred substrates to fulfill increased energy requirements. In this study we investigated the metabolic characteristics of benign and cancer cells of the prostate with respect to their utilization of medium chain (MCTs) and long chain triglycerides (LCTs) under standard and glucose-starved culture conditions by assessing cell viability, glycolytic activity, mitochondrial respiration, the expression of genes encoding key metabolic enzymes as well as mitochondrial mass and mtDNA content. We report that BE prostate cells (RWPE-1) have a higher competence to utilize fatty acids as energy source than PCa cells (LNCaP, ABL, PC3) as shown not only by increased cell viability upon fatty acid supplementation but also by an increased ß-oxidation of fatty acids, although the base-line respiration was 2-fold higher in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, BE RWPE-1 cells were found to compensate for glucose starvation in the presence of fatty acids. Of notice, these findings were confirmed in vivo by showing that PCa tissue has a lower capacity in oxidizing fatty acids than benign prostate. Collectively, these metabolic differences between benign and prostate cancer cells and especially their differential utilization of fatty acids could be exploited to establish novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Proapoptotic effects of new pentabromobenzylisothiouronium salts in a human prostate adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Koronkiewicz, Mirosława; Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt; Szarpak, Kinga; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in elderly men worldwide and its incidence rate is rising continuously. Agents capable of inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells seem a promising approach to treat this malignancy. In this study we describe the synthesis of a number of novel N- and N,N'-substituted S-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium bromides and their activity against the human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 cell line. All the compounds produced changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and cell cycle progression, showed a cytostatic effect and induced apoptosis in the tested cancer line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The most effective compounds ZKK-3, ZKK-9 and ZKK-13 produced, at 20 microM concentration, apoptosis in 42, 46, and 66% of the cells, respectively, after 48 h incubation. Two selected S-2,3,4,5,6-pentabromobenzylisothiouronium bromides (ZKK-3, ZKK-9) showed also a synergic proapoptotic effect with the new casein kinase II inhibitor 2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBIPIP) in the PC3 cell line.

  15. Anticancer activity of glucomoringin isothiocyanate in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-04-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) released from their glucosinolate precursors have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and they have received significant attention as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Astrocytoma grade IV is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults without any curative treatment. New therapeutic drugs are therefore urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor activity of the glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin [4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate] produced from quantitative myrosinase-induced hydrolysis of glucomoringin (GMG) under neutral pH value. We have evaluated the potency of moringin on apoptosis induction and cell death in human astrocytoma grade IV CCF-STTG1 cells. Moringin showed to be effective in inducing apoptosis through p53 and Bax activation and Bcl-2 inhibition. In addition, oxidative stress related Nrf2 transcription factor and its upstream regulator CK2 alpha expressions were modulated at higher doses, which indicated the involvement of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by moringin. Moreover, significant reduction in 5S rRNA was noticed with moringin treatment. Our in vitro results demonstrated the antitumor efficacy of moringin derived from myrosinase-hydrolysis of GMG in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

  16. SEM and X-ray microanalysis of human prostatic calculi

    SciTech Connect

    Vilches, J.; Lopez, A.; De Palacio, L.; Munoz, C.; Gomez, J.

    1982-02-01

    Calculi removed from human prostates affected with nodular hyperplasia were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and EDAX system. The general spectrum was made up of Na, Al, Mg, S, P, Ca and Zn. Two types of stone were identified morphostructurally and microanalytically: calculi type I of nodular surface with high peaks of S, and calculi type II polyfaceted with high peaks of P and Ca. Their formation from corpora amylacea and/or exogenous constituents is discussed. The superficial deposit of Zn suggests its incorporation from the prostatic liquid and does not seem to play an important role in the genesis.

  17. Potential Prognostic Markers for Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    such as proliferation, differentiation and assay [15]. TGF[3 may be produced by metastatic motility. Upregulation of growth factor synthesis or prostate...via mod- ronment include neuroendocrine cells. These cells ulation of tumor cell receptor expression. Control of can secrete bombesin, a gastrin ...controls, indicating that addition ofT015 accelerates tumor expansion. TIl15 synthesis triggered a dramatic increase in cell motility, boosting serum

  18. Cytosine deaminase-expressing human neural stem cells inhibit tumor growth in prostate cancer-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jun; Doo, Seung Whan; Kim, Dae Hong; Cha, Young Joo; Kim, Jae Heon; Song, Yun Seob; Kim, Seung U

    2013-07-10

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men. Prostate cancer-related deaths are largely attributable to the development of hormone resistance in the tumor. No effective chemotherapy has yet been developed for advanced prostate cancer. It is desirable if a drug can be delivered directly and specifically to prostate cancer cells. Stem cells have selective migration ability toward cancer cells and therapeutic genes can be easily transduced into stem cells. In one form of gene therapy for cancer, the stem cells carry a gene encoding an enzyme that transforms an inert prodrug into a toxic product. Cytosine deaminase (CD) transforms the pro-drug 5-fluorocytosine into highly cytotoxic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The migration of the genetically modified stem cells was monitored by molecular magnetic resonance imaging, after labeling the stem cells with fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Human neural stem cells encoding CD (HB1.F3.CD) were prepared and labeled with MNP. In tumor-bearing C57B mice, systemically transplanted HB1.F3.CD stem cells migrated toward the tumor and in combination with prodrug 5-FC, the volume of tumor implant was significantly reduced. These findings may contribute to development of a new selective chemotherapeutic strategy against prostate cancer.

  19. Association of Human Development Index with global bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer incidence and mortality.

    PubMed

    Greiman, Alyssa K; Rosoff, James S; Prasad, Sandip M

    2017-05-08

    To describe contemporary worldwide age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for bladder, kidney, prostate and testis cancer and their association with development. We obtained gender-specific, age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for 184 countries and 16 major world regions from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. We compared the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at national and regional levels in males and females, and assessed the association with socio-economic development using the 2014 United Nations Human Development Index (HDI). Age-standardized incidence rates were 2.9 (bladder) to 7.4 (testis) times higher for genitourinary malignancies in more developed countries compared with less developed countries. Age-standardized mortality rates were 1.5-2.2 times higher in more vs less developed countries for prostate, bladder and kidney cancer, with no variation in mortality rates observed in testis cancer. There was a strong inverse relationship between HDI and MIR in testis (regression coefficient 1.65, R(2) = 0.78), prostate (regression coefficient -1.56, R(2) = 0.85), kidney (regression coefficient -1.34, R(2) = 0.74), and bladder cancer (regression coefficient -1.01, R(2) = 0.80). While incidence and mortality rates for genitourinary cancers vary widely throughout the world, the MIR is highest in less developed countries for all four major genitourinary malignancies. Further research is needed to understand whether differences in comorbidities, exposures, time to diagnosis, access to healthcare, diagnostic techniques or treatment options explain the observed inequalities in genitourinary cancer outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Selective changes of retroelement expression in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Goering, Wolfgang; Ribarska, Teodora; Schulz, Wolfgang A

    2011-10-01

    Retroelements constitute a large part of the human genome. These sequences are mostly silenced in normal cells, but genome-wide DNA hypomethylation in cancers might lead to their re-expression. Whether this re-expression really occurs in human cancers is largely unkown. We therefore investigated expression and DNA methylation of several classes of retroelements in human prostate cancer tissues and cell lines by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing, respectively. The most striking finding was strong and generalized increased expression of the HERV-K_22q11.23 provirus in cancers, including de novo expression of a spliced accessory Np9 transcript in some tumors. In parallel, DNA methylation in the long terminal repeat (LTR) decreased. Conversely, HERVK17 expression was significantly diminished in cancer tissues, but this decrease was unrelated to LTR methylation. Expression of both proviruses was restricted to androgen-responsive prostate cancer cell lines and LTRs sequences containing steroid hormone-responsive elements bound the androgen receptor and conferred androgen responsiveness to reporter constructs. Expression of LINE-1 5'-untranslated region (UTR) and 3'-UTR sequences in prostate cancers rather decreased, despite significant hypomethylation of the internal LINE-1 promoter. Increased expression of the young AluYa5 and AluYb8 families was restricted to individual tumors. Our findings demonstrate a surprising specificity of changes in expression and DNA methylation of retroelements in prostate cancer. In particular, LINE-1 hypomethylation does not lead to generalized overexpression, but specific human endogenous retrovirus-K proviruses display conspicuous changes in their expression hinting at significant functions during prostate carcinogenesis.

  1. The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    DAMD17-96-1-6075 TITLE: The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATION: Dr. Frances O’Malley Alan B. Tuck...1997 Annual (I Jun 96 - 31 May 97) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Role of Osteopontin in the Malignancy of Human Breast Carcinoma DAMD17...OPN in the malignancy of human breast cancer will be of potential importance not only in the interpretation of prognostic information gained through

  2. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  3. The role of inflammatory mediators in the development of prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elkahwaji, Johny E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer remain the most prevalent urologic health concerns affecting elderly men in their lifetime. Only 20% of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer cases coexist in the same zone of the prostate and require a long time for initiation and progression. While the pathogenesis of both diseases is not fully understood, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are thought to have a multifactorial etiology, their incidence and prevalence are indeed affected by age and hormones, and they are associated with chronic prostatic inflammation. At least 20% of all human malignancies arise in a tissue microenvironment dominated by chronic or recurrent inflammation. In prostate malignancy, chronic inflammation is an extremely common histopathologic finding; its origin remains a subject of debate and may in fact be multifactorial. Emerging insights suggest that prostate epithelium damage potentially inflicted by multiple environmental factors such as infectious agents, dietary carcinogens, and hormones triggers procarcinogenic inflammatory processes and promotes cell transformation and disease development. Also, the coincidence of chronic inflammation and tumorigenesis in the peripheral zone has recently been linked by studies identifying so-called proliferative inflammatory atrophy as a possible precursor of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer. This paper will discuss the available evidence suggesting that chronic inflammation may be involved in the development and progression of chronic prostatic disease, although a direct causal role for chronic inflammation or infection in prostatic carcinogenesis has yet to be established in humans. Further basic and clinical research in the area, trying to understand the etiology of prostatic inflammation and its signaling pathway may help to identify new therapeutic targets and novel preventive strategies for reducing the risk of developing benign and malignant

  4. Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis selectively in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Janmejai K.; Gupta, Sanjay . E-mail: sanjay.gupta@case.edu

    2006-07-28

    One of the requisite of cancer chemopreventive agent is elimination of damaged or malignant cells through cell cycle inhibition or induction of apoptosis without affecting normal cells. In this study, employing normal human prostate epithelial cells (PrEC), virally transformed normal human prostate epithelial cells (PZ-HPV-7), and human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3), we evaluated the growth-inhibitory and apoptotic effects of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) extracted from palm oil. TRF treatment to PrEC and PZ-HPV-7 resulted in almost identical growth-inhibitory responses of low magnitude. In sharp contrast, TRF treatment resulted in significant decreases in cell viability and colony formation in all three prostate cancer cell lines. The IC{sub 5} values after 24 h TRF treatment in LNCaP, PC-3, and DU145 cells were in the order 16.5, 17.5, and 22.0 {mu}g/ml. TRF treatment resulted in significant apoptosis in all the cell lines as evident from (i) DNA fragmentation (ii) fluorescence microscopy, and (iii) cell death detection ELISA, whereas the PrEC and PZ-HPV-7 cells did not undergo apoptosis, but showed modestly decreased cell viability only at a high dose of 80 {mu}g/ml. In cell cycle analysis, TRF (10-40 {mu}g/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent G0/G1 phase arrest and sub G1 accumulation in all three cancer cell lines but not in PZ-HPV-7 cells. These results suggest that the palm oil derivative TRF is capable of selectively inhibiting cellular proliferation and accelerating apoptotic events in prostate cancer cells. TRF offers significant promise as a chemopreventive and/or therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.

  5. Animal models relevant to human prostate carcinogenesis underlining the critical implication of prostatic stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Mimeault, Murielle; Batra, Surinder K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent development of animal models relevant to human prostate cancer (PC) etiopathogenesis has provided important information on the specific functions provided by key gene products altered during disease initiation and progression to locally invasive, metastatic and hormone-refractory stages. Especially, the characterization of transgenic mouse models has indicated that the inactivation of distinct tumor suppressor proteins such as phosphatase tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), Nkx3.1, p27KIP1 and p53 and retinoblastoma (pRb) may cooperate for the malignant transformation of prostatic stem/progenitor cells into PC stem/progenitor cells and tumor development and metastases. Moreover, the sustained activation of diverse oncogenic signaling elements, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), sonic hedgehog, Wnt/β-catenin, c-Myc, Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) also may contribute to the acquisition of more aggressive and hormone-refractory phenotypes by PC stem/progenitor cells and their progenies during disease progression. Importantly, it has also been shown that an enrichment of PC stem/progenitor cells expressing stem cell-like markers may occur after androgen deprivation therapy and docetaxel treatment in the transgenic mouse models of PC suggesting the critical implication of these immature PC cells in treatment resistance, tumor re-growth and disease recurrence. Of clinical interest, the molecular targeting of distinct gene products altered in PC cells by using different dietary compounds has also been shown to counteract PC initiation and progression in animal models supporting their potential use as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for eradicating the total tumor cell mass, improving current anti-hormonal and chemotherapies and preventing disease relapse. PMID:21396984

  6. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  7. Honokiol, a natural plant product, inhibits the bone metastatic growth of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Arbiser, Jack L; Sun, Shi-Yong; Zayzafoon, Majd; Johnstone, Peter A S; Fujisawa, Masato; Gotoh, Akinobu; Weksler, Babette; Zhau, Haiyen E; Chung, Leland W K

    2007-04-01

    Honokiol, a soluble nontoxic natural product derived from Magnolia spp., has been shown to induce apoptosis in malignant cells. The effect of honokiol and the combined therapy with docetaxel on prostate cancer (PCa) growth and bone metastasis was investigated in experimental models. The in vitro proapoptotic effects of honokiol on human androgen-dependent and -independent PCa, bone marrow, bone marrow-derived endothelial, and prostate stroma cells were investigated. Honokiol-induced activation of caspases was evaluated by Western blot and FACS analysis. To confirm the cytotoxicity of honokiol, mice bone was inoculated in vivo with androgen-independent PCa, C4-2 cells and the effects of honokiol and/or docetaxel on PCa growth in bone were evaluated. Daily honokiol (100 mg/kg) and/or weekly docetaxel (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. PCa growth in mouse bone was evaluated by radiography, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and tissue immunohistochemistry. Honokiol induced apoptosis in all cell lines tested. In PCa cells honokiol induced apoptosis via the activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9 and the cleavage of poly-adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Honokiol was shown to inhibit the growth and depress serum PSA in mice harboring C4-2 xenografts in the skeleton and the combination with docetaxel showed additive effects that inhibited further growth without evidence of systemic toxicity. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed honokiol exhibited growth-inhibitory, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects on PCa xenografts. The combination of honokiol and low-dose docetaxel may be used to improve patient outcome in androgen-independent prostate cancer with bone metastasis. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  8. Raman spectroscopic identification of normal and malignant human stomach cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jipeng; Guo, Jianyu; Wu, Liangping; Sun, Zhenrong; Cai, Weiying; Wang, Zugeng

    2005-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to identify the normal and malignant human stomach cells. For the cancer cell, the reduced intensity of the Raman peak at 1250 cm^(-1) indicates that the protein secondary structure transforms from ?-sheet or disordered structures to ?-helical, while the increased intensity of the symmetric PO2 stretching vibration mode at 1094 cm^(-1) shows the increased DNA content. The ratio of the intensity at 1315 cm^(-1) to that at 1340 cm^(-1) reduces from 1.8 for the normal cell to 1.1 for the cancer cell in the course of canceration, and the ratio of the intensity at 1655 cm^(-1) to that at 1450 cm^(-1) increases from 1.00 for the cancer cell to 1.26 for the normal cell which indicates that the canceration of stomach cell may induce saturation of the lipid chain.

  9. Prostate tissue stiffness as measured with a resonance sensor system: a study on silicone and human prostate tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jalkanen, Ville; Andersson, Britt M; Bergh, Anders; Ljungberg, Börje; Lindahl, Olof A

    2006-07-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men in Europe and in the USA. Some prostate tumours are stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue, and it could therefore be of interest to measure prostate tissue stiffness. Resonance sensor technology based on piezoelectric resonance detects variations in tissue stiffness due to a change in the resonance frequency. An impression-controlled resonance sensor system was used to detect stiffness in silicone rubber and in human prostate tissue in vitro using two parameters, both combinations of frequency change and force. Variations in silicone rubber stiffness due to the mixing ratio of the two components could be detected (p<0.05) using both parameters. Measurements on prostate tissue showed that there existed a statistically significant (MANOVA test, p<0.001) reproducible difference between tumour tissue (n=13) and normal healthy tissue (n=98) when studying a multivariate parameter set. Both the tumour tissue and normal tissue groups had variations within them, which were assumed to be related to differences in tissue composition. Other sources of error could be uneven surfaces and different levels of dehydration for the prostates. Our results indicated that the resonance sensor could be used to detect stiffness variations in silicone and in human prostate tissue in vitro. This is promising for the development of a future diagnostic tool for prostate cancer.

  10. Use of high-intensity focused ultrasound in the treatment of both benign and malignant prostatic disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernen, Kenneth M.; Miles, Brian J.

    2000-05-01

    Prostate cancer, the most common malignancy in men in the United States, accounts for more than 29% of all male cancers diagnosed and 13% of all cancer deaths. This translates into approximately 200,000 men diagnosed and 37,000 men who will die from the disease this year in this country. A significant number of patients ultimately choose external beam radiation or interstitial radioactive implants (brachytherapy) combined with external beam radiotherapy as their primary treatment. Approximately 25 - 35% of external beam irradiation patients and 20 - 30% of interstitial implants combined with external beam radiotherapy will fail within 10 years. The treatment options for patients with localized radiorecurrent disease include watchful waiting, endocrine therapy, salvage radiotherapy, and salvage radical prostatectomy, cryotherapy and now high intensity focused ultrasound therapy (HIFU). Although some studies regarding watchful waiting demonstrated comparable results to formal treatment for early prostate cancer, other studies have shown metastatic and mortality rates that are significantly higher, and that radiorecurrent patients would have even greater rates of metastasis and progression to death. Prostate cancer cure by means of endocrine therapy is highly unlikely and its role is still one of palliation with a side effect profile which includes hot flashes, osteoporosis, fatigue, loss of muscle mass, anemia, loss of libido and potency. The role of salvage radiotherapy may offer local control, however long term efficacy has yet to be determined. In a recent series, only 50% of the patients were controlled for a mean of four years with salvage radiotherapy. Salvage prostatectomy has the advantage of providing excellent local control and even a cure if the cancer is confined to the prostate or within the surrounding periprostatic tissue. Historically, salvage prostatectomy is technically demanding and fraught with higher complications. In one large series

  11. Reprogramming of cell junction modules during stepwise epithelial to mesenchymal transition and accumulation of malignant features in vitro in a prostate cell model

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Xi-song; Li, Wen-cheng; Hovland, Randi; Qu, Yi; Liu, Run-hui; McCormack, Emmet; Thorsen, Frits; Olsen, Jan Roger; Molven, Anders; Kogan-Sakin, Ira; Rotter, Varda; Akslen, Lars A.; Oyan, Anne Margrete; Kalland, Karl-Henning

    2011-01-15

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pivotal in tumor metastasis. Our previous work reported an EMT model based on primary prostate epithelial cells (EP156T) which gave rise to cells with mesenchymal phenotype (EPT1) without malignant transformation. To promote prostate cell transformation, cells were maintained in saturation density cultures to select for cells overriding quiescence. Foci formed repeatedly following around 8 weeks in confluent EPT1 monolayers. Only later passage EPT1, but not EP156T cells of any passage, could form foci. Cells isolated from the foci were named EPT2 and formed robust colonies in soft agar, a malignant feature present neither in EP156T nor in EPT1 cells. EPT2 cells showed additional malignant traits in vitro, including higher ability to proliferate following confluence, higher resistance to apoptosis and lower dependence on exogenous growth factors than EP156T and EPT1 cells. Microarray profiling identified gene sets, many of which belong to cell junction modules, that changed expression from EP156T to EPT1 cells and continued to change from EPT1 to EPT2 cells. Our findings provide a novel stepwise cell culture model in which EMT emerges independently of transformation and is associated with subsequent accumulation of malignant features in prostate cells. Reprogramming of cell junction modules is involved in both steps.

  12. Characterization of time-enhancement curves of benign and malignant prostate tissue at dynamic MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Raudrant, Anne; Ecochard, René; Colin-Pangaud, Catherine; Pasquiou, Carole; Bouvier, Raymonde; Maréchal, Jean Marie; Lyonnet, Denis

    2003-05-01

    Our objectives were to determine time-enhancement curves of prostate cancer, peripheral zone, and adenoma at gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging, and to determine if a high-spatial/low-temporal dynamic imaging could be accurate in depicting prostate cancer, or if a higher temporal resolution (and a lower spatial resolution) should be favored. Thirty-nine patients with prostate cancer underwent MR imaging before radical prostatectomy by using T1- and T2-weighted axial images and a single-slice dynamic gadolinium-enhanced sequence (40 images; one image per 6 s; injection of 20 ml at 2 ml/s). After analysis of the pathologic specimens, four region-of-interest (ROI) cursors (cancer, peripheral zone, adenoma, and muscle) were retrospectively placed on dynamic images. Time-enhancement curves of the ROIs were obtained. The theoretical accuracy of a 30-s dynamic multislice MR sequence in depicting cancer within peripheral zone and adenoma (ROC curves) was calculated from these curves. On average, prostate cancer enhanced more and earlier than peripheral zone and adenoma, but there were great interindividual variations. For start delays ranging from 12 to 84 s, the areas under the ROC curves ranged from 0.602 to 0.698 for the depiction of cancer within adenoma and from 0.614 to 0.827 for the depiction of cancer within peripheral zone. The best results were obtained with a 36-s start delay. In conclusion, we found a 30-s scanning window which seems to allow a good depiction of cancer within peripheral zone. Because of largely overlapping enhancement patterns, cancer will probably not be depicted within adenoma by dynamic imaging, at least by using low temporal resolution.

  13. A PSCA Promoter Based Avian Retroviral Transgene Model of Normal and Malignant Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    found that 50 % of mice developed large hemangiomas (Figure 5). Parallel experiments with middle T injection into bladder resulted in the same large... hemangiomas . It turns out that endothelial cells are exquisitely sensitive to transformation by middle T antigen leading to hemangioma formation...very low-level expression of PSCA/TVA by prostatic endothelium resulted in hemangioma formation. We performed in situ hybridization on these tissues

  14. Vaccine Therapy and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Hormone-Resistant, Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-23

    Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Bone; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm in the Soft Tissues; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  15. Enhanced detection of metastatic prostate cancer cells in human plasma with lipid bodies staining.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranjana; Goodman, Oscar B; Le, Thuc T

    2014-02-15

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism of malignant cancer cells confers competitive advantage in growth environments with limited resources. However, not every process of cancer development is associated with competition for resources. During hematogenous transport, cancer cells are exposed to high levels of oxygen and nutrients. Does energy metabolism of cancer cells change as a function of exposure to the bloodstream? Could such changes be exploited to improve the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC)? These questions have clinical significance, but have not yet been sufficiently examined. The energy metabolism was examined as a function of incubation in nutrient-rich plasma in prostate metastatic cancer cells LNCaP and non-transformed prostate epithelial cells RWPE1. Uptake kinetics of a fluorescent glucose analog (2-NBD) and lipophilic dyes (DiD & Bodipy) were measured in both cell lines, as well as in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). LNCaP cells exhibited hyper-acetylation of low molecular weight proteins compared to RWPE1 cells. Following plasma incubation, protein lysine acetylation profile was unchanged for LNCaP cells while significantly altered for RWPE1 cells. O-linked glycosylated protein profiles were different between LNCaP and RWPE1 cells and varied in both cell lines with plasma incubation. Maximal respiration or glycolytic capacities was unchanged in LNCaP cells and impaired in RWPE1 cells following plasma incubation. However, the uptake rates of 2-NBD and DiD were insufficient for discrimination of LNCaP, or RWPE1 cells from PBMC. On the other hand, both RWPE1 and LNCaP cells exhibited intracellular lipid bodies following plasma incubation; whereas, PBMC did not. The presence of lipid bodies in LNCaP cells permitted retention of Bodipy dye and allowed discrimination of LNCaP cells from PBMC with flow cytometry. Despite clear differences in energy metabolism, metastatic prostate cancer cells could not be efficiently distinguished from

  16. Evaluation of cellular determinants required for in vitro xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus entry into human prostate cancer and noncancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, Sushma; Suppiah, Suganthi; Molinaro, Ross; Liang, Yuying; Arnold, Rebecca; Diehl, William; Makarova, Natalia; Blackwell, Jerry; Petros, John; Liotta, Dennis; Hunter, Eric; Ly, Hinh

    2010-07-01

    The newly identified retrovirus-the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV)-has recently been shown to be strongly associated with familial prostate cancer in humans (A. Urisman et al., PLoS Pathog. 2:e25, 2006). While that study showed evidence of XMRV infection exclusively in the prostatic stromal fibroblasts, a recent study found XMRV protein antigens mainly in malignant prostate epithelial cells (R. Schlaberg et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:16351-16356, 2009). To help elucidate the mechanisms behind XMRV infection, we show that prostatic fibroblast cells express Xpr1, a known receptor of XMRV, but its expression is absent in other cell lines of the prostate (i.e., epithelial and stromal smooth muscle cells). We also show that certain amino acid residues located within the predicted extracellular loop (ECL3 and ECL4) sequences of Xpr1 are required for efficient XMRV entry. Although we found strong evidence to support XMRV infection of prostatic fibroblast cell lines via Xpr1, we learned that XMRV was indeed capable of infecting cells that did not necessarily express Xpr1, such as those of the prostatic epithelial and smooth muscle origins. Further studies suggest that the expression of Xpr1 and certain genotypes of the RNASEL gene, which could restrict XMRV infection, may play important roles in defining XMRV tropisms in certain cell types. Collectively, our data reveal important cellular determinants required for XMRV entry into different human prostate cells in vitro, which may provide important insights into the possible role of XMRV as an etiologic agent in human prostate cancer.

  17. Differential levels of human leukocyte antigen-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 and androgen receptor expressions in untreated prostate cancer cells: the robustness of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Homma, Shigenori; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Harada, Mamoru; Saya, Hideyuki; Todo, Satoru; Itoh, Kyogo; Noguchi, Masanori

    2007-08-01

    Tumors are highly robust and maintain their proliferative potential against a wide range of both host-defense mechanisms and anticancer therapies. One of the approaches to overcome cancer robustness could be combined therapy in which each modality imposes independent selective pressures against the acquired mutation of cancer. To develop such a therapy, it is crucial to understand the magnitude of acquired mutations. In this study, we investigated the levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class I, multidrug-resistance 1 (MDR1), and androgen receptor (AR) expressions in untreated prostate cancers harvested by radical prostatectomy. The mean percentages of cancer cells expressing HLA-class I, MDR and AR among the 10 cancer samples were 41, 35 and 74%, respectively. In addition, double-staining of HLA and MDR revealed the four definite populations (HLA+/MDR+, HLA+/MDR-, HLA-/MDR+ and HLA-/MDR-) in cancer tissues from the majority of cancer patients tested, and the mean percentages of cells expressing these combinations were 13, 29, 22 and 38%, respectively. Similar results were obtained by double-staining of HLA and AR, except for 2 cases in which HLA-/AR+ cancer cells predominated. These results indicated that untreated prostate cancer cells acquired a wide range of genomic mutations, which may have been caused by internal host pressure to eliminate malignant cells, and would provide evidence of the robustness of untreated prostate cancer.

  18. Androgen Receptor Variants and Prostate Cancer in Humanized AR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Albertelli, Megan A.; O’Mahony, Orla A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Androgen, acting via the androgen receptor (AR), is central to male development, differentiation and hormone-dependent diseases such as prostate cancer. AR is actively involved in the initiation of prostate cancer, the transition to androgen independence, and many mechanisms of resistance to therapy. To examine genetic variation of AR in cancer, we created mice by germ-line gene targeting in which human AR sequence replaces that of the mouse. Since shorter length of a polymorphic N-terminal glutamine (Q) tract has been linked to prostate cancer risk, we introduced alleles with 12, 21 or 48 Qs to test this association. The three “humanized” AR mouse strains (h/mAR) are normal physiologically, as well as by cellular and molecular criteria, although slight differences are detected in AR target gene expression, correlating inversely with Q tract length. However, distinct allele-dependent differences in tumorigenesis are evident when these mice are crossed to a transgenic prostate cancer model. Remarkably, Q tract variation also differentially impacts disease progression following androgen depletion. This finding emphasizes the importance of AR function in androgen-independent as well as –dependent disease. These mice provide a novel genetic paradigm in which to dissect opposing functions of AR in tumor suppression vs. oncogenesis. PMID:17936615

  19. Neuroendocrine Transdifferentiation in Human Prostate Cancer Cells: An Integrated Approach.

    PubMed

    Cerasuolo, Marianna; Paris, Debora; Iannotti, Fabio A; Melck, Dominique; Verde, Roberta; Mazzarella, Enrico; Motta, Andrea; Ligresti, Alessia

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is highly sensitive to hormone therapy because androgens are essential for prostate cancer cell growth. However, with the nearly invariable progression of this disease to androgen independence, endocrine therapy ultimately fails to control prostate cancer in most patients. Androgen-independent acquisition may involve neuroendocrine transdifferentiation, but there is little knowledge about this process, which is presently controversial. In this study, we investigated this question in a novel model of human androgen-dependent LNCaP cells cultured for long periods in hormone-deprived conditions. Strikingly, characterization of the neuroendocrine phenotype by transcriptomic, metabolomic, and other statistically integrated analyses showed how hormone-deprived LNCaP cells could transdifferentiate to a nonmalignantneuroendocrine phenotype. Notably, conditioned media from neuroendocrine-like cells affected LNCaP cell proliferation. Predictive in silico models illustrated how after an initial period, when LNCaP cell survival was compromised by an arising population of neuroendocrine-like cells, a sudden trend reversal occurred in which the neuroendocrine-like cells functioned to sustain the remaining androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Our findings provide direct biologic and molecular support for the concept that neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer cell populations influences the progression to androgen independence.

  20. Human periprostatic adipose tissue promotes prostate cancer aggressiveness in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and mortality. The contribution of periprostatic adipose tissue, which is often infiltrated by malignant cells, to cancer progression is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to determine if periprostatic adipose tissue is linked with aggressive tumor biology in prostate cancer. Methods Supernatants of whole adipose tissue (explants) or stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from paired fat samples of periprostatic (PP) and pre-peritoneal visceral (VIS) anatomic origin from different donors were prepared and analyzed for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activity. The effects of those conditioned media (CM) on growth and migration of hormone-refractory (PC-3) and hormone-sensitive (LNCaP) prostate cancer cells were measured. Results We show here that PP adipose tissue of overweight men has higher MMP9 activity in comparison with normal subjects. The observed increased activities of both MMP2 and MMP9 in PP whole adipose tissue explants, likely reveal the contribution of adipocytes plus stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) as opposed to SVF alone. MMP2 activity was higher for PP when compared to VIS adipose tissue. When PC-3 cells were stimulated with CM from PP adipose tissue explants, increased proliferative and migratory capacities were observed, but not in the presence of SVF. Conversely, when LNCaP cells were stimulated with PP explants CM, we found enhanced motility despite the inhibition of proliferation, whereas CM derived from SVF increased both cell proliferation and motility. Explants culture and using adipose tissue of PP origin are most effective in promoting proliferation and migration of PC-3 cells, as respectively compared with SVF culture and using adipose tissue of VIS origin. In LNCaP cells, while explants CM cause increased migration compared to SVF, the use of PP adipose tissue to generate CM result in the increase of both cellular proliferation and migration. Conclusions Our

  1. Personalized Medicine Approaches in Prostate Cancer Employing Patient Derived 3D Organoids and Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bartucci, Monica; Ferrari, Anna C.; Kim, Isaac Yi; Ploss, Alexander; Yarmush, Martin; Sabaawy, Hatem E.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death in Western men. Despite its prevalence, PCa has proven very difficult to propagate in vitro. PCa represents a complex organ-like multicellular structure maintained by the dynamic interaction of tumoral cells with parenchymal stroma, endothelial and immune cells, and components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The lack of PCa models that recapitulate this intricate system has hampered progress toward understanding disease progression and lackluster therapeutic responses. Tissue slices, monolayer cultures and genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM) fail to mimic the complexities of the PCa microenvironment or reproduce the diverse mechanisms of therapy resistance. Moreover, patient derived xenografts (PDXs) are expensive, time consuming, difficult to establish for prostate cancer, lack immune cell-tumor regulation, and often tumors undergo selective engraftments. Here, we describe an interdisciplinary approach using primary PCa and tumor initiating cells (TICs), three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering, genetic and morphometric profiling, and humanized mice to generate patient-derived organoids for examining personalized therapeutic responses in vitro and in mice co-engrafted with a human immune system (HIS), employing adaptive T-cell- and chimeric antigen receptor- (CAR) immunotherapy. The development of patient specific therapies targeting the vulnerabilities of cancer, when combined with antiproliferative and immunotherapy approaches could help to achieve the full transformative power of cancer precision medicine. PMID:27446916

  2. Radiosensitization effect of zidovudine on human malignant glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fuxiang; Liao Zhengkai; Dai Jing; Xiong Jie; Xie CongHua; Luo Zhiguo; Liu Shiquan; Zhou Yunfeng . E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com

    2007-03-09

    Telomeres are shortened with each cell division and play an important role in maintaining chromosomal integrity and function. Telomerase, responsible for telomere synthesis, is activated in 90% of human tumor cells but seldom in normal somatic cells. Zidovudine (AZT) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this study, we have investigated the effects of {gamma}-radiation in combination with AZT on telomerase activity (TA), telomere length, DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and the changes in radiosensitivity of human malignant glioma cell line U251. The results showed that the TA was suppressed by AZT but enhanced by irradiation, resulting in a deceleration of restored rate of shortened telomere, decreased repair rate of DNA strand breaks, and increased radiosensitivity of U251 cells. Our results suggested that telomerase activity and telomere length may serve as markers for estimating the efficacy of cancer radiotherapy and reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as AZT, may be used clinically as a new radiosensitizer in cancer radiotherapy.

  3. Relationship between electrical admittivity and quantitative histopathology in human prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halter, Ryan; Milone, Michael; Schned, Alan; Heaney, John

    2010-04-01

    Passive bioelectrical properties have been demonstrated to provide sufficient contrast for use in differentiating benign from malignant tissue in a number of different organs including breast, prostate, cervix, bladder, and skin. The underlying microscopic anatomy responsible for these measured differences has been primarily speculative in the past. In this study we recorded electrical conductivity and permittivity spectra (100 Hz - 100 kHz) from 464 three mm diameter circular prostate samples. Each of these tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, processed onto microscopy slides, and digitized using optical microscopy. We used digital imaging processing tools to extract quantitative morphological features including total number of glands, average and total glandular lumen size, shape characteristics of the luminal spaces, and average and total glandular perimeter lengths. Correlative analysis was performed to assess the relationships between the tissue architectural features and the precisely co-registered electrical properties. We report on the findings from this analysis. This statistical assessment aims to provide a valuable piece of new information to help formulate a better understanding of the precise influence morphological architecture has on the flow of current through tissue.

  4. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms of the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in a Japanese male patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Motofumi; Morikawa, Teppei; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takeshima, Yuta; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2014-09-22

    Owing to recent advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques for cancer, a patient diagnosed with two or more neoplasms is not rare. We report on the case of a 58-year-old male with multiple primary malignant neoplasms, who suffered from three histological types of malignant neoplasm in six organs, namely the glottis, renal pelvis, urinary bladder, oral floor, prostate, and esophagus in chronological order. The first neoplasm was a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis diagnosed in 2006. The second and third neoplasms were urothelial carcinomas of the right renal pelvis and urinary bladder, respectively, diagnosed in 2008. The remaining three neoplasms were diagnosed in 2010, namely a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor, an adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The glottic cancer and esophageal cancer were treated by external radiation therapy. The malignant neoplasms of the oral floor and those which originated in the urinary tract were surgically resected. All neoplasms except the malignant neoplasm of the oral floor were well controlled. The patient died of cervical lymph node metastasis from the squamous cell carcinoma of the oral floor in January 2011. As far as we know, the present report is the first one on this combination of primary malignant neoplasms.

  5. Implant supported overdenture in the patients with history of radio and chemotherapy for the prostate malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Aeran, Himanshu; Nautiyal, Vijay; Kumar, Varun; Uniyal, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The success of dental implants in patients that have undergone chemo and radiotherapy for a region other than head and neck remain unclear, although some local and systemic factors could be contraindications to dental implant treatment. As there are very few absolute medical contraindications to dental implant treatment, but a number of conditions may increase the risk of treatment failure or complications. The case report describes the successful survival of dental implants placed in maxilla and mandible of a patient who had undergone radio and chemotherapy for prostate cancer. PMID:27390497

  6. Animal models of human prostate cancer: The Consensus Report of the New York Meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee

    PubMed Central

    Ittmann, Michael; Huang, Jiaoti; Radaelli, Enrico; Martin, Philip; Signoretti, Sabina; Sullivan, Ruth; Simons, Brian W.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Robinson, Brian D.; Chu, Gerald C.; Loda, Massimo; Thomas, George; Borowsky, Alexander; Cardiff, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models, particularly mouse models, play a central role in the study of the etiology, prevention and treatment of human prostate cancer (PCa). While tissue culture models are extremely useful in understanding the biology of PCa, they cannot recapitulate the complex cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment that play a key role in cancer initiation and progression. The NCI Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium convened a group of human and veterinary pathologists to review the current animal models of PCa and make recommendations regarding the pathological analysis of these models. Over 40 different models with 439 samples were reviewed including genetically engineered mouse models, xenograft, rat and canine models. Numerous relevant models have been developed over the last 15 years and each approach has strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of multiple genetically engineered models has shown that reactive stroma formation is present in all the models developing invasive carcinomas. In addition, numerous models with multiple genetic alterations display aggressive phenotypes characterized by sarcomatoid carcinomas and metastases, which is presumably a histological manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The significant progress in development of improved models of PCa has already accelerated our understanding the complex biology of PCa and promises to enhance development of new approaches to prevention, detection and treatment of this common malignancy. PMID:23610450

  7. The activation of OR51E1 causes growth suppression of human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maßberg, Désirée; Jovancevic, Nikolina; Offermann, Anne; Simon, Annika; Baniahmad, Aria; Perner, Sven; Pungsrinont, Thanakorn; Luko, Katarina; Philippou, Stathis; Ubrig, Burkhard; Heiland, Markus; Weber, Lea; Altmüller, Janine; Becker, Christian; Gisselmann, Günter; Gelis, Lian; Hatt, Hanns

    2016-07-26

    The development of prostate cancer (PCa) is regulated by the androgen-dependent activity of the androgen receptor (AR). Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is therefore the gold standard treatment to suppress malignant progression of PCa. Nevertheless, due to the development of castration resistance, recurrence of disease after initial response to ADT is a major obstacle to successful treatment. As G-protein coupled receptors play a fundamental role in PCa physiology, they might represent promising alternative or combinatorial targets for advanced diseases. Here, we verified gene expression of the olfactory receptors (ORs) OR51E1 [prostate-specific G-protein coupled receptor 2 (PSGR2)] and OR51E2 (PSGR) in human PCa tissue by RNA-Seq analysis and RT-PCR and elucidated the subcellular localization of both receptor proteins in human prostate tissue. The OR51E1 agonist nonanoic acid (NA) leads to the phosphorylation of various protein kinases and growth suppression of the PCa cell line LNCaP. Furthermore, treatment with NA causes reduction of androgen-mediated AR target gene expression. Interestingly, NA induces cellular senescence, which coincides with reduced E2F1 mRNA levels. In contrast, treatment with the structurally related compound 1-nonanol or the OR2AG1 agonist amyl butyrate, neither of which activates OR51E1, did not lead to reduced cell growth or an induction of cellular senescence. However, decanoic acid, another OR51E1 agonist, also induces cellular senescence. Thus, our results suggest the involvement of OR51E1 in growth processes of PCa cells and its impact on AR-mediated signaling. These findings provide novel evidences to support the functional importance of ORs in PCa pathogenesis.

  8. Differential expression of a human kallikrein 5 (KLK5) splice variant in ovarian and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kurlender, Lisa; Yousef, George M; Memari, Nader; Robb, John-Desmond; Michael, Iacovos P; Borgoño, Carla; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2004-01-01

    The presence of more than one mRNA form is common among kallikrein genes. We identified an mRNA transcript of the human kallikrein gene 5 (KLK5), denoted KLK5 splice variant 1 (KLK5-SV1). This variant has a different 5'-splice site, but encodes the same protein as the classical KLK5 transcript. RT-PCR analysis of this variant transcript expression in 29 human tissues indicated highest expression in the cervix, salivary gland, kidney, mammary gland, and skin. Comparative analysis of the expression levels of KLK5-SV1, another splice variant named KLK5 splice variant 2 (KLK5-SV2), and the classical KLK5 form showed that out of all three mRNA transcripts, the classical form is predominantly expressed (found in more tissues and at higher expression levels) followed by KLK5-SV1. KLK5-SV1 is expressed at high levels in ovarian, pancreatic, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. KLK5-SV1 was also found to be expressed in 9/10 ovarian cancer tissues, but it was not found in one normal ovarian tissue tested. Hormonal regulation experiments suggest that KLK5-SV1 is regulated by steroid hormones in the BT-474 breast cancer cell line. Furthermore, this variant had significantly higher expression in normal prostate tissues compared to their matched cancer tissue counterparts. KLK5-SV1 may have clinical utility in various malignancies and should be further explored as a potential new biomarker for prostate and ovarian cancer.

  9. Secondary Malignancies From Prostate Cancer Radiation Treatment: A Risk Analysis of the Influence of Target Margins and Fractionation Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dasu, Alexandru; Toma-Dasu, Iuliana; Franzen, Lars; Widmark, Anders; Nilsson, Per

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: This study explores the implications for cancer induction of treatment details such as fractionation, planning target volume (PTV) definition, and interpatient variations, which are relevant for the radiation treatment of prostate carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Treatment planning data from 100 patients have been analyzed with a risk model based on the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation competition model. The risk model can account for dose heterogeneity and fractionation effects characteristic for modern radiotherapy. Biologically relevant parameters from clinical and experimental data have been used with the model. Results: The results suggested that changes in prescribed dose could lead to a modification of the risks for individual organs surrounding the clinical target volume (CTV) but that the total risk appears to be less affected by changes in the target dose. Larger differences are observed for modifications of the margins between the CTV and the PTV because these have direct impact onto the dose level and dose heterogeneity in the healthy tissues surrounding the CTV. Interpatient anatomic variations also have to be taken into consideration for studies of the risk for cancer induction from radiotherapy. Conclusions: The results have shown the complex interplay between the risk for secondary malignancies, the details of the treatment delivery, and the patient heterogeneity that may influence comparisons between the long-term effects of various treatment techniques. Nevertheless, absolute risk levels seem very small and comparable to mortality risks from surgical interventions, thus supporting the robustness of radiation therapy as a successful treatment modality for prostate carcinomas.

  10. On the growth rates of human malignant tumors: implications for medical decision making.

    PubMed

    Friberg, S; Mattson, S

    1997-08-01

    Testicular carcinomas, pediatric tumors, and some mesenchymal tumors are examples of rapidly proliferating cell populations, for which the tumor volume doubling time (TVDT) can be counted in days. Cancers from the breast, prostate, and colon are frequently slow-growing, displaying a TVDT of months or years. Irrespective of their growth rates, most human tumors have been found: to start from one single cell, to have a long subclinical period, to grow at constant rates for long periods of time, to start to metastasize often even before the primary is detected, and to have metastases that often grow at approximately the same rate as the primary tumor. The recognition of basic facts in tumor cell kinetics is essential in the evaluation of important present-day strategies in oncology. Among the facts emphasized in this review are: (1) Screening programs. Most tumors are several years old when detectable by present-day diagnostic methods. This makes the term "early detection" questionable. (2) Legal trials. The importance of so-called doctor's delay is often discussed, but the prognostic value of "early" detection is overestimated. (3) Analyses of clinical trials. Such analysis may be differentiated depending on the growth rates of the type of tumor studied. Furthermore, uncritical analysis of survival data may be misleading if the TVDT is not taken into consideration. (4) Analyses of epidemiological data. If causes of malignant tumors in humans are searched for, the time of exposure must be extended far back in the subject's history. (5) Risk estimations by insurance companies. For the majority of human cancers, the 5-year survival rate is not a valid measurement for cure. Thus, basic knowledge of tumor kinetics may have important implications for political health programs, legal trials, medical science, and insurance policies.

  11. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  12. Leukocytic Promotion of Prostate Cellular Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Kristy L.; Begley, Lesa A.; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Markovitz, David M.; Macoska, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Histological evidence of pervasive inflammatory infiltrate has been noted in both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Cytokines known to attract particular leukocyte subsets are secreted from prostatic stroma consequent to aging and also from malignant prostate epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that leukocytes associated with either acute or chronic inflammation attracted to the prostate consequent to aging or tumorigenesis may promote the abnormal cellular proliferation associated with BPH and PCa. METHODS An in vitro system designed to mimic the human prostatic microenvironment incorporating prostatic stroma (primary and immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts), epithelium (N15C6, BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells), and inflammatory infiltrate (HL-60 cells, HH, and Molt-3 T-lymphocytes) was developed. Modified Boyden chamber assays were used to test the ability of prostate stromal and epithelial cells to attract leukocytes and to test the effect of leukocytes on prostate cellular proliferation. Antibody arrays were used to identify leukocyte-secreted cytokines mediating prostate cellular proliferation. RESULTS Leukocytic cells migrated towards both prostate stromal and epithelial cells. CD4+ T-lymphocytes promoted the proliferation of both transformed and non-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines tested, whereas CD8+ T-lymphocytes as well as dHL-60M macrophagic and dHL-60N neutrophilic cells selectively promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. CONCLUSIONS The results of these studies show that inflammatory cells can be attracted to the prostate tissue microenvironment and can selectively promote the proliferation of non-transformed or transformed prostate epithelial cells, and are consistent with differential role(s) for inflammatory infiltrate in the etiologies of benign and malignant proliferative disease in the prostate. PMID:19866464

  13. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Wade T; Eckhert, Curtis D

    2004-12-08

    The role of boron in biology includes coordinated regulation of gene expression in mixed bacterial populations and the growth and proliferation of higher plants and lower animals. Here we report that boric acid, the dominant form of boron in plasma, inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145 and LNCaP, in a dose-dependent manner. Non-tumorigenic prostate cell lines, PWR-1E and RWPE-1, and the cancer line PC-3 were also inhibited, but required concentrations higher than observed human blood levels. Studies using DU-145 cells showed that boric acid induced a cell death-independent proliferative inhibition, with little effect on cell cycle stage distribution and mitochondrial function.

  14. Sulphur XANES Analysis of Cultured Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Podgórczyk, M.; Paluszkiewicz, Cz.; Balerna, A.; Kisiel, A.

    2008-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in men throughout the world. It is believed that changes to the structure of protein binding sites, altering its metabolism, may play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulphur, often present in binding sites, can influence such changes through its chemical speciation. Hence there is a need for precise investigation of coordination environment of sulphur. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy offers such possibility. Cell culture samples offer histologically well defined areas of good homogeneity, suitable for successful and reliable X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis. This paper presents sulphur speciation data collected from three different human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145). Sulphur X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was performed on K-edge structure. The spectra of cells were compared with those of cancerous tissue and with organic substances as well as inorganic compounds.

  15. A chemical relaxation study of human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Shear, D B; Kustin, K

    1968-01-01

    Chemical relaxation methods and a dilution technique were applied to the study of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate by human prostatic acid phosphatase. Although the reaction mechanism was not elucidated, rate constants and equilibrium constants were obtained for the reaction of enzyme and p-nitrophenol to form a complex. A slow, 2-sec relaxation effect which showed no concentration dependence was observed in various reaction mixtures, including some lacking the substrate and products of the hydrolytic reaction. The conclusion drawn is that there are two forms of the prostatic enzyme, which are normally in equilibrium with each other, but which undergo a relatively slow interconversion when this equilibrium is perturbed. A preliminary calculation indicates that these forms are present in the equilibrium ratio of 2:1.

  16. Triptolide inhibits the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-1/CD147/MMPs pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shiqi; Wang, Liping; Chen, Xixi; Fan, Bo; Yuan, Qingmin; Zhang, Han; Yang, Deyong; Wang, Shujing

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of carcinoma and the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in males. Triptolide, is a main and effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which exerts an broad-spectrum anti-malignant tumor function. However, the effect of triptolide on migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells is still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that triptolide significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is regarded as a major structural protein of caveolae and participated in lipid transport, signal transduction and tumor progression. Triptolide treatment inhibited the expression of tumor promoter Cav-1 and reduced CD147 and MMPs activities at both mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, triptolide treatment combined with Cav-1 knockdown in PCa cells enhanced the effects of anti-migration and anti-invasion, and those effects were restored following Cav-1-rescued. Together, our research indicates that triptolide represses the migration and invasion through Cav-1/CD147/MMPs pathway in PCa cells, which gives a better understanding of triptolide in clinical aggressive prostate cancer therapy.

  17. Bisphenol A Promotes Human Prostate Stem-Progenitor Cell Self-Renewal and Increases In Vivo Carcinogenesis in Human Prostate Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Majumdar, Shyama; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nelles, Jason L.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in rodent models have shown that early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) reprograms the prostate and enhances its susceptibility to hormonal carcinogenesis with aging. To determine whether the human prostate is similarly sensitive to BPA, the current study used human prostate epithelial stem-like cells cultured from prostates of young, disease-free donors. Similar to estradiol-17β (E2), BPA increased stem-progenitor cell self-renewal and expression of stem-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. Further, 10 nM BPA and E2 possessed equimolar membrane-initiated signaling with robust induction of p-Akt and p-Erk at 15 minutes. To assess in vivo carcinogenicity, human prostate stem-progenitor cells combined with rat mesenchyme were grown as renal grafts in nude mice, forming normal human prostate epithelium at 1 month. Developmental BPA exposure was achieved through oral administration of 100 or 250 μg BPA/kg body weight to hosts for 2 weeks after grafting, producing free BPA levels of 0.39 and 1.35 ng/mL serum, respectively. Carcinogenesis was driven by testosterone plus E2 treatment for 2 to 4 months to model rising E2 levels in aging men. The incidence of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma markedly increased from 13% in oil-fed controls to 33% to 36% in grafts exposed in vivo to BPA (P < .05). Continuous developmental BPA exposure through in vitro (200 nM) plus in vivo (250 μg/kg body weight) treatments increased high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia/cancer incidence to 45% (P < .01). Together, the present findings demonstrate that human prostate stem-progenitor cells are direct BPA targets and that developmental exposure to BPA at low doses increases hormone-dependent cancer risk in the human prostate epithelium. PMID:24424067

  18. Involvement of NANOG upregulation in malignant progression of human cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Higashiyama, Shinji; Shimakage, Misuzu; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Yutsudo, Masuo; Watari, Akihiro

    2013-03-01

    Previously, we isolated cell lines that display various degrees of transformed phenotypes from a single-cell population of human diploid fibroblasts (RB) containing a large deletion (13q14-22) in one copy of chromosome 13. They included a cell line transfected with SV40 early genes (RBSV), an immortalized cell line (RBI), an anchorage-independent cell line (RBS), and a tumorigenic cell line (RBT). Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles in these cell lines and showed that expression of some fibroblast-specified or mesenchyme-specified genes were downregulated, and those of stem cell-specified genes, including NANOG, were upregulated during malignant progression. When NANOG expression was knocked down with a short hairpin NANOG expression vector (shNANOG vector) in the RBS and RBT cells, the anchorage independency and tumorigenicity were repressed. We next examined various cancer cell lines for NANOG expression and showed that some cancer cell lines expressed a high level of normal and/or variant NANOG proteins. Overexpression of NANOG mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma was also shown by in situ hybridization. All these data indicate the involvement of NANOG in tumorigenesis.

  19. Calprotectin induces cell death in human prostate cancer cell (LNCaP) through survivin protein alteration.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Mina; Pazhang, Yaghub; Imani, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    Calprotectin (CP), an abundant heterodimeric cytosolic protein of neutrophils, conveys a variety of functions such as tumor cell growth arrest and antimicrobial activity. We investigated CP activity and its possible apoptosis-inducing mechanism of action against an antiandrogen therapy-resistance prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Cell viability and Annexin V FITC assays were performed in order to investigate its cell death activity and apoptosis, respectively. In order to address cell death inducing mechanism(s), immunocytochemistry and immunobloting analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) measurements were performed. The effective concentration of CP against LNCaP promoting LNCaP cell death was 200 µg/mL. ROS and NO levels of cells remarkably were enhanced following treatment with 50 and 100 µg/mL of CP, respectively. Protein expression of anti-apoptotic protein survivin was significantly decreased after administration of tumor cells with CP. Our data indicate that CP regulates the LNCaP cells viability via survivin-mediated pathway and ROS and NO enhancement. Thus, inhibition of survivin expression, enhancement of ROS and NO level by CP or other similar pharmaceutical agents might be effective in lowering the malignant proliferation of human prostate cancer cells.

  20. Second malignancies after prostate brachytherapy: Incidence of bladder and colorectal cancers in patients with 15 years of potential follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Liauw, Stanley L.; Sylvester, John E. . E-mail: johnsylvester@seattleprostateinst.com; Morris, Christopher G.; Blasko, John C.; Grimm, Peter D.

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To report the incidence of second bladder and colorectal cancers after prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: This review included 125 patients treated with I-125 brachytherapy alone, and 223 patients who received supplemental external beam radiation therapy. Median follow-up was 10.5 years. Patients were followed for the development of lower genitourinary and colorectal cancers. Second malignancies arising five years after radiation therapy were defined as being potentially associated with treatment; observed rates were then compared with age-matched expected rates according to Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data. Results: Five years out of treatment, there were 15 patients with a second solid tumor, including bladder cancer (n = 11), colorectal cancer (n = 3), and prostatic urethra cancer (n = 1). The incidence of second malignancy was no different in patients treated with brachytherapy alone (1.6%) vs. those receiving external beam radiotherapy (5.8%, p = 0.0623). There were more observed bladder cancers compared with those expected (relative risk, 2.34, 95% confidence interval 0.96-3.72; absolute excess risk 35 cancers per 10,000 patients). Relative risk did not significantly change over increasing follow-up intervals up to 20 years after treatment. Conclusions: There may be an increased but small risk of developing a second malignancy after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. This outcome could be related to radiation carcinogenesis, but more vigilant screening and thorough workup as a result of radiation side effects and predisposing conditions (e.g., genetic and environmental factors) in many of the patients found to have second malignancies likely contributed to the higher number of observed malignancies than expected.

  1. Influence of p53 and bcl-2 on chemosensitivity in benign and malignant prostatic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Antonio M; Bohm, Lothar

    2005-01-01

    The administration of cancer chemotherapeutic agents results in an increase in the apoptotic cells in the tumor: therefore, it has been assumed that anticancer drugs exhibit their cytotoxic effects via apoptotic signaling pathways. Characteristics that confer sensitivity to drug-induced apoptosis are, a functional p53 protein and expression of the apoptosis-promoting protein, bax. The role of p53 and bax/bcl-2 in drug-induced apoptosis was assessed in six prostate cell lines, 1532T, 1535T, 1542T, 1542N, BPH-1 and LNCaP using TD(50) concentrations of etoposide, vinblastine and estramustine. Cell death was monitored morphologically by fluorescent microscopy, and by flow cytometry (Annexin-V assay). Apoptotic morphology was rather low and ranged from 0.1% to 12.1%, 3.0% to 6.0% and 0.1% to 8.5% for etoposide, estramustine and vinblastine, respectively. Annexin-V binding and flow cytometry indicated apoptotic propensities of 0% to 4%, 0% to 3% and 0% to 5%, respectively. The percentage of cells responding to drug-induced apoptosis was, on average, higher in the tumor cell lines than in the normal cell lines, but showed no correlation with p53 status. The percentage of cells showing necrosis, assessed by Annexin binding and Propidium Iodide permeability in aqueous medium, tended to be much higher, and was found to be at the level of 5% to 30%. Immunoblotting demonstrated that bax and bcl-2 proteins were expressed at a basal level in all cell lines, but did not increase after exposure to TD(50) doses of the three drugs. The ratio of bax and bcl-2, measured by laser scanning densitometry, was not altered by the drug-induced DNA damage. The results suggest that apoptosis is not a major mechanism of drug-induced cell death in prostate cell lines and appears to be independent of p53 status and bax/bcl-2 expression.

  2. Profiling of zinc altered gene expression in human prostate normal versus cancer cells: a time course study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-fei; Wei, Hua; Maeder, Dennis; Franklin, Renty B.; Feng, Pei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated that zinc exposure induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and benign hyperplasia cells (BPH), but not in normal prostate cells (HPR-1). However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc on prostate cancer cell growth and zinc homeostasis remain unclear. To explore the zinc effect on gene expression profiles in normal (HPR-1) and malignant prostate cells (PC-3), we conducted a time course study of Zn treatment with microarray analysis. Microarray data were evaluated and profiled using computational approach for the primary and secondary data analyses. Final analyses were focused on the genes: 1. highly sensitive to zinc, 2. associated with zinc homeostasis, i.e. metallothioneins (MTs), solute zinc carriers (ZIPs) and zinc exporters (ZnTs), 3. relevant to several oncogenic pathways. Zinc-mediated mRNA levels of MT isotypes were further validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that zinc effect on genome-wide expression patterns was cell type specific, and zinc appeared to have mainly down-regulatory effects on thousands of genes (1,953 in HPR-1; 3,534 in PC-3) with a threshold of ±2.5-fold, while fewer genes were up-regulated (872 in HPR-1; 571 in PC-3). The patterns of zinc effect on functional MT genes’ expression provided evidence for the cell-type dependent zinc accumulation and zinc-induced apoptosis in prostate cells. In PC-3 cells, zinc significantly up-regulated the expression of MT-1 isotypes -J and -M, denoted previously as “non-functional” MT genes, and now a depictive molecular structure of MT-1J was proposed. Examination of genes involved in oncogenic pathways indicated that certain genes, e.g. Fos, Akt1, Jak3 and PI3K were highly regulated by zinc with cell type specificity. This work provided an extensive database on zinc related prostate cancer research. The strategy of data analysis was devoted to find genes highly sensitive to Zn, and the genes associated with zinc accumulation and zinc

  3. Enhancement characteristics of benign and malignant focal peripheral nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland studied using contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tang, J; Yang, J-C; Luo, Y; Li, J; Li, Y; Shi, H

    2008-10-01

    To assess the value of contrast-enhanced grey-scale transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS) in predicting the nature of peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions of the prostate. Ninety-one patients with peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions on ultrasound were evaluated with CETRUS followed by lesion-specific and sextant transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. The enhancement patterns of the lesions were observed and graded subjectively using adjacent peripheral zone tissue as the reference. Time to enhancement (AT), time to peak intensity (TTP) and peak intensity (PI) were quantified within each nodule. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the hypoechoic lesions revealed prostate cancer in 44 patients and benign prostatic diseases in 47. The intensity of enhancement within the lesions were graded as no enhancement, increased, equal, or decreased compared with adjacent peripheral zone tissue in two, 30, five and seven in the prostate cancer group and 14, 15, four and 14 in the benign group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The peak enhancement intensity was found to be the most optimal discriminatory parameter (area under curve AUC 0.70; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.82). Malignant hypoechoic nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate are more likely to enhance early and more intensely on CETRUS. A non-enhanced hypoechoic peripheral zone lesion was more likely to be benign.

  4. Is Human Papillomavirus Associated with Prostate Cancer Survival?

    PubMed Central

    Barbazza, Renzo; Marongiu, Barbara; Bonin, Serena; Stanta, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in prostate carcinogenesis is highly controversial: some studies suggest a positive association between HPV infection and an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas others do not reveal any correlation. In this study, we investigated the prognostic impact of HPV infection on survival in 150 primary PCa patients. One hundred twelve (74.67%) patients had positive expression of HPV E7 protein, which was evaluated in tumour tissue by immunohistochemistry. DNA analysis on a subset of cases confirmed HPV infection and revealed the presence of genotype 16. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, HPV-positive cancer patients showed worse overall survival (OS) (median 4.59 years) compared to HPV-negative (median 8.24 years, P = 0.0381). In multivariate analysis age (P < 0.001), Gleason score (P < 0.001), nuclear grading (P = 0.002), and HPV status (P = 0.034) were independent prognostic factors for OS. In our cohort, we observed high prevalence of HPV nuclear E7 oncoprotein and an association between HPV infection and PCa survival. In the debate about the oncogenic activity of HPV in PCa, our results further confirm the need for additional studies to clarify the possible role of HPV in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24288430

  5. ICRAC controls the rapid androgen response in human primary prostate epithelial cells and is altered in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holzmann, Christian; Kilch, Tatiana; Kappel, Sven; Armbrüster, Andrea; Jung, Volker; Stöckle, Michael; Bogeski, Ivan; Schwarz, Eva C.; Peinelt, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Labelled 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding experiments have shown that expression levels of (yet unidentified) membrane androgen receptors (mAR) are elevated in prostate cancer and correlate with a negative prognosis. However, activation of these receptors which mediate a rapid androgen response can counteract several cancer hallmark functions such as unlimited proliferation, enhanced migration, adhesion and invasion and the inability to induce apoptosis. Here, we investigate the downstream signaling pathways of mAR and identify rapid DHT induced activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in primary cultures of human prostate epithelial cells (hPEC) from non-tumorous tissue. Consequently, down-regulation of Orai1, the main molecular component of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels results in an almost complete loss of DHT induced SOCE. We demonstrate that this DHT induced Ca2+ influx via Orai1 is important for rapid androgen triggered prostate specific antigen (PSA) release. We furthermore identified alterations of the molecular components of CRAC channels in prostate cancer. Three lines of evidence indicate that prostate cancer cells down-regulate expression of the Orai1 homolog Orai3: First, Orai3 mRNA expression levels are significantly reduced in tumorous tissue when compared to non-tumorous tissue from prostate cancer patients. Second, mRNA expression levels of Orai3 are decreased in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145 when compared to hPEC from healthy tissue. Third, the pharmacological profile of CRAC channels in prostate cancer cell lines and hPEC differ and siRNA based knock-down experiments indicate changed Orai3 levels are underlying the altered pharmacological profile. The cancer-specific composition and pharmacology of CRAC channels identifies CRAC channels as putative targets in prostate cancer therapy. PMID:24240085

  6. Metabolomics of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid Identifies Signatures of Malignant Glioma*

    PubMed Central

    Locasale, Jason W.; Melman, Tamar; Song, Susan; Yang, Xuemei; Swanson, Kenneth D.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Wong, Eric T.; Asara, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid is routinely collected for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurological malignancies. However, little is known as to how its constituents may change in a patient when presented with a malignant glioma. Here, we used a targeted mass-spectrometry based metabolomics platform using selected reaction monitoring with positive/negative switching and profiled the relative levels of over 124 polar metabolites present in patient cerebrospinal fluid. We analyzed the metabolic profiles from 10 patients presenting malignant gliomas and seven control patients that did not present malignancy to test whether a small sample size could provide statistically significant signatures. We carried out multiple unbiased forms of classification using a series of unsupervised techniques and identified metabolic signatures that distinguish malignant glioma patients from the control patients. One subtype identified contained metabolites enriched in citric acid cycle components. Newly diagnosed patients segregated into a different subtype and exhibited low levels of metabolites involved in tryptophan metabolism, which may indicate the absence of an inflammatory signature. Together our results provide the first global assessment of the polar metabolic composition in cerebrospinal fluid that accompanies malignancy, and demonstrate that data obtained from high throughput mass spectrometry technology may have suitable predictive capabilities for the identification of biomarkers and classification of neurological diseases. PMID:22240505

  7. Idiotype vaccines for human B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Inoges, S; de Cerio, A Lopez-Diaz; Soria, E; Villanueva, H; Pastor, F; Bendandi, M

    2010-01-01

    After twenty years of use in humans, customized idiotypic vaccination yet remains a non-approved, experimental therapeutic option for patients with lymphoma and myeloma. Potentially applicable to all B-cell malignancies whose cells express a clonal immunoglobulin or its epitopes on their surface, this treatment is designed to prevent disease recurrence or progression. Mostly used in follicular lymphoma patients so far, idiotype vaccines have clearly shown biological efficacy, clinical efficacy and clinical benefit in this setting, although no study aiming at regulatory approval of the procedure has been able to meet its main clinical endpoints. In mantle cell lymphoma, only biological efficacy has been proven for idiotypic vaccination, while in multiple myeloma a limited number of studies support the notion of biological and perhaps even clinical efficacy, although no credible evidence of clinical benefit has still emerged. Idiotype vaccines have been produced and administered in a number of substantially different manners. Therefore, the results of most clinical trials cannot be easily compared, and even less pooled together in meaningful meta-analyses. A more creative and yet scientifically sound way to design clinical trials of customized active immunotherapies will be key to the future development of idiotype vaccines, particularly considering that we currently lack any clinical or biological indicator to possibly predict which patients are more likely to respond to idiotypic vaccination from an immunologic point of view. This review aims at summarizing the multifaceted success achieved by idiotype vaccines, as well as at outlining the challenges awaiting them in the near future: how to improve feasibility, immunogenicity and efficacy, as well as how to confirm benefit and gain regulatory approval.

  8. Molecular pathogenesis of human prostate basal cell hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Henry, Gervaise; Malewska, Alicia; Mauck, Ryan; Gahan, Jeffrey; Hutchinson, Ryan; Torrealba, Jose; Francis, Franto; Roehrborn, Claus; Strand, Douglas

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of distinct phenotypes in human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is essential to improving therapeutic intervention. Current therapies target smooth muscle and luminal epithelia for relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH, but basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) remains untargeted. The incidence of has been reported at 8-10%, but a molecular and cellular characterization has not been performed on this phenotype. Using freshly digested tissue from surgical specimens, we performed RNA-seq analysis of flow cytometry-purified basal epithelia from 3 patients with and 4 patients without a majority BCH phenotype. qPCR was performed on 28 genes identified as significant from 13 non-BCH and 7 BCH specimens to confirm transcriptomic analysis. IHC was performed on several non-BCH and BCH specimens for 3 proteins identified as significant by transcriptomic analysis. A total of 141 human BPH specimens were analyzed for the presence of BCH. Clinical characteristics of non-BCH and BCH cohorts revealed no significant differences in age, PSA, prostate volume, medical treatment, or comorbidities. Quantitation of cellular subsets by flow cytometry in 11 BCH patients vs. 11 non-BCH patients demonstrated a significant increase in the ratio of basal to luminal epithelia in patients with BCH (P <0.05), but no significant differences in the total number of leukocytes. RNA-seq data from flow cytometry isolated basal epithelia from patients with and without BCH were subjected to gene set enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes, which revealed increased expression of members of the epidermal differentiation complex. Transcriptomic data were complemented by immunohistochemistry for members of the epidermal differentiation complex, revealing a morphological similarity to other stratified squamous epithelial layers. Increased expression of epidermal differentiation complex members and altered epithelial stratification resembles

  9. Role of human papillomavirus and its detection in potentially malignant and malignant head and neck lesions: updated review

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Mamta; Sundaram, Shanthy; Mehrotra, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Head and neck malignancies are characterized by a multiphasic and multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most common risk factors for head and neck malignancy. Other factors, including DNA viruses, especially human papilloma virus (HPV), may also play a role in the initiation or development of these lesions. The pathways of HPV transmission in the head and neck mucosal lesions include oral-genital contact, more than one sexual partner and perinatal transmission of HPV to the neonatal child. The increase in prevalence of HPV infection in these lesions may be due to wider acceptance of oral sex among teenagers and adults as this is perceived to be a form of safe sex. The prevalence of HPV in benign lesions as well as malignancies has been assessed by many techniques. Among these, the polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive method. Review of literature reveals that HPV may be a risk factor for malignancies, but not in all cases. For confirmation of the role of HPV in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, large population studies are necessary in an assortment of clinical settings. Prophylactic vaccination against high-risk HPV types eventually may prevent a significant number of cervical carcinomas. Of the two vaccines currently available, Gardasil® (Merck & Co., Inc.) protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine, Cervarix® (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) protects against HPV types 16 and 18 only. However, the HPV vaccine has, to the best of our knowledge, not been tried in head and neck carcinoma. The role of HPV in etiopathogenesis, prevalence in benign and malignant lesions of this area and vaccination strategies are briefly reviewed here. PMID:19555477

  10. Protein Phosphatase 2A Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    been shown to be involved in androgen-independent growth of human prostate cancer cells (Carson et al., 1999; Grethe and Porn -Ares, 2006; Murillo et... Porn -Ares MI. (2006). p38 MAPK regulates phosphorylation of Bad via PP2A- dependent suppression of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 survival pathway in TNF-alpha...threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and sig- nalling. Biochem J 2001;353:417–39. 15. Grethe S, Porn -Ares MI. p38 MAPK regulates

  11. Functional Erythropoietin Receptors Expressed by Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    carcinoma cell line (PC-3). Invest Urol, 1979. 17(1): p. 16-23. 11. Yoshimura, A., A.D. D’Andrea, and H.F. Lodish , Friend spleen focus-forming virus...receptor expression in human prostate cancer. Mod Pathol, 2004. 13. Socolovsky, M., A.E. Fallon, S. Wang, C. Brugnara, and H.F. Lodish , Fetal anemia and...Socolovsky, M., H. Nam, M.D. Fleming, V.H. Haase, C. Brugnara, and H.F. Lodish , Ineffective erythropoiesis in Stat5a(-/-)5b(-/-) mice due to decreased

  12. The effect of 6 and 15 MV on intensity-modulated radiation therapy prostate cancer treatment: plan evaluation, tumour control probability and normal tissue complication probability analysis, and the theoretical risk of secondary induced malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, M; Aldridge, S; Guerrero Urbano, T; Nisbet, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 and 15-MV photon energies on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) prostate cancer treatment plan outcome and to compare the theoretical risks of secondary induced malignancies. Methods Separate prostate cancer IMRT plans were prepared for 6 and 15-MV beams. Organ-equivalent doses were obtained through thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements in an anthropomorphic Aldersen radiation therapy human phantom. The neutron dose contribution at 15 MV was measured using polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate neutron track etch detectors. Risk coefficients from the International Commission on Radiological Protection Report 103 were used to compare the risk of fatal secondary induced malignancies in out-of-field organs and tissues for 6 and 15 MV. For the bladder and the rectum, a comparative evaluation of the risk using three separate models was carried out. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum, bladder and prostate planning target volume were evaluated, as well as normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability calculations. Results There is a small increased theoretical risk of developing a fatal cancer from 6 MV compared with 15 MV, taking into account all the organs. Dose–volume parameters for the rectum and bladder show that 15 MV results in better volume sparing in the regions below 70 Gy, but the volume exposed increases slightly beyond this in comparison with 6 MV, resulting in a higher NTCP for the rectum of 3.6% vs 3.0% (p=0.166). Conclusion The choice to treat using IMRT at 15 MV should not be excluded, but should be based on risk vs benefit while considering the age and life expectancy of the patient together with the relative risk of radiation-induced cancer and NTCPs. PMID:22010028

  13. Immunohistochemistry of the cytoskeleton of human prostatic epithelium. Evidence for disturbed organization in neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, D. M.; Heatfield, B. M.; Anthony, R. L.; Trump, B. F.

    1987-01-01

    An indirect immunoperoxidase technique was used to evaluate keratin, actin, tubulin, and calmodulin immunoreactivity in histologic sections of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic human prostate. Polyclonal as well as monoclonal keratin antibodies produced equivalent and intense staining of normal epithelium. The immunoreactivity of normal prostate with keratin antibodies was more pronounced than with antibodies to the other components of the cytoskeleton. Variation in staining for components of the cytoskeleton was minimal. The same findings applied to hyperplastic prostate. The immunoreactivity of prostate tumors with antibodies to these cytoskeletal proteins differed markedly from normal prostate. Prostatic carcinomas showed reduced keratin immunoreactivity with a panepithelial antibody, but unaltered or enhanced immunoreactivity with tubulin, actin, and calmodulin antibodies. Many tumors were unreactive with a monoclonal keratin antibody that was strongly reactive with tissues that contained cytokeratin 18 (45-kd) and which intensely stained normal and hyperplastic prostate. In addition, prostate carcinomas often yielded heterogeneous patterns of staining with actin, tubulin, and calmodulin antibodies in contrast to normal and hyperplastic prostate, which showed uniform staining. The results suggest that a disturbance in the organization of the cytoskeleton may accompany neoplastic transformation of human prostate. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2435158

  14. miR-205 Hinders the Malignant Interplay Between Prostate Cancer Cells and Associated Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gandellini, Paolo; Giannoni, Elisa; Casamichele, Anna; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Callari, Maurizio; Piovan, Claudia; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Tumor microenvironment is a strong determinant for the acquisition of metastatic potential of cancer cells. We have recently demonstrated that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) elicit a redox-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, driven by cycloxygenase-2/hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)/nuclear factor-κB pathway and enhancing tumor aggressiveness. Here, we investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumor-stroma interplay to identify possible tools to counteract oxidative stress and metastasis dissemination. Results: We found that miR-205 is the most downmodulated miRNA in PCa cells upon CAF stimulation, due to direct transcriptional repression by HIF-1, a known redox-sensitive transcription factor. Rescue experiments demonstrated that ectopic miR-205 overexpression in PCa cells counteracts CAF-induced EMT, thus impairing enhancement of cell invasion, acquisition of stem cell traits, tumorigenicity, and metastatic dissemination. In addition, miR-205 blocks tumor-driven activation of surrounding fibroblasts by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Innovation: Overall, such findings suggest miR-205 as a brake against PCa metastasis by blocking both the afferent and efferent arms of the circuit between tumor cells and associated fibroblasts, thus interrupting the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory circuitries engaged by reactive stroma. Conclusion: The evidence that miR-205 replacement in PCa cells is able not only to prevent but also to revert the oxidative/pro-inflammatory axis leading to EMT induced by CAFs sets the rationale for developing miRNA-based approaches to prevent and treat metastatic disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1045–1059. PMID:23924028

  15. Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0309 TITLE: Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate...Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0309 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Samuel R...leading to the lytic death of PSA- producing prostate cancer cells as well as a significant bystander effect and killing of non-PSA producing cancer

  16. Soy Isoflavones Exert Differential Effects on Androgen Responsive Genes in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Lori; Handayani, Renita; Cui, Yuehua; Medrano, Theresa; Samedi, Von; Baker, Henry; Szabo, Nancy J.; Rosser, Charles J.; Goodison, Steve; Shiverick, Kathleen T.

    2007-01-01

    The high consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated to a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer. This study characterized the effects of a soy-derived isoflavone concentrate (ISF) on growth and gene expression profiles in the LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line. ISF caused a dose-dependent decrease in viability (P<0.05) and DNA synthesis (P<0.01), as well as an accumulation of cells in G2/M, and G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle compared with controls. Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (U133A), we determined that ISF upregulated 80 genes and downregulated 33 genes (P<0.05) involving androgen-regulated genes and pathways controlling cell cycle, metabolism, and intracellular trafficking. Changes in the expression of the genes of interest, identified by microarrays, were validated by Western immunoblot, Northern blot, and luciferase reporter assays. Prostate-specific antigen, homeobox protein NKX3, and cyclin B mRNA were significantly reduced, whereas mRNA was significantly upregulated for p21CIP1, a major cell cycle inhibitory protein, and fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis pathway genes. ISF also significantly increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27KIP1 and FOXO3A/FKHRL1, a forkhead transcription factor. A differential pattern of androgen-regulated genes was apparent with genes involved in prostate cancer progression being downregulated by ISF, whereas metabolism genes were upregulated. In summary, we found that ISF inhibits the growth of LNCaP cells through the modulation of cell cycle progression and the differential expression of androgen-regulated genes. Thus, ISF treatment serves to identify new therapeutic targets designed to prevent proliferation of malignant prostate cells. PMID:17374662

  17. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  18. Assessment of the Potential of Pathological Stains in Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Anchit; Patil, Rani; Deshmukh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incidence of prostate cancer in India is relatively low compared to the western countries. Nevertheless, an increase by 1% yearly has been recorded in the last three years, thereby making early diagnosis of prostate cancer crucial for controlling its incidence. Differentiating between benign and malignant lesions has been a diagnostic dilemma, especially in prostate pathology. This is compounded by unavailability of modern tests in certain regions of developing nations. Methods: A cohort of one hundred seventy six prostatomegaly patients used in the current study was obtained both retrospectively and prospectively at the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Sawangi, Wardha, Maharashtra, India. Details of the patients were recorded which included their age. The samples were then cut into 5 sections, each of 5micron thickness. One section was preserved and the other 4 sections were subjected to Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E), Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS), Alcian Blue and AgNOR stains. Degree of differentiation was estimated and correlated with the Gleason score and the outcome of the stainings. Results: Majority of benign prostatic hyperplasia and all primary carcinoma patients were in their sixth to eighth decade of life. While all the benign lesions were negative, 6 out of 9 primary prostate carcinomas were positive for Alcian Blue stain. Majority of both benign and malignant lesions were positive for Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain. In terms of Argyrophilic Nucleolar Organiser Region (AgNOR) count per nucleus, the value in benign lesions was observed to be half the count observed in malignant lesions per nucleus. Conclusion: Although the potential use of the orthodox stains individually may not serve the purpose to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, together they may have the potential to identify relatively more malignant cases. This may be helpful especially in low socio-economic countries and rural areas where molecular based tests may

  19. Microenvironment-dependent growth of pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rituparna; Strowig, Till; Verma, Rakesh; Koduru, Srinivas; Hafemann, Anja; Hopf, Stephanie; Kocoglu, Mehmet H.; Borsotti, Chiara; Zhang, Lin; Branagan, Andrew; Eynon, Elizabeth; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2016-01-01

    Most human cancers including myeloma are preceded by a precursor state. There is an unmet need for in vivo models to study the interaction of human preneoplastic cells in the bone marrow microenvironment with non-malignant cells. Here, we genetically humanized mice to permit the growth of primary human pre-neoplastic and malignant plasma cells together with non-malignant cells in vivo [?]. Growth was largely restricted to the bone marrow, mirroring the pattern in patients. Xenografts captured the genomic complexity of parental tumors and revealed additional somatic changes. Moreover, xenografts from patients with preneoplastic gammopathy showed progressive growth, suggesting that the clinical stability of these lesions may in part be due to growth controls extrinsic to tumor cells. These data demonstrate a new approach to investigate the entire spectrum of human plasma cell neoplasia and illustrate the utility of humanized models for understanding the functional diversity of human tumors [?]. PMID:27723723

  20. Quantitative characterization of viscoelastic properties of human prostate correlated with histology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Nigwekar, Priya; Castaneda, Benjamin; Hoyt, Kenneth; Joseph, Jean V; di Sant'Agnese, Anthony; Messing, Edward M; Strang, John G; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J

    2008-07-01

    Quantification of mechanical properties of human prostate tissue is important for developing sonoelastography for prostate cancer detection. In this study, we characterized the frequency-dependent complex Young's modulus of normal and cancerous prostate tissues in vitro by using stress relaxation testing and viscoelastic tissue modeling methods. After radical prostatectomy, small cylindrical tissue samples were acquired in the posterior region of each prostate. A total of 17 samples from eight human prostates were obtained and tested. Stress relaxation tests on prostate samples produced repeatable results that fit a viscoelastic Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative (KVFD) model (r(2)>0.97). For normal (n = 8) and cancerous (n = 9) prostate samples, the average magnitudes of the complex Young's moduli (|E*|) were 15.9 +/- 5.9 kPa and 40.4 +/- 15.7 kPa at 150 Hz, respectively, giving an elastic contrast of 2.6:1. Nine two-sample t-tests indicated that there are significant differences between stiffness of normal and cancerous prostate tissues in the same gland (p < 0.01). This study contributes to the current limited knowledge on the viscoelastic properties of the human prostate, and the inherent elastic contrast produced by cancer.

  1. (153)Sm-EDTMP for pain relief of bone metastases from prostate and breast cancer and other malignancies.

    PubMed

    Correa-González, Luis; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Pichardo-Romero, Pablo; Pedraza-López, Martha; Moreno-García, Claudia; Correa-Hernández, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Approximately 85% of patients with cancer suffer severe metastatic bone pain for which radionuclide therapy has been employed for pain palliation. We undertook this study to evaluate the pain relief effect of (153)Sm-EDTMP in Mexican patients with severe and painful bone metastases from mainly prostate, breast, and renal cancer and other malignancies. Patients (277) with intense sustained pain caused by bone metastases were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Oncology Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute. The patients had to have acceptable physical conditions, a previous positive (99m)Tc-MDP scan and blood values within normal range. (153)Sm-EDTMP was prepared at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) and 37 MBq/kg of body weight was injected intravenously. Pain palliation was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a verbal rating scale (VRS) before treatment and 3 and 12 weeks after treatment was started. The age interval of the patients was 24-92 years with a mean age of 64 ± 12 years. Mean values for hemoglobin, leukocyte and platelet counts did not statistically differ at zero time, 3 and 12 weeks after treatment. Pain intensity and relief assessment were statistically different: 9.1 ± 0.61 units initially; 4.2 ± 1.3 units 3 weeks later (54%) and after 12 weeks the pain diminished to 2.4 ± 1.4 units (74%) in the pain relief score scales. (153)Sm-EDTMP was readily available, safe and well tolerated. We conclude that (153)Sm-EDTMP was an adequate palliative agent and was the best option for our Mexican patients to relieve their severe metastatic bone pain. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The natural flavonoid apigenin sensitizes human CD44(+) prostate cancer stem cells to cisplatin therapy.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Suat; Turkekul, Kader; Serttas, Rıza; Erdogan, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death among men. Development of chemoresistance, tumor relapse and metastasis remain major barriers to effective treatment and all been identified to be associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). Natural flavonoids such as apigenin have been shown to have the ability to improve the therapeutic efficacy of common chemotherapy agents through CSCs sensitization. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of apigenin with cisplatin on CD44(+) PCa stem cell growth and migration. Platinum-based anti-neoplastic drugs have been used to treat a number of malignancies including PCa. However, acquired resistance and side effects unfortunately have limited cisplatin's use. A CD44(+) subpopulation was isolated from human androgen-independent PC3 PCa cells by using human CD44-PE antibody. IC50 values were determined by MTT test. RT-qPCR, Western blot analyses and image-based cytometer were used to investigate apoptosis, cell cycle and their underlying molecular mechanisms. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing test. The combination of the IC50 doses of apigenin (15μM) and cisplatin (7.5μM) for 48h significantly enhanced cisplatin's cytotoxic and apoptotic effects through downregulation of Bcl-2, sharpin and survivin; and upregulation of caspase-8, Apaf-1 and p53 mRNA expression. The combined therapy suppressed the phosphorylation of p-PI3K and p-Akt, inhibited the protein expression of NF-κB, and downregulated the cell cycle by upregulating p21, as well as cyclin dependent kinases CDK-2, -4, and -6. Apigenin significantly increased the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on cell migration via downregulation of Snail expression. In conclusion, our study showed the possible therapeutic approach of using apigenin to potentially increase the effects of cisplatin by targeting CSCs subset in prostate cancer.

  3. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induced by safranal in human prostate cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Shabestari, Mahmoud M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Apoptosis, an important mechanism that contributes to cell growth reduction, is reported to be induced by Crocus sativus (Saffron) in different cancer types. However, limited effort has been made to correlate these effects to the active ingredients of saffron. The present study was designed to elucidate cytotoxic and apoptosis induction by safranal, the major coloring compound in saffron, in a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3). Materials and Methods: PC-3 and human fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells were cultured and exposed to safranal (5, 10, 15, and 20 μg/ml). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to assess cytotoxicity. DNA fragmentation was assessed by gel electrophoresis. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of safranal, and cell morphologic changes and apoptosis were determined by the normal inverted microscope, Annexin V, and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Results: MTT assay revealed a remarkable and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of safranal on PC-3 cells in comparison with non-malignant cell line. The morphologic alterations of the cells confirmed the MTT results. The IC50 values against PC-3 cells were found to be 13.0 ΁ 0.07 and 6.4 ΁ 0.09 μg/ml at 48 and 72 h, respectively. Safranal induced an early and late apoptosis in the flow cytometry histogram of treated cells, indicating apoptosis is involved in this toxicity. DNA analysis revealed typical ladders as early as 48 and 72 h after treatment, indicative of apoptosis. Conclusions: Our preclinical study demonstrated a prostate cancer cell line to be highly sensitive to safranal-mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of safranal action are not clearly understood, it appears to have potential as a therapeutic agent. PMID:24082436

  4. Stem cells and the role of ETS transcription factors in the differentiation hierarchy of normal and malignant prostate epithelium.

    PubMed

    Archer, Leanne K; Frame, Fiona M; Maitland, Norman J

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer of men in the UK and accounts for a quarter of all new cases. Although treatment of localised cancer can be successful, there is no cure for patients presenting with invasive prostate cancer and there are less treatment options. They are generally treated with androgen-ablation therapies but eventually the tumours become hormone resistant and patients develop castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) for which there are no further successful or curative treatments. This highlights the need for new treatment strategies. In order to prevent prostate cancer recurrence and treatment resistance, all the cell populations in a heterogeneous prostate tumour must be targeted, including the rare cancer stem cell (CSC) population. The ETS transcription factor family members are now recognised as a common feature in multiple cancers including prostate cancer; with aberrant expression, loss of tumour suppressor function, inactivating mutations and the formation of fusion genes observed. Most notably, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is present in approximately 50% of prostate cancers and in prostate CSCs. However, the role of other ETS transcription factors in prostate cancer is less well understood. This review will describe the prostate epithelial cell hierarchy and discuss the evidence behind prostate CSCs and their inherent resistance to conventional cancer therapies. The known and proposed roles of the ETS family of transcription factors in prostate epithelial cell differentiation and regulation of the CSC phenotype will be discussed, as well as how they might be targeted for therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular effects of soy phytoalexin glyceollins in human prostate cancer cells LNCaP

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glyceollins are soy–derived phytoalexins that have been proposed to be candidate cancer preventive compounds. The effect of the glyceollins on prostate cancer is unknown. The present study examined the molecular effects of soy phytoalexins, glyceollins, on the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP t...

  6. Tissue specific and androgen-regulated expression of human prostate-specific transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Dubbink, H J; Verkaik, N S; Faber, P W; Trapman, J; Schröder, F H; Romijn, J C

    1996-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TGases) are calcium-dependent enzymes catalysing the post-translational cross-linking of proteins. In the prostate at least two TGases are present, the ubiquitously expressed tissue-type TGase (TGC), and a prostate-restricted TGase (TGP). This paper deals with the molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA encoding the human prostate TGase (hTGP). For this purpose we have screened a human prostate cDNA library with a probe from the active-site region of TGC. The largest isolated cDNA contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 684 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 77 kDa as confirmed by in vitro transcription-translation and subsequent SDS/PAGE. The hTGP gene was tissue-specifically expressed in the prostate, yielding an mRNA of approx. 3.5 kb. Furthermore, a 3-fold androgen-induced upregulation of hTGP mRNA expression has been demonstrated in the recently developed human prostate cancer cell line, PC346C. Other well established human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, showed no detectable hTGP mRNA expression on a Northern bolt. The gene coding for prostate TGase was assigned to chromosome 3. PMID:8645175

  7. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM. PMID:27512676

  8. Oncolytic virotherapy for human malignant mesothelioma: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Boisgerault, Nicolas; Achard, Carole; Delaunay, Tiphaine; Cellerin, Laurent; Tangy, Frédéric; Grégoire, Marc; Fonteneau, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cancer virotherapy is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments because it offers a wide range of antitumor effects due to 1) the diversity of the oncolytic viruses that are now available and 2) their multifaceted activities against both tumor cells and tumor vessels, in addition to their ability to induce antitumor immune responses. In this review, we summarize preclinical and clinical data regarding the targeting of malignant mesothelioma (MM) by oncolytic viruses. We also discuss the potential of other oncolytic viruses that have already shown antitumor effects against several malignancies in advanced clinical trials but are yet to be tested against MM cells. Finally, we review how the activation of the immune system and combinations with other types of anticancer treatments could support the development of oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of MM.

  9. Pleiotropic roles of Notch signaling in normal, malignant, and developmental hematopoiesis in the human

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Rahul; Guezguez, Borhane; Lee, Jung Bok; Hopkins, Claudia I; Bhatia, Mickie

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved across species and plays an important role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. It has been implicated in several different hematopoietic processes including early hematopoietic development as well as adult hematological malignancies in humans. This review focuses on recent developments in understanding the role of Notch signaling in the human hematopoietic system with an emphasis on hematopoietic initiation from human pluripotent stem cells and regulation within the bone marrow. Based on recent insights, we summarize potential strategies for treatment of human hematological malignancies toward the concept of targeting Notch signaling for fate regulation. PMID:25252682

  10. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  11. In vitro measurements of ultraweak luminescence of human malignant tumors and healthy tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwirot, B. W.; Chwirot, S.; Jedrzejczyk, W.; Pozniak, V.; Dziczek, D.; Michniewicz, Z.; Jackowski, M.; Raczynska, A. M.; Winczakiewicz, J.

    2001-07-01

    In vitro measurements of levels of ultraweak luminescence were carried out using healthy and malignant tissues obtained from 63 patients undergoing surgical operations for cancers of colon, stomach and breast. The results obtained support recent reports that there is a difference in mean intensities of the ultraweak luminescence emitted from healthy and malignant tissues. This work demonstrates, however, that because of a large scatter among the intensities detected for samples obtained from different patients the differences found for the mean intensities cannot serve as a parameter for differentiating between the malignant and normal human tissues.

  12. Canine olfactory detection of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Leon Frederick; Farmery, Luke; George, Susannah Mary Creighton; Farrant, Paul B J

    2013-01-01

    Our patient is a 75-year-old man who presented after his pet dog licked persistently at an asymptomatic lesion behind his right ear. Examination revealed a nodular lesion in the postauricular sulcus. Histology confirmed malignant melanoma, which was subsequently excised. Canine olfactory detection of human malignancy is a well-documented phenomenon. Advanced olfaction is hypothesised to explain canine detection of bladder, breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate and skin cancers. Further research in this area may facilitate the development of a highly accurate aid to diagnosis for many malignancies, including melanoma. PMID:24127369

  13. Capilliposide C derived from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl inhibits growth of human prostate cancer PC3 cells by targeting caspase and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruyi; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Lijing; Chen, Dan; Tian, Jingkui; Cao, Li; Zhang, Lin

    2014-07-01

    Prostate cancer, a common malignant tumor of the genitourinary system among elderly males, is difficult to cure. Capilliposide C (CPS-C) is a novel oleanane triterpenoid saponin derived from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. Although CPS-C had been investigated in gastric cancer BGC-823 cells, prostate cancer PC3 cells, and ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells in nude mice in a dose-dependent manner without overt toxicity, its mechanism in the cancer cells has not been further studied. In the current study, PC3-cell-line-based in vitro models were used to explore the anti-cancer effect and mechanism of CPS-C. The results of cell viability assays showed that CPS-C exhibited dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity against the prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145. Observations using optical and electron microscope suggested the cytotoxicity of CPS-C. CPS-C-induced apoptosis was confirmed by the activation of caspases, down-regulation of Bcl-2, JNK, and P38α/β, and up-regulation of Bax, p-JNK, and p-P38. Results showed that CPS-C exhibits high toxicity toward two prostate cancer cells in vitro. Therefore, CPS-C may have great potential in the prevention and treatment of human prostate cancers.

  14. Comparative study of serum zinc concentrations in benign and malignant prostate disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Qingjiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xingyou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-05-12

    Many studies have investigated the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostatic disease, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 for studies that involved the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Fourteen studies were identified from the databases. Our results illustrated that the serum zinc concentrations in prostate cancer patients were significantly lower than those in Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and normal controls (SMD (95% CI), -0.94 [-1.57, -0.32]; -1.18 [-1.90, -0.45]). However, the serum zinc concentrations in BPH patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (SMD (95% CI) 1.77 [0.15, 3.39]). The present study showed that different levels of serum zinc concentrations are correlated with different prostatic disease. Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease. But, further studies with well-designed larger sample studies are needed in this field to further clarify the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease.

  15. Comparative study of serum zinc concentrations in benign and malignant prostate disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wu, Qingjiang; Hu, Xiaoyan; Dong, Xingyou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Long, Zhou; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostatic disease, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, MEDLINE, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to June 2015 for studies that involved the relationship between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. Fourteen studies were identified from the databases. Our results illustrated that the serum zinc concentrations in prostate cancer patients were significantly lower than those in Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients and normal controls (SMD (95% CI), −0.94 [−1.57, −0.32]; −1.18 [−1.90, −0.45]). However, the serum zinc concentrations in BPH patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls (SMD (95% CI) 1.77 [0.15, 3.39]). The present study showed that different levels of serum zinc concentrations are correlated with different prostatic disease. Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease. But, further studies with well-designed larger sample studies are needed in this field to further clarify the correlation between serum zinc concentration and prostate disease. PMID:27170414

  16. Aberrant expression of the neuronal-specific protein DCDC2 promotes malignant phenotypes and is associated with prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Longoni, N; Kunderfranco, P; Pellini, S; Albino, D; Mello-Grand, M; Pinton, S; D'Ambrosio, G; Sarti, M; Sessa, F; Chiorino, G; Catapano, C V; Carbone, G M

    2013-05-02

    By integrating gene profiling and immunohistochemical data with functional experiments in cell lines in this study we show for the first time that doublecortin (DCX) domain containing 2 (DCDC2), a protein belonging to the DCX family and involved in neuronal cell migration, is aberrantly expressed in prostate tumors whereas absent in normal prostate. Furthermore, in patients treated with radical prostatectomy, high levels of DCDC2 RNA were significantly associated with increased biochemical relapse (LogRank Mantel-Cox=0.012). Mechanistically, we found that the ETS transcription factor ESE3/EHF, which is expressed in normal prostate and frequently lost in prostate tumors, maintained DCDC2 repressed by binding to a novel identified ETS binding site in the gene promoter. Consistently, in prostate tumors and in cellular models of gain and loss of ESE3/EHF, the expression of DCDC2 and ESE3/EHF were inversely correlated. In prostate cancer cells, DCDC2 colocalized with microtubules and promoted cell migration and resistance to the microtubule-targeting drug taxol. Collectively, this study establishes DCDC2 as a novel ESE3/EHF oncogenic target in prostate cancer. These findings may be relevant for the clinical management of prostate cancer as DCDC2 may signal tumors more prone to relapse and resistant to taxol treatment.

  17. Oxidative stress-induced epigenetic changes associated with malignant transformation of human kidney epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mahalingaiah, Prathap Kumar S; Ponnusamy, Logeswari; Singh, Kamaleshwar P

    2017-02-14

    Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in humans is positively influenced by oxidative stress status in kidneys. We recently reported that adaptive response to low level of chronic oxidative stress induces malignant transformation of immortalized human renal tubular epithelial cells. Epigenetic alterations in human RCC are well documented, but its role in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of kidney cells is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of epigenetic changes in chronic oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation of HK-2, human renal tubular epithelial cells. The results revealed aberrant expression of epigenetic regulatory genes involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3a and MBD4) and histone modifications (HDAC1, HMT1 and HAT1) in HK-2 cells malignantly transformed by chronic oxidative stress. Additionally, both in vitro soft agar assay and in vivo nude mice study showing decreased tumorigenic potential of malignantly transformed HK-2 cells following treatment with DNA de-methylating agent 5-aza 2' dC further confirmed the crucial role of DNA hypermethyaltion in oxidative stress-induced malignant transformation. Changes observed in global histone H3 acetylation (H3K9, H3K18, H3K27 and H3K14) and decrease in phospho-H2AX (Ser139) also suggest potential role of histone modifications in increased survival and malignant transformation of HK-2 cells by oxidative stress. In summary, the results of this study suggest that epigenetic reprogramming induced by low levels of oxidative stress act as driver for malignant transformation of kidney epithelial cells. Findings of this study are highly relevant in potential clinical application of epigenetic-based therapeutics for treatments of kidney cancers.

  18. REIC/Dkk-3 induces cell death in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Kitazato, Keiko; Mure, Hideo; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2008-06-01

    The progression of glioma to more malignant phenotypes results from the stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations and the consequent disruption of the apoptotic pathway and augmentation of survival signaling. REIC/Dkk-3, a member of the human Dickkopf (Dkk) family, plays a role as a suppressor of the growth of several human cancers; however, to date it has not been identified in brain tumors. We compared the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 in human malignant glioma and normal brain tissues using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. We also performed small interfering REIC/Dkk-3 (siREIC/Dkk-3) knockdown and REIC/Dkk-3 overexpression experiments to examine the role of REIC/Dkk-3 in human malignant glioma cells in vitro. In brain tissue from patients with malignant glioma, the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 was lower than in normal brain tissue and was related to the malignancy grade. In the primary glioblastoma cell line, REIC/Dkk-3 transfection led to apoptosis owing to the activation of phosphorylated JUN, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and the reduction of beta-catenin; in REIC/Dkk-3 knockdown experiments, cell growth was augmented. Our results suggest that REIC/Dkk-3 regulates the growth and survival of these cells in a caspase-dependent and -independent way via modification of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our work is the first documentation that the gene and protein expression of REIC/Dkk-3 is down-regulated in human malignant glioma. Our demonstration of the mechanisms underlying REIC/Dkk-3-induced cell death indicates that REIC/Dkk-3 plays a pivotal role in the biology of human malignant glioma and suggests that REIC/Dkk-3 is a promising candidate for molecular target therapy.

  19. Keratin 13 expression reprograms bone and brain metastases of human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Lawrence W.; Chu, Gina C-Y; Wu, Jason B-Y.; Huang, Jen-Ming; Li, Quanlin; You, Sungyong; Kim, Jayoung; Lu, Yi-Tsung; Mrdenovic, Stefan; Wang, Ruoxiang; Freeman, Michael R.; Garraway, Isla; Lewis, Michael S.; Chung, Leland W. K.; Zhau, Haiyen E.

    2016-01-01

    Lethal progression of prostate cancer metastasis can be improved by developing animal models that recapitulate the clinical conditions. We report here that cytokeratin 13 (KRT13), an intermediate filament protein, plays a directive role in prostate cancer bone, brain, and soft tissue metastases. KRT13 expression was elevated in bone, brain, and soft tissue metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and in primary and metastatic clinical prostate, lung, and breast cancer specimens. When KRT13 expression was determined at a single cell level in primary tumor tissues of 44 prostate cancer cases, KRT13 level predicted bone metastasis and the overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Genetically enforced KRT13 expression in human prostate cancer cell lines drove metastases toward mouse bone, brain and soft tissues through a RANKL-independent mechanism, as KRT13 altered the expression of genes associated with EMT, stemness, neuroendocrine/neuromimicry, osteomimicry, development, and extracellular matrices, but not receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling networks in prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest new inhibitors targeting RANKL-independent pathways should be developed for the treatment of prostate cancer bone and soft tissue metastases. PMID:27835867

  20. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  1. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Margolis, L; Hatfill, S; Chuaqui, R; Vocke, C; Emmert-Buck, M; Linehan, W M; Duray, P H

    1999-01-01

    To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  2. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  3. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26840261

  4. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  5. CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qianqian; Yang, Gang; Zheng, Lianfang; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-01-01

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin–proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies. PMID:27007160

  6. CHIP: A new modulator of human malignant disorders.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhe; Li, Guanqiao; Shao, Qianqian; Yang, Gang; Zheng, Lianfang; Zhang, Taiping; Zhao, Yupei

    2016-05-17

    Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is known as a chaperone-associated E3 for a variety of protein substrates. It acts as a link between molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome system. Involved in the process of protein clearance, CHIP plays a critical role in maintaining protein homeostasis in diverse conditions. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of our current understanding of CHIP and summarize recent advances in CHIP biology, with a focus on CHIP in the setting of malignancies.

  7. Systemic interleukin 2 therapy for human prostate tumors in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Triest, J A; Grignon, D J; Cher, M L; Kocheril, S V; Montecillo, E J; Talati, B; Tekyi-Mensah, S; Pontes, J E; Hillman, G G

    1998-08-01

    Once the regional lymph nodes become involved in prostate carcinoma, 85% of patients develop distant metastases within 5 years, and metastatic disease is difficult to treat. We have investigated the effect of systemic interleukin 2 (IL-2) treatment on metastatic prostate carcinoma using a xenograft tumor model. Cells from a PC-3/IF cell line, produced by intrafemoral injection of human PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells, were injected in the prostate of Balb/c nude mice. Prostate tumors and para-aortic lymph nodes were resected, and tumor cells were recultured and passaged in the prostate in vivo to produce new cell lines. On day 6 following prostatic injection of these cell lines, mice were treated with i.p. injections of IL-2 at 25,000-50,000 units/ day for 5 consecutive days. The effect of IL-2 on tumor progression was assessed, and histological studies were performed on prostate tumor and lymph node sections. The tumor cell lines generated by serial prostate injection were tumorigenic and metastasized to regional para-aortic lymph nodes. Tumors of 0.4 cm were obtained by day 16 and grew to 1-1.5 cm by day 40 with metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. Following two to three weekly courses of 5 days of 25,000-40,000 units/day of IL-2, the growth of prostate tumors was inhibited by 94%. Higher doses of 50,000 units/ day were toxic. Histologically, prostate sections showed vascular damage manifested by multifocal hemorrhages and an influx of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear cells into disintegrating tumors and areas of necrosis containing numerous apoptotic cells. In contrast to control mice, para-aortic lymph nodes were not enlarged in responding mice. These findings suggest that systemic IL-2 therapy can induce an antitumor response in prostate tumors and control their growth and metastasis.

  8. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  9. Differentiation of Neonatal Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Prostate Epithelial Cells: A Model to Study Prostate Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    expression by RT-PCR showed that while human dermal fibroblasts have higher constitutive expression of Nanog, Oct4 and Sox2 compared to IMP90 cells...REPORT U b . ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 12 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS: Item...mechanistic insights into prostate epithelial cell development can be gained. 8 a. DPYS DAY!O b . c. Fig. 1. Differentiation of human iPSC to

  10. Colorectal, prostate and pancreas Human cancers targeted bioassay-guided isolations and characterization of chemical constituents from Tephrosia apollinea.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Loiy Elsir A; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Dahham, Saad S; Tabana, Yasser M; Ahamed, Mohamed B Khadeer; Majid, Amin M S Abdul

    2016-09-26

    Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division caused by dysregulation of cell proliferation. Therefore, agents that impair cancer cell proliferation could have potential therapeutic value. Higher plants are considered to be a good source of anticancer agents, and several clinically tested chemotherapeutic agents have been isolated from plants or derived from constituents of plant origin. In the present study, a prenylated flavone (isoglabratephrin) was isolated from aerial parts of Tephrosia apollinea using a bioassay-guided technique. Chemical structure of the isolated compound was elucidated using spectroscopic techniques (NMR, IR, and LC-MC), elemental analysis and confirmed by using single crystal X-ray analysis. The antiproliferative effect of isoglabratephrin was tested using three human cancer cell lines (prostate (PC3), pancreatic (PANC-1), and colon (HCT-116) and one normal cell line (human fibroblast). Isoglabratephrin displayed selective inhibitory activity against proliferation of PC3 and PANC-1 cells with median inhibitory concentration values of 20.4 and 26.6 μg/ml, respectively. Isoglabratephrin demonstrated pro-apoptotic features, as it induced chromatin dissolution, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation. It also disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cancer cells. Thus, isoglabratephrin could be a new lead to treat human prostate (PC3) and pancreatic (PANC-1) malignancies.

  11. Dynamics of notch expression during murine prostate development and tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Shou, J; Ross, S; Koeppen, H; de Sauvage, F J; Gao, W Q

    2001-10-01

    Notch signaling has been widely demonstrated to be responsible for cell fate determination during normal development and implicated in human T-cell leukemia and mouse mammary carcinomas. Here we show that Notch signaling may be involved in prostatic development and cancer cell growth. In situ hybridization and reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that Notch1 was expressed in prostate epithelial cells during normal development and in prostate cancer cells. Characterization of Notch1-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, in which the expression of reporter green fluorescent protein is under the control of the Notch1 promoter, indicated that Notch1-expressing cells were associated with the basal epithelial cell population in the prostate. Examination of the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate showed that expression of Notch1 was elevated in malignant prostatic epithelial cells of primary and metastatic tumors. Expression of Notch ligands, however, was low or undetectable in cultured prostate cancer cells or in malignant prostatic epithelial cells in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate. Furthermore, overexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 inhibited the proliferation of various prostate cancer cells, including DU145, LNCaP, and PC3 cells. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that Notch signaling may play a role in murine prostatic development and tumorigenesis.

  12. A biospectroscopic analysis of human prostate tissue obtained from different time periods points to a trans-generational alteration in spectral phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M. G.; Briggs, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Stringfellow, Helen F.; Martin, Francis L.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly-diagnosed malignancy in males worldwide; however, there is marked geographic variation in incidence that may be associated with a Westernised lifestyle. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis or variable selection techniques employing genetic algorithm or successive projection algorithm could be utilised to explore differences between prostate tissues from differing years. In total, 156 prostate tissues from transurethral resection of the prostate procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia from 1983 to 2013 were collected. These were distributed to form seven categories: 1983–1984 (n = 20), 1988–1989 (n = 25), 1993–1994 (n = 21), 1998–1999 (n = 21), 2003–2004 (n = 21), 2008–2009 (n = 20) and 2012–2013 (n = 21). Ten-μm-thick tissue sections were floated onto Low-E (IR-reflective) slides for ATR-FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The prostate tissue spectral phenotype altered in a temporal fashion. Examination of the two categories that are at least one generation (30 years) apart indicated highly-significant segregation, especially in spectral regions containing DNA and RNA bands (≈1,000–1,490 cm−1). This may point towards alterations that have occurred through genotoxicity or through epigenetic modifications. Immunohistochemical studies for global DNA methylation supported this. This study points to a trans-generational phenotypic change in human prostate. PMID:26310632

  13. A biospectroscopic analysis of human prostate tissue obtained from different time periods points to a trans-generational alteration in spectral phenotype.

    PubMed

    Theophilou, Georgios; Lima, Kássio M G; Briggs, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Stringfellow, Helen F; Martin, Francis L

    2015-08-27

    Prostate cancer is the most commonly-diagnosed malignancy in males worldwide; however, there is marked geographic variation in incidence that may be associated with a Westernised lifestyle. We set out to determine whether attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) or Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis or variable selection techniques employing genetic algorithm or successive projection algorithm could be utilised to explore differences between prostate tissues from differing years. In total, 156 prostate tissues from transurethral resection of the prostate procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia from 1983 to 2013 were collected. These were distributed to form seven categories: 1983-1984 (n = 20), 1988-1989 (n = 25), 1993-1994 (n = 21), 1998-1999 (n = 21), 2003-2004 (n = 21), 2008-2009 (n = 20) and 2012-2013 (n = 21). Ten-μm-thick tissue sections were floated onto Low-E (IR-reflective) slides for ATR-FTIR or Raman spectroscopy. The prostate tissue spectral phenotype altered in a temporal fashion. Examination of the two categories that are at least one generation (30 years) apart indicated highly-significant segregation, especially in spectral regions containing DNA and RNA bands (≈1,000-1,490 cm(-1)). This may point towards alterations that have occurred through genotoxicity or through epigenetic modifications. Immunohistochemical studies for global DNA methylation supported this. This study points to a trans-generational phenotypic change in human prostate.

  14. Somatic Single-hits Inactivate the X-linked Tumor Suppressor FOXP3 in the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Runhua; Li, Weiquan; Chen, Chong; Katoh, Hiroto; Chen, Guo-Yun; McNally, Beth; Lin, Lin; Zhou, Penghui; Zuo, Tao; Cooney, Kathleen A.; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Pan

    2009-01-01

    Despite clear epidemiological and genetic evidence for X-linked prostate cancer risk, all prostate cancer genes identified are autosomal. Here we report somatic inactivating mutations and deletion of the X-linked FOXP3 gene residing at Xp11.23 in human prostate cancer. Lineage-specific ablation of FoxP3 in the mouse prostate epithelial cells leads to prostate hyperplasia and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia. In both normal and malignant prostate tissues, FOXP3 is both necessary and sufficient to transcriptionally repress cMYC, the most commonly over-expressed oncogene in prostate cancer as well as among the aggregates of other cancers. FOXP3 is an X-linked prostate tumor suppressor in the male. Since the male has only one X chromosome, our data represents a paradigm of “single-genetic-hit” inactivation-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19800578

  15. Role of antibodies to human papillomavirus 16 in prostate cancer: A seroscreening by peptide microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Ye; Chen, Wen; Ma, Hongwei; Pu, Jinxian

    2017-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating in estimating the potential role of human papillomavirus infection in prostate carcinogenesis. However, the results remain inconclusive. We measured the serostatus of antibodies to one of the high-risk human papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus 16, with a newly developed peptide microarray. Serum samples were collected from 75 untreated prostate cancer patients, along with 80 control subjects. We identified 12 peptides with significant differences in prostate cancer samples from all 241 peptides derived from human papillomavirus 16. Our results showed human papillomavirus 16 infection in 64.0% of prostate cancer serum samples, which is significantly different compared with the controls ( p < 0.01) because only 17.5% of the control serum was considered seropositive. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.793 (95% confidence interval 0.721-0.864), indicating that the new microarray technique may have diagnostic value. The results showed an association between serological evidence for human papillomavirus 16 infection and risk of prostate cancer. The different serostatus of antibodies in the two subgroups indicated that human papillomavirus 16 infection might occur and play a potential role of progression in a minority of prostate cancer.

  16. Landscape of DNA Virus Associations across Human Malignant Cancers: Analysis of 3,775 Cases Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Tannir, Nizar M.; Williams, Michelle D.; Chen, Yunxin; Yao, Hui; Zhang, Jianping; Thompson, Erika J.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Weinstein, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of tumor-DNA virus associations in many cancer types has enhanced our knowledge of fundamental oncogenesis mechanisms and provided a basis for cancer prevention initiatives. RNA-Seq is a novel tool to comprehensively assess such associations. We interrogated RNA-Seq data from 3,775 malignant neoplasms in The Cancer Genome Atlas database for the presence of viral sequences. Viral integration sites were also detected in expressed transcripts using a novel approach. The detection capacity of RNA-Seq was compared to available clinical laboratory data. Human papillomavirus (HPV) transcripts were detected using RNA-Seq analysis in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, uterine endometrioid carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Detection of HPV by RNA-Seq correlated with detection by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in squamous cell carcinoma tumors of the head and neck. Hepatitis B virus and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected using RNA-Seq in hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric carcinoma tumors, respectively. Integration sites of viral genes and oncogenes were detected in cancers harboring HPV or hepatitis B virus but not in EBV-positive gastric carcinoma. Integration sites of expressed viral transcripts frequently involved known coding areas of the host genome. No DNA virus transcripts were detected in acute myeloid leukemia, cutaneous melanoma, low- and high-grade gliomas of the brain, and adenocarcinomas of the breast, colon and rectum, lung, prostate, ovary, kidney, and thyroid. In conclusion, this study provides a large-scale overview of the landscape of DNA viruses in human malignant cancers. While further validation is necessary for specific cancer types, our findings highlight the utility of RNA-Seq in detecting tumor-associated DNA viruses and identifying viral integration sites that may unravel novel mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23740984

  17. Down-regulation of malignant potential by alpha linolenic acid in human and mouse colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, John P; Moon, Hyun-Seuk

    2015-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils. ALA has also been shown to down-regulate cell proliferation of prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cells. However, direct evidence that ALA suppresses to the development of colon cancer has not been studied. Also, no previous studies have evaluated whether ALA may regulate malignant potential (adhesion, invasion and colony formation) in colon cancer cells. In order to address the questions above, we conducted in vitro studies and evaluated whether ALA may down-regulate malignant potential in human (HT29 and HCT116) and mouse (MCA38) colon cancer cell lines. We observed that treatment with 1-5 mM of ALA inhibits cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion in both human and mouse colon cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we observed that ALA did not decrease total colony numbers when compared to control. By contrast, we found that size of colony was significantly changed by ALA treatment when compared to control in all colon cancer cell lines. We suggest that our data enhance our current knowledge of ALA's mechanism and provide crucial information to further the development of new therapies for the management or chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  18. Risk of Secondary Malignant Neoplasms From Proton Therapy and Intensity-Modulated X-Ray Therapy for Early-Stage Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenot, Jonas D.; Lee, Andrew K.; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of a secondary malignant neoplasm (SMN) from proton therapy relative to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using X-rays, taking into account contributions from both primary and secondary sources of radiation, for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A proton therapy plan and a 6-MV IMRT plan were constructed for 3 patients with early-stage adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Doses from the primary fields delivered to organs at risk of developing an SMN were determined from treatment plans. Secondary doses from the proton therapy and IMRT were determined from Monte Carlo simulations and available measured data, respectively. The risk of an SMN was estimated from primary and secondary doses on an organ-by-organ basis by use of risk models from the Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Results: Proton therapy reduced the risk of an SMN by 26% to 39% compared with IMRT. The risk of an SMN for both modalities was greatest in the in-field organs. However, the risks from the in-field organs were considerably lower with the proton therapy plan than with the IMRT plan. This reduction was attributed to the substantial sparing of the rectum and bladder from exposure to the therapeutic beam by the proton therapy plan. Conclusions: When considering exposure to primary and secondary radiation, proton therapy can reduce the risk of an SMN in prostate patients compared with contemporary IMRT.

  19. Role of IAPs in prostate cancer progression: immunohistochemical study in normal and pathological (benign hyperplastic, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer) human prostate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In this study was investigate IAPs in normal human prostate (NP), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic carcinoma (PC), and their involvement in apoptosis/proliferation via NF-kB (TNF-α, IL-1) stimulation. Methods Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses were performed in 10 samples of normal prostates, 35 samples of BPH, 27 samples diagnosis of PIN (with low-grade PIN or high-grade PIN) and 95 samples of PC (with low, medium or high Gleason grades). Results In NP, cytoplasm of epithelial cells were positive to c-IAP1/2 (80% of samples), c-IAP-2 (60%), ILP (20%), XIAP (20%); negative to NAIP and survivin. In BPH, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2 (57.57%), c-IAP-2 (57.57%), ILP (66.6%), NAIP (60.6%), XIAP (27.27%), survivin (9.1%). Whereas low-grade PIN showed intermediate results between NP and BPH; results in high-grade PIN were similar to those found in PC. In PC, epithelial cells were immunostained to c-IAP1/2, c-IAP-2, ILP, NAIP, XIAP (no Gleason variation) and survivin (increasing with Gleason). Conclusions IAPs could be involved in prostate disorder (BPH, PIN and PC) development since might be provoke inhibition of apoptosis and subsequently cell proliferation. At the same time, different transduction pathway such as IL-1/NIK/NF-kB or TNF/NF-kB (NIK or p38) also promotes proliferation. Inhibitions of IAPs, IL-1α and TNFα might be a possible target for PC treatment since IAPs are the proteins that inhibited apoptosis (favour proliferation) and IL-1α and TNFα would affect all the transduction pathway involucrate in the activation of transcription factors related to survival or proliferation (NF-kB, Elk-1 or ATF-2). PMID:20078866

  20. Prediction of Aggressive Human Prostate Cancer by Cathepsin B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    microdisection (LCM) in this task is in progress. Prostate cancer (PC), and benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ) as control samples, were collected at the...antigen (PSA) levels in less than five years even though the post-RP pathology report did not detect cancer cell invasion to prostate margin/capsule...design of prospective studies. Biopsies showed significantly higher levels of CB to SA ratios than BPH . 15. SUBJECT TERMS African and White American Men

  1. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shihua; Sprenger, Cynthia C.T.; Vessella, Robert L.; Haugk, Kathleen; Soriano, Kathryn; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Page, Stephanie T.; Coleman, Ilsa M.; Nguyen, Holly M.; Sun, Huiying; Nelson, Peter S.; Plymate, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade. Recent studies suggest that these activities are due to the generation of constitutively active AR splice variants, but the mechanisms by which these splice variants could mediate such effects are not fully understood. Here we have identified what we believe to be a novel human AR splice variant in which exons 5, 6, and 7 are deleted (ARv567es) and demonstrated that this variant can contribute to cancer progression in human prostate cancer xenograft models in mice following castration. We determined that, in human prostate cancer cell lines, ARv567es functioned as a constitutively active receptor, increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl), and enhanced the transcriptional activity of AR. In human xenografts, human prostate cancer cells transfected with ARv567es cDNA formed tumors that were resistant to castration. Furthermore, the ratio of ARv567es to ARfl expression within the xenografts positively correlated with resistance to castration. Importantly, we also detected ARv567es frequently in human prostate cancer metastases. In summary, these data indicate that constitutively active AR splice variants can contribute to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancers and may serve as biomarkers for patients who are likely to suffer from early recurrence and are candidates for therapies directly targeting the AR rather than ligand. PMID:20644256

  2. Combined cord blood and bone marrow transplantation from the same human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling donor for children with malignant and non-malignant diseases.

    PubMed

    Tucunduva, Luciana; Volt, Fernanda; Cunha, Renato; Locatelli, Franco; Zecca, Marco; Yesilipek, Akif; Caniglia, Maurizio; Güngör, Tayfun; Aksoylar, Serap; Fagioli, Franca; Bertrand, Yves; Addari, Maria Carmen; de la Fuente, Josu; Winiarski, Jacek; Biondi, Andrea; Sengeloev, Henrik; Badell, Isabel; Mellgren, Karin; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Sedlacek, Petr; Vora, Ajay; Rocha, Vanderson; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Gluckman, Eliane

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) from an human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling can be used for transplantation of patients with malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, the low cellular content of most UCB units represents a limitation to this approach. An option to increase cell dose is to harvest bone marrow (BM) cells from the same donor and infuse them along with the UCB. We studied 156 children who received such a combined graft between 1992 and 2011. Median age was 7 years and 78% of patients (n = 122) were transplanted for non-malignant diseases, mainly haemoglobinopathies. Acute leukaemia (n = 26) was the most frequent malignant diagnosis. Most patients (91%) received myeloablative conditioning. Median donor age was 1·7 years, median infused nucleated cell dose was 24·4 × 10(7) /kg and median follow-up was 41 months. Sixty-days neutrophil recovery occurred in 96% of patients at a median of 17 d. The probabilities of grade-II-IV acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 19% and 10%, respectively. Four-year overall survival was 90% (68% malignant; 97% non-malignant diseases) with 3% probability of death. In conclusion, combined UCB and BM transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling donor is an effective treatment for children with malignant and non-malignant disorders with high overall survival and low incidence of GVHD.

  3. Identification and characterization of KLK14, a novel kallikrein serine protease gene located on human chromosome 19q13.4 and expressed in prostate and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hooper, J D; Bui, L T; Rae, F K; Harvey, T J; Myers, S A; Ashworth, L K; Clements, J A

    2001-04-01

    The kallikreins are a subfamily of serine proteases encoded in human, mouse, and rat by highly conserved tightly clustered multigene families. Here we report the identification and characterization of KLK14, a novel kallikrein gene located within the human kallikrein locus at 19q13.4. KLK14 is approximately 5.4 kb in length spanning seven exons and, by Northern blot analysis, transcribes two alternative transcripts present only in prostate (1.5 kb) and skeletal muscle (1.9 kb). The protein product, K14, predicted to be a 251-amino-acid secreted serine protease with trypsin-like substrate specificity, is translated in vitro with a molecular mass of approximately 31 kDa. In situ hybridization revealed that, in prostate, KLK14 is expressed by both benign and malignant glandular epithelial cells, thus exhibiting an expression pattern similar to that of two other prostatic kallikreins, KLK2 and KLK3, which encode K2 and prostate-specific antigen, respectively. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Analysis of genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex viruses in human prostate cancer organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Passer, B J; Wu, C-l; Wu, S; Rabkin, S D; Martuza, R L

    2009-12-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses type 1 (oHSVs) such as G47Delta and G207 are genetically engineered for selective replication competence in cancer cells. Several factors can influence the overall effectiveness of oHSV tropism, including HSV-1 receptor expression, extracellular matrix milieu and cellular permissiveness. We have taken advantage of human prostate organ cultures derived from radical prostatectomies to investigate oHSV tropism. In this study, we show that both G47Delta and G207 specifically replicate in epithelial cells of the prostatic glands but not in the surrounding stroma. In contrast, both the epithelial and stromal cell compartments were readily infected by wild-type HSV-1. Analysis of oHSV replication in prostate surgical specimens 3 days post infection showed that G47Delta generated approximately 30-fold more viral progeny than did G207. This correlated with the enhanced expression of G47Delta-derived glycoprotein gB protein levels as compared with G207. In benign prostate tissues, G207 and G47Delta titers were notably reduced, whereas strain F titers were maintained at similar levels compared with prostate cancer specimens. Overall, our results show that these oncolytic herpes vectors show both target specificity and replication competence in human prostate cancer specimens and point to the utility of using human prostate organ cultures in assessing oHSV tropism and cellular specificity.

  5. Evidence for a Proapoptotic Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-26 in Human Prostate Cancer Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Zahraa I.; Iczkowski, Kenneth A.; Man, Yan-Gao; Bou-Dargham, Mayassa J.; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play intricate roles in cancer progression; some promote invasion and angiogenesis while others suppress tumor growth. For example, human MMP-26/endometase/matrilysin-2 was reported to be either protective or pro-tumorigenic. Our previous reports suggested pro-invasion and anti-inflammation properties in prostate cancer. Here, we provide evidence for a protective role of MMP-26 in the prostate. MMP-26 expression levels in androgen-repressed human prostate cancer (ARCaP) cells, transfected with sense or anti-sense MMP-26 cDNA, are directly correlated with those of the pro-apoptotic marker Bax. Immunohistochemical staining of prostate cancer tissue samples shows similar protein expression patterns, correlating the expression levels of MMP-26 and Bax in benign, neoplastic, and invasive prostate cancer tissues. The MMP-26 protein levels were upregulated in high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and decreased during the course of disease progression. Further analysis using an indirect terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed that many tumor cells expressing MMP-26 were undergoing apoptosis. This study showed that the high level of MMP-26 expression is positively correlated with the presence of apoptotic cells. This pro-apoptotic role of MMP-26 in human prostate cancer cells and tissues may enhance our understanding of the paradoxical roles of MMP-26 in tumor invasion and progression. PMID:26722363

  6. Phenylbutyrate induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer and is more potent than phenylacetate.

    PubMed

    Carducci, M A; Nelson, J B; Chan-Tack, K M; Ayyagari, S R; Sweatt, W H; Campbell, P A; Nelson, W G; Simons, J W

    1996-02-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PB), a novel lead compound for prostate cancer therapy, has molecular activities distinct from its metabolite, phenylacetate (PA). Both PB and PA promote differentiation in human prostate cancer cell lines, yet little data exist comparing the cytotoxic effects of each drug. We found that PB is more potent than PA in vitro; PB is 1.5-2.5 times more active at inhibiting growth and inducing programmed cell death than PA at clinically achievable doses against each human prostate cancer line studied. PB is equipotent to sodium butyrate, which induces apoptosis and differentiation through multiple mechanisms. Exposure of prostate cancer cell lines to PB reduces their DNA synthesis, leads to fragmentation of genomic DNA, and causes 50-60% of cells to undergo apoptosis. These PB-induced effects are 2-10 times greater than those of the control or PA. The stereotypical changes of apoptosis can be seen with sodium butyrate at similar concentrations, but not with PA. Prostate cancer cell lines overexpressing P-glycoprotein or possessing heterogeneous molecular alterations, including p53 mutations, are also sensitive to the effects of PB. In vivo, Copenhagen rats treated with oral PB had delayed growth of the androgen refractory Dunning R-3327 MAT-LyLu prostate cancer subline by 30-45% in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that PB induces cytotoxicity via apoptosis in human prostate cancer, in addition to its differentiating properties.

  7. Grape seed extract induces anoikis and caspase-mediated apoptosis in human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells: possible role of ataxia telangiectasia mutated-p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2006-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer diagnosed in elderly males in the Western world. Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary modifications could be an effective approach in reducing various cancers, including prostate cancer, and accordingly cancer-preventive efficacy of dietary nutrients has gained increased attention in recent years. We have recently shown that grape seed extract (GSE) inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of advanced human prostate cancer DU145 cells in culture and xenograft. Because prostate cancer is initially an androgen-dependent malignancy, here we used LNCaP human prostate cancer cells as a model to assess GSE efficacy and associated mechanisms. GSE treatment of cells led to their detachment within 12 hours, as occurs in anoikis, and caused a significant decrease in live cells mostly due to their apoptotic death. GSE-induced anoikis and apoptosis were accompanied by a strong decrease in focal adhesion kinase levels, but an increase in caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage; however, GSE caused both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis as evidenced by cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor release into cytosol. Additional studies revealed that GSE causes DNA damage-induced activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase and Chk2, as well as p53 Ser(15) phosphorylation and its translocation to mitochondria, suggesting this to be an additional mechanism for apoptosis induction. GSE-induced apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, and cell death were attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine and involved reactive oxygen species generation. Together, these results show GSE effects in LNCaP cells and suggest additional in vivo efficacy studies in prostate cancer animal models.

  8. Locus-specific gene repositioning in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leshner, Marc; Devine, Michelle; Roloff, Gregory W.; True, Lawrence D.; Misteli, Tom; Meaburn, Karen J.

    2016-01-01

    Genes occupy preferred spatial positions within interphase cell nuclei. However, positioning patterns are not an innate feature of a locus, and genes can alter their localization in response to physiological and pathological changes. Here we screen the radial positioning patterns of 40 genes in normal, hyperplasic, and malignant human prostate tissues. We find that the overall spatial organization of the genome in prostate tissue is largely conserved among individuals. We identify three genes whose nuclear positions are robustly altered in neoplastic prostate tissues. FLI1 and MMP9 position differently in prostate cancer than in normal tissue and prostate hyperplasia, whereas MMP2 is repositioned in both prostate cancer and hyperplasia. Our data point to locus-specific reorganization of the genome during prostate disease. PMID:26564800

  9. Inability of shear-wave elastography to distinguish malignant from benign prostate tissue – a comparison of biopsy, whole-mount sectioning and shear-wave elastography

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Claudia; Wendler, Johann Jakob; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd; Lux, Anke; Siedentopf, Sandra; Schostak, Martin; Pech, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study was designed to assess the possible usefulness of shear-wave elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant tissue in prostate neoplasia. Patients and methods A total of 120 prostate tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients treated by radical prostatectomy and investigated pre-operatively by ultrasound elastography followed by directed biopsy. After resection, whole-mount sectioning and histological examination was performed. The predictions based on shear-wave elastography were compared with biopsy and histological results. Results The comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of biopsy was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, which suggested an optimum cut-off tissue elasticity value of 50 kPa, in agreement with earlier studies aimed at distinguishing between benign and malignant tissue. However, the diagnostic selectivity (and thus the diagnostic power) was poor (area under the curve 0.527, which hardly differs from the value of 0.500 that would correspond to a complete lack of predictive power); furthermore, application of this cut-off value to the samples led to a sensitivity of only 74% and a specificity of only 43%. An analogous comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of whole-mount histology, which itself is more reliable than biopsy, gave an even poorer diagnostic selectivity (sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 35%). Meaningful association with Gleason score was not found for D’Amico risk groups (p = 0.35). Conclusions The (negative) findings of this investigation add to the dissonance among results of studies investigating the possible value of shear-wave elastography as a diagnostic tool to identify malignant neoplasia. There is a clear need for further research to elucidate the diversity of study results and to identify the usefulness, if any, of the method in question. PMID:28138406

  10. Establishment and Genomic Characterization of Mouse Xenografts of Human Primary Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Priolo, Carmen; Agostini, Michelle; Vena, Natalie; Ligon, Azra H.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Shin, Eyoung; Farsetti, Antonella; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Sicinska, Ewa; Loda, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Serum prostate-specific antigen screening has led to earlier detection and surgical treatment of prostate cancer, favoring an increasing incidence-to-mortality ratio. However, about one third of tumors that are diagnosed when still confined to the prostate can relapse within 10 years from the first treatment. The challenge is therefore to identify prognostic markers of aggressive versus indolent tumors. Although several preclinical models of advanced prostate tumors are available, a model that recapitulates the genetic and growth behavior of primary tumors is still lacking. Here, we report a complete histopathological and genomic characterization of xenografts derived from primary localized low- and high-grade human prostate tumors that were implanted under the renal capsule of immunodeficient mice. We obtained a tumor take of 56% and show that these xenografts maintained the histological as well as most genomic features of the parental tumors. Serum prostate-specific antigen levels were measurable only in tumor xenograft-bearing mice, but not in those implanted with either normal prostate tissue or in tumors that likely regressed. Finally, we show that a high proliferation rate, but not the pathological stage or the Gleason grade of the original tumor, was a fundamental prerequisite for tumor take in mice. This mouse xenograft model represents a useful preclinical model of primary prostate tumors for their biological characterization, biomarker discovery, and drug testing. PMID:20167861

  11. Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Kim, Y., Dubey, P., and Witte , O. N. In vivo regeneration of murine prostate from dissociated cell populations of postnatal epithelia and urogenital...R. U., Cheng, D., and Witte , O. N. Isolation and functional characterization of murine prostate stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006. 34...of Medicine Flow Sorting Facility) for their expert assistance and Jessica Hicks and Yuko Konishi (Johns Hopkins Department of Pathology) for the

  12. Immature mesenchymal stem cell-like pericytes as mediators of immunosuppression in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Katharina; Sahm, Felix; Opitz, Christiane A; Lanz, Tobias V; Oezen, Iris; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; von Deimling, Andreas; Wick, Wolfgang; Platten, Michael

    2013-12-15

    Malignant gliomas are primary brain tumors characterized by profound local immunosuppression. While the remarkable plasticity of perivascular cells - resembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) - in malignant gliomas and their contribution to angiogenesis is increasingly recognized, their role as potential mediators of immunosuppression is unknown. Here we demonstrate that FACS-sorted malignant glioma-derived pericytes (HMGP) were characterized by the expression of CD90, CD248, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β). HMGP shared this expression profile with human brain vascular pericytes (HBVP) and human MSC (HMSC) but not human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (HCMEC). CD90+PDGFR-β+perivascular cells distinct from CD31+ endothelial cells accumulated in human gliomas with increasing degree of malignancy and negatively correlated with the presence of blood vessel-associated leukocytes and CD8+ T cells. Cultured CD90+PDGFR-β+HBVP were equally capable of suppressing allogeneic or mitogen-activated T cell responses as human MSC. HMGP, HBVP and HMSC expressed prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). These factors but not indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-mediated conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine functionally contributed to immunosuppression of immature pericytes. Our data provide evidence that human cerebral CD90+ perivascular cells possess T cell inhibitory capability comparable to human MSC and suggest that these cells, besides their critical role in tumor vascularization, also promote local immunosuppression in malignant gliomas and possibly other brain diseases.

  13. Norfloxacin penetration into human renal and prostatic tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Bergeron, M G; Thabet, M; Roy, R; Lessard, C; Foucault, P

    1985-01-01

    Concurrent norfloxacin concentrations in serum, kidney, and prostatic tissue were determined in 14 patients. Mean ratios of norfloxacin concentration in tissue over concentration in serum were 6.6 +/- 2.8 for the kidney and 1.7 +/- 0.2 for the prostate samples. The levels were above the MICs of most urinary pathogens. PMID:3834837

  14. Human fucosyltransferase 6 enables prostate cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Guillebon, A D; Hsu, J-w; Barthel, S R; Dimitroff, C J; Lee, Y-F; King, M R

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interaction between human prostate cancer (PCa) cells and bone marrow (BM) endothelium follows a rolling-and-adhesion cascade mediated by E-selectin ligand (ESL): E-selectin. This adhesion is enabled by elevated expression of α-1,3-fucosyltransferases (FTs), enzymes responsible for ESL-mediated bone metastasis in humans. In contrast, the incidence of bone metastasis in mice is rare. Methods: FT 3, 6 and 7 were overexpressed in mouse PCa cells. The rolling cell number, cell-rolling velocity and transendothelial migration were characterised in vitro. Fucosyltransferases-transduced mouse PCa cells expressing luciferase were inoculated into mice via left ventricle to compare the capability of bone metastasis. Mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation were utilised for identification of ESLs. Results: Overexpression of FT3, FT6 or FT7 restored ESLs and enabled mouse PCa cells to roll and adhere in E-selectin-functionalised microtubes, similar to trafficking of circulating PCa cells in BM vessels. Following intracardiac inoculation, FT6-transduced cells induced robust bone metastasis in mice. Inhibition of FT6 by a fucose mimetic significantly reduced bone metastasis. Importantly, comparison of FT3, FT6 and FT7 gene expression in existing clinical samples showed significant upregulation of FT6 in PCa-distant metastases. Conclusion: FT6 is a key mediator of PCa cells trafficking to the BM. It may serve as a viable drug target in preclinical tests of therapeutics for reduction of PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24178760

  15. Penetration of orally administered prulifloxacin into human prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Giberti, Claudio; Gallo, Fabrizio; Rosignoli, Maria T; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Barattè, Simona; Picollo, Rossella; Dionisio, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Prulifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, may be a useful addition to the antimicrobial armamentarium against prostatitis once the ability of its active metabolite, ulifloxacin, to penetrate prostatic tissue has been determined. This study set out to evaluate ulifloxacin penetration into the prostate following administration of the oral fluoroquinolone prodrug prulifloxacin in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). This was a phase I, randomized, open-label, single-centre study involving 20 male Caucasian patients (mean age 63.1 years) requiring TURP for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Sixteen patients were randomized to receive prulifloxacin; the other four patients were not treated (controls) in order to validate the bioanalytical method. Patients in the active treatment groups were randomized to receive one or three once-daily doses of prulifloxacin 600 mg, with the last administration 3 hours prior to surgery. Central/transitional and peripheral zone prostatic tissue samples were obtained from the 6 o'clock and 9 o'clock positions in the prostate, and blood samples were collected concurrently. Ulifloxacin concentrations were determined in the tissue samples and plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Safety was also assessed. Prostatic tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin always exceeded those in plasma. Mean ulifloxacin concentrations measured in samples collected from the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone of the prostate were higher in patients who received prulifloxacin for 3 days than in those who received a single dose. Mean prostatic tissue/plasma ulifloxacin concentration ratios after single and repeated prulifloxacin administration ranged from 3.8 to 7.1 and from 3.9 to 9.5, respectively. The highest mean ratio was found in the 6 o'clock central/transitional zone after repeated dosing. Prostatic levels of ulifloxacin were above the minimum inhibitory concentrations for the most

  16. Inactivation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of human malignant cells by methylglyoxal.

    PubMed

    Ray, M; Basu, N; Ray, S

    1997-12-01

    The effect of methylglyoxal on the activity of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GA3PD) of several normal human tissues and benign and malignant tumors has been tested. Methylglyoxal inactivated GA3PD of all the malignant cells (47 samples) and the degree of inactivation was in the range of 25-90%, but it had no inhibitory effect on this enzyme from several normal cells (24 samples) and benign tumors (13 samples). When the effect of methylglyoxal on other two dehydrogenases namely glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and L-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) of similar cells was tested as controls it has been observed that methylglyoxal has some inactivating effect on G6PD of all the normal, benign and malignant samples tested, whereas, LDH remained completely unaffected. These studies indicate that the inactivating effect of methylglyoxal on GA3PD specifically of the malignant cells may be a common feature of all the malignant cells, and this phenomenon can be used as a simple and rapid device for the detection of malignancy.

  17. HGF and the regulation of tight junctions in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Tracey A; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may impact the metastasis of prostate cancer via its action on prostate stem cells or their progeny. Tight junctions (TJs) are crucial to the process of metastasis and have been previously shown to be regulated by HGF. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HGF on the function of TJs in human prostate epithelial, prostate stem cell-like and prostate cancer cell lines. Four human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU-145, PZHPV-7, CaHPV-10), normal adult prostate parental epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and a stem cell-like derivative of RWPE-1 (WPE-STEM) were used to assess HGF-induced changes in TJs. A significant difference was noted in the behaviour between the WPE-STEM, RWPE-1 and the cancer cell lines which was HGF concentration-dependent. However, in the WPE-STEM cells, the effect was biphasic, with the cells seemingly resistant to HGF-modulated TJ disruption. Closer examination revealed that HGF affected the redistribution of ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 away from the TJs of confluent cells with concurrent loss of claudin-1 and claudin-5, and western blot analysis revealed a loss in TJ protein expression of ZO-1 and ZO-2. We demonstrated for the first time that HGF regulates TJ function in human prostate cells. Moreover, this regulation was dependent on the tumourigenicity of the cells, with the most aggressive cells most susceptible and the stem cell-like cells least susceptible. These data offer an intriguing glimpse of how TJs affect the behaviour of prostate cancer cells and how HGF modulates the expression and function of the molecules maintaining TJ structure and function.

  18. Dual tumor suppressing and promoting function of Notch1 signaling in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Karine; Ostano, Gian Paola; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Calpini, Valérie; Scatolini, Maria; Farsetti, Antonella; Dotto, Gian Paolo; Chiorino, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the prostate arise as multifocal heterogeneous lesions as the likely result of genetic and epigenetic alterations and deranged cell-cell communication. Notch signaling is an important form of intercellular communication with a role in growth/differentiation control and tumorigenesis. Contrasting reports exist in the literature on the role of this pathway in prostate cancer (PCa) development. We show here that i) compared to normal prostate tissue, Notch1 expression is significantly reduced in a substantial fraction of human PCas while it is unaffected or even increased in others; ii) acute Notch activation both inhibits and induces process networks associated with prostatic neoplasms; iii) down-modulation of Notch1 expression and activity in immortalized normal prostate epithelial cells increases their proliferation potential, while increased Notch1 activity in PCa cells suppresses growth and tumorigenicity through a Smad3-dependent mechanism involving p21WAF1/CIP1; iv) prostate cancer cells resistant to Notch growth inhibitory effects retain Notch1-induced upregulation of pro-oncogenic genes, like EPAS1 and CXCL6, also overexpressed in human PCas with high Notch1 levels. Taken together, these results reconcile conflicting data on the role of Notch1 in prostate cancer. PMID:27384993

  19. Dual tumor suppressing and promoting function of Notch1 signaling in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lefort, Karine; Ostano, Paola; Mello-Grand, Maurizia; Calpini, Valérie; Scatolini, Maria; Farsetti, Antonella; Dotto, G Paolo; Chiorino, Giovanna

    2016-07-26

    Adenocarcinomas of the prostate arise as multifocal heterogeneous lesions as the likely result of genetic and epigenetic alterations and deranged cell-cell communication. Notch signaling is an important form of intercellular communication with a role in growth/differentiation control and tumorigenesis. Contrasting reports exist in the literature on the role of this pathway in prostate cancer (PCa) development. We show here that i) compared to normal prostate tissue, Notch1 expression is significantly reduced in a substantial fraction of human PCas while it is unaffected or even increased in others; ii) acute Notch activation both inhibits and induces process networks associated with prostatic neoplasms; iii) down-modulation of Notch1 expression and activity in immortalized normal prostate epithelial cells increases their proliferation potential, while increased Notch1 activity in PCa cells suppresses growth and tumorigenicity through a Smad3-dependent mechanism involving p21WAF1/CIP1; iv) prostate cancer cells resistant to Notch growth inhibitory effects retain Notch1-induced upregulation of pro-oncogenic genes, like EPAS1 and CXCL6, also overexpressed in human PCas with high Notch1 levels. Taken together, these results reconcile conflicting data on the role of Notch1 in prostate cancer.

  20. Contractile properties of human prostate adenomas and the development of infravesical obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gup, D I; Shapiro, E; Baumann, M; Lepor, H

    1989-01-01

    The contractile response of human prostate adenomas to KCl, phenylephrine (alpha 1 adrenergic agonist), UK 14304 (alpha 2 adrenergic agonist), and carbachol (muscarinic cholinergic agonist) was evaluated in tissue specimens obtained from men with symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH. Prostate specimens were obtained from 5 men with asymptomatic BPH undergoing cystoprostatectomy, 11 men with symptomatic BPH undergoing open prostatectomy, and 11 men with symptomatic BPH undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Quantitative symptom score analysis and urinary flow rate determination documented the absence of bladder outlet obstruction in men undergoing cystoprostatectomy and confirmed the presence of bladder outlet obstruction in men undergoing prostatectomy. The magnitude of the contractile response (Emax) and the potency of phenylephrine-induced contractions (EC50) in prostatic preparations obtained from men with symptomatic and asymptomatic BPH were similar. The IC50 for the inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contractions by prazosin was 3.2 nM, confirming that phenylephrine-induced contraction in the human prostate is mediated by the alpha 1 adrenoceptor. The contractile responses of prostate adenomas to muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2 agonists were negligible. This study demonstrates that the development of bladder outlet obstruction in men with BPH is not related to alterations in the functional response of the smooth muscle component of the prostate adenoma.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  2. Human prostatic cancer cells, PC3, elaborate mitogenic activity which selectively stimulates human bone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perkel, V.S.; Mohan, S.; Herring, S.J.; Baylink, D.J.; Linkhart, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostatic cancer typically produces osteoblastic metastases which are not attended by marrow fibrosis. In the present study we sought to test the hypothesis that prostatic cancer cells produce factor(s) which act selectively on human osteoblasts. Such a paracrine mechanism would explain the observed increase in osteoblasts, unaccompanied by an increase in marrow fibroblasts. To test this hypothesis we investigated the mitogenic activity released by the human prostatic tumor cell line, PC3. PC3 cells have been reported previously to produce mitogenic activity for cells that was relatively specific for rat osteoblasts compared to rat fibroblasts. However, the effects of this activity on human cells has not been examined previously. PC3-conditioned medium (CM) (5-50 micrograms CM protein/ml) stimulated human osteoblast proliferation by 200-950% yet did not stimulate human fibroblast proliferation ((3H)thymidine incorporation). PC3 CM also increased cell numbers in human osteoblast but not fibroblast cell cultures. To determine whether the osteoblast-specific mitogenic activity could be attributed to known bone growth factors, specific assays for these growth factors were performed. PC3 CM contained 10 pg insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, less than 2 pg IGF II, 54 pg basic fibroblast growth factor, and 16 pg transforming growth factor beta/microgram CM protein. None of these growth factors alone or in combination could account for the observed osteoblast-specific PC3 cell-derived mitogenic activity. Furthermore, when 5 micrograms/ml PC3 CM was tested in combination with maximally effective concentrations of either basic fibroblast growth factor, IGF I, IGF II, or transforming growth factor beta, it produced an additive effect suggesting that PC3 CM stimulates osteoblast proliferation by a mechanism independent of these bone mitogens.

  3. Pharmacological and functional characterization of bradykinin B2 receptor in human prostate.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Dinesh; Kosaka, Alan H; Daniels, Donald V; Ford, Anthony P D W; Bhattacharya, Anindya

    2004-11-19

    The objective of this study was to pharmacologically characterize bradykinin receptors, a component of the kallikrein-kinin system, in normal human prostate cells. In primary cultured human prostate stromal cells, bradykinin, but not [des-Arg9]bradykinin or [des-Arg10]kallidin, produced calcium mobilization or inositol phosphates accumulation with potencies (pEC50) of 8.8+/-0.2 and 8.2+/-0.2, respectively. This was consistent with abundance of bradykinin B2 mRNA over bradykinin B1 mRNA in prostate stromal cells. Although the prostate epithelial cells (prostate epithelium, BPH-1, and PC-3) expressed mRNA for bradykinin B2 receptors (albeit in lesser amounts than stromal cells), bradykinin was not functionally efficacious in the epithelial cells. Increasing concentrations of D-arginyl-L-arginyl-L-prolyl-trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolylglycyl-3-(2-thienyl)-L-alanyl-L-seryl-D-1,2,3,4-tetrahhydro-3-isoquinolinecarbonyl-L-(2alpha,3beta,7alphabeta)-octahydro-1H-indole-2-carbonyl-L-arginine (HOE-140), a bradykinin B2-selective peptide antagonist, attenuated bradykinin concentration-response curves in human prostate stromal cells with apparent estimate of affinity similar to that for the human bradykinin B2 receptor. Bradykinin (10 nM) caused proliferation of prostate stromal cells and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK-1 and ERK-2) that were blocked by HOE-140 (1 microM). This study demonstrated that, in primary cultures of normal human prostate stromal cells, bradykinin activates bradykinin B2 receptors that may play a significant role in proliferation via activation of ERK-1/2 pathways.

  4. [Screening of urogenital malignancies by transabdominal ultrasonography in "human dry dock"].

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, I; Hatano, T; Yanada, S; Tomita, M; Takeuchi, H; Madarame, J; Yoshino, Y; Ohishi, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Narusawa, T

    1999-10-01

    Transabdominal ultrasonography (US) has been widely accepted as a diagnostic method with which to examine multiple organs simultaneously. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of trans-abdominal US to screen for urogenital malignancies. From 1993 through 1997 109,077 men and 28,023 women underwent abdominal US to screen for abdominal and pelvic diseases as part of a regular health check-up program at the Tokyu Medical Health Center. Twelve renal cell cancers (RCCs), 7 bladder tumors (BTs), 4 prostatic cancers (PCs), and 1 testicular tumor (TT) were detected. All cancers were diagnosed pathologically and treated surgically except for one PC. Surgical pathological examination and conventional imaging revealed that all 12 RCCa and 6 of the 7 BTs were of less advanced stage than pT1N0M0. However, all 3 PCs and the TT were pT3N0-1M0 and pT1N3M0, respectively. The stage and grade of these 12 RCCs were significantly lower than those of 29 symptomatic RCCs. All 12 patients with RCC patients and 6 of the 7 patients with BT had no urological symptom, whereas 3 of the 4 patients with PC and the patient with TT had urogenital symptoms. Microscopic examination of the urine revealed both red blood cells and tumors cells in two of the seven patients with BT. All four patients with PC had serum levels of prostatic-specific antigen greater than 4 ng/ml. These results indicate that screening by transabdominal US as part of regular health check-ups can detect many types of urogenital malignancy. In particular, US is useful for detecting low-grade and low-stage RCCs and superficial BTs but is less sensitive for early-stage PCs and TTs.

  5. Incorporating Oxygen-Enhanced MRI into Multi-Parametric Assessment of Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heling; Hallac, Rami R; Yuan, Qing; Ding, Yao; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Xian-Jin; Francis, Franto; Roehrborn, Claus G; Sims, R Douglas; Costa, Daniel N; Raj, Ganesh V; Mason, Ralph P

    2017-08-24

    Hypoxia is associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness, local recurrence, and biochemical failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers insight into tumor pathophysiology and recent reports have related transverse relaxation rate (R₂*) and longitudinal relaxation rate (R₁) measurements to tumor hypoxia. We have investigated the inclusion of oxygen-enhanced MRI for multi-parametric evaluation of tumor malignancy. Multi-parametric MRI sequences at 3 Tesla were evaluated in 10 patients to investigate hypoxia in prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), tissue oxygen level dependent (TOLD), dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE), and diffusion weighted imaging MRI were intercorrelated and compared with the Gleason score. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was significantly lower in tumor than normal prostate. Baseline R₂* (BOLD-contrast) was significantly higher in tumor than normal prostate. Upon the oxygen breathing challenge, R₂* decreased significantly in the tumor tissue, suggesting improved vascular oxygenation, however changes in R₁ were minimal. R₂* of contralateral normal prostate decreased in most cases upon oxygen challenge, although the differences were not significant. Moderate correlation was found between ADC and Gleason score. ADC and R₂* were correlated and trends were found between Gleason score and R₂*, as well as maximum-intensity-projection and area-under-the-curve calculated from DCE. Tumor ADC and R₂* have been associated with tumor hypoxia, and thus the correlations are of particular interest. A multi-parametric approach including oxygen-enhanced MRI is feasible and promises further insights into the pathophysiological information of tumor microenvironment.

  6. Patient-Derived Xenograft Establishment from Human Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Licun; Allo, Ghassan; John, Thomas; Li, Ming; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Opitz, Isabelle; Anraku, Masaki; Yun, Zhihong; Pintilie, Melania; Pitcher, Bethany; Liu, Geoffrey; Feld, Ron; Johnston, Michael R; de Perrot, Marc; Tsao, Ming-Sound

    2017-02-15

    Purpose: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive disease with few therapeutic options. The tumor-stromal interface is important in MPM, but this is lost in cell lines, the main model used for preclinical studies. We sought to characterize MPM patient-derived xenografts (PDX) to determine their suitability as preclinical models and whether tumors that engraft reflect a more aggressive biological phenotype.Experimental Design: Fresh tumors were harvested from extrapleural pneumonectomy, decortication, or biopsy samples of 50 MPM patients and implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice and serially passaged for up to five generations. We correlated selected mesothelioma biomarkers between PDX and patient tumors, and PDX establishment with the clinical pathologic features of the patients, including their survival. DNA of nine PDXs was profiled using the OncoScan FFPE Express platform. Ten PDXs were treated with cisplatin and pemetrexed.Results: A PDX was formed in 20 of 50 (40%) tumors implanted. Histologically, PDX models closely resembled the parent tumor. PDX models formed despite preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In multivariable analysis, patients whose tumors formed a PDX had significantly poorer survival when the model was adjusted for preoperative treatment (HR, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.52; P = 0.028). Among 10 models treated with cisplatin, seven demonstrated growth inhibition. Genomic abnormalities seen in nine PDX models were similar to that previously reported.Conclusions: Patients whose tumors form PDX models have poorer clinical outcomes. MPM PDX tumors closely resemble the genotype and phenotype of parent tumors, making them valuable models for preclinical studies. Clin Cancer Res; 23(4); 1060-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Berberine-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species generation

    SciTech Connect

    Meeran, Syed M.; Katiyar, Suchitra; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-05-15

    Phytochemicals show promise as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Here we report the chemotherapeutic effects of berberine, a phytochemical, on human prostate cancer cells. The treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with berberine induced dose-dependent apoptosis but this effect of berberine was not seen in non-neoplastic human prostate epithelial cells (PWR-1E). Berberine-induced apoptosis was associated with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic molecules (cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO) from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-9,-3 and PARP proteins. This effect of berberine on prostate cancer cells was initiated by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) irrespective of their androgen responsiveness, and the generation of ROS was through the increased induction of xanthine oxidase. Treatment of cells with allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, inhibited berberine-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells. Berberine-induced apoptosis was blocked in the presence of antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, through the prevention of disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the berberine-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer cells is regulated by reactive oxygen species, and therefore suggests that berberine may be considered for further studies as a promising therapeutic candidate for prostate cancer.

  8. Characterization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of three scoring systems in patients treated with radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Vaché, Tiphaine; Bratan, Flavie; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Roche, Sylvain; Rabilloud, Muriel; Rouvière, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    To compare the subjective Likert score to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) and morphology-location-signal intensity (MLS) scores for categorization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Two hundred fifteen patients who underwent T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate before radical prostatectomy were included in a prospective database after they signed the institutional review board-approved forms. Senior readers 1 and 2 prospectively noted the location, shape, and signal intensity of lesions on MR images from individual pulse sequences and scored each for likelihood of malignancy by using a Likert scale (range, 1-5). A junior reader (reader 3) retrospectively reviewed the database and did the same analysis. The MLS score (range, 1-13) was computed by using the readers' descriptions of the lesions. Then, the three readers again scored the lesions they described by using the PIRADS score (range, 3-15). MLS and PIRADS scores were compared with the Likert score by using their areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the Likert, MLS, and PIRADS scores were 0.81, 0.77 (P = .03), and 0.75 (P = .01) for reader 1; 0.88, 0.74 (P < .0001), and 0.76 (P < .0001) for reader 2; and 0.81, 0.78 (P = .23), and 0.75 (P = .01) for reader 3. For diagnosing cancers with Gleason scores greater than or equal to 7, the Likert score was significantly more accurate than the others, except for the MLS score for reader 3. Weighted κ values were 0.470-0.524, 0.405-0.430, and 0.378-0.441 for the Likert, MLS, and PIRADS scores, respectively. The Likert score allowed significantly more accurate categorization of prostate lesions on MR images than did the MLS and PIRADS scores.

  9. SPOCK1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Yao, Yuan-ting; Xu, Huan; Chen, Yan-bo; Gu, Meng; Cai, Zhi-kang; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and ranks as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males. Metastasis is the primary cause of prostate cancer mortality. Survival rate is only 28% for metastatic patients, but is nearly 100% for patients with localized prostate cancers. Molecular mechanisms that underlie this malignancy remain obscure, and this study investigated the role of SPARC/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domain proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1) in prostate cancer progression. Initially, we found that SPOCK1 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues relative to noncancerous tissues. In particular, SPOCK1 expression was also markedly high in metastatic tissues compared with nonmetastatic cancerous tissues. SPOCK1 expression knockdown by specific short hairpin RNA in PC3 cells was significantly inhibited, whereas SPOCK1 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells promoted cell viability, colony formation in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, the SPOCK1 knockdown in PC3 cells was associated with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, while the SPOCK1 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. The SPOCK1 knockdown in PC3 cells even increased cell apoptosis. SPOCK1 modulation was also observed to affect cancerous cell proliferation and apoptotic processes in the mouse model of prostate cancer. Additionally, the SPOCK1 knockdown decreased, whereas the SPOCK1 overexpression increased cell migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Injection of SPOCK1-depleted PC3 cells significantly decreased metastatic nodules in mouse lungs. These findings suggest that SPOCK1 is a critical mediator of tumor growth and metastasis in prostate cancer. PMID:27486308

  10. SPOCK1 promotes tumor growth and metastasis in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Yao, Yuan-Ting; Xu, Huan; Chen, Yan-Bo; Gu, Meng; Cai, Zhi-Kang; Wang, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and ranks as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American males. Metastasis is the primary cause of prostate cancer mortality. Survival rate is only 28% for metastatic patients, but is nearly 100% for patients with localized prostate cancers. Molecular mechanisms that underlie this malignancy remain obscure, and this study investigated the role of SPARC/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazal-like domain proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1) in prostate cancer progression. Initially, we found that SPOCK1 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues relative to noncancerous tissues. In particular, SPOCK1 expression was also markedly high in metastatic tissues compared with nonmetastatic cancerous tissues. SPOCK1 expression knockdown by specific short hairpin RNA in PC3 cells was significantly inhibited, whereas SPOCK1 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells promoted cell viability, colony formation in vitro, and tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, the SPOCK1 knockdown in PC3 cells was associated with cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase, while the SPOCK1 overexpression in RWPE-1 cells induced cell cycle arrest in S phase. The SPOCK1 knockdown in PC3 cells even increased cell apoptosis. SPOCK1 modulation was also observed to affect cancerous cell proliferation and apoptotic processes in the mouse model of prostate cancer. Additionally, the SPOCK1 knockdown decreased, whereas the SPOCK1 overexpression increased cell migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Injection of SPOCK1-depleted PC3 cells significantly decreased metastatic nodules in mouse lungs. These findings suggest that SPOCK1 is a critical mediator of tumor growth and metastasis in prostate cancer.

  11. Prostatic penetration of meropenem in humans, and dosage considerations for prostatitis based on a site-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Genya; Ikawa, Kazuro; Nakamura, Kogenta; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Zennami, Kenji; Mitsui, Kenji; Narushima, Masahiro; Ikeda, Kayo; Morikawa, Norifumi; Sumitomo, Makoto

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the penetration of meropenem (MER) into human prostate tissue and to assess MER regimens for prostatitis by performing a site-specific pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation. Patients with prostatic hypertrophy (n=49) prophylactically received a 0.5-h infusion of MER (250 mg or 500 mg) before transurethral resection of the prostate. MER concentrations in plasma (0.5-5h) and prostate tissue (0.5-1.5h) were measured chromatographically. Concentration data were analysed pharmacokinetically with a three-compartment model and were used to estimate the drug exposure time above the minimum inhibitory concentration for bacteria (T>MIC, % of 24h) in prostate tissue, an indicator for antibacterial effects at the site of action. The prostate tissue/plasma ratio was 16.6% for the maximum drug concentration and 17.7% for the area under the drug concentration-time curve, irrespective of the dose. Against MIC distributions for clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp., 500 mg once daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bacteriostatic target (20% T>MIC) in prostate tissue, and 500 mg twice daily achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bactericidal target (40% T>MIC) in prostate tissue. However, against the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, none of the tested regimens achieved a >90% probability of attaining the bacteriostatic or bactericidal targets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of inhibition of aloe-emodin on N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells (A375.S2).

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuw-Yuan; Yang, Jen-Hung; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lee, Jau-Hong; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Wei, Yau-Huei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2005-12-01

    Arylamine carcinogens and drugs are N-acetylated by cytosolic N-acetyltransferase (NAT), which uses acetyl-coenzyme A as a cofactor. NAT plays an initial role in the metabolism of these arylamine compounds. 2-Aminofluorene is one of the arylamine carcinogens which have been demonstrated to undergo N-acetylation in laboratory animals and humans. Our previous study showed that human cancer cell lines (colon cancer, colo 205; liver cancer, Hep G2; bladder cancer, T24; leukemia, HL-60; prostate cancer, LNCaP; osteogenic sarcoma, U-2 OS; malignant melanoma, A375.S2) displayed NAT activity, which was affected by aloe-emodin in human leukemia cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aloe-emodin could affect the enzyme activity and gene expression of NAT at the mRNA and protein levels in malignant human melanoma A375.S2 cells. The results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited NAT1 activity (decreased N-acetylation of 2-aminofluorene) in intact cells in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of aloe-emodin on NAT1 at the protein level was determined by Western blotting and the mRNA levels were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cDNA microarray. These results clearly indicate that aloe-emodin inhibits the mRNA expression and enzyme activity of NAT1 in A375.S2 cells.

  13. Inhibition of chronic prostate inflammation by hyaluronic acid through an immortalized human prostate stromal cell line model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Che; Chen, Wei-Hong; Chiou, Chi-Sheng; Lo, Wen-Cheng; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chin; Lai, Wen-Fu T.; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Chiang, Han-Sun; Deng, Win-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common urologic disease among elderly men. A well-established in vitro cell model is required to determine the therapeutic mechanism of BPH inflammation. In this study, we attempted to establish an immortalized human prostate stromal cell line by transfecting with HPV-16 E6/E7 and designated as ihPSC. No significant difference was found in fibroblast-like morphology between primary hPSC and ihPSC. The ihPSC possessed a significantly higher cell proliferation rate than primary hPSC. The prostate-specific markers and proteins including cytoskeleton (α-SMA and vimentin) and smooth muscle (calponin), especially the androgen receptor (AR) were also examined in ihPSC, almost identical to the primary hPSC. To create an in vitro model featuring chronic prostatic inflammation, ihPSC was stimulated with IFN-γ+IL-17 and then treated with the high molecular weight hyaluronic acid hylan G-F 20 as an alternative strategy for inhibiting BPH inflammation. Hylan G-F 20 could dose-dependently diminish the inflammation-induced proliferation in ihPSC. The enhanced expressions of inflammatory molecules including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were all abolished by hylan G-F 20. For inflammatory signaling, hylan G-F 20 can also diminish the IFN-γ+IL-17-increased expression of iNOS and p65 in ihPSC. These findings suggest that ihPSC could provide a mechanism-based platform for investigating prostate inflammation. The hylan G-F 20 showed strong anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing inflammatory cytokines and signalings in the ihPSC, indicating its therapeutic potentials in BPH treatment in the future. PMID:28558037

  14. A Vector-Based Short Hairpin RNA Targeting Aurora B Suppresses Human Prostatic Carcinoma Growth.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mei; Qi, Panpan; Chen, Chong; Song, Liju; Wang, Xuege; Li, Ningzhe; Wu, Daoyan; Hu, Guoku; Zhao, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Aurora kinase B, playing a vital, important role in mitosis, is frequently detected to be overexpressed in many cancer cell lines and various tumor tissues, including prostatic carcinoma. Given the essential function of Aurora kinase B in mitosis and its association with tumorigenesis, it might be a drug target for prostatic carcinoma treatment. In our study, short hairpin RNA targeting Aurora kinase B was cloned into a pGPU6 plasmid vector and then transfected into human prostatic carcinoma cells. The expression level of Aurora kinase B was verified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. At the same time, cell apoptosis was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, fluorescent staining, and flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, prostate carcinoma cells were injected into mice to establish a tumor xenograft model. Previous studies have shown the effect of pGPU6-shAURKB plasmid on tumor growth in a prostate carcinoma xenogenic implantation model. From the study, we knew that the Aurora kinase B was significantly downregulated in prostate carcinoma cells, and cell apoptosis was also detected higher in treated groups than that in control groups. Moreover, in the prostate carcinoma xenogenic implantation model, compared with the control groups, the tumor growth was inhibited about 78.7% in the pGPU6-shAURKB plasmid-treated group, and cell apoptosis in the experimental group was notably higher than that in control groups. The average duration of tumor-bearing mice was prolonged to about 35 days. The results of experiment indicated that specific knockdown of Aurora kinase B led to prostate carcinoma cells apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth. Our data clearly confirmed that specific knockdown of Aurora kinase B expression by vector-based short hairpin RNA/liposome may be a potential new approach to treat human prostatic carcinoma.

  15. Zinc transporter mRNA expression in the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Amy L; Somji, Seema; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A; Garrett, Scott H

    2008-08-01

    The human prostate gland undergoes a prominent alteration in Zn+2 homeostasis during the development of prostate cancer. The goal of the present study was to determine if the immortalized human prostate cell line (RWPE-1) could serve as a model system to study the role of zinc in prostate cancer. The study examined the expression of mRNA for 19 members of the zinc transporter gene family in normal prostate tissue, the prostate RWPE-1 cell line, and the LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines. The study demonstrated that the expression of the 19 zinc transporters was similar between the RWPE-1 cell line and the in situ prostate gland. Of the 19 zinc transporters, only 5 had levels that were different between the RWPE-1 cells and the tissue samples; all five being increased (ZnT-6, Zip-1, Zip-3A, Zip-10, and Zip-14). The response of the 19 transporters was also determined when the cell lines were exposed to 75 microM Zn+2 for 24 h. It was shown for the RWPE-1 cells that only 5 transporters responded to Zn+2 with mRNA for ZnT-1 and ZnT-2 being increased while mRNA for ZnT-7, Zip-7 and Zip-10 transporters were decreased. It was shown for the LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3 cells that Zn+2 had no effect on the mRNA levels of all 19 transporters except for an induction of ZnT-1 in PC-3 cells. Overall, the study suggests that the RWPE-1 cells could be a valuable model for the study of the zinc transporter gene family in the prostate.

  16. Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to Selectively Kill Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Kill Prostate Cancer Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Samuel R. Denmeade, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins University...Annual 3. DATES COVERED t 2011- 29 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER . Targeting the Human Complement Membrane Attack Complex to...Support: DOD Idea Award W81XWH-10-PCRP-IDA to SRD; DOD Predoctoral Fellowship W81XWH-09-1-0219 to MLM ; DOD Post-Doctoral Fellowship to MBK; Prostate

  17. Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice: A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    For each Q tract allele, we have currently obtained at least 30 experimental and 30 control mice . Some have reached their time points and tissues...overexpression of ETV1). Experimental mice have been generated and prostates are being microdissected as animals reach their time points. Initial...TITLE: Humanized Androgen Receptor Mice : A Genetic Model for Differential Response to Prostate Cancer Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Diane M

  18. Implications of pleiotrophin in human PC3 prostate cancer cell growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tsirmoula, Sotiria; Dimas, Kostas; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Lamprou, Margarita; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2012-10-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor with diverse functions related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Pleiotrophin seems to have a significant role in prostate cancer cell growth and to mediate the stimulatory actions of other factors that affect prostate cancer cell functions. However, all studies carried out up to date are in vitro, using different types of human prostate cancer cell lines. The aim of the present work was to study the role of endogenous PTN in human prostate cancer growth in vivo. For this purpose, human prostate cancer PC3 cells were stably transfected with a plasmid vector, bearing the antisense PTN sequence, in order to inhibit PTN expression (AS-PC3). Migration, apoptosis, and adhesion on osteoblastic cells were measured in vitro. In vivo, PC3 cells were s.c. injected into male NOD/SCID mice, and tumor growth, survival rates, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and the number of metastasis were estimated. Pleiotrophin depletion resulted in a decreased migration capability of AS-PC3 cells compared with the corresponding mock-transfected or the non-transfected PC3 cells, as well as increased apoptosis and decreased adhesiveness to osteoblastic cells in vitro. In prostate cancer NOD/SCID mouse xenografts, PTN depletion significantly suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis and induced apoptosis of cancer cells. In addition, PTN depletion decreased the number of metastases, providing a survival benefit for the animals bearing AS-PC3 xenografts. Our data suggest that PTN is implicated in human prostate cancer growth in vivo and could be considered a potential target for the development of new therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer. © 2012 Japanese Cancer Association.

  19. Quantification of Protein Signatures in Archived Human Prostate Tissues Using Shotgun Proteomic Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    proteins were subsequently incubated with wheat - germ agglutinin (WGA) and con canavalin- A (ConA) beads, washed, and el uted with sol uble n-acetyl...prostate radial prostatectomies and have focused on optimizing protocols to extract and profile proteins in matched normal and dise ased tissue s...human prostate cancer using label-free, quantitative mass spectrometry. Last year we were able to extract up to 1 00 micrograms of total protein

  20. Cancer Localization in the Prostate with F-18 Fluorocholine Positron Emission Tomography. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    accuracy of prostate cancer sextant localization based on measured fluorocholine uptake. Recruitment of human subjects for this project was completed...of malignancy in anatomical sextants of the prostate gland. The rationale for evaluating fluorocholine as an oncologic tracer applicable to...potential means to further improve the sextant localization of primary prostate cancer. The rationale for this study is based on observations of rapid

  1. Genome-wide DNA methylation measurements in prostate tissues uncovers novel prostate cancer diagnostic biomarkers and transcription factor binding patterns.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Marie K; Ramaker, Ryne C; Roberts, Brian S; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Gunther, David S; Burwell, Todd C; Davis, Nicholas S; Gulzar, Zulfiqar G; Absher, Devin M; Cooper, Sara J; Brooks, James D; Myers, Richard M

    2017-04-17

    Current diagnostic tools for prostate cancer lack specificity and sensitivity for detecting very early lesions. DNA methylation is a stable genomic modification that is detectable in peripheral patient fluids such as urine and blood plasma that could serve as a non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer. We measured genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in 73 clinically annotated fresh-frozen prostate cancers and 63 benign-adjacent prostate tissues using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. We overlaid the most significantly differentially methylated sites in the genome with transcription factor binding sites measured by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements consortium. We used logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves to assess the performance of candidate diagnostic models. We identified methylation patterns that have a high predictive power for distinguishing malignant prostate tissue from benign-adjacent prostate tissue, and these methylation signatures were validated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project. Furthermore, by overlaying ENCODE transcription factor binding data, we observed an enrichment of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 binding in gene regulatory regions with higher DNA methylation in malignant prostate tissues. DNA methylation patterns are greatly altered in prostate cancer tissue in comparison to benign-adjacent tissue. We have discovered patterns of DNA methylation marks that can distinguish prostate cancers with high specificity and sensitivity in multiple patient tissue cohorts, and we have identified transcription factors binding in these differentially methylated regions that may play important roles in prostate cancer development.

  2. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter–Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W. K.; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor–promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter–driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers. PMID:27054343

  3. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shian-Ying; Chang, Junn-Liang; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Liu, Yun-Ru; Su, Yen-Hao; Hsueh, Chia-Yen; Chung, Leland W K; Hsieh, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E) containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc) into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK) was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.

  4. Effect of gyromagnetic fields on human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hongen; Xu, Yongde; Guan, Ruili; Li, Meng; Hui, Yu; Gao, Zhezhu; Yang, Bicheng; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the biological effect of gyromagnetic fields (GMFs) on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods PC-3 cells were grouped into normal control (NC) and GMF treatment groups. Cell proliferation was analyzed with kit-8 and Ki67 immunofluorescence staining, while cell apoptosis was analyzed with flow cytometry double staining of Annexin V-PE/7-AAD. The Akt and p38 MAPK/Caspase signaling pathways were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescence staining, and cell polarization was analyzed with PARD3. Results Cell proliferation and activity of the Akt pathway were significantly decreased by the GMF, while cell apoptosis, activity of p38 MAPK, and PARD3-positive cell number were significantly increased in the GMF group compared to the NC group. Conclusion GMFs inhibit cell proliferation, induce apoptosis, and regulate tumor cell polarity conditions, potentially through down-regulating Akt, activating the p38 MAPK/Caspase pathway, and promoting PARD3 expression in PC-3 cells. PMID:26648740

  5. The human (PEDB) and mouse (mPEDB) Prostate Expression Databases.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter S; Pritchard, Colin; Abbott, Denise; Clegg, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    The Prostate Expression Databases (PEDB and mPEDB) are online resources designed to allow researchers to access and analyze gene expression information derived from the human and murine prostate, respectively. Human PEDB archives more than 84 000 Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from 38 prostate cDNA libraries in a curated relational database that provides detailed library information including tissue source, library construction methods, sequence diversity and sequence abundance. The differential expression of each EST species can be viewed across all libraries using a Virtual Expression Analysis Tool (VEAT), a graphical user interface written in Java for intra- and inter-library sequence comparisons. Recent enhancements to PEDB include (i) the development of a murine prostate expression database, mPEDB, that complements the human gene expression information in PEDB, (ii) the assembly of a non-redundant sequence set or 'prostate unigene' that represents the diversity of gene expression in the prostate, and (iii) an expanded search tool that supports both text-based and BLAST queries. PEDB and mPEDB are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://www.pedb.org and http://www.mpedb.org.

  6. Malignant Transformation of Hymenolepis nana in a Human Host.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbachs, Atis; Bhatnagar, Julu; Agudelo, Carlos A; Hidron, Alicia; Eberhard, Mark L; Mathison, Blaine A; Frace, Michael A; Ito, Akira; Metcalfe, Maureen G; Rollin, Dominique C; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Pham, Cau D; Jones, Tara L; Greer, Patricia W; Vélez Hoyos, Alejandro; Olson, Peter D; Diazgranados, Lucy R; Zaki, Sherif R

    2015-11-05

    Neoplasms occur naturally in invertebrates but are not known to develop in tapeworms. We observed nests of monomorphic, undifferentiated cells in samples from lymph-node and lung biopsies in a man infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The morphologic features and invasive behavior of the cells were characteristic of cancer, but their small size suggested a nonhuman origin. A polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay targeting eukaryotes identified Hymenolepis nana DNA. Although the cells were unrecognizable as tapeworm tissue, immunohistochemical staining and probe hybridization labeled the cells in situ. Comparative deep sequencing identified H. nana structural genomic variants that are compatible with mutations described in cancer. Invasion of human tissue by abnormal, proliferating, genetically altered tapeworm cells is a novel disease mechanism that links infection and cancer.

  7. Detection of prostate stem cell antigen expression in human prostate cancer using quantum-dot-based technology.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuan; Yu, Weimin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Xiaobin; Larré, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are a new class of fluorescent labeling for biological and biomedical applications. In this study, we detected prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) expression correlated with tumor grade and stage in human prostate cancer by QDs-based immunolabeling and conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC), and evaluated the sensitivity and stability of QDs-based immunolabeling in comparison with IHC. Our data revealed that increasing levels of PSCA expression accompanied advanced tumor grade (QDs labeling, r = 0.732, p < 0.001; IHC, r = 0.683, p < 0.001) and stage (QDs labeling, r = 0.514, p = 0.001; IHC, r = 0.432, p = 0.005), and the similar tendency was detected by the two methods. In addition, by comparison between the two methods, QDs labeling was consistent with IHC in detecting the expression of PSCA in human prostate tissue correlated with different pathological types (K = 0.845, p < 0.001). During the observation time, QDs exhibited superior stability. The intensity of QDs fluorescence remained stable for two weeks (p = 0.083) after conjugation to the PSCA protein, and nearly 93% of positive expression with their fluorescence still could be seen after four weeks.

  8. Recombinant disintegrin domain of human ADAM9 inhibits migration and invasion of DU145 prostate tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ana Carolina Baptista Moreno; Cardoso, Ana Carolina Ferreira; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    One of the most important features of malignant cells is their capacity to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to distant organs. This process involves the creation, by tumor and stroma cells, of a specific microenvironment, suitable for proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells. The ADAM family of proteins has been involved in these processes. This work aimed to investigate the role of the recombinant disintegrin domain of the human ADAM9 (rADAM9D) on the adhesive and mobility properties of DU145 prostate tumor cells. rADAM9D was able to support DU145 cell adhesion, inhibit the migration of DU145 cells, as well as the invasion of this cell line through matrigel in vitro. Overall this work demonstrates that rADAM9D induces specific cellular migratory properties when compared with different constructs having additional domains, specially those of metalloproteinase and cysteine-rich domains. Furthermore, we showed that rADAM9D was able to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion mainly through interacting with α6β1 in DU145 tumor cell line. These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer. PMID:26211476

  9. Up-regulating of RASD1 and apoptosis of DU-145 human prostate cancer cells induced by formononetin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Jia; Li, Yun-Qian; Chen, Qiu-Yue; Xiao, Sheng-Jun; Zeng, Si-En

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent malignant cancers in men. The isoflavone formononetin is a main active component of red clover plants. In the present study, we assessed the effect of formononetin on human prostate cancer DU-145 cells in vitro, and elucidated possible mechanisms. DU-145 cells were treated with different concentrations of formononetin and cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 and flow cytometry, and protein levels of RASD1, Bcl-2 and Bax by Western blotting. The results showed that formononetin inhibited the proliferation of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner. DU-145 cells treated with different concentrations of formononetin displayed obvious morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence microscopy. In addition, formononetin increased the proportion of early apoptotic DU-145 cells, down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and up-regulated those of RASD1 and Bax. The level of RASD1 reached its maximum at 48 h post-treatment, and rapidly decreased thereafter. Together, we present evidence that formononetin triggered cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by up-regulating RASD1.

  10. Selective expression of myosin IC Isoform A in mouse and human cell lines and mouse prostate cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Sielski, Neil L; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2014-01-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C). Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP) model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate-) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer.

  11. Prevention of human PC-346C prostate cancer growth in mice by a xenogeneic tissue vaccine.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Mark A; Rosen, Elliot D; Wolter, William R; Sailes, Valerie; Jeffrey, Randy; Tenniswood, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Vaccination, as an approach to prostate cancer, has largely focused on immunotherapy utilizing specific molecules or allogeneic cells. Such methods are limited by the focused antigenic menu presented to the immune system and by immunotolerance to antigens recognized as "self". To examine if a xenogeneic tissue vaccine could stimulate protective immunity in a human prostate cancer cell line, a vaccine was produced by glutaraldehyde fixation of harvested PAIII prostate cancer cells tumors (GFT cell vaccine) from Lobund-Wistar rats. Immunocompetent Ncr-Foxn1 mice were vaccinated with the GFT cell vaccine four times, 7 days apart. The control animals were either not vaccinated or vaccinated with media or glutaraldehyde-fixed PC346C human prostate cancer cells and adjuvant. About 8 days after the final boost, serum and spleens were harvested. The splenocytes were co-incubated with PC346C cells and then transplanted orthotopically into sygneneic immunodeficient nude mice. About 10 weeks later, the prostates were weighed and sampled for histolologic examination. The spleens were harvested from additional mice, and the splenocytes were cultured, either with or without pulsing by GFT cells, and the supernatants harvested 72 h later for cytokine analysis. Results showed that vaccination with GFT cells resulted in increased serum antibody to a PAIII cell lysate; reduced weight of the prostate/seminal vesicle complex and reduced incidence of prostate cancer in nude mice; increased splenocyte supernatant levels of TNF-alpha, IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-12, cytokines associated with Th1 immunity; and increased splenocyte supernatant levels of IL-4 and IL-10, cytokines associated with Th2 immunity. In summary, the results suggest that use of a xenogeneic tissue vaccine can stimulate protective immunity against human prostate cancer cells.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance in cancer, XII: Application of NMR malignancy index to human lung tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, M.; Koutcher, J. A.; Damadian, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty specimens of human lung tissue from 52 individuals were inspected at 22.5 MHz by proton magnetic resonance techniques. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic capabilities of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique for the diagnosis of malignancy. The combination of two NMR parameters (spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation times) into a malignancy index yielded 3 cases of overlap between the two populations of tissue. The mean and standard deviations obtained were 1.966 +/- 0.262 for normal tissue, and 2.925 +/- 0.864 for malignant specimens. In addition, analysis of the electrolyte and water content of the tissues confirm that factors other than specimen water content influence the relaxation time. PMID:911662

  13. Activation of Polymine Catabolism as a Novel Strategy for Treating and/or Preventing Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    based SSAT therapy of human prostate tumor xenografts to test therapeutic generality and (c) cross-breeding SSAT over-expressing transgenic mice (12...site (IRES) for GFP. Thus, both SSAT and GFP were under the control of a CMV promoter for maximum expression. The virus was prepared in human 293...D. Prostatic polyamines and polyamine targeting as a new approach to therapy of prostatic cancer. Cancer Surveys, 11: 217-238, 1991. 3. Porter, C

  14. DNA ploidy and proliferation heterogeneity in human prostate cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Shankey, T.V.; Graham, S. |; Dougherty, S.

    1995-09-01

    DNA ploidy determinations have been shown to have clinical application in predicting disease progression, survival, or response to anti-androgen therapies in prostate carcinomas. Since intra-tumor heterogeneity may have a profound effect on DNA measurements, we determined the frequency of DNA ploidy and proliferation (here S-phase fraction) heterogeneity in early prostatic carcinomas, and estimated the potential impact of heterogeneity on predicting disease course, survival, or response to therapy. Using image and flow cytometric analysis of archival, paraffin-embedded prostate tumors, we measured DNA ploidy in individual foci of prostatic carcinoma in stage T1a, T1b and T1c disease. Our results indicate that DNA aneuploid foci of prostate carcinoma are infrequently seen in stage T1a disease (13% of the individuals studied), and that the presence of both DNA diploid and aneuploid foci in the same sample is seen in less than 10% of these individuals. Stage T1b and T1c tumors containing only DNA diploid nuclei are seen, though these are likely most common in low volume, low Gleason grade tumors. By using flow cytometry to compare these results with those using image analysis of the same tumor foci, we demonstrated that the majority (>75%) of these aneuploid tumors are DNA tetraploid. Our data on prostate tumor S-phase fractions indicate that DNA diploid tumors generally have a lower S-phase than DNA aneuploid foci (including comparisons of DNA diploid and aneuploid foci in the same prostate tumor). These results support the model that early prostate tumors are DNA diploid and have a low S-phase, and that these tumors likely evolve to DNA tetraploid tumors with a similar low S-phase fraction. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism reverts docetaxel resistance in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kroon, Jan; Puhr, Martin; Buijs, Jeroen T; van der Horst, Geertje; Hemmer, Daniëlle M; Marijt, Koen A; Hwang, Ming S; Masood, Motasim; Grimm, Stefan; Storm, Gert; Metselaar, Josbert M; Meijer, Onno C; Culig, Zoran; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to docetaxel is a major clinical problem in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used in combination with docetaxel, it is unclear to what extent GCs and their receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), contribute to the chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we aim to elucidate the role of the GR in docetaxel-resistant PCa in order to improve the current PCa therapies. GR expression was analyzed in a tissue microarray of primary PCa specimens from chemonaive and docetaxel-treated patients, and in cultured PCa cell lines with an acquired docetaxel resistance (PC3-DR, DU145-DR, and 22Rv1-DR). We found a robust overexpression of the GR in primary PCa from docetaxel-treated patients and enhanced GR levels in cultured docetaxel-resistant human PCa cells, indicating a key role of the GR in docetaxel resistance. The capability of the GR antagonists (RU-486 and cyproterone acetate) to revert docetaxel resistance was investigated and revealed significant resensitization of docetaxel-resistant PCa cells for docetaxel treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in which a complete restoration of docetaxel sensitivity was achieved in both androgen receptor (AR)-negative and AR-positive cell lines. Mechanistically, we demonstrated down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 upon GR antagonism, thereby defining potential treatment targets. In conclusion, we describe the involvement of the GR in the acquisition of docetaxel resistance in human PCa. Therapeutic targeting of the GR effectively resensitizes docetaxel-resistant PCa cells. These findings warrant further investigation of the clinical utility of the GR antagonists in the management of patients with advanced and docetaxel-resistant PCa.

  16. Aberrant presentation of HPA-reactive carbohydrates implies Selectin-independent metastasis formation in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lange, Tobias; Kupfernagel, Mareike; Wicklein, Daniel; Gebauer, Florian; Maar, Hanna; Brügge, Kathrin; Müller, Imke; Simon, Ronald; Schlomm, Thorsten; Sauter, Guido; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of prostate cancer cell surface glycosylation as part of the tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction in prostate cancer metastasis. Glycosyltransferase expression was profiled in metastasis-derived prostate cancer cell lines and compared with primary epithelium. Prostate cancer cells were examined for HPA- and selectin-binding and adhesion to endothelium. Spontaneous metastasis xenograft models were established to test the lectin HPA-binding sites as a marker of metastatic competence and to evaluate E-selectin-binding sites in vivo. The importance of selectins for metastasis formation was analyzed using Sele(-/-)/Selp(-/-) mice. The clinical relevance of HPA- and E-selectin-binding sites in prostate cancer was determined. Glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of common HPA-binding sites are downregulated in prostate cancer cells. An absence of HPA-reactive carbohydrates specifically indicates spontaneous metastatic spread of prostate cancer xenografts in vivo and a poor prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. HPA-binding sites decrease in lymph node metastases compared with corresponding primary tumors. Common selectin ligands are absent on prostate cancer cells, which do not adhere to recombinant selectins or endothelium under shear stress in vitro. Spontaneous metastasis formation is largely independent of selectins in vivo. E-selectin-binding sites are detectable in only 2% of patients with prostate cancer without prognostic significance. Prostate cancer is characterized by an inverse functional and prognostic importance of HPA-binding sites compared with other adenocarcinomas. Accordingly, this study surprisingly shows that the selectin-selectin ligand axis, which is essential for extravasation and thus metastasis formation in several malignancies, can be circumvented in prostate cancer. ©2014 AACR.

  17. Percentage of Biopsy Cores Positive for Malignancy and Biochemical Failure Following Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in 3,264 Men: Statistical Significance Without Predictive Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Scott G. Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Martinez, Alvaro; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To define and incorporate the impact of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) into a predictive model of prostate cancer radiotherapy biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: The data of 3264 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Standard prognostic and treatment factors plus the number of biopsy cores collected and the number positive for malignancy by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were available. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (bF, Phoenix definition). Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed and expressed as a nomogram and the model's predictive ability assessed using the concordance index (c-index). Results: The cohort consisted of 21% low-, 51% intermediate-, and 28% high-risk cancer patients, and 30% had androgen deprivation with radiotherapy. The median PPC was 50% (interquartile range [IQR] 29-67%), and median follow-up was 51 months (IQR 29-71 months). Percentage of positive biopsy cores displayed an independent association with the risk of bF (p = 0.01), as did age, prostate-specific antigen value, Gleason score, clinical stage, androgen deprivation duration, and radiotherapy dose (p < 0.001 for all). Including PPC increased the c-index from 0.72 to 0.73 in the overall model. The influence of PPC varied significantly with radiotherapy dose and clinical stage (p = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses <66 Gy and palpable tumors showing the strongest relationship between PPC and bF. Intermediate-risk patients were poorly discriminated regardless of PPC inclusion (c-index 0.65 for both models). Conclusions: Outcome models incorporating PPC show only minor additional ability to predict biochemical failure beyond those containing standard prognostic factors.

  18. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSM) is expressed in various human tissues: implication for the use of PSM reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect hematogenous prostate cancer spread.

    PubMed

    Renneberg, H; Friedetzky, A; Konrad, L; Kurek, R; Weingärtner, K; Wennemuth, G; Tunn, U W; Aumüller, G

    1999-01-01

    Detection of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSM)-mRNA expression in blood samples using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is discussed as a new diagnostic marker of circulating micrometastases in prostate cancer patients. We applied the RT-PCR technique to different human tissues and obtained positive signals for PSM transcripts in human genital and multiple extra-genital tissue sites. The cDNAs were prepared from different human tissues and prostatic cell lines. RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR for PSM was performed with primers derived from the published PSM cDNA. The RT-PCR fragments obtained were cloned and showed 100% sequence homology to PSM. Southern blot hybridization with labeled probes was used to confirm the specificity of the amplicons. In addition to the known PSM expression in the human brain, PSM-mRNA was detected in cDNA isolated from human testis, epididymis and seminal vesicles and in the PC-3 prostatic cancer cell line. Furthermore, we found PSM-mRNA in heart, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and thyroid gland. The results indicate that PSM expression is not restricted to the prostate gland, but represents a more general component of genital and extra-genital human tissues. This must be considered when RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR screening for PSM expression is performed as a diagnostic measure in blood from prostate cancer patients.

  19. Dual-modality probe intended for prostate cancer detection combining Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance technology--discrimination of normal human prostate tissues ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, M; Jalkanen, V; Ramser, K; Ljungberg, B; Bergh, A; Lindahl, O A

    2015-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer for men in the western world. For the first time, a dual-modality probe, combining Raman spectroscopy and tactile resonance technology, has been used for assessment of fresh human prostate tissue. The study investigates the potential of the dual-modality probe by testing its ability to differentiate prostate tissue types ex vivo. Measurements on four prostates show that the tactile resonance modality was able to discriminate soft epithelial tissue and stiff stroma (p < 0.05). The Raman spectra exhibited a strong fluorescent background at the current experimental settings. However, stroma could be discerned from epithelia by integrating the value of the spectral background. Combining both parameters by a stepwise analysis resulted in 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Although no cancer tissue was analysed, the results are promising for further development of the instrument and method for discriminating prostate tissues and cancer.

  20. Light penetration in the human prostate: a whole prostate clinical study at 763 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Caroline M.; Mosse, C. Alexander; Allen, Clare; Payne, Heather; Emberton, Mark; Bown, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is being investigated as a treatment for localized prostate cancer. Photodynamic therapy uses a photosensitizing drug which is activated by a specific wavelength of light, in the presence of oxygen. The activated drug reacts with tissue oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species which are responsible for localized tissue necrosis. One of the determinants of the PDT effect is the penetration of light in the prostate. This study assesses the penetration depth of 763 nm light throughout the prostate. Eight men undergoing multiple hollow needle insertion for high dose rate brachytherapy were recruited. 763 nm light, produced by a diode laser, was delivered to the prostate using cylindrically diffusing optical fibers within the plastic needles. Light was detected at different distances from the source, using an isotropic detector within nearby needles. Penetration depth was calculated using the Boltzmann approximation to the diffusion equation. Delivery detector fiber separation was measured on computed tomography. The mean penetration depth was 0.57 cm, but there was within patient variation of a mean factor of 4.3. Further work is ongoing to assess the effect of such variability in light penetration, on the PDT effect.

  1. CDK4 coexpression with Ras generates malignant human epidermal tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Mirella; Kubo, Yoshiaki; Cai, Ti; Dajee, Maya; Tarutani, Masahito; Lin, Qun; Fang, Min; Tao, Shiying; Green, Cheryl L; Khavari, Paul A

    2002-10-01

    Ras acts with other proteins to induce neoplasia. By itself, however, strong Ras signaling can suppress proliferation of normal cells. In primary epidermal cells, we found that oncogenic Ras transiently decreases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 expression in association with cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. CDK4 co-expression circumvents Ras growth suppression and induces invasive human neoplasia resembling squamous cell carcinoma. Tumorigenesis is dependent on CDK4 kinase function, with cyclin D1 required but not sufficient for this process. In facilitating escape from G1 growth restraints, Ras and CDK4 alter the composition of cyclin D and cyclin E complexes and promote resistance to growth inhibition by INK4 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. These data identify a new role for oncogenic Ras in CDK4 regulation and highlight the functional importance of CDK4 suppression in preventing uncontrolled growth.

  2. Confocal reflectance imaging of excised malignant human bladder biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri I.; Kastein, Albrecht; Koenig, Frank; Sachs, Markus; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate the potential of reflectance confocal scanning laser microscopy (CM) for rapid imaging of non-processed freshly excised human bladder biopsies and cystectomy specimens. Freshly excised bladder tumors from three cystectomy specimens and random biopsies from twenty patients with a history of superficial bladder tumors were imaged with CM. Additional acetic acid washing prior to CM imaging was performed in some of the samples. Confocal images were compared to corresponding routine histologic sections. CM allows imaging of unprocessed bladder tissue at a subcellular resolution. Urothelial cell layers, collagen, vessels and muscle fibers can be rapidly visualized, in native state. In this regard, umbrella cells, basement membrane elucidated. Besides obvious limitations partly due to non-use of exogenous dyes, CM imaging offers several advantages: rapid imaging of the tissue in its native state like the basement membrane, normally seen only by using immunohistopathology. Reflectance CM opens a new avenue for imaging bladder cancer.

  3. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of human prostates: initial in vivo demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Liang; Polascik, Thomas J; Foo, Wen-Chi; Rosenzweig, Stephen; Palmeri, Mark L; Madden, John; Nightingale, Kathryn R

    2012-01-01

    Reliably detecting prostate cancer (PCa) has been a challenge for current imaging modalities. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging is an elasticity imaging method that uses remotely generated, focused acoustic beams to probe tissue stiffness. A previous study on excised human prostates demonstrated ARFI images portray various prostatic structures and has the potential to guide prostate needle biopsy with improved sampling accuracy. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of ARFI imaging to portray internal structures and PCa in the human prostate in vivo. Custom ARFI imaging sequences were designed and implemented using a modified Siemens Antares™ scanner with a three-dimensional (3-D) wobbler, end-firing, trans-cavity transducer, EV9F4. Nineteen patients were consented and imaged immediately preceding surgical prostatectomy. Pathologies and anatomic structures were identified in histologic slides by a pathologist blinded to ARFI data and were then registered with structures found in ARFI images. The results demonstrated that when PCa is visible, it generally appears as bilaterally asymmetric stiff structures; benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) appears heterogeneous with a nodular texture; the verumontanum and ejaculatory ducts appears softer compared with surrounding tissue, which form a unique 'V' shape; and the boundary of the transitional zone (TZ) forms a stiff rim separating the TZ from the peripheral zone (PZ). These characteristic appearances of prostatic structures are consistent with those found in our previous study of prostate ARFI imaging on excised human prostates. Compared with the matched B-mode images, ARFI images, in general, portray prostate structures with higher contrast. With the end-firing transducer used for this study, ARFI depth penetration was limited to 22 mm. Image contrast and resolution were decreased as compared with the previous ex vivo study due to the small transducer aperture. Even with these

  4. p120 GAP requirement in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the p120 GAP (GAP), originally described as an inhibitor of p21ras, may also serve as a downstream effector of ras-regulated signal transduction. To determine whether GAP expression is required for the growth of human normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells, we used GAP antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to inhibit it and analyzed the effects of this inhibition on the colony- forming ability of nonadherent, T lymphocyte-depleted mononuclear cells and of highly purified progenitors (CD34+ MNC) obtained from the bone marrow and peripheral blood of healthy volunteers or chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, bcr-abl-positive) patients. The acute myelogenous leukemia cell line MO7, the Philadelphia BV173 cell line, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 and HL-60 cell lines were similarly examined. GAP antisense treatment inhibited colony formation from normal myelo-, erythro-, and megakaryopoietic progenitor cells as well as from CML progenitor cells. Proliferation of MO7 (growth factor- dependent) and BV173 (bcr-abl-dependent) cells, but not that of NB4 and HL-60 (growth factor-independent) cells, was also inhibited, even though a specific downregulation of GAP was observed in each cell line, as analyzed by either or both mRNA and protein expression. Stimulation of MO7 cells with hematopoietic growth factors increased the expression of GAP as well as the levels of active GTP-bound p21ras. Stimulation of GAP expression was inhibited upon GAP antisense treatment. These data indicate that p120 GAP is involved in human normal and leukemic hemopoiesis and strongly suggest that GAP is not only a p21ras inhibitor (signal terminator), but also a positive signal transducer. PMID:8245773

  5. Role of RUNX3 in suppressing metastasis and angiogenesis of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feifei; Wang, Meng; Bai, Jin; Liu, Qinghua; Xi, Yaguang; Li, Wang; Zheng, Junnian

    2014-01-01

    RUNX3 (runt-related transcription factor-3) has been reported to suppress tumor tumorigenesis and metastasis in different human cancers. In this study, we used tissue microarray (TMA) to determine the significance of RUNX3 in prostate cancer progession. Our results showed ectopic expression of RUNX3 in prostate cancer tissues when compared with tumor adjacent normal prostate tissues, and reduced RUNX3 staining was significantly correlated with TNM stage. Moreover, we demonstrated that RUNX3 overexpression inhibited prostate cancer cell migration and invasion resulting from the elevated upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), which subsequently inhibited metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and activity in vitro. Knock down of RUNX3 expression broke up the balance of TIMP-2/MMP-2, whereas silence of TIMP-2 resulted in the inhibition of MMP-2 expression in prostate cells. We also showed that restoration of RUNX3 decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion and suppressed endothelial cell growth and tube formation. Strikingly, RUNX3 was demonstrated to inhibit tumor metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Altogether, our results support the tumor suppressive role of RUNX3 in human prostate cancer, and provide insights into development of targeted therapy for this disease.

  6. Preliminary report on the correlations among pineal concretions, prostatic calculi and age in human adult males.

    PubMed

    Mori, Ryoichi; Kodaka, Tetsuo; Sano, Tsuneyoshi

    2003-09-01

    By using quantitative image analysis of soft X-ray photographs on the bulk of extracted pineal glands and prostates, we made a preliminary investigation into the correlations among pineal concretions (% by mass), prostatic calculi (% by mass) and age (years) in 40 human adult males, ranging in age from 31 to 95 years (mean (+/-SD) 69.9 +/- 15.2 years), who died and underwent the routine dissection course. The mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi were 17.68 +/- 13.56% (range 0-51.34%) and 0.93 +/- 1.31% (range 0-5.82%), respectively. There was no correlation between the mass concentration of pineal concretions and aging (r = 0.03; P < 1.0). There was no correlation between mass concentration of prostatic calculi and aging (r = 0.28; P < 0.5). No pineal concretions and no prostatic calculi were observed in seven and 10 cases, respectively; in addition, in one case, neither-concretions nor calculi were seen. From such data and from the previously reported suggestion on the counteracting functions between the pineal gland and prostate, a negative correlation between the mass concentrations of pineal concretions and prostatic calculi was expected. This was certainly obtained, but the correlation was low (r = -0.39; P < 0.05). Such a low correlation and no correlations between the concentrations of pineal concretions and aging or between prostatic calculi and aging may have been caused by the examination of relatively older humans. Therefore, further investigations using a number of pair samples collected from males including younger age generations will be necessary.

  7. Analysis of XMRV integration sites from human prostate cancer tissues suggests PCR contamination rather than genuine human infection.

    PubMed

    Garson, Jeremy A; Kellam, Paul; Towers, Greg J

    2011-02-25

    XMRV is a gammaretrovirus associated in some studies with human prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Central to the hypothesis of XMRV as a human pathogen is the description of integration sites in DNA from prostate tumour tissues. Here we demonstrate that 2 of 14 patient-derived sites are identical to sites cloned in the same laboratory from experimentally infected DU145 cells. Identical integration sites have never previously been described in any retrovirus infection. We propose that the patient-derived sites are the result of PCR contamination. This observation further undermines the notion that XMRV is a genuine human pathogen.

  8. Proteomics analysis of malignant and benign prostate tissue by 2D DIGE/MS reveals new insights into proteins involved in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Davalieva, Katarina; Kostovska, Ivana Maleva; Kiprijanovska, Sanja; Markoska, Katerina; Kubelka-Sabit, Katerina; Filipovski, Vanja; Stavridis, Sotir; Stankov, Oliver; Komina, Selim; Petrusevska, Gordana; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-10-01

    The key to a more effective diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic management of prostate cancer (PCa) could lie in the direct analysis of cancer tissue. In this study, by comparative proteomics analysis of PCa and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues we attempted to elucidate the proteins and regulatory pathways involved in this disease. The samples used in this study were fresh surgical tissues with clinically and histologically confirmed PCa (n = 19) and BPH (n = 33). We used two dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) and bioinformatics analysis. Thirty-nine spots with statistically significant 1.8-fold variation or more in abundance, corresponding to 28 proteins were identified. The IPA analysis pointed out to 3 possible networks regulated within MAPK, ERK, TGFB1, and ubiquitin pathways. Thirteen of the identified proteins, namely, constituents of the intermediate filaments (KRT8, KRT18, DES), potential tumor suppressors (ARHGAP1, AZGP1, GSTM2, and MFAP4), transport and membrane organization proteins (FABP5, GC, and EHD2), chaperons (FKBP4 and HSPD1) and known cancer marker (NME1) have been associated with prostate and other cancers by numerous proteomics, genomics or functional studies. We evidenced for the first time the dysregulation of 9 proteins (CSNK1A1, ARID5B, LYPLA1, PSMB6, RABEP1, TALDO1, UBE2N, PPP1CB, and SERPINB1) that may have role in PCa. The UBE2N, PSMB6, and PPP1CB, involved in cell cycle regulation and progression were evaluated by Western blot analysis which confirmed significantly higher abundances of UBE2N and PSMB6 and significantly lower abundance of PPP1CB in PCa. In addition to the identification of substantial number of proteins with known association with PCa, the proteomic approach in this study revealed proteins not previously clearly related to PCa, providing a starting point for further elucidation of their function in disease initiation and progression. © 2015 Wiley

  9. O6.09PROSTAGLANDIN E RECEPTOR-4 ACTIVATION REGULATES TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM IN HUMAN MALIGNANT GLIOMAS

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, K.; Ott, M.; Rauschenbach, K.J.; Sahm, F.; Opitz, C.A.; von Deimling, A.; Wick, W.; Platten, M.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment as well as systemic immunosuppression. Tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO)-mediated tryptophan metabolism and the production of immunosuppressive prostaglandins relevantly contribute to this inhibition of anti-glioma immune responses. We now connect these two critical immunosuppressive pathways by demonstrating that prostaglandins enhance TDO expression and enzymatic activity in malignant gliomas via activation of prostaglandin E receptor-4 (EP4). Stimulation with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration-dependently upregulates TDO-mediated kynurenine release in human glioma cell lines, while knockdown of the PGE2 receptor EP4 inhibits TDO expression and activity. In tissue of human malignant gliomas expression of the PGE2-producing enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its receptor EP4 are associated with TDO expression both on transcript and protein level. Of clinical relevance, high expression of EP4 correlates with poor survival in patients with gliomas of the WHO grades III and IV. Importantly, treatment of glioma cells with an EP4 inhibitor decreased TDO expression and activity. In summary targeting EP4 may inhibit both immunosuppressive COX-2 signaling as well as tryptophan degradation and thus could provide a novel immunotherapeutic avenue for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  10. Mitogenic activation of human prostate-derived fibromuscular stromal cells by bradykinin

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Paul D; Lefkowitz, Gary K; Ittmann, Michael; Lepor, Herbert; Monaco, Marie E

    1999-01-01

    Biologically active kinin peptides are released from precursor kininogens by kallikreins. Kinins act on kinin receptors to mediate diverse biological functions including smooth muscle contraction, inflammation, pain and mitogenicity. All components of the kallikrein-kinin system exist in human male genital secretions suggesting that these molecules participate in physiological and pathophysiological genitourinary function. The objective of this study was to assess the consequences of kinin action on prostate cells.Primary cultures of prostate secretory epithelial (PE) and prostate fibromuscular stromal (PS) cells were established from human prostate tissue. Transcripts encoding both the human B1 and B2 bradykinin receptor subtypes were detected in human prostate transition-zone tissue and in cultured cells by RT–PCR. In receptor binding assays, the B1 subtype predominated on PE cell membranes and the B2 subtype predominated on PS cell membranes. In PS cells, but not in PE cells, BK induced significant inositol phosphate accumulation and [3H]-thymidine uptake. These responses were mediated through the B2 receptor subtype.The use of signal transduction inhibitors indicated that mitogenic activation by BK occurred through both protein kinase C (PKC) and protein tyrosine kinase dependent mechanisms. PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) produced maximal [3H]-thymidine uptake by PS cells, resulted in cell elongation and caused the α-actin fibres present in PS smooth muscle cells to became organized into parallel arrays along the length of the elongated cells.In summary, the prostate contains a functional kallikrein-kinin system, which could be significant in physiological and pathophysiological prostate function. PMID:10369476

  11. The Rate of Secondary Malignancies After Radical Prostatectomy Versus External Beam Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Population-Based Study on 17,845 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bhojani, Naeem; Capitanio, Umberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Graefen, Markus; Arjane, Philippe; Duclos, Alain; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Saad, Fred; Valiquette, Luc; Montorsi, Francesco; Perrotte, Paul; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) may predispose to secondary malignancies that include bladder cancer (BCa), rectal cancer (RCa), and lung cancer (LCa). We tested this hypothesis in a large French Canadian population-based cohort of prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Overall, 8,455 radical prostatectomy (RP) and 9,390 EBRT patients treated between 1983 and 2003 were assessed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Three endpoints were examined: (1) diagnosis of secondary BCa, (2) LCa, or (3) RCa. Covariates included age, Charlson comorbidity index, and year of treatment. Results: In multivariable analyses that relied on incident cases diagnosed 60 months or later after RP or EBRT, the rates of BCa (hazard ratio [HR], 1.4; p = 0.02), LCa (HR, 2.0; p = 0.004), and RCa (HR 2.1; p <0.001) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. When incident cases diagnosed 120 months or later after RP or EBRT were considered, only the rates of RCa (hazard ratio 2.2; p = 0.003) were significantly higher in the EBRT group. In both analyses, the absolute differences in incident rates ranged from 0.7 to 5.2% and the number needed to harm (where harm equaled secondary malignancies) ranged from 111 to 19, if EBRT was used instead of RP. Conclusions: EBRT may predispose to clinically meaningfully higher rates of secondary BCa, LCa and RCa. These rates should be included in informed consent consideration.

  12. Connexin expression in nonneoplastic human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Saladino, Francesca; Carruba, Giuseppe; Quader, Salmaan T A; Amoroso, Maria; Di Cristina, Antoniette; Webber, Mukta M; Castagnetta, Luigi A M

    2002-06-01

    Expression of gap-junction proteins connexins (Cx), specifically Cx43, Cx32, and Cx26, in both nontumorigenic (RWPE-1) and tumorigenic (RWPE-2) human prostate epithelial cells as well as in two cell clones (WPEI-7 and WPEI-10) originating from the RWPE-1 cell line was investigated. The aim was to determine whether individual connexins are differentially expressed in cultured cells. Western blot analysis revealed striking differences in the expression of individual connexins in the cell lines studied. In particular, Cx43 is largely expressed in RWPE-1 and WPEI-10 cells, whereas Cx32 is expressed predominantly in RWPE-2 and WPEI-7 cells. In addition, both forskolin and estrone increase Cx43 expression levels in WPEI-10 cells, with no apparent effect on WPEI-7 cells. Conversely, forskolin and especially estrone induce a marked increase of Cx32 in WPEI-7 cells, whereas Cx32 expression is limitedly affected by both agents in WPEI-10 cells. Overall, expression levels of Cx43 and Cx32 appear to be inversely related, with RWPE-1 and WPEI-10 cells having a significantly higher Cx43 to Cx32 ratio than that observed in RWPE-2 and WPEI-7 cells. We recently reported that junctional communication could be rescued in RWPE-1 cells by either forskolin or estrone and that restoration of GJIC is associated with an increase of Cx43 or a decrease of Cx32, or both, eventually leading to a marked rise of the Cx43 to Cx32 ratio. Studies are currently ongoing in our laboratories to assess the potential effect of agents increasing the Cx43 to Cx32 ratio on GJIC activity in these systems.

  13. Zinc and zinc transporters in prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kolenko, Vladimir; Teper, Ervin; Kutikov, Alexander; Uzzo, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The healthy human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body. This unique property is retained in BPH, but is lost in prostatic malignancy, which implicates changes in zinc and its transporters in carcinogenesis. Indeed, zinc concentrations diminish early in the course of prostate carcinogenesis, preceding histopathological changes, and continue to decline during progression toward castration-resistant disease. Numerous studies suggest that increased zinc intake might protect against progression of prostatic malignancy. Despite increased dietary intake, zinc accumulation might be limited by the diminished expression of zinc uptake transporters, resulting in decreased intratumoural zinc levels. This finding can explain the conflicting results of various epidemiological studies evaluating the role of zinc supplementation on primary and secondary prostate cancer prevention. Overall, more research into the mechanisms of zinc homeostasis are needed to fully understand its impact on prostate carcinogenesis. Only then can the potential of zinc and zinc transport proteins be harnessed in the diagnosis and treatment of men with prostate cancer. PMID:23478540

  14. Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kyprianou, N; Benning, C M

    2000-08-15

    Recent evidence from our laboratory has demonstrated that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin induced apoptosis in prostate epithelial and smooth muscle cells in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; J. Urol., 159: 1810-1815, 1998; J. Urol., 161: 2002-2007, 1999). In this study, we investigated the biological action of three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin, against prostate cancer cell growth. The antigrowth effect of the three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists was examined in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a prostate smooth muscle cell primary culture, SMC-1, on the basis of: (a) cell viability assay; (b) rate of DNA synthesis; and (c) induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that treatment of prostate cancer cells with doxazosin or terazosin results in a significant loss of cell viability, via induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tamsulosin had no effect on prostate cell growth. Neither doxazosin nor terazosin exerted a significant effect on the rate of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Exposure to phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible inhibitor of alpha1-adrenoceptors, does not abrogate the apoptotic effect of doxazosin or terazosin against human prostate cancer or smooth muscle cells. This suggests that the apoptotic activity of doxazosin and terazosin against prostate cells is independent of their capacity to antagonize alpha1-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy trial demonstrated that doxazosin administration (at tolerated pharmacologically relevant doses) in SCID mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. These findings demonstrate the ability of doxazosin and terazosin (but not tamsulosin) to suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation. This evidence provides the rationale for targeting both

  15. Breaking through a roadblock in prostate cancer research: an update on human model systems.

    PubMed

    Toivanen, R; Taylor, R A; Pook, D W; Ellem, S J; Risbridger, G P

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent disease that affects the aging male population. Whilst there have been significant advances of our biological understanding of the disease, clinical translation of promising agents continues to lag behind. In part, this is due to a paucity of relevant experimental and pre-clinical models required to further develop effective prevention and therapeutic strategies. Genetically modified cell lines fail to entirely represent the genetic and molecular diversity of primary human specimens, particularly from localised disease. Furthermore, primary prostate cancer tissues are extremely difficult to grow in the laboratory and virtually all human models, whether they grow as xenografts in immune-deficient animals or as cell cultures, are genetically modified by the investigator or derived from patients with advanced metastatic disease. In this review, we discuss the latest advances and improvements to current methods of xenografting human primary prostate cancer, and their potential application to translational research.

  16. Intraoperative radiotherapy in gynaecological and genito-urinary malignancies: focus on endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Krengli, Marco; Pisani, Carla; Deantonio, Letizia; Surico, Daniela; Volpe, Alessandro; Surico, Nicola; Terrone, Carlo

    2017-01-19

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) refers to the delivery of a single radiation dose to a limited volume of tissue during a surgical procedure. A literature review was performed to analyze the role of IORT in gynaecological and genito-urinary cancer including endometrial, cervical, renal, bladder and prostate cancers.Literature search was performed by Pubmed and Scopus, using the words "intraoperative radiotherapy/IORT", "gynaecological cancer", "uterine/endometrial cancer", "cervical/cervix cancer", "renal/kidney cancer", "bladder cancer" and "prostate cancer". Forty-seven articles were selected from the search databases, analyzed and briefly described.Literature data show that IORT has been used to optimize local control rate in genito-urinary tumours mainly in retrospective studies. The results suggest that IORT could be advantageous in the setting of locally advanced and recurrent disease although further prospective trials are needed to confirm this findings.

  17. Human rgr: transforming activity and alteration in T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Peter; Kassin, Ezra; Hernandez-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Diaz, Roberto; Inghirami, Giorgio; Pellicer, Angel

    2002-08-01

    We have previously identified the oncogene rgr (ralGDS related) in DNA derived from a rabbit squamous cell carcinoma. Here we describe the identification of the human orthologue of the rabbit rgr gene termed hrgr (human ralGDS related). Four alternatively spliced full-length hrgr transcripts were isolated from normal human testes and liver libraries. Truncation of hrgr confers transforming ability to its cDNA. Using a RT-PCR assay we have been able to detect the expression of an abnormally truncated transcript in several human T-cell lymphoma lines, and in fresh tissue samples of patients with T-cell malignancies. In the DHL cell line, an Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) line, a DNA rearrangement was detected within the hrgr gene region. We propose that these T-cell lymphomas, at least in part, owe their malignant phenotypes to genetic alterations of the hrgr gene. These findings also raise the possibility that mutations in the hrgr gene are involved in other malignancies.

  18. Nanomelatonin triggers superior anticancer functionality in a human malignant glioblastoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Dev, Atul; Kaundal, Babita; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Karmakar, Surajit

    2017-09-01

    Melatonin (MEL) has promising medicinal value as an anticancer agent in a variety of malignancies, but there are difficulties in achieving a therapeutic dose due to its short half-life, low bioavailability, poor solubility and extensive first-pass metabolism. In this study chitosan/tripolyphosphate (TPP) nanoparticles were prepared by an ionic gelation method to overcome the therapeutic challenges of melatonin and to improve its anticancer efficacy. Characterization of the melatonin-loaded chitosan (MEL-CS) nanoformulation was performed using transmission and scanning electron microscopies, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. In vitro release, cellular uptake and efficacy studies were tested for their enhanced anticancer potential in human U87MG glioblastoma cells. Confocal studies revealed higher cellular uptake of MEL-CS nanoparticles and enhanced anticancer efficacy in human malignant glioblastoma cancer cells than in healthy non-malignant human HEK293T cells in mono- and co-culture models. Our study has shown for the first time that MEL-CS nanocomposites are therapeutically more effective as compared to free MEL at inducing functional anticancer efficacy in the human brain tumour U87MG cell line.

  19. NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5)-induced reactive oxygen signaling modulates normoxic HIF-1α and p27(Kip1) expression in malignant melanoma and other human tumors.

    PubMed

    Antony, Smitha; Jiang, Guojian; Wu, Yongzhong; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Makhlouf, Hala R; Haines, Diana C; Butcher, Donna; Hoon, Dave S; Ji, Jiuping; Zhang, Yiping; Juhasz, Agnes; Lu, Jiamo; Liu, Han; Dahan, Iris; Konate, Mariam; Roy, Krishnendu K; Doroshow, James H

    2017-08-01

    NADPH oxidase 5 (NOX5) generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in signaling cascades that regulate cancer cell proliferation. To evaluate and validate NOX5 expression in human tumors, we screened a broad range of tissue microarrays (TMAs), and report substantial overexpression of NOX5 in malignant melanoma and cancers of the prostate, breast, and ovary. In human UACC-257 melanoma cells that possesses high levels of functional endogenous NOX5, overexpression of NOX5 resulted in enhanced cell growth, increased numbers of BrdU positive cells, and increased γ-H2AX levels. Additionally, NOX5-overexpressing (stable and inducible) UACC-257 cells demonstrated increased normoxic HIF-1α expression and decreased p27(Kip1) expression. Similarly, increased normoxic HIF-1α expression and decreased p27(Kip1) expression were observed in stable NOX5-overexpressing clones of KARPAS 299 human lymphoma cells and in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased cell growth, decreased HIF-1α expression, and increased p27(Kip1) expression. Likewise, in an additional human melanoma cell line, WM852, and in PC-3 cells, transient knockdown of endogenous NOX5 resulted in increased p27(Kip1) and decreased HIF-1α expression. Knockdown of endogenous NOX5 in UACC-257 cells resulted in decreased Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation, signaling pathways known to modulate p27(Kip1) levels. In summary, our findings suggest that NOX5 expression in human UACC-257 melanoma cells could contribute to cell proliferation due, in part, to the generation of high local concentrations of extracellular ROS that modulate multiple pathways that regulate HIF-1α and networks that signal through Akt/GSK3β/p27(Kip1) . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. From The Cover: Reconstruction of functionally normal and malignant human breast tissues in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperwasser, Charlotte; Chavarria, Tony; Wu, Min; Magrane, Greg; Gray, Joe W.; Carey, Loucinda; Richardson, Andrea; Weinberg, Robert A.

    2004-04-01

    The study of normal breast epithelial morphogenesis and carcinogenesis in vivo has largely used rodent models. Efforts at studying mammary morphogenesis and cancer with xenotransplanted human epithelial cells have failed to recapitulate the full extent of development seen in the human breast. We have developed an orthotopic xenograft model in which both the stromal and epithelial components of the reconstructed mammary gland are of human origin. Genetic modification of human stromal cells before the implantation of ostensibly normal human mammary epithelial cells resulted in the outgrowth of benign and malignant lesions. This experimental model allows for studies of human epithelial morphogenesis and differentiation in vivo and underscores the critical role of heterotypic interactions in human breast development and carcinogenesis.

  1. Signal transduction of receptor-mediated antiproliferative action of melatonin on human prostate epithelial cells involves dual activation of Gα(s) and Gα(q) proteins.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Stephen Y W; Pang, Bo; Tam, Chun W; Yao, Kwok-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Melatonin has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of malignant and transformed human prostate epithelial cells by transcriptional up-regulation of p27(Kip1) expression via MTNR1A receptor-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) in parallel. Given that melatonin MTNR1A receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor, this study was conducted to identify the specific G proteins that mediate the antiproliferative action of melatonin on human prostate epithelial cells. In 22Rv1 and RWPE-1 cells, knockdown of either Gα(s) or Gα(q) , but not Gα(i2) expression by RNA interference, abrogated the effects of melatonin on p27(Kip1) and cell proliferation. Conversely, cellular overexpression of activated mutants of Gα(s) and Gα(q) in 22Rv1 and RWPE-1 cells mimicked the effects of melatonin on prostate epithelial cell antiproliferation by increasing p27(Kip1) expression through downstream activation of PKA and PKC in parallel. Moreover, melatonin or 2-iodomelatonin induced elevation of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in 22Rv1 and RWPE-1 cells. The effects of 2-iodomelatonin on cAMP were blocked by the nonselective MTNR1A/MTNR1B receptor antagonist luzindole but were not affected by the selective MTNR1B receptor antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetraline (4-P-PDOT). Furthermore, knockdown of Gα(s) mitigated the stimulatory effects of 2-iodomelatonin on cAMP. Collectively, the data demonstrated, for the first time, functional coupling of MTNR1A receptor to Gα(s) in cancerous or transformed human cells expressing endogenous melatonin receptors. Our results also showed that dual activation of Gα(s) and Gα(q) proteins is involved in the signal transduction of MTNR1A receptor-mediated antiproliferative action of melatonin on human prostate epithelial cells.

  2. Modeling normal and malignant human hematopoiesis in vivo through newborn NSG xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiko

    2013-12-01

    Various strains of immune-compromised mice have been developed to investigate human normal and malignant stem cells in vivo. NOD/SCID mice harboring complete null mutation of Il2rg (NSG mice) lack T cells, B cells, and NK cells, and support high levels of engraftment by human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells (CB HSCs) and acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AML LSCs). In addition to achieving high levels of human hematopoietic cell engraftment, use of newborn NSG mice as recipients has enabled the investigation into how human CB HSCs generate mature immune subsets in vivo. Moreover, through establishing an in vivo model of human primary AML by xenotransplantation of human LSCs into newborn NSG mice, functional properties of human AML such as cell cycle, location, and self-renewal capacity can be examined in vivo. Newborn NSG xenogeneic transplantation model may facilitate the understanding of human normal and malignant hematopoiesis and contribute to the development of novel therapies against hematologic diseases.

  3. Reduced Connexin 43 expression is associated with tumor malignant behaviors and biochemical recurrence-free survival of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Hui-Jun; Chen, Shao-Hao; Xue, Xue-Yi; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Qing-Shui; Wei, Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jin-Bei; Cai, Hai; Sun, Xiong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Connexin 43, a gap junction protein, coordinates cell-to-cell communication and adhesion. Altered Connexin 43 expression associated with cancer development and progression. In this study, we assessed Connexin 43 expression for association with clinicopathological features and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Pathological specimens were collected from 243 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy and from 60 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients to construct tissue microarrays and immunohistochemical analysis of Connexin 43 expression. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportion hazard model were performed to associate Connexin 43 expression with postoperative biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS). Connexin 43 expression was significantly reduced or lost in tumor tissues compared to that of BPHs (39.1% vs. 96.7%, P<0.001). Reduced Connexin 43 expression was associated with high levels of preoperative PSA, high Gleason score, advanced pT stage, positive surgical margin, extracapsular extension, and seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.05, for all). Kaplan–Meier curves showed that reduced Connexin 43 expression was associated with shortened postoperative BFS (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that reduced Connexin 43 expression, high Gleason score and advanced pT stage were independent predictors for BFS of patients (P < 0.05). Connexin 43 expression was significantly reduced or lost in prostate cancer tissues, which was associated with advanced clinicopathological features and poor BFS of patients after radical prostatectomy. PMID:27623212

  4. Intracavitary birdcage resonator: applications to the human prostate.

    PubMed

    Merchant, T E; Schwartz, L H; Ballon, D; Koutcher, J A; Scher, H I; Minsky, B D

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with prostatic cancer were prospectively examined with a prototype endorectal surface coil featuring a birdcage resonator circuit design. The purpose was to determine the safety of an intracavitary probe for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the pelvis that incorporates the "inside-out" characteristics of a volume coil design and allows high-resolution MR imaging of the prostate and potentially serves as an alternative to single-loop intracavitary surface coils. Clinically useful images supplementing images obtained with the body or external surface coils were obtained with the prototype probe. It was tolerated by all patients enrolled in the study, and none experienced side effects. The cylindrically symmetric sensitivity profile of the probe allowed identification of prostate tumors and pelvic lymph node and bone metastases. Volume-type coils may improve endopelvic MR imaging when used alone or in combination with external coil systems.

  5. Harvesting Human Prostate Tissue Material and Culturing Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Frame, Fiona M; Pellacani, Davide; Collins, Anne T; Maitland, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully explore the biology of a complex solid tumor such as prostate cancer, it is desirable to work with patient tissue. Only by working with cells from a tissue can we take into account patient variability and tumor heterogeneity. Cell lines have long been regarded as the workhorse of cancer research and it could be argued that they are of most use when considered within a panel of cell lines, thus taking into account specified mutations and variations in phenotype between different cell lines. However, often very different results are obtained when comparing cell lines to primary cells cultured from tissue. It stands to reason that cells cultured from patient tissue represents a close-to-patient model that should and does produce clinically relevant data. This chapter aims to illustrate the methods of processing, storing and culturing cells from prostate tissue, with a description of potential uses.

  6. Construct validity in a high-fidelity prostate exam simulator.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, C G; Gerling, G J; Lee, A J; Carson, W C; Harper, J; Moskaluk, C A; Krupski, T L

    2012-03-01

    All health care practitioners should be facile in the digital rectal exam (DRE) as it provides prostate, rectal and neurological information. The purpose of this study was first to justify our hypothesis that tissue elasticity is indicative of carcinomatous changes. Second, we employed urological surgeons to evaluate our prostate simulator in three ways: (1) authenticate that the elasticity of the simulated prostates accurately represents the range of normal prostate stiffness, (2) determine the range of nodule size reasonably palpable by DRE and (3) discern what degree of elasticity difference within the same prostate suggests malignancy. Institutional Review Board-approved materials characterization, human-subjects experiments, histopathology and chart abstraction of clinical history were performed. Material characterization of 21 ex-vivo prostatectomy specimens was evaluated using a custom-built, portable spherical indentation device while a novel prostate simulator was employed to measure human-subject perception of prostatic state. From the materials characterization, the measurements of the 21 gross prostates and 40 cross-sections yielded 306 data points. Within the same prostate, cancer was always stiffer. Of the seven cases with an abnormal DRE, the DRE accurately identified adenocarcinoma in 85%. From the human-subjects experiments, the simulated prostates evaluated by urologists ranged in stiffness from 8.9 to 91 kPa, mimicking the range found on ex vivo analysis of 4.6-236.7 kPa. The urological surgeons determined the upper limit of stiffness palpated as realistic for a healthy prostate was 59.63 kPa while the lower limit of stiffness was 27.1 kPa. Nodule size less than 7.5 mm was felt to be too small to reasonably palpate. We found it is not the absolute elasticity of the nodule, but rather the relationship of the nodule with the background prostate elasticity that constitutes the critical tactile feedback. Prostate simulator training may lead to

  7. Isolation and Growth of Prostate Stem Cells and Establishing Cancer Cell Lines from Human Prostate Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    RU, Cheng D, and Witte ON. Isolation and functional characterization of murine prostate stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006; 29. Cunha GR...Hopkins School of Medicine Flow Sorting Facility) for their expert assistance and Jessica Hicks and Yuko Konishi (Johns Hopkins Department of...P. Mouse urogenital development: a practical approach. Differentiation 2003;71:402–13. 29. Xin L, Ide H, Kim Y, Dubey P, Witte ON. In vivo

  8. Gene expression profile of mouse prostate tumors reveals dysregulations in major biological processes and identifies potential murine targets for preclinical development of human prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Haram, Kerstyn M; Peltier, Heidi J; Lu, Bin; Bhasin, Manoj; Otu, Hasan H; Choy, Bob; Regan, Meredith; Libermann, Towia A; Latham, Gary J; Sanda, Martin G; Arredouani, Mohamed S

    2008-10-01

    Translation of preclinical studies into effective human cancer therapy is hampered by the lack of defined molecular expression patterns in mouse models that correspond to the human counterpart. We sought to generate an open source TRAMP mouse microarray dataset and to use this array to identify differentially expressed genes from human prostate cancer (PCa) that have concordant expression in TRAMP tumors, and thereby represent lead targets for preclinical therapy development. We performed microarrays on total RNA extracted and amplified from eight TRAMP tumors and nine normal prostates. A subset of differentially expressed genes was validated by QRT-PCR. Differentially expressed TRAMP genes were analyzed for concordant expression in publicly available human prostate array datasets and a subset of resulting genes was analyzed by QRT-PCR. Cross-referencing differentially expressed TRAMP genes to public human prostate array datasets revealed 66 genes with concordant expression in mouse and human PCa; 56 between metastases and normal and 10 between primary tumor and normal tissues. Of these 10 genes, two, Sox4 and Tubb2a, were validated by QRT-PCR. Our analysis also revealed various dysregulations in major biologic pathways in the TRAMP prostates. We report a TRAMP microarray dataset of which a gene subset was validated by QRT-PCR with expression patterns consistent with previous gene-specific TRAMP studies. Concordance analysis between TRAMP and human PCa associated genes supports the utility of the model and suggests several novel molecular targets for preclinical therapy.

  9. Cadmium malignantly transforms normal human breast epithelial cells into a basal-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Benbrahim-Tallaa, Lamia; Tokar, Erik J; Diwan, Bhalchandra A; Dill, Anna L; Coppin, Jean-François; Waalkes, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Breast cancer has recently been linked to cadmium exposure. Although not uniformly supported, it is hypothesized that cadmium acts as a metalloestrogenic carcinogen via the estrogen receptor (ER). Thus, we studied the effects of chronic exposure to cadmium on the normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, which is ER-negative but can convert to ER-positive during malignant transformation. Cells were continuously exposed to low-level cadmium (2.5 muM) and checked in vitro and by xenograft study for signs of malignant transformation. Transformant cells were molecularly characterized by protein and transcript analysis of key genes in breast cancer. Over 40 weeks of cadmium exposure, cells showed increasing secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9, loss of contact inhibition, increased colony formation, and increasing invasion, all typical for cancer cells. Inoculation of cadmium-treated cells into mice produced invasive, metastatic anaplastic carcinoma with myoepithelial components. These cadmium-transformed breast epithelial (CTBE) cells displayed characteristics of basal-like breast carcinoma, including ER-alpha negativity and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) negativity, reduced expression of BRCA1 (breast cancer susceptibility gene 1), and increased CK5 (cytokeratin 5) and p63 expression. CK5 and p63, both breast stem cell markers, were prominently overexpressed in CTBE cell mounds, indicative of persistent proliferation. CTBE cells showed global DNA hypomethylation and c-myc and k-ras overexpression, typical in aggressive breast cancers. CTBE cell xenograft tumors were also ER-alpha negative. Cadmium malignantly transforms normal human breast epithelial cells-through a mechanism not requiring ER-alpha-into a basal-like cancer phenotype. Direct cadmium induction of a malignant phenotype in human breast epithelial cells strongly fortifies a potential role in breast cancer.

  10. The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge R; Pabijan, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Summary Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young’s modulus) than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines). However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force. PMID:24778971

  11. Fourier component imaging of water resonance in the human breast provides markers for malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medved, Milica; Newstead, Gillian M.; Fan, Xiaobing; Du, Yiping P.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Zamora, Marta A.; Karczmar, Gregory S.

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that voxels with inhomogeneously broadened water resonances, as revealed by high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI, correlate with underlying tumor pathology findings, and thus carry diagnostically useful information. Thirty-four women with mammographically suspicious breast lesions were imaged at 1.5 T, using high-resolution echo-planar spectroscopic imaging. Fourier component images (FCIs) of the off-peak spectral signal were generated, and clusters of voxels with significant inhomogeneous broadening (broadened clusters) were identified and correlated to biopsy results. Inhomogeneously broadened clusters were found significantly more frequently in malignant than in benign lesions. A larger percentage of broadened cluster voxels were found inside the malignant versus benign lesions. The high statistical significance for separation of benign and malignant lesions was robust over a large range of post-processing parameters, with a maximum ROC area under curve of 0.83. In the human breast, an inhomogeneously broadened water resonance can serve as a correlate marker for malignancy and is likely to reflect the underlying anatomy or physiology.

  12. Regulatory landscape and clinical implication of MBD3 in human malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ling; Wirbisky, Sara E.; Freeman, Jennifer L.; Liu, Jingping; Liu, Qing; Yuan, Xianrui; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In this article we inspect the roles and functions of the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 3 (MBD3) in human malignant glioma, to assess its potential as an epigenetic biomarker for prognosis. The regulatory effects of MBD3 on glioma transcriptome were first profiled by high-throughput microarray. Our results indicate that MBD3 is involved in both transcriptional activation and repression. Furthermore, MBD3 fine-controls a spectrum of proteins critical for cellular metabolism and proliferation, thereby contributing to an exquisite anti-glioma network. Specifically, the expression of MHC class II molecules was found to positively correlate with MBD3, which provides new insight into the immune escape of gliomagenesis. In addition, MBD3 participates in constraining a number of oncogenic non-coding RNAs whose over-activation could drive cells into excessive growth and higher malignancy. Having followed up a pilot cohort, we noted that the survival of malignant glioma patients was proportional to the content of MBD3 and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in their tumor cells. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were relatively poor for patients with lower amount of MBD3 and 5hmC in the tissue biopsies. Taken together, this work enriches our understanding of the mechanistic involvement of MBD3 in malignant glioma. PMID:27835581

  13. The softening of human bladder cancer cells happens at an early stage of the malignancy process.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge R; Pabijan, Joanna; Garcia, Ricardo; Lekka, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that alterations in the deformability of cancerous cells are strongly linked to the actin cytoskeleton. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is possible to determine such changes in a quantitative way in order to distinguish cancerous from non-malignant cells. In the work presented here, the elastic properties of human bladder cells were determined by means of AFM. The measurements show that non-malignant bladder HCV29 cells are stiffer (higher Young's modulus) than cancerous cells (HTB-9, HT1376, and T24 cell lines). However, independently of the histological grade of the studied bladder cancer cells, all cancerous cells possess a similar level of the deformability of about a few kilopascals, significantly lower than non-malignant cells. This underlines the diagnostic character of stiffness that can be used as a biomarker of bladder cancer. Similar stiffness levels, observed for cancerous cells, cannot be fully explained by the organization of the actin cytoskeleton since it is different in all malignant cells. Our results underline that it is neither the spatial organization of the actin filaments nor the presence of stress fibers, but the overall density and their 3D-organization in a probing volume play the dominant role in controlling the elastic response of the cancerous cell to an external force.

  14. Testosterone promotes an anabolic increase in the rat female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) which acquires a male ventral prostate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Madi-Ravazzi, Liliam; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-12-01

    The female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) in the rat is morphologically similar to the ventral lobe of male adults and has been described in other rodent species and humans. Previous studies on prostate morphogenesis suggest that female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not develop this gland due to the absence of testosterone during the embryonic and neonatal periods. On the other hand, studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that some females of this species can present an undeveloped but functional prostate. Recent studies on this gland have caused scientific interest because, besides being active in the processes of synthesis and secretion of prostatic material, it is also targeted by both malignant and benign lesions, mainly during senescence. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the structure of female prostate of adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) under normal conditions and under the effect of testosterone treatment and carry out comparative studies on the ventral prostate of young and adult male rats. Morphological and morphometric stereological analyses and immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. The results have shown that the prostate gland of rats exposed to androgen therapy have experienced intense growth, becoming more active in relation to synthesis and secretion. It may be concluded that the prostate in control adult female rats is morphologically very similar to the prostatic ventral lobe of young male rats. Besides, under androgenic action, the female prostate grows considerably and becomes similar to the prostatic ventral lobe in male adults. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. TRPM7 channel inhibition mediates midazolam-induced proliferation loss in human malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingkao; Dou, Yunling; Zheng, Xiaoke; Leng, Tiandong; Lu, Xiaofang; Ouyang, Ying; Sun, Huawei; Xing, Fan; Mai, Jialuo; Gu, Jiayu; Lu, Bingzheng; Yan, Guangmei; Lin, Jun; Zhu, Wenbo

    2016-11-01

    The melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 (TRPM7) has been implicated in proliferation or apoptosis of some cancers, indicating the potential of TRPM7 as an anti-anaplastic target. Here, we identified the characteristic TRPM7 channel currents in human malignant glioma MGR2 cells, which could be blocked by a pharmacologic inhibitor Gd(3+). We mined the clinical sample data from Oncomine Database and found that human malignant glioma tissues expressed higher TRPM7 mRNA than normal brain ones. Importantly, we identified a widely used clinical anesthetic midazolam as a TRPM7 inhibitor. Midazolam treatment for seconds suppressed the TRPM7 currents and calcium influx, and treatment for 48 h inhibited the TRPM7 expression. The inhibitory effect on TRPM7 accounts for the proliferation loss and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest induced by midazolam. Our data demonstrates that midazolam represses proliferation of human malignant glioma cells through inhibiting TRPM7 currents, which may be further potentiated by suppressing the expression of TRPM7. Our result indicates midazolam as a pharmacologic lead compound with brain-blood barrier permeability for targeting TRPM7 in the glioma.

  16. Co-expression and impact of prostate specific membrane antigen and prostate specific antigen in prostatic pathologies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to relate the co-expression of prostate-associated antigens, PSMA and PSA, with the degree of vascularization in normal and pathologic (hyperplasia and cancer) prostate tissues to elucidate their possible role in tumor progression. Methods The study was carried out in 6 normal, 44 benign prostatic hyperplastic and 39 cancerous human prostates. Immunohistochemical analysis were performed using the monoclonal antibody CD34 to determine the angiogenic activity, and the monoclonal antibodies 3E6 and ER-PR8 to assess PSMA and PSA expression, respectively. Results In our study we found that in normal prostate tissue, PSMA and PSA were equally expressed (3.7 ± 0.18 and 3.07 ± 0.11). A significant difference in their expression was see in hyperplastic and neoplastic prostates tissues (16.14 ± 0.17 and 30.72 ± 0.85, respectively) for PSMA and (34.39 ± 0.53 and 17.85 ± 1.21, respectively) for PSA. Study of prostate tumor profiles showed that the profile (PSA+, PSMA-) expression levels decreased between normal prostate, benign prostatic tissue and primary prostate cancer. In the other hand, the profile (PSA-, PSMA+) expression levels increased from normal to prostate tumor tissues. PSMA overexpression was associated with high intratumoral angiogenesis activity. By contrast, high PSA expression was associated with low angiogenesis activity. Conclusion These data suggest that these markers are regulated differentially and the difference in their expression showed a correlation with malignant transformation. With regard to the duality PSMA-PSA, this implies the significance of their investigation together in normal and pathologic prostate tissues. PMID:21189143

  17. Basal and metal-induced expression of metallothionein isoform 1 and 2 genes in the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Amy L; Singh, Rajendra K; Somji, Seema; Sens, Mary Ann; Sens, Donald A; Garrett, Scott H

    2008-04-01

    The human prostate gland has low basal expression of the metallothionein-1 and -2 proteins. In prostate cancer, MT-1/2 protein expression is variable and correlates directly with the increasing Gleason score of the tumor. The goal of the present study was to determine if the RWPE-1 cell line is a good model to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the alterations in MT-1/2 expression that occur during the development of prostate cancer. It was shown that the RWPE-1 cell line and in situ prostate tissue have identical expression profiles of MT-1 and MT-2 isoform-specific mRNAs (MT-1E, MT-1X and MT-2A) and similar levels of MT-1/2 protein. It was also shown that the RWPE-1 cells respond to Zn(+2) and Cd(+2) exposure by induction of the basally expressed MT mRNAs and the accumulation of high levels MT-1/2 protein (in excess of 10% of total protein). It was also shown that additional MT-1 mRNAs were expressed when the cells were exposed to either metal; MT-1A, MT-1F, MT-G and MT-1H for Cd(+2)-exposed cells; and, MT-1F, MT-G and MT-1H for Zn(+2)-exposed cells. The results suggest that RWPE-1 cells may be a valuable system to define the interplay between Zn(+2) concentration, Cd(+2) exposure and MT in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells.

  18. Examination of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Qaiser, Fatima; Trembley, Janeen H; Sadiq, Sarah; Muhammad, Iqbal; Younis, Rubina; Hashmi, Shoaib Naiyar; Murtaza, Badar; Rector, Thomas S; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Protein kinase CK2 plays a critical role in cell growth, proliferation, and suppression of cell death. CK2 is overexpressed, especially in the nuclear compartment, in the majority of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). CK2-mediated activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 is a key step in cellular proliferation, resulting in translocation of NF-κB p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. As CK2 expression and activity are also elevated in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), we sought to increase the knowledge of CK2 function in benign and malignant prostate by examination of the relationships between nuclear CK2 and nuclear NF-κB p65 protein expression. The expression level and localization of CK2α and NF-κB p65 proteins in PCa and BPH tissue specimens was determined. Nuclear CK2α and NF-κB p65 protein levels are significantly higher in PCa compared with BPH, and these proteins are positively correlated with each other in both diseases. Nuclear NF-κB p65 levels correlated with Ki-67 or with cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 expression in BPH, but not in PCa. The findings provide information that combined analysis of CK2α and NF-κB p65 expression in prostate specimens relates to the disease status. Increased nuclear NF-κB p65 expression levels in PCa specifically related to nuclear CK2α levels, indicating a possible CK2-dependent relationship in malignancy. In contrast, nuclear NF-κB p65 protein levels related to both Ki-67 and cytoplasmic NF-κB p65 levels exclusively in BPH, suggesting a potential separate impact for NF-κB p65 function in proliferation for benign disease as opposed to malignant disease.

  19. Agonist and antagonist switch DNA motifs recognized by human androgen receptor in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Lan, Xun; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Wu, Dayong; Liu, Xiangtao; Ye, Zhenqing; Wang, Liguo; Sunkel, Benjamin; Grenade, Cassandra; Chen, Junsheng; Zynger, Debra L; Yan, Pearlly S; Huang, Jiaoti; Nephew, Kenneth P; Huang, Tim H-M; Lin, Shili; Clinton, Steven K; Li, Wei; Jin, Victor X; Wang, Qianben

    2015-01-01

    Human transcription factors recognize specific DNA sequence motifs to regulate transcription. It is unknown whether a single transcription factor is able to bind to distinctly different motifs on chromatin, and if so, what determines the usage of specific motifs. By using a motif-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) approach, we find that agonist-liganded human androgen receptor (AR) and antagonist-liganded AR bind to two distinctly different motifs, leading to distinct transcriptional outcomes in prostate cancer cells. Further analysis on clinical prostate tissues reveals that the binding of AR to these two distinct motifs is involved in prostate carcinogenesis. Together, these results suggest that unique ligands may switch DNA motifs recognized by ligand-dependent transcription factors in vivo. Our findings also provide a broad mechanistic foundation for understanding ligand-specific induction of gene expression profiles. PMID:25535248

  20. The Androgen Receptor Regulates PPARγ Expression and Activity in Human Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Olokpa, Emuejevoke; Bolden, Adrienne

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand‐activated transcription factor that regulates growth and differentiation within normal prostate and prostate cancers. However the factors that control PPARγ within the prostate cancers have not been characterized. The goal of this study was to examine whether the androgen receptor (AR) regulates PPARγ expression and function within human prostate cancer cells. qRT‐PCR and Western blot analyses revealed nanomolar concentrations of the AR agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) decrease PPARγ mRNA and protein within the castration‐resistant, AR‐positive C4‐2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cell lines. The AR antagonists bicalutamide and enzalutamide blocked the ability of DHT to reduce PPARγ levels. In addition, siRNA mediated knockdown of AR increased PPARγ protein levels and ligand‐induced PPARγ transcriptional activity within the C4‐2 cell line. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors that interfere with AR function increased the level of basal PPARγ and prevented the DHT‐mediated suppression of PPARγ. These data suggest that AR normally functions to suppress PPARγ expression within AR‐positive prostate cancer cells. To determine whether increases in AR protein would influence PPARγ expression and activity, we used lipofectamine‐based transfections to overexpress AR within the AR‐null PC‐3 cells. The addition of AR to PC‐3 cells did not significantly alter PPARγ protein levels. However, the ability of the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone to induce activation of a PPARγ‐driven luciferase reporter and induce expression of FABP4 was suppressed in AR‐positive PC‐3 cells. Together, these data indicate AR serves as a key modulator of PPARγ expression and function within prostate tumors. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2664–2672, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945682

  1. Hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering imaging facilitates accurate diagnosis of human prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Sishan; Wang, Ping; Yue, Shuhua

    2017-02-01

    Due to the subject nature of histopathology, there is a significant inter-observer discordance for the differentiation between low-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score <= 6), which can be left without treatment, and high-risk prostate cancer (Gleason score >6), which requires active treatment. Our previous study using Raman spectromicroscopy reveals that cholesteryl ester accumulation underlies human prostate cancer aggressiveness. However, Raman spectromicroscopy could only provide compositional information of certain lipid droplets of interest, which overlooked cell-to-cell variation and hindered translation to accurate automated diagnosis. Here, we demonstrated quantitative mapping of cholesteryl ester molar percentage in human prostate cancer tissues using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy that renders compositional information for every pixel in the image. Specifically, hundreds of SRS images at Raman shift between 2800 3000 cm-1 were taken, and multivariate curve resolution algorism was used to retrieve concentration images of lipid, lipofuscin, and protein. We found that the height ratio between the prominent cholesterol band at 2870 cm-1 and the CH2 stretching band at 2850 cm-1 was proportional to the molar percentage of cholesteryl ester present in the total lipids. Based on the calibration curve, we were able to quantitatively map cholesteryl ester level in intact prostate cancer tissues. Our data showed that not only the amount of cholesteryl ester-rich lipid droplets, but also the CE molar percentage, was significantly greater in prostate cancer tissues with Gleason score > 6 compared to the ones with Gleason score <= 6. Our study offers an opportunity towards more accurate prostate cancer diagnosis.

  2. Mouse Orthotopic Xenographs of Human Prostate Primary Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 4 from cancer) were isolated from multiple samples of 4 radical prostatectomy surgical specimens, two of which belonged...pellet (12.5 mg, 90 day- release) was implanted subcutaneously in all mice. 5 PI: Loda, Massimo b) Eight primary cell cultures (4 from benign

  3. The Cohesive Metastasis Phenotype in Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Harryman, William L; Hinton, James P; Rubenstein, Cynthia P; Singh, Parminder; Nagle, Raymond B; Parker, Sarah J; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Cress, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    A critical barrier for the successful prevention and treatment of recurrent prostate cancer is detection and eradication of metastatic and therapy-resistant disease. Despite the fall in diagnoses and mortality, the reported incidence of metastatic disease has increased 72% since 2004. Prostate cancer arises in cohesive groups as intraepithelial neoplasia, migrates through muscle and leaves the gland via perineural invasion for hematogenous dissemination. Current technological advances have shown cohesive-clusters of tumor (also known as microemboli) within the circulation. Circulating tumor cell (CTC) profiles are indicative of disseminated prostate cancer, and disseminated tumor cells (DTC) are found in cohesive-clusters, a phenotypic characteristic of both radiation- and drug-resistant tumors. Recent reports in cell biology and informatics, coupled with mass spectrometry, indicate that the integrin adhesome network provides an explanation for the biophysical ability of cohesive-clusters of tumor cells to invade thorough muscle and nerve microenvironments while maintaining adhesion-dependent therapeutic resistance. Targeting cohesive-clusters takes advantage of the known ability of extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion to promote tumor cell survival and represents an approach that has the potential to avoid the progression to drug- and radiotherapy-resistance. In the following review we will examine the evidence for development and dissemination of cohesive-clusters in metastatic prostate cancer.

  4. Differential effects of vitamin D on normal human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Krill, D; Stoner, J; Konety, B R; Becich, M J; Getzenberg, R H

    1999-07-01

    Because epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that vitamin D may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, we tested the inhibitory effect of the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25-D) on the cell proliferation of human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in a chemically defined situation in the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We also tested the effect of 1,25-D in castrated rats in the presence and absence of flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker. Prostate stromal and epithelial cells were isolated from freshly collected human prostatectomy specimens, and cell proliferation was measured with the MTT assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the presence of 1,25-D receptors, androgen receptors, smooth muscle actin, and E-cadherin. For in vivo analysis of 1,25-D, male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated, then treated with either 1,25-D, 1,25-D with flutamide, or vehicle control. Incubation of primary cultures of prostate epithelial cells with 1,25-D at a concentration of 10(-8) M reduced cell proliferation by 40% of controls. The inhibition of growth by 1,25-D was maintained in the presence of DHT. Conversely, the effect of a similar dose of 1,25-D on stromal cell exposure was increased proliferation. In vivo, 1,25-D increased the prostatic weight of castrated rats that had serum testosterone levels below the detectable limit. The addition of flutamide did not alter this effect. These results confirm that vitamin D may be an effective antiproliferative agent of epithelial cells in prostate cancer therapy and support in vivo studies performed in the normal rat prostate.

  5. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daniel; Schreiber, Andrea; Ciotkowska, Anna; Strittmatter, Frank; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G; Gratzke, Christian; Hennenberg, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Smooth muscle contraction and prostate growth are important targets for medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Honokiol and Magnolol are lignan constituents of Magnolia species, which are used in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we examined effects of honokiol and magnolol on contraction of human prostate tissue and on growth of stromal cells. Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Contraction of prostate strips was examined in organ bath studies. Effects in stromal cells were assessed in cultured immortalized human prostate stromal cells (WPMY-1). Ki-67 mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and proliferation by a fluorescence 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Honokiol (100μM) reduced noradrenaline-induced contractions, which was significant at 10 to 100μM noradrenaline. Honokiol reduced phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was significant at 3 to 100μM phenylephrine. Honokiol reduced electric field stimulation-induced contractions very slightly. In WPMY-1 cells, honokiol (24 hours) induced cell death. Magnolol (100μM) was without effects on contraction, and cellular viability. Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  6. Incorporating Oxygen-Enhanced MRI into Multi-Parametric Assessment of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heling; Hallac, Rami R.; Yuan, Qing; Ding, Yao; Zhang, Zhongwei; Xie, Xian-Jin; Francis, Franto; Roehrborn, Claus G.; Sims, R. Douglas; Raj, Ganesh V.

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia is associated with prostate tumor aggressiveness, local recurrence, and biochemical failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers insight into tumor pathophysiology and recent reports have related transverse relaxation rate (R2*) and longitudinal relaxation rate (R1) measurements to tumor hypoxia. We have investigated the inclusion of oxygen-enhanced MRI for multi-parametric evaluation of tumor malignancy. Multi-parametric MRI sequences at 3 Tesla were evaluated in 10 patients to investigate hypoxia in prostate cancer prior to radical prostatectomy. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), tissue oxygen level dependent (TOLD), dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE), and diffusion weighted imaging MRI were intercorrelated and compared with the Gleason score. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was significantly lower in tumor than normal prostate. Baseline R2* (BOLD-contrast) was significantly higher in tumor than normal prostate. Upon the oxygen breathing challenge, R2* decreased significantly in the tumor tissue, suggesting improved vascular oxygenation, however changes in R1 were minimal. R2* of contralateral normal prostate decreased in most cases upon oxygen challenge, although the differences were not significant. Moderate correlation was found between ADC and Gleason score. ADC and R2* were correlated and trends were found between Gleason score and R2*, as well as maximum-intensity-projection and area-under-the-curve calculated from DCE. Tumor ADC and R2* have been associated with tumor hypoxia, and thus the correlations are of particular interest. A multi-parametric approach including oxygen-enhanced MRI is feasible and promises further insights into the pathophysiological information of tumor microenvironment. PMID:28837092

  7. Overabundance of Putative Cancer Stem Cells in Human Skin Keratinocyte Cells Malignantly Transformed by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a human skin carcinogen. Cancer is probably a disease driven by stem cells (SCs), and SCs are likely a key target during arsenic oncogenesis. In utero arsenic exposure predisposes mice to skin cancers that overproduce cancer SCs (CSCs) and have distorted CSC signaling and population dynamics. Therefore, we hypothesized CSC accumulation may occur during arsenic-induced malignant transformation in vitro of human skin keratinocytes. Thus, the HaCaT cell line, malignantly transformed by arsenite (100nM, 30 weeks; termed As-TM cells) in prior work, was further studied for the quantity and nature of SCs after this transformation. SCs were isolated from passage-matched control and As-TM cells by a magnetic bead system that enriches for CD34-positive cells. There were 2.5 times more SCs isolated from As-TM cells than control. Holoclone production from As-TM putative CSCs was 2.5-fold higher by 1 week and 3.5-fold higher by 2 weeks than control SCs. Potential malignant phenotype was assessed in isolated SC/CSCs. Transcript level of SC/CSC markers were elevated in both isolated As-TM CSCs and control SCs compared with parental cells, but compared with control SCs, As-TM putative CSCs had elevated CD34, K5, K14, K15, and K19 transcripts and dramatically stronger staining for p63, Rac1, K5, Notch1, and K19. As-TM putative CSCs also showed markedly elevated MMP-9 secretion and colony formation, indicators of cancer phenotype, even compared with total population of As-TM cells. Thus, malignant phenotype is particularly pronounced in CSCs after arsenic-induced transformation of human skin cells and occurs concurrently with a potential overproduction of these cells. PMID:22011395

  8. Role of hormonal and other factors in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wigle, Donald T; Turner, Michelle C; Gomes, James; Parent, Marie-Elise

    2008-03-01

    American men have a lifetime risk of about 18% for prostate cancer diagnosis. Large international variations in prostate cancer risks and increased risks among migrants from low- to high-risk countries indicate important roles for environmental factors. Major known risk factors include age, family history, and country/ethnicity. Type 2 diabetes appears to reduce risk, while high birth weight and adult height are linked to increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer. Limited evidence supports an association with a history of sexually transmitted infections. A previous meta-analysis of eight cohort studies indicated no associations with plasma androgen, estrogen, or sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels. However, there were dose-response relationships with baseline plasma testosterone levels in two studies that adjusted for other serum hormones and obesity. Finasteride (a drug that blocks testosterone activation) reduced prostate cancer risk by 25%. Low-frequency genes linked to familial prostate cancer only explain a small fraction of all cases. Sporadic cases were linked to relatively common polymorphisms of genes involved in (1) androgen synthesis, activation, inactivation and excretion, (2) hormone and vitamin D receptors, (3) carcinogen metabolism, and (4) DNA repair. Epidemiologic evidence supports protective roles for dietary selenium, vitamin E, pulses, tomatoes/lycopene, and soy foods, and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. There is inadequate evidence that vegetables, fruit, carotenoids, and vitamins A and C reduce risk and that animal fat, alpha-linoleic acid, meat, coffee, and tea increase risk. Two major cohort studies found dose-response relationships with dietary calcium intake. Total dietary energy intake may enhance risk. Limited evidence supports a protective role for physical activity and elevated risk for farmers and other men with occupational pesticide exposure, particularly to organochlorine compounds and phenoxy herbicides

  9. Role of connexin 43 in cadmium-induced proliferation of human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingping; Ji, Xiaoli; Ge, Zehe; Diao, Haipeng; Chang, Xiuli; Wang, Lihua; Wu, Qing

    2017-02-08

    Connexins (Cxs), the subunits of gap junction channels, are involved in many physiological processes. Aberrant control of Cxs and gap junction intercellular communication may contribute to many diseases, including the promotion of cancer. Cd exposure is associated with increased risk of human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The roles of Cxs in the effects of Cd on the prostate have, however, not been reported previously. In this study, the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was exposed to Cd. A low dose of Cd stimulated cell proliferation along with a lower degree of gap junction intercellular communication and an elevated level of the protein Cx43. Cd exposure increased the levels of intracellular Ca(2+) and phosphorylated Cx43 at the Ser368 site. Knockdown of Cx43 using siRNA blocked Cd-induced proliferation and interfered with the Cd-induced changes in the protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin B1, p27(Kip1) (p27) and p21(Waf1/Cip1) (p21). The increase in Cx43 expression induced by Cd was presumably mediated by the androgen receptor, because it was abolished upon treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide. Thus, a low dose of Cd promotes cell proliferation in RWPE-1, possibly mediated by Cx43 expression through an effect on cell cycle-associated proteins. Cx43 might be a target for prostatic diseases associated with Cd exposure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isolation and functional interrogation of adult human prostate epithelial stem cells at single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xie, Lishi; Li, Ye; Majumdar, Shyama; Nonn, Larisa; Hu, Hong; Shioda, Toshi; Prins, Gail S

    2017-08-01

    Using primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial cells, we developed a novel prostasphere-based, label-retention assay that permits identification and isolation of stem cells at a single cell level. Their bona fide stem cell nature was corroborated using in vitro and in vivo regenerative assays and documentation of symmetric/asymmetric division. Robust WNT10B and KRT13 levels without E-cadherin or KRT14 staining distinguished individual stem cells from daughter progenitors in spheroids. Following FACS to isolate label-retaining stem cells from label-free progenitors, RNA-seq identified unique gene signatures for the separate populations which may serve as useful biomarkers. Knockdown of KRT13 or PRAC1 reduced sphere formation and symmetric self-renewal highlighting their role in stem cell maintenance. Pathways analysis identified ribosome biogenesis and membrane estrogen-receptor signaling enriched in stem cells with NF-ĸB signaling enriched in progenitors; activities that were biologically confirmed. Further, bioassays identified heightened autophagy flux and reduced metabolism in stem cells relative to progenitors. These approaches similarly identified stem-like cells from prostate cancer specimens and prostate, breast and colon cancer cell lines suggesting wide applicability. Together, the present studies isolate and identify unique characteristics of normal human prostate stem cells and uncover processes that maintain stem cell homeostasis in the prostate gland. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exploiting the Innate Antitumor Activity of Human gammadelta-TCells for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    are representative of experiments performed at least 3 other times. Normal human keratinocytes (Ha- Cat cells) were labeled with 51Cr and incubated...cell experience " (R. Lopez) FINAL Report: DAMD17-03-1-0265 Principal Investigator: LOPEZ, Richard D. 15 CONCLUSIONS • As noted above, the findings...human prostate cell lines DU145, LNCaP and PC-3 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, Vir- ginia) and the normal human keratinocyte cell line

  12. Frequency and Type Distribution of Human Papilloma Virus in Patients with Prostate Cancer, Kerman, Southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Atashafrooz, Fatemeh; Rokhbakhsh-Zamin, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death among men worldwide. The human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are a family of sexually transmitted viruses which have may have roles in the etiology of inflammation in the prostate leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, we evaluated the frequency of different HPV types in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Kerman province, southeast of Iran, using real-time PCR techniques. The aim of the present research was to clarify any association with prostatic carcinogenesis. Real Time PCR showed that HPV DNA was found in 20% of 200 PCa samples, 80 percent of these with high-risk HPV types, 40% with type-16,18, 30 % type-31,33 and 10% type 54. High risk HPV DNA was detected in only 2% of BPH samples. Values for low risk types were much higher. Our study provided support for a role of high risk HPV infection in prostatic disease in Iranian patients, and association between presence of HPV DNA and prostate carcinoma. In particular, HPV 16 and18 might have an important role in prostate cancer.

  13. Toxicogenomics of A375 human malignant melanoma cells treated with arbutin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sun-Long; Liu, Rosa Huang; Sheu, Jin-Nan; Chen, Shui-Tein; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Tsay, Gregory Jiazer

    2007-01-01

    Although arbutin is a natural product and widely used as an ingredient in skin care products, its effect on the gene expression level of human skin with malignant melanoma cells is rarely reported. We aim to investigate the genotoxic effect of arbutin on the differential gene expression profiling in A375 human malignant melanoma cells through its effect on tumorigenesis and related side-effect. The DNA microarray analysis provided the differential gene expression pattern of arbutin-treated A375 cells with the significant changes of 324 differentially expressed genes, containing 88 up-regulated genes and 236 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology of differentially expressed genes was classified as belonging to cellular component, molecular function and biological process. In addition, four down-regulated genes of AKT1, CLECSF7, FGFR3, and LRP6 served as candidate genes and correlated to suppress the biological processes in the cell cycle of cancer progression and in the downstream signaling pathways of malignancy of melanocytic tumorigenesis.

  14. Dielectric spectroscopy of normal and malignant human lung cells at ultra-high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Egot-Lemaire, S; Pijanka, J; Sulé-Suso, J; Semenov, S

    2009-04-21

    Microwave techniques for biomedical applications aimed at cancer treatment or diagnosis, either by imaging or spectroscopy, are promising. Their use relies on knowledge of the dielectric properties of tissues, especially on a detectable difference between malignant and normal tissues. As most studies investigated the dielectric properties of ex vivo tissues, there is a need for better biophysical understanding of human tissues in their living state. As an essential component of tissues, cells represent valuable objects of analysis. The approach developed in this study is an investigation at cell level. Its aim was to compare human lung normal and malignant cells by dielectric spectroscopy in the beginning of the microwave range, where such information is of substantial biomedical importance. These cells were embedded in small and low-conductivity agarose hydrogels and laid on an open-ended coaxial probe connected to a vector network analyser operated from 200 MHz to 2 GHz. The comparison between normal and malignant cells was drawn using the variation of measured dielectric properties and fitting the measurements using the Maxwell-Wagner equation. Both methods revealed slight differences between the two cell lines, which were statistically significant regarding conductivities of composite gels and cells.

  15. Classification of normal and malignant human gastric mucosa tissue with confocal Raman microspectroscopy and wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yaogai; Shen, Aiguo; Jiang, Tao; Ai, Yong; Hu, Jiming

    2008-02-01

    Thirty-two samples from the human gastric mucosa tissue, including 13 normal and 19 malignant tissue samples were measured by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The low signal-to-background ratio spectra from human gastric mucosa tissues were obtained by this technique without any sample preparation. Raman spectral interferences include a broad featureless sloping background due to fluorescence and noise. They mask most Raman spectral feature and lead to problems with precision and quantitation of the original spectral information. A preprocessed algorithm based on wavelet analysis was used to reduce noise and eliminate background/baseline of Raman spectra. Comparing preprocessed spectra of malignant gastric mucosa tissues with those of counterpart normal ones, there were obvious spectral changes, including intensity increase at ˜1156 cm -1 and intensity decrease at ˜1587 cm -1. The quantitative criterion based upon the intensity ratio of the ˜1156 and ˜1587 cm -1 was extracted for classification of the normal and malignant gastric mucosa tissue samples. This could result in a new diagnostic method, which would assist the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  16. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells and inhibits prostate cancer growth in a xenograft mouse model of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiong; Li, Zhuoneng; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Fan; Xu, Ruo-Jun; Cai, Yi-Zhong

    2009-08-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are important functional constituents in red-colored fruits of L. barbarum (Guo Qi Zi, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant commonly known as Goji berry or wolfberry). The influence of LBP on human prostate cancer cells was systematically investigated in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro effects of LBP on two cell lines (PC-3 and DU-145) were examined by using trypan blue exclusion staining, single-cell gel electrophoresis, flow cytometry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and immunohistochemical assay (assessment of Bcl-2 and Bax expression). The in vivo effect of LBP on PC-3 cells was assessed in the nude mouse xenograft tumor model. The in vitro results showed that LBP can dose- and time-dependently inhibit the growth of both PC-3 and DU-145 cells. LBP caused the breakage of DNA strands of PC-3 and DU-145 cells; the tail frequency and tail length were significantly higher than that of control cells. LBP also markedly induced PC-3 and DU-145 cell apoptosis, with the highest apoptosis rates at 41.5% and 35.5%, respectively. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression following LBP treatments decreased significantly with a dose-effect relationship, which suggested that LBP can regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax to induce apoptosis of PC-3 and DU-145 cells. The in vivo experimental results indicate that LBP might significantly inhibit PC-3 tumor growth in nude mice. Both the tumor volume and weight of the LBP treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group.

  17. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: Results in gel phantoms

    PubMed Central

    N’Djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. Methods: The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm3) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm−2. Results: Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm−2 reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm3 min−1. A dual-frequency 4.6/14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. Conclusions: This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat

  18. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: Results in gel phantoms.

    PubMed

    N'Djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm(3) ) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm(-2) . Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm(-2) reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm(3)  min(-1) . A dual-frequency 4.6/14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat full prostate volumes in a

  19. Coagulation of human prostate volumes with MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy: results in gel phantoms.

    PubMed

    N'djin, William Apoutou; Burtnyk, Mathieu; Kobelevskiy, Ilya; Hadjis, Stefan; Bronskill, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy were demonstrated recently in a preliminary human study in which a small subvolume of prostate tissue was treated prior to radical prostatectomy. Translation of this technology to full clinical use, however, requires the capability to generate thermal coagulation in a volume up to that of the prostate gland itself. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters required to treat a full 3D human prostate accurately with a multi-element transurethral applicator and multiplanar MR temperature control. The approach was a combination of simulations (to select appropriate parameters) followed by experimental confirmation in tissue-mimicking phantoms. A ten-channel, MRI-compatible transurethral ultrasound therapy system was evaluated using six human prostate models (average volume: 36 cm(3)) obtained from the preliminary human feasibility study. Real-time multiplanar MR thermometry at 3 T was used to control the spatial heating pattern in up to nine planes simultaneously. Treatment strategies incorporated both single (4.6 or 8.1 MHz) and dual (4.6 and 14.4 MHz) frequencies, as well as maximum acoustic surface powers of 10 or 20 W cm(-2). Treatments at 4.6 MHz were capable of coagulating a volume equivalent to 97% of the prostate. Increasing power from 10 to 20 W cm(-2) reduced treatment times by approximately 50% with full treatments taking 26 ± 3 min at a coagulation rate of 1.8 ± 0.4 cm(3) min(-1). A dual-frequency 4.6∕14.4 MHz treatment strategy was shown to be the most effective configuration for achieving full human prostate treatment while maintaining good treatment accuracy for small treatment radii. The dual-frequency approach reduced overtreatment close to the prostate base and apex, confirming the simulations. This study reinforces the capability of MRI-controlled transurethral ultrasound therapy to treat full prostate volumes in a short

  20. Active Sonic Hedgehog Signaling between Androgen Independent Human Prostate Cancer Cells and Normal/Benign but Not Cancer-Associated Prostate Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Huang, Wen-Chin; Li, Xiangyan; Zhau, Haiyen E.; Zhu, Guodong; Gotoh, Akinobu; Fujisawa, Masato; Xie, Jingwu; Marshall, Fray F.; Chung, Leland W. K.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling plays a pivotal role in stromal-epithelial interaction during normal development but its role in tumor-stromal interaction during carcinogenic progression is less well defined. Since hormone refractory prostate cancer with bone metastasis is difficult to treat, it is crucial to investigate how androgen independent (AI) human prostate cancer cells communicate with their associated stroma. METHODS Shh and its target transcription factor, Gli1 mRNA, were assessed by RT-PCR and/or quantitative RT-PCR in co-cultured cell recombinants comprised of AI C4-2 either with NPF (prostate fibroblasts from normal/benign prostate gland) or CPF cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts) under Shh/cyclopamine (a hedgehog signaling inhibitor) treatment. Human bone marrow stromal (HS27A) cells were used as controls. In vivo investigation was performed by checking serum PSA and immunohistochemical staining for the apoptosis-associated M30 gene in mice bearing chimeric C4-2/NPF tumors. RESULTS CONCLUSIONS Based on co-culture and chimeric tumor models, active Shh-mediated signaling was demonstrated between AI prostate cancer and NPF in a paracrine- and tumor progression-dependent manner. Our study suggests that drugs like cyclopamine that interfere with Shh signaling could be beneficial in preventing AI progression in prostate cancer cells. PMID:21520153

  1. Radiation inactivation of human prostate cancer cells: The role of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Algan, O.; Stobbe, C.C.; Helt, A.M.

    1996-09-01

    Radiation induced apoptosis detected by gel electrophoresis was measured in cells of three human prostate carcinoma cell lines and compared to their intrinsic radiosensitivities as measured by clonogenic assays. The intrinsic radiosensitivities of each cell line were defined by their alpha and beta coefficients and their surviving fraction at 2 Gy, derived from complete survival curves.

  2. Proteolytic cleavage and truncation of NDRG1 in human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghalayini, Mohammad K.; Dong, Qihan; Richardson, Des R.; Assinder, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene-1) is a metastasis suppressor that is down-regulated in prostate cancer. NDRG1 phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and Western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag (phosphate-binding tag) SDS/PAGE assay, demonstrated that the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. Further experiments showed that the NDRG1 protein bands were not affected upon glycosidase treatment, despite marked effects of these enzymes on the glycosylated protein, fetuin. Analysis using RT–PCR (reverse transcriptase–PCR) demonstrated only a single amplicon, and thus, the two bands could not result from an alternatively spliced NDRG1 transcript. Western-blot analysis of prostate cancer cell lysates identified the 41 kDa band to be a truncated form of NDRG1, with MS confirming the full and truncated proteins to be NDRG1. Significantly, this truncated protein was not present in normal human PrECs (prostate epithelial cells). Western-blot analysis using anti-NDRG1 raised to its N-terminal sequence failed to detect the truncated protein, suggesting that it lacked N-terminus amino acids (residues 1–49). Sequence analysis predicted a pseudotrypsin protease cleavage site between Cys49–Gly50. Such cleavage of NDRG1 in cancer cells may result in loss of NDRG1 tumour suppressive activity. PMID:23634903

  3. Proteolytic cleavage and truncation of NDRG1 in human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ghalayini, Mohammad K; Dong, Qihan; Richardson, Des R; Assinder, Stephen J

    2013-06-11

    NDRG1 (N-myc downstream regulated gene-1) is a metastasis suppressor that is down-regulated in prostate cancer. NDRG1 phosphorylation is associated with inhibition of metastasis and Western blots indicate two bands at ~41 and ~46 kDa. Previous investigations by others suggest the higher band is due to NDRG1 phosphorylation. However, the current study using a dephosphorylation assay and the Phos-tag (phosphate-binding tag) SDS/PAGE assay, demonstrated that the 46 kDa NDRG1 protein band was not due to phosphorylation. Further experiments showed that the NDRG1 protein bands were not affected upon glycosidase treatment, despite marked effects of these enzymes on the glycosylated protein, fetuin. Analysis using RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) demonstrated only a single amplicon, and thus, the two bands could not result from an alternatively spliced NDRG1 transcript. Western-blot analysis of prostate cancer cell lysates identified the 41 kDa band to be a truncated form of NDRG1, with MS confirming the full and truncated proteins to be NDRG1. Significantly, this truncated protein was not present in normal human PrECs (prostate epithelial cells). Western-blot analysis using anti-NDRG1 raised to its N-terminal sequence failed to detect the truncated protein, suggesting that it lacked N-terminus amino acids (residues 1-49). Sequence analysis predicted a pseudotrypsin protease cleavage site between Cys49-Gly50. Such cleavage of NDRG1 in cancer cells may result in loss of NDRG1 tumour suppressive activity.

  4. γ-Tocopherol inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation by up-regulation of transglutaminase 2 and down-regulation of cyclins.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, P; Caraglia, M; Abbruzzese, A; Beninati, S

    2013-01-01

    To establish a system to study differentiation therapy drugs, we used the androgen-independent human prostate PC-3 tumor cell line as a target and α- and γ-tocopherol as inducers. Effects of α- and γ-tocopherol on the cell cycle, proliferation and differentiation, were examined. A more significant growth inhibition activity for γ- than for α-tocopherol was observed. Flow cytometry analysis of α- and γ-tocopherol-treated prostate carcinoma PC3 cells showed decreased progression into the S-phase. This effect, particularly evident for γ-tocopherol, was associated with an up-regulation and increased activity of transglutaminase 2 (TG2), a reduced DNA synthesis and a remarkable decreased levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E. Activation of TG2 suggests that γ-tocopherol has an evident differentiative capacity on PC3 cells, leading to an increased expression of TG2, and reduced cyclin D1 and cyclin E levels, affecting cell cycle progression. It is feasible that up-regulation and activation of TG2, associated with a reduced proliferation, are parts of a large-scale reprogramming that can attenuate the malignant phenotype of PC3 cells in vitro. These data suggest further investigation on the potential use of this γ-form of vitamin E as a differentiative agent, in combination with the common cytotoxic treatments for prostate cancer therapy.

  5. False-positive prostate cancer markers in a man with symptomatic urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Smelov, V; Novikov, A; Brown, L J; Eklund, C; Strokova, L; Ouburg, S; Morre, S A; Dillner, J

    2013-06-01

    Symptomatic male urethral Chlamydia trachomatis infection resulted in inflammation of the prostate, with associated increases in both prostate-specific (PSA) and prostate cancer-specific (PCA3) markers with prostate biopsies showing no evidence of malignancy.

  6. P21-Activated Kinase Inhibitors FRAX486 and IPA3: Inhibition of Prostate Stromal Cell Growth and Effects on Smooth Muscle Contraction in the Human Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiming; Gratzke, Christian; Tamalunas, Alexander; Wiemer, Nicolas; Ciotkowska, Anna; Rutz, Beata; Waidelich, Raphaela; Strittmatter, Frank; Liu, Chunxiao; Stief, Christian G.; Hennenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prostate smooth muscle tone and hyperplastic growth are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Available drugs are characterized by limited efficacy. Patients’ adherence is particularly low to combination therapies of 5α-reductase inhibitors and α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, which are supposed to target contraction and growth simultaneously. Consequently, molecular etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and new compounds interfering with smooth muscle contraction or growth in the prostate are of high interest. Here, we studied effects of p21-activated kinase (PAK) inhibitors (FRAX486, IPA3) in hyperplastic human prostate tissues, and in stromal cells (WPMY-1). In hyperplastic prostate tissues, PAK1, -2, -4, and -6 may be constitutively expressed in catecholaminergic neurons, while PAK1 was detected in smooth muscle and WPMY-1 cells. Neurogenic contractions of prostate strips by electric field stimulation were significantly inhibited by high concentrations of FRAX486 (30 μM) or IPA3 (300 μM), while noradrenaline- and phenylephrine-induced contractions were not affected. FRAX486 (30 μM) inhibited endothelin-1- and -2-induced contractions. In WPMY-1 cells, FRAX486 or IPA3 (24 h) induced concentration-dependent (1–10 μM) degeneration of actin filaments. This was paralleled by attenuation of proliferation rate, being observed from 1 to 10 μM FRAX486 or IPA3. Cytotoxicity of FRAX486 and IPA3 in WPMY-1 cells was time- and concentration-dependent. Stimulation of WPMY-1 cells with endothelin-1 or dihydrotestosterone, but not noradrenaline induced PAK phosphorylation, indicating PAK activation by endothelin-1. Thus, PAK inhibitors may inhibit neurogenic and endothelin-induced smooth muscle contractions in the hyperplastic human prostate, and growth of stromal cells. Targeting prostate smooth muscle contraction and stromal growth at once by a single compound is principally possible, at least under

  7. Hydrogen sulfide mediates the anti-survival effect of sulforaphane on human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yanxi; Wu, Bo; Cao, Qiuhui; Wu, Lingyun; Yang, Guangdong

    2011-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a novel gasotransmitter that regulates cell proliferation and other cellular functions. Sulforaphane (SFN) is a sulfur-containing compound that exhibits anticancer properties, and young sprouts of broccoli are particularly rich in SFN. There is consistent epidemiological evidence that the consumption of sulfur-containing vegetables, such as garlic and cruciferous vegetables, may help reduce the occurrence of prostate cancer. Here we found that a large amount of H{sub 2}S is released when SFN is added into cell culture medium or mixed with mouse liver homogenates, respectively. Both SFN and NaHS (a H{sub 2}S donor) decreased the viability of PC-3 cells (a human prostate cancer cell line) in a dose-dependent manner, and supplement of methemoglobin or oxidized glutathione (two H{sub 2}S scavengers) reversed SFN-reduced cell viability. We further found both cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine beta-synthase are expressed in PC-3 cells and mouse prostate tissues. H{sub 2}S production in prostate tissues from CSE knockout mice was only 20% of that from wild-type mice, suggesting CSE is a major H{sub 2}S-producing enzyme in prostate. CSE overexpression enhanced H{sub 2}S production and inhibited cell viability in PC-3 cells. In addition, both SFN and NaHS activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Pre-treatment of PC-3 cells with methemoglobin decreased SFN-stimulated MAPK activities. Suppression of both p38 MAPK and JNK reversed H{sub 2}S- or SFN-reduced viability of PC-3 cells. Our results demonstrated that H{sub 2}S mediates the inhibitory effect of SFN on the proliferation of PC-3 cells, which suggests that H{sub 2}S-releasing diet or drug might be beneficial in the treatment of prostate cancer. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of H{sub 2}S is released from sulforaphane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}S mediates the anti-survival effect of

  8. Novel Fatty Acid Lipoxygenases in the Development of Human and Murine Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Shappell, S ., and Matusik, R. J. Regrowth of prostate tumor after castration in probasin-large T antigen transgenic mice - longitudinal study with MRI, J...21702-5012. The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official...Novel Fatty Acid Lipoxygenases in the Development DAMD17-98-1-8637 of Human and Murine Prostate Cancer 6. AUTHOR( S ) Scott Shappell, M.D., Ph.D. 7

  9. An Embryonic Growth Pathway is Reactivated in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    assess growth of the four cell lines, a Gompertz prostatectomy (n = 2), and six prostate cancer (PC) speci- growth model was fitted to each line. Day... Gompertz model with men (N), in hyperplastic (benign) tissue from men without line-specific asymptote and growth rate was estimated via Gauss-New...histologically confirmed tumor with histologically con- The plots and Gompertz fits were generated in R version 1.6.25.1 (36). firmed benign tissue obtained from

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulation and Roles in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    be generated by other pathways. LPA is produced from phosphatidic acid 4 ") (PA) in activated platelets and ovarian and prostate cancer cells by...material. Appendix 1 JCB in revision 2 ABSTRACT The bioactive phospholipids, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and phosphatidic acid (PA), regulate pivotal...glycerolipid synthesis, abundant evidence now indicates that bioactive LPA can also be generated by other pathways. LPA is produced from phosphatidic acid (PA

  11. B7-H3 and B7x are highly expressed in human prostate cancer and associated with disease spread and poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Xingxing; Thompson, R. Houston; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A.; Serio, Angel M.; Reuter, Victor E.; Eastham, James A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Sharma, Padmanee; Allison, James P.

    2007-01-01

    B7-H3 and B7x are recently discovered members of the B7-CD28 family thought to dampen peripheral immune responses via negative costimulation. We evaluated their potential expression in human prostate cancer using a large cohort of patients with 7 years of follow-up. We identified 823 patients with tissue available treated with radical prostatectomy between 1985 and 2003. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray sections using anti-B7-H3 and -B7x. The percentage and intensity of immunoreactivity by tumor cells were blindly evaluated by two urological pathologists, and outcome analyses were conducted. Both B7-H3 and B7x were highly expressed; 93% and 99% of tumors had aberrant expression, respectively. The median percentage of tumor cells staining positive was 80% for each molecule. Strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x was noted in 212 (26%) and 120 (15%) patients, respectively. Patients with strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x were significantly more likely to have disease spread at time of surgery (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Additionally, patients with strong intensity for B7-H3 and B7x were at significantly increased risk of clinical cancer recurrence (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005) and cancer-specific death (P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively). To our knowledge, we present the largest investigation of B7 family molecules in a human malignancy and a previously undescribed evaluation of B7x in prostate cancer. B7-H3 and B7x are abundantly expressed in prostate cancer and associated with disease spread and poor outcome. Given the proposed immune-inhibitory mechanisms of B7-H3 and B7x, these molecules represent attractive targets for therapeutic manipulation in prostate cancer. PMID:18042703

  12. The Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) and Potential Regulators in Normal, Benign and Malignant Human Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, James; Curran, Catherine E.; Hennessy, Emer; Newell, John; Morris, John C.; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Roisin M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The presence, relevance and regulation of the Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) in human mammary tissue remains poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify relative expression of NIS and putative regulators in human breast tissue, with relationships observed further investigated in vitro. Methods Human breast tissue specimens (malignant n = 75, normal n = 15, fibroadenoma n = 10) were analysed by RQ-PCR targeting NIS, receptors for retinoic acid (RARα, RARβ), oestrogen (ERα), thyroid hormones (THRα, THRβ), and also phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K). Breast cancer cells were treated with Retinoic acid (ATRA), Estradiol and Thyroxine individually and in combination followed by analysis of changes in NIS expression. Results The lowest levels of NIS were detected in normal tissue (Mean(SEM) 0.70(0.12) Log10 Relative Quantity (RQ)) with significantly higher levels observed in fibroadenoma (1.69(0.21) Log10RQ, p<0.005) and malignant breast tissue (1.18(0.07) Log10RQ, p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between human NIS and ERα (r = 0.22, p<0.05) and RARα (r = 0.29, p<0.005), with the strongest relationship observed between NIS and RARβ (r = 0.38, p<0.0001). An inverse relationship between NIS and PI3K expression was also observed (r = −0.21, p<0.05). In vitro, ATRA, Estradiol and Thyroxine individually stimulated significant increases in NIS expression (range 6–16 fold), while ATRA and Thyroxine combined caused the greatest increase (range 16–26 fol