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Sample records for malignant pheochromocytoma treated

  1. Malignant Catatonia Mimicking Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dailin

    2013-01-01

    Malignant catatonia is an unusual and highly fatal neuropsychiatric condition which can present with clinical and biochemical manifestations similar to those of pheochromocytoma. Differentiating between the two diseases is essential as management options greatly diverge. We describe a case of malignant catatonia in a 20-year-old male who presented with concurrent psychotic symptoms and autonomic instability, with markedly increased 24-hour urinary levels of norepinephrine at 1752 nmol/day (normal, 89–470 nmol/day), epinephrine at 1045 nmol/day (normal, <160 nmol/day), and dopamine at 7.9 μmol/day (normal, 0.4–3.3 μmol/day). The patient was treated with multiple sessions of electroconvulsive therapy, which led to complete clinical resolution. Repeat urine collections within weeks of this presenting event revealed normalization or near normalization of his catecholamine and metanephrine levels. Malignant catatonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the hypercatecholamine state, particularly in a patient who also exhibits concurrent catatonic features. PMID:24251048

  2. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  3. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ajallé, R.; Plouin, P. F.; Pacak, K.; Lehnert, H.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective α-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive α- and / or β-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of 123I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of 131I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to 131I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested. PMID:19672813

  4. Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Adjallé, R; Plouin, P F; Pacak, K; Lehnert, H

    2009-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a rare disease, mainly sporadic, but also associated with some familial disorders, with a malignancy frequency of approximately 10%. Only the presence of distant metastases, derived from large pleomorphic chromaffin cells, is widely accepted as a criterion of malignancy. Variable symptoms may be caused by production and release of catecholamines. Since there is no curative treatment for malignant PCC and due to its unfavorable prognosis, assuring quality of life is one of the main therapeutic objectives. Besides a long-term medical treatment of symptoms using selective alpha-1 blockers and nonselective, noncompetitive alpha- and/or beta-blockers, debulking surgery is the first treatment step. In case of a sufficient uptake of (123)I-MIBG treatment with targeted radiation therapy, use of (131)I-MIBG is an option as an adjuvant therapy, following debulking surgery. Chemotherapy should be applied to patients without positive MIBG-scan, with no response to (131)I-MIBG or progression after radionuclide treatment, and especially in cases with high proliferation index. The most effective chemotherapy regimen appears to be the CVD-scheme, including cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The so-called targeted molecular therapies with treatment combinations of temozolomide and thalidomide, or sunitinib monotherapy, and novel therapeutic somatostatin analogues have shown promising results and should thus encourage clinical trials to improve the prognosis of metastatic PCC. Within this review the current treatment modalities and novel molecular strategies in the management of this disease are discussed and a treatment algorithm is suggested.

  5. Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Drasin, Harry

    1978-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor derived from chromaffin tissue, which secretes catecholamines. Today, about 90 percent of patients with this tumor are cured by surgical procedures. In 8 to 15 percent of patients with this tumor there is unresectable, recurrent or metastatic disease, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. The natural history of metastatic disease includes long-term survivors; many, however, die early of disseminated disease. The most common site of metastatic lesions is the skeleton. Palliation for these lesions can often be achieved with the use of radiation therapy. Other sites are, in general, less responsive to radiation therapy. Chemotherapy has been used in combination with radiation therapy, but the results generally have been disappointing. Chemotherapy with doxorubicin hydrochloride and cyclophosphamide in combination with radiation therapy has provided good palliation for skeletal disease for about five months, when disease progression was again noted. Further information is needed concerning the optimal chemotherapeutic treatment of this unusual tumor. PMID:629048

  6. Undiagnosed Pheochromocytoma Simulating Malignant Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Nisha S; Stoppacher, Robert; Morani, Ajaykumar C; Catanese, Charles

    2017-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. They are surgically curable but can be lethal if remain undiagnosed. We report a patient earlier diagnosed with malignant hyperthermia but later found to have pheochromocytoma on autopsy. After a preprocedural pain block for elective right shoulder arthroscopy, a 53-year-old hypertensive white man developed chest pain. In the operating room, he had increased blood pressure. Postoperatively, his blood pressures dropped from 220/100 to 80/30 mm Hg. He later developed high fever with core temperature reaching a peak of 42.2°C, rapid breathing, and died after unsuccessful attempts to stabilize him. Autopsy revealed a tumor in his right adrenal gland, measuring 10 cm in greatest dimension and weighing 530 g. It was red brown with a hemorrhagic and cystic cut surface. A thin rim of yellow-orange adrenal cortex was visible at the margin of the tumor, indicating that it originated from the underlying adrenal medulla. The left adrenal gland was unremarkable.Sections showed hypercellular tumor with zellballen architecture. The tumor cells were round to oval with finely granular basophilic cytoplasm and mild pleomorphism. A 24-hour urine sample collected before his death showed greater than 22727 μg/g Ratio to Creatinine metanephrines and normetanephrine, indicating that the tumor was active and secreted high levels of catecholamine. The cause of death was established as the complications of pheochromocytoma in the settings of general anesthesia for shoulder arthroscopy. The manner of death was natural. Pheochromocytoma can mimic malignant hyperthermia, and it should always be considered and managed appropriately in such scenarios to avoid untoward consequences. Pathologists must also be aware of this when conducting an autopsy in cases with a previous clinical diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia.

  7. Radioisotope diagnosis and therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, B; Gross, M D; Shulkin, B

    2001-12-01

    The availability of radiopharmaceuticals to depict primary malignant pheochromocytoma and its metastases has markedly changed the approach to these unusual cancers. Whole body screening afforded by scintigraphy allows remote tumor involvement to be identified and provides staging information necessary to guide subsequent therapy. The avid accumulation by malignant pheochromocytoma of some radiopharmaceuticals used for scanning has shown promise in therapeutic trials. In this paper, we discuss radiopharmaceuticals presently employed in malignant pheochromocytoma for both diagnostic and therapeutic uses and potential future compounds that may find their way into clinical practice in the approach to these and other related neoplasms.

  8. A Case of Malignant Pheochromocytoma Detected during Fertility Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kazuhisa; Hamano, Itsuto; Kusaka, Ayumu; Murasawa, Hiromi; Tokui, Noriko; Imanishi, Kengo; Okamoto, Akiko; Yamamoto, Hayato; Imai, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Shingo; Yoneyama, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koie, Takuya; Ohyama, Chikara

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of malignant pheochromocytoma in a 35-year-old Japanese woman during fertility treatment, successfully treated with surgical excision. The patient recovered without any postoperative problems, and plasma catecholamine levels normalized. At present, 18 months after the operation, there are no signs of relapse.

  9. Clinical review: Current treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Tim; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel; Dralle, Henning; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2007-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors of predominantly adrenal origin that often produce and secrete catecholamines. Malignancy occurs in a variable percentage of cases depending on genetic background and tumor location. Definitive diagnosis relies on the detection of distant metastases. Treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma include surgical debulking, pharmacological control of hormone-mediated symptoms, targeted methods such as external irradiation, and systemic antineoplastic therapy. Different agents and protocols for this purpose are reviewed, and their therapeutic potential is discussed. Literature on antineoplastic therapies for malignant pheochromocytoma was identified by searching the PubMed database with restriction to articles published in English during the past 30 yr. Because of the rarity of the condition, no randomized clinical trials concerning the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma have been performed. The strategy established best is [131I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy, which is well tolerated. Similar to cytotoxic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine, MIBG can induce remission for a limited period in a significant proportion of patients. Octreotide as a single agent seems to be largely ineffective. MIBG radiotherapy and cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine chemotherapy are comparable with respect to response rate and toxicity. It is unclear whether combining both can improve the outcome. Future developments may include new multimodal concepts with focus on inhibition of angiogenetic factors and heat shock protein 90. Any present or new therapeutic approach must take into account the highly variable natural course of the disease.

  10. Malignant giant pheochromocytoma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arcos, Cristina Torres; Luque, Virgilio Ruiz; Luque, José Aguilar; García, Pablo Martínez; Jiménez, Antonia Brox; Muñoz, Macarena Márquez

    2009-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is a rare disease and surgical resection is the only curative treatment. There are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy, as it is impossible to determine this condition in the absence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case of a patient with a giant retroperitoneal tumour, the second largest to be published, which was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma; it was treated with surgery. The literature is reviewed to evaluate tumour features and criteria to distinguish between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas. PMID:20019963

  11. Changing paradigms in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Raymon H; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are intra- and extra-adrenal neoplasms that are rarely malignant. The treatment of those that are malignant has remained a challenge because little was known about the molecular pathways involved in its malignant transformation. Recently, however, the genetic and molecular changes involved in malignant pheochromocytoma have come to be understood. The authors review the recent literature about the changing treatment options for malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Traditional treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma remain unsuccessful. With the advances made in genomics and proteomics, novel pathways in pheochromocytoma carcinogenesis are becoming the targets of new treatment strategies and show promising results. Although several studies and clinical trials show great promise for improving the treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas, the hope is that future collaborative efforts will allow for prospective clinical trials using an evidenced-based approach.

  12. Disentangling of Malignancy from Benign Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyong Young; Hong, A. Ram; Seong, Moon-Woo; Lee, Kyu Eun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many malignant tumors initially appear benign but subsequently exhibit extensive metastases. Early identification of malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) before metastasis is important for improved prognosis. However, there are no robust prognostic indices of recurrence and malignancy. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and histopathological factors that predict malignant PPGLs. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Methods In this study, we included 223 patients with pathologically confirmed PPGLs who were treated between 2000 and 2015 at the Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. Results Of these patients, 29 were diagnosed with malignancy, 12 of whom presented with metastatic lesions at the initial diagnosis while 17 developed metastases during follow-up. Nineteen patients with recurrent PPGLs consisted of ones with malignant PPGLs (n = 17) and multifocal PPGLs (n = 2) who had VHL and RET mutations. The mean age at presentation for malignant PPGLs was significantly younger than that for benign PPGLs (43.0 vs. 49.0 years, respectively; p = 0.023). Tumor size was not a distinguishing factor between malignant and benign PPGLs (5.0 vs. 4.5 cm, respectively; p = 0.316) nor did it predict recurrence. Of 119 patients with available pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland scaled score (PASS) data, those with malignant PPGLs presented PASS values ≥4. Of 12 parameters of PASS, necrosis, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, cellular monotony, high mitosis, atypical mitotic figures, and nuclear hyperchromasia were significant predictors of malignancy. Conclusions Tumor size did not predict malignancy or recurrence of PPGLs. PPGL patients with characteristic pathologic findings and PASS ≥4 or germline mutations require close follow-up. PMID:27992508

  13. Current and future treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Camilo; Rohren, Eric; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Rich, Thereasa; Jimenez, Paola; Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Baudin, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHs) and sympathetic paragangliomas (SPGs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors. Approximately 17 % of these tumors are malignant, but because no molecular or histologic markers for malignancy exist, patients are often diagnosed with malignant PHs or SPGs after unresectable disease has formed. Patients with progressive metastatic tumors and overwhelming symptoms are currently treated with systemic chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical agents such as metaiodobenzylguanidine. These therapies lead to partial radiographic response, disease stabilization, and symptomatic improvement in approximately 40 % of patients, and systemic chemotherapy is associated with a modest improvement in overall survival duration. However, over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in clinical, biochemical, and radiographic diagnosis of PHs and SPGs. Approximately 50 % of patients with malignant PHs and SPGs have been found to carry hereditary germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene (SDHB), and anti-angiogenic agents such as sunitinib have been found to potentially play a role in the treatment of malignant disease, especially in patients with SDHB mutations. In some patients, treatment with sunitinib has been associated with partial radiographic response, disease stabilization, decreased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography, and improved blood pressure control. These findings have led to the development of prospective clinical trials of new targeted therapies for metastatic disease. Here, we provide an updated review of the clinical and genetic predictors of malignant disease, radiographic diagnosis of malignant disease, and information from the most relevant studies of systemic therapies, as well as proposed treatment guidelines for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant PHs and SPGs.

  14. [A pheochromocytoma of urinary bladder treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Naokazu; Komura, Kazumasa; Koyama, Kouhei; Inamoto, Teruo; Segawa, Naoki; Tanimoto, Keiji; Tuji, Motomu; Azuma, Haruhito; Katsuoka, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    A 69-year-old female presented with hypertension and a solid mass in the bladder on ultrasonography. Cystoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the right lateral wall of the bladder. A transurethral resection was performed. Histologically, pathologic examination revealed a malignant pheochromocytoma. She refused surgical therapy and radiation therapy. She had no treatment for two years. She suddenly complained of gross hematuria. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed a bladder tumor of high intensity and extra-bladder invasion. She was treated with chemotherapy (CVD) for 26 cycles. Since the tumor size was reduced, she was referred to our hospital for operative indication. Partial cystectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was a pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder. Ten months after the operation, she has no clinical evidence of recurrence.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Benign and Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    BROUWERS, FREDERIEKE M.; ELKAHLOUN, ABDEL G.; MUNSON, PETER J.; EISENHOFER, GRAEME; BARB, JENNIFER; LINEHAN, W. MARSTON; LENDERS, JACQUES W.M.; DE KRIJGER, RONALD; MANNELLI, MASSIMO; UDELSMAN, ROBERT; OCAL, IDRIS T.; SHULKIN, BARRY L.; BORNSTEIN, STEFAN R.; BREZA, JAN; KSINANTOVA, LUCIA; PACAK, KAREL

    2016-01-01

    There are currently no reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers or effective treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma. This study used oligonucleotide microarrays to examine gene expression profiles in pheochromocytomas from 90 patients, including 20 with malignant tumors, the latter including metastases and primary tumors from which metastases developed. Other subgroups of tumors included those defined by tissue norepinephrine compared to epinephrine contents (i.e., noradrenergic versus adrenergic phenotypes), adrenal versus extra-adrenal locations, and presence of germline mutations of genes pre-disposing to the tumor. Correcting for the confounding influence of nora-drenergic versus adrenergic catecholamine phenotype by the analysis of variance revealed a larger and more accurate number of genes that discriminated benign from malignant pheochromocytomas than when the confounding influence of catecholamine phenotype was not considered. Seventy percent of these genes were underexpressed in malignant compared to benign tumors. Similarly, 89% of genes were underexpressed in malignant primary tumors compared to benign tumors, suggesting that malignant potential is largely characterized by a less-differentiated pattern of gene expression. The present database of differentially expressed genes provides a unique resource for mapping the pathways leading to malignancy and for establishing new targets for treatment and diagnostic and prognostic markers of malignant disease. The database may also be useful for examining mechanisms of tumorigenesis and genotype–phenotype relationships. Further progress on the basis of this database can be made from follow-up confirmatory studies, application of bioinformatics approaches for data mining and pathway analyses, testing in pheochromocytoma cell culture and animal model systems, and retrospective and prospective studies of diagnostic markers. PMID:17102123

  16. Case report of an 11-year-old child with a nonfunctional malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Holwitt, Dana; Neifeld, James; Massey, Gita; Lanning, David

    2007-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an unusual cause of surgical hypertension and is extremely rare in the pediatric population. We present a case of a hypertension-producing malignant pheochromocytoma in an 11-year-old, which was initially unresectable. The tumor responded partially to aggressive chemotherapy and was completely resected. This approach highlights the importance of multidisciplinary care for patients with large pheochromocytomas.

  17. Composite pheochromocytoma with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, Takeshi; Utsumi, Takanobu; Imamoto, Takashi; Kawamura, Koji; Oide, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Nihei, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

    2016-07-01

    Adrenal tumors with more than one cellular component are uncommon. Furthermore, an adrenal tumor composed of a pheochromocytoma and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is extremely rare. A composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a 42-year-old man is reported here. After adequate preoperative control, left adrenalectomy was performed simultaneously with resection of the ipsilateral kidney for spontaneous rupture of the left adrenal tumor. Pathological findings demonstrated pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in a ruptured adrenal tumor. To date, there have been only four reported cases of composite pheochromocytoma with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, so the present case is only the fifth case in the world. Despite the very poor prognosis of patients with pheochromocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors reported in the literature, the patient remains well without evidence of recurrence or new metastatic lesions at 36 months postoperatively. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  18. Pheochromocytoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000340.htm Pheochromocytoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of adrenal gland tissue. ...

  19. Primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative adrenal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Homma, Koichiro; Hayashi, Koichi; Wakino, Shu; Irie, Rie; Mukai, Makio; Kumagai, Hiroo; Shibata, Hirotaka; Saruta, Takao

    2006-07-01

    A 60-year-old male patient with hypertension was referred to our hospital because of insufficient blood pressure control (190/98 mmHg) and to rule out secondary hypertension. A computed tomography scan revealed no adrenal tumor but a large liver mass (5 x 5 cm), and magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity lesion on the T2-weighted image. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites was markedly increased, although a 123I-metaiodobenzyl guanidine (MIBG) scintigram failed to show accumulation in the hepatic mass, and no difference was noted between the catecholamine concentration in the tumor-drainage vein and that obtained from the vein draining from the non-tumor area. Liver biopsy did show features compatible with pheochromocytoma (i.e., chromogranin A-positive cells). Transcatheter arterial embolization of the liver tumor was conducted and resulted in a marked (50%) decrease in the 24-h urine normetanephrine excretion. Several metastatic foci were noted in the spinal bone and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was also conducted with successful results. Thus, we experienced a case of primary malignant hepatic pheochromocytoma with negative 123I-MIBG scanning.

  20. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment.

  1. Malignant pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: pathogenesis, TNM staging, and current clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Roman-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Jimenez, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors. Over the last 15 years, substantial progress has been made toward understanding the clinical aspects and molecular origins of this disease. Nevertheless, predicting and managing malignancy remains the biggest challenge in clinical practice. The natural history of patients with malignant PPGs has not yet been described, and their prognosis varies. Currently, the diagnosis of malignant PPGs relies on the presence of metastases, by which time the disease is usually advanced. Better understanding of the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients with malignant PPGs has spurred several prospective clinical trials. Several molecular targeted therapies, a novel radiopharmaceutical medication that targets the catecholamine transporter, and immunotherapy are under evaluation for the treatment of patients with malignant PPGs. Furthermore, the identification of clinical predictors of malignancy and survival has led to the first TNM staging classification for PPGs. Prospective clinical trials are providing patients with therapeutic options beyond systemic chemotherapy. The knowledge derived from these trials and from the evaluation of the TNM staging in clinical practice will help to clarify how to most effectively treat malignant PPGs.

  2. Pheochromocytoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... can damage multiple organs, particularly tissues of the cardiovascular system, brain and kidneys. Untreated, high blood pressure associated with pheochromocytomas can result in a number of critical conditions, including: Heart disease Stroke Kidney failure Acute respiratory distress Damage to ...

  3. Malignant pheochromocytoma secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide and response to sunitinib: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz-Amit, Raya; Lebowitz-Amit, Raya; Mete, Ozgur; Asa, Sylvia L; Ezzat, Shereen; Joshua, Anthony M

    2014-08-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma is rare and may be sporadic or have a genetic basis. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-secreting pheochromocytoma has rarely been described in the literature, and treatment remains challenging in the absence of well-controlled randomized trials. The hypoxia-inducible factor-vascular endothelial growth factor axis has been implicated in pheochromocytoma when associated with germline Von-Hippel-Lindau (VHL) or succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) mutations, suggesting potential clinical activity of sunitinib in this setting. We present a case report of a patient with a VIP-secreting malignant pheochromocytoma manifested as severe watery diarrhea, with an exquisite clinical response to sunitinib. We review this rare clinical entity and the potential role of sunitinib in this context. A 51-year-old male initially presented with a pheochromocytoma causing symptoms related to norepinephrine excess. He underwent adrenalectomy, which resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. Three years later, he developed multifocal metastatic disease from his primary tumor, showing immunohistochemical evidence of VIP production accompanied by severe watery diarrhea and hypokalemia. The patient had a rapid, complete, and durable clinical response to sunitinib, but with only a minor radiological response and without significant toxicity. Genetic testing was negative for germline mutations in VHL, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, transmembrane protein 127 (TMEM127) and for neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of malignant VIP-producing pheochromocytoma that was responsive to sunitinib.

  4. Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Lee C; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2003-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, but it represents a potentially curable form of hypertension. In patients with inherited pheochromocytoma, benign and bilateral tumors are more common. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma rests in biochemical confirmation of catecholamine excess. Plasma-free metanephrine levels are arguably the most sensitive and specific test for the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in high-risk patient populations. A timed 24-hour urine collection for total catecholamines and metabolic products (eg, vanillylmandelic acid and metanephrines) is the favored confirmatory test. Localization is most commonly accomplished with high-resolution computed tomography imaging, but magnetic resonance imaging can also be used. If both of these imaging modalities are nonlocalizing or equivocal, then radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine or somatostatin can be used to identify an adrenal or extra-adrenal tumor (paraganglioma). These imaging modalities can be used in the evaluation of patients with suspected or confirmed recurrent or metastatic disease. Systemic therapies for the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic disease have been disappointing. Radiation therapy is best applied for palliative relief of pain associated with bony metastases. In the absence of radiographic evidence for local tumor invasion, laparoscopic resection of small- to medium-sized (< 6 cm) pheochromocytomas is indicated. Abundant evidence indicates that this approach is safe and well tolerated and results in more rapid recovery and less long-term wound morbidity compared to open anterior or posterior adrenalectomy. Open anterior adrenalectomy is appropriate for patients with large or recurrent tumors, suspected or documented locoregional invasion, or for those patients in whom a laparoscopic approach is technically contraindicated. For selected patients with pheochromocytoma in the von Hipple-Lindau syndrome or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 setting in which the

  5. Malignant Seminoma With Metastasis, Sertoli Cell Tumor, and Pheochromocytoma in a Spotted Dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and Malignant Seminoma With Metastasis in a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    2005 0pen Literature 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Malignant Seminoma with Metastasis, Sertoli Cell Tumor, and Pheochromocytoma In a...Spotted Dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and Malignant Seminoma with Metastasis in 5b. GRANT NUMBER a Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) 5c. PROGRAM...reprint. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, cetacean, neoplasm, pheochromocytoma, seminoma , Sertoli cell tumor, spotted dolphin, Stenella

  6. Giant Cystic Pheochromocytoma with Low Risk of Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Ravi; Baijoo, Shanta; Greaves, Wesley; Harnanan, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Giant pheochromocytomas are rare silent entities that do not present with the classical symptoms commonly seen in catecholamine-secreting tumors. In many cases they are accidentally discovered. The algorithm to diagnose a pheochromocytoma consists of biochemical evaluation and imaging of a retroperitoneal mass. The female patient in this case report presented with a palpable abdominal mass and was cured with surgical resection. She suffered no recurrence or complications on follow-up. The left retroperitoneal mass measured 27 × 18 × 12 cm and weighed 3,315 grams. Biochemical, radiological, and pathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma. In this paper, we report on our experience treating this patient and provide a summary of all giant pheochromocytomas greater than 10 cm reported to date in English language medical journals. Our patient's giant cystic pheochromocytoma was the fourth heaviest and fifth largest maximal diameter identified using our literature search criteria. Additionally, this tumor had the largest maximal diameter of all histologically confirmed benign/low metastatic risk pheochromocytomas. Giant cystic pheochromocytomas are rare entities requiring clinical suspicion coupled with strategic diagnostic evaluation to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:28396811

  7. Mutation screening of VHL gene in a family with malignant bilateral pheochromocytoma: from isolated familial pheochromocytoma to von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Amoli, Mahsa M; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Haghpanah, Vahid; Hejazi, Maryam; Soltani, Akbar; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease is an inherited, autosomal dominant syndrome manifested by a variety of benign and malignant tumors. More than 300 germline VHL mutations have been identified that are involved in VHL disease. A large family (four generations) was evaluated. In this paper we report the presence of a single nucleotide mutation in exon 3 of VHL gene c499 C>T causing substitution of Arginine by Tryptophan at position 167 (R 167 W). It was detected in a family with bilateral malignant pheochromocytoma who has been followed for at least 9 years as RET negative isolated familial pheochromocytoma, finally diagnosed as von Hipple-Lindau disease according to retinal angioma and VHL gene mutation. VHL type 2 presenting with both pheochromocytoma and retinal angioma in this family found to be associated with the new missense mutation (c499 C>T) of VHL gene.

  8. Therapy of endocrine disease: treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Baudin, Eric; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Deschamps, Frederic; Cote, Gilbert; Dumont, Frederic; Cabanillas, Maria; Arfi-Roufe, J; Berdelou, A; Moon, Bryan; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Leboulleux, Sophie; Jimenez, Camilo

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (MPPs) present clinicians with three major challenges: scarcity, complexity of characterization, and heterogeneous behavior and prognosis. As with the treatment for all neuroendocrine tumors, the control of hormonal symptoms and tumor growth is the main therapeutic objective in MPP patients. A significant number of MPP patients still die from uncontrolled hormone secretion. In addition, the management of MPPs remains palliative. Steps forward include proper characterization of MPP patients at large cancer referral centers with multidisciplinary teams; improved strategies to stratify patients prognostically; and implementation of trials within national and international networks. Progress in the molecular characterization and staging of MPPs constitutes the basis for significant treatment breakthroughs. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: future considerations for therapy.

    PubMed

    Buzzoni, R; Pusceddu, S; Damato, A; Meroni, E; Aktolun, C; Milione, M; Mazzaferro, V; De Braud, F; Spreafico, C; Maccauro, M; Zaffaroni, N; Castellani, M R

    2013-06-01

    Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumors. Knowledge about such neoplasms ameliorated in the last 10-15 years with the discovery of increasing number of germ line mutations even in apparently sporadic cases. Seemingly, genetic tests are going to be an integral part of diagnostic procedures. Standard therapies (advanced surgery, radiometabolic therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) have revealed suboptimal results in tumor size reduction and survival. Currently, there is no standard therapeutic protocol and thus some patients end up with overtreatment while others are undertreated. An effective molecular target therapy aiming at permanent control of these highly complex neoplasms should be the aim of future efforts. In clinical setting investigatory trials with multiple drug therapies targeting a variety of different parallel pathways should be available. Successful management requires a multidisciplinary teamwork.

  10. Updated and New Perspectives on Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapy of Malignant Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Parenti, Gabriele; Zampetti, Benedetta; Rapizzi, Elena; Ercolino, Tonino; Giachè, Valentino; Mannelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are rare tumors with a poor prognosis. Malignancy is diagnosed by the development of metastases as evidenced by recurrences in sites normally devoid of chromaffin tissue. Histopathological, biochemical, molecular and genetic markers offer only information on potential risk of metastatic spread. Large size, extraadrenal location, dopamine secretion, SDHB mutations, a PASS score higher than 6, a high Ki-67 index are indexes for potential malignancy. Metastases can be present at first diagnosis or occur years after primary surgery. Measurement of plasma and/or urinary metanephrine, normetanephrine and metoxytyramine are recommended for biochemical diagnosis. Anatomical and functional imaging using different radionuclides are necessary for localization of tumor and metastases. Metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas is incurable. When possible, surgical debulking of primary tumor is recommended as well as surgical or radiosurgical removal of metastases. I-131-MIBG radiotherapy is the treatment of choice although results are limited. Chemotherapy is reserved to more advanced disease stages. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the main pathways involved in pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas pathogenesis thus suggesting the use of targeted therapy which, nevertheless, has still to be validated. Large cooperative studies on tissue specimens and clinical trials in large cohorts of patients are necessary to achieve better therapeutic tools and improve patient prognosis. PMID:22851969

  11. Updated and new perspectives on diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Parenti, Gabriele; Zampetti, Benedetta; Rapizzi, Elena; Ercolino, Tonino; Giachè, Valentino; Mannelli, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Malignant pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas are rare tumors with a poor prognosis. Malignancy is diagnosed by the development of metastases as evidenced by recurrences in sites normally devoid of chromaffin tissue. Histopathological, biochemical, molecular and genetic markers offer only information on potential risk of metastatic spread. Large size, extraadrenal location, dopamine secretion, SDHB mutations, a PASS score higher than 6, a high Ki-67 index are indexes for potential malignancy. Metastases can be present at first diagnosis or occur years after primary surgery. Measurement of plasma and/or urinary metanephrine, normetanephrine and metoxytyramine are recommended for biochemical diagnosis. Anatomical and functional imaging using different radionuclides are necessary for localization of tumor and metastases. Metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas is incurable. When possible, surgical debulking of primary tumor is recommended as well as surgical or radiosurgical removal of metastases. I-131-MIBG radiotherapy is the treatment of choice although results are limited. Chemotherapy is reserved to more advanced disease stages. Recent genetic studies have highlighted the main pathways involved in pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas pathogenesis thus suggesting the use of targeted therapy which, nevertheless, has still to be validated. Large cooperative studies on tissue specimens and clinical trials in large cohorts of patients are necessary to achieve better therapeutic tools and improve patient prognosis.

  12. Changes in urinary total metanephrine excretion in recurrent and malignant pheochromocytomas and secreting paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Amar, Laurence; Peyrard, Séverine; Rossignol, Patrick; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Plouin, Pierre-François

    2006-08-01

    We quantified urinary excretion of total metanephrines (metanephrine plus normetanephrine) (UETM) in 261 patients with pheochromocytoma (PH) or secreting paraganglioma, before primary tumor resection. We then determined UETM 2 weeks after primary tumor resection and once per year thereafter. The tumor was considered benign in 242 patients and malignant in 19 patients. Patients with malignant tumors had higher UETM and tumor diameters, lower plasma epinephrine concentrations, and were more likely to have secreting paragangliomas than patients with benign tumors. In the 215 patients with a single-benign primary tumor, preoperative UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated. Thirty-six patients subsequently developed recurrences or new tumors, which were malignant in 18 cases. All recurrent or new tumors could be detected before the onset of symptoms, on the basis of an increase in metanephrine concentration. We followed one patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease and a new tumor for 50 months before reoperation and found that UETM and tumor diameter were significantly correlated. In patients with malignant tumors, the logarithm of UETM was significantly correlated with time, suggesting an exponential increase in tumor activity and, presumably, tumor burden. Urinary metanephrine excretion is a marker of tumor activity and a surrogate of tumor burden in patients with pheochromocytoma or secreting paraganglioma. UETM excretion could be used to assess treatment response in malignant cases.

  13. HuR in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - overexpression in verified malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Helena; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Ristimäki, Ari; Paavonen, Timo; Metso, Saara; Mäenpää, Hanna; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare, neural crest-originating, neuroendocrine tumors. HuR is an mRNA-binding protein of the ELAV/Hu-protein family, which participates in posttranscriptional regulation of many cancer-associated genes. HuR expression has been connected with aggressive behavior of several malignancies. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also expressed in several malignant tumors, and its expression is regulated by HuR. Tissue microarray of 153 primary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas was investigated for the expression of HuR and COX-2 proteins by immunohistochemistry using two different HuR antibodies (HuR19F12 and HuR3A). In these tumors, the expression of both intranuclear and cytoplasmic HuR was detectable. Increased cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with metastatic tumors. Increased COX-2 and MIB-1 expression also was associated with metastatic potential, and moreover, HuR and COX-2 expression correlated with each other. Our data suggest that increased expression of HuR protein is associated with metastatic potential of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and COX-2 seems to be a target of HuR.

  14. Malignant pheochromocytoma: clinical, biological, histologic and therapeutic data in a series of 20 patients with distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, M; Gicquel, C; Lumbroso, J; Tenenbaum, F; Comoy, E; Bosq, J; Fonseca, E; Ghillani, P P; Aubert, B; Travagli, J P

    1992-10-01

    Twenty patients, 16 males and 4 females, aged 11-76 yr, were treated for a metastatic pheochromocytoma at our institution between 1985 and 1990. A neurofibromatosis was associated in 4. Thirteen patients had a unilateral adrenal tumor, 3 had an extraadrenal retroperitoneal tumor, 2 had a bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma, one had a unilateral tumor with a contralateral medullary hyperplasia and one an adrenal and an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma. Metastases occurred in all patients, at presentation in 11, 10 to 30 months later in 7, and 9 and 28 yr later, respectively in two. Histology did not afford conclusive evidence for malignancy. Catecholamine hyperproduction was present in all, predominantly affecting norepinephrine. Neuron Specific Enolase level was elevated in 11, Neuro-Peptide Y level in 9 and procalcitonin level in 11/18. High dopamine, methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid excretion levels seemed to correlate with large tumors or terminal stage. MIBG uptake was found in 16 after a diagnostic dose and in 1 only after a therapeutic dose. Surgery was performed on primary tumor in 18 and on distant metastase in 10. Iodine-131 MIBG therapy was performed in 11, among whom 9 were evaluable. Cumulative activity ranged from 100 to 711 mCi, in 1 to 6 courses. Symptomatic improvement occurred in 5 patients, stabilization was observed in 3 and tumor partial response in two, which lasted for 28 and 9 months, respectively terminating in a rapidly progressing disease with bone marrow involvement. Moderate myelosuppression occurred in 4 patients. Chemotherapy gave no response in 7 evaluable patients. Fourteen patients died with a median survival of 16 months from diagnosis of metastases (range 3-60). Response to therapy was poor and warrants further cooperative trials.

  15. [Complete hormonal and metabolic response after iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in a patient diagnosed of malignant pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    García Alonso, M P; Balsa Bretón, M A; Paniagua Correa, C; Castillejos Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez Pelayo, E; Mendoza Paulini, A; Ortega Valle, A; Penín González, J

    2013-01-01

    Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine is an analogue of norepinephrine used to localize tumors that express the neurohormone transporters, specifically those derived from the neural crest having a neuroendocrine origin. It is also used to treat non-surgical metastases derived from them. A review of the literature revealed symptomatic improvements associated to a decrease in hormone levels in a significant percentage of patients after (131)I-MIBG treatment. However, complete tumor remission has been described only in very few cases and hardly ever when bone metastases exist. We present a case of a patient diagnosed of malignant pheochromocytoma who achieved complete hormonal and metabolic response after (131)I-MIBG treatment (600 mCi) in spite of the presence of bone metastases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of fusion images of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine, SPECT, and magnetic resonance studies to identify a malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hyodoh, H; Kawamura, Y; Kanegae, K; Furuse, M; Kanazawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a chromaffin tumor in which 10% are extra-adrenal and 10% are malignant. I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy has an important role in the identification of these tumors and investigation of metastatic lesions. The authors describe a 36-year-old woman who underwent resection of a malignant left adrenal pheochromocytoma who was thought to have metastases in the liver and para-aortic lymph nodes. Fusion images of I-131 MIBG SPECT and magnetic resonance studies were obtained to properly identify the metastatic lesions. These fusion images helped greatly in subsequent surgery.

  17. [Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma by combination of CVD regimen and transarterial embolization].

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Katagiri, A; Kanai, T; Komeyama, T; Tsutsui, T; Katayama, Y; Kawakami, Y; Sato, S; Kimura, M; Odano, I

    1991-05-01

    We performed combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Vincristine and Dacarbazine (CVD) regimen and transarterial embolization (TAE) in 2 cases of malignant pheochromocytoma with metastases. Case 1: 59-year-old female. After primary left adrenal lesion had been removed, recurrence at the left renal hilar region and metastases to the right iliac bone and 5th cervical vertebra occurred. We took 3 courses of CVD regimen after TAE for the lesions in the right iliac bone. Her endocrinological data has been normal for more than 1 year after treatment. Case 2: 29-year-old male. Total cystectomy, ileal conduit and pelvic lymphadenectomy had been performed for the primary lesion of the urinary bladder. 2 years after the 1st operation, metastases to the right obturator nodes and multiple bones occurred. We gave 3 courses of CVD regimen followed by TAE for the lesions in the right obturator nodes. Just after treatment, we could stop insulin and reduce anti-hypertension drugs, but the effect of treatment was temporary. In conclusion, combination of CVD regimen and TAE is effective for malignant pheochromocytoma with metastases.

  18. [Antiangiogenic therapy of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma with the view to the recent scientific developments].

    PubMed

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Bobrzyk, Magdalena; Madej, PaweŁ; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-04-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor that stems from chromaffin cells and usually develops in the adrenal glands. Its equivalent, which exists outside of the adrenal glands, is paraganglioma. Approximately 10-26% of pheochromocytoma is malignant, what poses a significant therapeutical problem, as its presence, together with an abundant production of catecholamines, may lead to a number of perilous complications, such as spinal cord oppression or the damage of organs, what is responsible for producing catecholamines. Due to the risk that the tumor is, it is essential to event new and effective ways of treatment. In case of malignant tumors stemming from chromaffin cells, much is expected from antiangiogenic medicine. Its functioning consists of stopping of the process of neovascularization, which is indispensable for the development of the tumor. Sunitinib - a tyrosine kinase inhibitor - is perhaps the most promising antiangiogenic medicine, whose effectiveness is currently being evaluated in 2nd phase clinical trials. Attempts are also being made to conduct treatment with the use of other medicine of similar functioning, such as: thalidomide, imatinib or evrolimus. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  19. Prognostic value of Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (Pass score) tests to separate benign from malignant neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mlika, Mona; Kourda, Nadia; Zorgati, Mohamed Majdi; Bahri, Sonia; Ben Ammar, Slim; Zermani, Rachida

    2013-03-01

    Differentiating malignant from benign pheochromocytoma has been challenging when based on histologic features. This is due to the definition of malignant pheochromocytoma which are defined by the presence of metastases. A PASS score was developed and according to many authors, a PASS score> =4 identified potentially malignant tumors. To assess the prognostic value of PASS score in differentiating benign pheochromocytomas from malignant ones. The records of 11 patients with tumors diagnosed as "pheochromocytoma" were identified from 1970 to 2010 in the files of the pathology, intern medicine and biochemistry departments of the Charles Nicolle hospital and Pasteur Institute. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of PASS. The logistic model was developed using the 11 predictive variables. Its performance was evaluated by calculating the area under the ROC curve and comparing it with that of the PASS. In benign tumors, The PASS score was <4 in 3 cases and >=4 in 6 cases. In malignant tumors, the PASS score was >=4 in both cases. According to the ROC curve analysis, a PASS equal or superior to 4 identifies malignant pheochromocytoma with a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 45%. I think that PASS score, despite its low sensitivity, may help to reserve the more aggressive treatment and narrow follow up for potentially malignant tumors. Widespread of this called score with complete clinical data will help to validate these findings and to add other prognostic factors of value that could be a part of this scaled score such as immunohistochemical findings.

  20. Molecular and Therapeutic Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Malignant Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Aoife J.; Walsh, Siun; McDermott, Enda W.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting tumors derived from chromaffin cells originating in the neural crest. These tumors represent a significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge because the diagnosis of malignancy is frequently made in retrospect by the development of metastatic or recurrent disease. Complete surgical resection offers the only potential for cure; however, recurrence can occur even after apparently successful resection of the primary tumor. The prognosis for malignant disease is poor because traditional treatment modalities have been limited. The last decade has witnessed exciting discoveries in the study of PCCs and PGLs; advances in molecular genetics have uncovered hereditary and germline mutations of at least 10 genes that contribute to the development of these tumors, and increasing knowledge of genotype-phenotype interactions has facilitated more accurate determination of malignant potential. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for malignant transformation in these tumors has opened avenues of investigation into targeted therapeutics that show promising results. There have also been significant advances in functional and radiological imaging and in the surgical approach to adrenalectomy, which remains the mainstay of treatment for PCC. In this review, we discuss the currently available diagnostic and therapeutic options for patients with malignant PCCs and PGLs and detail the molecular rationale and clinical evidence for novel and emerging diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:23576482

  1. 9B.09: IDENTIFICATION OF MARKERS PREDICTIVE FOR MALIGNANT BEHAVIOR OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMAS AND PARAGANGLIOMAS.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, L; Van Nederveen, F H; Oudijk, L; Papathomas, T G; Restuccia, D F; Belt, E J T; Franssen, G J H; Feelders, R A; Van Eeden, S; Timmers, H; De Herder, W W; Aydin, S; Vikkula, M; De Krijger, R R; Dinjens, W N M; Persu, A; Korpershoek, E

    2015-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGL) are relatively rare and mostly benign tumours. Approximately 10% of PPGL are malignant, as defined by the presence of metastases, i.e chromaffin tissue at a location that usually does not contain chromaffin cells. However, up to 35% of tumours in patients carrying an SDHB mutation appears to be malignant. Nowadays, no reliable marker allows to predict whether a PPGL is, or will become malignant. In addition, there are no curative treatments if metastases occur. The aim of the present study was to dentify genetic markers allowing to distinguish benign from malignant tumours. An mRNA expression array was performed on benign and malignant PPGL. The genes showing a different expression between the benign and malignant tumours were selected to be confirmed and validated by qRT-PCR. Finally, the remaining genes were stained by immunohistochemistry on Tissue MicroArray including a large series of PPGL. Forty benign and 12 malignant PPGL were investigated for differences in mRNA expression with Affymetrix arrays. Expression data were normalized according to Affymetrix recommendations. Then, using Pomelo II (http://pomelo2.bioinfo.cnio.es/), a Limma t-test was performed, to assess which genes were differentially expressed between benign and malignant PPGL. First, a non-clustered analysis was performed and 10 genes with a False Discovery Rate (FDR) below 0.05 and a relative overexpression ratio of at least 4 were found, including Interleukin 13 Receptor alpha 2 (IL13RA2) and Monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (MOXD1). Secondly, a supervised cluster analysis was performed (based on HIF target genes), resulting in 2 groups, which were both investigated for differences in mRNA expression between benign and malignant tumours. Five genes showed an FDR below 0.01 and were overexpressed in malignant tumours with a ratio higher than 4, including Contactin 4 (CNTN4), Iroquois Homeobox 3 (IRX3), and Sulfatase 2 (SULF2). These genes were further

  2. A Case of Malignant Pheochromocytoma Presenting 7 Years After the Initial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Al-Omaishi, Larsa; Babin, Jonathan; Corsetti, Ralph L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is a rare tumor of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglion that produces the catecholamines norepinephrine and epinephrine. Traditionally, approximately 10% of PHEOs were thought to be malignant, but recent developments in PHEO research have noted that specific genetic mutations are associated with higher risk of metastatic spread. Case Report: We report the case of a 71-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in September 2009 when she was 64 years old. Evaluation at that time revealed cholelithiasis and bilateral adrenal masses. Workup showed elevated free normetanephrines, and positron emission tomography-computed tomography demonstrated bilateral adrenal hypermetabolic lesions concerning for malignancy. She underwent open bilateral adrenalectomies and cholecystectomy. The right adrenal mass was identified as a PHEO with nonaggressive features and negative margins, and the left adrenal mass was an adrenal cortical adenoma without dysplasia. In April 2016, the patient was referred by her endocrinologist for elevated blood pressure and 16-lb weight loss. The patient reported weakness, headaches, hot flashes, cold sweats, and fatigue. Laboratory workup revealed elevated plasma free normetanephrine, and imaging showed a recurrence of the PHEO in both the right adrenal bed and the head of the right humerus. Conclusion: Current predictors of PHEO recurrence failed to identify the original tumor as aggressive or likely to return as a metastatic lesion. Because of the rarity of these tumors, few consistent laboratory or radiologic predictors of malignancy based on initial presentation have been identified; predictors of malignancy in PHEO warrant further investigation. PMID:28331462

  3. Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis treated with emergency surgery: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kakoki, Katsura; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Shida, Youhei; Hakariya, Tomoaki; Takehara, Kosuke; Izumida, Seiya; Sekino, Motohiro; Kinoshita, Naoe; Igawa, Tsukasa; Fukuoka, Junya; Sakai, Hideki

    2015-12-09

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor that predominantly presents with hypertension, palpitations, and tachycardia due to excessive catecholamine excretion. Although pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis (PMC) is relatively rare, urologists and clinicians should focus on early diagnosis as delay in initiating the appropriate treatment can lead to mortality A 70-year-old man developed ileus after a few days of medication for hypertension. Computed tomography incidentally revealed a left adrenal mass. This finding together with his clinical course was compatible with pheochromocytoma. An α-blocker was administered immediately, and his blood pressure was well controlled. However, his general condition and laboratory data deteriorated rapidly, and the patient was diagnosed with PMC with lethal status. Thus, emergency adrenalectomy was performed without confirmation of catecholamine levels. From the resected specimen, his tumor was judged as pheochromocytoma. On immunohistochemical analysis, the proliferation index evaluated by Ki-67 staining was 9.7 %. This case report was approved by the Human Ethics Review Committee of the Nagasaki University Hospital. The present case of PMC was successfully treated with emergency surgery. The benign pheochromocytoma also presented with high cell proliferation potential, which may be a cause of the extreme aggressiveness of PMC.

  4. Targeting heat shock protein 90 for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Giubellino, Alessio; Sourbier, Carole; Lee, Min-Jung; Scroggins, Brad; Bullova, Petra; Landau, Michael; Ying, Weiwen; Neckers, Len; Trepel, Jane B; Pacak, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma represents one of the major clinical challenges in the field of neuroendocrine oncology. Recent molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma suggests new treatment options with targeted therapies. In this study we investigated the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) as a potential therapeutic target for advanced pheochromocytoma. Both the first generation, natural product Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), and the second-generation synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor STA-9090 (ganetespib) demonstrated potent inhibition of proliferation and migration of pheochromocytoma cell lines and induced degradation of key Hsp90 clients. Furthermore, ganetespib induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in primary pheochromocytoma cells. Using metastatic models of pheochromocytoma, we demonstrate the efficacy of 17-AAG and ganetespib in reducing metastatic burden and increasing survival. Levels of Hsp70 in plasma from the xenograft studies served as a proximal biomarker of drug treatment. Our study suggests that targeting Hsp90 may benefit patients with advanced pheochromocytoma.

  5. Targeting Heat Shock Protein 90 for the Treatment of Malignant Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Giubellino, Alessio; Sourbier, Carole; Lee, Min-Jung; Scroggins, Brad; Bullova, Petra; Landau, Michael; Ying, Weiwen; Neckers, Len

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma represents one of the major clinical challenges in the field of neuroendocrine oncology. Recent molecular characterization of pheochromocytoma suggests new treatment options with targeted therapies. In this study we investigated the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) as a potential therapeutic target for advanced pheochromocytoma. Both the first generation, natural product Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), and the second-generation synthetic Hsp90 inhibitor STA-9090 (ganetespib) demonstrated potent inhibition of proliferation and migration of pheochromocytoma cell lines and induced degradation of key Hsp90 clients. Furthermore, ganetespib induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in primary pheochromocytoma cells. Using metastatic models of pheochromocytoma, we demonstrate the efficacy of 17-AAG and ganetespib in reducing metastatic burden and increasing survival. Levels of Hsp70 in plasma from the xenograft studies served as a proximal biomarker of drug treatment. Our study suggests that targeting Hsp90 may benefit patients with advanced pheochromocytoma. PMID:23457505

  6. Predictors of malignancy in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas: Asian Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Kasaliwal, Rajeev; Pandit, Reshma; Goroshi, Manjunath; Malhotra, Gaurav; Dalvi, Abhay; Bakshi, Ganesh; Bhansali, Anil; Rajput, Rajesh; Shivane, Vyankatesh; Lila, Anurag; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Malignant transformation of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) is a rare occurrence, and predictive factors for the same are not well understood. This study aims to identify the predictors of malignancy in patients with PCC/PGL. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 142 patients with either PCC or PGL registered at our institute between 2000 and 2015. Records were evaluated for clinical parameters like age, gender, familial/syndromic presentation, symptomatic presentation, biochemistry, size, number and location of tumours and presence of metastases and mode of its diagnosis. Results Twenty patients were found to have metastases; 13 had metastases at diagnosis and seven during follow-up. Metastases were detected by radiology (CT-neck to pelvis) in 11/20 patients (5/13 synchronous and 6/7 metachronous), 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in five (2/12 synchronous and 3/6 metachronous) patients and 18F-flurodeoxyglucose PET/CT in 15 (12/12 synchronous and 3/3 metachronous) patients. Malignant tumours were significantly larger than benign tumours (8.3 ± 4.1 cm, range: 3–22 cm vs 5.7 ± 2.3 cm, range: 2–14 cm, P = 0.0001) and less frequently metanephrine secreting. On linear regression analysis, tumour size and lack of metanephrine secretion were the independent predictors of malignancy. Conclusions Patients with primary tumour size >5.7 cm and lack of metanephrine secretory status should be evaluated for possible malignancy not only at diagnosis but also in the postoperative period. As compared to CT and 131I-MIBG scan, 18F-flurodeoxyglucose PET/CT analyses are better (sensitivity: 100%) for the diagnosis of metastases in our study. PMID:27852633

  7. Temozolomide for Treating Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Hua; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Lou; Tang, Jian-Qin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant forms of skin cancer; with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Early-stage melanoma is curable, but advanced metastatic melanoma is almost always fatal, and patients with such advanced disease have short median survival. Surgery and radiotherapy play a limited role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Rather, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, although other approaches, including biotherapy and gene therapy, have been attempted. The authors hereby, evaluated the use of temozolomide (TMZ) for treating metastatic melanoma compared to dacarbazine (DTIC), the effectiveness of TMZ for treating brain metastases, as well as TMZ resistance and how the efficacy of TMZ in malignant melanoma can be increased. Two chemotherapeutic regimens are commonly used for palliative treatment of malignant melanoma: intravenous administration of DTIC and oral administration of the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). Compared to DTIC, TMZ is very well tolerated and has an advantage in terms of improving the quality of life of patients with metastatic melanoma. While the prognosis is currently unpromising, chemotherapy plays a palliative role for patients with metastatic melanoma. The toxicity of treatment regimens based on DTIC and TMZ do not differ significantly, although TMZ is costlier. These findings provide a reference for future researchers via a comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature.

  8. Germline mutations in FH confer predisposition to malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vega, Luis Jaime; Buffet, Alexandre; De Cubas, Aguirre A; Cascón, Alberto; Menara, Mélanie; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Amar, Laurence; Azriel, Sharona; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Chabre, Olivier; Currás-Freixes, Maria; Franco-Vidal, Valérie; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Simian, Christophe; Morin, Aurélie; Letón, Rocío; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; Pollard, Patrick J; Rustin, Pierre; Robledo, Mercedes; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2014-05-01

    Malignant pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are mostly caused by germline mutations of SDHB, encoding a subunit of succinate dehydrogenase. Using whole-exome sequencing, we recently identified a mutation in the FH gene encoding fumarate hydratase, in a PCC with an 'SDH-like' molecular phenotype. Here, we investigated the role of FH in PCC/PGL predisposition, by screening for germline FH mutations in a large international cohort of patients. We screened 598 patients with PCC/PGL without mutations in known PCC/PGL susceptibility genes. We searched for FH germline mutations and large deletions, by direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification methods. Global alterations in DNA methylation and protein succination were assessed by immunohistochemical staining for 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and S-(2-succinyl) cysteine (2SC), respectively. We identified five pathogenic germline FH mutations (four missense and one splice mutation) in five patients. Somatic inactivation of the second allele, resulting in a loss of fumarate hydratase activity, was demonstrated in tumors with FH mutations. Low tumor levels of 5-hmC, resembling those in SDHB-deficient tumors, and positive 2SC staining were detected in tumors with FH mutations. Clinically, metastatic phenotype (P = 0.007) and multiple tumors (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent in patients with FH mutations than those without such mutations. This study reveals a new role for FH in susceptibility to malignant and/or multiple PCC/PGL. Remarkably, FH-deficient PCC/PGLs display the same pattern of epigenetic deregulation as SDHB-mutated malignant PCC/PGL. Therefore, we propose that mutation screening for FH should be included in PCC/PGL genetic testing, at least for tumors with malignant behavior.

  9. Malignant pheochromocytoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Scopsi, L; Castellani, M R; Gullo, M; Cusumano, F; Camerini, E; Pasini, B; Orefice, S

    1996-01-01

    A malignant behavior (i.e., distant metastatic spread) has been recorded in 3-4% pheochromocytomas occurring in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A syndrome, but has never been documented in patients with the type 2B form. In this report we describe a case of malignant pheochromocytoma arising in the latter syndrome setting. The patient, a white young male, had the full-blown syndrome, including multicentric, bilateral medullary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to regional lymph nodes, mucosal neuromas, digestive ganglioneuromatosis, marfanoid habitus, and bumpy lips. Three and a half years after surgical resection of an apparently benign adrenal pheochromocytoma he developed widespread osseous metastases. The presence of hypertensive crises and high urinary catecholamine excretion rates, coupled to moderate hypercalcitoninemia, normal circulating carcinoembryonic antigen levels, negative whole-body 99mTc-(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, and absence of neck or mediastinal disease by magnetic resonance imaging, proved that the metastases were from his previous adrenal and not thyroid tumor. Furthermore, since the bone metastases strongly accumulated 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, several courses of the radiocompound were given, which resulted in an objective, though partial, tumor regression.

  10. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine for malignant paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, N D; Alblas, G; van Hulsteijn, L T; Dekkers, O M; Corssmit, E P M

    2014-11-01

    Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD) can be used for palliative treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. However, the precise effect of this chemotherapeutic regimen on tumour volume is unclear. The main objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the effect of chemotherapy with CVD on tumour volume in patients with malignant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma. A literature search was performed in October 2013 to identify potentially relevant studies. Main outcomes were the pooled percentages of complete response, partial response and stable disease after chemotherapy with CVD. A meta-analysis was performed with an exact likelihood approach using a logistic regression. Pooled percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. Four studies concerning a total of 50 patients with malignant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma reported on treatment with a combination of CVD chemotherapy. A meta-analysis of the effect of chemotherapy on tumour volume showed pooled percentages of complete response, partial response and stable disease of, respectively, 4% (95% CI: 1%-15%), 37%(95% CI: 25%-51%) and 14% (95% CI: 7%-27%). Only two studies concerning a total of 35 patients assessed the response on catecholamine excess; pooled percentages for complete, partial and stable hormonal response were 14% (95% CI: 6%-30%), 40% (95% CI: 25%-57%) and 20% (95% CI: 10%-36%), respectively. Duration of response was also reported in only two studies with a median duration of response of 20 months and 40 months. Data on the effects of a combination of CVD chemotherapy on malignant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma suggest that a partial response concerning tumour volume can be achieved in about 37% of patients and a partial response on catecholamine excess in about 40% of patients. However, in the included studies, the protocol when to initiate treatment was not well described. Therefore, it cannot

  11. Phase II trial of pazopanib in advanced/progressive malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Jasim, Sina; Suman, Vera J; Jimenez, Camilo; Harris, Pamela; Sideras, Kostandinos; Burton, Jill K; Worden, Francis Paul; Auchus, Richard J; Bible, Keith C

    2017-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (Pheo/PGL) are rare, vascular, sometimes malignant endocrine tumors. Case reports indicate the activity of vascular endothelium growth factor receptor-targeted kinase inhibitors in these cancers. To assess the antitumor activity and tolerability of pazopanib in progressive malignant Pheo/PGL. This multicenter Phase II trial (MC107C) enrolled individuals  ≥18 years old with disease progression ≤ 6 months prior to registration, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS 0-2, and measurable disease (response evaluation criteria in solid tumors 1.0). Pazopanib was administered in 28-day cycles, with the regimen ultimately being as follows: cycle 1: 400 mg daily on days 1-14, cycle 2: 800 mg daily on days 1-14, and then cycle 2 + : 800 mg daily on all days. The study was halted due to poor accrual. Seven patients were enrolled (05/2011-11/2014). One patient withdrew consent prior to treatment, leaving six evaluable patients. Treatment was discontinued, due to the following reasons: disease progression (4); withdrawal (1); and grade 4 (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (1). The median number of cycles administered was 4 (range: 2-29, total: 49). Four patients had >1 dose reduction due to the following reasons: fatigue (1), abnormal liver tests (2), hypertension and (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (1), and headaches (1). Common severe (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v3.0 grades 3-5) toxicities were as follows: hypertension (3/6), (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy (2/6), diarrhea (1/6), fatigue (1/6), headache (1/6), and hematuria (1/6). One confirmed partial response was observed in PGL (17%, duration 2.4 years); median progression-free survival and overall survival were 6.5 and 14.8 months, respectively. Pazopanib has activity in Pheo/PGL requiring more study; optimal alpha- and beta-blockade are imperative pre-therapy in patients with secretory tumors, as risk of hypertension and cardiomyopathy are potentially life

  12. Expression of the pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) in pheochromocytoma as a potential marker for distinguishing benign versus malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Haji Amousha, Mohamad Reza; Sabetkish, Nastaran; Sabet Kish, Nastaran; Heshmat, Ramin; Rajabiani, Afsaneh; Saffar, Hiva; Haghpanah, Vahid; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The Distinction between malignant and benign pheochromocytoma has always been a diagnostic challenge over the last decades. To date, the only reliable criterion is metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible expression of pituitary-tumor transforming gene (PTTG1) and retinoblastoma (Rb) in benign and malignant pheochromocytoma. Paraffin blocks of 44 and 11 patients diagnosed with benign and malignant pheochromocytoma were collected. Parameters such as sex, age, tumor size, necrosis, and histological features were compared between the benign and malignant groups as well as immunohistochemical labeling using specific antibodies. PTTG1 showed negative expression in all (44) benign and 9 out of 11 (81.8%) malignant tumors with only 2 out of 11 (18.2%) malignant tumors showed positive reactivity for PTTG1 (P: 0.037) with spindle cell histological pattern in both of them (P: 0.013). Although Rb expression in malignant tumors (81.8%) was slightly more than the benign ones (52.3%), no statistically significant correlation was observed (P: 0.087). These results suggest that PTTG1 immunostaining may play a key role in distinguishing between benign and malignant phaeochromocytoma. However, larger studies are necessary to confirm the outcomes of the present study.

  13. Chemotherapy trials in malignant pheochromocytoma: report of two patients and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, R M; Vidt, D G

    1984-10-01

    Two patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma received chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, cyclophosphamide, and streptozotocin. A biochemical response occurred in one instance. A review of the literature and the results in the reported patients indicate cyclophosphamide and/or streptozotocin may have activity in this neoplasm.

  14. External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) for Patients with Malignant Pheochromocytoma and Non-Head and Neck Paraganglioma: Combination with 131I-MIBG

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Lauren; Bonner, Lara; Torigian, Drew A.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Cohen, Debbie L.; Pryma, Daniel; Cengel, Keith

    2015-01-01

    In patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, 131I-MIBG radiotherapy can achieve an objective response rate of 30–50% with the dose limiting toxicity being hematologic. Patients with disseminated disease, who also have a few index bulky or symptomatic lesions, may benefit from the addition of targeted external beam radiotherapy alone or in combination with systemic 131I-MIBG. The records of patients with malignant paraganglioma who were treated with external beam radiotherapy at the University of Pennsylvania from February 1973 to February 2011 were reviewed in an institutional review board approved retrospective study. Of the 17 patients with tumors in the thorax, abdomen, or pelvis, 76% had local control or clinically significant symptomatic relief for at least one year or until death. As expected, the predominant toxicity was due to irradiation of tumor-adjacent normal tissues without clinically significant hematologic toxicity. Due to widespread systemic metastases with areas of bulky, symptomatic tumor, five of the 17 patients were treated with sequential 131I-MIBG (2 mCi/kg per treatment) and external beam radiotherapy to nine sites. In these patients, all areas that were irradiated with external beam radiotherapy showed durable objective response despite all patients eventually experiencing out-of-field systemic progression requiring other treatment. Four of these patients remain alive with excellent performance status 16, 18, 23, and 24 months after external beam radiotherapy. External beam radiotherapy can be highly effective in local management of malignant paraganglioma and can be used in conjunction with 131I-MIBG due to non-overlapping toxicities with excellent control of locally bulky tumors. PMID:22566196

  15. Pheochromocytoma-Induced Inverted Takotsubo-Like Cardiomyopathy Leading to Cardiogenic Shock Successfully Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Flam, Benjamin; Broomé, Michael; Frenckner, Björn; Bränström, Robert; Bell, Max

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma classically displays a variety of rather benign symptoms, such as headache, palpitations, and sweating, although severe cardiac manifestations have been described. We report a case of pheochromocytoma-induced inverted takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy leading to shock and cardiac arrest successfully treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a bridge to pharmacological therapy and curative adrenalectomy. A previously healthy 46-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, dyspnea, nausea, and vomiting. Clinical evaluation revealed cardiorespiratory failure with hypoxia and severe metabolic acidosis. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed pulmonary edema and a left adrenal mass. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) displayed severe left ventricular dysfunction with inverted takotsubo contractile pattern. Despite mechanical ventilation and inotropic and vasopressor support, asystolic cardiac arrest ensued. The patient was resuscitated using manual chest compressions followed by venoarterial ECMO. Repeated TTEs demonstrated resolution of the cardiomyopathy within a few days. Laboratory results indicated transient renal and hepatic dysfunction, and CT scan of the brain displayed occipital infarctions. Biochemical testing and radionuclide scintigraphy confirmed a pheochromocytoma. Pharmacological adrenergic blockade was instituted prior to delayed adrenalectomy after which the diagnosis was histopathologically verified. The patient recovered after rehabilitation. We conclude that pheochromocytoma should be considered in patients presenting with unexplained cardiovascular compromise, especially if they display (inverted) takotsubo contractile pattern. Timely, adequate management might involve ECMO as a bridge to pharmacological therapy and curative surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-14

    Biphasic Mesothelioma; Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Biphasic Mesothelioma; Pleural Epithelioid Mesothelioma; Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Pleural Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma; Recurrent Peritoneal Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma; Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma

  17. Systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Darshini A; Smith, Valerie; Hayden, Fiona; Cronin, Patricia

    2017-08-24

    Malignant wounds are a devastating complication of cancer. They usually develop in the last six months of life, in the breast, chest wall or head and neck regions. They are very difficult to treat successfully, and the commonly associated symptoms of pain, exudate, malodour, and the risk of haemorrhage are extremely distressing for those with advanced cancer. Treatment and care of malignant wounds is primarily palliative, and focuses on alleviating pain, controlling infection and odour from the wound, managing exudate and protecting the surrounding skin from further deterioration. In malignant wounds, with tissue degradation and death, there is proliferation of both anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. The aim of antibiotic therapy is to successfully eliminate these bacteria, reduce associated symptoms, such as odour, and promote wound healing. To assess the effects of systemic antibiotics for treating malignant wounds. We searched the following electronic databases on 8 March 2017: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched the clinical trial registries of the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (apps.who.int/trialsearch) and ClinicalTrials.gov on 20 March 2017; and OpenSIGLE (to identify grey literature) and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (to retrieve dissertation theses related to our topic of interest) on 13 March 2017. Randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of any systemic antibiotics on malignant wounds were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened and selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted study data. A third reviewer checked extracted data for accuracy prior to analysis. We identified only one study for inclusion in this review. This study was a prospective, double-blind cross

  18. Prognostic values of initial responses to low-dose (131)I-MIBG therapy in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Taki, Junichi; Inaki, Anri; Nakamura, Ayane; Kayano, Daiki; Fukuoka, Makoto; Matsuo, Shinro; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2013-11-01

    We retrospectively examined whether or not initial responses of first low-dose (131)I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine radiotherapy ((131)I-MIBG therapy) in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma had prognostic values. This study included 26 patients with malignant pheochromocytoma (n = 18) and paraganglioma (n = 8) who underwent the first (131)I-MIBG therapy between October 2001 and September 2007. Based on the initial subjective, hormonal, scintigraphic, and objective responses to (131)I-MIBG therapy, the responses were divided into progression disease (PD) and non-PD. We examined the following factors for prognostic significance: sex, age, disease, initial diagnosis (benign or malignant pheochromocytoma), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, palpitations, symptoms related to bone metastases, and number of low-dose (131)I-MIBG therapy. Univariate Cox proportional regression analysis was used to identify prognostic factors for overall survival. Overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method and the curves were compared using the log-rank test. The median survival time was 56 months. In the follow-up period, 16 patients died from exacerbation of their diseases. Univariate analysis showed that the hormonal PD [hazard ratio (HR) 3.20, P = 0.034, confidence interval (CI) 1.09-9.93], objective PD (HR 11.89, P = 0.0068, CI 2.14-65.85), single-time (131)I-MIBG therapy (HR 3.22, P = 0.020, CI 1.21-8.79), hypertension (HR 2.93, P = 0.044, CI 1.02-10.50), and symptoms related to bone metastases (HR 3.54, P = 0.023, CI 1.18-13.04) were bad prognostic factors for overall survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the hormonal non-PD (P = 0.026), objective non-PD (P = 0.0002), multiple-time (131)I-MIBG therapy (P = 0.013), and no symptom related to bone metastases (P = 0.024) were significantly associated with good prognosis. Overall survival rate was 70 and 50 % at 5 years from the initial diagnosis and from the first (131)I

  19. Targeting of mTORC2 may have advantages over selective targeting of mTORC1 in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xianjin; Xu, Tianyuan; Zhong, Shan; Shen, Zhoujun

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have found that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of many human cancers. However, the effects of targeting of mTORC2 on malignant pheochromocytomas (PCC) and paragangliomas (PGL) have not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of targeting of mTORC2 on malignant PCC/PGL by comparing the inhibitory effects of targeting of mTORC2 with mTORC1 on pheochromocytoma PC12 cell in vitro and vivo. The expressions of regulatory-associated protein of mTOR (raptor) and rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (rictor) were detected by immunohistochemistry in human tissues of malignant PCC. Targeting of mTORC1, mTORC2, and mTORC1/2 (mTORC1 and mTORC2) were performed by transfected with raptor, rictor, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) small interfering RNA (siRNA) in pheochromocytoma PC12 cell, respectively. MTT assay, apoptosis analysis, wound healing, and Transwell approach were performed. A tumor model in nude mice bearing PC12 cell xenografts, which were dosed with rapamycin or PP242, was established. The expression of raptor was frequently moderate positive, but the expression of rictor was frequently strong positive in malignant PCC. In vitro, although inhibition of mTORC1 was able to suppress PC12 cell proliferation, inhibition of mTORC2 more effectively suppressed cell proliferation. Inhibition of mTORC2 or mTORC1/2 more effectively prevented cell migration and invasion, and promoted cell apoptosis, while inhibition of mTORC1 only slightly prevented cell migration and invasion, and was not able to promoted apoptosis. Also, we found that mTOR downstream kinases were deregulated by targeting of mTORC2, but not mTORC1. In vivo, we found that PP242 was more potent than rapamycin in inhibiting tumor growth in tumor model. Our data suggest that targeting of mTORC2 may have advantages over selective targeting of mTORC1 in the treatment of malignant PCC

  20. Fatal hypoglycemia in malignant pheochromocytoma: direct glucose consumption as suggested by (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Núñez, Rodolfo; Chuang, Hubert; Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Rich, Thereasa; Kyle, Karen; Jimenez, Camilo

    2010-02-01

    We present a patient with metastatic pheochromocytoma, who developed progressive and fatal hypoglycemia most likely secondary to direct tumor glucose consumption that did not respond to high-dose glucose infusion, corticosteroids, or glucagon therapy. The pattern of glucose uptake on (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography, with preferential tumor glucose uptake in association with a marked reduction in normal uptake in the heart, muscles, and brain, is highly suggestive of direct consumption of glucose by the tumor rather than insulin-like growth factor-2 mediated hypoglycemia. In patients with large-volume metastatic malignancies, direct tumor glucose consumption should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques can illustrate the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in such cases.

  1. Pheochromocytoma: evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Walther, M M; Keiser, H R; Linehan, W M

    1999-02-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. Signs and symptoms are generally related to catecholamine excess; these include hypertension, sweating, palpitatione, headaches, and anxiety attacks. Abdominal imaging and 24-h urine collection for catecholamines are usually be sufficient for diagnosis. Catecholamine blockade with phenoxybenzamine and metyrosine generally ameliorates symptoms and is necessary to prevent hypertensive crisis during surgery. Standard treatment is laparoscopic adrenalectomy, although partial adrenalectomy is gaining enthusiastic support in familial forms of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas have been estimated to be present in approximately 0.3% of patients undergoing evaluation for secondary causes of hypertension [41]. Pheochromocytomas are usually curable if diagnosed and treated properly, but they can be fatal if they are not diagnosed or are managed inappropriately. Autopsy series suggest that many pheochromocytomas are not clinically suspected and that the undiagnosed tumor can be associated with morbid consequences [42].

  2. Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Vicentini, Fabio Carvalho; Srougi, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Since the first laparoscopic adrenalectomy, the technique has evolved and it has become the standard of care for many adrenal diseases, including pheochromocytoma. Two laparoscopic accesses to the adrenal have been developed: transperitoneal and retroperitoneal. Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy may be recommended for the treatment of pheochromocytoma with the same peri-operative outcomes of the transperitoneal approach because it allows direct access to the adrenal glands without increasing the operative risks. Although technically more demanding than the transperitoneal approach, retroperitoneoscopy can shorten the mean operative time, which is critical for cases with pheochromocytoma where minimizing the potential for intra-operative hemodynamic changes is essential. Blood loss and the convalescence time can be also shortened by this approach. There is no absolute indication for either the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal approach; however, the latter procedure may be the best option for patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgery and obese patients. Also, retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy is a good alternative for treating cases with inherited pheochromocytomas, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, in which the pheochromocytoma is highly prevalent and frequently occurs bilaterally. PMID:22584723

  3. [Pheochromocytomas as adrenal gland incidentalomas].

    PubMed

    Cerović, Snezana; Cizmić, Milica; Milović, Novak; Ajdinović, Boris; Brajusković, Goran

    2002-07-01

    Adrenal incidentalomas are a heterogeneous group of pathological entities, including benign or malignant adrenocortical or medullary tumors, hormonally active or inactive lesions, which are identified incidentally during the examination of nonadrenal-related abdominal complaints. About 1.5% to 23% of adrenal incidentalomas are pheochromocytomas. Composite pheochromocytoma is a rare tumour of adrenal medulla with divergente clinical course. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether pheochromocytoma and nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. Nonpheochromocytoma components found in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The biologic behavior of composite pheochromocytomas may be as difficult to predict as more traditional pheochromocytomas; based on the number of cases reported to date the presence of areas resembling ganglioneuroblastoma or neuroblastoma does not necessary indicate a poor prognosis. Some may behave in a malignant fashion with metastasis by a component of the tumour which has neural features. Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are well-defined entities. Some of their nonsporadic associations and unusual morphological appearances are not universally appreciated. We report on a rare association of left adrenal CP, with typical right adrenal phochromocytoma and retroperitoneal paraganglioma, and a review of literature. We analyzed the clinical and immunohistochemical features in a 24-year-old woman with composite pheochromocytoma localized in the left adrenal gland and associated with blood pressure of 200/140 mmHg. Abdominal computed tomography and 131-J MIBG revealed a 65 x 60 mm mass in the right adrenal gland, but no revealed 45 x 40 mm retroperitoneal mass and 20 x 20 mm mass in the left adrenal region. Serum and urinary adrenaline levels were high, and catecholamine levels in the blood sample of

  4. Clinical Experiences of Pheochromocytoma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chung, Jae Seung; Kim, Won Tae; Oh, Cheol Kyu; Chae, Yun Byung; Yu, Ho Song; Ham, Won Sik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We report herein 119 patients with pheochromocytoma at our institute over the last 23 years. Materials and Methods Between 1986 and 2009, 119 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma at our institute. We reviewed the medical records of these patients. Results Of 119 patients, 45 were male and 74 were female, and mean age was 43.83 ± 13.49 years. Forty-three patients (36.1%) were diagnosed incidentally, and 8 patients (6.7%) were found to have familial pheochromocytoma. The mean dimension of the tumors was 5.89 ± 3.18 cm. 4 patients had bilateral tumors; three of these patients were found to have familial pheochromocytoma and 1 patient was diagnosed with malignant pheochromocytoma. A total of eight patients (6.7%) were found to have malignant pheochromocytoma. In 1 patient, metastasis to a lymph node was found at the time of diagnosis. Metastases were found at a mean of 49 ± 25.83 (6-75) months after surgery in the other seven patients. 6 patients died of malignant pheochromocytoma at a mean of 31 ± 28.71 months (1-81) after diagnosis, and the other 2 patients survived for 15 and 24 months, respectively. Conclusion Approximately 35% of patients with pheochromocytoma are diagnosed incidentally, and the number of detected cases is increasing. Although familial pheochromocytoma was found only in 6.7% of the patients, genetic testing should be considered in all patients, especially in patients with a family history, young age, or multifocal, bilateral, extra-adrenal, or malignant tumors. Given that malignant pheochromocytomas are frequently diagnosed during the follow-up period, long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm the absence of recurrence or metastasis. PMID:21155034

  5. ["Silent" pheochromocytomas].

    PubMed

    Romashchenko, P N; Maĭstrenko, N A; Pashchenko, O V; Dovganiuk, V S; Markin, S M

    2004-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 126 patients with "hormonally inactive" and catecholamine secreting tumors of the adrenals were studied. Among them 2 cases (1.6%) of "dumb" pheochromocytoma were diagnosed. The clinical observations have shown the difficulties in the diagnosis of "dumb" pheochromocytoma before operation, risk of performing adrenalectomy and necessity to correct hemodynamic disorders during anesthesia in connection with latent catecholamine activity. The laboratory and instrumental means of examination of patients with suspected "hormonally inactive" tumor of the medullary substance of the adrenal are proposed. The variants of prevention and arrest of hemodynamic disorders during ablation of the "dumb" pheochromocytoma were considered. When the "dumb" pheochromocytoma had the diameter less than 5 cm and the adequate preparation was conducted the authors propose a laparoscopic access for adrenalectomy on the right, and retroperitoneoscopic access on the left. The detection of the catecholamine secreting tumor of more than 5 cm diameter, when problems with the clipping of the central vein of the adrenal take place, open accesses should be preferred--mainly thoracophrenotomy in the X intercostal space. If it was not possible to prove "dumb" pheochromocytoma before operation and it was started with endovideosurgical intervention during which it was not possible to first clip the central vein of the adrenal and the risk of hemodynamic disorders was high, the early transition to open operative intervention is thought to be expedient.

  6. Inhibition of the PI3K Pathway Suppresses Hormonal Secretion and Limits Growth in Pheochromocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Joel T.; Hottinger, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Operative resection is the only curative treatment for pheochromocytomas. Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway has been shown to be an effective treatment of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in vitro. We hypothesized that inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway would be a viable strategy to inhibit growth and hormonal secretion in pheochromocytoma cells. Methods Sixteen pheochromocytomas were analyzed for expression of phosphorylated Akt and the NE marker achaete scute complex-like 1 (ASCL1). Pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells were treated with up to 100 µM of the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 for 48 h. Western blot analysis was used to measure phosphorylated Akt, total Akt, ASCL1, chromogranin A (CgA), and markers of apoptosis. Growth was assessed by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) bromide cellular proliferation assay for six days. Results Human pheochromocytomas expressed significant amounts of phosphorylated Akt, and there was a significant correlation between malignant pheochromocytomas and the amount of expressed ASCL1. LY294002 significantly inhibited the PI3K-Akt pathway. Treatment led to a dose-dependent decrease in both ASCL1 and CgA, indicating an alteration in the NE phenotype and hormonal suppression. Treatment decreased cellular proliferation, and cleavage of the apoptotic markers caspase-3 and PARP was observed. Conclusions Human pheochromocytoma tumor samples express high levels of phosphorylated Akt. LY294002 effectively inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway, suppresses NE tumor markers, and decreases cellular proliferation via apoptosis in vitro. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway may represent a new strategy in the treatment of pheochromocytomas. PMID:19669229

  7. [Pheochromocytoma. Report of 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Joual, A; Rais, H; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    We report 10 cases of adrenal pheochromocytoma seen over a period 15-years. A female predominance was noted (8 women/2 men). Patients were aged between 16-46 years with a mean of 34 years. Clinical manifestations consisted of hypertension observed in all cases, with vasomotor symptoms (90%). Time to consultation was prolonged (mean: 23 months). CT scan performed in 7 cases showed pheochromocytoma in all cases, located on the right side in 6 cases, while one pheochromocytoma was located in Zukerkandal organ. All patients were operated via anterior approach and adrenalectomy was performed. A favourable course was observed in 90% of cases with normalisation blood pressure. One death was noted. Histological examination showed no malignancy in all cases.

  8. Graves’ disease allied with multiple pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Housni, Brahim; Elharroudi, Tijani; Soufi, Mehdi; Bouziane, Mohammed; Azzouzi, Abderahim

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an uncommon cause of high blood pressure touching adults. The combination of severe hypertension in the triad of headache, sweating, and tachycardia should suggest this diagnosis; this clinical picture is similar to that of hyperthyroidism. We report the case of a 22-year-old patient with multiple pheochromocytoma associated with Graves’ disease revealed by malignant hypertension and discussed the difficulties of the diagnosis and the treatment approach. PMID:23776912

  9. Pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Remón-Ruiz, Pablo; Aliaga-Verdugo, Alberto; Guerrero-Vázquez, Raquel

    2017-02-01

    Pregnant women with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) have increased complications during gestation, including hypertensive disorders that are sometimes caused by pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytoma is an extremely rare condition during pregnancy, and the main clinical manifestation is hypertension. If not properly treated, pheochromocytoma has high maternal and fetal mortality rates. Early recognition and adequate clinical management before delivery have led to better outcomes in the last few decades. Despite the association of NF-1 and pheochromocytoma, there are few clinical reports of these two conditions in pregnant patients. We present a rare case of pheochromocytoma diagnosed during pregnancy in a patient with NF-1, and we describe the treatment and the obstetric and fetal outcomes. We also review other medical conditions related to NF-1 that complicated this patient's pregnancy.

  10. [Personal experience in diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Zoran; Tavcar, Ivan

    2002-07-01

    Pheochromocytomas are most commonly tumours of adrenal medullary origin. Pheochromocytoma by definition produces and secretes catecholamines. Similar tumours that do not secrete active substances of any kind are called non functioning paragangliomas. The hallmark clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma is hypertension accompanied with various signs and symptoms in excess of catecholamines or other bioactive substances. The early diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is important not only because it offers the possibility of curing hypertension but also because unrecognised pheochromocytoma is a potentially lethal condition. The aim of this article is to stress the specify of the clinical finding, diagnostical values of the laboratory tests and possibilities of morphological localizing techniques in a series of 98 patients with surgically proven pheochromocytoma. Over the period from 1954 to 2002 pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and surgically treated in 98 patients. The diagnosis was confirmed at operation except in patients who refused operation or continued the examination in other Clinical wards. There were 59 females and 48 males (F:M = 1.23:1), the age ranged from 7 to 64 years with the pick incidence in the second and third decades of life in males and the third and fourth decades of life in females. The basic clinical characteristic was hypertension which was found in 94% of patients with an approximately equal frequency of fixed and paroxysmal hypertension cases. The most often accompanning manifestations were headache (62%), perspiration (61%) and palpitations (65%). A high level of vanyl mandelic acid (VMA) and free catecholamines in 24-hour urine collection confirmed the diagnosis in 94% of cases. In boderline cases we performed dynamic tests, the most relevant among them being the test with phentolamin. It was positive in 95% of patients. Retropneumothomography contributed to a successful localisation of tumour in 83% of cases. Computed tomography (CT) was

  11. Use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib in a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease: targeting angiogenic factors in pheochromocytoma and other von Hippel-Lindau disease-related tumors.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Camilo; Cabanillas, Maria E; Santarpia, Libero; Jonasch, Eric; Kyle, Karen L; Lano, Elizabeth A; Matin, Surena F; Nunez, Rodolfo F; Perrier, Nancy D; Phan, Alexandria; Rich, Thereasa A; Shah, Beejal; Williams, Michelle D; Waguespack, Steven G

    2009-02-01

    von Hippel-Lindau disease is characterized by highly vascularized tumors of multiple organs. We present a patient with von Hippel-Lindau disease with multiple renal and pancreatic tumors and a malignant pheochromocytoma infiltrative of the sacrum and associated with lymph nodule metastases. The pheochromocytoma expressed high protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor. The patient presented with a poor performance status, severe pelvic pain, weight loss, and manifestations of catecholamine excess. Treatment against malignant pheochromocytoma with surgery, chemotherapy, or participation in clinical trials was not feasible because of the patient's poor performance status, the presence of multiple tumors, and the extension of the pheochromocytoma into the bones. Patient was treated with sunitinib, a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, RET, c-KIT, and FLT-3 receptors. Six months of treatment with sunitinib was associated with normalization of the patient's performance status and blood pressure, absence of symptoms of catecholamine excess, weight gain, disappearance of pain, shrinkage of each of the tumors (50% in the largest renal tumor, 38% in the largest islet cell tumor, 21% in the pelvic malignant pheochromocytoma), and reduction of plasma normetanephrines and chromogranin A. This study provides evidence that targeting tyrosine kinase receptors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and the platelet-derived growth factor-beta receptor may have value in the treatment of VHL-related tumors including pheochromocytoma.

  12. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome treated with subcutaneous lisuride infusion.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M E; Luquin, M R; Lera, G; Delgado, G; Salazar, J M; Obeso, J A

    1990-01-01

    A schizophrenic patient developed a characteristic clinical picture of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) while admitted to the hospital during an exacerbation of his psychiatric symptoms. Oral treatment of the NMS with bromocriptine (7.5 mg/day) or levodopa/carbidopa (125/12.5 mg) provoked intense vomiting in spite of domperidone (60 mg/day), which led to their discontinuation. In view of the deterioration of the symptoms, treatment was begun with lisuride (1-2 mg/24 h) subcutaneously. An obvious improvement was shown in 24 h, but levodopa/carbidopa (125/12.5 mg t.d.s. orally) had to be added later to achieve complete resolution of the NMS. During the recovery phase, while being treated with subcutaneous lisuride infusion and levodopa (p.o.), the patient presented with confusion, agitation, and hallucination. Lisuride infusion was stopped and levodopa was continued until complete resolution of the NMS. This case indicates that parenteral administration of lisuride or other dopamine agents such as levodopa (i.v.) or apomorphine (s.c.) may be considered an effective and practical way of treating NMS, particularly when the patient's condition makes it difficult or impossible to use other dopaminergic drugs by the oral route.

  13. Metastatic pheochromocytoma: clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zelinka, Tomáš; Musil, Zdeněk; Dušková, Jaroslava; Burton, Deborah; Merino, Maria J; Milosevic, Dragana; Widimský, Jiří; Pacak, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas are tumors arising from chromaffin tissue located in the adrenal medulla associated with typical symptoms and signs which may occasionally develop metastases, which are defined as the presence of tumor cells at sites where these cells are not found. This retrospective analysis was focused on clinical, genetic, and histopathologic characteristics of primary metastatic versus primary benign pheochromocytomas. Materials and methods We identified 41 subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma and 108 subjects with apparently benign pheochromocytoma. We assessed dimension and biochemical profile of the primary tumor, age at presentation, and time to develop metastases. Results Subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma presented at a significantly younger age (41.4±14.7 vs. 50.2±13.7 years; P<0.001), with larger primary tumors (8.38±3.27 cm vs. 6.18±2.75 cm; P<0.001) and secreted more frequently norepinephrine (95.1% vs. 83.3 %; P=0.046) compared to subjects with apparently benign pheochromocytomas. No significant differences were found in the incidence of genetic mutations in both groups of subjects (25.7 % in the metastatic group and 14.7 % in the benign group; P=0.13). From available histopathologic markers of potential malignancy, only necrosis occurred more frequently in subjects with metastatic pheochromocytoma (27.6 % vs. 0 %; P<0.001). The median time to develop metastases was 3.6 years with the longest interval 24 years. Conclusions In conclusion, regardless of a genetic background, the size of a primary pheochromocytoma and age of its first presentation are two independent risk factors associated with the development of metastatic disease. PMID:21692797

  14. Undiagnosed pheochromocytoma: the anesthesiologist nightmare.

    PubMed

    Myklejord, Duane J

    2004-02-01

    A male, 62 years of age, presented to the operating room for the removal of a right adrenal mass. Induction of anesthesia triggered a severe hypertensive crisis resistant to high doses of nitroprusside, nitroglycerin and labetalol. The crisis was ultimately resolved with the administration of 5 mg bolus of phentolamine. Surgery was canceled, the patient was transported to the intensive care unit with a continuous drip of phentolamine. High urinary and plasma catecholamines suggested the presence of pheochromocytoma. Three weeks of oral phenoxybenzamine therapy subsequently allowed uneventful induction of anesthesia and open adrenalectomy. Pathologic examination of the resected adrenal tissue confirmed the presence of pheochromocytoma. Anesthetic drugs can exacerbate the life-threatening cardiovascular effects of catecholamines secreted by pheochromocytomas. Treating patients preoperatively with alpha-adrenergic blockade is helpful for reducing intraoperative hypertensive episodes. Postoperative administration of inotropic agents to correct hypotension due to catecholamine withdrawal may be required. Management of patients with pheochromocytoma remains a challenge for the anesthesiologist, despite the advent of new drugs and techniques.

  15. Successful treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine with cement augmentation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xi; Qiu, Guixing

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine is rare, and there is no standard curative management. Treatment via open surgery is often risky in the perioperative period, while osteoplasty by cement augmentation is a less invasive option.We describe 2 patients with recurrence of pheochromocytoma involving the spine and the pelvis who were successfully treated with osteoplasty by cement augmentation. A 31-year-old female underwent cement augmentation for a pelvic lesion 6 months after the resection and screw fixation of an L3 lesion. A 58-year-old male underwent cement augmentation to directly destroy the functional tumor, with a surgical decompression 6 months later. Both patients showed appropriate destruction of the tumor, adequate pain relief, and the decreased release of catecholamine from metastatic lesions.Osteoplasty by cement augmentation may be a treatment option for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma who cannot undergo appropriate surgery or decline surgery. This represents a safe approach to sustainably relieve pain and stabilize vertebral bodies with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma.

  16. Successful treatment of metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine with cement augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Siyi; Kong, Xiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xi; Qiu, Guixing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic pheochromocytoma in the spine is rare, and there is no standard curative management. Treatment via open surgery is often risky in the perioperative period, while osteoplasty by cement augmentation is a less invasive option. We describe 2 patients with recurrence of pheochromocytoma involving the spine and the pelvis who were successfully treated with osteoplasty by cement augmentation. A 31-year-old female underwent cement augmentation for a pelvic lesion 6 months after the resection and screw fixation of an L3 lesion. A 58-year-old male underwent cement augmentation to directly destroy the functional tumor, with a surgical decompression 6 months later. Both patients showed appropriate destruction of the tumor, adequate pain relief, and the decreased release of catecholamine from metastatic lesions. Osteoplasty by cement augmentation may be a treatment option for patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma who cannot undergo appropriate surgery or decline surgery. This represents a safe approach to sustainably relieve pain and stabilize vertebral bodies with metastatic malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:28121933

  17. [Etiology and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in Japan].

    PubMed

    Naruse, Mitsuhide; Tsuiki, Mika; Nanba, Kazutaka; Nakao, Kanako; Tagami, Tetsuya; Tanabe, Akiyo

    2012-07-01

    Although pheochromocytoma is one curable cause of endocrine hypertension, approximately 10% of patients have malignant disease. Since the histopathologic diagnosis of malignancy at the time of first surgery is difficult and malignancy is confirmed only after the detection of metastasis, it is a representative intractable rare disease without effective treatment. A nationwide survey in Japan in 2009 found 2,600 cases of benign pheochromocytoma and 320 of malignant pheochromocytoma. There was no gender bias among patients, and the average age of onset was 40 to 45 years. Sixty-five percent were symptomatic including hypertension, but 35% were asymptomatic and found occasionally as incidentaloma Extraadrenal, bilateral, malignant, and familial cases each represented 10% of the total. A task force of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan established the diagnostic criteria and clinical guidelines for pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and malignant pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Typical cases of pheochromocytoma are readily diagnosed based on high catecholamine levels and imaging of tumor localization and can be cured by surgical resection of the tumor. In contrast, since no effective treatment for malignant pheochromocytoma has been established, a combination of various treatments including the administration of a-blockers, 131-MIBG irradiation, and cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine chemotherapy, and radiation of bone metastases is recommended. Careful long-term follow-up is essential even in patients with benign pheochromocytoma.

  18. Tyrosine hydroxylase is activated and phosphorylated at different sites in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells treated with phorbol ester and forskolin

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, E.; Tank, A.W.; Weiner, D.H.; Mosimann, W.F.; Yanagihara, N.; Weiner, N.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of phorbol ester (4..beta..-phorbol, 12..beta..-myristate, 13..cap alpha..-acetate; TPA), an activator of Ca/sup + +//phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (PK-C), and forskolin, which stimulates adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP-PK), on the activation and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC 12) cells were examined. Incubation of the cells with TPA (0.01-1 ..mu..M) or forskolin (0.01-0.1 ..mu..M) produces increases in activation and phosphorylation of TH in a concentration-dependent manner. The stimulatory effects of TPA are dependent on extracellular Ca/sup + +/ and are inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with trifluoperazine (TFP). The effects of forskolin are independent of Ca/sup + +/ and are not inhibited by TFP. In cells treated with forskolin, the time course of the increase in cAMP correlates with the increases in TH activity and phosphorylation. cAMP levels do not increase in cells treated with TPA. There is an increase in the phosphorylation of only one tryptic phosphopeptide derived from TH in cells treated with either forskolin or TPA. The peptide phosphorylated in TPA-treated cells exhibits different elution characteristics on HPLC from that in forskolin-treated cells. The authors conclude that TH in PC 12 cells is phosphorylated on different sites by cAMP-PK and PK-C. Phosphorylation of either of these sites is associated with enzyme activation.

  19. Tianeptine interferes with microtubule organization and hormone secretion of pheochromocytoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Vishruti; Hall, James; Qamar, Khola; Jain, Priyanka; Jang, Yonggil; Hensley, Kenneth; Park, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma originates from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic paraganglia. 36–53% of pheochromocytoma becomes malignant and, thereafter, resistant to conventional treatments. Pheochromocytoma also causes hyper-secretion of catecholamines that cause severe hypertension. We found that an antidepressant, tianeptine, interfered with normal life cycle of pheochromocytoma cells at its clinical doses. Treatment with tianeptine caused microtubule bundling and specific degradation of cytoplasmic dynein, a retrograde microtubule motor that mediates various microtubule-dependent processes during interphase and mitosis, in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Tianeptine also increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, slowed cell cycle progression, and increased apoptosis in PC12 cells. Importantly, tianeptine treatment decreased high K+-stimulated secretion of norepinephrine and chromogranin A in PC12 cells and of epinephrine in the mouse pheochromocytoma MPC cells. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that tianeptine interferes with normal life cycle of pheochromocytoma cells. PMID:23933152

  20. Tianeptine interferes with microtubule organization and hormone secretion of pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Makani, Vishruti; Hall, James; Qamar, Khola; Jain, Priyanka; Jang, Yonggil; Hensley, Kenneth; Park, Joshua J

    2013-12-05

    Pheochromocytoma originates from chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla and sympathetic paraganglia. 36-53% of pheochromocytoma becomes malignant and, thereafter, resistant to conventional treatments. Pheochromocytoma also causes hyper-secretion of catecholamines that cause severe hypertension. We found that an antidepressant, tianeptine, interfered with normal life cycle of pheochromocytoma cells at its clinical doses. Treatment with tianeptine caused microtubule bundling and specific degradation of cytoplasmic dynein, a retrograde microtubule motor that mediates various microtubule-dependent processes during interphase and mitosis, in the rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Tianeptine also increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, slowed cell cycle progression, and increased apoptosis in PC12 cells. Importantly, tianeptine treatment decreased high K(+)-stimulated secretion of norepinephrine and chromogranin A in PC12 cells and of epinephrine in the mouse pheochromocytoma MPC cells. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that tianeptine interferes with normal life cycle of pheochromocytoma cells.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Locklin, Julia; Lai, Edwin W.; Adams, Karen T.; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Pacak, Karel; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-01-01

    In the present report on the preliminary safety and effectiveness of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pheochromocytoma metastases, seven metastases were treated in six patients (mean size, 3.4 cm; range, 2.2–6 cm). α- and β-adrenergic and catecholamine synthesis inhibition and intraprocedural anesthesia monitoring were used. Safety was assessed by recording ablation-related complications. Complete ablation was defined as a lack of enhancement within the ablation zone on follow-up computed tomography. No serious adverse sequelae were observed. Complete ablation was achieved in six of seven metastases (mean follow-up, 12.3 months; range, 2.5–28 months). In conclusion, RF ablation may be safely performed for metastatic pheochromocytoma given careful attention to peri-procedural management. PMID:19875067

  2. Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma: Review of perioperative management of blood pressure and update on genetic mutations associated with pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Lauren; Orlowski, Robert; Cohen, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare tumors with high morbidity, due to excessive catecholamine secretion, even though the majority of tumors are benign. The use of perioperative blockade regimens, together with improved surgical techniques, has greatly impacted the perioperative morbidity associated with these tumors. The old dogma of the “tumor of tens” no longer holds true. For example, at least one-third of all pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are hereditary with mutations in one of ten well characterized susceptibility genes, and one-quarter of all tumors are malignant. This review will focus on the perioperative management of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas and the clinical implications of the associated genetic mutations. PMID:23730992

  3. Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma: Review of perioperative management of blood pressure and update on genetic mutations associated with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren; Orlowski, Robert; Cohen, Debbie

    2013-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare tumors with high morbidity rates caused by excessive catecholamine secretion, even though the majority of tumors are benign. The use of perioperative blockade regimens, together with improved surgical techniques, has greatly impacted the perioperative morbidity associated with these tumors. The old dogma of the "tumor of tens" no longer holds true. For example, at least one third of all pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are hereditary, with mutations in 1 of 10 well-characterized susceptibility genes, and one quarter of all tumors are malignant. This review focuses on the perioperative management of pheochromocytoma and paragangliomas and the clinical implications of the associated genetic mutations.

  4. Long-standing malignant pancreatic carcinoid treated with octreotide.

    PubMed

    Varas-Lorenzo, M J

    2010-11-01

    A male presented with a metastatic, plasma serotonin-secreting (high 5-HIAA in urine), malignant pancreatic carcinoid with a carcinoid-like syndrome, and was assessed using ultrasounds (US), computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and Octreoscan; he sequentially received chemotherapy, interferon and octreotide, with long-term, 12-year survival after diagnosis. Given this unusual case, the second reported in our country, the overall literature is reviewed.

  5. Pheochromocytoma in Urologic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Waingankar, Nikhil; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Jimenez, Camilo; Russo, Paul; Kutikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Context Pheochromocytoma is regularly encountered in urological practice and requires a thoughtful and careful clinical approach. Objective To review clinical aspects of management of pheochromocytoma in urologic practice. Evidence Acquisition A systematic review of English-language literature was performed through year 2015 using the Medline database. Manuscripts were selected with consensus of the coauthors and evaluated using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Evidence Synthesis Findings and recommendations of the evaluated manuscripts are discussed with an emphasis on the description of presentation, diagnosis, evaluation, and perioperative care. Conclusion In addition to surgical expertise, appropriate management of pheochromocytoma in urologic practice requires nuanced understanding of pathophysiology, genetics, and endocrinological principles. When skillfully managed, the vast majority of patients with pheochromocytoma should expect an excellent prognosis. Patient Summary In this article we review the clinical approach to patients with pheochromocytoma, a tumor that stems from the innermost part of the adrenal gland and that often secretes excessive amounts of powerful hormones such as noradrenaline and adrenaline. Significant expertise is required to appropriately manage patients with these tumors. Take Home Message In addition to surgical expertise, appropriate management of pheochromocytoma in urologic practice requires nuanced understanding of pathophysiology, genetics, and endocrinological principles. When skillfully managed, vast majority of patients with pheochromocytoma should expect an excellent prognosis. PMID:28078330

  6. How I treat influenza in patients with hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Corey; Englund, Janet

    2010-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic has heightened the interest of clinicians for options in the prevention and management of influenza virus infection in immunocompromised patients. Even before the emergence of the novel 2009 H1N1 strain, influenza disease was a serious complication in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy or undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Here we review the clinical manifestations of seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza and discuss current diagnosis, antiviral treatment, and prophylaxis options. We also summarize infection control and vaccination strategies for patients, family members, and caregivers. PMID:20009037

  7. Do we foresee new emerging drugs to treat malignant hyperthermia?

    PubMed

    Just, Katja S; Gerbershagen, Mark U; Grensemann, Joern; Wappler, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a life-threatening genetic sensitivity of skeletal muscles to volatile anesthetics and depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs occurring during or after anesthesia. Mortality of MH has been significantly reduced by using the skeletal muscle relaxant dantrolene. However, pharmacological disadvantages are known. By approval of a nanocrystalline dantrolene sodium suspension (DSS), a new product enters the market. DSS is a promising substance, but clinical data are lacking up to now. Especially with regard to newer knowledge on MH and its associated clinical presentations, there might be an increasing interest on DSS.

  8. Pheochromocytoma complicated by cyanotic congenital heart disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Keiko; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Usui, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kunihiko; Kitaoka, Taichi; Fujiwara, Makoto; Hori, Yumiko; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Oue, Takaharu; Morii, Eiichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Coincidental cyanotic congenital heart disease and pheochromocytoma is uncommon, although some cases have been reported. We describe a girl aged 15 yr and 11 mo with pheochromocytoma and tricuspid atresia treated by performing the Fontan surgery. The patient did not have any specific symptoms of syndrome related to pheochromoytoma or a family history of pheochromocytoma. During cardiac catheterization, her blood pressure increased markedly, and an α-blocker was administered. Catecholamine hypersecretion was observed in the blood and urine, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the right adrenal gland. Scintigraphy showed marked accumulation of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in the tumor, which led to a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. We did not detect any germline mutations in the RET, VHL, SDHB, SDHD, TMEM127, or MAX genes. This patient had experienced mild systemic hypoxia since birth, which may have contributed to the development of pheochromocytoma. PMID:27212797

  9. Antiproliferative effect of suramin on primary cultures of human pheochromocytomas and rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zielke, A; Wong, M G; Siperstein, A E; Clark, O H; Rothmund, M; Duh, Q Y

    1997-09-01

    Suramin inhibits growth of neural crest-derived cells and is used to treat adrenocortical cancer and neuroblastoma in clinical trials. The antiproliferative effect of suramin was evaluated in primary cultures of human pheochromocytoma and the PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line in vitro and in vivo. Human pheochromocytoma and PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells were grown in medium supplemented with suramin at concentrations of 1-1,000 micrograms/ml (1.43-1.43 mM) for up to five generations. Suramin did not induce neuronal differentiation, but inhibited growth of cultured human pheochromocytoma cells with IC50 (inhibitory concentration at which a 50% reduction of proliferation is observed) of 50-250 micrograms/ml. Also, suramin inhibited proliferation of PC12 cells with IC50 of 228 micrograms/ml after 5 days and 161 micrograms/ml at 10 days of treatment. Colony formation assays demonstrated these effects to be cytotoxic rather than cytostatic. Thus when reproductive integrity of PC12 cells was taken into account, IC50 was calculated with 118 micrograms/ml and 129 micrograms/ml, respectively. In vivo experiments were performed with subcutaneously xenotransplanted PC12 cells (BALB/c NCR-NU mice). Suramin did not alter tumorigenicity and did not inhibit local tumor growth. These data determine for the first time an antiproliferative effect of suramin in pheochromocytoma cells. Suramin is cytotoxic to pheochromocytoma cells in vitro at levels that are clinically achievable. Suramin may have potential as an antiproliferative drug in nonresectable pheochromocytoma.

  10. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma: the heart of the issue.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Yu, R

    2013-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor derived from the adrenal medulla and paraganglia. Pheochromocytoma presents with a wide spectrum of symptoms, from a silent adrenal mass to cardiac arrest. Perioperative management of pheochromocytoma is critical for preventing perioperative cardiovascular complications. Traditionally, perioperative management focuses on blood pressure control, which has generated considerable controversy. In this review, we suggest that perioperative management should focus more on treating subclinical and clinical pheochromocytoma-induced cardiomyopathy. We first describe the natural history of pheochromocytoma and illustrate that cardiomyopathy is present to various degrees in patients with pheochromocytoma. We then classify pheochromocytomas into 3 groups according to the risks of developing clinical cardiomyopathy. After going over perioperative physiological changes, we propose that the need for preoperative preparation depends on the risk level of the pheochromocytoma. We present the regimens for perioperative management, emphasizing that the goals of perioperative management should extend beyond blood pressure control and include improvement of cardiac function. Perioperative management in unique clinical situations is also discussed.

  11. The HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG exhibits potent antitumor activity for pheochromocytoma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunze; Zhu, Qi; Chen, Dongning; Shen, Zhoujun; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Zhu, Yu

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in the malignant pheochromocytoma using a xenograft mouse model. Treatment with 17-AAG induced a marked reduction in the volume and weight of PC12 pheochromocytoma cell tumor xenografts in mice. Furthermore, 17-AAG also significantly inhibited the expression of HSP90 and its client proteins. Our results validated HSP90 as an important target in pheochromocytoma and provided rationale for the testing of HSP90 inhibitors as a promising therapeutic agent in the antitumor therapy of pheochromocytoma.

  12. Familial Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    King, Kathryn S.; Pacak, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neural crest cell tumors of the adrenal medulla and parasympathetic/sympathetic ganglia, respectively, that are often associated with catecholamine production. Genetic research over the years has led to our current understanding of the association 13 susceptibility genes with the development of these tumors. Most of the susceptibility genes are now associated with specific clinical presentations, biochemical makeup, tumor location, and associated neoplasms. Recent scientific advances have highlighted the role of somatic mutations in the development of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma as well as the usefulness of immunohistochemistry in triaging genetic testing. We can now approach genetic testing in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma patients in a very organized scientific way allowing for the reduction of both the financial and emotional burden on the patient. The discovery of genetic predispositions to the development of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma not only facilitates better understanding of these tumors but will also lead to improved diagnosis and treatment of this disease. PMID:23933153

  13. [Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Wyskida, Magdalena; Wyskida, Katarzyna; Maruniak-Chudek, Iwona; Sikora, Jerzy; Chudek, Jerzy

    2014-06-09

    Pheochromocytoma occurs with a frequency estimated at 2-7 per 100,000 pregnant women. Unrecognized, and thus untreated pheochromocytoma is associated with very high (40-50%) maternal and fetal mortality. Pheochromocytoma occurs sporadically or as a family trait. Its presence should be suspected in women with paroxysmal or established hypertension, especially before the 20th week of pregnancy, accompanied by headaches and palpitations, and excessive sweating, muscle tremors, vomiting, anxiety, vasomotor disturbances and blurred vision. The variety of clinical presentations and rarity are the cause of not including the disease in differential diagnosis of hypertension in pregnancy. Biochemical tests are essential in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, and involving the assessment of methoxycatecholamine urinary excretion. The second step in the diagnostics is magnetic resonance imaging of adrenal glands. Adrenalectomy is the treatment of choice for pheochromocytoma with adrenal location, which depends on the timing of the tumor diagnosis. Conservative treatment for 10-14 days with pharmacological blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors should precede the surgery. Early diagnosis and properly planned treatment of pheochromocytoma significantly reduces the risk to the mother and fetus.

  14. Usefulness of endobronchial ultrasound in patients with previously treated thoracic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fengshi; Miyahara, Ryo; Sato, Toshihiko; Sonobe, Makoto; Sakai, Hiroaki; Bando, Toru; Date, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and tumours is often challenging for patients with previously treated thoracic malignancy, especially when they have a history of thoracotomy. Endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been proposed as a safe, less-invasive modality for such patients. We retrospectively evaluated the role of EBUS-TBNA in the assessment of newly developed mediastinal/hilar abnormalities in patients with previously treated thoracic malignancy. Of 79 patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA between July 2009 and July 2011, 14 patients (18%) had a history of treatment for thoracic malignancy. In all patients, malignancy was confirmed again for the newly developed mediastinal/hilar abnormalities and three of them (21%) presented with a different pathology from the previous malignancy. Out of 14 patients, 12 had a history of thoracotomy and EBUS-TBNA was a useful, less-invasive diagnostic method particularly for these patients. Out of 14 patients, 11 (79%) had a history of lung cancer and 10 of them (91%) had received surgical resection. In conclusion, we confirmed that EBUS-TBNA obtained the pathological diagnosis in a less-invasive manner in all cases. Despite the small number of cases, our results can reveal the usefulness of EBUS-TBNA particularly in patients with previously treated thoracic malignancy. PMID:22108942

  15. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Jammula, Sruti; Panda, Sandip; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14%) had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis. PMID:23226643

  16. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma with uncommon vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil Kumar; Kota, Siva Krishna; Meher, Lalit Kumar; Jammula, Sruti; Panda, Sandip; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2012-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma/paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14%) had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty; the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis.

  17. New Imaging Approaches to Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Havekes, Bas; King, Kathryn; Lai, Edwin W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P. M.; Pacak, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Formerly used concepts for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have been challenged by recent discoveries that a) at least 24% of tumors are familial and thereby often multiple in various locations throughout the body, b) tumors are often malignant and perhaps more aggressive if associated with SDHB gene mutations, c) clinically silent tumors may present only with dopamine hypersecretion, d) tumors are more often found as incidentalomas in the current era where CT and MRI are more commonly used and e) MRI may be less specific for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma than previously thought. Because of unique tumor characteristics (e.g. the presence of cell membrane and intracellular vesicular norepinephrine transporters) these tumors were ‘born’ to be imaged by means of specific functional imaging approaches. Moreover, additional recent discoveries related to apoptosis, hypoxia, acidosis, anaerobic glycolysis, and angiogenesis, often disturbed in tumor cells, open new options and challenges to specifically image pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and possibly link those results to their pathophysiology, genotypic alterations and metastatic potential. Functional imaging, especially represented by PET, offers an excellent approach by which tumor specific processes can be detected, evaluated and seen in the context of tumor-specific behavior and its genetic signature. In this review, we address the recent developments in new functional imaging modalities for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma and provide the reader with a new modified imaging algorithm for various pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas of sympathetic origin. Current imaging algorithms of head and neck parasympathetic paragangliomas are not discussed. Finally, this review outlines some future perspectives of functional imaging of these tumors. PMID:19508681

  18. Rasburicase and Allopurinol in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  19. Surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma in MEN 2.

    PubMed

    Pedullà, Giuseppe; Crocetti, Daniele; Paliotta, Annalisa; Tarallo, Maria Rita; De Gori, Antonietta; Cavallaro, Giuseppe; De Toma, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a rare autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. Forty to fifty percent of patients with MEN 2A develops pheochromocytoma. Surgeons treating these patients with pheochromocytoma have always been faced with question of whether to perform mono-or bilateral adrenalectomy and the timing of surgical intervention. Over the past 20 years, thanks to the development of ever more sophisticated techniques of diagnostic imaging (TC, MRI, Scintigraphy, PET), which make it possible to identify small lesions, and to ever more rapid laboratory tests, there has been a change in the surgical management of this condition. Surgeons moved from bilateral open adrenalectomy (6- 9) to laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy and cortical sparing (10-13). After partial adrenalectomy one third of the patients require replacement therapy because the function of the residual parenchyma was compromised by excessive devascularization during surgery. In patients with bilateral pheochromocytoma it is advisable to perform only partial adrenalectomy of at least one gland, i.e. to completely remove the gland with the larger lesion and remove part of the gland with the smaller lesion to reduce the risk of recurrence. The authors report 4 cases of MEN 2, including 2 first-degree relatives, which illustrate the progress made in surgical treatment for pheochromocytoma.

  20. Pheochromocytoma Crisis With Severe Cyclic Blood Pressure Fluctuations in a Cardiac Pheochromocytoma Patient Successfully Resuscitated by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Dawei; Su, Longxiang; Long, Yun; Du, Wei; Miao, Qi; Li, Fang; Jin, Zhengyu; Zeng, Zhengpei; Luo, Ailun; Huang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac pheochromocytoma is relatively rare. Few reports describe the intraoperative and postoperative progression of patients experiencing a life-threatening pheochromocytoma crisis treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A 35-year-old man was referred to our facility for paroxysmal hypertension with a 10-year history of sweating, headaches, cardiac palpitations, and postexercise dyspnea. The patient initially underwent urine catecholamine measurement and an isotope scan, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (CT), which indicated a multiple, cardiac pheochromocytoma. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT reconstruction, and a coronary CT angiography revealed several lesions at the aortic root and along the cardiac vasculature. Multifocal cardiac pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuation occurred during surgery. Surgical resection of multiple pheochromocytomas in the right medial carotid sheath, mediastinum between the main and pulmonary arteries, and between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena artery was performed. To ensure cardiac perfusion and avoid severe circulatory fluctuation, the cardiac paraganglioma resection was prioritized. After resecting the cardiac pheochromocytoma, a severe pheochromocytoma crisis with rapid cyclic blood pressure fluctuation developed. ECMO and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) were initiated to stabilize circulation and perfusion. Phenoxybenzamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and fluid resuscitation were administered to support cardiovascular function. The magnitude of blood pressure fluctuation steadily decreased with treatment. IABP was discontinued after 3 days, and ECMO was discontinued after 16 days. The patient was discharged 3 months postoperatively. This case indicates that mechanical life support with ECMO is a valuable option for

  1. Incidence of Second Malignancies Among Patients Treated With Proton Versus Photon Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Christine S.; Yock, Torunn I.; Nelson, Kerrie; Xu, Yang; Keating, Nancy L.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Proton radiation, when compared with photon radiation, allows delivery of increased radiation dose to the tumor while decreasing dose to adjacent critical structures. Given the recent expansion of proton facilities in the United States, the long-term sequelae of proton therapy should be carefully assessed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of second cancers in patients treated with proton radiation with a population-based cohort of matched patients treated with photon radiation. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 558 patients treated with proton radiation from 1973 to 2001 at the Harvard Cyclotron in Cambridge, MA and 558 matched patients treated with photon therapy in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program cancer registry. Patients were matched by age at radiation treatment, sex, year of treatment, cancer histology, and site. The main outcome measure was the incidence of second malignancies after radiation. Results: We matched 558 proton patients with 558 photon patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry. The median duration of follow-up was 6.7 years (interquartile range, 7.4) and 6.0 years (interquartile range, 9.3) in the proton and photon cohorts, respectively. The median age at treatment was 59 years in each cohort. Second malignancies occurred in 29 proton patients (5.2%) and 42 photon patients (7.5%). After we adjusted for sex, age at treatment, primary site, and year of diagnosis, proton therapy was not associated with an increased risk of second malignancy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.85]; P=.009). Conclusions: The use of proton radiation therapy was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary malignancies compared with photon therapy. Longer follow-up of these patients is needed to determine if there is a significant decrease in second malignancies. Given the limitations of the study

  2. Medical management of pheochromocytoma: Role of the endocrinologist

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M. K.; Kharb, Sandeep; Brar, K. S.; Gundgurthi, Abhay; Mittal, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor arising from chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla or other paraganglia in the body, which may be associated with many genetic syndromes and mutation. The role of endocrinologist is in biochemical diagnosis of suspected cases; its anatomic and functional localization with the help of imaging like CT, MRI, and nuclear scanning; preoperative control of hypertension; and postoperative follow-up of cases that have undergone surgical resection. Familial and genetic screening of cases and their family is important to detect occult cases. Endocrinologist will also play a role in cases with malignant pheochromocytoma in assessment of metastasis, control, chemoradiotherapy, and follow-up. PMID:22145136

  3. Cushing syndrome in an infant due to cortisol secreting adrenal pheochromocytoma: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Vishal; Talukdar, B; Mohta, Anup; Khurana, Nita

    2010-06-01

    Adrenocortical tumors are the most common cause of endogenous Cushing syndrome in infancy and early childhood. Cushing syndrome resulting from ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) producing tumor has been infrequently reported in adults. Cortisol secreting pheochromocytoma is rarely reported in literature. We report an eleven month old child presenting to us as Cushing syndrome with hypertension due to left adrenal tumor. He was treated with antihypertensives and left adrenalectomy was done under perioperative glucocorticoid coverage. Diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was made only after histopathology. Despite the rare association of Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma, preoperative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is required for appropriate perioperative medical and anaesthetic management to prevent life threatening complications.

  4. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Genetics, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare but unique neuroendocrine tumors. The hypersecretion of catecholamines from the tumors can be associated with high morbidity and mortality, even when tumors are benign. Up to 40% of PCCs/PGLs are associated with germline mutations in susceptibility genes. About one-quarter are malignant, defined by the presence of distant metastases. Treatment options for unresectable metastatic disease, including chemotherapy, (131)I-MIBG, and radiation, can offer limited tumor and hormone control, although none are curative. This article reviews the inherited genetics, diagnosis, and treatment of PCCs and PGLs.

  5. [Surgery of retroperitoneal pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Duff, C; van Segesser, L; Schmid, E R; Ziegler, W; Turina, M

    1989-06-01

    Retroperitoneal pheochromocytomas are very uncommon tumors. During the last 10 years only 3 cases have been operated on in our clinic. Two of them were primary retroperitoneal paragangliomas. These two patients are now well and without recurrence 1 and 10 years respectively after operation. The third patient had retroperitoneal metastases of an adrenal pheochromocytoma. Now, after 1 year he has disseminated metastases without response to therapy with (131I)metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). The surgical procedure includes often extended resection and replacement of retroperitoneal blood vessels and requires therefore an experienced surgical team and optimal anesthetic management (Swan-Ganz-katheter). In two cases the aorta was resected and replaced with a Dacron-graft. Reimplantation of both renal arteries into the graft was necessary in one case. Further interventions were: nephrectomy (2x), resection and ligation of the inferior vena cava (1x), resection and replacement of the left renal vein (1x).

  6. Prognostic factors for deep situated malignant gliomas treated with linac radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Yan; Yang, Guo-Kuan; Li, Shu-Ying; Baol, Xiu-Feng; Wu, Cheng-Yuan

    2004-06-01

    To study the function of radiosurgery on malignant glioma by analyzing prognostic factors affecting malignant gliomas treated with linac radiosurgery. Fifty-eight patients with deep situated malignant gliomas, aged 7 to 70 years, 28 anaplastic astrocytomas and 30 glioblastomas multiforme were analyzed. The median volume of tumor was 10.67 cm3, and median prescription dose for linac radiosurgery was 20 Gy. Results were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression. In follow-up 44.8 percent tumors (26 patients) decreased in size. Median tumor local control interval was 10 months, 15 months for anaplastic astrocytomas, and 9 months for glioblastoma multiforme. Tumor local control probability was 37.9 percent for 1 year and 10.3 percent for 2 years. Median survival was 22.5 months for anaplastic astrocytoma, 13 months for glioblastoma multiforme, and 15 months for all patients. The survival probability was 79.3 percent at 1 year and 20.6 percent at 2 years. Isocenter numbers and tumor volume were the prognostic factors for tumor control, but conformity index was the prognostic factor for survival by Cox regression analysis. Considering pathology, only isocenter number and target volume significantly affected tumor control interval. Complications appeared in 44.8 percent patients and the median interval of complication onset was 8 months. Symptomatic cerebral edema was observed in 31.0 percent patients. Linac radiosurgery can effectively improve tumor local control and prolong survival for deep situated malignant gliomas.

  7. Efficacy and safety of a new surgical method to treat malignant glaucoma in pseudophakia

    PubMed Central

    Żarnowski, T; Wilkos-Kuc, A; Tulidowicz-Bielak, M; Kalinowska, A; Zadrożniak, A; Pyszniak, E; Rękas, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of a relatively new surgical method in pseudophakic malignant glaucoma patients. Methods This study is a retrospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. Ten eyes of nine pseudophakic malignant glaucoma patients with mean age of 63.3 years were analysed. All 10 eyes underwent a novel surgical technique, an anterior chamber capsulo-hyaloidectomy and anterior vitrectomy through the peripheral iridectomy. Main outcome measures were: reformation of the anterior chamber, intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications. Results All 10 eyes with pseudophakic malignant glaucoma were treated successfully by using a new surgical technique. All cases had a relief of aqueous misdirection with anterior chamber deepening during and after the surgery and post-operative intraocular pressure (IOP) normalization. No relapses have been observed so far. There were no complications during surgery and in the post-operative period. Conclusion The presented surgical technique seems to be safe and effective in all cases of malignant glaucoma in pseudophakia. PMID:24625375

  8. Hypertension in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Hanna, N N; Kenady, D E

    1999-12-01

    Adrenal-dependent hypertension syndromes are uncommon forms of hypertension. They include primary aldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, Cushing"s syndrome, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Pheochromocytomas are the cause of hypertension in 0.1% to 0.2% of hypertensive patients. Excess catecholamine release and other neural and humoral mechanisms contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Patients with pheochromocytomas have a potentially curable cause of endocrine hypertension and, if undetected, pheochromocytomas confer a high risk for morbidity and mortality, especially during surgical procedures and pregnancy. All patients with incidental adrenal tumors, regardless of tumor size, should be biochemically screened for pheochromocytoma (especially before resection or needle biopsy) to avoid precipitation of a lethal hypertensive crisis.

  9. [Prognostic factors for deep situated malignant gliomas treated with linac radiosurgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-yan; Bao, Xiu-feng; Li, Shu-ying; Wu, Cheng-yuan

    2002-10-01

    Though radiosurgery has been used for more than 10 years, the value of radiosurgery for malignant glioma has not been clarified. This paper was designed to investigate efficacy of radiosurgery to malignant glioma by analyzing the prognostic factors affecting prognosis of malignant gliomas treated with linac radiosurgery. Fifty-eight patients with deep situated malignant gliomas, 28 anaplastic astrocytomas(AA) and 30 glioblastomas (GBM), aged from 7 to 70 years, were analyzed. The mean volume of tumor was 12.08 cm3, and mean prescription dose for linac radiosurgery was 19.42 Gy. The results were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox regression. There were 44.8% of the tumors shrank. Median tumor local control interval was 10 months(15 months for AA and 9 months for GBM). Tumor local control probability was 37.9% for 1 year and 10.3% for 2 years. Median survival was 22.5 months for AA and 13 months for GBM and 15 months for all patients. The survival probability was 79.3% at 1 year and 20.6% at 2 years. Isocenter numbers and tumor volume were the prognostic factors for tumor control, but conformity index was prognostic factor for survival as determined by Cox regression analysis. Considered of pathology, only isocenter number and target volume significantly affected the tumor control interval. Complication appeared in 44.8% of the patients and the median interval of complication onset was 8 months. Symptomatic cerebral edema was observed in 31.0% of the patients. Linac radiosurgery can effectively improve tumor local control and elongate survival for the patients with deep situated malignant gliomas. Tumor volume is the prognostic factor for tumor control, while conformity index is prognostic factor for survival.

  10. Second lymphoid malignant neoplasms occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, J.O.; Dick, F.R.; Goeken, J.A.; Foucar, M.K.; Gingrich, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    Patients who have been treated for Hodgkin's disease are at increased risk for second malignant neoplasms, particularly acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoid malignant neoplasms (NHLMs). We diagnosed five cases of NHLM in 242 patients initially treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1973 and 1980, giving a minimum incidence for this occurrence of 2.1%. The initial therapy for Hodgkin's disease, irradiation in three patients and chemotherapy in two patients, resulted in a complete remission in each case. The NHLM appeared 12, 13, 26, 30, and 54 months after the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease. The cell type of NHLM and immunologic phenotype were as follows: large cell, immunoblastic T; large cell, immunoblastic null; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved B; large cell, cleaved and noncleaved (not studied); and lymphoblastic T. A review of 24 other cases of NHLMs, occurring in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, reported in the literature, confirm the morphologic and immunologic heterogeneity. The poor response to therapy in our patients and those previously described demonstrate the seriousness of this phenomenon.

  11. Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor Treated with Radical Radiotherapy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Kathryn; Yu, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Reported here is the first case of a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor treated with radical radiotherapy. Complete clinical response was achieved, and this obviated the need for aggressive surgery. These tumors have a tendency to develop in older patients, and have a propensity for affecting women more than men. The standard of treatment is surgical excision with a margin of normal tissue. Given that not all patients are good surgical candidates, the role of different treatment modalities in the management of this tumor is discussed. PMID:28280652

  12. Toxicogenomics of A375 human malignant melanoma cells treated with arbutin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sun-Long; Liu, Rosa Huang; Sheu, Jin-Nan; Chen, Shui-Tein; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Tsay, Gregory Jiazer

    2007-01-01

    Although arbutin is a natural product and widely used as an ingredient in skin care products, its effect on the gene expression level of human skin with malignant melanoma cells is rarely reported. We aim to investigate the genotoxic effect of arbutin on the differential gene expression profiling in A375 human malignant melanoma cells through its effect on tumorigenesis and related side-effect. The DNA microarray analysis provided the differential gene expression pattern of arbutin-treated A375 cells with the significant changes of 324 differentially expressed genes, containing 88 up-regulated genes and 236 down-regulated genes. The gene ontology of differentially expressed genes was classified as belonging to cellular component, molecular function and biological process. In addition, four down-regulated genes of AKT1, CLECSF7, FGFR3, and LRP6 served as candidate genes and correlated to suppress the biological processes in the cell cycle of cancer progression and in the downstream signaling pathways of malignancy of melanocytic tumorigenesis.

  13. A phase II clinical study on relapsed malignant gliomas treated with electro-hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Fiorentini, Giammaria; Giovanis, Petros; Rossi, Susanna; Dentico, Patrizia; Paola, Raffaele; Turrisi, Gina; Bernardeschi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity and toxicity of electro-hyperthermia (ET) on relapsed malignant glioma patients. Twelve patients with histologically diagnosed malignant glioma entered the study. Eight patients had glioblastoma multiforme, two had anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and two had anaplastic oligodendroglioma. All patients were pre-treated with temozolamide-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hyperthermia with short radiofrequency waves of 13.56 MHz was applied using a capacitive coupling technique keeping the skin surface at 20 degrees C. The applied power ranged between 40-150 Watts and the calculated average equivalent temperature in the tumours was above 40 degrees C for more than 90% of the treatment duration. One complete remission and 2 partial remission were achieved, with a response rate of 25%. The median duration of response was 10 months (range 4-32). The median survival of the entire patient population was 9 months, with 25% survival rate at 1 year. ET appears to have some effectiveness in adults with relapsed malignant glioma.

  14. Pigmented Pheochromocytoma: an Unusual Variant of a Common Tumor.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Aanchal; Kaur, Kavneet; Kumar, Tarun; Cherian, Libin Babu; Kaushal, Rohit; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Dhar, Anita; Seth, Amlesh; Jain, Deepali

    2016-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor arising from the adrenal medulla. A number of variants of pheochromocytoma are known; however, pigmented pheochromocytoma is extremely rare, with only few cases reported in literature. We report the cases of two patients with pigmented pheochromocytoma. Case 1 was a 28-year-old female who presented with complaints of breathlessness, palpitations, and anxiety for 5 years, which had worsened over the last 8 months. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen showed a right suprarenal mass. Case 2 was that of an 18-year-old girl who presented with similar complaints and was diagnosed with hypertension. CT abdomen showed bilateral adrenal masses. Urinary vanillyl mandelic acid was raised in both patients. Sections examined from all three tumors showed cells arranged in Zellballen pattern, separated by thin fibrovascular septae. Tumor cells showed moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism in case 1. Mitoses were, however, not seen. There was no evidence of capsular or vascular invasion. Many of the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic black pigment, which was positive for Fontana-Masson and was bleach-labile, confirming it as melanin. Hemosiderin deposition was also identified. Large areas of hemorrhagic necrosis were seen in case 1. Tumor cells were immunopositive for chromogranin and synaptophysin, while they were negative for HMB-45. Electron microscopy was performed. A final diagnosis of pigmented pheochromocytoma was rendered in both cases. Pigmented pheochromocytoma is a very rare tumor, which needs to be differentiated from other pigmented tumors like malignant melanoma of adrenal gland and pigmented adrenal adenoma. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry help in making this distinction.

  15. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated in a Tertiary Paediatric Oncology Centre.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results: We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years (P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion: This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.

  16. Disseminated pheochromocytoma in a North American river otter (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Schlanser, Justin R; Patterson, Jon S; Kiupel, Matti; Hencken, Christy; Sikarskie, James G; Harrison, Tara M

    2012-06-01

    A 21-yr-old male North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) with a chronic history of degenerative osteoarthritis was evaluated for acute posterior paralysis. Because no definitive cause was identified and a poor prognosis was expected, the otter was euthanatized. A malignant neoplasm of adrenal gland origin with disseminated metastases to the central nervous system, lymph nodes, diaphragm, pancreas, spleen, and liver was diagnosed on postmortem examination. No clinical signs of disseminated neoplasia had been noted throughout the otter's history. The adrenal neoplasm was composed of nests of epithelial cells surrounded by a fine fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic cells were immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, PGP9.5, metencephalin, and endorphin and negative for melan A and inhibin, confirming a diagnosis of a malignant pheochromocytoma. On the basis of the necropsy finding, metastasis of the pheochromocytoma might have contributed to the observed clinical signs.

  17. [Pheochromocytoma and von Recklinghausen's disease].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Fekak, H; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2002-07-01

    The association between von Recklinghausen's disease and pheochromocytoma is present about 10% of cases. We report a case of 49 years old women who presented with elevated blood pressure and von Recklinghausen's neurofibromatosis. Laboratory examination showed a marked level in the urinary excretion of cathecholamine. The computed tomography showed a right adrenal tumor suggesting a pheochromocytoma. The adrenalectomy was realised by transabdominal approach and the histological examination confirmed a benign pheochromocytoma. The authors discuss the pathogenetic hypothesis of this rare pathological association, the diagnostic methods and the therapeutic procedure.

  18. Mucosal Malignant Melanoma of the Head and Neck Treated by Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagi, Takeshi Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Bessho, Hiroki; Onda, Takeshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy for mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Between 1994 and 2004, 72 patients with mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck were treated with carbon ion beams in three prospective studies. Total dose ranged from 52.8 GyE to 64 GyE given in 16 fixed fractions over 4 weeks. Clinical parameters including gender, age, Karnofsky index, tumor site, tumor volume, tumor status, total dose, fraction size, and treatment time were evaluated in relation to local control and overall survival. Results: The median follow-up period was 49.2 months (range, 16.8-108.5 months). Treatment toxicity was within acceptable limits, and no patients showed Grade 3 or higher toxicity in the late phase. The 5-year local control rate was 84.1%. In relation to local control, there were no significant differences in any parameters evaluated. The 5-year overall and cause-specific survival rates were 27.0% and 39.6%, respectively. For overall survival, however, tumor volume ({>=}100 mL) was found to be the most significant prognostic parameter. Of the patients who developed distant metastasis, 85% were free from local recurrence. Conclusion: Carbon ion radiotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for mucosal malignant melanoma of the head and neck in terms of high local control and acceptable toxicities. Overall survival rate was better than in those treated with conventional radiotherapy and was comparable to that with surgery.

  19. [Suspected case of postoperative malignant hyperthermia treated with dantrolene one week after neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kazushi; Nishibe, Shinichi; Usuda, Yutaka; Kitamura, Akira

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 16-year-old man who presented with hyperthermia (>40°C), an elevated creatine kinase level (>64,000 IU · l-1), and myoglobinuria one week after undergoing two successive neurosurgeries for a brain hemorrhage under sevoflurane anesthesia. After having been diagnosed with suspicious atypical postoperative malignant hyperthermia, he was treated with dantrolene and his symptoms disappeared on the day of dantrolene administration. Central hyperthermia is defined as hyperthermia associated with thermoregulatory dysfunction after brainstem injury. Postoperative malignant hyperthermia can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from central hyperthermia, especially after neurosurgery. We could not eliminate the possibility of central hyperthermia as a cause of hyperthermia in the present patient If marked postoperative hyperthermia must be addressed immediately and managed appropriately in neurosurgical patients and dantrolene having few serious side effects, we were able to control his symptoms immediately after the infusion of dantrolene. Therefore, the administration of dantrolene should be considered when treating unidentified postoperative hyperthermia after a neurosurgical procedure.

  20. Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy of the extremities in metastatic pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Shulkin, B.L.; Shen, S.W.; Sisson, J.C.; Shapiro, B.

    1987-03-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG scintigraphy may be used to determine the presence or absence of metastases to the appendicular skeleton in malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Normal bones show no uptake of (/sup 131/I)MIBG and the joints are seen as photon-deficient areas surrounded by background muscle activity. Discrete concentrations of radioactivity in bone are often seen in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Bone marrow involvement in neuroblastoma may be indicated by diffuse uptake of (/sup 131/I)MIBG or focal accumulation at the metaphyses. Uncommonly, bone involvement may not be displayed by the (/sup 131/I)MIBG images. Since conventional bone scanning agents may also fail to detect these tumors, skeletal scintigraphy with both (/sup 131/I)MIBG and (/sup 99m/Tc)MDP is necessary to reliably stage malignant pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma.

  1. Post-surgical treatment of a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Sheng, C F; Wang, R; Liu, B Y; Zhang, H M; Fang, M; Zheng, X

    2015-03-20

    We report here the course and treatment of a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma. The patient was cured after treatment with respiratory and circulatory support, multiple-organ protection, and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) for approximately 2 weeks. After misdiagnosis, a patient with ectopic pheochromocytoma who is being treated should undergo aggressive fluid supplementation and CRRT instead of central venous pressure measurement, which has limited value in guiding fluid supplementation. The main priority is maintaining hypotension. Hypertension may be controlled with rapid-acting agents. A good outcome can be anticipated for patients who undergo comprehensive intensive care unit therapy.

  2. Pheochromocytoma Multisystem Crisis Behaving Like Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case

    PubMed Central

    Nomoto, Yohta; Kawano, Kiyoshi; Fujisawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Keiko; Yamashita, Tomoko; Makita, Naoki; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kamimori, Kimio; Yanagi, Shiro; Yoshiyama, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis is a rare and life-threatening disease that is associated with numerous symptoms and which is also difficult to diagnose. We herein report an autopsy case of a 61-year-old man who died due to pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis. The patient complained of vomiting and breathlessness. Computed tomography showed a shadow-like region with a similar appearance to interstitial pneumonia. The patient was diagnosed with takotsubo cardiomyopathy induced by severe lung disease based on the results of echocardiography and coronary angiography. The patient was treated for interstitial pneumonia. However, his condition rapidly deteriorated and he died 6 hours after arrival. We were later informed of his extremely high catecholamine serum levels. We found pheochromocytoma with hemorrhage at autopsy. The patient's lungs showed acute passive congestion with edema and extravasation. PMID:28090043

  3. Diverse clinical manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

    PubMed

    Badui, E; Mancilla, R; Szymanski, J J; Garcia-Rubi, D; Estañol, B

    1982-03-01

    Many difficulties are encountered by clinicians in attempting to diagnose pheochromocytomas. We describe several patients with unusual clinical features. These include sudden death, cerebral hemorrhage, refractory congestive heart failure, acute abdominal pain, and hypercalcemia. In 2 patients, the rare association of this tumor and pregnancy was observed. Two subjects had sudden death, 1 during a pneumoencephalogram and another during an epidural block. The clinicians should be aware of these manifestations of pheochromocytomas.

  4. Second malignancies in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated with low and medium activities of radioactive I-131

    PubMed Central

    PICIU, DOINA; PESTEAN, CLAUDIU; BARBUS, ELENA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; PICIU, ANDRA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim This study aimed at determining whether there is a risk regarding the development of second primary malignancies after patient exposure to the low and medium radioiodine activity used during the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). Methods Second primary malignancies that occurred after DTC were detected in 1,990 patients treated between 1970 and 2003. The mean long-term follow-up period was 182 months. Results Radioiodine I-131was administrated at a mean dose of 63.2 mCi. There were 93 patients with at least one second primary malignancy. The relative risk of development of second malignancy in DTC patients was increased (p<0.0001) for breast, uterine and ovarian cancers compared with the general population. Conclusions The overall risk concerning the development of second primary malignancies was related to the presence of DTC, but not to exposure to the low and medium activities of radioiodine administered as adjuvant therapy. PMID:27547058

  5. Current perioperative management of pheochromocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Rashmi; Rewari, Vimi

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors which have the potential to secrete catecholamines are either associated with sympathetic adrenal (pheochromocytoma) or nonadrenal (paraganglioma) tissue. Surgical removal of these tumors is always indicated to cure and prevent cardiovascular and other organ system complications associated with catecholamine excess. Some of these tumors have malignant potential as well. The diagnosis, localization and anatomical delineation of these tumors involve measurement of catecholamines and their metabolic end products in plasma and urine, 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, computed tomography, and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Before surgical removal of the tumors, the optimization of blood pressure, as well as intravascular volume, is an important measure to avoid and suppress perioperative adverse hemodynamic events. Preoperative preparation includes the use of alpha-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists with or without other antihypertensive agents, fluid therapy as well as insulin therapy for hyperglycemia if required. Due attention should be given to type and dose of alpha-receptor antagonists to be used and the duration of this therapy to achieve an optimal level of preoperative “alpha-blockade.” Despite this preoperative preparation, many patients will have hypertensive crises intraoperatively which need to be promptly and carefully managed by the anesthesia team which requires intensive and advanced monitoring techniques. The most common complication after tumor removal is hypotension which may require fluid therapy and vasopressor support for a few hours. With advancement in surgical and anesthetic techniques, the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality associated with the surgery is low in high volume centers. PMID:28197025

  6. Laparoscopic and open surgery for pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Edwin, Bjørn; Kazaryan, Airazat M; Mala, Tom; Pfeffer, Per F; Tønnessen, Tor Inge; Fosse, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Backround Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is a promising alternative to open surgery although concerns exist in regard to laparoscopic treatment of pheocromocytoma. This report compares the outcome of laparoscopic and conventional (open) resection for pheocromocytoma particular in regard to intraoperative hemodynamic stability and postoperative patient comfort. Methods Seven patients laparoscopically treated (1997–2000) and nine patients treated by open resection (1990–1996) at the National Hospital (Rikshospitalet), Oslo. Peroperative hemodynamic stability including need of vasoactive drugs was studied. Postoperative analgesic medication, complications and hospital stay were recorded. Results No laparoscopic resections were converted to open procedure. Patients laparoscopically treated had fewer hypertensive episodes (median 1 vs. 2) and less need of vasoactive drugs peroperatively than patients conventionally operated. There was no difference in operative time between the two groups (median 110 min vs. 125 min for adrenal pheochromocytoma and 235 vs. 210 min for paraganglioma). Postoperative need of analgesic medication (1 vs. 9 patients) and hospital stay (median 3 vs. 6 days) were significantly reduced in patients laparoscopically operated compared to patients treated by the open technique. Conclusion Surgery for pheochromocytoma can be performed laparoscopically with a safety comparable to open resection. However, improved hemodynamic stability peroperatively and less need of postoperative analgesics favour the laparoscopic approach. In experienced hands the laparoscopic technique is concluded to be the method of choice also for pheocromocytoma. PMID:11580870

  7. A Survival Analysis of Patients with Malignant Biliary Strictures Treated by Percutaneous Metallic Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Brountzos, Elias N. Ptochis, Nikolaos; Panagiotou, Irene; Malagari, Katerina; Tzavara, Chara; Kelekis, Dimitrios

    2007-02-15

    Background. Percutaneous metal stenting is an accepted palliative treatment for malignant biliary obstruction. Nevertheless, factors predicting survival are not known. Methods. Seventy-six patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were treated with percutaneous placement of metallic stents. Twenty patients had non-hilar lesions. Fifty-six patients had hilar lesions classified as Bismuth type I (n = 15 patients), type II (n = 26), type III (n = 12), or type IV (n = 3 patients). Technical and clinical success rates, complications, and long-term outcome were recorded. Clinical success rates, patency, and survival rates were compared in patients treated with complete (n = 41) versus partial (n = 35) liver parenchyma drainage. Survival was calculated and analyzed for potential predictors such as the tumor type, the extent of the disease, the level of obstruction, and the post-intervention bilirubin levels. Results. Stenting was technically successful in all patients (unilateral drainage in 70 patients, bilateral drainage in 6 patients) with an overall significant reduction of the post-intervention bilirubin levels (p < 0.001), resulting in a clinical success rate of 97.3%. Clinical success rates were similar in patients treated with whole-liver drainage versus partial liver drainage. Minor and major complications occurred in 8% and 15% of patients, respectively. Mean overall primary stent patency was 120 days, while the restenosis rate was 12%. Mean overall secondary stent patency was 242.2 days. Patency rates were similar in patients with complete versus partial liver drainage. Mean overall survival was 142.3 days. Survival was similar in the complete and partial drainage groups. The post-intervention serum bilirubin level was an independent predictor of survival (p < 0.001). A cut-off point in post-stenting bilirubin levels of 4 mg/dl dichotomized patients with good versus poor prognosis. Patient age and Bismuth IV lesions were also independent predictors

  8. Incidence of Second Malignancies in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Radical Prostatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Hamm, Jeremy; Jiang, Wei Ning; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; Lapointe, Vince; Kahnamelli, Adam; McKenzie, Michael; Miller, Stacy; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To compare the second malignancy incidence in prostate cancer patients treated with brachytherapy (BT) relative to radical prostatectomy (RP) and to compare both groups with the cancer incidence in the general population. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 2418 patients were treated with Iodine 125 prostate BT monotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, and 4015 referred patients were treated with RP. Cancer incidence was compared with the age-matched general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Pelvic malignancies included invasive and noninvasive bladder cancer and rectal cancer. Cox multivariable analysis was performed with adjustment for covariates to determine whether treatment (RP vs BT) was associated with second malignancy risk. Results: The median age at BT was 66 years and at RP 62 years. The SIR comparing BT patients with the general population was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-1.22) for second malignancy and was 1.53 (95% CI 1.12-2.04) for pelvic malignancy. The SIR comparing RP patients with the general population was 1.11 (95% CI 0.98-1.25) for second malignancy and was 1.11 (95% CI 0.82-1.48) for pelvic malignancy. On multivariable analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05) and smoking (HR 1.65) were associated with increased second malignancy risk (P<.0001). Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased second malignancy risk relative to BT (HR 0.90, P=.43), even when excluding patients who received postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy (HR 1.13, P=.25). Older age (HR 1.09, P<.0001) and smoking (HR 2.17, P=.0009) were associated with increased pelvic malignancy risk. Radical prostatectomy was not associated with a decreased pelvic malignancy risk compared with BT (HR 0.57, P=.082), even when excluding postprostatectomy external beam radiation therapy patients (HR 0.87, P=.56). Conclusions: After adjustment for covariates, BT patients did not have an increased second

  9. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Pacak, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a very special kind of tumor full of duplicity. On the one hand it represents its own microworld with unique clinical, biochemical and pathological features, while on the other it constitutes a tremendously significant part of whole body system, playing a vital role for practically every organ system. It has a very special character – sometimes like a child it can be sweet and predictable, while at times it can behave like a deadly wild beast, crashing and tearing everything on its path in a fierce rage. It also consists of the amazingly intelligent neuroendocrine cells that possess a magical ability to make miraculous substances of many kinds. But most of all, it is a system that is able to drive our curiosity and the itch of “Cogito, ergo sum” to limitless depths and year by year it still amazes us with new and unexpected discoveries that move our understanding of multiple pathways and metabolic events closer to the ultimate truth. Recent discoveries of succinate dehydrogenase (SHD) and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations, for example, propelled our understanding of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis as a whole, as well as physiology of mitochondrial respiratory chain and phenomenon of pseudohypoxia in particular. Good old discoveries make their way from dusty repositories to shine with new meaning, appropriate for the current level of knowledge. This acquired wisdom makes us better physicians – knowing the specific expression makeup of catecholamine transporters, GLUTs and SRIFs allows for better tailored imaging and therapeutic manipulations. There are still long ways to go, keeping in mind that pheochromocytoma is but so very special, and we are optimistic and expect many great things to come. PMID:20541673

  10. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Pacak, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a very special kind of tumor full of duplicity. On the one hand it represents its own microworld with unique clinical, biochemical and pathological features, while on the other it constitutes a tremendously significant part of whole body system, playing a vital role for practically every organ system. It has a very special character - sometimes like a child it can be sweet and predictable, while at times it can behave like a deadly wild beast, crashing and tearing everything on its path in a fierce rage. It also consists of the amazingly intelligent neuroendocrine cells that possess a magical ability to make miraculous substances of many kinds. But most of all, it is a system that is able to drive our curiosity and the itch of "Cogito, ergo sum" to limitless depths and year by year it still amazes us with new and unexpected discoveries that move our understanding of multiple pathways and metabolic events closer to the ultimate truth. Recent discoveries of succinate dehydrogenase (SHD) and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations, for example, propelled our understanding of neuroendocrine tumorigenesis as a whole, as well as physiology of mitochondrial respiratory chain and phenomenon of pseudohypoxia in particular. Good old discoveries make their way from dusty repositories to shine with new meaning, appropriate for the current level of knowledge. This acquired wisdom makes us better physicians - knowing the specific expression makeup of catecholamine transporters, GLUTs and SRIFs allows for better tailored imaging and therapeutic manipulations. There are still long ways to go, keeping in mind that pheochromocytoma is but so very special, and we are optimistic and expect many great things to come. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreasing expression of the interleukin-13 receptor IL-13Ralpha2 in treated recurrent malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bozinov, Oliver; Kalk, Jens-Martin; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Woernle, Christoph Michael; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    The IL-13Ralpha2 gene encodes for a 65 kDa protein that forms one of the subunits of the interleukin-13 (IL-13) receptor. This gene is highly expressed in various types of human tumors including malignant gliomas. The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 was examined in a total of 45 tissue samples of anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) World Health Organization (WHO) grade III, glioblastomas (GBMs) WHO grade IV, and first-recurrent glioblastomas (frGBMs) after treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. IL-13Ralpha2 expression was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using ABI PRISM 7700 and Qiagen QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR kits. The expression level of IL-13Ralpha2 (15 fold) was significantly reduced in frGBMs compared to the primary GBMs (p = 0.014), and significantly reduced by more than 15 fold (p = 0.003) in all untreated malignant astrocytomas (AAs and GBMs) compared with treated frGBMs. Expression of IL-13Ralpha2 seems to be lower in frGBMs compared to GBMs. The promising antitumor effect of IL-13 cytotoxin could be greatly reduced in frGBM or only achievable with higher amounts of cytotoxin, due to the significantly lower expression of the cytotoxin's target structure.

  12. Whole-Brain Radiation to Treat a Recurrent Malignant Subdural Effusion.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria M; Lavrador, José Pedro; Teixeira, Joaquim; Miguéns, José

    2015-12-01

    We report the first case of a recurrent malignant subdural effusion that was treated with whole-brain radiation therapy. A 72-year-old man presented with headaches and de novo left central facial palsy and right upper extremity weakness. His past medical history was remarkable for a prostatic adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 1999 (T4N0M0) with no metastatic disease diagnosed to date. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium showed carcinomatous meningitis and a 1.5-cm thick left hemisphere subdural collection causing a mass effect. Left-side frontal and parietal burr holes were created and a clear effusion was successfully drained under high pressure. A biopsy od the dura mater was also taken. Analysis of the effusion showed a protein concentration of 1233 mg/dL. Histopathological examination of the dura matter showed adenocarcinomatous cells. Despite the clinical improvement, serial postoperative computed tomography scans of the head showed massive recurrence of the subdural effusion. The patient was offered radiation therapy as a palliative treatment for effusion control. Whole-brain radiation therapy was performed from day 10 to 17 after surgery at a palliative dose of 20 Gy in 5 fractions. No treatment-associated complications were reported. Thirty days after radiotherapy, the computed tomography scan of the head showed total resolution of the malignant effusion.

  13. Second cancers and late mortality in Australian children treated by allogeneic HSCT for haematological malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, A S; Ashton, L J; Vajdic, C M; Le Marsney, R E; Daniels, B; Nivison-Smith, I; Wilcox, L; Dodds, A J; O'Brien, T A

    2015-02-01

    We examined risk of second cancer and late mortality in a population-based Australian cohort of 717 pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients treated for a malignant disease during 1982-2007. Record linkage with population-based death and cancer registries identified 17 second cancers at a median of 7.9 years post HSCT; thyroid cancer being the most common malignancy (n=8). The cumulative incidence of second cancer was 8.7% at follow-up, and second cancers occurred 20 times more often than in the general population (standardised incidence ratio 20.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=12.6-32.7). Transplantation using radiation-based conditioning regimens was associated with increased second cancer risk. A total of 367 patients survived for at least 2 years post HSCT and of these 44 (12%) died at a median of 3.1 years after HSCT. Relapse was the most common cause of late mortality (n=32). The cumulative incidence of late mortality was 14.7%. The observed rate of late mortality was 36 times greater than in the matched general population (standardised mortality ratio 35.9, 95% CI=26.7-48.3). Recipients who relapsed or who had radiation-based conditioning regimens were at higher risk of late mortality. Second cancers and late mortality continue to be a risk for pediatric patients undergoing HSCT, and these results highlight the need for effective screening and survivorship programs.

  14. Pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuations in a cardiac pheochromocytoma patient successfully resuscitated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Dawei; Su, Longxiang; Long, Yun; Du, Wei; Miao, Qi; Li, Fang; Jin, Zhengyu; Zeng, Zhengpei; Luo, Ailun; Huang, Yuguang

    2015-05-01

    Cardiac pheochromocytoma is relatively rare. Few reports describe the intraoperative and postoperative progression of patients experiencing a life-threatening pheochromocytoma crisis treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).A 35-year-old man was referred to our facility for paroxysmal hypertension with a 10-year history of sweating, headaches, cardiac palpitations, and postexercise dyspnea. The patient initially underwent urine catecholamine measurement and an isotope scan, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography (CT), which indicated a multiple, cardiac pheochromocytoma. Echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CT reconstruction, and a coronary CT angiography revealed several lesions at the aortic root and along the cardiac vasculature.Multifocal cardiac pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and pheochromocytoma crisis with severe cyclic blood pressure fluctuation occurred during surgery.Surgical resection of multiple pheochromocytomas in the right medial carotid sheath, mediastinum between the main and pulmonary arteries, and between the abdominal aorta and inferior vena artery was performed. To ensure cardiac perfusion and avoid severe circulatory fluctuation, the cardiac paraganglioma resection was prioritized. After resecting the cardiac pheochromocytoma, a severe pheochromocytoma crisis with rapid cyclic blood pressure fluctuation developed. ECMO and intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) were initiated to stabilize circulation and perfusion. Phenoxybenzamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and fluid resuscitation were administered to support cardiovascular function.The magnitude of blood pressure fluctuation steadily decreased with treatment. IABP was discontinued after 3 days, and ECMO was discontinued after 16 days. The patient was discharged 3 months postoperatively.This case indicates that mechanical life support with ECMO is a valuable option for pheochromocytoma

  15. What Are Common Symptoms of Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Condition Information What are common symptoms? How many people are affected/at risk? ... are common symptoms of pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Pheochromocytoma causes a ...

  16. Thallium-201 SPECT in prognostic assessment of malignant gliomas treated with postoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Semba, Takatoshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Ochi, Takashi; Fujii, Takashi; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2006-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate the value of preoperative thallium-201 (201Tl) SPECT as a predictor of outcome in malignant glioma. From January 1990 to September 2003, 109 patients with glioma were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Of these, 36 patients with malignant gliomas who underwent preoperative 201Tl-SPECT were included in this study (grade 3: n=14, grade 4: n=22). On early (10 minutes) and delayed (2 hours) images after 111 MBq 201TlCl injection, we calculated radioactivity ratios of tumors to contralateral normal brain (T/N ratios) and retention indices (RIs). For early and delayed images, we compared outcome between a high T/N ratio group (T/N ratio equal or greater than the average) and a low T/N ratio group (T/N ratio less than the average). We also divided the patients into two groups on the basis of RI; a high RI group (RI equal or greater than the average) and a low RI group (RI less than the average), and similarly compared outcome between the two groups. Median survival time was 12 months for both grade 3 and grade 4 tumors; however, two-year survival was 53% for grade 3 and 15% for grade 4. In both early and delayed images, outcome was significantly better for patients with low T/N ratios (early < 4.71, delayed < 3.96) than those with high T/N ratios (early: p = 0.030, delayed: p = 0.049). However, no significant survival difference was apparent between the low- (< -12.25) and high RI groups. In grade 3 glioma, patients with high T/N ratios demonstrated a tendency toward poorer outcome, although this trend was not significant (early: p = 0.079, delayed: p = 0.099). Overall outcome was poor for grade 4 glioma, and the difference in survival between low and high T/N ratio groups was not significant (early: p = 0.51, delayed: p = 0.53). However, long survival was seen only in patients with lower T/N ratios. Differences of 201Tl uptake in malignant gliomas could predict outcome. 201Tl-SPECT is potentially useful in the management of

  17. Survival Difference in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusions Treated with Pleural Catheter or Talc Pleurodesis.

    PubMed

    Liou, Douglas Z; Serna-Gallegos, Derek; Chan, Joshua L; Borgella, Jerald; Akhmerov, Shah; Soukiasian, Harmik J

    2016-10-01

    Malignant pleural effusions (MPE) are commonly managed with either pleural catheter (PC) or talc pleurodesis (TP). The aim of this study was to compare survival in MPE patients treated with either PC or TP. A retrospective review of our cancer center database was performed. Patients with metastatic cancer and MPE were analyzed. Demographic and clinical data were tabulated and compared. A total of 238 patients with MPE treated by either PC or TP were included. Of these, 79 patients comprised the PC group and 159 the TP group. PC had a higher incidence of advanced disease (stage III or IV) at initial diagnosis compared with TP (70.9% vs 57.2%, P = 0.05). TP had a longer postprocedure length of stay compared with PC (7.1 vs 5.0 days, P = 0.02); however, overall length of stay was similar (9.7 vs 11.1 days, P = 0.34). Readmissions were significantly lower in TP (11.9% vs 22.8%, P = 0.04). Mean survival was higher in TP compared with PC (18.7 vs 4.1 months, P < 0.001). Patients with metastatic cancer and MPE treated with TP had significantly higher survival compared with PC. This is likely related to a greater disease burden in PC, as 70 per cent of patients in this group had stage III or IV disease on initial presentation.

  18. Malignant Otitis Externa - A Retrospective Study of 15 Patients Treated in a Tertiary Healthcare Center.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vadisha; Aziz, Ajaz; Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Aroor, Rajeshwary; Kamath P, Shrinath D; Saldanha, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Malignant otitis externa (MOE) is an uncommon but potentially fatal disease of the external auditory canal. The study aimed at evaluating the demographic profile, coexisting disabilities, clinical presentations, and management of MOE. This is a retrospective study of patients with MOE who were treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Department of our institution. The case records of patients treated between 2006 and 2013 for MOE were reviewed from the Medical Records Department of the hospital. The details were tabulated in a master chart, and the data were analyzed. Fifteen patients with MOE were treated as inpatients at the Otorhinolaryngology Department of our hospital during the study period. Of these, 12 were males and three were females. Among the 15 patients, 14 were diabetic and one was non-diabetic. Earache was the most common symptom observed in all patients; edema and granulations in the ear canal was the most common sign observed in 12 patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in 11 patients. All patients were managed medically with intravenous antibiotics. MOE is a rare but aggressive condition affecting the external ear, which is commonly observed in elderly diabetic individuals. Immune senescence may be the cause of MOE in elderly people. Pseudomonas is the most common causative organism isolated in this condition. Most of these patients can be managed with medical treatment; reserving surgery only for the removal of granulation tissue and for histopathological examination.

  19. Malignancy Rate, Number Needed to Treat, and Positive Predictive Value for Breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, John S; Robbins, Patrick A

    2016-09-01

    Breast MRI is being used more frequently for advanced screening for breast cancer. Patients may be at increased risk, or are symptomatic, with nonsuspicious mammograms. There is little data regarding the likelihood of a recommendation for biopsy, or for detecting a malignancy, in this population. We intended to determine the malignancy rate, number needed to treat, and positive predictive value for patients receiving adjunctive MRI at our institution. A retrospective review of all breast MRIs from 2008 to 2010 was done. Patients with any prior diagnosis of breast cancer, or BRCA+ were excluded. There were 324 patients. Most common reasons for ordering the breast MRI included: abnormal test result 130 (44%), palpable mass 74 (23%), family history 58 (18%), breast pain 47 (15%), and nipple discharge 45 (14%). Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System score (BIRADS) was 1 or 2 in 36 per cent, 4 or 5 in 18 per cent, 3 in 26 per cent, 0 in 10 per cent, and not given in 9 per cent. Biopsy was recommended in 77 (24%), with biopsy actually performed in 57 (18%). Of the eight cancers identified, four (1.2%) were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and four (1.2%) were invasive cancer, yielding a true-positive rate of 2.5 per cent. Number needed to treat was 40. Positive predictive value was 14 per cent with a false-positive rate of 86 per cent. In this group of generally higher risk women, typically prescreened with mammography, 1.2 per cent had an invasive cancer, and another 1.2 per cent had DCIS. Those who undergo biopsy are 6.1 times more likely to have benign pathology. The efficacy of adjunctive breast MRI could be improved through refinements in indication, test interpretation, or alternative screening strategies.

  20. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). PMID:26487970

  1. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

  2. Review of Pediatric Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Bholah, Reshma; Bunchman, Timothy Edward

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare chromaffin cell tumors which secrete catecholamines and form part of the family of neuroendocrine tumors. Although a rare cause of secondary hypertension in pediatrics, the presentation of hypertension in these patients is characteristic, and treatment is definitive. The gold standard for diagnosis is via measurement of plasma free metanephrines, with imaging studies performed for localization, identification of metastatic lesions and for surgical resection. Preoperative therapy with alpha-blocking agents, beta blockers, and potentially tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitors aid in a safe pre-, intra- and postoperative course. PCC and PGL are inherited in as much as 80% of pediatric cases, and all patients with mutations should be followed closely given the risk of recurrence and malignancy. While the presentation of chromaffin cell tumors has been well described with multiple endocrine neoplasia, NF1, and Von Hippel–Lindau syndromes, the identification of new gene mutations leading to chromaffin cell tumors at a young age is changing the landscape of how clinicians approach such cases. The paraganglioma–pheochromocytoma syndromes (SDHx) comprise familial gene mutations, of which the SDHB gene mutation carries a high rate of malignancy. Since the inheritance rate of such tumors is higher than previously described, genetic screening is recommended in all patients, and lifelong follow-up for recurrent tumors is a must. A multidisciplinary team approach allows for optimal health-care delivery in such children. This review serves to provide an overview of pediatric PCC and PGL, including updates on the preferred methods of imaging, guidelines on gene testing as well as management of hypertension in such patients. PMID:28752085

  3. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-07

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  4. Pheochromocytoma presenting as acute heart failure leading to cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure.

    PubMed

    Steppan, Jochen; Shields, Julia; Lebron, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor classically presenting with headache, paroxysmal hypertension, and palpitations. We discuss the case of a young male, presenting with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock requiring stabilization with an intra-aortic balloon pump and a combination of ionotropes and vasopressors. Pheochromocytoma was diagnosed by CT scan, as well as urine and plasma metanephrines. After pretreatment with phenoxy-benzamine, the patient underwent adrenalectomy with subsequent cardiovascular stabilization and full recovery. Unfortunately, pheochromocytoma often remains undiagnosed. Given the ample diagnostic tools and good prognosis when treated suitably, the diagnosis should be entertained early in patients, presenting with unexplained cardiovascular compromise.

  5. Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Acute Heart Failure Leading to Cardiogenic Shock and Multiorgan Failure

    PubMed Central

    Steppan, Jochen; Shields, Julia; Lebron, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor classically presenting with headache, paroxysmal hypertension, and palpitations. We discuss the case of a young male, presenting with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock requiring stabilization with an intra-aortic balloon pump and a combination of ionotropes and vasopressors. Pheochromocytoma was diagnosed by CT scan, as well as urine and plasma metanephrines. After pretreatment with phenoxy-benzamine, the patient underwent adrenalectomy with subsequent cardiovascular stabilization and full recovery. Unfortunately, pheochromocytoma often remains undiagnosed. Given the ample diagnostic tools and good prognosis when treated suitably, the diagnosis should be entertained early in patients, presenting with unexplained cardiovascular compromise. PMID:21629811

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of deep gray matter in children treated for brain malignancies.

    PubMed

    Horská, Alena; Nidecker, Anna; Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Tannazi, Firouzeh; Ardekani, Siamak; Brant, Larry J; Wharam, Moody; Mahone, E Mark

    2014-04-01

    Previous DTI studies reported microstructural changes in white matter of patients receiving treatment for brain malignancies. The primary aim of this prospective pilot longitudinal study was to examine if DTI can detect microstructural changes in deep gray matter (as evaluated by the apparent diffusion coefficient, ADC) between pediatric patients treated with cranial radiation therapy and typically developing healthy children. The relationship between ADC and neurobehavioral performance was also examined. ADC was measured at 1.5 T in the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and hippocampus in nine patients (mean age 11.8 years) and nine age-matched healthy controls. The study was designed with four visits: baseline, 6-month, 15-month, and 27-month follow-ups. Patients had 24 % higher overall mean ADC in the hippocampus compared with controls (p = 0.003). Post hoc analyses revealed significantly elevated ADC at baseline (p = 0.003) and at the 27-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Nevertheless, patients performed normally on a verbal memory test considered to be a hippocampus-related function. Relative to controls, patients' performance on the tests of the visual-spatial working memory decreased over time (group by visit, p = 0.036). Both patients and controls showed a decline in motor speed with increasing ADC in the globus pallidus and putamen. Childhood brain malignancies and their treatment may affect gray matter microstructure as measured by water diffusion. Significant findings in the hippocampus but not other regions suggest that differences in tissue sensitivity to disease- and treatment-related injury among gray matter regions may exist. ADC in basal ganglia may be associated with motor performance.

  7. Neutron Beam Radiation Therapy: An Overview of Treatment and Oral Complications When Treating Salivary Gland Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Chris; Sikes, Justin; Namaranian, Parshan; Laramore, George; Dillon, Jasjit K

    2016-04-01

    There is limited information in the literature regarding the oral complications of neutron radiotherapy, with an associated lack of guidelines for their management. The purpose of this study was to review the indications, dosing, prognosis, and oral complications of neutron radiotherapy for salivary gland malignancies. This is a retrospective case series of patients with salivary gland malignancies treated with neutron radiotherapy by the Radiation Oncology Department at the University of Washington from 1997 to 2006. Variables included patient demographics, tumor staging and characteristics, operative treatment, final diagnosis, operative and pathologic findings (ie, perineural invasion, lymph node involvement, and skull base invasion), dosing, complications, and locoregional control and survival rates. Data were extracted from patients' charts and by telephone for follow-up and quality-of-life information. The sample was composed of 140 patients (49% men, 51% women) with a mean age of 53 years (standard deviation, 15 yr). Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the submandibular gland was the most common tumor type and location. Post-treatment trismus occurred in 56%. Acute mucositis and xerostomia occurred in approximately 88 and 89% of patients, respectively. Osteoradionecrosis was reported in 5.7% of patients. The 6-year survival rate was 58% and the 6-year locoregional control was 72%. The current standard neutron dose for head and neck tumors is 1.15 neutron Gray (nGy) 4 times per week for 4 weeks (total, 18.4 nGy), which is an equivalent amount of radiation as the standard 60 to 70 Gy given for 6 to 7 weeks with conventional photon radiation. The 6-year overall survival of 58% found in this study compares favorably to the survival rate reported in the literature for traditional photon radiation treatment of advanced salivary gland tumors. The dental profession should be educated regarding neutron radiotherapy and its indications, dosing methods, and oral complications

  8. Ultrasound Evaluation of Thyroid Gland Pathologies After Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy to Treat Malignancy During Childhood.

    PubMed

    Lollert, André; Gies, Christina; Laudemann, Katharina; Faber, Jörg; Jacob-Heutmann, Dorothee; König, Jochem; Düber, Christoph; Staatz, Gundula

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate correlations between treatment of malignancy by radiation therapy during childhood and the occurrence of thyroid gland pathologies detected by ultrasonography in follow-up examinations. Reductions of thyroid gland volume below 2 standard deviations of the weight-specific mean value, occurrence of ultrasonographically detectable thyroid gland pathologies, and hypothyroidism were retrospectively assessed in 103 children and adolescents 7 months to 20 years of age (median: 7 years of age) at baseline (1997-2013) treated with chemoradiation therapy (with the thyroid gland dose assessable) or with chemotherapy alone and followed by ultrasonography and laboratory examinations through 2014 (median follow-up time: 48 months). A relevant reduction of thyroid gland volume was significantly correlated with thyroid gland dose in univariate (P<.001) and multivariate analyses for doses above 2 Gy. Odds ratios were 3.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.02-9.2; P=.046) for medium doses (2-25 Gy) and 14.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.4-160; P=.027) for high doses (>25 Gy). Thyroid gland dose was significantly higher in patients with thyroid gland pathologies during follow-up (P=.03). Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between hypothyroidism and thyroid gland dose (P<.001). Ultrasonographically detectable changes, that is, volume reductions, pathologies, and hypothyroidism, after malignancy treatment during childhood are associated with thyroid gland dose. Both ultrasonography and laboratory follow-up examinations should be performed regularly after tumor therapy during childhood, especially if the treatment included radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Multiple nodal locoregional recurrence of pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Plaza, César Pablo; Cárdenas, Elena Margarita Sanchiz; Humanes, Rocío Soler

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Malignancy is present in 10% of pheochromocytomas (PCC) and is defined as local/vascular infiltration of surrounding tissues or the presence of chromaffin cells deposits in distant organs. The presence of isolated nodal recurrence is very rare and only 7 cases have been reported in the medical literature. Presentation of the case The case of a 32-y male with a symptomatic recurrence of a previously operated (2-years ago) PCC is presented. Radiological and functional imaging studies confirmed the presence of multiple nodules in the surgical site. A radical left nephrectomy with extensive lymphatic clearance in order to get an R0 resection was performed. The pathologist confirmed the diagnosis of massive locoregional nodal invasion. Discussion A detailed histological report and a thorough genetic study must be considered in every operated PCC in order to identify mutations and profiles of risk for malignancy. When recurrence or metastastic disease is suspected, imaging and functional exams are done in order to obtain a proper staging. Radical surgery for the metastatic disease is the only treatment that may provide prolonged survival. If an R0 resection is not possible, then a debulking surgery is a good option when the benefit/risk ratio is acceptable. Conclusion Isolated lymph nodal recurrence is very rare in malignant PCC, with only 7 cases previously published. The role of surgery is essential to get long-term survival because provides clinical and functional control of the disease. PMID:26117450

  10. An atrial pheochromocytoma-induced hypertensive crisis resistant to nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Anton, A H; Sherman, B W; Lina, A A; Acheson, L S

    1993-02-01

    A malignant pheochromocytoma with several unique features was studied. Initially, its histological and catecholamine secretory properties and physiological effects were terminated by an infarct prior to its excision in 1973. However, in 1985 a metastasis was resected from the right atrium. Hypertensive crisis during surgery was controlled by the administration of phentolamine but not by nitroprusside. Within 2 months, it was again detected at this same site. Biochemical studies confirmed its recurrence. The tumor did not respond to chemotherapy with vincristine, cyclophosphamide and dacarbazine, but there has been physiological and biochemical improvement from inhibiting catecholamine biosynthesis with metyrosine. We recommend that both phentolamine and sodium nitroprusside be readily available during resection of a pheochromocytoma.

  11. [Acute abdomen from ruptured adrenal pheochromocytoma: case report].

    PubMed

    Bronzino, P; Abbo, L; Barisone, P; Dezzani, C; Genovese, A M; Iannucci, P; Ippoliti, M; Sacchi, M; Aimo, I

    2005-01-01

    The pheochromocytoma is a very rare neoplasm, which originates in 98% of cases in the adrenal medulla; it is often bilateral in familial syndromes. It is more frequent in syndromes like MEN2, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neuofribromatosis type 1. In this article the Authors report a case of a young woman with a large adrenal pheochromocytoma, that presented by an acute abdomen; the treatment was explorative laparotomy with unilateral adrenalectomy. Therapy of this tumour is founded on surgery, plus chemiotherapy radiotherapy or treatment with 131I-MIBG (iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine in malignant cases (10%). According with the absence of a correlation between pathological findings and clinical behaviour, a long-term follow up is indispensable.

  12. Pheochromocytoma in Old World Primates (Macaca mulatta and Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Colgin, L M A; Schwahn, D J; Castillo-Alcala, F; Kiupel, M; Lewis, A D

    2016-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a rarely reported adrenal gland neoplasm in Old World primates, was diagnosed in 5 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and 2 African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) from 3 research institutions. Age and sex were available for 6 primates. Two males and 4 females were affected, ranging in age from 9 to 31 years. All neoplasms were unilateral and, in the cases reporting the affected gland, 4 involved the right adrenal gland and 2 involved the left. Diagnosis was established by characteristic histologic features. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells in all cases expressed chromogranin A and met-enkephalin and were negative for melan-A and inhibin. Six of 7 tumors were positive for β-endorphin. Pulmonary metastases were present in 2 rhesus macaques and portal vein invasion in 1 African green monkey. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of malignant pheochromocytoma in Old World primates.

  13. Is Preoperative Biochemical Testing for Pheochromocytoma Necessary for All Adrenal Incidentalomas?

    PubMed

    Jun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sangmin M; Kim, Jie Ae; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Jung Han

    2015-11-01

    This study examined whether imaging phenotypes obtained from computed tomography (CT) can replace biochemical tests to exclude pheochromocytoma among adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in the preoperative setting.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients (n = 251) who were admitted for operations and underwent adrenal-protocol CT for an incidentally discovered adrenal mass from January 2011 to December 2012. Various imaging phenotypes were assessed for their screening power for pheochromocytoma. Final diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy, biochemical tests, and follow-up CT.Pheochromocytomas showed similar imaging phenotypes as malignancies, but were significantly different from adenomas. Unenhanced attenuation values ≤10 Hounsfield units (HU) showed the highest specificity (97%) for excluding pheochromocytoma as a single phenotype. A combination of size ≤3 cm, unenhanced attenuation values ≤ 10 HU, and absence of suspicious morphology showed 100% specificity for excluding pheochromocytoma.Routine noncontrast CT can be used as a screening tool for pheochromocytoma by combining 3 imaging phenotypes: size ≤3 cm, unenhanced attenuation values ≤10 HU, and absence of suspicious morphology, and may substitute for biochemical testing in the preoperative setting.

  14. Is Preoperative Biochemical Testing for Pheochromocytoma Necessary for All Adrenal Incidentalomas?

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Sangmin M.; Kim, Jie Ae; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Jee Soo; Kim, Jung Han

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study examined whether imaging phenotypes obtained from computed tomography (CT) can replace biochemical tests to exclude pheochromocytoma among adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) in the preoperative setting. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients (n = 251) who were admitted for operations and underwent adrenal-protocol CT for an incidentally discovered adrenal mass from January 2011 to December 2012. Various imaging phenotypes were assessed for their screening power for pheochromocytoma. Final diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy, biochemical tests, and follow-up CT. Pheochromocytomas showed similar imaging phenotypes as malignancies, but were significantly different from adenomas. Unenhanced attenuation values ≤10 Hounsfield units (HU) showed the highest specificity (97%) for excluding pheochromocytoma as a single phenotype. A combination of size ≤3 cm, unenhanced attenuation values ≤ 10 HU, and absence of suspicious morphology showed 100% specificity for excluding pheochromocytoma. Routine noncontrast CT can be used as a screening tool for pheochromocytoma by combining 3 imaging phenotypes: size ≤3 cm, unenhanced attenuation values ≤10 HU, and absence of suspicious morphology, and may substitute for biochemical testing in the preoperative setting. PMID:26559265

  15. Characterization of an animal model of aggressive metastatic pheochromocytoma linked to a specific gene signature

    PubMed Central

    Martiniova, Lucia; Lai, Edwin W.; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Wickremasinghe, Andrea; Solis, Daniel C.; Perera, Shiromi M.; Huynh, Thanh-Truc; Lubensky, Irina A.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Kvetnansky, Richard; Alesci, Salvatore; Morris, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are chromaffin cell-derived neuroendocrine tumors. There is presently no cure for metastatic pheochromocytoma and no reliable way to distinguish malignant from benign tumors before the development of metastases. In order to successfully manage pheochromocytoma, it is necessary to better understand the biological determinants of tumor behavior. For this purpose, we have recently established a mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma using tail vein injection of mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells. We optimized this model modifying the number of cells injected, length of trypsin pre-treatment, and incubation temperature and duration for the MPC cells before injection, and by serial passage and re-selection of tumors exhibiting the metastatic phenotype. We evaluated the effect of these modifications on tumor growth using serial in vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies. These results show that number of cells injected, the pre-injection incubation temperature, and duration of trypsin treatment are important factors to produce faster growing, more aggressive tumors that yielded secondary metastatic lesions. Serial harvest, culture and re-selection of metastatic liver lesions produced even more aggressive pheochromocytoma cells that retained their biochemical phenotype. Microarray gene expression comparison and quantitative real-time PCR of these more aggressive cells to the MPC-parental cell line identified genes that may be important for the metastatic process. PMID:19169894

  16. (131)I-MIBG treatment of pheochromocytoma: low versus intermediate activity regimens of therapy.

    PubMed

    Castellani, M R; Seghezzi, S; Chiesa, C; Aliberti, G L; Maccauro, M; Seregni, E; Orunesu, E; Luksch, R; Bombardieri, E

    2010-02-01

    Since the second half of the 1980s, (131)I-MIBG has been widely used for treatment of patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. In 1991, at the International Meeting in Rome, it was agreed that (131)I-MIBG therapy induces significant tumor responses in about 30-50% of cases, long-term stabilization of disease in several cases and significant reduction of cathecolamine-related symptoms in almost all patients. Nevertheless, more than 20 years later, its therapeutic use in malignant phaeochromocytoma has not yet been standardized. Aim of the present study was to compare the use of low versus intermediate activity of MIBG to achieve better results in a shorter time with higher activities. Two different modalities of (131)I-MIBG therapy were performed: before 2001, 12 patients (Group 1) received a fixed activity of 5.55 GBq/session. From 2001 to 2009, 16 patients (Group 2) were treated with 9.25-12.95 GBq/session. As expected, the overall response rate in Group 2 are slightly better. The most important result of increasing the single session activity was the shorter median time to achieve a significant response (7 versus 19 months), which was obtained with a lower median cumulative activity (11 versus 22 GBq) in a lower median number of sessions (2 versus 7). We demonstrated that intermediate single session activity shortened to one third the global treatment time, with similar efficacy and a moderate increment of toxicity. Consequently, the increase of (131)I-MIBG activity, without reaching myeloablative levels, can be recommended for standard treatment of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma patients.

  17. Subsequent Malignancies in Children Treated for Hodgkin's Disease: Associations With Gender and Radiation Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, Louis S. Tarbell, Nancy; Hudson, Melissa M.; Schwartz, Cindy; Fisher, Susan G.; Muhs, Ann G. B.A.; Basu, Swati K.; Kun, Larry E.; Ng, Andrea; Mauch, Peter; Sandhu, Ajay; Culakova, Eva; Lyman, Gary; Mendenhall, Nancy

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We evaluated select demographic and therapeutic factors associated with SMNs, specifically gender and radiation dose. Methods and Materials: A total of 930 children treated for HD at five institutions between 1960 and 1990 were studied. Mean age at diagnosis was 13.6 years, and mean follow-up was 16.8 years (maximum, 39.4 years). Treatment included radiation alone (43%), chemotherapy alone (9%), or both (48%). Results: We found that SMNs occurred in 102 (11%) patients, with a 25-year actuarial rate of 19%. With 15,154 patient years of follow-up, only 7.18 cancers were expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 14.2; absolute excess risk [AER] = 63 cases/10,000 years). The SIR for female subjects, 19.93, was significantly greater than for males, 8.41 (p < 0.0001). After excluding breast cancer, the SIR for female patients was 15.4, still significantly greater than for male patients (p = 0.0012). Increasing radiation dose was associated with an increasing SIR (p = 0.0085). On univariate analysis, an increased risk was associated with female gender, increasing radiation dose, and age at treatment (12-16 years). Using logistic regression, mantle radiation dose increased risk, and this was 2.5-fold for female patients treated with more than 35 Gy primarily because of breast cancer. Conclusions: Survivors of childhood HD are at risk for SMNs, and this risk is greater for female individuals even after accounting for breast cancer. Although SMNs occur in the absence of radiation therapy, the risk increases with RT dose.

  18. Is it a pheochromocytoma?

    PubMed

    Handler, Joel

    2007-04-01

    The patient is a 44-year-old man with a 4-year history of intermittently elevated blood pressure (BP) controlled by diet and exercise. Three months before evaluation he described daily "spikes" of BP with sharp unilateral headaches. He was seen in the emergency department with a BP of 212/106 mm Hg and was started on hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg daily. He denied palpitations, diaphoretic episodes, pallor, and tremor. The patient did not want to take medication and specifically requested an evaluation to rule out pheochromocytoma. Results from 24-hour urine tests for total metanephrines was 812 mg/24 h (normal, 130-520 mg/24 h), for total catecholamines was 53 mg/24 h (normal, 0-135 mg/24 h), and for vanillylmandelic acid was 4.7 mg/24 h (normal, <7 mg/24 h). Thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.87 (normal, 0.4-4.0 IU/mL). Physical examination revealed normal optic fundi, negative cardiac examination results, and presence of peripheral pulses without bruits. His BP was now 136/74 mm Hg, with a heart rate of 76 beats per minute.

  19. Late presentation of metastatic pheochromocytoma: A problem case solved by I-131 MIBG scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Geatti, O.; Shapiro, B.; Virgolini, L. )

    1990-02-01

    A patient presented with recurrent pheochromocytoma 10 years following the apparently successful surgical cure of a right adrenal pheochromocytoma. Conventional medical imaging techniques, (chest radiograph, abdominal ultrasound, and abdominal CT) suggested local recurrence for which surgery was planned. I-131 MIBG scintigraphy revealed disseminated metastatic disease that rendered attempts at surgical cure futile. The patient was treated with three therapeutic doses of I-131 MIBG with good symptomatic palliation and improvement of some biochemical parameters.

  20. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: A CATECHOLAMINE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    -oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene inactivation, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Since the mitochondria serves as the main source of prooxidants, any mitochondrial impairment leads to severe oxidative stress, a major outcome of which is tumor development. In terms of cancer pathogenesis, pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas represent tumors where the oxidative phosphorylation defect due to the mutation of succinate dehydrogenase is the cause, not a consequence, of tumor development. Any succinate dehydrogenase pathogenic mutation results in the shift from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in the cytoplasm (also called anaerobic glycolysis if hypoxia is the main cause of such a shift). This phenomenon, also called the Warburg effect, is well demonstrated by a positive [18F]-fluorodeoxyglycose positron emission tomography scan. Microarray studies, genome-wide association studies, proteomics and protein arrays, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics approaches will remain powerful tools to further uncover the pathogenesis of these tumors and their unique markers, with the ultimate goal to introduce new therapeutic options for those with metastatic or malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. Soon oxidative stress will be tightly linked to a multistep cancer process in which the mutation of various genes (perhaps in a logistic way) ultimately results in uncontrolled growth, proliferation, and metastatic potential of practically any cell. Targeting the mTORC, IGF-1, HIF and other pathways, topoisomerases, protein degradation by proteosomes, balancing the activity of protein kinases and phosphatases or even synchronizing the cell cycle before any exposure to any kind of therapy will soon become a reality. Facing such a reality today will favor our chances to “beat” this disease tomorrow. PMID:21615192

  1. Primary malignant melanoma of the uterine cervix treated with ultraradical surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Salazar, Luz; Cantú de Leon, David; Perez Montiel, Delia; Almogabar-Villagrán, Erika; Villavicencio, Verónica; Cetina, Lucely

    2011-01-01

    Primary melanomas of the uterine cervix are rare tumors with no more than 60 cases reported in the world literature. Poor prognosis is considered for the neoplasia itself as well as for diagnostic tardiness. There is no standard treatment; however, radical surgery is the treatment cornerstone. Our aim was to present the case of a 34-year-old woman with a primary malignant melanoma in the uterine cervix with affectation of the posterior face of the vagina without metastasis. Total infraelevator pelvic exenteration and adjuvant radiotherapy was performed. The patient was under surveillance for 8 years of followup without evidence of local or distant disease. The majority of case reports found suggests radical hysterectomy as the treatment indicated for these patients. Notwithstanding this, survival is very short when patients are treated in this manner. Based on our results and on those reported in the literature, we propose initial treatment with total pelvic exenteration as optimal management for this neoplasia in its initial form.

  2. Clevidipine for hypertension treatment in pheochromocytoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Luis-García, C; Arbonés-Aran, E; Teixell-Aleu, C; Lorente-Poch, L; Trillo-Urrutia, L

    2017-09-25

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumour and laparoscopic adrenalectomy is its treatment of choice. During pneumoperitoneum insufflation and tumour handling there is a high risk of massive catecholamine release and hypertensive crisis. After tumour excision, severe arterial hypotension is a common effect, due to relative vasodilation and the residual effect of antihypertensive drugs. We report the case of a patient with pheochromocytoma who was treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy. During surgical manipulation there was a sudden hypertensive peak that could be controlled quickly with clevidipine infusion. After tumour resection, clevidipine perfusion was stopped and there were no arterial hypotension episodes. Clevidipine is a new intravenous calcium antagonist with rapid onset of action and short half-life that has no residual effect and does not produce arterial hypotension after tumour resection. For these reasons, it can be a first-choice drug for this kind of surgery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal and multiple endocrine neoplasms:a clinicopathologic analysis of 181 cases].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chang-xin; Zeng, Zhi; Wang, Ting; Liu, Xin; Liu, Rong; Li, Ying

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the change in the incidence of pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal and multiple endocrine neoplasm type 2 (MEN2), to summarize the clinical characteristics of benign, potentially malignant and malignant pheochromocytomas and to investigate the correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological changes. Statistic analysis was performed to detect the incidence, constituent ratio, mean diagnostic age, sex proportion and correlation between clinical manifestions and pathologic changes in pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal gland and MEN2 from 1993 to 2008 in the Department of Pathology, the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University with Runs test, ANOVA, t test and chi-square test. The total number of biopsies within the 16 years was 167 702 cases (average 10 481 cases per year). The numbers (detectable rate) of total adrenal diseases, pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal glands were 910 (0.54%), 139 (0.08%), and 42 (0.03%) cases, respectively. The numbers (constituent ratio) of benign, potentially malignant and malignant of pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla were 102 cases (73.4%), 29 cases (20.9%) and 8 cases (5.7%), respectively; in the 102 cases of benign tumors, patients with MEN2 were 8 (7.8%); the three groups of the tumors in extra-adrenal sites were 18 (42.8%) cases, 12 (28.6%) cases and 12 (28.6%) cases. There were no changes in the detectable rate and constituent ratio of adrenal diseases, benign, potential malignant and malignant pheochromocytomas in adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal glands and patients with MEN2 during the past 16 years (P > 0.05), but there was a tendency that malignant transformation was gradually increased with age, which was more commonly found in male patients than females. The mean age at diagnosis of patients with benign and potentially malignant pheochromocytomas was 42.7 years (ranged from 10 - 74 years), and 40.1 years (13 - 66 years), respectively

  4. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Tazi, Elmehdi; Benlemlih, Amal; Chbani, Leila; Amarti, Afaf; EL Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Urinary bladder pheochromocytoma is rare. From a case report of unsuspected pheochromocytoma and literature review, the authors develop a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of this ectopic pheochromocytoma localization. PMID:19830088

  5. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Ahallal, Youness; Tazi, Elmehdi; Benlemlih, Amal; Chbani, Leila; Amarti, Afaf; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2009-07-22

    Urinary bladder pheochromocytoma is rare. From a case report of unsuspected pheochromocytoma and literature review, the authors develop a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for the management of this ectopic pheochromocytoma localization.

  6. Biodegradable brain-penetrating DNA nanocomplexes and their use to treat malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Zhang, Clark; Song, Eric; Kim, Young Eun; Park, Hee Won; Berry, Sneha; Choi, Won Kyu; Hanes, Justin; Suk, Jung Soo

    2017-09-28

    The discovery of powerful genetic targets has spurred clinical development of gene therapy approaches to treat patients with malignant brain tumors. However, lack of success in the clinic has been attributed to the inability of conventional gene vectors to achieve gene transfer throughout highly disseminated primary brain tumors. Here, we demonstrate ex vivo that small nanocomplexes composed of DNA condensed by a blend of biodegradable polymer, poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE), with PBAE conjugated with 5kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (PBAE-PEG) rapidly penetrate healthy brain parenchyma and orthotopic brain tumor tissues in rats. Rapid diffusion of these DNA-loaded nanocomplexes observed in fresh tissues ex vivo demonstrated that they avoided adhesive trapping in the brain owing to their dense PEG coating, which was critical to achieving widespread transgene expression throughout orthotopic rat brain tumors in vivo following administration by convection enhanced delivery. Transgene expression with the PBAE/PBAE-PEG blended nanocomplexes (DNA-loaded brain-penetrating nanocomplexes, or DNA-BPN) was uniform throughout the tumor core compared to nanocomplexes composed of DNA with PBAE only (DNA-loaded conventional nanocomplexes, or DNA-CN), and transgene expression reached beyond the tumor edge, where infiltrative cancer cells are found, only for the DNA-BPN formulation. Finally, DNA-BPN loaded with anti-cancer plasmid DNA provided significantly enhanced survival compared to the same plasmid DNA loaded in DNA-CN in two aggressive orthotopic brain tumor models in rats. These findings underscore the importance of achieving widespread delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids within brain tumors and provide a promising new delivery platform for localized gene therapy in the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Randomized Trials of Systemic Medically-treated Malignant Mesothelioma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Carl; Nilsson, Jonas; Holgersson, Georg; Edlund, Per; Bergqvist, Michael; Adwall, Linda; Ekman, Simon; Brattström, Daniel; Bergström, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare but aggressive malignancy mainly localized to the pleura. Malignant mesothelioma grows highly invasive into surrounding tissue and has a low tendency to metastasize. The median overall survival (OS) of locally advanced or metastatic disease without treatment is 4-13 months but, during recent years, improvement in survival has been achieved since treatment for patients with mesothelioma has improved with better palliative care, systemic medical treatment, surgery and improved diagnostics methods. The present review aims at describing available data from randomized trials considering systemic medical treatment for this patient category. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  8. Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With HIV and Relapsed, Refractory, or Disseminated Malignant Neoplasms

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-21

    AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; HIV Infection; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Kaposi Sarcoma; Recurrent Malignant Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Malignant Neoplasm; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7

  9. Malignant ascites in patients with terminal cancer is effectively treated with permanent peritoneal catheter

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Frank V.; Madsen, Hans Henrik Torp

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant ascites is a pathological condition caused by intra- or extra-abdominal disseminated cancer. The object of treatment is palliation. In search of an effective and minimally invasive palliative treatment of malignant ascites placement of a permanent intra peritoneal catheter has been suggested. Purpose To evaluate our experiences with treatment of malignant ascites by implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter. Material and Methods A retrospective study was conducted, comprising 20 consecutive patients with terminal cancer, who had a permanent PleurX catheter implanted because of malignant ascites in the period from February to November 2014. Using the patients’ medical records, we retrieved data on patients and procedures. Results The technical success rate was 100%. Catheter patency was 95.2%, one catheter was removed due to dislocation. Ten patients (50.0%) experienced minor adverse events. No procedural difficulties were reported and there was no need for additional treatment of malignant ascites after catheter implantation. Median residual survival after catheter implantation was 27 days. Conclusion Implantation of a permanent PleurX catheter is a minimally invasive and effective procedure with only minor adverse events and a high rate of catheter patency in patients with malignant ascites caused by terminal cancer disease. PMID:26346641

  10. Localization of pheochromocytoma by selective venous catheterization and assay of plasma catecholamines.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, R. A.; Patt, N. L.; Sole, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma rests primarily on determination of the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites. In most cases nephrotomography and selective arteriography or venography, or both, are sufficient to localize the tumour. Selective venous catheterization and the assay of plasma catecholamines should be considered for pheochromocytoma localization in: (a) patients in whom standard techniques fail to localize the tumour; (b) patients who exhibit idiosyncratic reactions to the angiographic contrast materials; (c) young patients or patients with familial pheochromocytoma, including those with multiple neurofibromatosis or multiple endocrine adenomatosis, type 2; (d) patients with recurrent, malignant, or suspected multicentric or extra-adrenal tumours; and (e) patients excreting only norepinephrine in the urine. The validity of the results is particularly dependent on the skill with which venous catheterization is carried out. PMID:436033

  11. Adrenal incidentaloma, borderline elevations of urine or plasma metanephrine levels, and the "subclinical" pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, James A; Zarnegar, Rasa; Shen, Wen T; Kebebew, Electron; Clark, Orlo H; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2007-09-01

    To assess the risk of pheochromocytoma in patients with borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels. Retrospective review. University tertiary care center. Forty-two consecutive patients with adrenal incidentalomas (defined as adrenal tumors identified during routine imaging for another condition) who were treated at the UCSF (University of California, San Francisco) Medical Center between January 1, 1995, and July 31, 2005. Patients with genetic syndromes were excluded. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for adrenal incidentaloma based on size criteria and preoperative hormonal test results. Urine or plasma metanephrine and catecholamine levels, tumor size, and presence of pheochromocytoma. Of 42 patients, 14 (33%) had a pheochromocytoma (11 of whom had clear-cut elevations in urine or plasma metanephrine levels defined as greater than 2 times the upper limit of normal) and 28 did not. Ten of the 42 patients (24%) had borderline elevations in urine or plasma metanephrine levels (defined as 1-2 times the upper limit of normal), 3 of whom had a pheochromocytoma (30%). Of patients with borderline elevations, mean +/- SD tumor size was 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 4.8 +/- 1.9 cm for patients with and without pheochromocytoma, respectively (P = .37). In these 10 patients, no clinical factors (age, sex, hypertension, presence of symptoms, number of antihypertensive medications, preoperative hemodynamics, or size of tumor on computed tomographic scan) allowed differentiation between those with and without pheochromocytoma. Thirty percent of patients with adrenal incidentaloma and borderline-elevated urine or plasma metanephrine levels had a pheochromocytoma. Clinical factors cannot distinguish between those with and without pheochromocytoma. In this group of patients, we advocate either routine alpha-blockade preoperatively or further diagnostic tests to better characterize the tumor.

  12. Loss of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene expression in pheochromocytomas from patients without NF1

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, R.T.; Gutmann, D.H.; Moley, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein, termed neurofibromin. Loss of NF1 gene expression has been reported in Schwann cell tumors (neurofibrosarcomas) from patients with NF1 as well as malignant and neuroblastomas from patients without NF1. Previously, we demonstrated the lack of neurofibromin expression in six pheochromocytomas from patients with NF1, suggesting that neurofibromin loss is associated with the progression to neoplasia in pheochromocytomas in these patients. The lack of NF1 gene expression in NF1 patient pheochromocytomas supports the notion that neurofibromin might be an essential regulator of cell growth in these cells. To determine whether NF1 gene expression is similarly altered in pheochromocytomas from patients without NF1, twenty pheochromocytomas were examined for the presence of NF1 RNA by reverse-transcribed PCR (RT-PCR). Lack of NF1 gene expression was documented in four of these twenty tumors (20%) which corresponds to previously reported numbers for malignant melanomas and neuroblastomas in non-NF1 patients. Of these twenty pheochromocytomas, one of four sporadic tumors, one of ten tumors from patients with MEN2A, one of four tumors from patients with MEN2B, and one of two tumors from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome demonstrated loss of NF1 gene expression. In all cases, the quality and quantity of tumor RNA was determined by RT-PCR amplification using primers which amplify cyclophilin RNA. We previously demonstrated that these tumors do not harbor activating mutations of the N-ras, K-ras or H-ras proto-oncogenes. These results suggest that loss of NF1 gene expression is frequently associated with the progression to neoplasia in tumors derived from adrenal medullary tissue in patients without clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis and supports the notion that neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor gene product involved in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of tumor types.

  13. A dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Minami, M; Kano, H; Ohhira, M; Nakamura, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing a pathophysiological concentration of dopamine. This case shows that excessive excretion of dopamine, a vasodilative hormone, may affect blood pressure.

  14. RO4929097, Temozolomide, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Malignant Glioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic (Malignant) Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Neoplasm; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Primary Melanocytic Lesion of Meninges; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Malignant Adult Intracranial Hemangiopericytoma

  15. The coexistence of renal artery stenosis and pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, F S; Jander, H P; Murad, T; Diethelm, A G

    1983-01-01

    The coexistence of renal artery stenosis and pheochromocytoma has been recognized since 1958 and a total of 36 patients reported. This article provides an additional patient with an extra adrenal pheochromocytoma and fibrous bands constricting the left renal artery. Hypertension was confirmed to occur from both excess catecholamine production and hyperreninemia from the left kidney. Surgical removal of the functioning paraganglioma and correction of the renal artery stenosis restored the postoperative plasma catecholamine, renin, and blood pressure to normal. A literature review confirmed the coexistence of these two lesions but failed to provide a common etiology to explain the pathophysiology encountered. However, when the two diseases occur simultaneously, both must be diagnosed accurately and treated in a definitive manner. Images Figs. 1a and b. Figs. 2a and b. PMID:6830355

  16. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  17. Dealing with Pheochromocytoma during the First Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kiroplastis, Konstantinos; Kambaroudis, Apostolos; Andronikou, Apostolos; Reklou, Andromachi; Kokkonis, Dimitris; Petras, Panagiotis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Anagnostara, Eudokia; Spyridis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Pheochromocytoma in association with pregnancy is a very rare, without specific symptoms, life-threatening condition, increasing both maternal and fetal mortality up to 50%. The present paper illustrates the case of a pregnant woman, diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, aiming to demonstrate and discuss the difficulties that arouse during the diagnosis and the problems concerning the treatment. Patient. A 34-year-old woman, in the 9th week of pregnancy, complained for headache, sweating, and a feeling of heavy weight on the right renal area. A tumor of 10 cm diameter at the site of the right adrenal was found. Twenty-four-hour urine catecholamine and VMA excretion levels were well raised. Results. Multidisciplinary approach treated the patient conservatively. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed after the 14th week of pregnancy at the completion of organogenesis. Neither postoperative complications occurred nor hypertension relapse was recorded. The fetus was delivered without complications at the 36th week. Conclusions. There are no consensus and guidelines for treating pheochromocytoma during pregnancy, especially when it is diagnosed in the first trimester. The week of pregnancy and a multidisciplinary approach will determine whether the pregnancy should be continued or not, as well as the time and the approach of surgical treatment. PMID:25838955

  18. Dealing with Pheochromocytoma during the First Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kiroplastis, Konstantinos; Kambaroudis, Apostolos; Andronikou, Apostolos; Reklou, Andromachi; Kokkonis, Dimitris; Petras, Panagiotis; Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Anagnostara, Eudokia; Spyridis, Charalampos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Pheochromocytoma in association with pregnancy is a very rare, without specific symptoms, life-threatening condition, increasing both maternal and fetal mortality up to 50%. The present paper illustrates the case of a pregnant woman, diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, aiming to demonstrate and discuss the difficulties that arouse during the diagnosis and the problems concerning the treatment. Patient. A 34-year-old woman, in the 9th week of pregnancy, complained for headache, sweating, and a feeling of heavy weight on the right renal area. A tumor of 10 cm diameter at the site of the right adrenal was found. Twenty-four-hour urine catecholamine and VMA excretion levels were well raised. Results. Multidisciplinary approach treated the patient conservatively. Surgical resection of the tumor was performed after the 14th week of pregnancy at the completion of organogenesis. Neither postoperative complications occurred nor hypertension relapse was recorded. The fetus was delivered without complications at the 36th week. Conclusions. There are no consensus and guidelines for treating pheochromocytoma during pregnancy, especially when it is diagnosed in the first trimester. The week of pregnancy and a multidisciplinary approach will determine whether the pregnancy should be continued or not, as well as the time and the approach of surgical treatment.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dexin; Li, Hanzhong

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy. The data of four cases of pheochromocytoma was analyzed retrospectively. Their ages were 41, 28, 32 and 30 years old, and the four patients were at 32nd week, 12th week, 14th week and 13th week of gestation. All patients had hypertension during pregnancy, accompanied with headache, dizziness, palpitation and sweating. The 24-h urinary catecholamines (24 h UCA) increased significantly. Ultrasound and MRI confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. One case had Cesarean section at 32 weeks of gestation, and a healthy baby girl was delivered smoothly. Laparoscopic resection of the right adrenal pheochromocytoma was performed at the same time, and an adrenal tumor of 7.0 cm was resected successfully. Two cases chose abortion and laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma was performed. One case chose abortion and refused further treatment. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. For hypertension in pregnant women during pregnancy, typical paroxysmal hypertension accompanied by triad of headache, palpitation and sweating, pheochromocytoma should be considered. Early diagnosis can reduce the maternal and fetal mortality significantly. Second trimester of pregnancy is the ideal time for surgical treatment. Laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy is safe and effective.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as a second malignancy in a patient previously treated for osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hirota, T; Sawada, K; Sakakibara, Y; Fujimoto, T; Yokoi, T; Hara, K

    2000-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with osteosarcoma; limb salvage surgery was performed after preoperative chemotherapy. Postoperatively, adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 2 years. One year after completion of chemotherapy, the patient was readmitted for systemic recurrence. Amputation of the lower extremity and wedge resection of lung metastasis were performed followed by combination chemotherapy. Two years after cessation of chemotherapy, ulcer of the tongue was noted and cervical lymph nodes were detected by palpation. Biopsy of the lesion showed squamous cell carcinoma. The patient underwent a radical partial tongue resection and postoperative irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Six years after treatment for the second malignancy, the patient remains well without evidence of disease. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue as a second malignancy after treatment of osteosarcoma is quite rare. Long-term follow-up, with particular attention to the head and neck, may be warranted in children treated for osteosarcoma.

  1. TERT structural rearrangements in metastatic pheochromocytomas.

    PubMed

    Dwight, Trisha; Flynn, Aidan; Amarasinghe, Kaushalya; Benn, Diana E; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Cameron, Daniel; Hogg, Annette; Balachander, Shiva; Candiloro, Ida Lm; Wong, Stephen; Robinson, Bruce G; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Gill, Anthony J; Dobrovic, Alexander; Hicks, Rodney J; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Tothill, Richard William

    2017-10-03

    Pheochromocytomas (PC) and paragangliomas (PGL) are endocrine tumors for which the genetic and clinico-pathological features of metastatic progression remain incompletely understood. As a result, the risk of metastasis from a primary tumor cannot be predicted. Early diagnosis of individuals at high risk of developing metastases is clinically important and the identification of new biomarkers that are predictive of metastatic potential is of high value. Activation of TERT has been associated with a number of malignant tumors, including PC/PGL. However, the mechanism of TERT activation in the majority of PC/PGL remains unclear. As TERT promoter mutations occur rarely in PC/PGL, we hypothesized that other mechanisms - such as structural variations - may underlie TERT activation in these tumors. From 35 PC and four PGL, we identified three primary PC that developed metastases with elevated TERT expression, each of which lacked TERT promoter mutations and promoter DNA methylation. Using whole genome sequencing we identified somatic structural alterations proximal to the TERT locus in two of these tumors. In both tumors, the genomic rearrangements led to positioning of super-enhancers proximal to the TERT promoter, that are likely responsible for activation of the normally tightly repressed TERT expression in chromaffin cells.

  2. Pheochromocytomas in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Venessa H M; Tacon, Lyndal J; Learoyd, Diana L; Robinson, Bruce G

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PC) is a neuroendocrine tumor that originates from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. The production of catecholamines, including epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, may lead to haemodynamic instability. Over 30% of PCs are associated with germline mutations, including re-arranged in transfection (RET) mutations seen in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes. Around 40% of individuals with MEN2 develop PC, though it is rarely the presenting feature. Compared to sporadic PC, MEN2-associated PC is more likely to be epinephine secreting and demonstrate bilateral adrenal involvement, and is less likely to be malignant. The diagnosis of PC requires clinical suspicion and biochemical testing, followed by imaging studies. Novel nuclear medicine modalities, including FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and 68Ga DOTATATE PET have added to the conventional techniques of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanindine (MIBG) scintigraphy, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of PC is surgical and requires peri-operative alpha and, frequently, beta blockade. Novel surgical techniques, such as adrenal sparing surgery and a laparoscopic approach, have decreased peri-operative morbidity. Surveillance for PC is life long, due to the risk of metastatic disease.

  3. Incidence of second primary malignancies in patients with treated head and neck cancer: a comprehensive review of literature.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Jonessa Ann S; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2012-12-01

    Increased incidence of a second primary aero-digestive malignancy after an index head and neck cancer (HNC) is well-documented. Furthermore, a clear set of surveillance strategies for second primary aero-digestive cancers in these patients exists. The goal of this article is to review the published literature on risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) (including aero-digestive malignancies) after a treated index HNC as well as its associated predictors, prognosis and surveillance. Most relevant publications were identified through searching the PubMed database for articles published up to July 2012; epidemiologic evidence was synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. Data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, population-based and cohort group studies, prior reviews, and case reports indicate an increased incidence of various SPMs after occurrence of a HNC. These cancers are not limited to upper aero-digestive sites. Common risk factors including environmental, genetic and immune factors may explain the increased incidence of second cancers in this patient population. In addition, site of the index HNC may predict the site of a future SPM. As a general rule, oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers are associated more with head and neck region SPM, while laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers - with that of the lung. As these cancers confer dismal prognosis and shorter survival in patients with HNCs, several literature sources recommend close surveillance for and an aggressive therapy of SPM. Notwithstanding, their optimal management and follow-up schedule remains to be established.

  4. Perineural spread of cutaneous malignancy to the brain: a review of the literature and five patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fowler, B Zach; Crocker, Ian R; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2005-05-15

    The retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) techniques for patients with intracranial perineural spread (PNS) of a primary cutaneous malignancy. Five patients were identified who received SRT from 1993 to 2003 for cutaneous malignancies with intracranial PNS to the cavernous sinus (n = 3) or Meckel's cave (n = 2). Patients were treated with GammaKnife stereotactic radiosurgery (n = 2), linear accelerator (linac)-based fractionated SRT (n = 2), or linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (n = 1). The median overall survival (OS) periods from diagnoses of cutaneous malignancy and intracranial PNS were 63.0 months (range, 22.0-102.2 months) and 25.5 months (range, 22.0-55.2 months), respectively. The median OS from SRT was 24.2 months (range, 19.5-53.2 months). One patient was alive and without evidence of disease at 53 months of follow-up. The median durations of local and regional control from SRT were 19.5 months (range, 1.5-53.2 months) and 7.0 months (range, 1.5-53.2 months), respectively. Previous reports generally have recommended that patients with intracranial PNS receive palliative external-beam radiotherapy. Results from the current study suggest that some of these patients may have prolonged survival, or even may be cured. Judicious use of SRT should be considered in their management.

  5. [Urgent laparoscopic adrenalectomy in acute crisis caused by pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Bereczky, Bíborka; Madách, Krisztina; Gál, János; István, Gábor; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál; Vörös, Attila

    2014-06-01

    Authors present the case of a 30-year-old female patient, who was admitted to the ICU because of hypertensive crisis accompanied by chest complains, cardiac decompensation, progrediating short of breath and unconsciousness. Despite the quick examinations and the prompt treatment multi-organ failure developed 3 days after admission. Investigations revealed the underlying cause, which was a left-sided suprarenal neoplasm. Hence, multidisciplinary decision was made to carry out a laparoscopic adrenalectomy urgently. The histology examination of the removed neoplasm was pheochromocytoma. In the postoperative period the condition of the patient gradually improved, her symptoms and complains settled, and finally she was discharged in a healthy condition. The diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma is a difficult task, the symptoms and complains caused by it can simulate many other illnesses. The acute crisis caused by pheochromocytoma usually can be treated conservatively, but in more severe cases with impending multi-organ failure an urgent operative treatment can be unavoidable. Though the operative risk is relatively high, the correct intra- and postoperative treatment with a quick laparoscopic procedure can be effective.

  6. [The use of enzymes in treating patients with malignant lymphoma with a large tumor mass].

    PubMed

    Gubareva, A A

    1998-08-01

    Systemic enzymes (wobenzime and wobe-mugos) were approved, that had been prescribed as part of polychemotherapy to 24 patients with malignant lymphomas, who presented with large masses of lymphatic nodes poorly resorbable against the background of polychemotherapy and who were assigned for a high-total dose irradiation, which fact would undoubtedly entail sclerosing of adjacent intact tissues. The use of the enzymes made for the optimum realization of the polychemotherapy effect and permitted avoiding a good many of undesirable side events and complication thereof. The above systemic enzymes are well tolerated by patients; they induce no significant changes in the cellular composition or in blood biochemical indices.

  7. Characterization and Plasma Measurement of the WE-14 Peptide in Patients with Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Johann; Guérin, Marlène; Thouënnon, Erwan; Montéro-Hadjadje, Maité; Leprince, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé; Klein, Marc; Muresan, Mihaela; Anouar, Youssef; Yon, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Granins and their derived peptides are valuable circulating biological markers of neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tumoral chromogranin A (CgA)-derived peptide WE-14 and the potential advantage to combine plasma WE-14 detection with the EM66 assay and the existing current CgA assay for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Compared to healthy volunteers, plasma WE-14 levels were 5.4-fold higher in patients with pheochromocytoma, but returned to normal values after surgical resection of the tumor. Determination of plasma CgA and EM66 concentrations in the same group of patients revealed that the test assays for these markers had an overall 84% diagnostic sensitivity, which is identical to that determined for WE-14. However, we found that WE-14 measurement improved the diagnostic sensitivity when combined with the results of CgA or EM66 assays. By combining the results of the three assays, the sensitivity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was increased to 95%. In fact, the combination of WE-14 with either CgA or EM66 test assays achieved 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of paragangliomas and sporadic or malignant pheochromocytomas if taken separately to account for the heterogeneity of the tumor. These data indicate that WE-14 is produced in pheochromocytoma and secreted into the general circulation, and that elevated plasma WE-14 levels are correlated with the occurrence of this chromaffin cell tumor. In addition, in association with other biological markers, such as CgA and/or EM66, WE-14 measurement systematically improves the diagnostic sensitivity for pheochromocytoma. These findings support the notion that granin-processing products may represent complementary tools for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:24523932

  8. A case of malignant catatonia with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension treated by electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Hobo, Mizue; Uezato, Akihito; Nishiyama, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Mayumi; Kurata, Jiro; Makita, Koshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Nishikawa, Toru

    2016-05-06

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a progressive and fatal cardiovascular disease if left untreated. In patients with IPAH with psychiatric illness or other complications, careful attention is required when administering medical therapies that may affect their hemodynamics. Patients suffering from IPAH who undergo anesthesia and surgery have a high mortality and morbidity rate. We describe the treatment of intractable psychiatric symptoms with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a patient with IPAH. A 23-year-old woman with IPAH and type I diabetes mellitus (DM) presented with malignant catatonia. Her heart function was classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III. She required a rapid cure and ECT due to various psychiatric symptoms resistant to conventional medications. Pulmonary hypertensive (PH) crisis is the most concerning complication that can be induced by the sympathetic stimulation of ECT. To avoid PH crisis, we administered oxygen using a laryngeal mask and administered remifentanil for anesthesia. We also prepared standby nitric oxide for possible PH crisis, although it was ultimately not needed. With 14 ECT sessions, her malignant catatonia was ameliorated without physical complications. ECT is an acceptable option for the treatment of medication-refractory psychiatric disturbances in patients with IPAH, provided careful management is assured to prevent or address complications.

  9. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  10. Contralateral breast cancer and other second malignancies in patients treated by breast-conserving therapy with radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.M.; Amalric, R.; Brandone, H.; Ayme, Y.; Spitalier, J.M.

    1988-08-01

    Metachronous contralateral breast cancers and other second malignancies were evaluated in 2,850 patients treated between 1960 and 1981 primarily with radiotherapy (RT) either alone or following breast-conserving surgery. One hundred eighty-four contralateral cancers were observed in 22,491 patient-years of observation (818 per 10(5) patient-years), with a cumulative probability of 4.5% at 5, 7.9% at 10, and 11% at 15 and 20 years. Compared to patients with unilateral tumors, those destined to develop contralateral cancers were younger (mean age 51.9 vs 56.6) and more often gave a family history of breast cancer. Contralateral breast cancers were more frequent for more extensive tumors (T3 10% vs T1-26%; with inflammatory signs 10.6% without 6%), and in patients with ipsilateral local recurrence (with 9.1%, without 5.6%). Patients with contralateral cancers had a significantly less favorable survival experience (15-year actuarial survival after primary therapy 42%) than patients without contralateral cancer (15-year survival 65.5%). In early stage patients treated with conservative surgery and RT, contralateral cancer was not prognostically more favorable than ipsilateral breast recurrence. Among 72 other second malignancies (320 per 10(5) patient-years) were 2 soft tissue sarcomas in the irradiated area. This corresponds to an incidence of 21 cases per 10(5) patient-years for survivors beyond the fifth year. The possible influence of RT on contralateral cancers and other second malignancies is discussed.

  11. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male. PMID:28050427

  12. Cystic Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Adrenal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Abdulsalam, Mohammed Shafi; Ganapathy, Vijaya; Satish, Priyanka; Janakiraman, Raghunath Keddy; Singh, Shivshankar

    2016-11-01

    Pheochromocytomas are usually solid tumours. But it can present as cystic lesions in the adrenal gland. Cystic lesions in adrenal gland with hypertension needs attention to rule out pheochromocytoma. If ignored, it may lead to hypertensive emergency, multisystem crisis and death. Early diagnosis with biochemistry, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of abdomen, proper functional imaging like Meta Iodo Benzyl Guanidine (MIBG) scan is essential. Proper preoperative preparation is important to prevent hypertensive crisis during and after surgery. We are reporting a case of cystic pheochromocytoma in a young male.

  13. Malignancy rates in a large cohort of patients with systemically treated psoriasis in a managed care population.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Maryam M; Ray, G Thomas; Geier, Jamie L; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2017-04-01

    Moderate to severe psoriasis often requires treatment with systemic agents, many of which have immunosuppressive properties and could increase cancer risk, including nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). We sought to estimate the overall malignancy rate (excluding NMSC) and NMSC rate among 5889 patients with systemically treated psoriasis. We identified a cohort of adult Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan members with psoriasis diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 and treated with at least 1 systemic antipsoriatic agent and categorized them into ever-biologic or nonbiologic users. Malignancy rates were calculated per 1000 person-years of follow-up with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Crude and confounder-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) were calculated using Cox regression. Most biologic-exposed members were treated with TNF-alfa inhibitors (n = 2214, 97%). Overall incident cancer rates were comparable between ever-biologic as compared to nonbiologic users (aHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.13). NMSC rates were 42% higher among individuals ever exposed to a biologic (aHR 1.42, 95% CI 1.12-1.80), largely driven by increased cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma risk (aHR 1.81, 95% CI 1.23-2.67). No information was available on disease severity. We found increased incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma among patients with systemically treated psoriasis who were ever exposed to biologics, the majority of which were TNF-alfa inhibitors. Increased skin cancer surveillance in this population may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pheochromocytoma: a twenty year experience at the University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Aguiló, F; Tamayo, N; Vázquez-Quintana, E; Rabell, V; Haddock, L; Allende, M; Pagán, H; González, A

    1991-12-01

    During the past 20 years (1970-90), we had 24 patients with pheochromocytoma: 19 diagnosed clinically and 5 post-mortem. Their ages ranged from 17 to 74 (mean, 43.2 years). Males (n = 14) outnumbered females (n = 10), a 1.41:1 M:F ratio. A majority were symptomatic (95%), with a typical triad of headaches, palpitations and diaphoresis. Most frequent finding was hypertension (95%). It was sustained in 60% and paroxysmal in 35%. In 6 patients (25%) pheochromocytomas were bilateral, all familial. Fifteen were solitary adrenal tumors (63%); 3 (12.5%) were extra-adrenal: 2 intra-abdominal, and 1 cardiac paraganglioma of right atrium. Of 6 familial cases, 4 were associated to Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease, while 2 were multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN-II) patients. All familial cases were bilateral and in the adrenals. There were no malignancies. Among the 19 clinical cases pre-operative Dx was made by positive urine VMA or catecholamines urine levels: (95 and 100% sensitivity respectively). Preoperative visualization by CT or MRI was done in 62% of the most recent patients. In 5 earlier cases the diagnosis was made post mortem: 3 died of cerebral hemorrhage, 1 with a pons infarct and 1 with congestive heart failure (CHF). There were 2 post-operative deaths and another died 13 years later from thyroid medullary carcinoma. Of the 19 operated, 13 (68%) were cured. Thus pheochromocytomas retain considerable morbidity and some mortality. These rare tumors constitute a clinical diagnostic challenge yet a rewarding therapeutic experience for the alert physician.

  15. Simple intrapleural hyperthermia at thoracoscopic exploration to treat malignant pleural effusion.

    PubMed

    Moon, Youngkyu; Kim, Kyung Soo; Park, Jae Kil

    2015-10-28

    Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) occurs at a terminal stage of cancer, and related symptoms may considerably reduce a patient's respiratory function and quality of life. We assessed the benefit of simple intrapleural hyperthermia (SIH) during thoracoscopic exploration for MPE. We conducted a retrospective review of 34 patients underwent thoracoscopic exploration and SIH procedures for MPE between April, 2009 and July, 2014 at our institution. One month after removal of the tube, therapeutic efficacy was evaluated, calculating response rates and recurrence rate. In this cohort (male, 11; female, 23; average age, 54.2 ± 12.7 years), the most frequent primary cancers were breast (n = 11, 32.4 %), lung (n = 10, 29.4 %), and ovarian (n = 6, 17.6 %). Therapeutic response (ie, presence of pleural effusion) was assessed 1 month after chest tube removal, with 19 (55.9 %) showing complete response (CR), 9 (26.5 %) showing partial response (PR), and non-response (NR) seen in 6 (17.6 %). The combined (CR + PR) response rate was 82.4 %. During follow-up, there were seven instances of recurrence, requiring repeat drainage. Three- and 7-month recurrence-free rates were 86.9 and 73.9 %, respectively. No postoperative respiratory complications or fever developed. Early death within 3 months from progression of primary cancer was identified as a risk factor in patients of NR status (HR = 18.36, p = 0.043). If thoracoscopic exploration is indicated for MPE, SIH is a safe and effective management alternative in patients whose primary malignancy is not rapidly progressing.

  16. Azacitidine and Sonidegib or Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-20

    Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. MR imaging of an intrapericardial pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.R.; Higgins, C.B.; Andereck, W.

    1985-11-01

    The magnetic resonance (MR) appearance of an intrapericardial pheochromocytoma is reported, and the role of MR, compared with CT and a T I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan in delineating masses from cardiac and vascular structures in the mediastinum is discussed.

  18. Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder.

    PubMed

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-12-01

    A pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  19. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems. PMID:19120142

  20. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Pheochromocytoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How do health care providers diagnose pheochromocytoma? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content A health care provider uses blood and urine tests that measure ...

  1. Pheochromocytoma with renal artery stenosis: A case-based review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil K; Kota, Siva K; Meher, Lalit K; Tripathy, Prabhas R; Sruti, Jammula; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities, most common of them being renal artery stenosis. A 45-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of headache, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and severe hypertension. Hypertension was confirmed to result from both excess catecholamine production and hyperreninemia of left kidney. The technical images (abdominal CT and renal arteriography) revealed the presence of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma and stenosis of the renal artery. Surgical removal of pheochromocytoma and correction of renal artery stenosis restored the postoperative plasma catecholamine, renin and blood pressure to normal. To our belief, this is the first such case report from India citing this rare association. We conclude that when the two diseases occur simultaneously, both must be diagnosed accurately and treated in a different manner. We also hereby review the existing literature.

  2. Current diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in children. Experience with 22 consecutive tumors in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Caty, M.G.; Coran, A.G.; Geagen, M.; Thompson, N.W. )

    1990-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of childhood. In comparison with adults with pheochromocytomas, children have a higher incidence of bilaterality, familial association, and extra-adrenal location. Fourteen children with 22 tumors were treated during the period 1970 through 1988. Children presented at a mean age of 13 years. Most children (10 of 14) presented with sustained hypertension. The majority of tumors were located with a combination of computed tomography and iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scanning. Eight adrenal and six extra-adrenal tumors were resected. Four children underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Follow-up data are available on 9 of the 14 children. All of these patients remain normotensive without medication. Preoperative examination of children with pheochromocytoma using the iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine scan provides an accurate diagnosis of adrenal and extra-adrenal tumors, thus making feasible resection of this rare tumor with complete cure.

  3. Pheochromocytoma crisis is not a surgical emergency.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Anouk; Cisco, Robin M; Vriens, Menno R; Cohen, Jenny K; Mitmaker, Elliot J; Liu, Chienying; Tyrrell, J Blake; Shen, Wen T; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2013-02-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a feared and potentially lethal complication of pheochromocytoma. We sought to determine the best treatment strategy for pheochromocytoma crisis patients and hypothesized that emergency resection is not indicated. Retrospective cohort study (1993-2011); literature review (1944-2011). Tertiary referral center. There were 137 pheochromocytoma patients from our center and 97 pheochromocytoma crisis patients who underwent adrenalectomy from the literature. Medical management of pheochromocytoma crisis; adrenalectomy. Perioperative complications, conversion, and mortality. In our database, 25 patients (18%) presented with crisis. After medical stabilization and α-blockade, 15 patients were discharged and readmitted for elective surgery and 10 patients were operated on urgently during the same hospitalization. None underwent emergency surgery. Postoperatively, patients who underwent elective surgery had shorter hospital stays (1.7 vs 5.7 d, P = 0.001) and fewer postoperative complications (1 of 15 [7%] vs 5 of 10 [50%], P = 0.045) and were less often admitted to the intensive care unit (1 of 15 [7%] vs 5 of 10 [50%], P = 0.045) in comparison with urgently operated patients. There was no mortality. Review of the literature (n = 97) showed that crisis patients who underwent elective or urgent surgery vs emergency surgery had less intraoperative (13 of 31 [42%] vs 20 of 25 [80%], P < 0.001) and postoperative complications (15 of 45 [33%] vs 15 of 21 [71%], P = 0.047) and a lower mortality (0 of 64 vs 6 of 33 [18%], P = 0.002). Management of patients presenting with pheochromocytoma crisis should include initial stabilization of the acute crisis followed by sufficient α-blockade before surgery. Emergency resection of pheochromocytoma is associated with high surgical morbidity and mortality.

  4. Coexistence of pheochromocytoma, adrenal adenoma and hypokalemia.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, G. E.; Schmidt, N.; Lee-Son, L.

    1977-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman had a 22-year history of hypertension. Investigation showed hypokalemia and kaliuresis without pronounced suppression of plasma renin activity or elevation of urinary aldosterone excretion. There was biochemical evidence of catecholamine metabolite excess but the usual clinical features of pheochromocytoma were absent. Laparotomy revealed a pheochromocytoma and adrenal adenoma in the right adrenal gland. Excision of the tumours was followed by resolution of the hypertension and metabolic abnormalities. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:844017

  5. Precision medicine in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current and future concepts.

    PubMed

    Björklund, P; Pacak, K; Crona, J

    2016-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare diseases but are also amongst the most characterized tumour types. Hence, patients with PPGL have greatly benefited from precision medicine for more than two decades. According to current molecular biology and genetics-based taxonomy, PPGL can be divided into three different clusters characterized by: Krebs cycle reprogramming with oncometabolite accumulation or depletion (group 1a); activation of the (pseudo)hypoxia signalling pathway with increased tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and migration (group 1b); and aberrant kinase signalling causing a pro-mitogenic and anti-apoptotic state (group 2). Categorization into these clusters is highly dependent on mutation subtypes. At least 12 different syndromes with distinct genetic causes, phenotypes and outcomes have been described. Genetic screening tests have a documented benefit, as different PPGL syndromes require specific approaches for optimal diagnosis and localization of various syndrome-related tumours. Genotype-tailored treatment options, follow-up and preventive care are being investigated. Future new developments in precision medicine for PPGL will mainly focus on further identification of driver mechanisms behind both disease initiation and malignant progression. Identification of novel druggable targets and prospective validation of treatment options are eagerly awaited. To achieve these goals, we predict that collaborative large-scale studies will be needed: Pheochromocytoma may provide an example for developing precision medicine in orphan diseases that could ultimately aid in similar efforts for other rare conditions. © 2016 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Study of IL-2 receptor expression after chemoimmunotherapy in patients treated for metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mouawad, R; Ichen, M; Rixe, O; Benhammouda, A; Vuillemin, E; Weil, M; Khayat, D; Soubrane, C

    1994-01-01

    Using flow cytometry, cellular IL-2 receptors were studied before and following chemoimmunotherapy combination in 20 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma (MMM). Patients received cisplatin (100 mg/m2) at days 1 and 28, recombinant IL-2 by continuous infusion from days 3 to 6, 17 to 21, 31 to 34, and 45 to 49. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) was given subcutaneously three times weekly. In terms of clinical response, we observed 55% objective response (complete: 15%). When pretreatment blood samples were compared with those of healthy donors, we did not observe any change in low (alpha chain) and high affinity receptor (alpha + beta) expression. In contrast, intermediate affinity p75 (beta chain) expression was decreased significantly (P < or = 0.0001) in MMM patients. During treatment, we found a dramatic increase of beta chain as well as high affinity (alpha + beta) expression in responding patients, as soon as IL-2 therapy began. Furthermore, the increase of beta chain expression was limited to natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+). In non-responding patients, on the other hand, increase of both receptors was seen only at day 31. These data suggest the involvement of beta chain expression in the mechanism of cell activation after chemoimmunotherapy. Moreover, this early beta chain expression is correlated with the clinical response to chemoimmunotherapy. PMID:8082289

  7. Ipilimumab or Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-04

    Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Recipient; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma

  8. Pheochromocytoma – update on disease management

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, Jacques W.M.; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Naumann, Bernd; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare endocrine tumors that can present insidiously and remain undiagnosed until death or onset of clear manifestations of catecholamine excess. They are often referred to as one of the ‘great mimics’ in medicine. These tumors can no longer be regarded as a uniform disease entity, but rather as a highly heterogeneous group of chromaffin cell neoplasms with different ages of onset, secretory profiles, locations, and potential for malignancy according to underlying genetic mutations. These aspects all have to be considered when the tumor is encountered, thereby enabling optimal management for the patient. Referral to a center of specialized expertise for the disease should be considered wherever possible. This is not only important for surgical management of patients, but also for post-surgical follow up and screening of disease in patients with a hereditary predisposition to the tumor. While preoperative management has changed little over the last 20 years, surgical procedures have evolved so that laparoscopic resection is the standard of care and partial adrenalectomy should be considered in all patients with a hereditary condition. Follow-up testing is essential and should be recommended and ensured on a yearly basis. Managing such patients must now also take into account possible underlying mutations and the appropriate selection of genes for testing according to disease presentation. Patients and family members with identified mutations then require an individualized approach to management. This includes consideration of distinct patterns of biochemical test results during screening and the appropriate choice of imaging studies for tumor localization according to the mutation and associated differences in predisposition to adrenal, extra-adrenal and metastatic disease. PMID:23148191

  9. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gunjan L; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A; Ponce, Doris M; Young, James W; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N

    2015-12-01

    Because cord blood (CB) lacks memory T and B cells and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine-eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five patients (63%; engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8; range, 2 to 7/8) received protein conjugated vaccines, and 63 patients (median age, 34 years; range, .9 to 64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range, 7 to 45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19F, 23F) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, P = .555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86% to 100%) and adults (53% to 89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4(+)CD45RA(+) and CD19(+) cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side effects were identified, and all vaccinated patients survived (median follow-up, 57 months). Although GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients.

  10. Nrf2 Expression and Apoptosis in Quercetin-treated Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, David M; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-05-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, has recently received a great deal of attention as an important molecule that enhances antioxidative defenses and induces resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing and Nrf2-upregulating effects of quercetin on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H and H2452 cells. Quercetin treatment inhibited cell growth and led to upregulation of Nrf2 at both the mRNA and protein levels without altering the ubiquitination and extending the half-life of the Nrf2 protein. Following treatment with quercetin, analyses of the nuclear level of Nrf2, Nrf2 antioxidant response element-binding assay, Nrf2 promoter-luc assay, and RT-PCR toward the Nrf2-regulated gene, heme oxygenase-1, demonstrated that the induced Nrf2 is transcriptionally active. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression with siRNA enhanced cytotoxicity due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in the level of proapoptotic Bax, a decrease in the level of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 with enhanced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP proteins, the appearance of a sub-G0/G1 peak in the flow cytometric assay, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities in the annexin V binding assay. Effective reversal of apoptosis was observed following pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Moreover, Nrf2 knockdown exhibited increased sensitivity to the anticancer drug, cisplatin, presumably by potentiating the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. Collectively, our data demonstrate the importance of Nrf2 in cytoprotection, survival, and drug resistance with implications for the potential significance of targeting Nrf2 as a promising strategy for overcoming resistance to chemotherapeutics in MM.

  11. An Assessment of Radiologically Inserted Transoral and Transgastric Gastroduodenal Stents to Treat Malignant Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bethany H. T.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Pursnani, Kishore G. Ward, Jeremy B.; Stockwell, Robert C.

    2013-12-15

    IntroductionSelf-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) are used to palliate malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) and are useful in patients with limited life expectancy or severe medical comorbidity, which would preclude surgery. Stenting can be performed transorally or by a percutaneous transgastric technique. Our goal was to review the outcome of patients who underwent radiological SEMS insertion performed by a single consultant interventional radiologist. Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively collected database held by one consultant radiologist. Data were retrieved from radiological reports, multidisciplinary team meetings, and the patients' case notes. Univariate survival analysis was performed. Results: Between December 2000 and January 2011, 100 patients (63 males, 37 females) had 110 gastroduodenal stenting procedures. Median age was 73 (range 39-89) years. SEMS were inserted transorally (n = 66) or transgastrically (n = 44). Site of obstruction was the stomach (n = 37), duodenum (n = 50), gastric pull-up (n = 10), or gastroenterostomy (n = 13). Seven patients required biliary stents. Technical success was 86.4 %: 83.3 % for transoral insertion, 90.9 % for transgastric insertion. Eleven patients developed complications. Median GOO severity score: 1 pre-stenting, 2 post-stenting (p = 0.0001). Median survival was 54 (range 1-624) days. Post-stenting GOO severity score was predictive of survival (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: The technical success rate for insertion of palliative SEMS is high. Insertional technique can be tailored to the individual depending on the location of the tumor and whether it is possible to access the stomach percutaneously. Patients who have successful stenting and return to eating a soft/normal diet have a statistically significant increase in survival.

  12. Robust Vaccine Responses in Adult and Pediatric Cord Blood Transplantation Recipients Treated for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Gunjan L.; Shune, Leyla; Purtill, Duncan; Devlin, Sean; Lauer, Emily; Lubin, Marissa; Bhatt, Valkal; McElrath, Courtney; Kernan, Nancy A.; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Giralt, Sergio; Perales, Miguel A.; Ponce, Doris M.; Young, James W.; Shah, Monica; Papanicolaou, Genovefa; Barker, Juliet N.

    2015-01-01

    As cord blood (CB) lacks memory T- and B-cells, and recent decreases in herd immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in many developed countries have been documented, vaccine responses in CB transplantation (CBT) survivors are of great interest. We analyzed vaccine responses in double-unit CBT recipients transplanted for hematologic malignancies. In 103 vaccine eligible patients, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) most commonly precluded vaccination. Sixty-five (63%) patients (engrafting units median HLA-allele match 5/8, range 2–7/8) received protein-conjugated vaccines, and 63 (median age 34 years, range 0.9–64) were evaluated for responses. Median vaccination time was 17 months (range 7–45) post-CBT. GVHD (n = 42) and prior rituximab (n = 13) delayed vaccination. Responses to Prevnar 7 and/or 13 vaccines (serotypes 14, 19f, 23f) were seen in children and adults (60% versus 49%, p = 0.555). Responses to tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, H. influenzae, and polio were observed in children (86–100%) and adults (53–89%) even if patients had prior GVHD or rituximab. CD4+CD45RA+ and CD19+ cell recovery significantly influenced tetanus and polio responses. In a smaller cohort, responses were seen to measles (65%), mumps (50%), and rubella (100%) vaccines. No vaccine side-effects were identified and all vaccinated patients survive (median follow-up 57 months). While GVHD and rituximab can delay vaccination, CBT recipients (including adults and those with prior GVHD) have similar vaccine response rates to adult donor allograft recipients supporting vaccination in CBT recipients. PMID:26271191

  13. Nrf2 Expression and Apoptosis in Quercetin-treated Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Lee, David M.; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, has recently received a great deal of attention as an important molecule that enhances antioxidative defenses and induces resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated the apoptosis-inducing and Nrf2-upregulating effects of quercetin on malignant mesothelioma (MM) MSTO-211H and H2452 cells. Quercetin treatment inhibited cell growth and led to upregulation of Nrf2 at both the mRNA and protein levels without altering the ubiquitination and extending the half-life of the Nrf2 protein. Following treatment with quercetin, analyses of the nuclear level of Nrf2, Nrf2 antioxidant response element-binding assay, Nrf2 promoter-luc assay, and RT-PCR toward the Nrf2-regulated gene, heme oxygenase-1, demonstrated that the induced Nrf2 is transcriptionally active. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression with siRNA enhanced cytotoxicity due to the induction of apoptosis, as evidenced by an increase in the level of proapoptotic Bax, a decrease in the level of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 with enhanced cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP proteins, the appearance of a sub-G0/G1 peak in the flow cytometric assay, and increased percentage of apoptotic propensities in the annexin V binding assay. Effective reversal of apoptosis was observed following pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD. Moreover, Nrf2 knockdown exhibited increased sensitivity to the anticancer drug, cisplatin, presumably by potentiating the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin. Collectively, our data demonstrate the importance of Nrf2 in cytoprotection, survival, and drug resistance with implications for the potential significance of targeting Nrf2 as a promising strategy for overcoming resistance to chemotherapeutics in MM. PMID:25896339

  14. Mastication in patients treated for malignancies in tongue and/or floor of mouth: A 1-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, Caroline M; van der Bilt, Andries; Abbink, Jan H; Merkx, Matthias A W; Koole, Ron

    2011-07-01

    People confronted with oral cancer run a high risk of deteriorated masticatory performance. Reduced masticatory function may affect quality of life and food choice. An altered food choice may result in lower intakes for key nutrients and weight loss. Dental state, bite force, and masticatory performance were determined in a group of 45 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and/or floor of mouth. Measurements were performed before surgery and at various moments after surgery and/or radiotherapy. Surgical intervention had a large negative impact on oral function. Radiotherapy further worsened oral function. Also, the recovery of oral function 1 year after surgery was less prominent for the surgery-radiotherapy group than for the surgery group. Objective determination of oral function 1 year after surgery showed that patients treated for malignancies in the tongue and/or floor of mouth had significantly deteriorated masticatory performance, bite force, and dental state. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Atypical presentation of pheochromocytoma: Central nervous system pseudovasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Rupala, Ketankumar; Mittal, Varun; Gupta, Rajiv; Yadav, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma has atypical presentation in 9%–10% of patients. Atypical presentations include myocardial infarction, renal failure, and rarely cerebrovascular events. Various etiologies for central nervous system (CNS) involvement in pheochromocytoma have been described in the literature. A rare association of CNS vasculitis-like features has been described with pheochromocytoma. We report a rare case of pheochromocytoma detected on evaluation for CNS vasculitis-like symptoms. PMID:28197038

  16. Pheochromocytoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... than one part of the body's hormone-producing (endocrine) system. The locations of other tumors associated with MEN ... at multiple sites, including the central nervous system, endocrine system, pancreas and kidneys. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) results in ...

  17. Pheochromocytoma: a rare cause of childhood hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Aftab, Sommayya; Yasmeen, Tayyba; Hamid, M Haroon; Sarwar, Muhammad; Sipra, Hafeez; Qureshi, Abid; Sheikh, Afzal; Haider, Najam; Hanif, Ghazala

    2012-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours of chromaffin tissues. They are catecholamine secreting tumours which cause severe hypertension and other systemic disturbances. Of all the causes of childhood hypertension, pheochromocytoma constitutes less than 1%. We report the case of a 12 years old child who presented with hypertensive encephalopathy, confirmed histologically to be secondary to pheochromocytoma, and cured with meticulous critical care and surgical resection.

  18. Novel Preclinical Testing Strategies for Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Arthur S. Tischler...Metastatic Pheochromocytoma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0670 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Arthur S...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. Up

  19. Novel Preclinical Testing Strategies for Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Arthur S. Tischler...Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0670 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. Up to 30% give

  20. Laparoscopic management of recurrent pheochromocytoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Harshit; Uppal, Manpreet; Sreedharan, Sreesanth Kelu; Aggarwal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence of pheochromocytoma after a total adrenalectomy is uncommon. Such recurrent tumours are mostly managed by the open technique, with very few studies reporting laparoscopic management. We hereby report a case of successful laparoscopic management of a recurrent pheochromocytoma after total adrenalectomy for left adrenal pheochromocytoma. PMID:27279402

  1. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder: a systematic review of the contemporary literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytoma (paraganglioma) of the urinary bladder is a rare tumor. Herein we sought to review the contemporary literature on pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder in order to further illustrate the presentation, treatment options and outcomes of patients diagnosed with these tumors. Methods A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database and using the search terms “paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, bladder.” This search resulted in the identification of 186 articles published between January 1980 and April 2012 of which 80 articles were ultimately included in our analysis. Results Pheochromocytomas usually occurred in young adult Caucasians (mean age, 43.3 years; range,11–84 years). According to the literature, the most common symptoms and signs of pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder were hypertension, headache, and hematuria. Of the 77 cases that commented on catecholamine production, 65 patients had biochemically functional tumors. Approximately 20% of patients were treated by transurethral resection alone, 70% by partial cystectomy and 10% by radical cystectomy. The 75 patients with follow-up information had a mean follow-up of 35 months. At the time of last follow-up, 15 (14.2%) had disease recurrence, 10 (9.4%) had metastasis, and 65 (61.3%) were alive. Conclusions Pheochromocytomas of the urinary bladder tend to be functional and occur mostly in young adult Caucasians. Patients with localized tumors have an extremely favorable prognosis and may be managed by less aggressive modalities, whereas patients with metastatic disease have a significant reduction in survival rates despite aggressive treatment. PMID:23627260

  2. Cardiac complications as initial manifestation of pheochromocytoma: frequency, outcome, and predictors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Run; Nissen, Nicholas N; Bannykh, Serguei I

    2012-01-01

    To examine the frequency, outcome, and clinical predictors of cardiac complications as the initial manifestation of pheochromocytoma. The medical records of all 76 patients with pheochromocytoma or functional paraganglioma treated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, from 1995 to 2011 were reviewed. The patients initially presenting with cardiac complications were identified, and their clinical, laboratory, and imaging characteristics were compared with those of the patients presenting with other complaints, especially hypertension and adrenal mass. Of the 76 patients, 9 (12%) presented with the following: 2 with acute heart failure, 1 with left ventricular thrombus, 3 with myocardial infarction, and 3 with severe arrhythmia. Failure to diagnose pheochromocytoma resulted in unnecessary invasive interventions in 2 patients. Recovery of cardiac function was excellent after resection of the tumor in all patients. In comparison with the 67 patients presenting with other complaints, the 9 with cardiac complications had similar demographics and cardiac risk factors but harbored larger tumors (6.7 ± 0.8 cm versus 4.4 ± 0.3 cm; P = .015) and exhibited higher biochemical marker levels (23.9 ± 9.0-fold versus 11.3 ± 2.4-fold; P = .082), longer corrected QT interval (473 ± 8 ms versus 443 ± 6 ms; P = .015), and lower ejection fraction (43% ± 8% versus 66% ± 2%; P = .002). In this study, 12% of patients with pheochromocytoma initially presented with cardiac complications. Patients with large tumors and high levels of biochemical markers were more likely to develop cardiac injury. Our results confirm that the presence of pheochromocytoma should be ruled out in patients with cardiac diseases and features suggesting pheochromocytoma so that unnecessary interventions can be avoided and cardiac recovery can be achieved.

  3. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone. Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan–Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used. The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06–1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00–1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the

  4. Pelvic inflammatory disease increases the risk of a second primary malignancy in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chien-An; Lee, Moon-Sing; Lin, Hon-Yi; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Hung, Shih-Kai

    2016-11-01

    As the number of long-term cervical cancer survivors continues to increase because of improvements in treatment, concerns about second primary malignancy have grown. The high-risk area of second primary cancers in cervical cancer survivors is the pelvis. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) could be a useful marker for gynecological cancers. Thus, we designed a large-scale, nationwide, controlled cohort study to investigate whether PID or other risk factors increased the risk of second primary cancers in patients with cervical cancer treated by surgery alone.Between 2000 and 2010, a total of 24,444 cervical cancer patients were identified using the Registry Data for Catastrophic Illness and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Patients who received definite surgery were selected. To exclude the effect on second primary malignancy by treatment modalities, all cervical patients who ever having received adjuvant or definite radiotherapy or chemotherapy for primary cervical cancer were excluded. Finally, 3860 cervical cancer patients treated by surgery alone without adjuvant treatments were analyzed.Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess the cumulative risks. Regarding the incidence of second primary cancers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was used.The median follow-up time was 56.6 months. The 6-year cumulative risk of second primary cancers is 0.16% and 0.12% for PID and without PID, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, age of less than 50 years, the presence of diabetes mellitus, and PID were significantly positivity associated with the risk of second primary cancers. The hazard ratios (HRs) of age less than 50 years, diabetes mellitus, and PID were 1.38 (95% CI = 1.11-2.04), 1.40 (95% CI = 1.06-1.85), and 1.35 (95% CI = 1.00-1.81), respectively. A higher incidence of second primary cancers was observed in the genitals, bladder, and

  5. [Fever profile of febrile neutropenia in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy for hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tamai, Yotaro; Imataki, Osamu; Kawakami, Kimihiro

    2010-05-01

    It is important to diagnose infectious events in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Since many of them have complications of febrile neutropenia (FN), determining its cause is critical for their treatment course. We analyzed all febrile events (>38.0 degrees C, single axillary temperature) in hospitalized cancer patients treated at Shizuoka Cancer Center over a period of 8 months. Based on the clinical presentation at the onset, we estimated the cause of fever and classified it as infection, tumor fever, immunologic reaction or unknown. Clinical presentations found at the onset of FN were categorized into 4 groups: (1) oral mucositis, and (2) respiratory, (3) gastrointestinal and (4) cutaneous findings. We detected 85 febrile episodes (median age 58, range 26 approximately 86; 37 males and 48 females). Neutropenia was observed (500/mL) in 52. 9% (45/85) of the patients and clinical symptoms were detected in 74.1% (63/85). In eleven of 18 infection-proven cases, we successfully predicted the infection focus at the onset of fever. Multivariate analysis revealed that initial high fever, antimicrobial prophylaxis, cutaneous findings and severe neutropenia were important influencing factors in predicting infectious disease during FN. Physical examination can support the diagnosis of the cause of fever in FN patients.

  6. Inverse association between brown adipose tissue activation and white adipose tissue accumulation in successfully treated pediatric malignancy1234

    PubMed Central

    Chalfant, James S; Smith, Michelle L; Hu, Houchun H; Dorey, Fred J; Goodarzian, Fariba; Fu, Cecilia H

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a risk factor for disease, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been suggested to have a protective role against obesity. Objective: We studied whether changes in BAT were related to changes in the amounts of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in children treated for malignancy. Design: We examined the effect of BAT activity on weight, SAT, and VAT in 32 pediatric patients with cancer whose positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) scans at diagnosis showed no BAT activity. Changes in weight, SAT, and VAT from diagnosis to remission for children with metabolically active BAT at disease-free follow-up (BAT+) were compared with those in children without visualized BAT when free of disease (BAT−). Results: Follow-up PET-CT studies (4.7 ± 2.4 mo later) after successful treatment of the cancer showed BAT+ in 19 patients but no active BAT (BAT−) in 13 patients. BAT+ patients, in comparison with BAT− patients, gained significantly less weight (3.3 ± 6.6% compared with 11.0 ± 11.6%; P = 0.02) and had significantly less SAT (18.2 ± 26.5% compared with 67.4 ± 71.7%; P = 0.01) and VAT (22.6 ± 33.5% compared with 131.6 ± 171.8%; P = 0.01) during treatment. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the inverse relations between BAT activation and measures of weight, SAT, and VAT persisted even after age, glucocorticoid treatment, and the season when the PET-CT scans were obtained were accounted for. Conclusion: The activation of BAT in pediatric patients undergoing treatment of malignancy is associated with significantly less adipose accumulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01517581. PMID:22456659

  7. Biochemical Testing After Pheochromocytoma Removal: How Early?

    PubMed

    Zelinka, T; Petrák, O; Hamplová, B; Turková, H; Waldauf, P; Rosa, J; Šomlóová, Z; Holaj, R; Štrauch, B; Indra, T; Kršek, M; Brabcová Vránková, A; Vránková, A Brabcová; Musil, Z; Dušková, J; Kubinyi, J; Michalský, D; Novák, K; Widimský, J

    2015-08-01

    Pheochromocytomas are catecholamine-producing tumors with typical clinical presentation. Tumor resection is considered as an appropriate treatment strategy. Due to its unpredictable clinical behavior, biochemical testing is mandatory to confirm the success of tumor removal after surgery. The aim of the study was to investigate the feasibility of a shorter interval of postoperative testing (earlier than the recommended 2-4 weeks according to recently published Guidelines). We investigated 81 patients with pheochromocytoma before and after surgery. Postoperative examination was performed of stable subjects after their transport from the surgical to the internal ward (7.1±2.2 days after surgery). Plasma metanephrines were used for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and confirmation of successful tumor removal. All subjects with pheochromocytoma had markedly elevated plasma metanephrines before surgery. No correlation between postoperative interval (the shortest being 3 days) and plasma metanephrine levels was found. Postoperative plasma metanephrine levels did not differ significantly from those taken at the one-year follow-up. In conclusion, we have shown that early postoperative diagnostic workup of subjects with pheochromocytoma is possible and may thus simplify early postoperative management of this clinical condition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Pheochromocytoma in rats with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MENX) shares gene expression patterns with human pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Molatore, Sara; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Irmler, Martin; Perren, Aurel; Mannelli, Massimo; Ercolino, Tonino; Beuschlein, Felix; Jarzab, Barbara; Wloch, Jan; Ziaja, Jacek; Zoubaa, Saida; Neff, Frauke; Beckers, Johannes; Höfler, Heinz; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are rare neoplasias of neural crest origin arising from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia (extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma). Pheochromocytoma that develop in rats homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in p27Kip1 (MENX syndrome) show a clear progression from hyperplasia to tumor, offering the possibility to gain insight into tumor pathobiology. We compared the gene-expression signatures of both adrenomedullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma with normal rat adrenal medulla. Hyperplasia and tumor show very similar transcriptome profiles, indicating early determination of the tumorigenic signature. Overrepresentation of developmentally regulated neural genes was a feature of the rat lesions. Quantitative RT-PCR validated the up-regulation of 11 genes, including some involved in neural development: Cdkn2a, Cdkn2c, Neurod1, Gal, Bmp7, and Phox2a. Overexpression of these genes precedes histological changes in affected adrenal glands. Their presence at early stages of tumorigenesis indicates they are not acquired during progression and may be a result of the lack of functional p27Kip1. Adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma development clearly follows diverged molecular pathways in MENX rats. To correlate these findings to human pheochromocytoma, we studied nine genes overexpressed in the rat lesions in 46 sporadic and familial human pheochromocytomas. The expression of GAL, DGKH, BMP7, PHOX2A, L1CAM, TCTE1, EBF3, SOX4, and HASH1 was up-regulated, although with different frequencies. Immunohistochemical staining detected high L1CAM expression selectively in 27 human pheochromocytomas but not in 140 nonchromaffin neuroendocrine tumors. These studies reveal clues to the molecular pathways involved in rat and human pheochromocytoma and identify previously unexplored biomarkers for clinical use. PMID:20937862

  9. Subsequent primary malignancies and acute myelogenous leukemia transformation among myelodysplastic syndrome patients treated with or without lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Rollison, Dana E; Shain, Kenneth H; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Hampras, Shalaka S; Fulp, William; Fisher, Kate; Al Ali, Najla H; Padron, Eric; Lancet, Jeffrey; Xu, Qiang; Olesnyckyj, Martha; Kenvin, Laurie; Knight, Robert; Dalton, William; List, Alan; Komrokji, Rami S

    2016-07-01

    The few studies that have examined rates of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformation in lenalidomide-treated myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients have been limited to deletion 5q MDS. The association between lenalidomide and subsequent primary malignancies (SPMs) in MDS patients has not been evaluated previously. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the risk of both SPM and AML in association with lenalidomide. A cohort of MDS patients (n = 1248) treated between 2004 and 2012 at Moffitt Cancer Center were identified, and incident cases of SPM and AML transformation were ascertained. Using a nested case-control design, MDS controls were 1:1 matched to SPM (n = 41) and AML (n = 150) cases, on age and date of MDS diagnosis, gender, follow-up time, IPSS, and del (5q). Associations between lenalidomide and (1) SPM incidence and (2) AML transformation were estimated with hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the cohort and odds ratios (OR) in the case-control analysis. SPM incidence did not differ significantly between cohort MDS patients treated with (0.7 per 100 person-years) or without lenalidomide (1.4 per 100 person-years) (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.40-2.74), whereas a significantly reduced SPM risk was observed in the case-control sample (OR = 0.03, 95% CI = <0.01-0.63). Lenalidomide was not associated with AML transformation in the cohort analysis (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.44-1.27) or in the case-control analyses (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.52-2.56), after adjustment for potential confounders. Lenalidomide was not associated with increased risk of SPM or AML transformation in a large cohort of MDS patients mostly including nondeletion 5q MDS.

  10. Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult

  11. Donor T Cells After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-20

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood

  12. Deferasirox in Treating Iron Overload Caused By Blood Transfusions in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    ; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Multiple Myeloma; Stage I Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome

  13. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Treatment of Acute Inverted Takotsubo-Like Cardiomyopathy From Hemorrhagic Pheochromocytoma in Late Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    van Zwet, Cornelis Johannes; Rist, Andreas; Haeussler, Achim; Graves, Kirk; Zollinger, Andreas; Blumenthal, Stephan

    2016-11-01

    We describe the first case of a pregnant woman presenting with an acute inverted takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy caused by a postpartum diagnosed hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma, successfully treated with percutaneous venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (va-ECMO). During admission, an emergency cesarean delivery had to be performed. The fetus needed resuscitation for 5 minutes. The mother was successfully resuscitated and treated with percutaneous va-ECMO for 7 days. Despite advances in diagnostic techniques during the past decade, in many cases, pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is still missed. This results in a maternal and fetal mortality rate of up to 30% in both.

  14. Renal hilar pheochromocytoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Elfatemi, Hind; Znati, Kaoutar; Tazi, Elmehdi; Amarti, Afaf; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Moulay, Hassan Farih M H

    2009-01-01

    Paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from undifferentiated cells of the primitive neural crest. These tumors are most commonly found in the adrenal gland, other localisations are also possible. A 58-year-old woman who presented with history of left lumbar pain, headache, hypertension, palpitation and sweating was found to have a secreting left renal hilar pheochromocytoma. Radical excision of the tumor was therefore undertaken and her hypertension was controlled. From the case report and literature review, the authors suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of ectopic localization of pheochromocytoma. PMID:19829802

  15. Renal hilar pheochromocytoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ahallal, Youness; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Elfatemi, Hind; Znati, Kaoutar; Tazi, Elmehdi; Amarti, Afaf; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Moulay, Hassan Farih M H

    2009-06-29

    Paraganglioma is a rare tumor arising from undifferentiated cells of the primitive neural crest. These tumors are most commonly found in the adrenal gland, other localisations are also possible. A 58-year-old woman who presented with history of left lumbar pain, headache, hypertension, palpitation and sweating was found to have a secreting left renal hilar pheochromocytoma. Radical excision of the tumor was therefore undertaken and her hypertension was controlled. From the case report and literature review, the authors suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for the management of ectopic localization of pheochromocytoma.

  16. [An incidental finding of retrocaval extraadrenal pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Bretterbauer, Katharina Maria; Colleselli, Daniela; Magdy, Ahmed; Janetschek, Günter; Mitterberger, Michael

    2015-10-01

    As part of diagnostic work-up of a 71-year-old patient with resistant hypertension, an extraadrenal mass was found. After further imaging and biochemical evaluation an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma was diagnosed and after alpha-receptor blockade was removed via posterior approach laparoscopically in the course. The pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing tumor with an incidence of 1-2 per 100 000. In about 1-25 % it is located extraadrenal. Establishing the diagnosis is dependent on the demonstration of significant catecholamine excess. Afterwards imaging with CT or MRI should be performed. After administration of alpha-blockers, the complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice.

  17. Targeted Marrow Irradiation, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Busulfan Before Donor Progenitor Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-27

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Hematologic Malignancies; Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Myeloid Leukemia; Myelofibrosis; Myeloproliferative Syndrome

  18. Precautionary measures reduce risk of definite neuroleptic malignant syndrome in newly typical neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia inpatients.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Roni; Valevski, Avi; Bodinger, Liron; Misgav, Sagit; Aizenberg, Dov; Dorfman-Etrog, Pnina; Weizman, Abraham; Munitz, Hanan

    2003-05-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially lethal antipsychotic drug (APD)-induced thermoregulatory disturbance. We hypothesized that several precautionary measures taken after administeration of APDs might prevent progression to definite NMS. The study group included 657 consecutively admitted drug-free schizophrenia inpatients who received various typical APDs for 28 days. Specific predefined precautionary measures were employed for this group. The comparison group (n=192) consisted of typical APD-treated schizophrenia inpatients in whom such precautionary measures were not imposed. The study group exhibited a significantly lower incidence of definite NMS (1/657=0.2% versus 4/192=2.1%; P=0.01, odds ratio=13.96; 95% confidence interval 1.55-125.63). Antipsychotics were discontinued in 28 patients (28/657=4.3%) from the study group due to NMS (n=1) or early detection of potential NMS-related signs (probable abortive NMS) (n=27). Our findings suggest that specific precautionary measures can effectively reduce the incidence of definite NMS by approximately one order in newly medicated schizophrenia inpatients.

  19. Targeting PI3K/mTOR signaling exerts potent antitumor activity in pheochromocytoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Misu; Minaskan, Ninelia; Wiedemann, Tobias; Irmler, Martin; Beckers, Johannes; Yousefi, Behrooz H; Kaissis, Georgios; Braren, Rickmer; Laitinen, Iina; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are mostly benign tumors, amenable to complete surgical resection. However, 10-17% of cases can become malignant, and once metastasized, there is no curative treatment for this disease. Given the need to identify the effective therapeutic approaches for PCC, we evaluated the antitumor potential of the dual-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 against these tumors. We employed an in vivo model of endogenous PCCs (MENX mutant rats), which closely recapitulate the human tumors. Mutant rats with PCCs were treated with 2 doses of BEZ235 (20 and 30 mg/kg), or with placebo, for 2 weeks. Treatment with BEZ235 induced cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on rat PCCs, which could be appreciated by both staining the tumors ex vivo with appropriate markers and non-invasively by functional imaging (diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging) in vivo Transcriptomic analyses of tumors from rats treated with BEZ235 or placebo-identified potential mediators of therapy response were performed. Slc6a2, encoding the norepinephrine transporter (NET), was downregulated in a dose-dependent manner by BEZ235 in rat PCCs. Moreover, BEZ235 reduced Slc6a2/NET expression in PCC cell lines (MPC) also. Studies of a BEZ235-resistant derivative of the MPC cell line confirmed that the reduction of NET expression associates with the response to the drug. Reduction of NET expression after BEZ235 treatment in vivo could be monitored by positron emission tomography (PET) using a tracer targeting NET. Altogether, here we demonstrate the efficacy of BEZ235 against PCC in vivo, and show that functional imaging can be employed to monitor the response of PCC to PI3K/mTOR inhibition therapy.

  20. Radiobiologic comparison of helical tomotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and conformal radiotherapy in treating lung cancer accounting for secondary malignancy risks

    SciTech Connect

    Komisopoulos, Georgios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Rodriguez, Salvador; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, Georgios C.; Sakellaropoulos, Georgios C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the importance of using measures to predict the risk of inducing secondary malignancies in association with the clinical effectiveness of treatment plans in terms of tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. This is achieved by using radiobiologic parameters and measures, which may provide a closer association between clinical outcome and treatment delivery. Overall, 4 patients having been treated for lung cancer were examined. For each of them, 3 treatment plans were developed based on the helical tomotherapy (HT), multileaf collimator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT) modalities. The different plans were evaluated using the complication-free tumor control probability (p{sub +}), the overall probability of injury (p{sub I}), the overall probability of control/benefit (p{sub B}), and the biologically effective uniform dose (D{sup ¯¯}). These radiobiologic measures were used to develop dose-response curves (p-D{sup ¯¯} diagram), which can help to evaluate different treatment plans when used in conjunction with standard dosimetric criteria. The risks for secondary malignancies in the heart and the contralateral lung were calculated for the 3 radiation modalities based on the corresponding dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each patient. Regarding the overall evaluation of the different radiation modalities based on the p{sub +} index, the average values of the HT, IMRT, and CRT are 67.3%, 61.2%, and 68.2%, respectively. The corresponding average values of p{sub B} are 75.6%, 70.5%, and 71.0%, respectively, whereas the average values of p{sub I} are 8.3%, 9.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among the organs at risk (OARs), lungs show the highest probabilities for complications, which are 7.1%, 8.0%, and 1.3% for the HT, IMRT, and CRT modalities, respectively. Similarly, the biologically effective prescription doses (D{sub B}{sup ¯¯}) for the

  1. Radiobiologic comparison of helical tomotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy, and conformal radiotherapy in treating lung cancer accounting for secondary malignancy risks.

    PubMed

    Komisopoulos, Georgios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Rodriguez, Salvador; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, Georgios C; Sakellaropoulos, Georgios C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the importance of using measures to predict the risk of inducing secondary malignancies in association with the clinical effectiveness of treatment plans in terms of tumor control and normal tissue complication probabilities. This is achieved by using radiobiologic parameters and measures, which may provide a closer association between clinical outcome and treatment delivery. Overall, 4 patients having been treated for lung cancer were examined. For each of them, 3 treatment plans were developed based on the helical tomotherapy (HT), multileaf collimator-based intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT) modalities. The different plans were evaluated using the complication-free tumor control probability (p+), the overall probability of injury (pI), the overall probability of control/benefit (pB), and the biologically effective uniform dose (D¯¯). These radiobiologic measures were used to develop dose-response curves (p-D¯¯ diagram), which can help to evaluate different treatment plans when used in conjunction with standard dosimetric criteria. The risks for secondary malignancies in the heart and the contralateral lung were calculated for the 3 radiation modalities based on the corresponding dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of each patient. Regarding the overall evaluation of the different radiation modalities based on the p+ index, the average values of the HT, IMRT, and CRT are 67.3%, 61.2%, and 68.2%, respectively. The corresponding average values of pB are 75.6%, 70.5%, and 71.0%, respectively, whereas the average values of pI are 8.3%, 9.3%, and 2.8%, respectively. Among the organs at risk (OARs), lungs show the highest probabilities for complications, which are 7.1%, 8.0%, and 1.3% for the HT, IMRT, and CRT modalities, respectively. Similarly, the biologically effective prescription doses (DB¯¯) for the HT, IMRT, and CRT modalities are 64.0, 60.9, and 60.8Gy

  2. Atezolizumab, Pemetrexed Disodium, Cisplatin, and Surgery With or Without Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I-III Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-04

    Stage I Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage IA Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage IB Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage II Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7; Stage III Pleural Malignant Mesothelioma AJCC v7

  3. [A case of cardiac tamponade due to malignant pericarditis with lung adenocarcinoma, effectively treated with pericardial drainage and pemetrexed plus cisplatin chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazufumi; Teramoto, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man was diagnosed with non small cell lung cancer in May 2013. Although the patient was negative for EGFR mutation, he wished to undergo treatment with gefitinib and erlotinib as first-line therapy. However, one year later, he was admitted to our hospital because of cardiac tamponade due to malignant pericarditis. He received pericardial drainage, after which his condition was stabilized. He was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma by cytology of pericardial effusion and treated with pemetrexed plus cisplatin as second-line therapy. Thereafter, the malignant effusion was decreased and the primary lesion was regressed. He received six courses of chemotherapy, however, brain metastases and bone metastases appeared. The brain metastases were controlled with gamma knife radiosurgery and he received carboptatin-paclitaxel plus bevacizumab as third-line therapy. The patient is currently receiving chemotherapy without any recurrence of malignant pericarditis or cardiac tamponade.

  4. Risk Stratification in Paragangliomas with PASS (Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score) and Immunohistochemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Deshmukh, Sanjay D; Karekar, R R; Gaopande, Vandana L; Joshi, Avinash R; Kesari, Mrunal V; Shelke, R R

    2016-09-01

    Paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumours that arise in sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia and are derived from neural crest cells. Presence of metastasis is the only absolute criterion for malignancy. There is no single histo-morphological feature indicating malignant potential and multiple parameters have been proposed to prognosticate the individual case. This includes studies conducted using Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) markers. We have studied ten cases of paraganglioma and attempted to correlate the prognosis with multiple clinicopathological variables. This study was done in a tertiary care general hospital over a period of five years. Available clinical records and histopathology slides of all patients were reviewed. Using Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS), we divided the cases into two groups-tumours showing high risk behaviour (PASS≥4) and tumours showing benign behaviour (PASS<4). IHC analysis was done using synaptophysin, chromogranin, S100 and Ki67. We correlated S100 immunoreactivity and Ki67 proliferative index with PASS score. Both PASS score and IHC markers were also correlated with clinical outcome. There were six Pheochromocytomas (PHC) and four Paragangliomas (PGL). Two paragangliomas were retroperitoneal and one each was located in ear (HNPGL) and broad ligament. PASS score was ≥4 in five cases and <4 in five cases. Out of five cases in which PASS was ≥4, three cases showed clinical evidence of malignancy and two cases were benign. All the cases in which PASS was <4 were clinically benign. S100 immunoreactivity was grade 1 in two cases, grade 2 in six cases and grade 3 in two cases. The cases in which S100 immunoreactivity was grade 1 were malignant. One case in which S100 was grade 2 was clinically malignant. Ki67 labeling index was raised (>3%) in two cases, which were malignant correlated with malignant PASS score. We conclude that the following

  5. Pheochromocytoma presenting with arterial and intracardiac thrombus in a 47-year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension but it could have severe consequences if not recognized and treated appropriately. The association of pheochromocytoma and thrombosis is even rarer but significantly increases management complexity, morbidity and mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with pheochromocytoma presenting with left axillary arterial and intracardiac thrombus. Case presentation A 47-year-old Caucasian woman with a past medical history of hypertension presented for medical attention with left arm numbness. Doppler ultrasound showed an obstructing thrombus in her left axillary artery. She had symptom resolution after stent placement in her left axillary artery. A subsequent echocardiogram demonstrated a large intracardiac mass and abdominal computed tomography revealed a 7 cm mass between her spleen and left kidney. Labile blood pressure was noted during admission and she had very high levels of plasma and 24-hour urine catecholamines and metanephrines tests. A (123)I- metaiodobenzylguanidine scan showed intense uptake in the left abdominal mass. After adequate alpha blockage with phenoxybenzamine, laparoscopic tumor resection was performed without complications. She had normal metanephrines and complete symptom resolution afterwards. The intracardiac mass also disappeared with anticoagulation. All other endocrine laboratory abnormalities returned to normal after surgery. Conclusion Arterial and ventricular thrombosis occurring in patients with pheochromocytoma is rare. A multi-disciplinary approach is necessary in caring for this type of patient. Catecholamines likely contributed to the development of thrombosis in our patient. Early recognition of pheochromocytoma is the key to improving outcome. PMID:21752274

  6. Surgical analysis of pediatric and adolescent sporadic pheochromocytoma: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Osman, Yasser; Hussein, Naser; Sarhan, Osama; Shorrab, Ahmed A; Dawaba, Mohamed; Ghoneim, Mohamed A

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to review our experience with sporadic pheochromocytoma in pediatrics and adolescents focusing upon surgical approach, incidence of malignancy, and recurrence rate. Between 1990 and 2007, 8 pediatric patients were diagnosed with sporadic pheochromocytoma. Demographic data, clinical and radiological findings, laboratory profile, preoperative preparation, surgical approach, operative findings, postoperative course as well as pathologic diagnosis of the removed specimen were reviewed. Mean age of presentation was 13.1 ± 4.7 years. Five patients had right-sided masses, 1 harbored left-sided mass, and bilaterality was observed in 2 with mean size of 5.7 ± 1.3 cm. Computed tomography showed no evidence of local infiltration, regional lymphadenopathy or distant metastasis in all patients but two. Six masses were excised through thoraco-abdominal approach, 3 were removed laparoscopically, while percutaneous alcohol ablation was adopted for the last. We had one postoperative death (12.5%:1/8), and the remaining 7 patients were followed for a mean of 8.6 ± 3 years. Five patients never had recurrence. Bilateral recurrence developed in 2 patients, where they were safely excised in one patient and was a part of disseminated disease in the other. Malignant nature of the disease was proved in 2 patients and showed poor survival. Under adequate anesthetic control, pediatric pheochromocytoma could be safely managed through both the open and laparoscopic approaches. Advanced radiological stage would suggest the malignant nature of the disease with dismal outcome. Long-term follow-up is warranted for possibility of delayed curable recurrence.

  7. Utility of plasma free metanephrines in diagnosis of factitious pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Chidakel, Aaron R; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Lawrence, Jennifer E; Ayala, Alejandro R

    2006-01-01

    To report a case of epinephrine-induced factitious pheochromocytoma in a young woman with a past medical history of Conn's syndrome. We present a case report with clinical and laboratory details, review related reports in the literature, and demonstrate the usefulness of plasma free metanephrine levels in facilitating the diagnosis of factitious pheochromocytoma. A 34-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for confirmation and localization of an occult pheochromocytoma. After thorough investigation, we discovered that the patient was surreptitiously injecting epinephrine in order to induce symptoms and signs consistent with a pheochromocytoma. Analysis of the patient's biochemical profile during and between her catecholaminergic crises revealed plasma epinephrine and free metanephrine levels that would be highly unusual for a patient with a pheochromocytoma. This case illustrates the utility of implementing the ratio of plasma epinephrine to free metanephrine levels in distinguishing factitious from organic pheochromocytoma.

  8. [Diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y C; Liu, G L; Zhou, J W; Hu, H; Shen, D H

    2016-04-18

    Pheochromocytoma is rare in pregn'ancy. Clinical features of a case of pheochromocytoma during pregnancy in the Peking University People's Hospital was investigated and the literature reviewed to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. The patient manifested with hypertension and proteinuria, who was easily misdiagnosed with gestational hypertension disease. When she was transferred to our hospital, the symptoms such as, paroxysmal palpitation, dizziness, vomiting were noticed, and the possibility of pheochromocytoma was considered due to the accompanying abdominal mass. An emergent cesarean section was performed successfully due to preterm labor during the treatment of the disease. After the delivery the drug preparation continued. And the laparoscopic resection of pheochromocytoma proceeded when the blood pressure was steady. The patient recovered fully after the surgery. The final diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed with the pathology. Its diagnosis and treatment experiences could improve our understanding and treatment of secondary hypertension due to pheochromocytoma in pregnancy.

  9. Nationwide review of hormonally active adrenal tumors highlights high morbidity in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Farra, Josefina C; Lew, John I

    2017-07-01

    Adrenal adenomas are benign tumors often discovered incidentally, and >70% are hormonally inactive. The remaining subset may produce excess aldosterone, cortisol, or catecholamine. Perioperative outcomes after adrenalectomy for such "hormonally active" tumors remain unclear. This study examines in-hospital outcomes after unilateral adrenalectomy for hormonally active tumors. A retrospective review was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2006-2011) to identify patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy for hormonally active or inactive tumors. Malignant adrenal tumors were excluded. Demographics, comorbidities, and postoperative complications were evaluated by univariate analysis, using two-tailed Chi-square and t-tests and multivariate logistic regression. Of 27,312 patients who underwent adrenalectomy, 78% (n = 21,279) had hormonally inactive and 22% (n = 6033) had hormonally active adrenal tumors. Among the latter, 65% (n = 4000) had primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome), 33% (n = 1996) had hypercortisolism (Cushing's syndrome), and 1.4% (n = 85) had pheochromocytoma. Patients with pheochromocytoma had higher rate of comorbidities including congestive heart failure, chronic lung disease, and malignant hypertension compared with remaining hormonally active tumors (12% versus 4%, 18% versus 11%, 6% versus 2%; P < 0.01). For patients with pheochromocytoma versus other hormonally active tumors, mean length of stay was 5 versus 3 d and total in-hospital cost was $50,000 versus $41,000 (P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, pheochromocytoma had an independently higher risk for intraoperative blood transfusion (4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-7.2), postoperative cardiac (7.6, 95% CI 2.8-20.2), and respiratory (1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.3) complications. Patients with pheochromocytoma have high rates of preoperative comorbidities, postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, and longer and more costly hospitalizations. Such high

  10. Current and future therapeutic approaches for metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: focus on SDHB tumors

    PubMed Central

    Matro, Joey; Giubellino, Alessio; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    As a result of intense genetic studies of families with specific mutations, the road to better therapeutic intervention for pheochromocytoma (PHEOs) and parangangliomas (PGLs) has more recently become populated with several promising molecular targets. Consequently a change in paradigm from a previous view on nonspecific therapy has shifted towards more selective molecular targeted therapies. In particular, malignant PHEOs/PGLs, more specifically the tumors that result from mutations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), are a clear concern, and novel therapies should be developed to address this problem. Here we summarize current and future therapeutic approaches. PMID:23322515

  11. Increased adenosine triphosphate production by peripheral blood CD4+ cells in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with stem cell mobilization agents.

    PubMed

    Manga, Kiran; Serban, Geo; Schwartz, Joseph; Slotky, Ronit; Patel, Nita; Fan, Jianshe; Bai, Xiaolin; Chari, Ajai; Savage, David; Suciu-Foca, Nicole; Colovai, Adriana I

    2010-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an important therapeutic option for patients with hematologic malignancies. To explore the immunomodulatory effects of HSC mobilization agents, we studied the function and phenotype of CD4(+) T cells from 16 adult patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing HSC mobilization treatment for autologous transplantation. Immune cell function was determined using the Immuknow (Cylex) assay by measuring the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced by CD4(+) cells from whole blood. ATP activity measured in G-CSF-treated patients was significantly higher than that measured in healthy individuals or "nonmobilized" patients. In patients treated with G-CSF, CD4(+) T cells were predominantly CD25(low)FOXP3(low), consistent with an activated phenotype. However, T-cell depletion did not abrogate ATP production in blood samples from G-CSF-treated patients, indicating that CD4(+) myeloid cells contributed to the increased ATP levels observed in these patients. There was a significant correlation between ATP activity and patient survival, suggesting that efficient activation of CD4(+) cells during mobilization treatment predicts a low risk of disease relapse. Monitoring immune cell reactivity using the Immuknow assay may assist in the clinical management of patients with hematologic malignancies and optimization of HSC mobilization protocols. Copyright 2010 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Melanoma and other malignant skin cancers in psoriatic patients treated with phototherapy. Role of the p16 protein in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Szponar-Bojda, Anna; Pietrzak, Aldona; Sobczynska-Tomaszewska, Agnieszka; Borzecki, Adam; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Polkowski, Wojciech; Poluha, Anna; Chodorowska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the potential risk of malignant cancer development in psoriatic patients has been highlighted. However, the relationship between the therapeutic schemes in psoriasis and possible neoplastic transformation has not been so far clearly explained. Phototherapy is considered a very effective therapeutic method in psoriasis, however, the pathogenesis of some malignancies may be associated with the exposure to UV radiation. p16 protein belongs to the defense mechanisms that protect cells from damage and mutagenic factors, such as UV radiation. In recent years, the altered expression of the p16 protein in the diseases not related to malignant transformation, including psoriasis, has been observed. These new observations suggest participation of the p16 protein in the mechanisms of psoriatic plaque formation.

  13. Pheochromocytomas: the (pseudo)-hypoxia hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2010-12-01

    Hypoxia and pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma have a long common history. Since the description, almost 40 years ago, of an increased incidence of head and neck paragangliomas in chronic hypoxia, discoveries on oxygen-sensing and on hereditary paraganglioma in the beginning of years 2000 provided the proof of concept of a strong link between these neuroendocrine tumors and the hypoxic pathway. It was demonstrated that both SDH and VHL genes mutations lead to the abnormal stabilization and activation of hypoxia-inducible factors, and to the subsequent regulation of multiple target genes, the products of which are implicated in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, energy metabolism or invasiveness and metastases. Altogether, physiological, genetic, cellular and molecular data collected over years all point to a central role of the hypoxic or pseudohypoxic pathway in pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumorigenesis. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pheochromocytoma in an African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus).

    PubMed

    Cole, Gretchen; Suedmeyer, W Kirk; Johnson, Gayle

    2008-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male African warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) with a chronic history of intermittent unilateral epistaxis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and intermittent weakness in the distal lumbar trunk was evaluated to determine the source of epistaxis. No obvious cause was determined, and in light of severe osteoarthritis and a holosystolic cardiac murmur, the animal was euthanized. A tumor of the right adrenal gland involving the medulla was found at gross necropsy. Immunohistochemical staining of the tumor was positive for chromogranin and negative for neurofilament protein, which was diagnostic for pheochromocytoma. No lesions were observed in either nasal cavity. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures measured at the time of immobilization were elevated when compared with another African warthog immobilized with a similar anesthetic regimen. Additionally, the warthog had pronounced serum norepinephrine dominance with a norepinephrine:epinephrine ratio of 10.0, compared with 0.36 from clinically normal warthogs. Practitioners should consider pheochromocytoma when evaluating warthogs or swine for epistaxis.

  15. Pheochromocytoma presenting with pulmonary edema and hyperamylasemia.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Z.; Tolis, G.; Jones, W.; Fallen, E.; McLean, P.

    1977-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with acute pulmonary edema, mild abdominal discomfort and hyperamylasemia. From the 2nd hospital day hypertensive episodes occurred daily. The furosemide screening test for renovascular hypertension revealed elevated plasma renin activity (PRA) but an intravenous pyelogram revealed a right suprarenal mass and no evidence of renovascular compression. Elevated values of plasma and urinary catecholamines indicated a pheochromocytoma, and a single chromaffin tumour was resected. It is important to monitor left ventricular filling pressure during operative removal of a pheochromocytoma. Postoperatively the patient had normal blood pressure and PRA. Decreased urinary amylase clearance and abnormal pancreatic and salivary amylase isoenzymes were found. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 PMID:844016

  16. [Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma discovered peroperatively].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Idali, B; Joual, A; Sarf, I; Naciri, K; Hafiani, M; Bennani, S; Harti, A; El Mrini, M; Barrou, L; Benjelloun, S

    2001-01-01

    In this study, an uncommon case has been reported of an ectopic pheochromocytoma without the presence of any clinical symptoms. The radiological investigations showed a right retroperitoneal tumor without any kidney involvement. The diagnosis was established by biopsy and subsequent histological findings. In the course of surgery as the large tumor mass was being removed, tachycardia was observed which caused the resection to be performed as rapidly as possible. Once the tumor had been removed, bradycardia occurred, followed by cardiac arrest: although the latter was stabilized after cardiac massage, the patient died one hour after the operative field had been closed. In addition to this case report, the diagnosis, therapeutic strategy and prognosis regarding an ectopically located pheochromocytoma have been discussed.

  17. [Hypertension, catecholamine hypersecretion and potential for metastasis: recent progress in the pathophysiology and genetics of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma].

    PubMed

    Plouin, Pierre-François; Amar, Laurence; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-paule

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are catecholamine-secreting tumors usually associated with arterial hypertension. They can contribute to acute cardiovascular events. Ten to 15 percent of tumors are metastatic. Autosomal dominant gene alterations are present in more than a third of cases. The secretory phenotype and the risk of malignancy are driven by the presence of gene mutations, specifically in the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase. Recent advances in genomics have clinical implications for family screening, biological follow-up, prediction of the risk of recurrence, and therapeutic options in cases with malignant recurrence.

  18. Both sunitinib and sorafenib are effective treatments for pheochromocytoma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Denorme, M; Yon, L; Roux, C; Gonzalez, B J; Baudin, E; Anouar, Y; Dubessy, C

    2014-10-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors which develop from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal sites, leading to excess catecholamine release and hypertension. Many of the tumors are characterized by a high vascularity, suggesting the possible implementation of anti-angiogenic therapies for patients. Here, the efficacy of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib was investigated in vivo and in vitro. Oral treatment with either sunitinib or sorafenib (40mg/kg/day) for 14days induced a marked reduction in the volume and weight of PC12 pheochromocytoma cell tumor xenografts in mice. Assessment of tumoral neo-angiogenesis, assessed by morphometric analysis of the vascular network after CD31 immunolabeling, showed that both sunitinib and sorafenib reduced the microvessel area (-85% and -80%, respectively) and length (-80% and -78%, respectively) in treated compared to control tumors. In addition, the number of vessel nodes was significantly lower in treated tumors (-95% and -84%, respectively). Furthermore, cleaved caspase 3 immunolabeling revealed a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells in tumors from treated animals. Sunitinib and sorafenib could exert a direct effect on PC12 cell viability in vitro. While sunitinib induced a rapid (4h) and pronounced (5-fold) increase in caspase-3/7-dependent apoptosis, sorafenib seems to exert its cytotoxic activity through a different mechanism. Altogether, our data demonstrate that sunitinib and sorafenib have the ability to impair pheochromocytoma development by inhibiting angiogenesis and reducing tumor cell viability. These results strongly suggest that both sunitinib and sorafenib could represent valuable therapeutic tools for pheochromocytoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl].

    PubMed

    Fischbein, L; Rio, A; Wenger, J J; Tongio, J; Brechenmacher, C

    1986-06-01

    The authors report the case of a pheochromocytoma of the organ of Zuckerkandl in a 46 year old man. The clinical presentation was severe paroxysmal hypertension; the tumour was located by arteriography, CT scanning, and by scintigraphy with iodine labelled benzylguanidine. The blood pressure returned to normal after surgery. The embryological, anatomical and physiological features of the organ of Zuckerkandl are reviewed: the authors discuss briefly the modern methods of diagnosis and localisation of the tumour.

  20. Hypertension in pregnancy: An unresectable mediastinal pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gazala, Sayf; Switzer, Noah; Bédard, Eric L R

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension is a relatively common occurrence during pregnancy, which usually has a benign course with an excellent prognosis. However, physicians caring for pregnant women should have a high index of suspicion for underlying medical conditions that could lead to a more perilous outcome. Herein, we present the case of a pregnant woman who was found to have uncontrollable hypertension late in her pregnancy, secondary to a mediastinal pheochromocytoma, which was deemed unresectable at the time of exploration after her delivery.

  1. [Pheochromocytoma in Africa: rarity, gravity and ectopy].

    PubMed

    Sidibe, E H

    2001-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is one of the main curable etiologies of high blood pressure, although its diagnosis and therapeutic management can be problematical: an incorrect diagnosis or inappropriate treatment may lead to fatal complications. This disease was exceptionally uncommon in the 1950s, and 30 years later about 30 cases had been reported; however, since 1981 there has been a progressive increase in the incidence of pheochromocytoma (48 documented cases in Africa). In Africa, this disease has two particular characteristics: the gravity of the clinical symptoms, mainly due to the physiological and pharmacological effects of catecholamines which as a result of this disease are stored and liberated at very high rates; and the ectopic site in a number of cases. To facilitate the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma improved clinical investigation is therefore advocated, but the necessary medical equipment is not always available in Africa. On this continent, the ectopic factor confirms the observations made in the early 1980s, and should be taken into consideration in the diagnosis and management of this disease.

  2. Symptomatic pheochromocytoma with normal urinary catecholamine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Zianni, Dimitra; Tzanela, Marinella; Klimopoulos, Serafim; Thalassinos, N C

    2004-01-01

    A 61-year old female presented with paroxysmal hypertension and a 4.5cm left adrenal mass on CT scan. Repeated measurements of 24-hour urinary fractionated metanephrines, total catecholamines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were within normal range. A further scintigraphic study with (131)I -metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) revealed selective concentration of the radiotracer, corresponding to the CT mass. After adequate preoperative treatment, successful surgical excision of the tumor was performed and the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a cystic pheochromocytoma with a 2cm solid tumor. On reevaluation three months later using (131)I-MIBG, no evidence of remaining or recurrent disease was found. The patient, off any antihypertensive medication, reported mild recurrent hypertension and panic attacks that were adequately controlled with antidepressants. This is a rare case of a symptomatic pheochromocytoma without elevated urine catecholamines and metanephrines. According to the literature, plasma free metanephrines would be the ideal test for biochemical detection of the tumor. However, in the event that they are not available and there is a high clinical suspicion for the presence of pheochromocytoma, as in our patient, we suggest performance of a functional nuclear medicine study, such as (131)I-MIBG, to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  3. Reduced Intensity Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Aplastic Anemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Malignant Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia and Ring Sideroblasts

  4. Clinically guided genetic screening in a large cohort of italian patients with pheochromocytomas and/or functional or nonfunctional paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Massimo; Castellano, Maurizio; Schiavi, Francesca; Filetti, Sebastiano; Giacchè, Mara; Mori, Luigi; Pignataro, Viviana; Bernini, Gianpaolo; Giachè, Valentino; Bacca, Alessandra; Biondi, Bernadette; Corona, Giovanni; Di Trapani, Giuseppe; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Arnaldi, Giorgio; Giacchetti, Gilberta; Veglio, Franco; Loli, Paola; Colao, Annamaria; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Terzolo, Massimo; Letizia, Claudio; Ercolino, Tonino; Opocher, Giuseppe

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to define the frequency of hereditary forms and the genotype/phenotype correlations in a large cohort of Italian patients with pheochromocytomas and/or functional or nonfunctional paragangliomas. We examined 501 consecutive patients with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas (secreting or nonsecreting). Complete medical and family histories, as well as the results of clinical, laboratory, and imaging studies, were recorded in a database. Patients were divided into different groups according to their family history, the presence of lesions outside adrenals/paraganglia considered syndromic for VHL disease, MEN2, and NF1, and the number and types of pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas. Germ-line mutations in known susceptibility genes were investigated by gene sequencing (VHL, RET, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) or diagnosed according to phenotype (NF1). In 160 patients younger than 50 yr with a wild-type profile, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assays were performed to detect genomic rearrangements. Germline mutations were detected in 32.1% of cases, but frequencies varied widely depending on the classification criteria and ranged from 100% in patients with associated syndromic lesions to 11.6% in patients with a single tumor and a negative family history. The types and number of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas as well as age at presentation and malignancy suggest which gene should be screened first. Genomic rearrangements were found in two of 160 patients (1.2%). The frequency of the hereditary forms of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma varies depending on the family history and the clinical presentation. A positive family history and an accurate clinical evaluation of patients are strong indicators of which genes should be screened first.

  5. Secondary malignant neoplasms, progression-free survival and overall survival in patients treated for Hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Becker, Ingrid; Monsef, Ina; Chadwick, Nicholas; de Sanctis, Vitaliana; Federico, Massimo; Fortpied, Catherine; Gianni, Alessandro M; Henry-Amar, Michel; Hoskin, Peter; Johnson, Peter; Luminari, Stefano; Bellei, Monica; Pulsoni, Alessandro; Sydes, Matthew R; Valagussa, Pinuccia; Viviani, Simonetta; Engert, Andreas; Franklin, Jeremy

    2017-10-01

    Treatment intensification to maximize disease control and reduced intensity approaches to minimize the risk of late sequelae have been evaluated in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma. The influence of these interventions on the risk of secondary malignant neoplasms, progression-free survival and overall survival is reported in the meta-analysis herein, based on individual patient data from 9498 patients treated within 16 randomized controlled trials for newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma between 1984 and 2007. Secondary malignant neoplasms were meta-analyzed using Peto's method as time-to-event outcomes. For progression-free and overall survival, hazard ratios derived from each trial using Cox regression were combined by inverse-variance weighting. Five study questions (combined-modality treatment vs. chemotherapy alone; more extended vs. involved-field radiotherapy; radiation at higher doses vs. radiation at 20 Gy; more vs. fewer cycles of the same chemotherapy protocol; standard-dose chemotherapy vs. intensified chemotherapy) were investigated. After a median follow-up of 7.4 years, dose-intensified chemotherapy resulted in better progression-free survival rates (P=0.007) as compared with standard-dose chemotherapy, but was associated with an increased risk of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes (P=0.0028). No progression-free or overall survival differences were observed between combined-modality treatment and chemotherapy alone, but more secondary malignant neoplasms were seen after combined-modality treatment (P=0.010). For the remaining three study questions, outcomes and secondary malignancy rates did not differ significantly between treatment strategies. The results of this meta-analysis help to weigh up efficacy and secondary malignancy risk for the choice of first-line treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma patients. However, final conclusions regarding secondary solid tumors require longer follow-up. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti

  6. IS BIOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA NECESSARY IN ADRENAL INCIDENTALOMAS WITH MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING FEATURES NOT SUGGESTIVE OF PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA?

    PubMed

    Kuzu, Idris; Zuhur, Sayid Shafi; Ozel, Alper; Ozturk, Feyza Yener; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2016-05-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether pheochromocytomas can be ruled out based on low intensity on T2-weighted sequences and signal loss on out-of-phase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Hence, in this study, we investigated whether biochemical screening for pheochromocytoma in patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) showing MRI features not suggesting pheochromocytoma would prove beneficial. We performed MRI for 300 AIs in 278 consecutive patients. All patients were screened for pheochromocytoma with plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine. Patients with high plasma levels of metanephrine and/or normetanephrine were also assessed for pheochromocytoma by urinary metanephrines. Hyperintensity was detected on T2-weighted MRI sequences in 28 (9.3%) of the 300 AIs. Among these 28 incidentalomas, pheochromocytoma was diagnosed in 13 (46.4%) of the cases by histopathologic analysis. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted MRI was significantly higher in pheochromocytomas compared to the remaining AIs (P<.001). All 13 pheochromocytomas were characterized by hyperintensity on T2-weighted sequences and the absence of signal loss on out-of-phase MRI sequences. Pheochromocytoma was not detected in any of the 272 AIs that appeared hypointense or isointense on T2-weighted MRI sequences or in the 250 cases with signal loss on out-of-phase sequences. The results of this study suggest that AIs that appear hypointense or isointense on T2-weighted MRI sequences and those with signal loss on out-of-phase sequences may not require routine biochemical screening for pheochromocytoma. Further studies including a higher number of pheochromocytomas are required to confirm our results.

  7. Testicular Seminoma Occurring After Kidney Transplantation in a Patient Previously Treated for Teratoma: De Novo Malignancy or Recurrence in a Different Histologic Form?

    PubMed

    Juric, I; Basic-Jukic, N

    2016-11-01

    The most common testicular tumor is seminoma, but it is one of the rarest malignancies in kidney transplant recipients, with only 15 cases published in the English-language literature. Except in 1 case of recurrence, all cases were de novo malignancies after transplantation. We bring a case of a patient treated for testicle teratoma at age 24 years who received a kidney transplant at age 40 years, and 19 months after transplantation was diagnosed with a metastatic seminoma. To the best of our knowledge, there are no data of germ cell tumor late recurrence after kidney transplantation. In addition, this is the 1st case of a giant cell tumor occurring in a form of seminoma in general or transplanted population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel Preclinical Testing Strategies for Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Arthur Tischler...for Treatment of Metastatic Pheochromocytoma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0670 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...producing neuroendocrine tumors. Up to 30% give rise to metastases, for which there is no effective treatment . Because there are no human PCC cell

  9. [Diagnostic difficulties in recognizing of pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Przybylik-Mazurek, Elwira; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Stochmal, Ewa; Budzyński, Andrzej; Białas, Magdalena; Kostecka-Matyja, Marta; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PH) is a tumour of chromaffin cells of the sympathetic nervous system and its clinical symptoms are associated with excessive production and release of catecholamines. The main criterion for clinical diagnosis of PH is finding increased concentrations of catecholamines or their metabolites in serum and/or urine. The largest diagnostic and therapeutic problems are patients with slightly elevated levels of methoxycatecholamines in serum and/ or urine. Aim of this study was to determine the cut-off point for elevated methoxycatecholamine in the collection of daily urine, which would give the basis for determining the reasonable recommendations of the biochemical criteria for diagnosis of PH. Retrospectively we analysed the results of 45 patients sent to laparoscopic adrenalectomy to the Department of General Surgery II with the preoperative diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was based on the finding of elevated 24-hour urine methoxycatecholamines. Based on the results of the histopathological examination patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included 27 patients (14 women and 13 men) with histopathologically confirmed pheochromocytoma of adrenal gland. Group 2 consisted of 18 patients (11 women and 7 men), in which histopathological examination did not confirm the presence of pheochromocytoma. Mean age of patients in group 1: 46.8 +/- 14.4 years, in group 2: 55.7 +/- 13.7 years. Hypertension was diagnosed in 77.8% of those with group 1 and 94.4% from group 2. Based on the analyzed results of the CT, we found that the average tumor size in group 1 (4.2 +/- 1.9 cm) was statistically higher than in group 2 (2.9 +/- 1.1 cm). The average concentration of normetanephrine (NMN) in 24-hour urine in group 1 was statistically significantly higher than in group 2 (2,686 +/- 870.4 vs. 2375.1 +/- 754 mg/24h), as well as the average concentration of metanephrine (MN) (2533.4 +/- 3269.3 +/- 491.6 vs. 371.5 mg/24 hrs), and the

  10. An ectopic renin-secreting adrenal corticoadenoma in a child with malignant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kaslow, Abraham M; Riquier-Brison, Anne; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Shillingford, Nick; HaDuong, Josephine; Venkatramani, Rajkumar; Gayer, Christopher P

    2016-03-01

    A previously healthy 7-year-old male presented with hypertensive emergency, hypokalemia, and elevated plasma renin activity and aldosterone levels. There was no evidence of virilization or cushingoid features. MRI of the abdomen revealed a large (5 × 5 × 3 cm) peripherally enhancing, heterogeneous mass arising from the left adrenal gland. The patient was treated for a suspected pheochromocytoma. However, his blood pressure was not responsive to alpha-blockade. Blood pressure was controlled with a calcium channel blocker and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. A complete surgical resection of the mass was performed. Postoperatively, his blood pressure normalized and he did not require antihypertensives. On pathological examination, the tumor tissue stained negative for chromogranin and positive for renin. The final diagnosis was renin-secreting adrenal corticoadenoma, an extremely rare adrenal tumor not previously reported in a pediatric patient. Malignant hypertension due to a renin-secreting tumor may need to be distinguished from a pheochromocytoma if alpha-adrenergic blockade is ineffective.

  11. A rare case of Ganglioneuroblastoma Encapsulated in Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Nathália Vieira; Marques de Oliveira, Luísa Coelho; Cortez, Paulo José Oliveira; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Garner, David Mathew; Irulegui, Roseane de Souza Candido; Moreira, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro

    Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma are separate diseases and a rare combination in which the diagnosis can only be confirmed by pathological examination after tumor excision. We reported here a case of ganglioneuroblastoma encapsulated in pheochromocytoma. The patient is a woman, 73 years old, hypertensive, with hypothyroidism, associated for 15 years with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, which had frequent complaints of low back pain. She underwent magnetic resonance and the findings were consistent with the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. After surgery, anatomic, pathologic and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma composed by small ganglioneuroblastoma representation with the identification of small focus of infiltration of the adrenal capsule and adipose tissue by pheochromocytoma. This rare association can instigate the discussion of methods of diagnosis, more effective and more appropriate treatments for each patient.

  12. The spectrum of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients with neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kalff, V.; Shapiro, B.; Lloyd, R.; Sisson, J.C.; Holland, K.; Nakajo, M.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1982-11-01

    We have found an appreciable number of pheochromocytomas in patients with neurofibromatosis and concurrent hypertension (ten of 18 cases). At diagnosis, the patient age range was 15 to 62 years, the clinical appearance of the neurofibromatosis did not predict who would and who would not have pheochromocytomas, but the age at diagnosis was helpful in that our younger patients tended to have causes of hypertension other than pheochromocytoma. However, several causes of hypertension may coexist. The biochemical findings were highly diagnostic. The pheochromocytomas secreted epinephrine as well as norepinephrine and resided in or next to the adrenal gland. Where pheochromocytoma is the cause of hypertension, its resection generally results in a better control of hypertension than that obtained in patients whose BPs were elevated from other unknown causes.

  13. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: molecular testing and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Burnichon, Nelly; Buffet, Alexandre; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare tumours, strongly associated with inherited susceptibility gene mutations, and presenting limited therapeutic options for patients with metastatic disease. This review discusses the recent developments in the characterization of PPGL genetic heterogeneity and associated tumorigenesis pathways, together with their potential clinical relevance. The mutational landscape of PPGL is now well defined, especially with the contribution of next-generation sequencing. Up to 70% of these tumours harbour a germline or a somatic mutation in one of the numerous predisposing genes. In parallel, 'omics' analyses have identified mutation-linked subsets of tumours substantially associated with molecular signatures suggesting new therapeutic targets for patients with a malignant transformation of the disease. In the near future, extended molecular testing of PPGL could be used to determine therapeutic approaches and assess diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Considering the current development of next-generation sequencing-based genetic screening, this technology appears as a good option to improve both PPGL molecular diagnosis and patient management.

  14. Spectrum and prevalence of FP/TMEM127 gene mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Schiavi, Francesca; Cascon, Alberto; Qin, Yuejuan; Inglada-Pérez, Lucia; King, Elizabeth E; Toledo, Rodrigo A; Ercolino, Tonino; Rapizzi, Elena; Ricketts, Christopher J; Mori, Luigi; Giacchè, Mara; Mendola, Antonella; Taschin, Elisa; Boaretto, Francesca; Loli, Paola; Iacobone, Maurizio; Rossi, Gian-Paolo; Biondi, Bernadette; Lima-Junior, José Viana; Kater, Claudio E; Bex, Marie; Vikkula, Miikka; Grossman, Ashley B; Gruber, Stephen B; Barontini, Marta; Persu, Alexandre; Castellano, Maurizio; Toledo, Sergio P A; Maher, Eamonn R; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Dahia, Patricia L M

    2010-12-15

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are genetically heterogeneous neural crest-derived neoplasms. We recently identified germline mutations of the novel transmembrane-encoding gene FP/TMEM127 in familial and sporadic pheochromocytomas consistent with a tumor suppressor effect. To examine the prevalence and spectrum of FP/TMEM127 mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas and to test the effect of mutations in vitro. We sequenced the FP/TMEM127 gene in 990 individuals with pheochromocytomas and/or paragangliomas, including 898 previously unreported cases without mutations in other susceptibility genes from 8 independent worldwide referral centers between January 2009 and June 2010. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based method was developed to screen for large gene deletions in 545 of these samples. Confocal microscopy of 5 transfected mutant proteins was used to determine their subcellular localization. The frequency and type of FP/TMEM127 mutation or deletion was assessed and correlated with clinical variables; the subcellular localization of 5 overexpressed mutants was compared with wild-type FP/TMEM127 protein. We identified 19 potentially pathogenic FP/TMEM127 germline mutations in 20 independent families, but no large deletions were detected. All mutation carriers had adrenal tumors, including 7 bilateral (P = 2.7 × 10(-4)) and/or with familial disease (5 of 20 samples; P = .005). The median age at disease onset in the FP/TMEM127 mutation group was similar to that of patients without a mutation (41.5 vs 45 years, respectively; P = .54). The most common presentation was that of a single benign adrenal tumor in patients older than 40 years. Malignancy was seen in 1 mutation carrier (5%). Expression of 5 novel FP/TMEM127 mutations in cell lines revealed diffuse localization of the mutant proteins in contrast with the discrete multiorganelle distribution of wild-type TMEM127. Germline mutations of FP/TMEM127 were associated with pheochromocytoma but

  15. Prevention and management of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients with hematological malignancies treated with anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Law, Man Fai; Ho, Rita; Cheung, Carmen K M; Tam, Lydia H P; Ma, Karen; So, Kent C Y; Ip, Bonaventure; So, Jacqueline; Lai, Jennifer; Ng, Joyce; Tam, Tommy H C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation can be severe and potentially fatal, but is preventable. HBV reactivation is most commonly reported in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy, especially rituximab-containing therapy for hematological malignancies and those receiving stem cell transplantation. All patients with hematological malignancies receiving anticancer therapy should be screened for active or resolved HBV infection by blood tests for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Patients found to be positive for HBsAg should be given prophylactic antiviral therapy to prevent HBV reactivation. For patients with resolved HBV infection, no standard strategy has yet been established to prevent HBV reactivation. There are usually two options. One is pre-emptive therapy guided by serial HBV DNA monitoring, whereby antiviral therapy is given as soon as HBV DNA becomes detectable. However, there is little evidence regarding the optimal interval and period of monitoring. An alternative approach is prophylactic antiviral therapy, especially for patients receiving high-risk therapy such as rituximab, newer generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, obinutuzumab or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This strategy may effectively prevent HBV reactivation and avoid the inconvenience of repeated HBV DNA monitoring. Entecavir or tenofovir are preferred over lamivudine as prophylactic therapy. Although there is no well-defined guideline on the optimal duration of prophylactic therapy, there is growing evidence to recommend continuing prophylactic antiviral therapy for at least 12 mo after cessation of chemotherapy, and even longer for those who receive rituximab or who had high serum HBV DNA levels before the start of immunosuppressive therapy. Many novel agents have recently become available for the treatment of hematological malignancies, and these agents may be associated with HBV reactivation. Although

  16. [Updated statement by the German Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology (GKJR) on the FDA's report regarding malignancies in anti-TNF-treated patients from Aug. 4, 2009].

    PubMed

    Horneff, G; Hospach, T; Dannecker, G; Föll, D; Haas, J P; Girschick, H J; Huppertz, H I; Keitzer, R; Laws, H J; Michels, H; Minden, K; Trauzeddel, R

    2010-08-01

    TNF inhibitors and other biologicals have greatly expanded the therapeutic options for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). While the efficacy of etanercept and adalimumab has been proven in randomized controlled clinical trials, their long-term safety remains the subject of ongoing investigations. Reports of leukaemia and tumours in children and adolescents treated with etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab have raised questions about an increased risk for malignancies, with lymphoma accounting for the largest group at 50% of all 48 malignancies reported by the FDA.Consequently, TNF inhibitors should be indicated under careful consideration of individual risk factors, such as increased family occurrence of malignancies, or pre-treatment with carcinogenic substances such as cyclophosphamide. This is particularly true for non-approved substances, and non-approved indications, and for combination therapy of TNF inhibitors with immunosuppressive drugs. On the other hand, however, treatment should not be stopped or started in any patient in whom treatment is necessary due to the current knowledge. Adequate patient information, surveillance and documentation of treatment in the registry of the GKJR is strongly recommended.

  17. Prognostic utility of serum neopterin in obstructive jaundice secondary to malignant lesions treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Betul; Parildar, Zuhal; Bozkaya, Halil; Barutcuoglu, Burcu; Cinar, Celal; Basol, Gunes; Parildar, Mustafa; Ozmen, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    To perform biochemical profiles before and after percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and investigate the potential utility of measuring C-reactive protein (CRP), circulating cytokines, and neopterin, a marker of cell-mediated immunity, to predict outcomes of patients with obstructive jaundice. In a prospective study, 47 patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to malignant lesions were evaluated before, at the fifth hour after, and on the fifth day after PTBD for neopterin, nitrate, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, CRP levels, and liver function. Neopterin levels on day 5 after PTBD were significantly higher than the levels before treatment and at the fifth hour. However, nitrate, cytokine, white blood cell, albumin, and creatinine levels were not significantly different. On the fifth day after PTBD, CRP levels were significantly higher and total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase values were lower than the before-treatment values. Seven patients (15%) died within 30 days after drainage. On the fifth day after PTBD, neopterin, IL-6, IL-10, and creatinine levels were significantly higher and albumin levels were lower in the early mortality group. The performance characteristics of neopterin and creatinine were statistically significant in predicting mortality. Neopterin levels increased after PTBD, indicating cellular immune activation. The nonsignificant change in cytokine levels may be related to low enduring release in malignancy. The extremely elevated levels of neopterin and creatinine after PTBD might serve as harbingers of early death in patients with cholestasis secondary to malignant lesions. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pheochromocytoma resection: Current concepts in anesthetic management

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishna, Harish

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma represents very significant challenges to the anesthetist, especially when undiagnosed. These chromaffin tissue tumors are not uncommon in anesthetic practice and have varied manifestations. The perioperative management of these tumors has improved remarkably over the years, in conjunction with the evolution of surgical techniques (open laparotomy to laparoscopic techniques and now to robotic approaches in the present day). This review attempts to comprehensively address the intraoperative and postoperative issues in the management of these challenging tumors with an emphasis on hemodynamic monitoring and anesthetic technique. PMID:26330708

  19. Combining CAR T cells and the Bcl-2 family apoptosis inhibitor ABT-737 for treating B-cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, H; Karlsson, S C H; Lindqvist, A C; Fransson, M; Paul-Wetterberg, G; Nilsson, B; Essand, M; Nilsson, K; Frisk, P; Jernberg-Wiklund, H; Loskog, A; Loskog, S I A

    2013-07-01

    B-cell malignancies upregulate the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family inhibitors of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, making them therapy resistant. However, small-molecule inhibitors of Bcl-2 family members such as ABT-737 restore a functional apoptosis pathway in cancer cells, and its oral analog ABT-263 (Navitoclax) has entered clinical trials. Gene engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells also show promise in B-cell malignancy, and as they induce apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway, we hypothesized that small-molecule inhibitors of the Bcl-2 family may potentiate the efficacy of CAR T cells by engaging both apoptosis pathways. CAR T cells targeting CD19 were generated from healthy donors as well as from pre-B-ALL (precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia) patients and tested together with ABT-737 to evaluate apoptosis induction in five B-cell tumor cell lines. The CAR T cells were effective even if the cell lines exhibited different apoptosis resistance profiles, as shown by analyzing the expression of apoptosis inhibitors by PCR and western blot. When combining T-cell and ABT-737 therapy simultaneously, or with ABT-737 as a presensitizer, tumor cell apoptosis was significantly increased. In conclusion, the apoptosis inducer ABT-737 enhanced the efficacy of CAR T cells and could be an interesting drug candidate to potentiate T-cell therapy.

  20. Pheochromocytoma diagnosed pathologically with previous negative serum markers.

    PubMed

    Heavner, Matthew G; Krane, Louis S; Winters, Shira M; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2015-10-01

    Patients presenting with adrenal masses require workup with catecholamine or metabolite measurements to rule out pheochromocytoma. There is a select portion of patients with marker negative pheochromocytoma. The aim of this study is to compare patient characteristics and presentations between marker positive and marker negative tumors. We performed an IRB-approved retrospective chart review of 88 cases of pheochromocytoma excised at our institution from 1995 to 2013. We considered any abnormal elevation in diagnostic test to be marker-positive. Seventy-eight cases had laboratory results available. Among these, seven had no elevations in laboratory testing. There was no difference in age or tumor size, but marker-negative patients had higher BMI than marker-positive patients. Marker negative patients were more likely to present with vertigo/dizziness (P = 0.003). Neither was more likely to have a genetic syndrome associated with risk of pheochromocytoma. Marker-negative pheochromocytoma is uncommon, representing 9% of cases in our series. Of patients with adrenal masses or presentation suggesting catecholamine excess with normal labs, those with vertigo/dizziness may warrant a metaiodobenzylguanidine scan or repeat testing to avoid missing pheochromocytoma. Clinicians may need a high degree of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in patients with negative testing and elevated BMI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

  2. Phase II Study of High-Dose [131I]Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Gonias, Sara; Goldsby, Robert; Matthay, Katherine K.; Hawkins, Randall; Price, David; Huberty, John; Damon, Lloyd; Linker, Charles; Sznewajs, Aimee; Shiboski, Steve; Fitzgerald, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-dose [131I]metaiodobenzylguanidine ([131I]MIBG) in the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL). Methods Fifty patients with metastatic PHEO or PGL, age 10 to 64 years, were treated with [131I]MIBG doses ranging from 492 to 1,160 mCi (median, 12 mCi/kg). Cumulative [131I]MIBG administered ranged from 492 to 3,191 mCi. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells were collected and cryopreserved before treatment with [131I]MIBG greater than 12 mCi/kg or with a total dose greater than 500 mCi. Sixty-nine [131I]MIBG infusions were given, which included infusions to 35 patients treated once and infusions to 15 patients who received two or three treatments. Response was evaluated by [123I]MIBG scans, computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, urinary catecholamines/metanephrines, and chromogranin A. Results The overall complete response (CR) plus partial response (PR) rate in 49 evaluable patients was 22%. Additionally, 35% of patients achieved a CR or PR in at least one measure of response without progressive disease, and 8% of patients maintained stable disease for greater than 12 months. Thirty-five percent of patients experienced progressive disease within 1 year after therapy. The estimated 5-year overall survival rate was 64%. Toxicities included grades 3 to 4 neutropenia (87%) and thrombocytopenia (83%). Grades 3 to 4 nonhematologic toxicity included acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 2), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n = 2), pulmonary embolism (n = 1), fever with neutropenia (n = 7), acute hypertension (n = 10), infection (n = 2), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 2), and hypogonadism (n = 4). Conclusion Although serious toxicity may occur, the survival and response rates achieved with high-dose [131I]MIBG suggest its utility in the management of selected patients with metastatic PHEO and PGL. PMID:19636009

  3. The Mount Sinai clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Said, Meena; Gospin, Rebekah; Babic, Nikolina; Brown, Karen; Geer, Eliza B; Kostakoglu, Lale; Krakoff, Lawrence R; Leibowitz, Andrew B; Mehta, Lakshmi; Muller, Simone; Owen, Randall P; Pertsemlidis, David S; Wilck, Eric; Xiao, Guang-Qian; Levine, Alice C; Inabnet, William B

    2015-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas are complex tumors that require a comprehensive and systematic management plan orchestrated by a multidisciplinary team. To achieve these ends, The Mount Sinai Adrenal Center hosted an interdisciplinary retreat where experts in adrenal disorders assembled with the aim of developing a clinical pathway for the management of pheochromocytomas. The result was a consensus for the diagnosis, perioperative management, and postoperative management of pheochromocytomas, with specific recommendations from our team of adrenal experts, as well as a review of the current literature. Our clinical pathway can be applied by other institutions directly or may serve as a guide for institution-specific management.

  4. Childhood pheochromocytoma in a survivor of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yoshiko; Fujimaru, Rika; Ishii, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Sako, Masahiro; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor are both neural crest-derived tumors. The former is usually benign and develops mainly in adulthood and the latter brain tumor mainly occurs in childhood and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who developed pheochromocytoma after more than 10 years of complete remission of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Thus far, there have been no reports of childhood cancer survivors who developed pheochromocytoma. This quite rare occurrence of two tumors in a single patient may imply some unidentified linkage or common genetic background.

  5. Primary hepatic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor successfully treated with combination therapy: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hae Il; Lee, Hyoung Uk; Ahn, Tae Sung; Lee, Jong Eun; Lee, Hyun Yong; Cho, Hyon Doek; Lee, Sang Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in a young female patient, not associated with neurofibromatosis type-I is extremely rare in the liver. A 33-year-old female was admitted with a right flank pain for a weak. The CT scan showed 12.5-cm-sized mass located at the right hepatic lobe. At laparotomy, about 20.0-cm-sized mass was on the right hepatic lobe with attachment to right diaphragmatic pleura. Right hepatic lobe and adherent part of diaphragmatic pleura were resected. On histology and immunohistochemistry, it was diagnosed MPNST. Adjuvant radiotherapy for the right diaphragmatic pleura and adjuvant chemotherapy with adriamycin, ifosfamide and cisplatin were sequentially performed. The prognosis of MPNST is generally poor and it is associated with a highly aggressive course of recurrence, metastases, and death. Our case is probably a first report about combination therapy. PMID:27904856

  6. Metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: focus on therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Plouin, P-F; Fitzgerald, P; Rich, T; Ayala-Ramirez, M; Perrier, N D; Baudin, E; Jimenez, C

    2012-05-01

    Metastatic pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare and challenging tumors. The tumor burden, combined with excessive catecholamine production, predispose to a broad spectrum of complications that range from spinal cord compression to any organ damage, all of which may lead to decreased quality of life and overall survival. Current therapies include surgery, systemic chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical agents. Surgery is often a preferred therapy because it may cure or allow a long-term remission in patients with locoregional or isolated resectable distant metastases. Additionally, surgery can palliate symptoms related to tumor burden or catecholamine excess. However, in patients for whom surgery is not an option, systemic chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical agents are preferred options. Systemic chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical agents such as 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) may cause partial responses or stabilization of disease with better blood pressure control and symptomatic and performance status improvement. However, as these therapies are only palliative, patients' quality of life and personal preferences should always be considered. The recognition of molecular pathways involved in the pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumorigenesis has driven the development of new therapeutic options. Agents such as tyrosine kinase, MAPK, PI3K, or hypoxia inducible factor inhibitors, alone or in combination, may represent novel therapeutic strategies that could be evaluated in prospective clinical trials. Transcriptional profiling and the development of personalized cancer medicine will help to pave the way for more specific therapeutic approaches and combinations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: Karnofsky score and neurological score in patients with recurrent gloms treated with Photofrin PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Yang, Victor X.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

    2002-06-01

    In our previous phase II studies we treated 112 patients with malignant brain tumors with 2-mg/kg Photofrin i.v. and intra-operative cavitary PDT. We concluded that PDT was safe in patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent supratentorial malignant gliomas. Pathology, performance grade and light dose were significantly related to survival time. In selected patients when an adequate light dose was used survival time improved. The surgical mortality rate was less than 3%. [spie 2000] We have initiated two randomized prospective trials - the first, to determine if the addition of PDT to standard therapy [surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy] prolongs the survival of patients with newly diagnosed malignant astrocytic tumors; and the second, to determine whether high light dose PDT [120 J/cm2] is superior to low light dose PDT [40 J/cm2] in patients with recurrent malignant astrocytic tumors. To date, 158 patients have been recruited - 72 to the newly diagnosed malignant glioma study and 86 to the recurrent glioma study. In the recurrent glioma study we compared the pre-operative KS and elements of the neurological examination [speech function, visual fields, cognitive function, sensory examination and gait] to the post-operative examinations at hospital discharge. The means were compared by paired student-t test. The KS in 86 of 88 patients with recurrent gliomas were assessable. The mean [s.d.] preoperative and post-operative KS were 82+/- 14 and 79+/- 17, respectively [p=0.003]. The mean decline in KS, although statistically significant, was small and of no clinical importance. The median Karnofsky score changed from 90 to 80. The KS improved in 8 patients; their post-operative average length of stay (alos) was =9.7 days. There was no change in 47 [alos=8.3], a decline of 10 points in 24 [aloc=13.4] and declined by more than 10 points in 7 [alos=23.3]. Three of these 7 patients who had a decline of >10 points improved in follow-up but did not reach their

  8. Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) diagnosis and therapy of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: current problems, critical issues and presentation of a sample case.

    PubMed

    Castellani, M R; Aktolun, C; Buzzoni, R; Seregni, E; Chiesa, C; Maccauro, M; Aliberti, G L; Vellani, C; Lorenzoni, A; Bombardieri, E

    2013-06-01

    Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) since 1980's. Despite increasing amount of experience with iodine-131 (I-131) MIBG therapy, many important questions still exist. In this article, we will discuss the current problems learned from clinical experience in diagnosis and therapy of PHEO/PGL with I-131 MIBG, and present a sample case to emphasize the critical aspects for an optimal treatment strategy.

  9. Detection of soluble EpCAM (sEpCAM) in malignant ascites predicts poor overall survival in patients treated with catumaxomab.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Andreas; Braicu, Ioana; Untergasser, Gerold; Nassir, Mani; Fong, Dominic; Botta, Laura; Gastl, Guenther; Fiegl, Heidi; Zeimet, Alain; Sehouli, Jalid; Spizzo, Gilbert

    2015-09-22

    EpCAM is an attractive target for cancer therapy and the EpCAM-specific antibody catumaxomab has been used for intraperitoneal treatment of EpCAM-positive cancer patients with malignant ascites. New prognostic markers are necessary to select patients that mostly benefit from catumaxomab. Recent data showed that soluble EpCAM (sEpCAM) is capable to block the effect of catumaxomab in vitro. This exploratory retrospective analysis was performed on archived ascites samples to evaluate the predictive role of sEpCAM in catumaxomab-treated patients. Sixty-six catumaxomab-treated patients with an available archived ascites sample were included in this study and tested for sEpCAM by sandwich ELISA. All probes were sampled before treatment start and all patients received at least one catumaxomab infusion. Overall survival, puncture-free survival and time to next puncture were compared between sEpCAM-positive and -negative patients. We detected sEpCAM in ascites samples of 9 patients (13.6%). These patients showed a significantly shorter overall survival. The prognostic significance of sEpCAM in ascites was particularly strong in patients with ovarian cancer. Puncture-free survival and time to next puncture were not significantly different between sEpCAM-positive and -negative patients. We propose sEpCAM in malignant ascites as a potential predictive marker in cancer patients treated with catumaxomab. Prospective studies with larger patients samples are urgently needed to confirm these findings and studies testing dose-intensified catumaxomab in patients with sEpCAM-positive ascites should be envisaged.

  10. Pheochromocytoma with inferior vena cava thrombosis: An unusual association.

    PubMed

    Kota, Sunil K; Kota, Siva K; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit K; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2012-04-01

    Pheochromocytomas have been described in association with vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of headache, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and hypertension. For last several days, he was having a dull aching abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. An inferior vena cava (IVC) venogram via the right jugular vein demonstrated occlusion of the IVC inferior to the right atrium. Surgical removal of pheochromocytoma was done, followed by anticoagulant treatment for IVC thrombosis, initially with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, and then with oral warfarin, resulting in restoration of patency. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of pheochromocytoma in IVC thrombosis has not been reported so far from India. Possible mechanisms of such an involvement are discussed.

  11. Unexpected pheochromocytoma presenting as a pancreatic tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YI-HSUAN; LIAW, WEN-JINN; KUO, CHANG-PO; WU, ZHI-FU; CHERNG, CHEN-HWAN; YU, JYH-CHERNG; HORNG, HUEI-CHI; HUANG, SHUN-TSUNG

    2013-01-01

    A 54-year-old female presented with a large pancreatic tumor of the tail during a regular physical examination. The patient underwent surgical intervention and the surgeon identified that the tumor originated from the retroperitoneal region. Markedly severe hemodynamic fluctuations occurred during the manipulation of the tumor and continued to occur subsequent to the tumor being removed. The vital signs were adequately managed and the surgery was successful without complications. The patient was discharged without any sequelae days later. The pathology report indicated a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Unexpected pheochromocytoma may lead to a fatal hypertensive crisis with catastrophic sequelae during surgery. The peri-operative management of pheochromocytoma remains a complicated challenge that requires intensive pre-operative preparation and vigilant peri-operative care. For surgeons and anesthesiologists who may encounter an unexpected hypertensive crisis during abdominal tumor surgery, undiagnosed pheochromocytoma should always be considered. PMID:24137420

  12. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with auto- and allo-SCT for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Braamse, A M J; Gerrits, M M J G; van Meijel, B; Visser, O; van Oppen, P; Boenink, A D; Cuijpers, P; Huijgens, P C; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2012-06-01

    Identifying factors that predict health-related quality of life (QOL) following hematopoietic SCT, is important in estimating patients' abilities to adjust to the consequences of their disease and treatment. As the studies that have been published on this subject are scattered, the present study aimed to systematically review prognostic factors for health-related QOL after auto- and allo-SCT in hematological malignancies. A systematic, computerized search in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library was conducted from 2002 to June 2010. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using an adaptation of Hayden's criteria list. Qualitative data synthesis was performed to determine the strength of the scientific evidence. In all, 35 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Strong-moderate evidence was found for GVHD, conditioning regimen, being female, younger age, receiving less social support and pre-transplant psychological distress as predictors of various aspects of health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. The results of this review may help transplant teams in selecting patients at risk for experiencing a diminished health-related QOL following hematopoietic SCT. Follow-up treatment can be provided in order to promote QOL.

  13. Reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy due to pheochromocytoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Satendra, Milan; de Jesus, Cláudia; Bordalo e Sá, Armando L; Rosário, Luís; Rocha, José; Bicha Castelo, Henrique; Correia, Maria José; Nunes Diogo, António

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor originating from chromaffin tissue. It commonly presents with symptoms and signs of catecholamine excess, such as hypertension, tachycardia, headache and sweating. Cardiovascular manifestations include catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, which may present as severe left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. We report a case of pheochromocytoma which was diagnosed following investigation of dilated cardiomyopathy. We highlight the dramatic symptomatic improvement and reversal of cardiomyopathy, with recovery of left ventricular function after treatment.

  14. [Clinical study of 38 cases of pheochromocytoma --correlation between the instability of intraoperative blood pressure and 24-hour urinary vanillylmandelic acid].

    PubMed

    Onuki, Tatsuaki; Yamagishi, Takuya; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Koutaro; Kondo, Keiichi; Nakaigawa, Noboru; Saito, Kazuo; Noguchi, Kazumi; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2007-07-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor of chromaffin tissues most commonly arising from the adrenal medulla. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with pheochromocytoma who underwent surgical treatment between 1977 and 2004 at our Yokohama City University Medical Center and Yokohama City University Hospital. Twenty two patients (57.9%) were females and 16 (42.1%) were males. The most frequent symptoms were headache (58%). One patient had bilateral adrenal tumors and pathological examination revealed malignant pheochromocytoma. Six patients had an extra-adrenal tumor and in 2 patients the tumor occurred in the urinary bladder. Twelve patients (31.6%) had sustained hypertension, 21 patients (55.3%) had paroxysmal hypertension and 5 patients (13.1%) remained normotensive. The 24-h urinary total metanephrines and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) were the most sensitive biochemical tests for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The sensitivity of urinary total metanephrines was 92.0% for all the patients and was 92.3% for the patients without paroxysmal hypertension. Fifteen patients had intraoperative hypertensive reactions in the surgical manipulation or hypotension after tumor resection. This group had more urinary excretion of VMA before surgery, compared with that with stable intraoperative blood pressure (p < 0.005).

  15. Combined Treatment With 131I-MIBG and Sunitinib Induces Remission in a Patient With Metastatic Paraganglioma Due to Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome From an SDHB Mutation.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; McCann, Karey; McEwan, Alexander J B; Sawyer, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    A 22-year-old woman with rapidly progressing metastatic paraganglioma due to hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome from an SDHB mutation, who recurred after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, was found to be MIBG avid. She was treated with 2 I-MIBG treatments and concurrent sunitinib, achieving a complete response. She was in full remission for 9 months before developing bone metastases.

  16. Cytogenetic and molecular predictors of response in patients with myeloid malignancies without del[5q] treated with lenalidomide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While lenalidomide (LEN) shows high efficacy in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del[5q], responses can be also seen in patients presenting without del[5q]. We hypothesized that improved detection of chromosomal abnormalities with new karyotyping tools may better predict response to LEN. Design and methods We have studied clinical, molecular and cytogenetic features of 42 patients with MDS, myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), MDS/MPN overlap syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) without del[5q] by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) who underwent therapy with LEN. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping marginally increased the diagnostic yield over MC, detecting 2/42 (4.8%) additional cases with del[5q], one of whom were responded to LEN. Responses were more often observed in patients with a normal karyotype by MC (60% vs abnormal MC; 17%, p = .08) and those with gain of chromosome 8 material by either of all 3 karyotyping methods (83% vs all other chromosomal abnormalities; 44% p = .11). However, 5 out of those 6 patients received combined LEN/AZA therapy and it may also suggest those with gain of chromosome 8 material respond well to AZA. The addition of FISH or SNP-A did not improve the predictive value of normal cytogenetics by MC. Mutational analysis of TET2, UTX, CBL, EZH2, ASXL1, TP53, RAS, IDH1/2, and DNMT-3A was performed on 21 of 41 patients, and revealed 13 mutations in 11 patients, but did not show any molecular markers of responsiveness to LEN. Conclusions Normal karyotype and gain of chromosome 8 material was predictive of response to LEN in non-del[5q] patients with myeloid malignancies. PMID:22390313

  17. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Walter, Vonn; Danilova, Ludmila; Robertson, A Gordon; Johnson, Amy R; Lichtenberg, Tara M; Murray, Bradley A; Ghayee, Hans K; Else, Tobias; Ling, Shiyun; Jefferys, Stuart R; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Wenz, Brandon; Korpershoek, Esther; Amelio, Antonio L; Makowski, Liza; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Giordano, Thomas J; Asa, Sylvia L; Tischler, Arthur S; Pacak, Karel; Nathanson, Katherine L; Wilkerson, Matthew D

    2017-02-13

    We report a comprehensive molecular characterization of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs), a rare tumor type. Multi-platform integration revealed that PCCs/PGLs are driven by diverse alterations affecting multiple genes and pathways. Pathogenic germline mutations occurred in eight PCC/PGL susceptibility genes. We identified CSDE1 as a somatically mutated driver gene, complementing four known drivers (HRAS, RET, EPAS1, and NF1). We also discovered fusion genes in PCCs/PGLs, involving MAML3, BRAF, NGFR, and NF1. Integrated analysis classified PCCs/PGLs into four molecularly defined groups: a kinase signaling subtype, a pseudohypoxia subtype, a Wnt-altered subtype, driven by MAML3 and CSDE1, and a cortical admixture subtype. Correlates of metastatic PCCs/PGLs included the MAML3 fusion gene. This integrated molecular characterization provides a comprehensive foundation for developing PCC/PGL precision medicine.

  18. [Preoperative α-receptor block in patients with pheochromocytoma? Against].

    PubMed

    Groeben, H

    2012-06-01

    Perioperative mortality regarding the resection of catecholamine-producing tumors has been markedly improved. This improvement has been attributed to the preoperative treatment with α-receptor blocking agents. An α-receptor block is still recommended prior to the resection of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. However, the effect has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. Despite an assumed effective α-receptor block, many centers report systolic blood pressure increases beyond 200 mmHg. Out of 200 consecutive resections of catecholamine-producing tumors, 73 patients without an α-receptor blockade were treated. There was no significant difference in the maximum systolic blood pressure or in the incidence of hypertensive episodes. There was no correlation between the individual dose of phenoxybenzamine and the maximum blood pressure. Overall it can be concluded that with the improvement of surgical techniques, diagnostic tools and highly effective short acting substances to control hemodynamics intraoperatively, the question must be raised whether a time-consuming, unreliable pretreatment burdened with significant side effects is still required.

  19. Organ-Sparing Marrow-Targeted Irradiation Before Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-30

    Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Long-term risk of second malignancy in survivors of Hodgkin's disease treated during adolescence or young adulthood.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F E; Klokman, W J; Veer, M B; Hagenbeek, A; Krol, A D; Vetter, U A; Schaapveld, M; van Heerde, P; Burgers, J M; Somers, R; Aleman, B M

    2000-02-01

    To quantify the long-term risk of second primary cancers (SCs) in patients diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease (HD) during adolescence or young adulthood. The risk of SCs was assessed in 1,253 patients diagnosed with HD before the age of 40 years and treated in two Dutch cancer centers between 1966 and 1986. The median follow-up duration was 14.1 years. In all, 137 patients developed SCs, compared with 19.4 cases expected on the basis of incidence rates in the general population (relative risk [RR] = 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 5.9 to 8.3). The 25-year actuarial risk of SC overall was 27.7%. The RR of solid tumors increased greatly with younger age at the first treatment of HD, not only for breast cancer but also for all other solid tumors, with RRs of 4.9, 6.9, and 12.7 for patients first treated at ages 31 to 39 years, 21 to 30 years, and treated at the age of 20 years or younger, the RR of developing a solid tumor before the age of 40 years was significantly greater than the RR of solid tumor development at ages 40 to 49 years (RR = 27.9 v RR = 4.2; P =.0001). Patients who received salvage chemotherapy had significantly greater risk of solid cancers other than breast cancer than did patients whose treatment was restricted to initial radiotherapy or initial combined-modality treatment (RR = 9.4 and 4.7, respectively; P =. 004). After more than 20 years of follow-up, the risk of solid tumors is still much greater in survivors of HD than in the population at large. Reassuringly, the greatly increased risk of solid tumors in patients who were young (

  1. Bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma with a germline L790F mutation in the RET oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jun Won; Park, Youn Joon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    About ten percent of pheochromocytomas are associated with familial syndrome. Hereditary pheochromocytoma has characteristics of early onset, multifocality and bilaterality. We experienced a case of 44-year-old man with bilateral pheochromocytoma without evidence of medullary thyroid cancer. Genetic test detected a L790F germline mutation of RET oncogene. The author found a necessity for genetic tests in cases of young-age, bilateral pheochromocytoma. PMID:22403753

  2. Left Ventricular Noncompaction Combined With Epinephrine-Secreted Pheochromocytoma Inducing Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Han, Ling; Luo, Jing-Gang; Chen, Xin; Hu, Wen-Ze; Chen, Li-Wei; Xin, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Ming; Duan, Jun; Zou, Feng-Jun; Teng, Xu; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) are both rare diseases. In this patient, the long duration of the catecholamine-secreted pheochromocytoma caused myocardial ischemia, pressure overload, and hypertrophy, resulting in the onset of heart failure (HF). The LVNC might be associated with the acute attack of HF induced by the pheochromocytoma. This is the first case reporting LVNC in combination with HF secondary to pheochromocytoma.

  3. Novel management of pruritus in patients treated with IL-2 for metastatic renal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Baig, Mahadi; Rusciano, Valerie; Dutcher, Janice P

    2010-01-01

    Pruritus has been a side effect, associated with several biologic response modifiers, most commonly interferons and interleukins. Reports of pruritus are anecdotal and have not been a focus of attention. Itch fibers are essentially pain fibers, and gabapentin is used for neuropathic pain. This has led to our formal investigation of gabapentin for interleukin-2 (IL-2)-related pruritus. Clinical records of 54 patients treated with high-dose IL-2 from January 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed. Among 30 patients, who complained of pruritus, 17 patients were given gabapentin. These 17 patients were interviewed using a specific IRB approved questionnaire, which quantified pruritus according to CTCAE v3.0 criteria. According to CTCAE scale, the mean pruritus before gabapentin was 2.41, which decreased to 0.65 after gabapentin treatment and was statistically significant (P<0.0005). IL-2 therapy is frequently associated with varying degrees of peripheral eosinophilia. Relationship between pruritus and the degree of eosinophilia was also analyzed. Patients grouped into mild eosinophilia (eosinophil count<1500/mL) and moderate to severe eosinophilia (eosinophil count>1500/mL) during HDIL-2 therapy was evaluated for pruritus. χ² test for independence of variable between degree of eosinophilia and pruritus was 0.714 with no statistically significant correlation. To summarize, gabapentin is used in our facility with excellent response against pruritus. Hypothesizing the likely mechanism of pruritus in patients treated with IL-2, we suggest that gabapentin should be considered an effective and safe treatment in IL-2-related pruritus, and this concept could be applied to pruritus encountered in similar clinical settings.

  4. Whole-exome sequencing identifies somatic ATRX mutations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Lauren; Khare, Sanika; Wubbenhorst, Bradley; DeSloover, Daniel; D'Andrea, Kurt; Merrill, Shana; Cho, Nam Woo; Greenberg, Roger A; Else, Tobias; Montone, Kathleen; LiVolsi, Virginia; Fraker, Douglas; Daber, Robert; Cohen, Debbie L; Nathanson, Katherine L

    2015-01-21

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are the solid tumour type most commonly associated with an inherited susceptibility syndrome. However, very little is known about the somatic genetic changes leading to tumorigenesis or malignant transformation. Here we perform whole-exome sequencing on a discovery set of 21 PCC/PGL and identify somatic ATRX mutations in two SDHB-associated tumours. Targeted sequencing of a separate validation set of 103 PCC/PGL identifies somatic ATRX mutations in 12.6% of PCC/PGL. PCC/PGL with somatic ATRX mutations are associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and clinically aggressive behaviour. This finding suggests that loss of ATRX, an SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling protein, is important in the development of clinically aggressive PCC/PGL.

  5. Changes in Body Mass Index in Pheochromocytoma Patients Following Adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Spyroglou, Ariadni; Adolf, Christian; Hahner, Stefanie; Quinkler, Marcus; Ladurner, Roland; Reincke, Martin; Beuschlein, Felix

    2017-03-01

    Catecholamine excess from pheochromocytoma results in cardiovascular symptoms such as arterial hypertension and tachycardia and induces metabolic alterations including glucose intolerance and increase in resting metabolic rate. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of surgical cure of pheochromocytoma on body-mass-index and the correlation of body-mass-index changes to preoperative endocrine parameters. Pheochromocytoma patients from the Munich ENSAT Registry were matched (1:2) for age and gender to patients from the German Conn's Registry, who had undergone surgery for aldosterone-producing-adenomas. Thereby, 43 pheochromocytoma patients (17 males/26 females) and 86 aldosterone-producing-adenoma patients were analyzed for body-mass-index, blood pressure, and catecholamine levels before and one year after adrenalectomy. Seventy-four percent of pheochromocytoma patients were hypertensive preoperatively and 48% one year postoperatively. Systolic blood pressure did not differ significantly in pre- and postoperative measurements whereas diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced over time. Moreover, pheochromocytoma patients gained body weight (p<0.001) one year following adrenalectomy accompanied by significant increases in body-mass-index, whereas aldosterone-producing adenoma patients displayed a slight weight loss. Despite weight gain, diagnosis of diabetes mellitus dropped from 9 of 43 investigated pheochromocytoma patients at baseline to 4 at follow-up. A significant correlation between body-mass-index changes to the preoperative catecholamine levels was found only for urinary normetanephrines. These data suggest that normalization of chronic catecholamine excess by adrenalectomy is associated with an increase in body-mass-index, which is more pronounced in patients with high preoperative levels of urinary normetanephrines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Tongue function in patients treated for malignancies in tongue and/or floor of mouth; a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, C M; van der Bilt, A; van der Glas, H W; Koole, R; Merkx, M A W

    2011-12-01

    Progress in (reconstructive) surgery and radiotherapy tends to improve survival and reduce oral functional deficits. Despite the growing sophistication of cancer treatment, patients still report deterioration in tongue function. Sensory function, mobility, and force of the tongue were determined in 45 patients with a carcinoma of tongue and/or floor of mouth. Measurements were performed before surgery, shortly after surgery, shortly after radiotherapy, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Surgery had a negative impact on tongue sensory function and mobility. Post-surgery radiotherapy did not further deteriorate sensory function, mobility, or force of the tongue. Patients in the surgery-radiotherapy group (SRG) had significantly worse tongue sensory function and mobility than patients in the surgery group (SG), probably caused by more advanced tumour stage and more extensive reconstructions and related scar tissue. The tongue force in patients in both groups significantly increased in the first 6 months after surgery, but this increase disappeared in the next 6 months. The authors conclude that surgery had a significant negative influence on tongue function, especially in the group of patients treated with radiotherapy. No further deterioration of tongue function was observed after post-surgical radiotherapy within the first year after surgery. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative Predictors of Malignancy and Unfavorable Pathology for Clinical T1a Tumors Treated with Partial Nephrectomy: A Multi-Institutional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Mark W.; Gorin, Michael A.; Bhayani, Sam B.; Rogers, Craig G.; Stifelman, Michael D.; Kaouk, Jihad H.; Zargar, Homayoun; Marshall, Susan; Larson, Jeffrey A.; Rahbar, Haider M.; Trock, Bruce J.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Allaf, Mohamad E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine preoperative predictors associated with RCC and unfavorable pathology in small renal masses treated with partial nephrectomy (PN). Materials and Methods PN records from 5 centers were retrospectively queried for patients with a clinically localized, single tumor < 4 cm on imaging (cT1a). Between 2007 and 2013, 1009 patients met inclusion criteria. Unfavorable pathology was defined as any grade III or IV RCC or tumors upstaged to pathologic T3a disease. Logistic regression models were used to determine preoperative characteristics associated with RCC and with unfavorable pathology. Results A total of 771 (76.4%) patients were found to have RCC and 198 (19.6%) had unfavorable pathology. On multivariate, bootstrap-adjusted logistic regression analysis, factors associated with presence of malignancy were imaging tumor size > 3 cm (OR 1.46, p = 0.040), male sex (OR 1.88, p < 0.0001) and nephrometry score > 8 (OR 1.64, p = 0.005). These same factors were independently associated with risk of unfavorable pathology: size > 3 cm (OR 1.46, p=0.021), male sex (OR 2.35, p < 0.0001) and nephrometry score > 8 (OR 1.49, p =0.015). The c statistic was 0.62 for the predicting malignancy and 0.63 for unfavorable pathology. Conclusions In this multi-institutional cohort, male sex, imaging tumor size >3 cm, and nephrometry score >8 were predictors of RCC and adverse pathology following PN. These factors may assist in risk stratification and selective renal mass biopsy prior to decision making. Further studies are necessary to validate these findings. PMID:25499258

  8. Outcome Evaluation of Patients with Limited Brain Metastasis From Malignant Melanoma, Treated with Surgery, Radiation Therapy, and Targeted Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pessina, Federico; Navarria, Pierina; Tomatis, Stefano; Cozzi, Luca; Franzese, Ciro; Di Guardo, Lorenza; Ascolese, Anna Maria; Reggiori, Giacomo; Franceschini, Davide; Del Vecchio, Michele; Bello, Lorenzo; Scorsetti, Marta

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of brain metastases from melanoma is increasing. Several effective treatment options are now available but what can be considered the optimal therapeutic strategy is not yet defined. We evaluated the outcome of patients with brain metastatic melanoma in terms of local control rate, brain distant progression, and overall survival. The present retrospective study includes only patients with limited brain metastases (≤4) who underwent surgery plus stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or SRS alone. Surgical resection was performed in patients with good Karnofsky performance score, single large brain lesions, controlled extracranial disease, and SRS alone in all other cases. Supramargical resection was performed in all patients. The prescribed radiotherapy doses were 24 Gy/1 fraction and 30 Gy in 3-5 fractions for lesions >2.5 cm. Clinical outcome was evaluated by brain magnetic resonance imaging performed 2 months after radiotherapy and then every 3 months. From April 2011 to October 2015, 53 patients were treated. The median age was 54 years (range, 29-82 years). Most of patients had 1-2 brain metastases (86.8%). Twelve patients (22.6%) underwent surgical resection followed by SRS on the tumor bed, and 41 (77.4%) received SRS alone. The median follow-up time was 20.9 months (range, 5.7-61.3 months). The median, 1-, 2-, 3-year overall survival were 11.8 months, 47.2%, 28%, and 21.8%, respectively. Factors recorded as influencing survival were the number of brain metastases, the melanoma-specific graded prognostic assessment score, and BRAF mutated status. Our data identifier a subset of patients with a more favorable outcome who could take advantage of a more aggressive local approach followed by targeted therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Single or Double Donor Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-13

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory

  10. Infection Prophylaxis and Management in Treating Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Infection in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Previously Treated With Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    ; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Myelofibrosis; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Adult

  11. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Before Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With High-Risk Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non

  12. Mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Streeten, D H; Anderson, G H

    1996-08-01

    We have explored the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic tachycardia, found to be present in 83% and 61% respectively of 18 patients with subsequently proven pheochromocytoma. Orthostatic increases in plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were significantly greater in the patients than in normal control subjects. Intravenous infusions of NE at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 micrograms/min induced similar increases in plasma NE levels but smaller increments in systolic and diastolic BP in the pheochromocytoma patients than in normal control subjects. This was reflected by a significantly greater increment in plasma NE concentration required to raise systolic BP by 15 mm Hg and diastolic BP by 7 mm Hg in the pheochromocytoma patients than in the normal subjects (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Measurements of venous contractile responses to locally infused NE by the dorsal hand vein (LVDT) technique revealed significantly reduced slopes of the regressions of log NE infusion rate on change in venous diameter in the pheochromocytoma patients compared with normal subjects. The results indicate reduced responsiveness of the vasculature to NE in patients with pheochromocytoma, probably due to down-regulation of alpha-adrenergic receptors resulting from persistent elevation of the physiological agonist NE. This was shown by other authors to be present in circulating platelets. The pathophysiological importance of the subnormal venous responses to the orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia in the patients were supported by the finding that the orthostatic changes were corrected by lower body compression to 45 mm Hg with a MAST pressure suit.

  13. [Subclinical adrenal diseases: silent pheochromocytoma and subclinical Addison's disease].

    PubMed

    Thuillier, P; Kerlan, V

    2012-10-01

    The silent pheochromocytoma, a hidden form of pheochromocytoma, exposes the patient to an increased risk of mortality if the diagnosis is not established on time. Biological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma can be difficult. Catecholamine secretion is dependent on tumor size and a large number of physiological, pharmacological, lifestyle modifications and sampling conditions influence the measurement of urinary and plasma metanephrines. The prevalence of pheochromocytoma is 2% among adrenal incidentaloma smaller than 3 cm (2/3 of tumors). Recent studies suggest the almost zero risk of pheochromocytoma among these tumors if they are hypodense (<10 housefield units) on adrenal tomography. Addison's disease is a pathology affecting about 1 in 8000. Immunopathology is still unknown, but some elements advocated the hypothesis of a predominant cell-mediated immunity in particular Interferon-gamma production by CD4 T lymphocytes in the presence of an epitope from the 21-hydroxylase, as well as IgG1 subtype produced by activated B lymphocytes, autoantibodies do appear to be a simple marker of the disease. Subclinical Addison's disease is defined by the presence of anti-21-hydroxylase autoantibodies, without clinical symptoms. It evolves faster to the clinical phase in young subjects, male, having high levels of autoantibodies and with an initially impaired adrenal function. Dosage of ACTH, plasma renin active, and basal cortisol and after Synacthen allow to discriminate the subjects with low or high risk of evolution and establish an appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pheochromocytoma: a review on preoperative treatment with phenoxybenzamine or doxazosin.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, P A; de Boer, A

    2014-05-01

    During surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma,`haemodynamic instability may occur. To prevent this, patients receive preoperative treatment with an alpha-blocker. Nowadays, some centres use phenoxybenzamine, while others use doxazosin. The purpose of this review is to analyse the current evidence of the benefits and risks of phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in the preoperative treatment of pheochromocytoma. The literature was reviewed by searching PubMed using the following search terms: pheochromocytoma, phenoxybenzamine, doxazosin and alpha-blockade. The filter was set on English language. No randomised controlled trials were found. Five follow-up studies comparing phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin in the treatment of pheochromocytoma were retrieved and analysed. There was a trend that systolic arterial pressure is slightly better controlled by phenoxybenzamine. However, this resulted in more pronounced postoperative hypotension as well. The use of an alpha-blocker was often accompanied by other vasoactive agents. phenoxybenzamine was often accompanied by a beta-blocker to control reflex tachycardia, while patients on doxazosin received significantly more additional antihypertensive medicines. Most of the studies showed that the use of vasoactive drugs and fluid infusion does not differ significantly between the two drugs. Phenoxybenzamine caused significantly more orthostatic hypotension, oedema and complaints of a stuffy nose. On the basis of the current evidence, there is no evidently superior alpha-blocker for the pretreatment of patients with pheochromocytoma. Perioperative haemodynamics seem to be slightly better controlled with phenoxybenzamine, at the cost of more pronounced postoperative hypotension. Side effects occurred less often in the doxazosin group.

  15. Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Understanding the Complexities of the Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Lauren; Nathanson, Katherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCC/PGL) are tumors derived from the adrenal medulla or extra adrenal ganglia, respectively. They are rare and often benign tumors which are associated with high morbidity and mortality due to mass effect and high circulating catecholamines. Although most pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are thought to be sporadic, over one third are associated with ten known susceptibility genes. Mutations in three genes causing well characterized tumor syndromes are associated with an increased risk of developing pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas including VHL (von Hippel-Lindau disease), NF1 (Neurofibromatosis Type 1), and RET (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2). Mutations in any of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunit genes (SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD) can lead to pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas with variable penetrance, as can mutations in the subunit cofactor, SDHAF2. Recently, two additional genes have been identified, TMEM127 and MAX. Although these tumors are rare in the general population, occurring in 2–8 per million people, they are more commonly associated with an inherited mutation than any other cancer type. This review summarizes the known germline and somatic mutations leading to pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma development, as well as biochemical profiling for PCC/PGL and screening of mutation carriers. PMID:22429592

  16. Pheochromocytoma, diagnosis and treatment: Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, F A; Martikos, G; Tzanetis, P; Charalampopoulos, A; Misiakos, E; Zavras, N; Sotiropoulos, D

    2017-07-01

    We conducted an extensive review of the literature and tried to cite the most recent recommendations concerning the pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Pub Med and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically for studies concerning pheochromocytomas (intra-adrenal paragangliomas) from 1980 until 2016. Bibliographies were searched to find additional articles. More than four times elevation of plasma fractionated metanephrines or elevated 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines are keys to diagnosing pheochromocytoma. If the results are equivocal then we perform the clonidine test. If we have not done it already, we preferably do a CT scan and/or an MRI scan. The patient needs pre-treatment with α1-blockers at least 10-14 days before operation. Alternatives or sometimes adjuncts are Calcium Channels Blockers and/or β-Blockers. Several familial syndromes are associated with PHEO and genetic testing should be considered. The biggest problem for pheochromocytoma is to suspect it in the first place. Elevated metanephrines establish the diagnosis. With the proper preoperative preparation the risks during operation and the postoperative period are minimal. If there is a risk of the hereditable mutation, it is strongly suggested that all the patients with pheochromocytoma need clinical genetic testing.

  17. Histopathological analysis of spontaneous large necrosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma manifested as acute attacks of alternating hypertension and hypotension: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Nobumasa; Uemura, Yasuyuki; Mezaki, Naomi; Kimura, Keita; Kaneko, Masanori; Kuwano, Hirohiko; Ebe, Katsuya; Fujita, Toshio; Komeyama, Takeshi; Usuda, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Yuto; Maekawa, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu; Kaneko, Kenzo; Kamoi, Kyuzi

    2016-10-12

    Pheochromocytomas are rare catecholamine-producing neuroendocrine tumors. Hypertension secondary to pheochromocytoma is often paroxysmal, and patients occasionally present with sudden attacks of alternating hypertension and hypotension. Spontaneous, extensive necrosis within the tumor that is associated with catecholamine crisis is an infrequent complication of adrenal pheochromocytoma, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. A 69-year-old Japanese man developed acute-onset episodic headaches, palpitations, and chest pains. During the episodes, both marked fluctuations in blood pressure (ranging from 40/25 to 300/160 mmHg) and high plasma levels of catecholamines were found simultaneously. Radiological findings indicated a 4-cm left adrenal pheochromocytoma. These episodic symptoms disappeared within 2 weeks with normalization of plasma catecholamine levels. Two months later, the patient underwent adrenalectomy. Microscopic examinations revealed pheocromocytoma with a large central area of coagulative necrosis. The necrotic material was immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A. Granulation tissue was adjacent to the necrotic area, accompanied by numerous hemosiderin-laden macrophages and histiocytes with vascular proliferation. Viable tumor cells, detected along the periphery of the tumor, demonstrated pyknosis, and the Ki-67 labeling index was 2 % in the hot spot. No embolus or thrombus formation was found in the resected specimen harboring the whole tumor. The Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal gland Scaled Score was 2 out of 20. The patient's postoperative course was unremarkable for > 7 years. Presumed causal factors for the extensive necrosis of adrenal pheochromocytoma in previously reported cases include hemorrhage into the tumor, hypotension induced by a phentolamine administration, embolic infarction, high intracapsular pressure due to malignant growth of the tumor, and catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction. In the present case, histopathological

  18. Pheochromocytoma and stress cardiomyopathy: Insight into pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sahil; Shirani, Jamshid; Garg, Lohit; Singh, Amitoj; Longo, Santo; Longo, Angelita; Fegley, Mark; Stone, Lauren; Razavi, Muhammad; Radoianu, Nicoleta; Nanda, Sudip

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the occurrence of cardiomyopathy (CMP) in a cohort of patients with histologically proven pheochromocytoma (pheo), and to determine if catecholamine excess was causative of the left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. METHODS A retrospective chart review spanning years 1998 through 2014 was undertaken and patients with a diagnosis of pheo confirmed with histopathologic examination were included. Presenting electrocardiograms and cardiac imaging studies were reviewed. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), ventriculography or single positron emission computed tomography imaging was evaluated and if significant abnormalities [left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or LV dysfunction] were noted in the pre operative period a follow up post-operative study was also analyzed. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression was used to investigate independent predictors for outcomes of interest, LV dysfunction and LVH. RESULTS We identified 18 patients with diagnosis of pheo confirmed on pathology. Mean age was 54.3 ± 19.3 years and 11 (61.1%) patients were females. 50% of such patients had either resistant hypertension or labile blood pressures during hospitalization, which had raised suspicion for a pheo. Cardiac imaging studies were available for 12 (66.7%) patients at the time of inclusion into study and preceding the adrenalectomy. 7 (58.3%) patients with a TTE available for review had mild or more severe LVH while 3 (25%) patients had LV dysfunction of presumably acute onset. In a multivariate analysis, elevated catecholamine levels as assessed by urinary excretion of metabolites was not an independent predictor of development of LV systolic dysfunction or of presence of LVH on TTE. Two female patients with a preceding history of hypertension had marked LV hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. Prolongation of the QTc interval was noted in 5 (27.8%) patients but no acute arrhythmias were observed in any patient. CONCLUSION This study

  19. Selective inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta: modulators of B-cell function with potential for treating autoimmune inflammatory diseases and B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Kamal D.; Gold, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    The delta isoform of the p110 catalytic subunit (p110δ) of phosphoinositide 3-kinase is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells and plays an essential role in B-cell development and function. Studies employing mice lacking a functional p110δ protein, as well as the use of highly-selective chemical inhibitors of p110δ, have revealed that signaling via p110δ-containing PI3K complexes (PI3Kδ) is critical for B-cell survival, migration, and activation, functioning downstream of key receptors on B cells including the B-cell antigen receptor, chemokine receptors, pro-survival receptors such as BAFF-R and the IL-4 receptor, and co-stimulatory receptors such as CD40 and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Similarly, this PI3K isoform plays a key role in the survival, proliferation, and dissemination of B-cell lymphomas. Herein we summarize studies showing that these processes can be inhibited in vitro and in vivo by small molecule inhibitors of p110δ enzymatic activity, and that these p110δ inhibitors have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of several types of B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PI3Kδ also plays a critical role in the activation, proliferation, and tissue homing of self-reactive B cells that contribute to autoimmune diseases, in particular innate-like B-cell populations such as marginal zone (MZ) B cells and B-1 cells that have been strongly linked to autoimmunity. We discuss the potential utility of p110δ inhibitors, either alone or in combination with B-cell depletion, for treating autoimmune diseases such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. Because PI3Kδ plays a major role in both B-cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation and B-cell malignancies, PI3Kδ inhibitors may represent a promising therapeutic approach for treating these diseases. PMID:22936933

  20. ENDOCRINOLOGY IN PREGNANCY: Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy: case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    van der Weerd, K; van Noord, C; Loeve, M; Knapen, M F C M; Visser, W; de Herder, W W; Franssen, G; van der Marel, C D; Feelders, R A

    2017-08-01

    Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is extremely rare. Early recognition is crucial as antepartum diagnosis can largely decrease maternal and fetal mortality rates. As symptoms of pheochromocytoma are rather similar to those of other far more common causes of hypertension during pregnancy, timely diagnosis is a challenge. In pregnant patients, similar to non-pregnant patients, increased plasma and/or 24-h urine (nor)metanephrine concentrations most reliably confirm the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. MRI and ultrasound are the only imaging modalities that can be used safely during pregnancy to localize the tumor. During pregnancy, pretreatment consists of alpha blockade as usual. However, dosing of α-adrenergic receptor blockers during pregnancy is a challenge as hypertension must be treated while preserving adequate uteroplacental circulation. When the diagnosis is made within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, it is generally recommended to remove the tumor in the second trimester, while resection is generally postponed till after delivery when the diagnosis is made in the third trimester and medical pretreatment is sufficient. Both during and after pregnancy, laparoscopic surgery is the preferred approach for resection of the tumor. There is no consensus in literature about the preferred route and timing of delivery. Therefore, in our opinion, decisions should be made on an individual basis by an experienced and dedicated multidisciplinary team. Over the last decades, maternal and fetal prognosis has improved considerably. Further increasing awareness of this rare diagnosis and treatment of these patients by a dedicated team in a tertiary referral hospital are critical factors for optimal maternal and fetal outcome. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Germline mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Seong, M-W; Lee, K E; Choi, H J; Ku, E J; Bae, J H; Park, S S; Choi, S H; Kim, S W; Shin, Cs; Kim, S Y

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of germline mutations and develop the genetic testing strategy in patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL) in Korea. We included 53 patients diagnosed with non-syndromic PPGL without a family history of PPGLs in three referral centers from 2004 to 2011. Succinate dehydrogenase complex B (SDHB), SDHD, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), and rearranged during transfection (RET) genes were examined by direct sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. The study patients were composed of 26 men and 27 women, and mean age was 50.1 ± 13.5 years. The frequency of germline mutations was 13.2% (7/53): RET (n = 2), VHL (n = 1), SDHB (n = 2), and SDHD (n = 2). Six of seven mutation carriers were diagnosed before the age of 50. One of two patients harboring an SDHB mutation had malignant PPGLs. One patient with multifocal head and neck paraganglioma (PGL) and pheochromocytoma (PHEO) carried a SDHD mutation. The carriers of germline mutations in patients with apparently sporadic PPGL were 13.2% in our study. We recommend genetic testing in patients below 50 years and SDHD genetic testing in patients with multifocal PPGLs. In malignant PPGLs, SDHB genetic testing may be performed.

  2. Characterization of two mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma using bioluminescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Giubellino, Alessio; Woldemichael, Girma M; Sourbier, Carole; Lizak, Martin J.; Powers, James F; Tischler, Arthur S; Pacak, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults. The lack of sensitive animal models of pheochromocytoma has hindered the study of this tumor and in vivo evaluation of antitumor agents. In this study we generated two sensitive luciferase models using bioluminescent pheochromocytoma cells: an experimental metastasis model to monitor tumor spreading and a subcutaneous model to monitor tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. These models offer a platform for sensitive, non- invasive and real-time monitoring of pheochromocytoma primary growth and metastatic burden to follow the course of tumor progression and for testing relevant antitumor treatments in metastatic pheochromocytoma. PMID:22154086

  3. Characterization of two mouse models of metastatic pheochromocytoma using bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Giubellino, Alessio; Woldemichael, Girma M; Sourbier, Carole; Lizak, Martin J; Powers, James F; Tischler, Arthur S; Pacak, Karel

    2012-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma is the most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults. The lack of sensitive animal models of pheochromocytoma has hindered the study of this tumor and in vivo evaluation of antitumor agents. In this study we generated two sensitive luciferase models using bioluminescent pheochromocytoma cells: an experimental metastasis model to monitor tumor spreading and a subcutaneous model to monitor tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. These models offer a platform for sensitive, non-invasive and real-time monitoring of pheochromocytoma primary growth and metastatic burden to follow the course of tumor progression and for testing relevant antitumor treatments in metastatic pheochromocytoma. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Clinical Characterization of the Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Susceptibility Genes SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 for Gene-Informed Prevention.

    PubMed

    Bausch, Birke; Schiavi, Francesca; Ni, Ying; Welander, Jenny; Patocs, Attila; Ngeow, Joanne; Wellner, Ulrich; Malinoc, Angelica; Taschin, Elisa; Barbon, Giovanni; Lanza, Virginia; Söderkvist, Peter; Stenman, Adam; Larsson, Catharina; Svahn, Fredrika; Chen, Jin-Lian; Marquard, Jessica; Fraenkel, Merav; Walter, Martin A; Peczkowska, Mariola; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Jarzab, Barbara; Hasse-Lazar, Kornelia; Petersenn, Stephan; Moeller, Lars C; Meyer, Almuth; Reisch, Nicole; Trupka, Arnold; Brase, Christoph; Galiano, Matthias; Preuss, Simon F; Kwok, Pingling; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Berisha, Gani; Makay, Özer; Boedeker, Carsten C; Weryha, Georges; Racz, Karoly; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Walz, Martin K; Gimm, Oliver; Opocher, Giuseppe; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P H

    2017-09-01

    Effective cancer prevention is based on accurate molecular diagnosis and results of genetic family screening, genotype-informed risk assessment, and tailored strategies for early diagnosis. The expanding etiology for hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas has recently included SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 as susceptibility genes. Clinical management guidelines for patients with germline mutations in these 4 newly included genes are lacking. To study the clinical spectra and age-related penetrance of individuals with mutations in the SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 genes. This study analyzed the prospective, longitudinally followed up European-American-Asian Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma Registry for prevalence of SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 germline mutation carriers from 1993 to 2016. Genetic predictive testing and clinical investigation by imaging from neck to pelvis was offered to mutation-positive registrants and their relatives to clinically characterize the pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma diseases associated with mutations of the 4 new genes. Prevalence and spectra of germline mutations in the SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 genes were assessed. The clinical features of SDHA, TMEM127, MAX, and SDHAF2 disease were characterized. Of 972 unrelated registrants without mutations in the classic pheochromocytoma- and paraganglioma-associated genes (632 female [65.0%] and 340 male [35.0%]; age range, 8-80; mean [SD] age, 41.0 [13.3] years), 58 (6.0%) carried germline mutations of interest, including 29 SDHA, 20 TMEM127, 8 MAX, and 1 SDHAF2. Fifty-three of 58 patients (91%) had familial, multiple, extra-adrenal, and/or malignant tumors and/or were younger than 40 years. Newly uncovered are 7 of 63 (11%) malignant pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas in SDHA and TMEM127 disease. SDHA disease occurred as early as 8 years of age. Extra-adrenal tumors occurred in 28 mutation carriers (48%) and in 23 of 29 SDHA mutation carriers (79%), particularly with head

  5. Pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma: Biochemical and genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cano Megías, Marta; Rodriguez Puyol, Diego; Fernández Rodríguez, Loreto; Sención Martinez, Gloria Lisette; Martínez Miguel, Patricia

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are tumours derived from neural crest cells, which can be diagnosed by biochemical measurement of metanephrine and methoxytyramine. Advances in genetic research have identified many genes involved in the pathogenesis of these tumours, suggesting that up to 35-45% may have an underlying germline mutation. These genes have a singular transcriptional signature and can be grouped into 2 clusters (or groups): cluster 1 (VHL and SHDx), involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia pathways; and cluster 2 (MEN2 and NF1), linked to the kinase signalling pathway. In turn, these genes are associated with a characteristic biochemical phenotype (noradrenergic and adrenergic), and clinical features (location, biological behaviour, age of presentation, etc.) in a large number of cases. Early diagnosis of these tumours, accompanied by a correct genetic diagnosis, should eventually become a priority to enable better treatment, early detection of complications, proper screening of family members and related tumours, as well as an improvement in the overall prognosis of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Pheochromocytoma: physiopathologic implications and diagnostic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zapanti, Evangelia; Ilias, Ioannis

    2006-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is a chromaffin cell tumor embryologically arising from the neural crest tissue. The dominant secretory products of PHEO are catecholamines: noradrenaline (norepinephrine), adrenaline (epinephrine), and to a lesser extent dopamine. In addition to catecholamines, PHEO cells also elaborate and release several neuropeptides and inflammatory cytokines which can exert intra-adrenal and extra-adrenal systemic effects and cause characteristic clinical syndromes. In a concise review we present the intra-adrenal and extra-adrenal pathophysiologic implications of PHEO and the nuclear medicine modalities that permit functional imaging of physiological processes and help localize these tumors. The specific pathways of synthesis, metabolism, and inactivation of catecholamines (of PHEOs and paragangliomas) can be used as means to develop suitable tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) ligands. In this review we focus on imaging with PET using [(18)F]-fluorodopamine, [(18)F]-fluorohydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]-epinephrine, or [(11)C]-hydroxyephedrine and examine how functional imaging can often complement traditional anatomical imaging modalities and other scintigraphic techniques.

  7. Somatostatin-secreting Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Shinichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5.5-9.0 to 81.3-87.0 μg/day. Histologically, somatostatin immunoreactivity was detected and the somatostatin levels were elevated in the serum-like fluid obtained from the tumor. Clinicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of simultaneous ectopic hormone secretion in patients with pheochromocytoma. PMID:27746437

  8. Evidence for extratumoural storage of catecholamines in pheochromocytoma patients.

    PubMed

    Hengstmann, J H; Dengler, H J

    1978-03-01

    Following the removal of a pheochromocytoma in three female patients the daily excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites was still considerably elevated for about one week. The excretion rates declined during this period with half-lives of 1.8 to 10.9 days for catecholamines and 2.1 to 4.7 days for metanephrines, vanilmandelic acid, and vanilglycol. The cumulative urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites following surgical removal of the tumour was nearly as high as the catecholamine content of the pheochromocytomas. This large amount of catecholamines must have been located outside the tumour, most probably within the sympathetic nerve, where it is subject to release following physiological stimuli. Furthermore, this fact may provide an explanation for hypertensive crises in pheochromocytoma patients.

  9. Somatostatin-secreting Pheochromocytoma Mimicking Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Midorikawa, Sanae; Suzuki, Shinichi; Sasano, Hironobu; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki

    We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5.5-9.0 to 81.3-87.0 μg/day. Histologically, somatostatin immunoreactivity was detected and the somatostatin levels were elevated in the serum-like fluid obtained from the tumor. Clinicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of simultaneous ectopic hormone secretion in patients with pheochromocytoma.

  10. Genotype-phenotype correlations in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease: Predisposition to pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, E.R.; Crossey, P.A.; Richards, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    VHL disease is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing to a variety of neoplasms, most frequently retinal and CNS haemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, and pheochromocytoma. Marked interfamilial differences in predisposition to pheochromocytoma are recognized. We identified germline mutations in 85 unrelated VHL disease patients (22 large germline deletions, 44 different intragenic mutations: 21 missense, 6 nonsense, 16 deletions or insertions, 1 splice donor site mutation), and correlated this information with phenotype in 65 kindreds. Large deletions or intragenic mutations predicted to cause a truncated protein were found in 36 of 53 families without pheochromocytoma but only 2 of 12 families with pheochromocytoma ({chi}{sup 2}=12.33 p<0.01). Of 12 families with pheochromocytoma, 10 had missense mutations compared to 13 of 53 kindreds without pheochromocytoma ({chi}{sup 2}=12.33 p<0.001). 5% of kindreds with large deletions or intragenic mutations predicted to cause a truncated protein were pheochromocytoma positive, compared to 43% of kindreds with misense mutations. In particular, substitution of an arginine at codon 238 (Arg{yields}Trp or Arg{yields}Gln) was associated with a high risk (62%) of pheochromocytoma. The identification of germline mutations in VHL disease not only allows presymptomatic diagnosis, but can also indicate the risk of pheochromocytoma. In addition these results provide a basis for screening for VHL gene mutations in patients with familial or sporadic pheochromocytoma. To date, VHL gene mutations have been identified in 2 families with familial pheochromocytoma.

  11. Role of MR Imaging and FDG PET/CT in Selection and Follow-up of Patients Treated with Pelvic Exenteration for Gynecologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Nougaret, Stephanie; Miccò, Maura; Scelzo, Chiara; Vargas, Hebert A.; Sosa, Ramon E.; Sutton, Elizabeth J.; Chi, Dennis S.; Hricak, Hedvig; Sala, Evis

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic exenteration (PE) is a radical surgical procedure used for the past 6 decades to treat locally advanced malignant diseases confined to the pelvis, particularly persistent or recurrent gynecologic cancers in the irradiated pelvis. The traditional surgical technique known as total PE consists of resection of all pelvic viscera followed by reconstruction. Depending on the tumor extent, the procedure can be tailored to remove only anterior or posterior structures, including the bladder (anterior exenteration) or rectum (posterior exenteration). Conversely, more extended pelvic resection can be performed if the pelvic sidewall is invaded by cancer. Preoperative imaging evaluation with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is central to establishing tumor resectability and therefore patient eligibility for the procedure. These imaging modalities complement each other in diagnosis of tumor recurrence and differentiation of persistent disease from posttreatment changes. MR imaging can accurately demonstrate local tumor extent and show adjacent organ invasion. FDG PET/CT is useful in excluding nodal and distant metastases. In addition, FDG PET/CT metrics may serve as predictive biomarkers for overall and disease-free survival. This pictorial review describes different types of exenterative surgical procedures and illustrates the central role of imaging in accurate patient selection, treatment planning, and postsurgical surveillance. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26172364

  12. Perioperative hemodynamic instability in patients undergoing laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Pisarska, Magdalena; Budzyński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Perioperative hemodynamic instability still remains the biggest surgical and anesthetic challenge in surgery for pheochromocytoma. The aim of this review was to discuss pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that may impact on hemodynamic condition of a patient. It describes patients’ preparation with appropriate medication, principles of surgical technique as well as risk factors for development of hemodynamic instability in postoperative period. Currently the gold standard in the treatment of pheochromocytoma is preoperative use of alpha-blockers and laparoscopic surgery. This approach allowed improving outcomes by lowering both mortality and morbidity. PMID:27867865

  13. [A case of cystic pheochromocytoma mimicking liver abscess].

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Yuta; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Takada, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2011-07-01

    A 64-year-old man presented to our hospital feeling ill with epigastralgia. Computed tomography (CT) showed right suprarenal cystic tumor. High urinary catecholamine level was noted. Based on metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was adrenal pheochromocytoma. En-bloc resection of the tumor and the right kidney was performed. The cyst contained yellowish serous fluid, which had a catecholamine level about 3,000 times that in the blood. The histological diagnosis was cystic pheochromocytoma. Pathogenesis of cystic adrenal tumor is discussed briefly.

  14. MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shoichiro; Lai, Edwin W; Morris, John C; Bakan, Douglas A; Klaunberg, Brenda; Cleary, Susannah; Powers, James F; Tischler, Arthur S; Abu-Asab, Mones; Schimel, Daniel; Pacak, Karel

    2006-11-01

    Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy. Despite major advances in the treatment of many cancers, early-stage lesions often go undetected due to the suboptimal resolution of current anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer. We report a new mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma, generated using tail vein injection of the mouse pheochromocytoma cell (MPC) line that reproducibly generated multiple liver tumors in the animals. Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells. This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma.

  15. MicroCT for high-resolution imaging of ectopic pheochromocytoma tumors in the liver of nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shoichiro; Lai, Edwin W.; Morris, John C.; Bakan, Douglas A.; Klaunberg, Brenda; Cleary, Susannah; Powers, James F.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Abu-Asab, Mones; Schimel, Daniel; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Successful outcomes for patients with cancer often depend on the early detection of tumor and the prompt initiation of active therapy. Despite major advances in the treatment of many cancers, early-stage lesions often go undetected due to the suboptimal resolution of current anatomical and functional imaging modalities. This limitation also applies to preclinical animal tumor models that are crucial for the evaluation and development of new therapeutic approaches to cancer. We report a new mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma, generated using tail vein injection of the mouse pheochromocytoma cell (MPC) line that reproducibly generated multiple liver tumors in the animals. Furthermore, we show that in vivo microCT imaging enhanced using a hepatobiliary-specific contrast agent, glyceryl-2-oleyl-1,3-di-7-(3-amino-2,4,6-triiodophenyl)-heptanoate (DHOG), detected tumors as small as 0.35 mm as early as 4 weeks after the injection of the tumor cells. This model may be useful for in vivo studies of tumor biology and for development of new strategies to treat metastatic pheochromocytoma. PMID:16841334

  16. Increased uptake of [123I]-meta-iodobenzylguanidine and [18F]-dopamine in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and tumors after treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitors romidepsin and trichostatin A

    PubMed Central

    Martiniova, Lucia; Perera, Shiromi M.; Brouwers, Frederieke M.; Alesci, Salvatore; Abu-Asab, Mones; Marvelle, Amanda F.; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Thomasson, David; Morris, John C.; Kvetnansky, Richard; Tischler, Arthur S.; Reynolds, James C; Fojo, A. Tito; Pacak, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose [131I]-meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([131I]-MIBG) is the most commonly employed treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; however, its success is limited. Its efficacy depends on the [131I]-MIBG concentration reached within the tumor through its uptake via the norepinephrine transporter and retention in neurosecretory granules. Purpose is to enhance [123I]-MIBG uptake in cells and liver pheochromocytoma tumors. Experimental Design We report the in vitro effects of two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, romidepsin and trichostatin A, on increased uptake of [3H]-norepinephrine and [123I]-MIBG in mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells, and the effect of romidepsin on [18F]-fluorodopamine and [123I]-MIBG uptake in a mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma. The effects of both inhibitors on norepinephrine transporter activity were assessed in MPC cells by [123I]-MIBG uptake studies with and without the transporter blocking agent desipramine and the vesicular blocking agent reserpine. Results Both HDAC inhibitors increased [3H]-norepinephrine, [123I]-MIBG, and [18F]-fluorodopamine uptake through the norepinephrine transporter in MPC cells. In vivo, inhibitor treatment resulted in increased uptake of [18F]-fluorodopamine and in pheochromocytoma liver metastases as measured by maximal standardized uptake values on PET imaging (p < 0.001). Analysis of biodistribution after inhibitor treatment confirmed the PET results in that uptake of [123I]-MIBG was significantly increased in liver metastases (p < 0.05). Therefore, HDAC inhibitor treatment increased radioisotope uptake in MPC cells in vitro and in liver metastases in vivo, through increased norepinephrine transporter activity. Conclusion These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of [131I]-MIBG treatment in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:21098082

  17. Increased uptake of [¹²³I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine, [¹⁸F]fluorodopamine, and [³H]norepinephrine in mouse pheochromocytoma cells and tumors after treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Martiniova, Lucia; Perera, Shiromi M; Brouwers, Frederieke M; Alesci, Salvatore; Abu-Asab, Mones; Marvelle, Amanda F; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Thomasson, David; Morris, John C; Kvetnansky, Richard; Tischler, Arthur S; Reynolds, James C; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Pacak, Karel

    2011-02-01

    [¹³¹I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine ([¹³¹I]MIBG) is the most commonly used treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. It enters the chromaffin cells via the membrane norepinephrine transporter; however, its success has been modest. We studied the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to enhance [¹²³I]MIBG uptake by tumors in a mouse metastatic pheochromocytoma model. HDAC inhibitors are known to arrest growth, induce differentiation and apoptosis in various cancer cells, and further inhibit tumor growth. We report the in vitro and in vivo effects of two HDAC inhibitors, romidepsin and trichostatin A, on the uptake of [(3)H]norepinephrine, [¹²³I]MIBG, and [(18)F]fluorodopamine in a mouse model of metastatic pheochromocytoma. The effects of both inhibitors on norepinephrine transporter activity were assessed in mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells by using the transporter-blocking agent desipramine and the vesicular-blocking agent reserpine. HDAC inhibitors increased [(3)H]norepinephrine, [¹²³I]MIBG, and [(18)F]fluorodopamine uptake through the norepinephrine transporter in MPC cells. In vivo, inhibitor treatment resulted in significantly increased uptake of [(18)F]fluorodopamine positron emission tomography (PET) in pheochromocytoma liver metastases (19.1 ± 3.2% injected dose per gram of tumor (%ID/g) compared to liver metastases in pretreatment scans 5.9 ± 0.6%; P<0.001). Biodistribution analysis after inhibitors treatment confirmed the PET results. The uptake of [(123)I]MIBG was significantly increased in liver metastases 9.5 ± 1.1% compared to 3.19 ± 0.4% in untreated control liver metastases (P<0.05). We found that HDAC inhibitors caused an increase in the amount of norepinephrine transporter expressed in tumors. HDAC inhibitors may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of [(131)I]MIBG treatment in patients with advanced malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

  18. Laboratory evaluation of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Eisenhofer, Graeme; Peitzsch, Mirko

    2014-12-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are potentially lethal yet usually surgically curable causes of endocrine hypertension; therefore, once clinical suspicion is aroused it is imperative that clinicians choose the most appropriate laboratory tests to identify the tumors. Compelling evidence now indicates that initial screening for PPGLs should include measurements of plasma free metanephrines or urine fractionated metanephrines. LC-MS/MS offers numerous advantages over other analytical methods and is the method of choice when measurements include methoxytyramine, the O-methylated metabolite of dopamine. The plasma test offers advantages over the urine test, although it is rarely implemented correctly, rendering the urine test preferable for mainstream use. To ensure optimum diagnostic sensitivity for the plasma test, reference intervals must be established for blood samples collected after 30 min of supine rest and after an overnight fast when measurements include methoxytyramine. Similarly collected blood samples during screening, together with use of age-adjusted reference intervals, further minimize false-positive results. Extents and patterns of increases in plasma normetanephrine, metanephrine, and methoxytyramine can additionally help predict size and adrenal vs extraadrenal locations of tumors, as well as presence of metastases and underlying germline mutations of tumor susceptibility genes. Carried out correctly at specialist endocrine centers, collection of blood for measurements of plasma normetanephrine, metanephrine, and methoxytyramine not only provides high accuracy for diagnosis of PPGLs, but can also guide clinical decision-making about follow-up imaging strategies, genetic testing, and therapeutic options. At other centers, measurements of urine fractionated metanephrines will identify most PPGLs. © 2014 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. SDHB mutations are associated with response to temozolomide in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hadoux, Julien; Favier, Judith; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Leboulleux, Sophie; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Caramella, Caroline; Déandreis, Désirée; Borget, Isabelle; Loriot, Céline; Chougnet, Cécile; Letouzé, Eric; Young, Jacques; Amar, Laurence; Bertherat, Jérome; Libé, Rosella; Dumont, Frédéric; Deschamps, Frédéric; Schlumberger, Martin; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Baudin, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Cyclophosphamide-dacarbazine-vincristine regimen is recommended for the treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (MPP); however, dacarbazine is the only recognized active drug in neuroendocrine tumours. We investigated the therapeutic benefit of temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alternative to dacarbazine, in patients with MPP. This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients with documented progressive MPP. We examined the correlation between Succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutation and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and MGMT expression in the French nation-wide independent cohort of 190 pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas (PP). Progression-free survival (PFS) according to RECIST 1.1 and PERCIST 1.0 criteria was the primary end point. Fifteen consecutive patients with MPP were enrolled; ten (67%) carried a mutation in SDHB. The mean dose intensity of TMZ was 172 mg/m(2) /d for 5 days every 28 days. Median PFS was 13.3 months after a median follow-up of 35 months. There were five partial responses (33%), seven stable (47%) and three progressive diseases (20%). Grade 3 toxicities were lymphopenia in two patients and hypertension in one. Partial responses were observed only in patients with mutation in SDHB. MGMT immunohistochemistry was negative in tumour samples from four patients who responded to treatment. SDHB germline mutation was associated with hypermethylation of the MGMT promoter and low expression of MGMT in 190 samples of the French nation-wide independent cohort. This study demonstrates that TMZ is an effective antitumour agent in patients with SDHB-related MPP. The silencing of MGMT expression as a consequence of MGMT promoter hypermethylation in SDHB-mutated tumours may explain this finding. © 2014 UICC.

  20. Current progress and future challenges in the biochemical diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Eisenhofer, G; Siegert, G; Kotzerke, J; Bornstein, S R; Pacak, K

    2008-05-01

    Findings from five independent studies - with close to 350 patients with pheochromocytoma and more than 2,500 in whom the tumor was excluded - indicate that measurements of plasma free metanephrines provide an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 92%. The recommendation that initial testing for the tumor should always include measurements of either plasma or urinary fractionated metanephrines results from recognition of the high diagnostic sensitivity of measurements of plasma metanephrines. The few patients with pheochromocytoma in whom the test may not yield a positive result include those with very small tumors or microscopic disease and others with tumors that do not produce norepinephrine and epinephrine. Such patients are typically normotensive and do not exhibit symptoms of catecholamine excess. Additional measurements of methoxytyramine can be useful for detecting those tumors that produce only dopamine. Suboptimal diagnostic specificity and difficulties in distinguishing true- from false-positive elevations of plasma metanephrines remain challenges for diagnosis. Improvements in analytical technology (e.g., liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) and new strategies for follow-up testing provide possible solutions to these problems. The single most important remaining clinical care challenge is the development of effective cures for patients with malignant disease. Current treatments, none of which are truly satisfactory, include chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with (131)I-labelled M-iodobenzylguanidine or radioactive somatostatin analogues. Improvements in treatment may in the future come from several fronts, but proof of efficacy ideally will require well-coordinated multicenter prospective trials in larger numbers of patients than in previous studies.

  1. Current Progress and Future Challenges in the Biochemical Diagnosis and Treatment of Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhofer, G.; Siegert, G.; Kotzerke, J.; Bornstein, S. R.; Pacak, K.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from five independent studies – with close to 350 patients with pheochromocytoma and more than 2 500 in whom the tumor was excluded – indicate that measurements of plasma free metanephrines provide an overall diagnostic sensitivity of 98 % and specificity of 92 %. The recommendation that initial testing for the tumor should always include measurements of either plasma or urinary fractionated metanephrines results from recognition of the high diagnostic sensitivity of measurements of plasma metanephrines. The few patients with pheochromocytoma in whom the test may not yield a positive result include those with very small tumors or microscopic disease and others with tumors that do not produce norepinephrine and epinephrine. Such patients are typically normotensive and do not exhibit symptoms of catecholamine excess. Additional measurements of methoxytyramine can be useful for detecting those tumors that produce only dopamine. Suboptimal diagnostic specificity and difficulties in distinguishing true- from false-positive elevations of plasma metanephrines remain challenges for diagnosis. Improvements in analytical technology (e.g., liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) and new strategies for follow-up testing provide possible solutions to these problems. The single most important remaining clinical care challenge is the development of effective cures for patients with malignant disease. Current treatments, none of which are truly satisfactory, include chemotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with 131I-labelled m-iodobenzylguanidine or radioactive somatostatin analogues. Improvements in treatment may in the future come from several fronts, but proof of efficacy ideally will require well-coordinated multicenter prospective trials in larger numbers of patients than in previous studies. PMID:18491252

  2. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Huang Sui; Feng, Xu Lin; Yong, Li; Yong, Zhang; Lian, Zhong Jing; Ling, Liang Bi

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n=5) or 1.5 T (n=6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T(2)-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T(1)-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n=5), the urinary bladder (n=1), the pelvis (n=1), the right prerenal area (n=1), the renal hilus (n=1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n=1) and liver (n=1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T(2)-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T(2)-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  3. False positive test results for pheochromocytoma from 2000 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Yu, R; Wei, M

    2010-10-01

    Testing for pheochromocytoma becomes more frequent in clinical practice. False positive test results may cause patient anxiety and unnecessary imaging studies. The data on false positive results for pheochromocytoma in routine clinical practice are lacking. To examine the prevalence of false positive results and to reveal the clinical features and laboratory tests of patients with markedly elevated but false positive test results, a database of tests for pheochromocytoma at a large general hospital between 2000 and 2008 was reviewed. Of 1,896 patients tested, 417 (22.0%) had at least one abnormal test result and 66 (3.5%) had markedly elevated results. 24 patients with markedly elevated but false positive results received 65 imaging studies and 1 adrenalectomy. The causes of the misleading results included physiological variations (33%), laboratory errors (29%), and drug interference with measurement (21%). The false positive rate of a markedly elevated result was lowest for vanillylmandelic acid (9%) and highest for urine metanephrines (50%) (p = 0.03). Nearly half of all test results were normal and 79% of patients had at least one normal result. Therefore false positive test results for pheochromocytoma are rather common. Markedly elevated but false positive test results can potentially be avoided by judicious selection of patients and tests. Pretest risk, physiological variations of catecholamine levels, laboratory errors, and drug interference should be considered in interpreting abnormal test results. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. ANIMAL MODEL OF METASTATIC PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: EVALUATION BY MRI AND PET

    PubMed Central

    Martiniova, L; Lai, EW; Thomasson, D; Kiesewetter, DO; Seidel, J; Merino, MJ; Kvetnansky, R; Pacak, K

    2017-01-01

    Objective The development of metastatic pheochromocytoma animal model provides a unique opportunity to study the physiology of these rare tumors and to evaluate experimental treatments. Here, we describe the use of small animal imaging techniques to detect, localize and characterize metastatic lesions in nude mice. Methods Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to detect metastatic lesions in nude mice following intravenous injection of mouse pheochromocytoma cells. [18F]-6-fluoro-dopamine ([18F]-DA) and [18F]-L-6-fluoro-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, which are commonly used for localization of pheochromocytoma lesions in clinical practice, were selected as radiotracers to monitor metastatic lesions by PET. Results MRI was able to detect liver lesions as small as 0.5mm in diameter. Small animal PET imaging using [18F]-DA and [18F]-DOPA detected liver, adrenal gland, and ovarian lesions. Conclusion We conclude that MRI is a valuable technique for tumor growth monitoring from very early to late stages of tumor progression and that animal PET confirmed localization of metastatic pheochromocytoma in liver with both radiotracers. PMID:19856710

  5. Incidental pheochromocytoma in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baldane, S; Ipekci, S H; Celik, E; Gedik, G K; Ozaslan, E; Guler, I; Kebapcilar, L

    2015-10-01

    Because the adrenal glands are common locations for metastases, pheochromocytoma is frequently misdiagnosed as adrenal metastasis in patients with a history of cancer. An incidental adrenal mass was detected during an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan performed to stage the nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a 35-year-old male patient. The features of an adrenal mass on the CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) were thought to show adrenal metastasis. However, the patient did not complain about flushing, palpitation, headache or excessive sweating. His blood pressure was 132/74 mmHg, and his pulse rate was 82 bpm. A pheochromocytoma was found during a biochemical diagnosis that evaluated the catecholamine in urine collected over a 24-hour period. The urine had elevated urinary adrenaline, metanephrine, and vanillylmandelic. An I123 MIBG scan showed avid tracer uptake in the right adrenal mass with no evidence of abnormal uptake elsewhere. A right adrenalectomy operation was performed and a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma was confirmed histopathologically. Incidental adrenal masses detected in the presence history of cancer should always be subjected to hormonal evaluation. Although patients may be asymptomatic, the probability of incidental pheochromocytoma should not be ignored.

  6. [Analysis of a series pheochromocytoma cases over 15 years].

    PubMed

    Rojo Alvaro, J; Toni, M; Ollero, Md; Pineda, Jj; Munárriz, P; Anda, E

    2012-01-01

    The pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumour derived from chromaffin cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Eighty to eighty-five percent of these tumours are localized in the adrenal medulla. When pheocromocytomas are found outside the adrenal gland they are referred to as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. The diagnosis is confirmed by elevation of catecholamines and the metanephrines in blood plasma and urine. Localization of the tumour should be done following biochemical diagnosis by means of CT scan and/or MRI. The treatment of choice is tumour resection by laparoscopic surgery. A review was made of all patient medical histories diagnosed with pheochromocytoma confirmed by the pathology reports of Pathological anatomy of the Navarre hospital Complex (Anatomía patológica del Complejo hospitalario de Navarra A y B) between 1996 to 2010. Descriptive analysis was made using the IBM SPSS statistics program. Our series consists of 43 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma over a span of 15 years. The average age on presentation was 47 years. Among the younger patients specific genetic syndromes were found. Computerized tomography was the most widely used method of localization. Contradictory results were found regarding perioperative medical management protocols. All pheocromocytoma tumours in this series were benign. It is advisable to carry out a genetic study on patients under twenty. The biochemical indicators with the greatest diagnostic sensitivity were the levels of normetanephrine and metanephrine in urine. Surgery was the only treatment option.

  7. Activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in human malignant glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells treated with sulforaphane.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Weinberg, M S; Banik, N L; Patel, S J; Ray, S K

    2006-09-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant and prevalent brain tumor that still remains incurable. Recent studies reported anti-cancer effect of the broccoli-derived compound sulforaphane. We explored the mechanisms of sulforaphane-mediated apoptosis in human glioblastoma T98G and U87MG cells. Wright staining and ApopTag assay confirmed apoptosis in glioblastoma cells treated with sulforaphane. Increase in intracellular free Ca2+ was detected by fura-2 assay, suggesting activation of Ca2+-dependent pathways for apoptosis. Western blotting was used to detect changes in expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins resulting in increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio that indicated a commitment of glioblastoma cells to apoptosis. Upregulation of calpain, a Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, activated caspase-12 that in turn caused activation of caspase-9. With the increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c was released from mitochondria to cytosol for sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Increased calpain and caspase-3 activities generated 145 kD spectrin breakdown product and 120 kD spectrin breakdown product, respectively. Activation of caspase-3 also cleaved the inhibitor-of-caspase-activated-DNase. Accumulation of apoptosis-inducing-factor in cytosol suggested caspase-independent pathway of apoptosis as well. Two of the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins were downregulated because of an increase in 'second mitochondrial activator of caspases/Direct inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein binding protein with low pI.' Decrease in nuclear factor kappa B and increase in inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha expression favored the process of apoptosis. Collectively, our results indicated activation of multiple molecular mechanisms for apoptosis in glioblastoma cells following treatment with sulforaphane.

  8. Risk of a Second Malignant Neoplasm After Cancer in Childhood Treated With Radiotherapy: Correlation With the Integral Dose Restricted to the Irradiated Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, France Rubino, Carole; Guerin, Sylvie; Diallo, Ibrahima; Samand, Akthar; Hawkins, Mike; Oberlin, Odile; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; De Vathaire, Florent

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: After successful treatment of cancers in childhood, the occurrence of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) came to the fore. Few studies have considered the relationship between the radiation dose received and the risk of developing an SMN. To take into account the heterogeneity of the dose distribution so as to evaluate the overall risk of an SMN after a childhood cancer, we therefore focused on the integral dose restricted to the irradiated fields. Methods and Materials: The study was performed in a cohort of 4,401 patients who were 3-year survivors of all types of childhood cancer treated between 1947 and 1986 in France and Great Britain. For each patient, the integral dose was estimated for the volume inside the beam edges. Results: We found a significant dose-response relationship between the overall risk of an SMN and the estimated integral dose. The excess relative risk for each incremental unit of the integral dose was only 0.008 in a linear model and 0.017 when a negative exponential term was considered, when adjusted for chemotherapy. The risk of SMN occurrence was 2.6 times higher in the case of irradiation. However among patients who had received radiotherapy, only those who had received the highest integral dose actually had a higher risk. Conclusions: The integral dose in our study cannot be considered as a good predictor of later risks. However other studies with the same study design are obviously needed to evaluate the use of the integral dose as a tool for decision making concerning different radiotherapy techniques.

  9. [Biological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: impact of technological improvement].

    PubMed

    Peyrin, L; Mornex, R

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma must give evidence of increased catecholamine production. This requires measurement of catecholamines and their metabolites (normetanephrine NMN, metanephrine MN and/or VMA) in urine or in plasma. The various assays can be also performed during dynamic test that stimulate or inhibit catecholamine release. The recent introduction in biochemistry of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) has greatly reduced drug-induced interference and has therefore narrowed the reference value range. The two groups of compounds that have most benefited from such analytical improvements are urinary metanephrines and VMA. The technical progress has greatly simplified the laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma both by improving the reliability of already available compounds and by favouring the development of news markers. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of the various urinary and plasmatic markers remains very unequal and the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma requires a carefully planned sequence of studies including appropriate biochemical tests able to affirm or to exclude the diagnosis with a high degree of security while reducing the duration and cost of the investigation. Among urinary markers, metanephrines remain the most direct indices of catecholamine hypersecretion and provide the most reliable biochemical indicators of the existence of pheochromocytoma. The diagnostic sensitivity of urinary metanephrines (about 98%) greatly exceeds that of catecholamines and VMA (60-70%). These differences are related to the diversity and specificity of physiological mechanisms involved in the synthesis, the release and inactivation of markers (catecholamines, metanephrines, VMA) and to the variety of clinical presentations and secretory patterns of pheochromocytomas. Considering the practical necessity of simplifying the collection of laboratory samples, use of plasma assays for the diagnosis of

  10. Restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies for people with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without haematopoietic stem cell support.

    PubMed

    Estcourt, Lise J; Malouf, Reem; Trivella, Marialena; Fergusson, Dean A; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F

    2017-01-27

    Many people diagnosed with haematological malignancies experience anaemia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion plays an essential supportive role in their management. Different strategies have been developed for RBC transfusions. A restrictive transfusion strategy seeks to maintain a lower haemoglobin level (usually between 70 g/L to 90 g/L) with a trigger for transfusion when the haemoglobin drops below 70 g/L), whereas a liberal transfusion strategy aims to maintain a higher haemoglobin (usually between 100 g/L to 120 g/L, with a threshold for transfusion when haemoglobin drops below 100 g/L). In people undergoing surgery or who have been admitted to intensive care a restrictive transfusion strategy has been shown to be safe and in some cases safer than a liberal transfusion strategy. However, it is not known whether it is safe in people with haematological malignancies. To determine the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategies for people diagnosed with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised trials (NRS) in MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1982), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 6), and 10 other databases (including four trial registries) to 15 June 2016. We also searched grey literature and contacted experts in transfusion for additional trials. There was no restriction on language, date or publication status. We included RCTs and prospective NRS that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal RBC transfusion strategy in children or adults with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We identified six studies eligible for inclusion in this review; five RCTs and one NRS. Three

  11. Restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies for people with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without haematopoietic stem cell support

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Malouf, Reem; Trivella, Marialena; Fergusson, Dean A; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    Background Many people diagnosed with haematological malignancies experience anaemia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion plays an essential supportive role in their management. Different strategies have been developed for RBC transfusions. A restrictive transfusion strategy seeks to maintain a lower haemoglobin level (usually between 70 g/L to 90 g/L) with a trigger for transfusion when the haemoglobin drops below 70 g/L), whereas a liberal transfusion strategy aims to maintain a higher haemoglobin (usually between 100 g/L to 120 g/L, with a threshold for transfusion when haemoglobin drops below 100 g/L). In people undergoing surgery or who have been admitted to intensive care a restrictive transfusion strategy has been shown to be safe and in some cases safer than a liberal transfusion strategy. However, it is not known whether it is safe in people with haematological malignancies. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategies for people diagnosed with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised trials (NRS) in MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1982), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 6), and 10 other databases (including four trial registries) to 15 June 2016. We also searched grey literature and contacted experts in transfusion for additional trials. There was no restriction on language, date or publication status. Selection criteria We included RCTs and prospective NRS that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal RBC transfusion strategy in children or adults with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results

  12. Carcinoma-like nonfunctional pheochromocytoma in the right adrenal gland: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Shingo; Takeshita, Hideki; Araki, Saori; Tokairin, Takuo; Kagawa, Makoto; Chiba, Koji; Adachi, Akiko; Noro, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the malignant potential of a pheochromocytoma (PCC) remains controversial. PCC is regarded as a neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and the classification of NETs has gradually been defined over the last decade, particularly for gastroenteropancreatic NET. The present study describes a case of locally advanced, carcinoma-like, nonfunctional PCC, which may be regarded as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) rather than a malignant PCC. A 72-year-old man was referred to Saitama Red Cross Hospital (Saitama, Japan), presenting with a 2-month history of right flank pain. Computed tomography revealed a right adrenal gland tumor, which measured 6.0 cm in diameter, invading the hilum of the right kidney, liver and inferior vena cava (IVC). Radical surgery was performed with en bloc resection of the right kidney, and adjacent parts of the liver and IVC. Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated that all of the resected tissues were positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and Ki-67, and the specimen had a Ki-67 index of 80%. A diagnosis of carcinoma-like PCC or NEC of the adrenal gland was confirmed. Reports of NEC of the adrenal gland are extremely rare in the literature, and classification of PCC as a NET has not yet been fully discussed. The present case may therefore contribute to the classification of NETs in the adrenal gland. PMID:27446458

  13. Newcastle disease virus-induced apoptosis in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Szeberényi, József; Fábián, Zsolt; Töröcsik, Beáta; Kiss, Katalin; Csatary, Laszlo K

    2003-01-01

    The avian paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe infections in birds. It is essentially nonpathogenic in rodents and human beings but was found to have an oncolytic potential against certain types of human malignancies. An attenuated NDV vaccine (designated MTH-68/H) was found to cause regression of various human tumors, but the mechanism of its oncolytic action and its selectivity toward malignant cells remain poorly understood. NDV was reported to cause apoptotic death in several avian cultured cell types. Programmed cell death may thus be the basis for the oncolytic effect of NDV vaccines. To test this possibility, we chose the PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cell line, a widely used model system for apoptosis. The MTH-68/H vaccine was found to cause apoptotic death of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A brief exposure of cells to the virus was found to trigger the apoptotic response. Cell death induced by the vaccine was not accompanied by significant alterations in the major mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways of these cells. Apoptotic DNA fragmentation was not affected by stimulating growth factor pathways or signaling mechanisms mediated by protein kinase C or the second messenger, calcium. In contrast, stimulation of protein kinase A by cyclic adenosine monophosphate analogs gave partial protection against the virus. PC12 cells thus provide a useful model system to study the effects of NDV on cell survival at the molecular level.

  14. New developments in the detection of the clinical behavior of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    de Krijger, Ronald R; van Nederveen, Francien H; Korpershoek, Esther; Dinjens, Winand N M

    2006-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are catecholamine-producing tumors that are, by definition, located in the adrenal medulla. Extra-adrenal catecholamine-producing tumors are called paragangliomas (PGL), which should be distinguished from head and neck paragangliomas, which are of parasympathetic origin. As is true for many (neuro)endocrine tumors, but unlike most other epithelial tumors, histopathological analysis does not allow a distinction to be made between PCC and PGL that will follow a benign course and those that have metastasized or will do so, a condition associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, many studies have been undertaken in the past decade, with the aim of providing a marker or a set of markers that allows clinical behavior in PCC and PGL to be predicted. Despite promising results in some areas, such as histopathological scoring systems, the use of the MIB-1 labeling index, and the analysis of telomerase activity, no single test or combination of tests has thus far yielded sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity to result in widespread acceptance in every day clinical practice. The relative rarity of PCC and PGL combined with a frequency of malignancy from as low as 2% up to 25% has hampered the power of past research and can only be overcome by multicenter collaborative efforts. In this article, recent attempts at marker detection, such as those mentioned above, as well as emerging knowledge on the molecular abnormalities in benign and malignant PCC and PGL will be presented.

  15. Role of VEGF-A and its receptors in sporadic and MEN2-associated pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carla Vaz; Siqueira, Débora Rodrigues; Romitti, Mírian; Ceolin, Lucieli; Brasil, Beatriz Assis; Meurer, Luise; Capp, Clarissa; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2014-03-26

    Pheochromocytoma (PHEO), a rare catecholamine producing tumor arising from the chromaffin cells, may occurs sporadically (76%-80%) or as part of inherited syndromes (20%-24%). Angiogenesis is a fundamental step in tumor proliferation and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is the most well-characterized angiogenic factor. The role of angiogenic markers in PHEO is not fully understood; investigations were therefore made to evaluate the expression of VEGF-A and its receptors in PHEO and correlate to clinical parameters. Twenty-nine samples of PHEO were evaluated for VEGF-A, VEGF receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) VEGFR-2 expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry. Clinical data were reviewed in medical records. The mean age of patients was 38±14 years, and 69% were woman. VEGF-A, VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 staining were detected in nearly all PHEO samples. No significant correlation was observed between VEGF-A, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 expression or MVD and age at diagnosis, tumor size or sporadic and hereditary PHEO. However, the levels of expression of these molecules were significantly higher in malignant PHEO samples (p=0.027, p=0.003 and p=0.026, respectively).VEGF-A and its receptors were shown to be up-regulated in malignant PHEO, suggesting that these molecules might be considered as therapeutic targets for unresectable or metastatic tumors.

  16. The NF1 gene: a frequent mutational target in sporadic pheochromocytomas and beyond.

    PubMed

    Welander, Jenny; Söderkvist, Peter; Gimm, Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Patients suffering from the neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome, which is caused by germline mutations in the NF1 gene, have a tiny but not negligible risk of developing pheochromocytomas. It is, therefore, of interest that the NF1 gene has recently been revealed to carry somatic, inactivating mutations in a total of 35 (21.7%) of 161 sporadic pheochromocytomas in two independent tumor series. A majority of the tumors in both studies displayed loss of heterozygosity at the NF1 locus and a low NF1 mRNA expression. In view of previous findings that many sporadic pheochromocytomas cluster with neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome-associated pheochromocytomas instead of forming clusters of their own, NF1 inactivation appears to be an important step in the pathogenesis of a large number of sporadic pheochromocytomas. A literature and public mutation database review has revealed that pheochromocytomas are among those human neoplasms in which somatic NF1 alterations are most frequent.

  17. Endobronchial metastases from extrathoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Uçan, Eyüp S; Celik, Gülperi; Sener, Gülper; Sevinç, Can; Kilinç, Oğuz; Itil, Oya

    2005-01-01

    Endobronchial metastases (EBM) from extrapulmonary malignant tumors are rare. The most common extrathoracic malignancies associated with EBM are breast, renal and colorectal carcinomas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical, radiographic and bronchoscopic aspects of patients with EBM who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2002. Data about patients' clinical conditions, symptoms, radiographic and endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination results were investigated. EBM was defined as bronchoscopically visible lesions histopathologically identical to the primary tumor in patients with extrapulmonary malignancies. We found 15 cases with EBM. Primary tumors included breast (3), colorectal (3), and renal (2) carcinomas; Malignant Melanoma (2); synovial sarcoma (1), ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma (1), pheochromocytoma (1), hypernephroma (1), and Hodgkin's Disease (1). The most common symptoms were dyspnea (80%), cough (66.6%) and hemoptysis (33.3%). Multiple (40%) or single (13.3%) pulmonary nodules, mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy (40%), and effusion (40%) were the most common radiographic findings. The mean interval from initial diagnosis to diagnosis of EBM was 32.8 months (range, 0-96 months) and median survival time was 18 months (range, 4-84). As a conclusion, various extrapulmonary tumors can metastasize to the bronchus. Symptoms and radiographic findings are similar with those in primary lung cancer. Therefore, EBM should be discriminated from primary lung cancer histopathologically. Although mean survival time is usually short, long-term survivors were reported. Consequently, treatment must be planned according to the histology of the primary tumor, evidence of metastasis to other sites and medical status of the patient.

  18. Transurethral partial cystectomy with 2 μm thulium continuous wave laser in the treatment of bladder pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wei, Zhi-tao; Lu, Jin-shan; Zu, Qiang; Wang, Haiyi; Zhang, Xu

    2012-06-01

    To introduce transurethal partial cystectomy with a 2013 nm thulium laser as a treatment for paraganglioma of the urinary bladder in adults. Three patients with pheochromocytomas were treated transurethrally with a 2013 nm thulium laser under general anesthesia. A 2013 nm thulium laser was used to incise the full-thickness bladder wall around the tumors. The entire bladder wall was peeled between the detrusor muscle layer and outer connective tissues. Tumors with full-thickness detrusor muscle layers at the base were removed together. Intraoperative fluctuation of blood pressure, preoperative values of 24-hour urine catecholamine (CA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and postoperative complications were observed, and postoperative followtwoups were performed. All operations were successful. Operative time was 25 to 32 minutes. Perioperative blood pressure was stable in two cases while blood pressure fluctuated in the third case. When the entire tumor and the full-thickness bladder wall at the base were freed, blood pressure reverted to stability. All values of 24-hour urine CA and VMA were within normal limits postoperatively. Patients were followed for 7 to 9 months postoperatively with no recurrence. This series included highly selected patients who were treated by a single senior surgeon who is rich in experience in performing 2013 nm thulium laser procedures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a 2013 nm thulium laser used to treat bladder pheochromocytoma. It can be applied to precisely vaporize and incise the full-thickness bladder wall and cut down the blood supply of the tumor, then peel it while blood pressure remains stable, thus completing partial cystectomy for bladder pheochromocytoma safely.

  19. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Radiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant and Immunosuppression in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-28

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Transient Myeloproliferative Disorder; Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Mast Cell Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Systemic Amyloidosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T

  20. [A case of adrenal pheochromocytoma with normotention and normal levels of urinary excretion of catecholamines].

    PubMed

    Motomura, K; Okano, J; Sasaki, I; Ogihara, T; Ishii, H; Tanaka, A; Ibayashi, H; Abe, Y; Kuramoto, H; Yanase, T

    1994-09-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of right adrenal mass accidentally pointed out by ultrasonogram. He had no symptoms and no physiological abnormalities. Endcrinological examinations revealed normal adrenocortical function, excluding the possibility of functioning adrenocortical adenoma. Pheochromocytoma seemed to be also unlikely since 24-hr urinary excretion of catecholamines were within normal limits. The tumor was surgically removed and histopathologically diagnosed as pheochromocytoma. This case of adrenal incidentaloma is unique in that little sign of pheochromocytoma was presented before operation. The reasons were discussed especially in respect of tissue contents of catecholamines and opioid peptide in comparison with other cases with pheochromocytoma we had experienced.

  1. Retroperitoneal composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma : a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Composite pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma is a rare tumor with elements of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and neurogenic tumor. Most were located in the adrenal glands, and extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma is extremely rare. Only 4 cases in the retroperitoneum have been described in the online database PUBMED. Here, we report a case of retroperitoneal extra-adrenal composite pheochromocytoma and review the related literature. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1700539911908679 PMID:23587063

  2. IL-6-Producing, Noncatecholamines Secreting Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Davide; Laghi, Andrea; Polidoro, Alessandro; Pacelli, Antonio; Bottaccioli, Anna Giulia; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Stefanelli, Federica; Clemenzi, Piera; Carini, Luisa; Alessandri, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) can be an unusual first clinical manifestation of pheochromocytoma. Pheochromocytomas are tumors that may produce a variety of substances in addition to catecholamines. To date, several cases of IL-6-producing pheochromocytomas have been reported. This report describes a 45-year-old woman with pheochromocytoma who was admitted with FUO, normal blood pressure levels, microcytic and hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoalbuminemia, and normal levels of urine and plasma metanephrines. After adrenalectomy, fever and all inflammatory findings disappeared. PMID:27579040

  3. Mesothelioma - malignant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Mesothelioma - malignant; Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) Images Respiratory system References Broaddus VC, Robinson BWS. Pleural tumors. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  4. Pleural malignancies.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A

    2010-07-01

    Pleural malignancies, primary or metastatic, portend a grim prognosis. In addition to the serious oncologic implications of a pleural malignancy, these tumors can be highly symptomatic. A malignant pleural effusion can cause dyspnea, secondary to lung compression, or even tension physiology from a hydrothorax under pressure. The need to palliate these effusions is a seemingly straightforward clinical scenario, but with nuances that can result in disastrous complications for the patient if not attended to appropriately. Solid pleural malignancies can cause great pain from chest wall invasion or can cause a myriad of morbid symptoms because of the invasion of thoracic structures, such as the heart, lungs, or esophagus. This article reviews pleural malignancies, the purely palliative treatments, and the treatments that are performed with definitive (curative) intent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Analysis of Prognostic Factors in Patients with Ovarian Malignant Germ Cell Tumors Who Are Treated with Fertility-Preserving Surgery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-juan; Liu, Zhen-chan; Wei, Ren-ji; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the clinicopathological factors that affect the prognosis and fertility of patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs). The medical records and follow-up data of 106 patients with MOGCTs who were treated at The Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 1986 and December 2010 were enrolled in this study. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to analyze the survival curves. The different prognoses among the various clinicopathological factors were evaluated using a univariate analysis and a log-rank test. The multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression method. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of different factors on the prognoses and fertility. The median age at primary treatment was 22 years (range: 9-61years). A total of 59 patients received fertility-preserving surgery, 45 received radical surgery and 94 received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 56.5 months (range: 2-309 months). A total of 11 patients experienced a recurrence, and 23 patients died from their cancer. Of the 47 patients who are alive without tumor, 45 have normal menstruation. Of the 39 patients who wished to become pregnant, 31 patients had 33 successful pregnancies that resulted in 33 live births. No statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed with respect to the progression-free survival (PFS; 67.6 vs. 63.3%), the overall survival (OS; 70 vs. 64.1%) and the mortality rate (15.3 vs. 31.3%) between patients who received fertility-preserving surgery and those who received radical surgery. The univariate analysis showed that the pathological types, postoperative residual tumor size, lymph node resection, and omental resection were associated with OS (p < 0.1), whereas postoperative residual tumor size, number of chemotherapy cycles, lymph node resection, and omental resection were associated with PFS (p < 0.1). The multivariate

  6. Combination of 13-Cis Retinoic Acid and Lovastatin: Marked Antitumor Potential In Vivo in a Pheochromocytoma Allograft Model in Female Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  7. Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George; Grossman, Ashley; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  8. Absence of the BRAF V600E mutation in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Johan O; Svahn, F; Welander, J; Brunaud, L; Söderkvist, P; Gimm, O; Stenman, A; Juhlin, C C

    2016-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from the adrenal medulla. These tumors display a highly heterogeneous mutation profile, and a substantial part of the causative genetic events remains to be explained. Recent studies have reported presence of the activating BRAF V600E mutation in PCC, suggesting a role for BRAF activation in tumor development. This study sought to further investigate the occurrence of the BRAF V600E mutation in these tumors. A cohort of 110 PCCs was screened for the BRAF V600E mutation using direct Sanger sequencing. All cases investigated displayed wild-type sequences at nucleotide 1799 in the BRAF gene. Taken together with all previously screened tumors up to date, only 1 BRAF V600E mutation has been found among 361 PCCs. These findings imply that the BRAF V600E mutation is a rare event in pheochromocytoma.

  9. Ventricular Tachycardia and Resembling Acute Coronary Syndrome During Pheochromocytoma Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Lin; Pang, Zhan-qi; Ma, Ben; Li, Ya-wen; Yang, Jian; Dong, He

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pheochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumors, and its cardiac involvement may include transient myocardial dysfunction, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and even ventricular arrhythmias. A patient was referred for evaluation of stuttering chest pain, and his electrocardiogram showed T-wave inversion over leads V1 to V4. Coronary angiography showed 90% stenosis in the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), which was stented. Five days later, the patient had ventricular tachycardia, and severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 224/76 and 70/50 mm Hg. The patient felt abdominal pain and his abdominal ultrasound showed suspicious right adrenal gland tumor. Enhanced computed tomography of adrenal gland conformed that there was a tumor in right adrenal gland accompanied by an upset level of aldosterone. The tumor was removed by laparoscope, and the pathological examination showed pheochromocytoma. After the surgery, the blood pressure turned normal gradually. There was no T-wave inversion in lead V1-V4. Our case illustrates a rare pheochromocytoma presentation with a VT and resembling ACS. In our case, the serious stenosis in the mid of LAD could be explained by worsen the clinical course of myocardial ischemia or severe coronary vasospasm by the excessive amounts of catecholamines released from the tumor. Coronary vasospasm was possible because he had no classic coronary risk factors (e.g. family history and smoking habit, essential hypertension, hyperglycemia and abnormal serum lipoprotein, high body mass index). Thus, pheochromocytoma was missed until he revealed the association of his symptoms with abdominalgia. As phaeochromocytomas that present with cardiovascular complications can be fatal, it is necessary to screen for the disease when patients present with symptoms indicating catecholamine excess. PMID:27057898

  10. Surgical management of pheochromocytoma with the use of metyrosine.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R R; Keiser, H R; Norton, J A; Wall, R T; Robertson, C N; Travis, W; Pass, H I; Walther, M M; Linehan, W M

    1990-01-01

    Despite recommended preoperative preparation with alpha-adrenergic blockers, severe hemodynamic instability may occur during operations to resect pheochromocytoma. We combined the alpha-blocker phenoxybenzamine with the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor metyrosine in an attempt to better manage the hypertension of patients with pheochromocytoma undergoing surgical resection. This report reviews the cases of 25 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for known intra-abdominal pheochromocytoma. Each patient had elevated serum or urine levels of catecholamines or their metabolites. Nineteen patients were prepared before operation with phenoxybenzamine and metyrosine and six patients were given phenoxybenzamine alone. There were no significant differences in maximum, minimum, or mean blood pressure before or after tumor resection between patients who received metyrosine and those who did not. However careful review suggested that those who received metyrosine had more severe disease as judged by biochemical criteria. Study of selected patients matched for age and severity of disease suggested that the intraoperative blood pressure management of patients prepared with phenoxybenzamine and metyrosine was facilitated. In addition metyrosine-prepared patients lost less blood and required less volume replacement during surgery than did non-metyrosine-prepared patients. There were no apparent differences in postoperative fluid requirements. Although the study is not a prospective randomized trial, a retrospective review of patients managed with the combination of phenoxybenzamine and metyrosine suggests that surgery to resect pheochromocytoma can be better performed with both drugs than with phenoxybenzamine alone. The combination regimen appears to result in better blood pressure control, less blood loss, and the need for less intraoperative fluid replacement than does the traditional method of single-agent alpha-adrenergic blockade. PMID:1978640

  11. Excretory urographic localization of adrenal cortical tumors and pheochromocytomas.

    PubMed

    Pickering, R S; Hartman, G W; Weeks, R E; Sheps, S G; Hattery, R R

    1975-02-01

    An excretory urographic evaluation of 124 surgically proved adrenal tumors comprising 65 pheochromocytomas, 36 cortical adenomas and 23 cortical carcinomas is reported. The addition of linear tomography improved the diagnostic accuracy over conventional excretory urography. All types of tomographic examinations demonstrated at least 70% of adrenal tumors. Excretory urographic procedures are relatively safe, simple and economical and should be used as the initial step in attempting to localize clinically suspected and chemically diagnosed adrenal tumors.

  12. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  13. Pathology of Human Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Xenografts in NSG Mice

    PubMed Central

    Powers, James F.; Pacak, Karel; Tischler, Arthur S.

    2016-01-01

    A major impediment to the development of effective treatments for metastatic or unresectable pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas has been the absence of valid models for pre-clinical testing. Attempts to establish cell lines or xenografts from human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas have previously been unsuccessful. NOD-scid gamma (NSG) mice are a recently developed strain lacking functional B-cells, T-cells and NK cells. We report here that xenografts of primary human paragangliomas will take in NSG mice while maintaining their architectural and immunophenotypic characteristics as expressed in the patients. In contrast to grafts of cell lines and of most common types of primary tumors, the growth rate of grafted paragangliomas is very slow, accurately representing the growth rate of most pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas even in metastases in humans. Although the model is therefore technically challenging, primary patient derived xenografts of paragangliomas in NSG mice provide a potentially valuable new tool that could prove especially valuable for testing treatments aimed at eradicating the small tumor deposits that are often numerous in patients with metastatic paraganglioma. PMID:27709415

  14. Unexpected small urinary bladder pheochromocytoma: a nonspecific presentation.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Slama, Adel; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Pheochromocytoma of the urinary bladder is an extremely rare tumor that typically presents with a hypertensive crisis during micturition. Preoperatively, it may be misdiagnosed due to nonspecific symptomatology, physical, and radiologic findings. Method. We report a case of unsuspected small pheochromocytoma which was incidentally found by CT scan and confirmed by the histological aspects after transurethral resection in a 63-year-old woman. Here, we have described the clinical presentation, physical findings, laboratory investigations, and treatment provided in our case. We have also included radiological images and histopathology slides with input from both radiologists and pathologists. Surgical management and postoperative follow-up are discussed, as are details of previous published data. Results. After undergoing surgical treatment (transurethral resection), our patient is asymptomatic, with complete resolution of her pathology. Conclusion. Diagnosis is difficult before histopathological examination and should be considered in patients with no risk factors for usual bladder tumor. Our purpose is to raise clinician's awareness for this condition so that they will be more likely to diagnose it. This will facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment and especially prevent complications due to pheochromocytoma which may be severe.

  15. Childhood familial pheochromocytoma. Conflicting results of localization techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.C.; DeQuattro, V.; Falk, R.; Ansari, A.; Lieberman, E.

    1986-10-01

    Childhood familial pheochromocytoma was investigated in four patients by abdominal computed tomographic scan, (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scan, and vena caval catecholamine sampling. Results conflicted with surgical findings. Computed tomographic scan identified all four adrenal tumors but missed two midline tumors in one patient. (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scan identified two of three adrenal tumors but also suggested extra-adrenal tumors not confirmed at operation in two of three patients. Vena caval sampling for catecholamines confirmed all adrenal tumors but suggested additional tumors not verified at operation in two of three patients. All patients are asymptomatic and have normal urinary catecholamines 15 to 51 months after operation. Because of the frequency of multiple tumors in familial pheochromocytoma, different diagnostic techniques were employed. False-positive results were more frequent with (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine and vena caval sampling. Reinterpretation of the (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans at a later date led to less false-positive interpretation, although the false-negative rate remained unchanged. More pediatric experience with (/sup 131/I)metaiodobenzylguanidine scans and vena caval sampling in familial pheochromocytoma is needed. Confirmation of tumor and its localization rest with meticulous surgical exploration.

  16. Malignant hyperthermia

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling is recommended for anyone with a family history of myopathy, muscular dystrophy, or malignant ... et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine . 17th ed. [online version]. New York, NY: McGraw ...

  17. Role of preoperative adrenergic blockade with doxazosin on hemodynamic control during the surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma: a retrospective study of 48 cases.

    PubMed

    Conzo, Giovanni; Musella, Mario; Corcione, Francesco; Depalma, Maurizio; Stanzione, Francesco; Della-Pietra, Cristina; Palazzo, Antonietta; Napolitano, Salvatore; Pasquali, Daniela; Milone, Marco; Agostino-Sinisi, Antonio; Ferraro, Fausto; Santini, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Authors evaluated the effects of selective adrenergic blockade by means of doxazosin on blood pressure in 48 patients operated on for pheochromocytoma by a multicenter retrospective study. Age, tumor size, surgical approach, and operative time were analyzed as predictive factors of intraoperative hypertensive crises. Forty-eight patients underwent adrenalectomy--four open surgery and 44 laparoscopic surgery--for pheochromocytoma of adrenal glands from 1998 to 2008 after preoperative administration of doxazosin. Perioperative cardiovascular status modifications and surgical medium- and long-term outcomes were analyzed. There was no mortality, conversion rate was 4.5 per cent, and morbidity rate was 8.3 per cent. Intraoperative hypertensive crises (180/90 mmHg or higher) were observed in 14.5 per cent (seven of 48) of patients and were treated pharmacologically with no aftermath. None of the examined variables influenced the occurrence of intraoperative hypertensive episodes. Postoperative hypotension (lower than 90/60 mmHg) was observed in four of 48 patients (8.3%) and was treated by crystalloids and hydrocortisone. In the surgical treatment of pheochromocytoma, the preoperative adrenergic blockade by doxazosin does not prevent intraoperative hypertensive crises. Nevertheless, in our series, they were of short duration and were not associated with major cardiovascular complications. Perioperative hemodynamic instability was managed by preoperative pharmacological treatment, allowing low morbidity.

  18. Moving Beyond "Lumpology": PET/CT Imaging of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Michael S; Hicks, Rodney J

    2015-09-01

    High somatostatin receptor expression on the cell membrane of succinate dehydrogenase mutation-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma provides a potential target for imaging and therapy. (68)Ga-DOTATATE positron emission PET/CT may represent a new gold standard for staging pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and have future therapeutic implications.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal pheochromocytoma in a patient with Von Recklinghausen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhough, Ramin; Barband, Ali Reza; Motayagheni, Negar; Niafar, Mitra; Pourfathi, Hojjat

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma is extremely rare and can be lethal because of dramatic changes in the circulation. We describe a 35-year-old Iranian female with previously diagnosed von Recklinghausen's disease who suffered spontaneous rupture of an adrenal pheochromocytoma, misdiagnosed as renal colic followed by an extensive retroperitoneal hematoma, irreversible hemodynamic shock, and death. PMID:19881191

  20. Plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase in a noradrenalin-secreting pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Aunis, D; Miras-Portugal, M T; Coquillat, G; Warter, J M; Mandel, P

    1976-08-02

    Circulating dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity was studied in a case of a hypertensive patient bearing a pheochromocytoma. The tumour secreted noradrenalin. The enzyme activity was found to decrease gradually after removal of the tumour, and to reach a stable value, in correlation with the decrease of urinary catecholamines. It is concluded that some pheochromocytoma tumours are able to secrete dopamine beta-hydroxylase.

  1. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy for Pheochromocytoma Crisis With Multiple Organ Failure.

    PubMed

    Seo, Masahiro; Yamada, Takahisa; Ozu, Kentaro; Fukunami, Masatake

    2015-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a feared and potentially lethal complication associated with excess release of catecholamine from the tumor, which might lead to multiple organ failure (MOF). The definitive treatment for pheochromocytoma is surgical resection. To safely proceed with surgery, hemodynamic stabilization in the acute phase is indispensable, but it might be extremely challenging in case of pheochromocytoma crisis with MOF even if the sufficient pharmacological drugs would be administered. Catecholamine is a dialyzable substance and is removed by renal replacement therapy. In this report, we described 2 cases of pheochromocytoma crisis with MOF, in which we succeeded in controlling acute unstable hemodynamics by means of catecholamine removal with continuous renal replacement therapy. These cases suggest that continuous renal replacement therapy may be effective to manage unstable hemodynamics because of massive catecholamine excretion in patients with pheochromocytoma crisis and MOF.

  2. CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology diagnosis of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, M; Kumar, Sandeep P; Asha, M; Manjunath, Gv

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor, accounting for <0.1% of the hypertensive population. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas (EAPs) are rarer still, accounting for 10% of all pheochromocytomas. Pheochromocytomas are functional catecholamine-secreting tumors of the paraganglionic chromaffin cells found in the adrenal medulla and the extra-adrenal paraganglia cells. EAPs are readily detected by computed tomography (CT) as soft tissue masses closely associated with the entire length of the abdominal aorta. Here, we present a rare case of EAP in a 45-year-old male hypertensive patient diagnosed by CT-guided fine needle aspiration cytology. The smears showed loosely cohesive tumor cells with prominent anisokaryosis and abundant eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm. The diagnosis was later confirmed by histopathology. The present case also highlights the fact that fine needle aspiration of pheochromocytoma is not necessarily contraindicated.

  3. Global DNA Methylation Analysis Identifies Two Discrete clusters of Pheochromocytoma with Distinct Genomic and Genetic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Samuel; Maharjan, Rajani; Falk-Delgado, Alberto; Crona, Joakim; Cupisti, Kenko; Stålberg, Peter; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2017-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare and frequently heritable neural-crest derived tumours arising from the adrenal medulla or extra-adrenal chromaffin cells respectively. The majority of PPGL tumours are benign and do not recur with distant metastases. However, a sizeable fraction of these tumours secrete vasoactive catecholamines into the circulation causing a variety of symptoms including hypertension, palpitations and diaphoresis. The genetic landscape of PPGL has been well characterized and more than a dozen genes have been described as recurrently mutated. Recent studies of DNA-methylation have revealed distinct clusters of PPGL that share DNA methylation patterns and driver mutations, as well as identified potential biomarkers for malignancy. However, these findings have not been adequately validated in independent cohorts. In this study we use an array-based genome-wide approach to study the methylome of 39 PPGL and 4 normal adrenal medullae. We identified two distinct clusters of tumours characterized by different methylation patterns and different driver mutations. Moreover, we identify genes that are differentially methylated between tumour subcategories, and between tumours and normal tissue. PMID:28327598

  4. Clinical management of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma in Singapore: missed opportunities for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Chew, Winston Hong Wern; Courtney, Eliza; Lim, Kok Hing; Li, Shao Tzu; Chen, Yanni; Tan, Min Han; Chung, Alexander; Khoo, Joan; Loh, Amos; Soh, Shui Yen; Iyer, Prasad; Loh, Lih Ming; Ngeow, Joanne

    2017-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal glands and paraganglia, occurring sporadically or as a range of hereditary tumor syndromes. About 30% of PPGLs are attributed to germline mutations. Clinical presentation, including localization, malignant potential, and age of onset, varies depending on the genetic background. Genetic testing for PPGLs is not well studied in Southeast Asia. We reviewed clinical management of PPGLs in Singapore, highlighting current gaps in clinical practice. Medical records of patients with PPGLs between 2005 and 2016 were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically and stratified into sporadic or familial/syndromic (FS). Twenty-seven (21.8%) patients were referred to the Cancer Genetics Service (CGS). FS PPGLs (18.5%) and extra-adrenal PPGLs (58.1%) incidences were higher than previous studies. Referrals were lower for sporadic PPGLs compared to FS PPGLs (3.7% vs. 100%). Referrals were highest at diagnosis age <20 years old (80%) and decreased with increasing age; ≥20-<40 years old (32.1%), ≥40-<60 years old (10.6%). Genetic testing was taken up in 12/27 (44.4%) patients of which 7/12 (58.3%, 3 SDHB, 2 SDHD, 2 VHL) had germline mutations. Opportunities for genetic testing are frequently missed due to low referral rates in patients with apparently sporadic PPGLs, particularly between ages 20-60.

  5. Exome sequencing identifies MAX mutations as a cause of hereditary pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Gracia-Aznárez, Francisco J; Schiavi, Francesca; Landa, Iñigo; Leandro-García, Luis J; Letón, Rocío; Honrado, Emiliano; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Caronia, Daniela; Pita, Guillermo; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Taschin, Elisa; Bobisse, Sara; Pica, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Hernández-Lavado, Rafael; Díaz, José A; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; González-Neira, Anna; Roncador, Giovanna; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Benítez, Javier; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2011-06-19

    Hereditary pheochromocytoma (PCC) is often caused by germline mutations in one of nine susceptibility genes described to date, but there are familial cases without mutations in these known genes. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with hereditary PCC (cases) and identified mutations in MAX, the MYC associated factor X gene. Absence of MAX protein in the tumors and loss of heterozygosity caused by uniparental disomy supported the involvement of MAX alterations in the disease. A follow-up study of a selected series of 59 cases with PCC identified five additional MAX mutations and suggested an association with malignant outcome and preferential paternal transmission of MAX mutations. The involvement of the MYC-MAX-MXD1 network in the development and progression of neural crest cell tumors is further supported by the lack of functional MAX in rat PCC (PC12) cells and by the amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma and suggests that loss of MAX function is correlated with metastatic potential.

  6. Multi-omics analysis defines core genomic alterations in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Vega, Luis Jaime; Letouzé, Eric; Burnichon, Nelly; Buffet, Alexandre; Disderot, Pierre-Hélie; Khalifa, Emmanuel; Loriot, Céline; Elarouci, Nabila; Morin, Aurélie; Menara, Mélanie; Lepoutre-Lussey, Charlotte; Badoual, Cécile; Sibony, Mathilde; Dousset, Bertrand; Libé, Rossella; Zinzindohoue, Franck; Plouin, Pierre François; Bertherat, Jérôme; Amar, Laurence; de Reyniès, Aurélien; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCCs/PGLs) are neural crest-derived tumours with a very strong genetic component. Here we report the first integrated genomic examination of a large collection of PCC/PGL. SNP array analysis reveals distinct copy-number patterns associated with genetic background. Whole-exome sequencing shows a low mutation rate of 0.3 mutations per megabase, with few recurrent somatic mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL. DNA methylation arrays and miRNA sequencing identify DNA methylation changes and miRNA expression clusters strongly associated with messenger RNA expression profiling. Overexpression of the miRNA cluster 182/96/183 is specific in SDHB-mutated tumours and induces malignant traits, whereas silencing of the imprinted DLK1-MEG3 miRNA cluster appears as a potential driver in a subgroup of sporadic tumours. Altogether, the complete genomic landscape of PCC/PGL is mainly driven by distinct germline and/or somatic mutations in susceptibility genes and reveals different molecular entities, characterized by a set of unique genomic alterations. PMID:25625332

  7. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    PubMed

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  8. Hemostasis and malignancy.

    PubMed

    Francis, J L; Biggerstaff, J; Amirkhosravi, A

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that the hemostatic system is involved in the growth and spread of malignant disease. There is an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease in patients with cancers and hemostatic abnormalities are extremely common in such patients. Antihemostatic agents have been successfully used to treat a variety of experimental tumors, and several clinical trials in humans have been initiated. Although metastasis is undoubtedly multifactorial, intravascular coagulation activation and peritumor fibrin deposition seem to be important. The mechanisms by which hemostatic activation facilitates the malignant process remain to be completely elucidated. Of central importance may be the presence on malignant cells of tissue factor and urokinase receptor. Recent studies have suggested that these proteins, and others, may be involved at several stages of metastasis, including the key event of neovascularization. Tissue factor, the principal initiator of coagulation, may have additional roles, outside of fibrin formation, that are central to the biology of some solid tumors.

  9. Malignant mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alastair J; Parker, Robert J; Wiggins, John

    2008-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a fatal asbestos-associated malignancy originating from the lining cells (mesothelium) of the pleural and peritoneal cavities, as well as the pericardium and the tunica vaginalis. The exact prevalence is unknown but it is estimated that mesotheliomas represent less than 1% of all cancers. Its incidence is increasing, with an expected peak in the next 10–20 years. Pleural malignant mesothelioma is the most common form of mesothelioma. Typical presenting features are those of chest pain and dyspnoea. Breathlessness due to a pleural effusion without chest pain is reported in about 30% of patients. A chest wall mass, weight loss, sweating, abdominal pain and ascites (due to peritoneal involvement) are less common presentations. Mesothelioma is directly attributable to occupational asbestos exposure with a history of exposure in over 90% of cases. There is also evidence that mesothelioma may result from both para-occupational exposure and non-occupational "environmental" exposure. Idiopathic or spontaneous mesothelioma can also occur in the absence of any exposure to asbestos, with a spontaneous rate in humans of around one per million. A combination of accurate exposure history, along with examination radiology and pathology are essential to make the diagnosis. Distinguishing malignant from benign pleural disease can be challenging. The most helpful CT findings suggesting malignant pleural disease are 1) a circumferential pleural rind, 2) nodular pleural thickening, 3) pleural thickening of > 1 cm and 4) mediastinal pleural involvement. Involvement of a multidisciplinary team is recommended to ensure prompt and appropriate management, using a framework of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery and symptom palliation with end of life care. Compensation issues must also be considered. Life expectancy in malignant mesothelioma is poor, with a median survival of about one year following diagnosis. PMID:19099560

  10. Comparison of outcomes among secondary covered metallic, uncovered metallic, and plastic biliary stents in treating occluded primary metallic stents in malignant distal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hee; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Jeong Youp; Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Yoon Jae; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Jae Bock; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2011-02-01

    The self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been widely used for unresectable malignant biliary obstruction but eventually becomes occluded by tumor ingrowth/overgrowth and sludge. Therefore, we aimed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of secondary stents and to find differences according to various combinations of the first and second stents for the management of occluded SEMSs in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. Between 1999 and November 2008, 77 patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent secondary biliary stent placement as "stent-in-stent" at three university hospitals in Korea (40 covered, 26 uncovered, and 11 plastic stents). The membrane of the covered SEMS was regarded as the barrier against tumor ingrowth. We categorized the patients into three groups based on whether the covered SEMS was either the first or the second stent: membrane-SEMS (18 covered-covered; 9 covered-uncovered; 22 uncovered-covered SEMS), bare-SEMS (17 uncovered-uncovered SEMS), and plastic stent (3 covered-plastic; 8 uncovered-plastic). The median patency of second stents was 138, 109, and 88 days (covered, uncovered, and plastic stents). The second covered SEMSs had a significantly longer patency than plastic stents (p=0.047). In a multivariate analysis including membrane-SEMS, bare-SEMS, and plastic stent groups, the bare-SEMS had a worse cumulative stent patency (HR=2.04, CI=1.08-3.86) and survival time (HR=2.37, CI=1.25-4.49) than the membrane-SEMS. Patients with ampulla of Vater cancer had better stent patency (HR=0.27, CI=0.08-0.98) and survival (HR=0.17, CI=0.04-0.77) than those with other pancreatobiliary malignancies. In addition, antitumor treatment prolonged survival time (HR=0.50, CI=0.26-0.99). The placement of additional biliary stents using the "stent-in-stent" method is an effective treatment for an occluded metallic primary stent. In addition, double biliary SEMS placement using at least one covered SEMS (in the primary and

  11. ISH AHA-2 A CASE OF CHRONIC INDOLENT PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA WHICH CAUSED MEDICALLY-CONTROLLED HYPERTENSION BUT TREATMENT-RESISTANT DIABETES MELLITUS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Young; Park, Chan-Soon; Na, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Chan Joo; Park, Sungha

    2016-09-01

    , consistent with pheochromocytoma (Figure 7).After sympathetic blockade with alpha agonist (Doxazosin), the mass was removed by unilateral adrenalectomy. Pathologic evaluated showed 6.5 × 6.0 × 5.5 cm of pheochromocytoma with moderate risk of malignancy (Figure 8 - 11).After surgical removal of pheochromocytoma (Year 9), diabetes mellitus was completely disappeared and blood pressure was controlled with single antihypertensive medication (Valsartan 80 mg once daily, 110/67mmHg - 90 BPM).

  12. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Methods Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Results Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times. PMID:26244367

  13. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times.

  14. Chemotherapy-refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and indolent B-cell malignancies can be effectively treated with autologous T cells expressing an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Kochenderfer, James N; Dudley, Mark E; Kassim, Sadik H; Somerville, Robert P T; Carpenter, Robert O; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yang, James C; Phan, Giao Q; Hughes, Marybeth S; Sherry, Richard M; Raffeld, Mark; Feldman, Steven; Lu, Lily; Li, Yong F; Ngo, Lien T; Goy, Andre; Feldman, Tatyana; Spaner, David E; Wang, Michael L; Chen, Clara C; Kranick, Sarah M; Nath, Avindra; Nathan, Debbie-Ann N; Morton, Kathleen E; Toomey, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Steven A

    2015-02-20

    T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19(+) B-cell malignancies. We treated 15 patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Nine patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), two had indolent lymphomas, and four had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients received a conditioning chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by a single infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Of 15 patients, eight achieved complete remissions (CRs), four achieved partial remissions, one had stable lymphoma, and two were not evaluable for response. CRs were obtained by four of seven evaluable patients with chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL; three of these four CRs are ongoing, with durations ranging from 9 to 22 months. Acute toxicities including fever, hypotension, delirium, and other neurologic toxicities occurred in some patients after infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells; these toxicities resolved within 3 weeks after cell infusion. One patient died suddenly as a result of an unknown cause 16 days after cell infusion. CAR T cells were detected in the blood of patients at peak levels, ranging from nine to 777 CAR-positive T cells/μL. This is the first report to our knowledge of successful treatment of DLBCL with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of treating chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. The numerous remissions obtained provide strong support for further development of this approach. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Chemotherapy-Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Indolent B-Cell Malignancies Can Be Effectively Treated With Autologous T Cells Expressing an Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kochenderfer, James N.; Dudley, Mark E.; Kassim, Sadik H.; Somerville, Robert P.T.; Carpenter, Robert O.; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yang, James C.; Phan, Giao Q.; Hughes, Marybeth S.; Sherry, Richard M.; Raffeld, Mark; Feldman, Steven; Lu, Lily; Li, Yong F.; Ngo, Lien T.; Goy, Andre; Feldman, Tatyana; Spaner, David E.; Wang, Michael L.; Chen, Clara C.; Kranick, Sarah M.; Nath, Avindra; Nathan, Debbie-Ann N.; Morton, Kathleen E.; Toomey, Mary Ann; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose T cells can be genetically modified to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). We assessed the safety and efficacy of administering autologous anti-CD19 CAR T cells to patients with advanced CD19+ B-cell malignancies. Patients and Methods We treated 15 patients with advanced B-cell malignancies. Nine patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), two had indolent lymphomas, and four had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Patients received a conditioning chemotherapy regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine followed by a single infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Results Of 15 patients, eight achieved complete remissions (CRs), four achieved partial remissions, one had stable lymphoma, and two were not evaluable for response. CRs were obtained by four of seven evaluable patients with chemotherapy-refractory DLBCL; three of these four CRs are ongoing, with durations ranging from 9 to 22 months. Acute toxicities including fever, hypotension, delirium, and other neurologic toxicities occurred in some patients after infusion of anti-CD19 CAR T cells; these toxicities resolved within 3 weeks after cell infusion. One patient died suddenly as a result of an unknown cause 16 days after cell infusion. CAR T cells were detected in the blood of patients at peak levels, ranging from nine to 777 CAR-positive T cells/μL. Conclusion This is the first report to our knowledge of successful treatment of DLBCL with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. These results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of treating chemotherapy-refractory B-cell malignancies with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. The numerous remissions obtained provide strong support for further development of this approach. PMID:25154820

  16. Hematologic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogstraten, B.

    1986-01-01

    The principle aim of this book is to give practical guidelines to the modern treatment of the six important hematologic malignancies. Topics considered include the treatment of the chronic leukemias; acute leukemia in adults; the myeloproliferative disorders: polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and idiopathic myelofibrosis/agnogenic myeloid metaplasia; Hodgkin's Disease; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; and Multiple Myeloma.

  17. Tyrosine kinase receptors as molecular targets In pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Cassol, Clarissa A.; Winer, Daniel; Liu, Wei; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L.

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors shown to be responsive to multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Despite growing knowledge regarding their genetic basis, the ability to predict behavior in these tumors remains challenging. There is also limited knowledge of their tyrosine kinase receptor expression and whether the clinical response observed to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sunitinib relates only to its anti-angiogenic properties or also due to a direct effect on tumor cells. To answer these questions, an in vitro model of sunitinib treatment of a pheochromocytoma cell line was created. Sunitinib targets (VEGFRs, PDGFRs, C-KIT), FGFRs and cell cycle regulatory proteins were investigated in human tissue microarrays. SDHB immunohistochemistry was used as a surrogate marker for the presence of succinate dehydrogenase mutations. The FGFR4 G388R SNP was also investigated. Sunitinib treatment in vitro decreases cell proliferation mainly by targeting cell cycle, DNA metabolism, and cell organization genes. FGFR1, -2 and -4, VEGFR2, PDGFRα and p16 were overexpressed in primary human pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Discordant results were observed for VEGFR1, p27 and p21 (overexpressed in paragangliomas but underexpressed in pheochromoctyomas); PDGFRβ, Rb and Cyclin D1 (overexpressed in paragangliomas only) and FGFR3 (overexpressed in pheochromocytomas and underexpressed in paragangliomas). Low expression of C-KIT, p53, Aurora Kinase A and B was observed. Nuclear FGFR2 expression was associated with increased risk of metastasis (odds ratio [OR]=7.61; p=0.008), as was membranous PDGFRα (OR= 13.71, p=0.015), membranous VEGFR1 (OR=8.01; p=0.037), nuclear MIB1 (OR=1.26, p=0.008) and cytoplasmic p27 (OR=1.037, p=0.030). FGFR3, VEGFR2 and C-KIT levels were associated with decreased risk of metastasis. We provide new insights into the mechanistic actions of sunitinib in pheochromoctyomas and paragangliomas and support current

  18. The Genetic Basis of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Pacak, Karol; Linehan, W. Marston

    2015-01-01

    Chromaffin cells are catecholamine-producing cells derived from neural crest tissue. Chromaffin tumors (ChT) are rare tumors arising from these cells and are divided into pheochromocytoma (PCC) arising from adrenal tissue and paraganglioma (PGL) arising from extra-adrenal ganglia. Previously, ∼10% were believed to be hereditary, but advances in genome sequencing has shown roughly 35% of apparently sporadic tumors have a hereditary component. In this review we describe both classic and newly discovered hereditary ChT syndromes and provide recommendations for genetic testing. In many cases the genes associated with these conditions are linked to common kidney cancer pathways familiar to urologic oncologists. PMID:24642075

  19. Thyrotoxic and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kodai; Miyake, Takahito; Okada, Hideshi; Yamaji, Fuminori; Kitagawa, Yuichiro; Fukuta, Tetsuya; Yasuda, Ryu; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Okamoto, Haruka; Nachi, Sho; Doi, Tomoaki; Yoshida, Takahiro; Kumada, Keisuke; Yoshida, Shozo; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Toyoda, Izumi; Ogura, Shinji

    2017-06-23

    Thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis are rare, life-threatening, emergency endocrine diseases with various clinical manifestations. Here we report a case of a patient who simultaneously developed thyrotoxic crisis and pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis and required intensive cardiovascular management. A 60-year-old Asian man experienced nausea and vomiting, and subsequently developed dyspnea and cold sweats while farming. His serum free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, and thyrotropin receptor antibody levels were elevated at 2.9 ng/dL, 7.2 pg/dL, and 4.7 IU/L, respectively. Serum thyrotropin levels were suppressed at less than 0.01 μIU/mL. Thyroid echography demonstrated no thyroid swelling (23 × 43 mm). A whole body computed tomography was performed for systemic evaluation. This revealed exophthalmos and a mass of size 57 × 64 mm in the anterior pararenal space. Based on these findings, we made an initial diagnosis of thyrotoxic crisis secondary to exacerbation of Grave's hyperthyroidism. Treatment was begun with an iodine agent at a dose of 36 mg/day, thiamazole at a dose of 30 mg/day, and hydrocortisone at a dose of 300 mg daily for 3 consecutive days. To control tachycardia, continuous intravenously administered propranolol and diltiazem infusions were given. At the same time, small doses of doxazosin and carvedilol were used for both alpha and beta adrenergic blockade. On hospital day 5, his blood pressure and serum catecholamine concentrations (adrenalin 42,365 pg/mL, dopamine 6409 pg/mL, noradrenalin 72,212 pg/mL) were still high despite higher beta blocker and calcium channel blocker doses. These findings contributed to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma multisystem crisis with simultaneous thyrotoxic crisis. We increased the doses of doxazosin and carvedilol, which stabilized his hemodynamic status. On hospital day 16, metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed high accumulation in the right adrenal gland tumor

  20. Laparoscopic cortical sparing adrenalectomy for pediatric bilateral pheochromocytoma: anesthetic management.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Geetha Chamanhalli; Anandaswamy, Tejesh Channasandra

    2014-05-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor, which is seen rarely in children. These tumors predominantly secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine. They might be familial and associated with hereditary tumors such as Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. The child might present with a spectrum of clinical manifestation including hypertension, headache, visual disturbances, and behavioral problems. A meticulous preoperative preparation is essential for a stable intraoperative and postoperative outcome. We described successful perioperative management of a child who underwent bilateral laparoscopic cortical sparing adrenalectomy and a repeated surgery for the residual tumor removal.

  1. Comparison of plasma free metanephrines between healthy dogs and 3 dogs with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Green, Bradley A; Frank, Elizabeth L

    2013-12-01

    Adrenomegaly and hypertension are common clinical entities in canine medicine for which testing for pheochromocytoma is recommended. Yet, a validated biochemical test for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in dogs does not exist. In human medicine, plasma free metanephrine testing is the diagnostic standard for the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of measurement of plasma free metanephrines in dogs for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Plasma free metanephrines were measured in 11 healthy dogs and in 3 dogs confirmed to have a pheochromocytoma. The metanephrine assays were performed at a reference laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The plasma free metanephrine and normetanephrine concentrations in 11 healthy dogs were normally distributed and were used to create tentative reference intervals. All 3 dogs with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma clearly had higher concentrations of plasma free metanephrines. This pilot study demonstrates the potential utility of plasma free metanephrines levels for the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in dogs. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  2. Adiponectin - A possible factor in the pathogenesis of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances in patients with pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Elenkova, Atanaska; Matrozova, Joanna; Zacharieva, Sabina; Kirilov, Georgi; Kalinov, Krasimir

    2010-06-01

    Glucose metabolism disturbances are relatively common feature in pheochromocytoma patients. Decreased insulin secretion due to the inhibitory effect of supraphysiological plasma catecholamine concentrations was considered to be the main cause for pheochromocytoma-associated diabetes mellitus. However, data from animal and clinical studies have suggested that catecholamines can induce insulin resistance. More recent trials support the hypothesis that catecholamines inhibit adiponectin secretion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity in patients with endocrine hypertension due to pheochromocytoma comparing them to these in patients with essential hypertension and healthy subjects. Three groups of subjects were enrolled in the study: 26 patients with pheochromocytoma, 30 normal-weight patients with essential hypertension and 31 healthy subjects. Adiponectin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with pheochromocytoma compared to these in normal-weight hypertensive patients and healthy controls. Postoperative adiponectin levels were significantly higher then preoperative despite of the increased BMI in pheochromocytoma patients. There was a significant negative correlation between adiponectin serum concentrations and preprandial glucose, insulin levels and HOMA as a marker of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to previous studies, we did not find a significant difference between circulating adiponectin levels in normal-weight patients with EH and healthy subjects. Hypoadiponectinemia in pheochromocytoma patients may represent a possible pathogenic factor for the development of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances in these patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lower Bone Mass and Higher Bone Resorption in Pheochromocytoma: Importance of Sympathetic Activity on Human Bone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Jun; Kwak, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeonmok; Lee, Seung Hun; Song, Kee-Ho; Suh, Sunghwan; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Koh, Jung-Min

    2017-08-01

    Despite the apparent biological importance of sympathetic activity on bone metabolism in rodents, its role in humans remains questionable. To clarify the link between the sympathetic nervous system and the skeleton in humans. Among 620 consecutive subjects with newly diagnosed adrenal incidentaloma, 31 patients with histologically confirmed pheochromocytoma (a catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumor) and 280 patients with nonfunctional adrenal incidentaloma were defined as cases and controls, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, subjects with pheochromocytoma had 7.2% lower bone mass at the lumbar spine and 33.5% higher serum C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) than those without pheochromocytoma (P = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively), whereas there were no statistical differences between groups in bone mineral density (BMD) at the femur neck and total hip and in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSALP) level. The odds ratio (OR) for lower BMD at the lumbar spine in the presence of pheochromocytoma was 3.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 8.56). However, the ORs for lower BMD at the femur neck and total hip did not differ according to the presence of pheochromocytoma. Serum CTX level decreased by 35.2% after adrenalectomy in patients with pheochromocytoma, whereas serum BSALP level did not change significantly. This study provides clinical evidence showing that sympathetic overstimulation in pheochromocytoma can contribute to adverse effects on human bone through the increase of bone loss (especially in trabecular bone), as well as bone resorption.

  4. Limitations of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy in locating pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, I.R.; Thompson, N.W.; Shapiro, B.; Sisson, J.C.

    1985-07-01

    /sup 131/I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (/sup 131/I-MIBG) scintigraphy for the location of pheochromocytomas has proved to be a major advance in patient management. In combination with computerized tomographic scanning, nearly all pheochromocytomas can be located before surgery and invasive investigations are now indicated only in exceptional cases. However, there are still lessons to be learned concerning the optimal administration and interpretation of /sup 131/I-MIBG scintigraphy. With careful attention to detail and an awareness of isotope distribution, false positive studies should be extremely rare. While the incidence of false negative studies is uncommon, these certainly occur. A patient with sporadic bilateral adrenal medullary hyperplasia, bilateral pheochromocytomas, and additional benign pheochromocytomas arising in paraganglia tissue anterior to the abdominal aorta is presented. The right adrenal pheochromocytoma was not identified on /sup 131/I-MIBG imaging. The authors conclude that even with current locating techniques, the traditional surgical approach to pheochromocytoma should not be abandoned. This involves transabdominal exploration of both adrenal glands and careful examination of all possible sites of extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas.

  5. New advances in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: moving beyond catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Jacques W M; Pacak, Karel; Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2002-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas are dangerous tumors that, although a rare cause of hypertension, require consideration among large numbers of patients. The resulting low prevalence of the tumor among tested populations and the inadequacies of commonly used biochemical tests make excluding or confirming the tumor an often difficult and time-consuming task. Recognition that catecholamines are metabolized to free metanephrines within pheochromocytoma tumor cells, and that this process is independent of catecholamine release, provides a rationale for use of these metabolites in the biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Here we briefly review the history of biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in relation to recent data about the diagnostic utility of plasma free metanephrines for detection of these tumors. Measurements of urinary or plasma catecholamines have reasonable sensitivity for detection of most pheochromocytomas, particularly those in patients with sustained hypertension. False-negative test results can, however, occur in asymptomatic patients tested because of an adrenal incidentaloma or a familial predisposition for pheochromocytoma, or when sampling is carried out between episodes of paroxysmal hypertension. Measurements of urinary total metanephrines or vanillylmandelic acid are less reliable and are of little value as initial screening tests. In contrast, measurements of plasma concentrations or free metanephrines or 24-hour urinary outputs of fractionated normetanephrine and metanephrine almost always reveal the tumor. Although, both tests have similarly high sensitivity, the relatively low specificity of urinary fractionated metanephrines means that pheochromocytomas can be more efficiently excluded or confirmed using measurements of plasma free metanephrines.

  6. Iodine 131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and biochemical analyses in suspected pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.W.; Feldman, J.M.; Beam, C.A.; Leight, G.S.; Coleman, R.E. )

    1991-07-01

    Detection of abnormal catecholamine levels and localization of tumor mass are important factors in the diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Iodine 131-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy was performed in 64 patients with suspected pheochromocytoma if their urinary catecholamine levels were borderline or elevated, or if the clinical suspicion for pheochromocytoma was high in spite of normal urinary catecholamine determinations. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scans were evaluated for abnormal localization of tracer. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were analyzed for vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Thirty of the 64 patients had pheochromocytomas. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan had a sensitivity and a specificity of 88%. The 24-hour urine vanillylmandelic acid and norepinephrine measurements had the best sensitivity (97%), while the vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid measurements had the best specificity (91%). In patients in whom the vanillylmandelic acid measurement and the 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan were normal, no pheochromocytomas were found. In patients in whom the vanillylmandelic acid measurement and 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan were abnormal, a pheochromocytoma was always present. The 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scan often documents the presence or absence of a pheochromocytoma and provides localization of the tumor in the preoperative evaluation of these patients.

  7. Mutation analysis of the RET gene in individuals with sporadic and familial pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, S.; Sirugo, G.; Bale, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is common to many familial cancer syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis (NF). Although sporadic cases of pheochromocytoma have been examined for mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16 of the RET gene, only one case with a mutation in exon 16 has been reported thus far. We are performing systematic examination of exons of the RET gene, which has previously been associated with mutation in both MEN2 A and B, to determine the role RET may play in the etiology of pheochromocytoma. Seventeen cases of sporadic pheochromocytoma and 3 cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma were obtained from the pathology archives. Histopathology of all specimens was confirmed to be either pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma before DNA was extracted from 0.5{mu} thin sections of paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA from familial pheochromocytoma patients was also available for analysis. All sporadic and familial cases were amplified for exons 2, 6 and 16 of the RET gene. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed for exons 2 and 6. On finding a variation in the SSCP pattern in the pheochromocytoma kindred we sequenced all the samples for exon 2. A single base pair variation was found, which did not segregate with pheochromocytoma in the family. No variant SSCP patterns have been observed with the exon 6 PCR products thus far. Exon 16 PCR products were subjected to DNA restriction analysis with Fok I. This enzyme detects a single base pair change associated with MEN2 B. With the exception of one sample with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, all samples showed the normal pattern on DNA restriction analysis. Thus we can exclude exons 2 and 6 of the RET gene in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. SSCP analyses with other exons in the RET gene are underway.

  8. Anesthetic management of a rare case of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Pratibha, S. D.; Katti, Vijay; Patil, Basvaraj

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetic management of pheochromocytoma is complicated and challenging. Extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that produces, stores and secretes catecholamines. The main-stay in the management of pheochromocytoma surgeries is Preoperative preparation which has improved perioperative outcome. Modern anesthetic drugs with advanced monitoring have contributed to intraoperative stability. Resection of the tumor results in acute withdrawal of catecholamines, which may lead to severe hypotension. In perioperative period, adequate hydration should be maintained. Beta-blockers, nitroglycerine, sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine are required to avoid hemodynamic fluctuations and should be used appropriately. PMID:26957701

  9. Perirenal (18)F-FDG Uptake in a Patient with a Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihyun; Byun, Byung Hyun; Jung, Chang Won; Moon, Hansol; Chang, Kyoung Jin; Lim, Ilhan; Kim, Byung Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo

    2014-09-01

    Increased (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of brown fat on (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) originating from physiological activation is a common incidental finding and is usually located in the neck, shoulder, and supraclavicular areas. We present a case of an incidental pheochromocytoma showing diffusely increased (18)F-FDG uptake in bilateral perirenal fat tissue as well as supraclavicular and paravertebral fat tissue on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The patient had no clinical symptoms except hypertension, and a pheochromocytoma was confirmed in a postsurgical specimen. A pheochromocytoma should be considered a cause in cases of increased (18)F-FDG uptake of perirenal brown fat.

  10. Adrenal pheochromocytoma presenting with Takotsubo-pattern cardiomyopathy and acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Yi-Lun; Chen, Pei-Chi; Lee, Chin-Cheng; Chua, Su-Kiat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that causes hypertension, facial pallor, and headache. Pheochromocytoma patients rarely present with acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock. Method: We discuss the case of a female patient with Takotsubo-pattern cardiomyopathy who presented with acute heart failure caused by pheochromocytoma. Result: Treatment was adjusted based on the data of the pulse contour cardiac output system. After intensive hydration and medication for heart failure, the condition of the patient stabilized. Conclusion: Before confirming the diagnosis, pulse contour cardiac output data could provide a direction for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27603405

  11. Diverse proportion in composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma may induce varied clinical symptom: comparison of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bu-Yi; Zhao, Mingfei; Li, Baizhou; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma is extremely rare. We described two cases of composite pheochromocytomas in the adrenal medullar. Case 1 was a 70-year-old male presenting with lower abdominal pain and normal blood electrolytes. Case 2 was a 48-year-old female with palpitation and back tenderness. Biochemical investigations showed hypocalcium, hypokalemia and high level of vma. The histological images and the immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the two cases composed of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuromoma components. Ganglioneuroma component in case 2 accounted for more proportion than that in case 1. We speculated that the varied clinical symptoms were related with the diverse proportions in composite pheochromocytome-ganglioneuroma.

  12. Severe Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy in Pheochromocytoma: Importance of Susceptibility-Weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Alpay; Aralasmak, Ayse; Kocakoc, Ercan

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare cause of hypertension in children. Hypertension is one of the common reasons of posterior reversible encephalopathy. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a serious and unexpected complication of hypertensive encephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma, and very rarely seen in the childhood. Intracerebral hemorrhages should be searched if there are hypertensive reversible signal changes on the brain. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a more sensitive method than conventional MRI when demonstrating cerebral microhemorrhagic foci. This is the first report of SWI findings on intracerebral hemorrhages in basal ganglia, brain stem and periventricular white matter due to hypertensive encephalopathy in a child with pheochromocytoma. PMID:24043985

  13. A vicious cycle of acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy and circulatory collapse secondary to pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Otusanya, Olufisayo; Goraya, Harmeen; Iyer, Priyanka; Landi, Kristen; Tibb, Amit; Msaouel, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    Acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy is an uncommon, life-threatening manifestation of pheochromocytoma. The massive release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla and their toxic effects on the coronary vessels and the cardiac myocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy in patients with pheochromocytoma. Severe manifestations, such as acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy, may be the initial presentation, especially in unsuspected and untreated pheochromocytoma cases. The clinical course of catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy is unpredictable as patients may rapidly deteriorate into circulatory collapse and multisystem crisis. We report a case of a 25-year-old man who presented with catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy.

  14. Pheochromocytoma: implications in tumorigenesis and the actual management.

    PubMed

    Shah, U; Giubellino, A; Pacak, K

    2012-06-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumors with varied clinical presentations, biochemistries and genetic makeup. These features outline the complexity and the difficulties in studying and understanding the oncogenesis of these tumors. The study of families with genetically inherited mutations in pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes has greatly enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of oncogenesis of the disease, and consequently changed our clinical approach. Several molecular pathways and mutations in their important regulatory proteins have been identified. Such mutations are responsible for the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen and nutrient sensing, apoptosis regulation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The knowledge derived from the study of these pathways will be fundamental in the future clinical management of these patients. As a rare disease that often masks its clinical presentation, the diagnosis is frequently missed and a high level of suspicion is required. Management of this disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach and will be discussed along with advances in its treatment.

  15. [Typical spontaneous changes in heart rate in pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Bramann, H U; Zidek, W; Vetter, H; Grosse-Heitmeyer, W

    1985-01-01

    Investigations in 13 hospitalized patients with pheochromocytomata showed peculiar characteristics of heart rate variation at rest, when compared with normals. All patients were given alpha- and beta-sympatholytic drugs. In one case alpha-methyl-Tyrosine caused I-II degree AV blocks and a stable high frequency sinus rate without physiological variations. Resting heart rate in pheochromocytoma varied interindividually from 55-105/min, in the absence of clinical attacks of the underlying disease. The frequency profile was characterized in 12 patients by sudden and inadequate rises of heart rate (200%) of short duration, which were often recorded within 20 seconds of the onset of muscular activity. A similar but less pronounced heart rate modulation was found 1-2 weeks after operation in 3 cases. Our observations indicate that the heart rate profile described may be a sensitive parameter of dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system in pheochromocytoma. Whether the heart rate characteristics are of diagnostic value has to be assessed by further studies.

  16. Radioimmunoassay of metanephrine and normetanephrine for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Iinuma, K.; Ikeda, I.; Ogihara, T.; Hashizume, K.; Kurata, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    1986-10-01

    Sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays of metanephrine and normetanephrine were developed by use of /sup 125/I-labeled synephrine and specific metanephrine antibody, and /sup 125/I-labeled octopamine and specific normetanephrine antibody. Specific antibody for both metanephrine and normetanephrine was raised in rabbits by immunization with bovine serum albumin conjugated with the corresponding hapten, prepared by the method of Grota and Brown (Endocrinology 1976;98:615). The detection limits of the metanephrine and the normetanephrine radioimmunoassays were 2 and 6 pg/tube, respectively. Mean plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine values for 24 normal subjects were 62 (SD 14) and 100 (SD 40) ng/L, respectively. Mean urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine values for 22 normal subjects were 154 (SD 74) and 217 (SD 109) micrograms/day. For 14 pheochromocytoma patients, plasma metanephrine and normetanephrine values ranged from 29 to 683 and from 28 to 7850 ng/L, and urinary metanephrine and normetanephrine values were 606 to 6630 and 296 to 4800 micrograms/day, respectively. The present methods are simple and suitable for routine tests or for mass screening for pheochromocytoma.

  17. Update on Modern Management of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhofer, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Despite all technical progress in modern diagnostic methods and treatment modalities of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, early consideration of the presence of these tumors remains the pivotal link towards the best possible outcome for patients. A timely diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent the wide variety of potentially catastrophic cardiovascular complications. Modern biochemical testing should include tests that offer the best available diagnostic performance, measurements of metanephrines and 3-methoxytyramine in plasma or urine. To minimize false-positive test results particular attention should be paid to pre-analytical sampling conditions. In addition to anatomical imaging by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging, new promising functional imaging modalities of photon emission tomography/CT using with somatostatin analogues such as 68Ga-DOTATATE (68Ga-labeled DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)-octreotide) will probably replace 123I-MIBG (iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine) in the near future. As nearly half of all pheochromocytoma patients harbor a mutation in one of the 14 tumor susceptibility genes, genetic testing and counseling should at least be considered in all patients with a proven tumor. Post-surgical annual follow-up of patients by measurements of plasma or urinary metanephrines should last for at least 10 years for timely detection of recurrent or metastatic disease. Patients with a high risk for recurrence or metastatic disease (paraganglioma, young age, multiple or large tumors, genetic background) should be followed up lifelong. PMID:28685506

  18. Pheochromocytoma in a Pregnant Woman With Prior Traumatic Aortic Injury.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Ann Kinga; Maxwell, Cynthia; Sermer, Mathew; Rubin, Barry; Gandhi, Shital; Silversides, Candice K

    2015-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma, a catecholamine-producing tumor seldom encountered in pregnancy, is often heralded by nonspecific symptoms and undue mortality with delayed diagnosis. The presence of an aortic pseudoaneurysm poses a management challenge given the risk of aortic rupture amplified by hypertensive events. A 30-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 1, presented at 23 6/7 weeks of gestation with vomiting, chest pain, and severe hypertension. Investigation revealed adrenal pheochromocytoma and pseudoaneurysm at the site of a previous aortic injury. Prazosin and phenoxybenzamine achieved α-blockade with subsequent addition of labetalol for β-blockade. Concerns for aortic dissection led to endovascular aortic repair at 30 2/7 weeks of gestation. A female neonate was delivered by urgent cesarean delivery for persistent postprocedure fetal bradycardia. An adrenalectomy followed with near-immediate symptom resolution. Mother and neonate remain well. The case underscores the necessity of a meticulous approach to hypertension management and the pivotal role of diligent multidisciplinary collaboration to achieve a safe outcome.

  19. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: IMPLICATIONS IN TUMORIGENESIS AND THE ACTUAL MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Urvi; Giubellino, Alessio; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumors with varied clinical presentations, biochemistries and genetic makeup. These features outline the complexity and the difficulties in studying and understanding the oncogenesis of these tumors. The study of families with genetically inherited mutations in pheochromocytoma susceptibility genes has greatly enhanced our understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of oncogenesis of the disease, and consequently changed our clinical approach. Several molecular pathways and mutations in their important regulatory proteins have been identified. Such mutations are responsible for the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen and nutrient sensing, apoptosis regulation, cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The knowledge derived from the study of these pathways will be fundamental in the future clinical management of these patients. As a rare disease that often masks its clinical presentation, the diagnosis is frequently missed and a high level of suspicion is required. Management of this disease requires a multidisciplinary team approach and has been discussed along with advances in its treatment. PMID:22691888

  20. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article reviews the current state of microwave ablation including technical and clinical considerations. PMID:24436518

  1. New targets and therapeutic approaches for endocrine malignancies.

    PubMed

    Fassnacht, Martin; Kreissl, Michael C; Weismann, Dirk; Allolio, Bruno

    2009-07-01

    In endocrine malignancies (thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant pheochromocytoma) surgery is currently the treatment of choice, in case of differentiated thyroid carcinomas followed by 131-I-radioiodine administration. This approach is often successful in early disease; however, treatment options for advanced endocrine malignancies remain unsatisfactory and prognosis is poor. In particular, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy often show only limited and transient efficacy and are associated with significant toxicity. Thus, new treatment options are urgently needed. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathology of endocrine malignancies has recently led to identification of key events in endocrine oncogenesis (e.g. oncogenic RET mutations in medullary thyroid carcinoma or RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma). These new insights are increasingly matched by new compounds (e.g. tyrosine kinase inhibitors) targeting signaling pathways essential for tumor cell survival, proliferation and metastases. Accordingly, a rapidly growing number of preclinical investigations and early clinical trials in endocrine malignancies have been initiated. First results of "targeted therapies" in medullary and differentiated thyroid carcinoma are impressive: phase II trials targeting RET or VEGF receptor kinases led to objective tumor response in up to 50% of patients. This review covers these recent molecular and clinical advances which most likely will dramatically alter the treatment of endocrine malignancies within the coming decade.

  2. Characterization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric MR imaging: comparison of three scoring systems in patients treated with radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Vaché, Tiphaine; Bratan, Flavie; Mège-Lechevallier, Florence; Roche, Sylvain; Rabilloud, Muriel; Rouvière, Olivier

    2014-08-01

    To compare the subjective Likert score to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PIRADS) and morphology-location-signal intensity (MLS) scores for categorization of prostate lesions as benign or malignant at multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Two hundred fifteen patients who underwent T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced multiparametric MR imaging of the prostate before radical prostatectomy were included in a prospective database after they signed the institutional review board-approved forms. Senior readers 1 and 2 prospectively noted the location, shape, and signal intensity of lesions on MR images from individual pulse sequences and scored each for likelihood of malignancy by using a Likert scale (range, 1-5). A junior reader (reader 3) retrospectively reviewed the database and did the same analysis. The MLS score (range, 1-13) was computed by using the readers' descriptions of the lesions. Then, the three readers again scored the lesions they described by using the PIRADS score (range, 3-15). MLS and PIRADS scores were compared with the Likert score by using their areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the Likert, MLS, and PIRADS scores were 0.81, 0.77 (P = .03), and 0.75 (P = .01) for reader 1; 0.88, 0.74 (P < .0001), and 0.76 (P < .0001) for reader 2; and 0.81, 0.78 (P = .23), and 0.75 (P = .01) for reader 3. For diagnosing cancers with Gleason scores greater than or equal to 7, the Likert score was significantly more accurate than the others, except for the MLS score for reader 3. Weighted κ values were 0.470-0.524, 0.405-0.430, and 0.378-0.441 for the Likert, MLS, and PIRADS scores, respectively. The Likert score allowed significantly more accurate categorization of prostate lesions on MR images than did the MLS and PIRADS scores.

  3. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  4. Plasma free metanephrine, normetanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Poonam; Khurana, M L; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Bal, C S; Kumar, Guresh; Sharma, S C; Tandon, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) are derived from paraganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Most of the sympathetic PHEO/PGL secrete either catecholamine or their metabolites, metanephrines, whereas parasympathetic PHEO/PGL are nonsecretory. We assessed the utility of plasma free 3-methoxytyramine (3MT), normetanephrine (NM), and metanephrine (MN) for the diagnosis of PHEO/PGL. Sixty-five patients referred to endocrine/ENT clinics were enrolled. Twelve patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes were excluded. Remaining 53 patients (39 patients with adrenal, abdominal, cervical and thoracic PHEO/PGL and 14 patients with head and neck PGL (HNPGL) were taken for this study. Sixty-five age- and sex-matched subjects were taken as controls. Plasma levels 3MT, NM, and MN were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Receivers operating characteristics was plotted and cut-off levels were established. When compared with controls, there was a 36-, 8.7- and 9.5-fold increase in levels of NM, 3MT and MN in the patients with PHEO/PGL and 7.2- and 2.7-fold increase in 3MT and NM, in the patients with HNPGL, respectively. In malignant PHEO/PGL, there was a 99-, 16- and 20-fold increase and in benign PHEO/PGL, there was 19-, 6.8- and 6.4-fold increase in levels of NM, 3MT, and MN, respectively. NM in combination with MN was high in 97% of the patients with PHEO/PGL. All three metabolites in combination were high in 83% of patients with HNPGL. In malignant PHEO/PGL, 50% subjects had increased levels of both NM and 3MT. Measurement of plasma-free NM along with 3MT and MN provides a better tool for the diagnosis of PHEO/PGL as well as HNPGL. Further, NM in combination with 3MT can be used for the diagnosis of malignant PHEO/PGL.

  5. Plasma free metanephrine, normetanephrine, and 3-methoxytyramine for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Poonam; Khurana, M. L.; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Bal, C. S.; Kumar, Guresh; Sharma, S. C.; Tandon, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) are derived from paraganglia of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Most of the sympathetic PHEO/PGL secrete either catecholamine or their metabolites, metanephrines, whereas parasympathetic PHEO/PGL are nonsecretory. We assessed the utility of plasma free 3-methoxytyramine (3MT), normetanephrine (NM), and metanephrine (MN) for the diagnosis of PHEO/PGL. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five patients referred to endocrine/ENT clinics were enrolled. Twelve patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndromes were excluded. Remaining 53 patients (39 patients with adrenal, abdominal, cervical and thoracic PHEO/PGL and 14 patients with head and neck PGL (HNPGL) were taken for this study. Sixty-five age- and sex-matched subjects were taken as controls. Plasma levels 3MT, NM, and MN were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Receivers operating characteristics was plotted and cut-off levels were established. Results: When compared with controls, there was a 36-, 8.7- and 9.5-fold increase in levels of NM, 3MT and MN in the patients with PHEO/PGL and 7.2- and 2.7-fold increase in 3MT and NM, in the patients with HNPGL, respectively. In malignant PHEO/PGL, there was a 99-, 16- and 20-fold increase and in benign PHEO/PGL, there was 19-, 6.8- and 6.4-fold increase in levels of NM, 3MT, and MN, respectively. NM in combination with MN was high in 97% of the patients with PHEO/PGL. All three metabolites in combination were high in 83% of patients with HNPGL. In malignant PHEO/PGL, 50% subjects had increased levels of both NM and 3MT. Conclusions: Measurement of plasma-free NM along with 3MT and MN provides a better tool for the diagnosis of PHEO/PGL as well as HNPGL. Further, NM in combination with 3MT can be used for the diagnosis of malignant PHEO/PGL. PMID:26425473

  6. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30-1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure.

  7. Methodological extensions of meta-analysis with excess relative risk estimates: application to risk of second malignant neoplasms among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Kazutaka; Mieno, Makiko N.; Shimada, Yoshiya; Yonehara, Hidenori; Yoshinaga, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is recognized as an established risk factor for second malignant neoplasms (SMNs), the dose response of SMNs following radiotherapy has not been well characterized. In our previous meta-analysis of the risks of SMNs occurring among children who have received radiotherapy, the small number of eligible studies precluded a detailed evaluation. Therefore, to increase the number of eligible studies, we developed a method of calculating excess relative risk (ERR) per Gy estimates from studies for which the relative risk estimates for several dose categories were available. Comparing the calculated ERR with that described in several original papers validated the proposed method. This enabled us to increase the number of studies, which we used to conduct a meta-analysis. The overall ERR per Gy estimate of radiotherapy over 26 relevant studies was 0.60 (95%CI: 0.30–1.20), which is smaller than the corresponding estimate for atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation as young children (1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.5). A significant decrease in ERR per Gy with increase in age at exposure (0.85 times per annual increase) was observed in the meta-regression. Heterogeneity was suggested by Cochran's Q statistic (P < 0.001), which may be partly accounted for by age at exposure. PMID:25037101

  8. Phase I Trial of AZD1775 and Belinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Myeloid Malignancies or Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-12

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  9. Treatment with sunitinib for patients with progressive metastatic pheochromocytomas and sympathetic paragangliomas.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Chougnet, Cecile N; Habra, Mouhammed Amir; Palmer, J Lynn; Leboulleux, Sophie; Cabanillas, Maria E; Caramella, Caroline; Anderson, Pete; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Waguespack, Steven G; Deandreis, Desirée; Baudin, Eric; Jimenez, Camilo

    2012-11-01

    Patients with progressive metastatic pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) or sympathetic paragangliomas (SPGLs) face a dismal prognosis. Current systemic therapies are limited. The primary end point was progression-free survival determined by RECIST 1.1 criteria or positron emission tomography with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose/computed tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT), in the absence of measurable soft tissue targets. Secondary endpoints were tumor response according to RECIST criteria version 1.1 or FDG uptake, blood pressure control, and safety. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of patients with metastatic PHEO/SPGL treated with sunitinib from December 2007 through December 2011. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. Seventeen patients with progressive metastatic PHEO/SPGLs treated at the Institut Gustave-Roussy and MD Anderson Cancer Center. Patients treated with sunitinib. According to RECIST 1.1, eight patients experienced clinical benefit; three experienced partial response, and five had stable disease, including four with predominant skeletal metastases that showed a 30% or greater reduction in glucose uptake on [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT. Of 14 patients who had hypertension, six became normotensive and two discontinued antihypertensives. One patient treated with sunitinib and rapamycin experienced a durable benefit beyond 36 months. The median overall survival from the time sunitinib was initiated was 26.7 months with a progression-free survival of 4.1 months (95% confidence interval = 1.4-11.0). Most patients who experienced a clinical benefit were carriers of SDHB mutations. Sunitinib is associated with tumor size reduction, decreased [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT uptake, disease stabilization, and hypertension improvement in some patients with progressive metastatic PHEO/PGL. Prospective multi-institutional clinical trials are needed to determine the true benefits of sunitinib.

  10. Antinociceptive Effect of Intrathecal Microencapsulated Human Pheochromocytoma Cell in a Rat Model of Bone Cancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Li, Guoqi; Wu, Shaoling; Zhang, Baiyu; Wan, Qing; Yu, Ding; Zhou, Ruijun; Ma, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Human pheochromocytoma cells, which are demonstrated to contain and release met-enkephalin and norepinephrine, may be a promising resource for cell therapy in cancer-induced intractable pain. Intrathecal injection of alginate-poly (l) lysine-alginate (APA) microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells leads to antinociceptive effect in a rat model of bone cancer pain, and this effect was blocked by opioid antagonist naloxone and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist rauwolscine. Neurochemical changes of cerebrospinal fluid are in accordance with the analgesic responses. Taken together, these data support that human pheochromocytoma cell implant-induced antinociception was mediated by met-enkephalin and norepinephrine secreted from the cell implants and acting at spinal receptors. Spinal implantation of microencapsulated human pheochromocytoma cells may provide an alternative approach for the therapy of chronic intractable pain. PMID:25007069

  11. [Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: implications of new insights for diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    van der Kleij-Corssmit, E P M; Havekes, B; Vriends, A H J T; Jansen, J C; Romijn, J A

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery of pathogenic mutations in genes encoding for succinate dehydrogenase subunits has led to the realization that pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are much more often hereditary than was previously thought. Due to periodic surveillance of patients at enhanced genetic risk and a general increase in the frequency of abdominal imaging, an ever increasing proportion of the pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas is now detected preclinically, without the classic symptoms and signs. The diagnosis ofa pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma can be confirmed by measurement of the plasma levels and 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines, in combination with imaging. The therapeutic strategy will depend on the localisation of the pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, its solitary or multiple presence, the absence or presence of excessive catecholamine production, and the gene involved.

  12. Naked megakaryocyte nuclei: a clue to malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, M; Lefkowitz, E

    1977-10-01

    Bone marrow smears from 63 patients with various malignancies and a series of 51 controls were examined for the presence and percentage of naked megakaryocyte nuclei (NMN). Patients with malignancy had more than 15% NMN, which, when compared with the incidence in controls, was statistically significant. The etiology of this artifact is unknown. It is a clue to the presence of malignancy, and might be useful in following treated cases of malignancy for evidence of relapse. NMN should not be confused with metastatic malignant cells.

  13. Plasma free metanephrines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma: diagnostic accuracy and strategies for Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Isobe, Kazumasa; Ma, Enbo; Imai, Tsuneo; Kikumori, Toyone; Matsuda, Tadashi; Maeda, Yuji; Sakurai, Akihiro; Midorikawa, Sanae; Hataya, Yuji; Kato, Taiya; Kamide, Kei; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Okada, Yosuke; Adachi, Masahiro; Yanase, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Hideto; Yokoyama, Chie; Arai, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Koichi; Shimano, Hitoshi; Hara, Hisato; Kawakami, Yasushi; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the levels of the plasma free metanephrines (PFMs) represents a recently developed and promising test for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in the United States and Europe. As this test has not yet been evaluated in Japan, it is necessary to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of measuring the levels of PFMs compared with the standard measurement of the urinary excretion of metanephrines (uMNs) whose reliability is well established to detect of pheochromocytoma. A total of 101 Japanese subjects clinically suspected of having pheochromocytoma in were included in this study. Subsequently, we prospectively measured the PFMs levels in all patients, compared with those of biochemical markers of the catecholamine secretion and metabolisms in the plasma and urine. All subjects with adrenal tumors underwent tumor excision. Data were available for 84 of the 101 patients, 47 of whom had histopathologically proven pheochromocytoma and 37 were finally diagnosed with non-pheochromocytoma. The results of comparisons in the accuracy of measurement for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma between PFMs and the urinary excretion of metanephrines (uMNs) were 0.980 VS 0.951 for AUC of receiver operatorating characteristic (ROC) curve, 0.957 VS 0.894 for sensitivity, and 0.973 VS 0.946 for specificity, respectively. Although the differences were small, the results of our study definitely demonstrated that measurement of PFMs was not inferior to standard urinary metanephrines (uMNs) measurement, which is established to be the most reliable biochemical method to detect pheochromocytoma. This study clearly shows measuring the PFMs levels to be a reliable and efficient method for diagnosing pheochromocytoma in Japanese patients, as demonstrated in previous reports.

  14. Long-term risk of malignancy among patients treated with immunosuppressive agents for ocular inflammation: A critical assessment of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, John H.; Gangaputra, Sapna; Daniel, Ebenezer; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Jabs, Douglas A.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To critically assess potentially carcinogenic effects of immunosuppressive therapy in the ocular inflammation setting Design Focused evidence assessment. Methods Relevant publications were identified by MEDLINE and EMBASE queries and reference list searches. Results Extrapolation from transplant, rheumatology, skin disease and inflammatory bowel disease cohorts to the ocular inflammation setting suggest that: 1) alkylating agents increase hematologic malignancy risk and cyclophosphamide increases bladder cancer risk, but less so with ≤18 months’ duration of therapy and hydration respectively; 2) calcineurin inhibitors and azathioprine probably do not increase total cancer risk to a detectable degree, except perhaps some other risk factors (uncommon in ocular inflammation patients) might interact with the former to raise risk; 3) Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) inhibitors may accelerate diagnosis of cancer in the first 6–12 months, but probably do not increase long-term cancer risk; and 4) changes in risk with methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, and daclizumab appear negligible although non-transplant data are limited for the latter agents. Immunosuppression in general may increase skin cancer risk in a sun-exposure dependent manner. Conclusion Use of alkylating agents for a limited duration seems justifiable for severe, vision-threatening disease, but otherwise cancer risk may be a relevant constraint on use of this approach. Antimetabolites, daclizumab, TNF-inhibitors, and calcineurin inhibitors probably do not increase cancer risk to a degree that outweighs the expected benefits of therapy. Monitoring for skin cancer may be useful for highly sun-exposed patients. Data from ocular inflammation patients are needed to confirm the conclusions made in this analysis by extrapolation. PMID:18579112

  15. Prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice treated by reimplantation of biliary metal stents

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Pang, Qing; Liu, Huichun; Li, Zongkuang; Wang, Yong; Lu, Yimin; Zhou, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of reimplantation of biliary metal stents by percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Furthermore, we explored the prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in these patients. We reviewed 33 cases of recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents by PTCD, all of which underwent reimplantation of stents under digital subtraction angiography guidance. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin were compared between before and after reimplantation (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively). Preoperative clinical data were collected to calculate the inflammation-based markers, including systemic immune-inflammation index (SII, neutrophil × platelets/ lymphocyte), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), which was estimated by the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. The levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin significantly reduced after the reimplantation operation. During a median follow-up time of 10 months, 18 (54.5%) patients died. Gender, albumin, SII, PLR, NLR, and MLR were found to be associated with OS by the log-rank test and univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox analysis identified elevated levels of SII and PLR as significant factors for predicting poor OS. Reimplantation is clinically feasible in patients with recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents. SII and PLR are independent, useful inflammation-based prognostic models for predicting outcomes in these patients. PMID:28099348

  16. Frameshift-derived neoantigens constitute immunotherapeutic targets for patients with microsatellite-instable haematological malignancies: frameshift peptides for treating MSI+ blood cancers.

    PubMed

    Maletzki, Claudia; Schmidt, Fabian; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Schmitt, Michael; Linnebacher, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) resulting from loss of functional DNA mismatch repair was recently found in various haematological disorders. In coding sequences, MSI leads to frameshift mutations (FSMs) and the production of C-terminally altered proteins which are foreign to the immune system. Here, we wondered whether these frame-shifted peptide (FSP) sequences represent tumour-specific antigens also for MSI(+) leukaemia and lymphomas (L/L). A total of 33 coding region microsatellites were examined in MSI(+) L/L cell lines for the presence of FSMs. Thereafter, recognition of MSI(+) cells by established FSP-specific CD8(+) T cell lines was quantified using interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. In each experiment, MSI(+) L/L cell lines and T2 targets exogenously loaded with the cognate peptide (=internal control) were employed. Supplementary, lytic activity towards tumour cells was analysed by standard chromium release assay ((51)Cr). Mutational profiling of 33 coding microsatellite loci in nine MSI(+) L/L cell lines revealed instability in at least nine microsatellites. In each cell line, a distinct mutational profile was observed. Only three of the 33 loci were stable. FSP-specific and human leukocyte antigen-A2 (HLA-A2)-restricted T cells specifically recognised MSI(+) L/L cells endogenously expressing TGFβRII(-1), Caspase 5 (-1) and MSH3 (-1) in ELISpot assays. Moreover, specific killing of Caspase 5 (-1) and MSH3 (-1) expressing L/L cell lines was achieved in functional cytotoxicity assays. Data presented here expand the importance of FSPs as shared and general tumour-specific antigens. Consequently, they open new avenues for specific immunotherapies not only for solid but also for MSI(+) haematological malignancies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prolongation of survival of dogs with oral malignant melanoma treated by en bloc surgical resection and adjuvant CSPG4-antigen electrovaccination.

    PubMed

    Piras, L A; Riccardo, F; Iussich, S; Maniscalco, L; Gattino, F; Martano, M; Morello, E; Lorda Mayayo, S; Rolih, V; Garavaglia, F; De Maria, R; Lardone, E; Collivignarelli, F; Mignacca, D; Giacobino, D; Ferrone, S; Cavallo, F; Buracco, P

    2017-09-01

    Reported post-surgery 1-year survival rate for oral canine malignant melanoma (cMM) is around 30%; novel treatments are needed as the role of adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. This prospective study regards adjuvant electrovaccination with human chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-4 (hCSPG4)-encoded plasmid in 23 dogs with resected II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM compared with 19 dogs with resected only II/III-staged CSPG4-positive oral cMM. Vaccination resulted in 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 95.6, 73.9, 47.8 and 30.4%, respectively [median survival time (MST) 684 days, range 78-1694, 8 of 23 dogs alive] and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month disease-free interval (DFI) rate of 82.6, 47.8, 26.1 and 17.4%, respectively (DFI 477 days, range 50-1694). Non-vaccinated dogs showed 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month survival rate of 63.2, 26.3, 15.8 and 5.3%, respectively (MST 200 days, range 75-1507, 1 of 19 dogs alive) and 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month DFI rate of 52.6, 26.3, 10.5 and 5.3%, respectively (DFI 180 days, range 38-1250). Overall survival and DFI of vaccinated dogs was longer in those <20 kg. In vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs local recurrence rate was 34.8 and 42%, respectively while lung metastatic rate was 39 and 79%, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice treated by reimplantation of biliary metal stents: A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Pang, Qing; Liu, Huichun; Li, Zongkuang; Wang, Yong; Lu, Yimin; Zhou, Lei; Pan, Hongtao; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of reimplantation of biliary metal stents by percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage (PTCD) in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Furthermore, we explored the prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in these patients.We reviewed 33 cases of recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents by PTCD, all of which underwent reimplantation of stents under digital subtraction angiography guidance. Levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin were compared between before and after reimplantation (1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively). Preoperative clinical data were collected to calculate the inflammation-based markers, including systemic immune-inflammation index (SII, neutrophil × platelets/ lymphocyte), platelets-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR). The primary outcome was overall survival (OS), which was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis.The levels of ALT, AST, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin significantly reduced after the reimplantation operation. During a median follow-up time of 10 months, 18 (54.5%) patients died. Gender, albumin, SII, PLR, NLR, and MLR were found to be associated with OS by the log-rank test and univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox analysis identified elevated levels of SII and PLR as significant factors for predicting poor OS.Reimplantation is clinically feasible in patients with recurrent MOJ after implantation of biliary metal stents. SII and PLR are independent, useful inflammation-based prognostic models for predicting outcomes in these patients.

  19. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Cantin, R Y; Poole, A; Ryan, J F

    1986-10-01

    The increasing use of intravenous and inhalation sedation in the dental office has the potential of increasing the incidence of malignant hyperthermia (MH) in susceptible subjects. The object of this article is to present two cases of MH and to discuss its pathophysiology, its clinical picture, and its management in the light of the current literature. Stringent screening procedures should be adopted and maintained in order to channel suspected cases to appropriate centers for expert consultation and management. It is further advocated that a program of education for patients and their families be instituted, as it is an essential prerequisite of effective prophylaxis.

  20. [A Case of Adrenergic Crisis Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of Cystic Pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Miura, Kenji; Kanno, Toru; Nakamae, Keichiro; Kubota, Masashi; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    Pheochromocytoma crisis is a life-threatening situation. Herein we report a case of catecholamineinduced crisis caused by the rupture of cystic pheochromocytoma. A 76-year-old man with hypertension was referred to our hospital because of a cystic tumor in the retroperitoneal space adjacent to the aorta, which was suspicious of pheochromocytoma. Two days after admission, lower abdominal pain suddenly appeared, followed by hypertension with systolic pressure of 260 mmHg. Computed tomography revealed that the cystic tumor was ruptured spontaneously, leading to diagnosis of pheochromocytoma crisis. His blood pressure was successfully managed by medical treatment and he could recover from crisis. After adequate medical preparation by an α-adrenergic blocker, the tumor was successfully removed by laparoscopy, though the adhesion around the tumor was severe. To our knowledge adrenergic crisis caused by spontaneous rupture of cystic pheochromocytoma is rare, but we have to keep in mind that cystic pheochromocytoma can cause life-threatening crisis by the release of catecholamine due to rupture.

  1. Deconjugated urinary metanephrine, normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine in laboratory diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Bílek, R; Zelinka, T; Vlček, P; Dušková, J; Michalský, D; Novák, K; Bešťák, J; Widimský, J

    2015-01-01

    This work discusses the clinical performance of deconjugated metanephrine (MN), normetanephrine (NMN) and 3-methoxytyramine (3MT) determined in the basal first morning urine using a chromatographic method with electrochemical detection for the clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL). Urine samples were collected from 44 patients (36 with PHEO, 8 with PGL) aged 54+/-17 (20-78) years (22 females, 22 males). A sampling of biological materials was performed preoperatively and about one week, six months and one year after adrenal gland surgery. The control group consisted of 34 PHEO/PGL patients more than 4 months after adrenal gland surgery. All subjects in the control group were without a diagnosis of PHEO or PGL. Clinical sensitivity was 55 % for MN, 64 % for NMN, 80 % for combination of both MN and NMN, and only 23 % for 3TM. Clinical specificity calculated from the control group was 93 % for MN, 95 % for NMN, 95 % for the combination MN and NMN, and 97 % for 3TM. Cut-off values for deconjugated metanephrines in the basal urine were 310 (MN), 690 (NMN) and 250 microg/l (3MT). Chromatographic determination of deconjugated urinary metanephrines, which is simple without the necessity of special laboratory material, can serve for the screening of PHEO or PGL patients. Urine NMN and 3MT exerts an association to malignity, and all markers are associated with tumor mass. However, the principal laboratory diagnosis of PHEO or PGL must be based on plasma-free metanephrines and plasma chromogranin A with better performance in the laboratory diagnosis of PHEO or PGL.

  2. The VHL gene is epigenetically inactivated in pheochromocytomas and abdominal paragangliomas

    PubMed Central

    Andreasson, Adam; Kiss, Nimrod B; Caramuta, Stefano; Sulaiman, Luqman; Svahn, Fredrika; Bäckdahl, Martin; Höög, Anders; Juhlin, C Christofer; Larsson, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) are neuroendocrine tumors that present with clinical symptoms related to increased catecholamine levels. About a third of the cases are associated with constitutional mutations in pre-disposing genes, of which some may also be somatically mutated in sporadic cases. However, little is known about inactivating epigenetic events through promoter methylation in these very genes. Using bisulphite pyrosequencing we assessed the methylation density of 11 PCC/PGL disease genes in 96 tumors (83 PCCs and 13 PGLs) and 34 normal adrenal references. Gene expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Both tumors and normal adrenal samples exhibited low methylation index (MetI) in the EGLN1 (PDH2), MAX, MEN1, NF1, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2 (SDH5), and TMEM127 promoters, not exceeding 10% in any of the samples investigated. Aberrant RET promoter methylation was observed in two cases only. For the VHL gene we found increased MetI in tumors as compared with normal adrenals (57% vs. 27%; P < 0.001), in malignant vs. benign tumors (63% vs. 55%; P < 0.05), and in PGL vs. PCC (66% vs. 55%; P < 0.0005). Decreased expression of the VHL gene was observed in all tumors compared with normal adrenals (P < 0.001). VHL MetI and gene expressions were inversely correlated (R = −0.359, P < 0.0001). Our results show that the VHL gene promoter has increased methylation compared with normal adrenals (MetI > 50%) in approximately 75% of PCCs and PGLs investigated, highlighting the role of VHL in the development of these tumors. PMID:24149047

  3. Malignant hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an uncommon, life-threatening pharmacogenetic disorder of the skeletal muscle. It presents as a hypermetabolic response in susceptible individuals to potent volatile anesthetics with/without depolarizing muscle relaxants; in rare cases, to stress from exertion or heat stress. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MHS) is inherited as an autosomally dominant trait with variable expression and incomplete penetrance. It is known that the pathophysiology of MH is related to an uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes resulting in hypermetabolism of the skeletal muscle. In most cases, defects in the ryanodine receptor are responsible for the functional changes of calcium regulation in MH, and more than 300 mutations have been identified in the RYR1 gene, located on chromosome 19q13.1. The classic signs of MH include increase of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, skeletal muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia and acidosis. Up to now, muscle contracture test is regarded as the gold standard for the diagnosis of MHS though molecular genetic test is used, on a limited basis so far to diagnose MHS. The mortality of MH is dramatically decreased from 70-80% to less than 5%, due to an introduction of dantrolene sodium for treatment of MH, early detection of MH episode using capnography, and the introduction of diagnostic testing for MHS. This review summarizes the clinically essential and important knowledge of MH, and presents new developments in the field. PMID:23198031

  4. Adrenal Pheochromocytoma Incidentally Discovered in a Patient With Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Marinelli, Cristiano; Zinnamosca, Laura; Iannucci, Gino; Lucia, Piernatale; De Vincentis, Giuseppe; Letizia, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the diagnostic route of pheochromocytoma (PHEO) in a patient under dopaminergic treatment. A 70-year-old man with Parkinsonism and under treatment with levodopa and carbidopa came to our observation for evaluation of arterial hypertension and right adrenal mass discovered incidentally. To evaluate adrenal hormone levels we performed a dexamethasone suppression test, plasma aldosterone levels and 24-hr urinary metanephrine, which revealed elevated levels of catecholamines metabolities. 123-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine SPECT scintiscan revealed raised activity within the right adrenal gland concordant with the mass. The diagnosis of PHEO was posed and an elective laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed; histopathological examination confirmed the PHEO diagnosis. Recently the coexistence of PHEO and Parkinsonism is a very rare association of diseases, with only 3 cases reported in literature. In this article, another case is reported and diagnostic procedures are discussed. PMID:26496334

  5. Subcellular localization of WD40 repeat 1 protein in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Eunju; Chung, Yoon Hee; Mun, Ga Hee; Park, Ji yeong; Lomax, Margaret I; Oh, Seung Ha

    2004-09-09

    The dynamics of actin filament protein is crucial for various physiological processes of the cells. Among the proteins correlating with actin dynamics, a novel 67-kDa WD40 repeat protein 1 (WDR1) was the vertebrate homologue of actin-interacting protein 1 (Aip1). Even though previous studies have provided the clues on the function of WDR1 in specific organs under pathological conditions, the exact subcellular localization of WDR1 is not known. Therefore, in the present study, we undertook to determine the distribution of WDR1 within PC12 pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) using light and electron microscopic techniques. Double immunocytochemistry clearly showed that WDR1 immunoreactivities (IRs) were co-localized with anti-actin antibody, suggesting the involvement of WDR1 in actin dynamics. WDR1 immunoreactivities (IRs) in PC12 cells showed different distribution patterns as nerve growth factor (NGF) concentrations varied. During active proliferation, the distribution of WDR1 IRs seemed to be similar to those found in cortical actin patches, whereas WDR1 IR was observed in cytoplasmic actin cables after PC12 cells were induced to differentiate by treating with NGF. Though further studies are necessary to determine the function of WDR1, the current data represents a first step towards the in vitro study of WDR1 protein.

  6. MAX mutations status in Swedish patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours.

    PubMed

    Crona, Joakim; Maharjan, Rajani; Delgado Verdugo, Alberto; Stålberg, Peter; Granberg, Dan; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma are rare tumours originating from neuroendocrine cells. Up to 60% of cases have either germline or somatic mutation in one of eleven described susceptibility loci, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MYC associated factor-X (MAX). Recently, germline mutations in MAX were found to confer susceptibility to PCC and paraganglioma (PGL). A subsequent multicentre study found about 1% of PCCs and PGLs to have germline or somatic mutations in MAX. However, there has been no study investigating the frequency of MAX mutations in a Scandinavian cohort. We analysed tumour specimens from 63 patients with PCC and PGL treated at Uppsala University hospital, Sweden, for re-sequencing of MAX using automated Sanger sequencing. Our results show that 0% (0/63) of tumours had mutations in MAX. Allele frequencies of known single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4902359, rs45440292, rs1957948 and rs1957949 corresponded to those available in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. We conclude that MAX mutations remain unusual events and targeted genetic screening should be considered after more common genetic events have been excluded.

  7. Cortex Fraxini (Qingpi) Protects Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ya; Zhang, Huan; Lam, Kim-Hung; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder having close relationship with oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cortex Fraxini (QP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant properties. It may be a potential candidate for preventing the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the key objective of the current study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of QP water extract on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It was found that QP water extract possesses strong antioxidant property with SC50 = 0.15 mg/mL. Total phenolic content of QP water extract was found to be 200.78 ± 2.65 mg GAE/g. QP water extract's free radical scavenging capacity was demonstrated by reversing the increased level of intracellular ROS induced by 6-OHDA, using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Moreover, QP water extract (0.5 mg/mL) could remarkably increase the viability of PC12 cells treated with 6-OHDA. The protective effect of QP water extract was found to be via inhibiting MEK/ERK pathway and reversing PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current results suggest that QP might be a potential candidate for preventing the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. PMID:26347850

  8. Malignant hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Bandschapp, Oliver; Girard, Thierry

    2012-07-31

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a subclinical myopathy, usually triggered by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants. Clinical symptoms are variable, and the condition is sometimes difficult to identify. Nevertheless, rapid recognition and specific as well as symptomatic treatment are crucial to avoid a lethal outcome. Molecular genetic investigations have confirmed the skeletal muscle type ryanodine receptor to be the major MH locus with more than 70% of MH families carrying a mutation in this gene. There is no screening method to test for MH, as current tests are invasive (open muscle biopsy) or restricted to MH families with known MH-associated mutations (molecular genetic testing). The prevalence of the MH trait is unknown, because the clinical penetrance after contact with triggering agents is very variable. More recently, MH mutations have been associated with rhabdomyolysis following statin therapy or with non-pharmacological triggering, such as exertional heat stroke.

  9. Fludarabine Phosphate, Busulfan, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant, Tacrolimus, and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-04

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  10. Total-Body Irradiation and Fludarabine Phosphate Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-13

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Progression of Multiple Myeloma or Plasma Cell Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Renal Medullary Carcinoma; Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  11. Malignant causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Foggo, Vanessa; Cavenagh, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    The presence of fever in malignancy usually indicates infection, though transfusion, thrombosis and drugs are also culprits. However, particularly in some tumour types, fever can also be a paraneoplastic syndrome, caused by the malignancy itself. This can be a difficult diagnosis to establish and presents a therapeutic challenge to the physician when the underlying malignancy is not easily treated. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy for Functional Metastatic Paraganglioma and Pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Grozinsky-Glasberg, Simona; Hofman, Michael S; Callahan, Jason; Meirovitz, Amichay; Maimon, Ofra; Pattison, David A; Gross, David J; Hicks, Rodney J

    2017-09-01

    Treatment options for unresectable paraganglioma (PGL)/pheochromocytoma (PCC), especially with uncontrolled secondary hypertension (HTN), are limited. Preliminary studies with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) suggest efficacy, but data on HTN control and survival are lacking. We assessed PRRT outcomes in such patients from two referral centers. Twenty consecutive patients (13 men; age range, 21 to 77 years) with high somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression treated with 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate, nine with radiosensitizing chemotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed. Median cumulative activity was 22 GBq (median 4 cycles). Fourteen patients were treated for uncontrolled HTN and six for progressive or symptomatic metastatic disease or local recurrence. Three months after PRRT, 8 of 14 patients treated for HTN required reduced medication doses, 5 had no change in anti-HTN doses, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Eighty-six percent had serum chromogranin-A reduction. Of the entire cohort, 36% had disease regression (29% partial and 7% minor response) on computed tomography, with stable findings in 50%. Three other patients had bony disease evaluable only on SSTR imaging (2 partial response and 1 stable). Median progression-free survival was 39 months; median overall survival was not reached (5 deaths; median follow-up, 28 months). Four patients had grade 3 lymphopenia; 2 had grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Renal impairment in 2 patients was attributed to underlying disease processes. PRRT achieves worthwhile clinical and biochemical responses with low toxicity and encouraging survival in PGL/PCC. Because PRRT has logistic and radiation-safety advantages compared to 131I-MIBG therapy, further prospective evaluation is warranted.

  13. Expression of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 5 and Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 in Composite Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma Detected Incidentally in the Adult Adrenal Gland.

    PubMed

    Suenaga, Shinta; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Ito, Hiromi; Naito, Sei; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Obara, Yutaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    Composite pheochromocytoma (cPC) is extremely rare, arising in the adrenal medulla as a mixture of PC and other tumors of neural origin. We herein report on a case of adrenal incidentaloma post-operatively diagnosed as cPC with ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL). The PC component had 7 points on the PASS, a Ki-67 index of 5.1%, a focal absence of sustentacular cells, and no genetic aberrations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. The GNBL component exhibited no N-myc amplification. Tumor cells of both components were stained positively for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 and ankyrin repeat domain 1. The aberrant activation of growth signaling may play a role in the marginal malignancy of cPC.

  14. Expression of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 5 and Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 in Composite Pheochromocytoma and Ganglioneuroblastoma Detected Incidentally in the Adult Adrenal Gland

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Shinta; Ichiyanagi, Osamu; Ito, Hiromi; Naito, Sei; Kato, Tomoyuki; Nagaoka, Akira; Kato, Tomoya; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Obara, Yutaro; Tsuchiya, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Composite pheochromocytoma (cPC) is extremely rare, arising in the adrenal medulla as a mixture of PC and other tumors of neural origin. We herein report on a case of adrenal incidentaloma post-operatively diagnosed as cPC with ganglioneuroblastoma (GNBL). The PC component had 7 points on the PASS, a Ki-67 index of 5.1%, a focal absence of sustentacular cells, and no genetic aberrations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit B. The GNBL component exhibited no N-myc amplification. Tumor cells of both components were stained positively for extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 and ankyrin repeat domain 1. The aberrant activation of growth signaling may play a role in the marginal malignancy of cPC. PMID:27980262

  15. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine

    PubMed Central

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20–41) and 285 days (range 50–1240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839287

  16. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  17. Progenitor Cell Line (hPheo1) Derived from a Human Pheochromocytoma Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Stastny, Victor; Click, Arielle; Ding, Liang-Hao; Mizrachi, Dario; Zou, Ying S.; Chari, Raj; Lam, Wan L.; Bachoo, Robert M.; Smith, Alice L.; Story, Michael D.; Sidhu, Stan; Robinson, Bruce G.; Nwariaku, Fiemu E.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Auchus, Richard J.; Shay, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pheochromocytomas are rare tumors generally arising in the medullary region of the adrenal gland. These tumors release excessive epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in hypertension and cardiovascular crises for which surgery is the only definitive treatment. Molecular mechanisms that control tumor development and hormone production are poorly understood, and progress has been hampered by the lack of human cellular model systems. To study pheochromocytomas, we developed a stable progenitor pheochromocytoma cell line derived from a primary human tumor. Methods After IRB approval and written informed consent, human pheochromocytoma tissue was excised, minced, dispersed enzymatically, and cultured in vitro. Primary pheochromocytoma cells were infected with a lentivirus vector carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The hTERT immortalized cells (hPheo1) have been passaged >300 population doublings. The resulting cell line was characterized morphologically, biochemically and for expression of neuroendocrine properties. The expression of marker enzymes and proteins was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and immunoblotting. Telomerase activity was determined by using the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Results We have established a human pheochromocytoma precursor cell line that expresses the neuroendocrine marker, chromogranin A, when differentiated in the presence of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), nerve growth factor (NGF), and dexamethasone. Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) expression is also detected with this differentiation regimen. CD-56 (also known as NCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule) is expressed in these cells, but CD31 (also known as PECAM-1, a marker of endothelial cells) is negative. Conclusions We have maintained hTERT-immortalized progenitor cells derived from a pheochromocytoma (hPheo1) in culture for over 300 population doublings. This progenitor human

  18. Palonosetron versus other 5-HT₃ receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies treated with emetogenic chemotherapy in a hospital outpatient setting in the United States.

    PubMed

    Craver, Chris; Gayle, Julie; Balu, Sanjeev; Buchner, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    confounders including alcohol consumption and prior history of motion sickness, potential underestimation of incidence of uncontrolled CINV, and inability to draw conclusions pertaining to cause and effect relationship. In this retrospective hospital study, patients with hematologic malignancies treated with HEC or MEC and initiated on antiemetic prophylaxis with palonosetron in the hospital outpatient setting were more likely to experience significantly lower CINV event rates (in the hospital outpatient, inpatient, and emergency room settings) versus patients initiated on other 5-HT₃ RAs.

  19. Long-Term Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Malignant Meningiomas-Clinical Results in 85 Patients Treated in a Single Institution Leading to Optimized Guidelines for Early Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Adeberg, Sebastian; Hartmann, Christian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Deimling, Andreas von; Debus, Juergen; Combs, Stephanie E.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Previously, we could show that the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of meningiomas significantly correlated with outcome in patients with atypical and anaplastic histology. In the present work, we analyzed our long-term experience in radiotherapy for atypical and malignant meningioma diagnosed according to the most recent WHO categorization system. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients with atypical and 23 patients with malignant meningioma have been treated with radiotherapy. Sixty percent of all patients received radiotherapy (RT) after surgical resection, 19% at disease progression and 8.3% as a primary treatment. Radiation was applied using different techniques including fractionated stereotactic RT (FSRT), intensity-modulated RT, and combination treatment with carbon ions. The median PTV was 156.0 mL. An average dose of 57.6 Gy (range, 30-68.4 Gy) in 1.8-3 Gy fractions was applied. All patients were followed regularly including clinical-neurological follow-up as well as computed tomographies or magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Overall survival was impacted significantly by histological grade, with 81% and 53% at 5 years for atypical or anaplastic meningiomas, respectively. This difference was significant at p = 0.022. Eighteen patients died of tumor progression during follow-up. Progression-free survival was 95% and 50% for atypical, and 63% and 13% for anaplastic histology at 2 and 5 years. This difference was significant at p = 0.017. Despite histology, we could not observe any prognostic factors including age, resection status, or Karnofsky performance score. However, preexisting clinical symptoms observed in 63 patients improved in 29.3% of these patients. Conclusion: RT resulted in improvement of preexisting clinical symptoms; outcome is comparable to other series reported in the literature. RT should be offered after surgical resection after initial diagnosis to increase progression-free survival as well as overall

  20. Fludarabine Phosphate, Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation, and Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies or Kidney Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Renal Cell Carcinoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Type 1 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Type 2 Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  1. Advanced malignancies treated with a combination of the VEGF inhibitor bevacizumab, anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab, and the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaochun; Kambrick, Susan; Fu, Siqing; Naing, Aung; Subbiah, Vivek; Blumenschein, George R.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Kies, Merrill S.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Zinner, Ralph G.; Hong, David S.; Kurzrock, Razelle; Piha-Paul, Sarina A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bevacizumab and temsirolimus are active agents in advanced solid tumors. Temsirolimus inhibits mTOR in the PI3 kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway as well as CYP2A, which may be a resistance mechanism for cetuximab. In addition, temsirolimus attenuates upregulation of HIF-1α levels, which may be a resistance mechanism for bevacizumab. RESULTS The median age of patients was 60 years (range, 23-80 years). The median number of prior systemic therapies was 3 (range, 1-6). The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be bevacizumab 10 mg/kg biweekly, temsirolimus 5 mg weekly and cetuximab 100/75 mg/m2 weekly. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were seen in 52% of patients with the highest prevalence being hyperglycemia (14%) and hypophosphatemia (14%). Eighteen of the 21 patients were evaluable for response. Three patients were taken off the study before restaging for toxicities. Partial response (PR) was observed in 2/18 patients (11%) and stable disease (SD) lasting ≥ 6 months was observed in 4/18 patients (22%) (total = 6/18 (33%)). In 8 evaluable patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) there were partial responses in 2/8 (25%) patients and SD ≥ 6 months in 1/8 (13%) patients (total = 3/8, (38%)). PATIENTS AND METHODS We analyzed safety and responses in 21 patients with advanced solid tumors treated with bevacizumab, cetuximab, and temsirolimus. CONCLUSION The combination of bevacizumab, cetuximab, and temsirolimus showed activity in HNSCC; however, there were numerous toxicities reported, which will require careful management for future clinical development. PMID:26933802

  2. [Malignant hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Metterlein, T; Schuster, F; Graf, B M; Anetseder, M

    2014-12-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare hereditary, mostly subclinical myopathy. Trigger substances, such as volatile anesthetic agents and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine can induce a potentially fatal metabolic increase in predisposed patients caused by a dysregulation of the myoplasmic calcium (Ca) concentration. Mutations in the dihydropyridine ryanodine receptor complex in combination with the trigger substances are responsible for an uncontrolled release of Ca from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This leads to activation of the contractile apparatus and a massive increase in cellular energy production. Exhaustion of the cellular energy reserves ultimately results in local muscle cell destruction and subsequent cardiovascular failure. The clinical picture of MH episodes is very variable. Early symptoms are hypoxia, hypercapnia and cardiac arrhythmia whereas the body temperature rise, after which MH is named, often occurs later. Decisive for the course of MH episodes is a timely targeted therapy. Following introduction of the hydantoin derivative dantrolene, the previously high mortality of fulminant MH episodes could be reduced to well under 10 %. An MH predisposition can be detected using the invasive in vitro contracture test (IVCT) or mutation analysis. Few elaborate diagnostic procedures are in the developmental stage.

  3. Fludarabine Phosphate, Melphalan, and Low-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Followed by Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-08

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Aplastic Anemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Congenital Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Polycythemia Vera; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  4. Alemtuzumab, Fludarabine Phosphate, and Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation Before Donor Stem Cell Transplantation in Treating Patients With Hematological Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-26

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Progressive Hairy Cell Leukemia, Initial Treatment; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Acute

  5. Plerixafor and Filgrastim For Mobilization of Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Before A Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-15

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative; Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular

  6. Comparison of plasma metanephrines measured by a commercial immunoassay and urinary catecholamines in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Trine T; Frystyk, Jan; Poulsen, Per L

    2011-12-01

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytomas requires consideration among patients suffering from hypertension, unexplained spells, incidental adrenal masses, or a family history of pheochromocytoma. Accordingly, the diagnosis requires a biochemical test with high sensitivity and specificity. To compare plasma free metanephrines as measured by a commercial immunoassay and the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines. Plasma free metanephrines were measured in 185 patients suspected of pheochromocytoma. Concomitant measurements of urinary catecholamines were performed in 115 patients. Based on clinical findings, imaging and biochemistry 11 cases were found; 9 were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma, one patient with paraganglioma and one patient with ganglioneuroma. All patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma had abnormally elevated concentrations of either plasma metanephrine or normetanephrine. The patient with ganglioneuroma had normal plasma metanephrine levels, corresponding to a sensitivity of 91%. In two patients where pheochromocytoma was excluded, plasma metanephrin or normetanephrine was above the reference level, corresponding to a specificity of 99%. Urinary catecholamines were determined in 10 of 11 patients with a positive diagnosis, and all 10 showed elevated levels of either urinary epinephrine or norepinephrine, including the patient with ganglioneuroma (equivalent to a sensitivity of 100%). Seven patients, in whom pheochromocytoma was excluded, had elevated urinary catecholamines (equivalent to a specificity of 94%). Measurement of plasma free metanephrines by immunoassay appears to be a useful diagnostic test in patients suspected of pheochromocytoma, with a high specificity as compared with urinary catecholamines. The latter may result in fewer false-positive findings, an outcome which may be particularly troublesome.

  7. Pentavalent technetium-99m (V)-DMSA uptake in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.K.; Fataar, A.; Byrne, M.J.; Levitt, N.S.; Matley, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This case report describes {sup 99m}Tc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) accumulation in a pheochromocytoma in a patient with Sipple's syndrome. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA demonstrated uptake in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT). Iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed the bilateral pheochromocytomas but did not demonstrate uptake in the MCT.

  8. Immune Modulation in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dhodapkar, Kavita M.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the immune system in the context of hematologic malignancies has long been appreciated particularly due to the curative impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The role of immune system in shaping the biology and evolution of these tumors is now well recognized. While the contribution of the immune system in anti-tumor effects of certain therapies such as immune-modulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies active in hematologic malignancies is quite evident, the immune system has also been implicated in anti-tumor effects of other targeted therapies. The horizon of immune-based therapies in hematologic malignancies is rapidly expanding with promising results from immune-modulatory drugs, immune-checkpoint blockade and adoptive cellular therapies, including genetically-modified T cells. Hematologic malignancies present distinct issues (relative to solid tumors) for the application of immune therapies due to differences in cell of origin/developmental niche of tumor cells, and patterns of involvement such as common systemic involvement of secondary lymphoid tissues. This article discusses the rapidly changing landscape of immune modulation in hematologic malignancies and emphasizes areas wherein hematologic malignancies present distinct opportunities for immunologic approaches to prevent or treat cancer. PMID:26320065

  9. Exercise Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Another Sign of Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Preferably in Young Patients?

    PubMed Central

    King, Kathryn S.; Darmani, Nissar; Adams, Karen T.; Pacak, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Objective A cohort of nine patients, mostly young adults, presented with a new symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma: exercise induced nausea and vomiting. The aim of this report is to present this symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and to suggest a hypothesis for the observation. Design This is a prospective study looking at the patient accounts of the reported symptom and the clinical data on the patients disease. Methods Following a 2000 report from a paraganglioma patient of the experience of exercise induced nausea and vomiting, researchers and clinicians at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma protocol, began asking patients about instances of nausea and vomiting induced through exercise. A cohort of nine patients reporting exercise induced nausea and vomiting was found and their clinical data are analyzed and presented here. Results Exercise induced nausea and vomiting in pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma patients is most likely due to the elevation of circulating catecholamines that activate adrenergic receptors of the area postrema, which induces nausea and vomiting. Succinate dehydrogenase subunit B mutations/deletions were prevalent in the patients described. Conclusions Post exercise nausea and vomiting should be considered as a symptom of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma and should be addressed in the clinical evaluation of these patients, especially in young adults. PMID:20960160

  10. Performance of plasma fractionated free metanephrines by enzyme immunoassay in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Sarathi, Vijaya; Pandit, Reshma; Jagtap, Varsha; Lila, Anurag R; Bandgar, Tushar R; Menon, Padma S; Varthakavi, Prema; Raghavan, Vijaya P; Shah, Nalini S

    2011-01-01

    To study the performance of measuring plasma fractionated free metanephrines by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma. Consecutive patients attending the endocrine clinic at King Edward Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India, for suspicion of catecholamine-secreting tumors were included. Plasma fractionated free metanephrines were measured by EIA, and computed tomography of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis was performed. Those with tumor identified by imaging underwent 131I m-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. All patients with adrenal masses larger than 3 cm and patients with secretory tumors, irrespective of their size, underwent tumor excision. The rest were followed up for 6 to 12 months. One hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma were included. Plasma free normetanephrine alone had a sensitivity of 94.1% (cutoff: 180 ng/mL), while plasma free metanephrine had a sensitivity of 14.7% (cutoff: 90 pg/mL). Both had 96.9% specificity. When combined (either test positive), the sensitivity was 94.1% with a specificity of 93.75%. Thirty-four patients had a histopathologically proven pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. It was concluded that 66 patients did not harbor a pheochromocytoma or catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma. Plasma fractionated free metanephrines measured by EIA have good sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and catecholamine-secreting paraganglioma.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Outcome of adrenal sparing surgery in heritable pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Castinetti, F; Taieb, D; Henry, J F; Walz, M; Guerin, C; Brue, T; Conte-Devolx, B; Neumann, H P H; Sebag, F

    2016-01-01

    The management of hereditary pheochromocytoma has drastically evolved in the last 20 years. Bilateral pheochromocytoma does not increase mortality in MEN2 or von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) mutation carriers who are followed regularly, but these mutations induce major morbidities if total bilateral adrenalectomy is performed. Cortical sparing adrenal surgery may be proposed to avoid definitive adrenal insufficiency. The surgical goal is to leave sufficient cortical tissue to avoid glucocorticoid replacement therapy. This approach was achieved by the progressive experience of minimally invasive surgery via the transperitoneal or retroperitoneal route. Cortical sparing adrenal surgery exhibits <5% significant recurrence after 10 years of follow-up and normal glucocorticoid function in more than 50% of the cases. Therefore, cortical sparing adrenal surgery should be systematically considered in the management of all patients with MEN2 or VHL hereditary pheochromocytoma. Hereditary pheochromocytoma is a rare disease, and a randomized trial comparing cortical sparing vs classical adrenalectomy is probably not possible. This lack of data most likely explains why cortical sparing surgery has not been adopted in most expert centers that perform at least 20 procedures per year for the treatment of this disease. This review examined recent data to provide insight into the technique, its indications, and the results and subsequent follow-up in the management of patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma with a special emphasis on MEN2. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.