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Sample records for malignant tumor volume

  1. Reliability of tumor volume estimation from MR images in patients with malignant glioma. Results from the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6662 Trial.

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, Birgit B; Blume, Jeffrey D; Peck, Donald; Udupa, Jayaram K; Herman, Benjamin; Levering, Anthony; Schmalfuss, Ilona M

    2009-03-01

    Reliable assessment of tumor growth in malignant glioma poses a common problem both clinically and when studying novel therapeutic agents. We aimed to evaluate two software-systems in their ability to estimate volume change of tumor and/or edema on magnetic resonance (MR) images of malignant gliomas. Twenty patients with malignant glioma were included from different sites. Serial post-operative MR images were assessed with two software systems representative of the two fundamental segmentation methods, single-image fuzzy analysis (3DVIEWNIX-TV) and multi-spectral-image analysis (Eigentool), and with a manual method by 16 independent readers (eight MR-certified technologists, four neuroradiology fellows, four neuroradiologists). Enhancing tumor volume and tumor volume plus edema were assessed independently by each reader. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), variance components, and prediction intervals were estimated. There were no significant differences in the average tumor volume change over time between the software systems (p > 0.05). Both software systems were much more reliable and yielded smaller prediction intervals than manual measurements. No significant differences were observed between the volume changes determined by fellows/neuroradiologists or technologists.Semi-automated software systems are reliable tools to serve as outcome parameters in clinical studies and the basis for therapeutic decision-making for malignant gliomas, whereas manual measurements are less reliable and should not be the basis for clinical or research outcome studies. PMID:18925402

  2. Regional white matter volume and the relation with attentional functioning in survivors of malignant pediatric brain tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; White, Holly A.; Wilkinson, Gina M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative assessment of MR examinations in 37 survivors of childhood cancer treated with central nervous system prophylaxis revealed that normal appearing white matter (NAWM) volume is associated with attention-related problems, localized specifically in the right prefrontal region. T1-, T2-, and PD-weighted images were segmented and divided into pre-frontal, frontal, parietal/temporal, and parietal/occipital regions for each hemisphere. These eight regions were analyzed in five slices centered at the level of the basal ganglia. The patient's age at diagnosis and time elapsed from diagnosis were used as covariates in the regressions. Attentional measures showed significant deficiency when compared to age and gender normative values. Total, frontal and/or prefrontal NAWM volumes from the range of slices examined were significantly associated with 5 of the 8 attentional measures. The frontal/prefrontal region of the brain is associated with executive functioning tasks and could potentially be spared as much as possible during therapy planning. The results of the present study further support the contention that NAWM is an important substrate for treatment-induced neurocognitive problems among survivors of malignant brain tumors of childhood.

  3. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  4. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor.

    PubMed

    James, Aaron W; Shurell, Elizabeth; Singh, Arun; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C

    2016-10-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is the sixth most common type of soft tissue sarcoma. Most MPNSTs arise in association with a peripheral nerve or preexisting neurofibroma. Neurofibromatosis type is the most important risk factor for MPNST. Tumor size and fludeoxyglucose F 18 avidity are among the most helpful parameters to distinguish MPNST from a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. The histopathologic diagnosis is predominantly a diagnosis of light microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains are most helpful to distinguish high-grade MPNST from its histologic mimics. Current surgical management of high-grade MPNST is similar to that of other high-grade soft tissue sarcomas. PMID:27591499

  5. Postirradiation malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Rice, D H; Batsakis, J G; McClatchey, K D

    1976-11-01

    Information concerning the relationship between salivary gland tumors and prior exposure to radiation for benign conditions or by accident is slowly being gathered. As yet, no statistical confidence can be established in this relationship. Very likely, this confidence will require studies akin to those done on the problem of thyroid cancer and irradiation. Including the case reported here, 50 tumors of the salivary glands have been reported to have followed prior radiation exposure. Twenty-three of these tumors have been malignant, with the mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most frequent histological type. The latent period in salivary tissues is 20 or more years.

  6. An intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chan-Young; Han, Seong-Rok; Yee, Gi-Taek; Joo, Mee

    2011-04-01

    Intracranial malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is very rare. It was identified in a 39-year-old female patient who underwent malignant transformation over 6 months. MRI revealed an 8 × 5 × 6 cm mass with heterogenous strong enhancement in the left occipital lobe. Histologic findings and immunophenotype (positive for CD34, bcl-2 and vimentin, and negative for epithelial membrane antigen or S100 protein) of the primary tumor were typical of SFT. However, there was a focal area (<10% of tumor volume) showing hypercellularity, nuclear pleomorphism and increased Ki-67 labeling index (LI) of 10% (average, 1%). At the second operation, the recurrent tumor revealed full-blown histologic features of malignant SFT, such as infiltrative brain invasion, marked nuclear pleomorphism, frequent mitotic figures (15/10 high power fields), and high Ki-67 LI (25%). The presence of atypical histologic finding or increased Ki-67 LI in the typical SFT, although it is focal, needs to be mentioned in the diagnosis and also may require more aggressive surgical management.

  7. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Adam D; Ki, Dong Hyuk; He, Shuning; Look, A Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are tumors derived from Schwann cells or Schwann cell precursors. Although rare overall, the incidence of MPNST has increased with improved clinical management of patients with the neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor predisposition syndrome. Unfortunately, current treatment modalities for MPNST are limited, with no targeted therapies available and poor efficacy of conventional radiation and chemotherapeutic regimens. Many murine and zebrafish models of MPNST have been developed, which have helped to elucidate the genes and pathways that are dysregulated in MPNST tumorigenesis, including the p53, and the RB1, PI3K-Akt-mTOR, RAS-ERK and Wnt signaling pathways. Preclinical results have suggested that new therapies, including mTOR and ERK inhibitors, may synergize with conventional chemotherapy in human tumors. The discovery of new genome editing technologies, like CRISPR-cas9, and their successful application to the zebrafish model will enable rapid progress in the faithful modeling of MPNST molecular pathogenesis. The zebrafish model is especially suited for high throughput screening of new targeted therapeutics as well as drugs approved for other purposes, which may help to bring enhanced treatment modalities into human clinical trials for this devastating disease. PMID:27165368

  8. Primary malignancy, secondary malignancy and semimalignancy of bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Uehlinger, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Bone tumors in contrast to tumors in soft tissue, show a wide variety of clinical behavior qualified by the expressions semimalignancy, low grade of malignancy, sarcomatous degeneration and primarily benign bone tumors and bone lesions. 2. The term semimalignancy is characterized by local invasive and destructive tumor growth with a tendency to recur locally but no hematogeneous spreading. Semimalignancy requires wide en-bloc resection of amputation. 3. The term low grade malignancy is used to describe a tumor of very slow growth and with very late metastasis. Low-grade malignancy requires resection with careful preservation of functional structures. 4. The term secondary malignancy means the sarcomatous degeneration of a primarily benign lesion or bone tumor. This transformation is enhanced by irradiation and probably by acceleration of the normal turnover of bone tissue. In Paget's disease sarcomatous degeneration is to be expected in 2 percent of cases and in fibrous dysplasia in 0.5 percent of cases. 5. Sarcomatous degeneration of bone infarcts is rare, but an increase is to be expected due to an increased frequency of bone infarcts caused by long-term treatment with cortisone. 6. Primary bone tumors and recurrences show the same structure and cytology. In a minority of cases the recurrences are less differentiated; in a very few cases the recurrences are more highly differentiated and have a better prognosis than the initial lesion. PMID:1070716

  9. Extracorporeal Irradiation in Malignant Bone Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, R B; Jha, A K; Neupane, P; Chaurasia, P P; Sigdel, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal irradiation (ECI) is relatively a rare method used in the management of malignant bone tumors (MBT). It consists of en block removal of the tumor bearing bone segment, removal of the tumor from the bone, irradiation and re implantation back in the body. PMID:27549504

  10. Malignant tumor emboli to the peripheral vessels.

    PubMed

    Vo, N M; Sakurai, H; Gambarini, A J

    1981-01-01

    The first case of tumor emboli trapped in a popliteal aneurysm and the longest survivor for this condition are reported. The characteristics of 25 cases reported in the literature since 1940 and the mechanism of tumor spread are reviewed. Tumor emboli represent the late stage of a malignancy and treatment does not seem to affect long-term survival. PMID:7017284

  11. Malignant tumors in an ancient Egyptian population.

    PubMed

    Zink, A; Rohrbach, H; Szeimies, U; Hagedorn, H G; Haas, C J; Weyss, C; Bachmeier, B; Nerlich, A G

    1999-01-01

    Since it is still an open debate whether malignant tumors are mainly influenced by environmental factors, the frequency of such malignant tumors in historic populations with different living conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of malignant tumors affecting bone tissue in a population of mumrnies and skeletons, which had been excavated from the large necropolis of Thebes-West, Upper Egypt. Our study material comprised a series of at least 415 individuals (thereof 325 adults) dating from approx. 1500-500 B.C. All individuals had been mummified, but were severely damaged and partially broken by grave robbers, so that often only parts of the mummies/skeletons were available for investigation. The available specimens were subjected to careful macroscopic examination, while isolated findings were radiologically analyzed. Using this approach, we identified at least 4 cases showing malignant tumors affecting the skeleton. In two cases, multiple mixed osteolytic-osteoblastic lesions suggested multiple metastases from carcinomas. Two further individuals presented with multiple osteolyses (vertebra, pelvis, skull) most suggestive of multiple myeloma. The observation of at least 4 cases of malignant tumors with osseous manifestation in a series of 325 adult individuals provides clear evidence that malignant tumors were not a rare event in the ancient Egyptian study population, particularly when the limitations of a study of tumors manifested only in osseous remnants are taken into consideration. A calculation of the age- and sex-adjusted tumor frequency in our material in comparison with a recent model for such a material by Waldron (1996) indicates that the rate of malignant tumors with bone affection in our series is higher than in an English population from 1901-1905, although lower than in a comparable present day population. This clearly indicates that important factors affecting malignant tumors were effective even

  12. [CHEMOPERFUSION TECHNOLOGIES IN TREATMENT FOR MALIGNANT TUMORS].

    PubMed

    Belyaev, A M; Gafton, G I; Levchenko, E V; Karachun, A M; Gulyaev, A V; Senchik, K Yu; Bespalov, V G; Berlev, I V; Urmancheeva, A F; Guseinov, K D; Semiletova, Yu V; Mamontov, O N; Kalinin, P V; Kireeva, G S; Belyaeva, O A; Alexeev, V V

    2015-01-01

    The data of literature on possibility of the use of perfusion technologies in combined treatment for malignant tumors of different sites are presented. Possible complications during hyperthermic chemoperfusion are discussed and the effectiveness of this method is analyzed. PMID:26242165

  13. Malignant mixed tumor of the lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, M E; LiVolsi, V A; McMahon, R T

    1979-10-01

    This paper reports a case of carcinoma arising in a benign mixed tumor of lacrimal gland following multiple recurrences. The patient had eight recurrences of the benign lesion and after 32 years developed an adenocarcinoma associated with recurrent nodules of still recognizable benign mixed tumor. The literature on malignant mixed tumors of the lacrimal gland is reviewed noting the confusion in diagnostic terminology in early reports. Our patient illustrates the resemblance between malignant mixed tumor (carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma) of lacrimal and salivary gland both clinically and pathologically.

  14. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-02-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  15. Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Zangari, Andrea; Zaini, Johan; Gulìa, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor development. PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR (P-F) fusion state has important implications in the pathogenesis and biology of RMS, and different genes alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of P-F negative and embryonal RMS, which are the subsets of tumors most frequently affecting the bladder. These genes include p53, MEF2, MYOG, Ptch1, Gli1, Gli3, Myf5, MyoD1, NF1, NRAS, KRAS, HRAS, FGFR4, PIK3CA, CTNNB1, FBXW7, IGF1R, PDGFRA, ERBB2/4, MET, BCOR. Malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) usually shows SMARCB1/INI1 alterations. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene translocations are the most frequently associated alterations in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Few genes alterations in urothelial neoplasms have been reported in the paediatric population, which are mainly related to deletion of p16/lnk4, overexpression of CK20 and overexpression of p53. Here, we reviewed available literature to identify genes associated to bladder malignancies in children and discussed their possible relationships with these tumors. PMID:27013922

  16. Malignant triton tumor (MTT) of the neck.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kristine Bjørndal; Godballe, Christian; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2006-03-01

    Malignant Triton Tumor (MTT) is a rare, malignant periphere nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. One third of described MTT's were located at the head and neck region. One third of these are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. MTT most often appears in the third decade. MTT's are very aggressive tumors with early metastases and the overall survival is poor (26%). Therefore, early diagnosis and correct treatment is of utmost importance. We report a case of MTT of the left supraclavicular region in a 41-year-old man. We present the pathological findings, both light and immunohistochemically. PMID:16185834

  17. Malignant thyroid tumors after iodine-131 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, L.E.; Dahlqvist, I.; Israelsson, A.; Lundell, G.

    1980-07-24

    We studied the incidence of malignant thyroid tumors after /sup 131/l therapy in 2727 patients with hyperthyroidism and in 273 euthyroid patients with cardiac disease. The patients were all adults, with a mean age of 57 years. The /sup 131/l therapy was given between 1951 and 1965. The mean follow-up period was 13 years for the hyperthyroid patients (15 years for the 85 per cent surviving for more than five years) and six years for the cardiac patients (12 years for the 41 per cent surviving for more than five years). The incidence of malignant thyroid tumors was based on a search of the Swedish Cancer Registry for the occurrence of such tumors in any of the 3000 patients. At present there is no increased incidence of malignant thyroid tumors after /sup 131/l therapy (four cases observed versus 3.2 cases expected).

  18. Tumor initiating cells in malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayis, Costas G.; Van Meir, Erwin G.

    2009-01-01

    A rare subpopulation of cells within malignant gliomas, which shares canonical properties with neural stem cells (NSCs), may be integral to glial tumor development and perpetuation. These cells, also known as tumor initiating cells (TICs), have the ability to self-renew, develop into any cell in the overall tumor population (multipotency), and proliferate. A defining property of TICs is their ability to initiate new tumors in immunocompromised mice with high efficiency. Mounting evidence suggests that TICs originate from the transformation of NSCs and their progenitors. New findings show that TICs may be more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation than the bulk of tumor cells, thereby permitting recurrent tumor formation and accounting for the failure of conventional therapies. The development of new therapeutic strategies selectively targeting TICs while sparing NSCs may provide for more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:19189072

  19. Cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor, triton tumor variant: case report.

    PubMed

    Bornstein-Quevedo, Leticia; Peralta-Olvera, Fabiola; Marhx-Bracho, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Jurado, Rodolfo; De Leon-Bojorge, Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    A case of a cerebral malignant triton tumor in a 3-year-old boy with a 2-month history of frontal headache and no clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis is reported. The computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large, irregular tumor in the right parietooccipital lobe. A partial surgical resection was performed. Histologically, the tumor was highly cellular and consisted of spindle cells with hyperchromatic and pleomorphic nuclei. Focally, neoplastic cells with rhabdomyoblastic features were found. The immunohistochemical study showed that tumor cells were positive for S-100 protein and CD57, and the rhabdomyoblasts expressed desmin, Myo-D1, and myoglobin. During the postoperative period, a massive intraparenchymal hemorrhage was identified and surgical drainage was performed. The patient worsened and died 10 days after the first surgery. Postmortem study was not authorized. Six cases of cerebral malignant nerve sheath tumor have been described; however, primary intraparenchymal malignant triton tumor has not been previously described.

  20. Autocrine growth factors and solid tumor malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, J. H.; Karnes, W. E.; Cuttitta, F.; Walker, A.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of malignant cells to escape the constraint that normally regulate cell growth and differentiation has been a primary focus of attention for investigators of cancer cell biology. An outcome of this attention has been the discovery that the protein products of oncogenes play a role in the activation of growth signal pathways. A second outcome, possibly related to abnormal oncogene expression, has been the discovery that malignant cells frequently show an ability to regulate their own growth by the release of autocrine growth modulatory substances. Most important, the growth of certain malignant cell types has been shown to depend on autocrine growth circuits. A malignant tumor whose continued growth depends on the release of an autocrine growth factor may be vulnerable to treatment with specific receptor antagonists or immunoneutralizing antibodies designed to break the autocrine circuit. Information is rapidly emerging concerning autocrine growth factors in selected human solid tissue malignancy. Images PMID:1926844

  1. Malignant transformation of orbital solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangning; Qian, Jiang; Bi, Yingwen; Ping, Bo; Zhang, Rui

    2013-06-01

    Orbital solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare tumor and may recur or undergo malignant transformation without complete excision. We present a case of orbital SFT which recurred twice and underwent malignant transformation. The patient was treated with en bloc excision via a lateral orbitotomy. The postoperative histopathologic diagnosis of this case was an adult fibrosarcoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy was given. In 18 months of further follow-up, there has been no evidence of recurrence, both clinically and in regular imaging studies.

  2. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Mahesh, Nirujogi; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin.

  3. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor -A Rare Malignancy in Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit; Kotina, Sreekanth; Uppala, Divya; Kumar, Singam Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (MPNST) is biologically an aggressive tumor that is usually found in the extremities, trunk and infrequently found in the head and neck area particularly in the jaws, arising from the cells allied with nerve sheath. Mandibular MPNST may either arise from a preexisting neurofibroma or develop de novo. Because of the greater variability from case to case in overall appearance both clinically and histologically, a case of MPNST of the mandible in a 25-year-old female patient is reported. The lesion was excised and immunohistological studies (S-100 & Neuron specific enolase) were conducted to confirm the neural origin. PMID:27504425

  4. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the meninges.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kumiko; Tada, Toyohiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Naotake; Inaguma, Shingo; Takahashi, Seishiro S; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2004-05-01

    Increasing numbers of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) in the meninges have been reported since this entity was first recognized. While most cases previously reported were considered to be benign, the malignant potential of extrathoracic SFTs has not been excluded. The authors report a rare case of a meningeal SFT with malignant behavior occurring in a Japanese female patient, initially resected when she was 44 years old and recurring in the same place four times during a 26-year follow-up period. A metastatic tumor to the right lung arose 25 years after the resection of the first meningeal tumor and focal invasion into the cerebellum was also observed with her last (5th) meningeal tumor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed all tumors to be diffusely positive for CD34 and negative for EMA, with a so-called "patternless" histological pattern, featuring thin collagen fibers between tumor cells. A focal "staghorn" vascular pattern was also observed. Ki67 (MIB-1) labeling indices and mitosis rates were 3.1+/-1.2% and less than 1/10 high power fields (HPF) in the first meningeal tumor and 16.1+/-6.4% and 6/10HPF in the last (5th) one, respectively. Thus, the present case suggests that meningeal SFTs possess malignant potential so that careful long-term follow up is required.

  5. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Cesario, Alfredo; Mulè, Antonino; Margaritora, Stefano

    2011-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the esophagus has been very rarely reported in literature. Herein, we report a case of a successful surgically treated malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the esophagus. A 36-year-old woman was admitted at our hospital with an erroneous ultrasound-based diagnosis of cervico-mediastinal goiter. Surprisingly, the preoperative diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomographic chest scan, endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasonography, revealed a pedunculated intraluminal mass in the esophagus. The tumor was radically removed through left antero-lateral cervicotomy. Pathologic and immunohistochemical examination was concluded for a malignant SFT, a rare variant not previously described in relation to the esophagus. The patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy and is alive with no signs of tumor recurrence 32 months after surgery.

  6. [Intraoperative radiotherapy in malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, T; Kotoura, Y

    1993-06-01

    When a bone tumor is confirmed to be malignant by biopsy and has not expanded into the soft tissue, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is indicated for most parts of the four extremities. The irradiation area is exposed through an extensive skin incision, and the soft tissues are opened and retracted away from the irradiation area, leaving a layer of normal tissue directly covering the tumor. The irradiation is performed with 12-26 MeV electron beams from a betatron at a dose of 50-100 Gy, depending on the radiosensitivity of each tumor. The multifocal bilateral irradiation method is the best for minimizing complications of the soft tissues. Since 1978, we have performed IORT in combination with chemotherapy in 41 cases of malignant bone tumors and experienced only five cases of tumor recurrence one in the irradiated area and four in the non-irradiated area. Joint function in the irradiated limb was excellent. However, due to the high incidence of pathological fracture after IORT in osteolytic tumors, the limb eventually had to be replaced by a prosthesis. After 1984 when cisplatinum was introduced to our chemotherapy protocol, the cumulative 5 year survival rate increased to 81%, with the irradiated lesion preserved in situ in osteoblastic tumors and replaced with a prosthesis in osteolytic tumors.

  7. Malignant metastatic carcinoid presenting as brain tumor

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, I. Vijay; Jain, S. K.; Kurmi, Dhrubajyoti; Sharma, Rakesh; Chopra, Sanjeev; Singhvi, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors are rarely known to metastasise to the brain. It is even more rare for such patients to present with symptoms related to metastases as the initial and only symptom. We present a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis and imaging features suggestive of brain tumor. He underwent surgery and the histopathology revealed metastatic malignant lesion of neuroendocrine origin. A subsequent work up for the primary was negative. Patient was treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. We present this case to highlight the pathophysiological features, workup and treatment options of this rare disease and discuss the methods of differentiating it from more common brain tumors. PMID:27366273

  8. General Information about Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Malignant Potential Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors Go to ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Malignant Tumors of Tongue in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Bastani, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of oral cancers varies from one country to another, which can be clarified by the difference in the distribution of the risk factors and the possible etiologies. Tongue is a main segment of oral cavity and malignant lesions of this region accounts for nearly 30% of all oral cancers. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of tongue cancer in Iranian population and compared these findings with those previously reported in the other countries. Methods In this multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study recorded cases of the malignant tongue tumors in the cancer research center (CRC) of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were extracted. The patient records and their microscopic reports were retrieved from the archives and age, sex and microscopic types were evaluated. It is to be noted that the CRC has been serving as a cancer registry center for major hospitals all over the country since the year of 2003. Thus, the obtained statistics are highly reliable. Results During the years 2003 to 2008, a total number of 952 new cases of the tongue cancer were recorded in the CRC. Most cases are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. 450 cases (47.2%) occurred in men and 489 cases (51.36%) in women. Four different types of malignant lesions (epithelial, salivary gland, hematopoietic and mesenchymal) were diagnosed. Epithelial tumors were the most prevalent malignancies (93%) of which squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) made up 87.39% of all lesions. Salivary gland tumors had the second place with 3.15% of the total lesions. Conclusions In Iranian population, squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy of tongue and it is notable that the ratio of female to male population was equal. These lesions were prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades of life. Thus screening examination of tongue by dentist especially in elderly patients is necessary for early detection of cancerous lesions. PMID:27761209

  10. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Brett M; Kang, David R; Sakamoto, Aya Hamao

    2016-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are an uncommon slow growing benign neoplasm originally described as a pleural neoplasm but can also be found in the lung, mediastinum, peritoneum, or any other sites including the head and neck. Malignant solitary fibrous tumors (MSFT) are extremely rare and only few cases have been published in the literature. There have been 19 cases reported of MSFT in the head and neck, but there are no reports of MSFT located within the scalp in the English language literature. We present a case of MSFT arising in the scalp and describe our experience with the clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome in this pathological condition. PMID:27408445

  11. A large retroperitoneal malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Sata, Ritsuko; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Wada, Seidai; Nakamura, Yuya; Kato, Tatsushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    We report on a large, retroperitoneal, malignant, solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with high proliferation activity. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our department complaining of a palpable mass. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large retroperitoneal tumor occupying the entire abdominal cavity. A laparotomy was performed for diagnosis and treatment, which revealed a tumor in the retroperitoneum but with no invasion to the surrounding organs, thereby allowing safe macroscopic excision. Histologically, the tumor was composed of spindle-shaped cells with patternless pattern and a hemangiopericytomatous appearance. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD34, vimentin, Bcl-2, and CD99 and negative for desmin, S-100p, and smooth muscle actin (AMA). The tumor exhibited high cellularity, moderate mitotic activity, pleomorphism, necrosis, and hemorrhagic changes. In addition, the Ki-67 labeling index was 37%. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of malignant SFT with high proliferation activity. Subsequently, adjuvant doxorubicin plus ifosfamide chemotherapy was performed. No signs of recurrence were observed 12 months after the surgery.

  12. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required.

  13. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Huamin; Bhosale, Priya R; Evans, Harry L; Abraham, Susan C

    2015-08-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising in the pancreas is exceedingly rare, with only 11 cases reported in the English literature. All cases described thus far have exhibited benign histology. We report the first case of malignant SFT of the pancreas. The patient was a 52-year-old woman who presented with obstructive jaundice and a 15-cm pancreatic head mass. The mass showed areas with typical histologic features for SFT including small fibroblastlike cells arranged in the well-characterized "patternless pattern" of architecture, hemangiopericytomalike vessels, areas with dense collagen and infrequent mitoses (0-2 per 10 high-power fields [HPFs]). In addition, multiple areas with an overtly sarcomatous morphology were present, containing large spindle and epithelioid cells with nuclear pleomorphism, marked cellularity, up to17 mitoses per 10 HPFs, and necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD34 and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in both benign and malignant components and showed strong, diffuse p53 and p16 staining in the malignant component. At last follow-up (40 months), the patient was alive and well without evidence of disease. However, given that the presence of a malignant component in extrapancreatic SFT has been associated with recurrence/metastasis and death, complete surgical resection and close long-term follow-up is required. PMID:26166470

  14. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    AKIMOTO, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women’s Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  15. Photodynamic Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using talaporfin sodium together with a semiconductor laser was approved in Japan in October 2003 as a less invasive therapy for early-stage lung cancer. The author believes that the principle of PDT would be applicable for controlling the invading front of malignant brain tumors and verified its efficacy through experiments using glioma cell lines and glioma xenograft models. An investigator-initiated clinical study was jointly conducted with Tokyo Women's Medical University with the support of the Japan Medical Association. Patient enrollment was started in May 2009 and a total of 27 patients were enrolled by March 2012. Of 22 patients included in efficacy analysis, 13 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma showed progression-free survival of 12 months, progression-free survival at the site of laser irradiation of 20 months, 1-year survival of 100%, and overall survival of 24.8 months. In addition, the safety analysis of the 27 patients showed that adverse events directly related to PDT were mild. PDT was approved in Japan for health insurance coverage as a new intraoperative therapy with the indication for malignant brain tumors in September 2013. Currently, the post-marketing investigation in the accumulated patients has been conducted, and the preparation of guidelines, holding training courses, and dissemination of information on the safe implementation of PDT using web sites and videos, have been promoted. PDT is expected to be a breakthrough for the treatment of malignant glioma as a tumor cell-selective less invasive therapy for the infiltrated functional brain area. PMID:26888042

  16. Photodynamic therapy of advanced malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-xing; Dai, Lu-pin; Lu, Wen-qin

    1993-03-01

    Forty patients with advanced tumors were treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) from May 1991 to August 1991 in our hospital with age ranges from 30 to 81 years old. The pathological diagnosis shows that 13 had tumors in the colon, 3 in the stomach, 2 in the oesophageal, 2 in the palatum, 1 in the cervix, and 19 others with malignant cancers of the skin. The histology was as follows: squamous cell in 20, adenocarcinoma in 19, melanocarcinoma in 1. By TNM classification there were no cases of T1, 5 cases of T2, and 35 cases of T2 - T3. All patients were stage IV. The overall effective rate was 85%, our experience is that the PDT is suitable for the patients with advanced tumor, especially those whose tumor recurrences are hard to treat after conventional treatment (surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy). The PDT appears to be a new and promising possibility to treat advanced tumors and to improve the patients' survival rates.

  17. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriquenz, Maria Grazia; Rossi, Sabrina; Ricci, Riccardo; Martini, Maurizio; Larocca, Mario; Dipasquale, Angelo; Quirino, Michela; Schinzari, Giovanni; Basso, Michele; D’Argento, Ettore; Strippoli, Antonia; Barone, Carlo; Cassano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several evidences showed that patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop additional malignancies. However, thorough incidence of second tumors remains uncertain as the possibility of a common molecular pathogenesis. A retrospective series of 128 patients with histologically proven GIST treated at our institution was evaluated. Molecular analysis of KIT and PDGFR-α genes was performed in all patients. Following the involvement of KRAS mutation in many tumors’ pathogenesis, analysis of KRAS was performed in patients with also second neoplasms. Forty-six out of 128 GIST patients (35.9%) had a second neoplasm. Most second tumors (52%) raised from gastrointestinal tract and 19.6% from genitourinary tract. Benign neoplasms were also included (21.7%). Molecular analysis was available for 29/46 patients with a second tumor: wild-type GISTs (n. 5), exon 11 (n. 16), exon 13 (n. 1), exon 9 (n. 1) KIT mutations, exon 14 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 2) and exon 18 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 4). KIT exon 11 mutations were more frequent between patients who developed a second tumor (P = 0.0003). Mutational analysis of KRAS showed a wild-type sequence in all cases. In metachronous cases, the median time interval between GIST and second tumor was 21.5 months. The high frequency of second tumors suggests that an unknown common molecular mechanism might play a role, but it is not likely that KRAS is involved in this common pathogenesis. The short interval between GIST diagnosis and the onset of second neoplasms asks for a careful follow-up, particularly in the first 3 years after diagnosis. PMID:27661019

  18. Ultrastructural study of benign, low-malignant potential (LMP), and malignant ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Ishioka, Shin-ichi; Sagae, Satoru; Ito, Eiki; Kudo, Ryuichi

    2004-03-01

    Ultrastructural characteristics of benign, low-malignant potential (LMP), and malignant ovarian tumors were investigated, considering the aspects of histologic subtypes and histologic grading. In addition, the histogenesis of ovarian cancer was histologically investigated in an attempt to elucidate whether malignant tumor was generated from benign or LMP tumor, or whether it was generated de novo from normal tissues. Although all the benign, LMP, and malignant tumors appeared to be derived from Mullerian duct in serous tumors, the origin of endometrioid or mucinous tumor could not be ultrastructurally clarified. However, there was ultrastructural similarity between benign and malignant tumors among serous, endometrioid, and mucinous tumors, and it was suggested that benign adenoma may be the developmental origin of malignant tumors regardless of the histologic subtype. In addition, the investigation of endometrioid tumors revealed that the differences of histologic grading in malignant tumors reflected the ultrastructural differences, and that G1 tumor had an ultrastructure that was more similar to that of benign and LMP tumors than to that of G2 tumor.

  19. PTEN: Multiple Functions in Human Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Michele; Falcone, Italia; Conciatori, Fabiana; Cesta Incani, Ursula; Del Curatolo, Anais; Inzerilli, Nicola; Nuzzo, Carmen M. A.; Vaccaro, Vanja; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Ciuffreda, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors. PMID:25763354

  20. More Complete Removal of Malignant Brain Tumors by Fluorescence-Guided Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-13

    Benign Neoplasms, Brain; Brain Cancer; Brain Neoplasms, Benign; Brain Neoplasms, Malignant; Brain Tumor, Primary; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Brain Tumors; Intracranial Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Brain; Neoplasms, Intracranial; Primary Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Neoplasms; Primary Malignant Brain Tumors; Gliomas; Glioblastoma

  1. PDT for malignant tumors: a clinical analysis of 152 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Shi-Zhang; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Li, Xin; Zhang, Changjun; Wang, Jian-Zhao; Zhang, Da-Ren

    1993-03-01

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) laser photodynamic therapy (PDT) was applied for the patients of 152 cases of malignant tumors, including tumors of the lip, tongue, esophagus, urinary bladder, skin, larynx, vagina, etc. Since early 1981 good results have been obtained.

  2. Synchronous benign and malignant tumors in the ipsilateral parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Chan Il

    2007-01-01

    Synchronous benign and malignant tumors in the ipsilateral salivary glands are extremely rare. We report a unique case of synchronous unilateral parotid tumors in a 71-year-old man. The main parotid lesion was preoperatively suggested to be adenocarcinoma by fine needle aspiration cytology. A coexisting Warthin's tumor was also diagnosed on microscopic examination of total parotidectomy specimens. We describe this case of rare synchronous salivary gland tumors exhibiting both benign and malignant components with a review of the literature.

  3. Sternal Resection and Reconstruction for Malignant Phylloides Tumor.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Poonia, Dharmaram; Agrawal, Juhi; Goel, Ashish; Mehta, Sandeep; Kumar, Kapil

    2015-08-01

    Malignant phylloides tumor is a locally aggressive breast neoplasm constituting less than 1 % of all breast cancers. It has a tendency for local recurrence and management is multidisciplinary. We hereby report a case of total sternal resection and reconstruction using Biopore HDPE prosthesis for Malignant Phylloides tumor. PMID:26702245

  4. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcoma) of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stephen, J; Batsakis, J G; Luna, M A; von der Heyden, U; Byers, R M

    1986-06-01

    True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) of salivary glands are of a high grade of malignancy and are distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Having a putative origin from a benign pleomorphic adenoma, the true malignant mixed tumor is an aggressive, often rapidly lethal neoplasm in which the sarcomatous element is most often a chondrosarcoma and the epithelial element is most often a ductal carcinoma. The twelve cases in this report represent the largest recorded series to date.

  5. [Pelvic actinomycosis simulating adnexal malignant tumor].

    PubMed

    Benkiran, L; Gamra, L; Lamalmi, N; Essouyeh, M; Regragui, A; Amrani, M; Souadka, A; Melabbas, M A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 35-year-old patient admitted to the National Oncology Institute in Rabat, Morocco for pelvic pain and deteriorating general status ongoing for 8 months. Clinical and ultrasonographic examination showed a heterogenous mass measuring 7 cm in maximum width located inferior and lateral to the inferior aspect of the right side of the uterus. These findings were suggestive of a malignant tumor of the right ovary. Ovariectomy and omentectomy were performed. Histological examination of surgical specimens demonstrated right tubo-ovarian actinomycosis associated with peritonitis. Genital tract actinomycosis is an uncommon finding in women of childbearing age. It is due to colonization by a pyogenic bacteria (Actinomyces) usually secondary to a gastrointestinal infection, e.g. ileocecum, and sometimes in association with the presence of an intrauterine device or foreign body. Based on this case report, the authors discuss abdominopelvic actinomyocosis with emphasis on tumor-like findings that can lead to misdiagnosis by clinicians and radiologists. PMID:12038184

  6. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Resistant Malignant Germ Cell Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-12

    Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Choriocarcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma; Testicular Embryonal Carcinoma and Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor

  7. Radiation-induced malignant and atypical peripheral nerve sheath tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, K.M.; Woodruff, J.M.; Ellis, F.T.; Posner, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    The reported peripheral nerve complications of therapeutic irradiation in humans include brachial and lumbar plexus fibrosis and cranial and peripheral nerve atrophy. We have encountered 9 patients with malignant (7) and atypical (2) peripheral nerve tumors occurring in an irradiated site suggesting that such tumors represent another delayed effect of radiation treatment on peripheral nerve. In all instances the radio-theray was within an acceptable radiation dosage, yet 3 patients developed local radiation-induced skin and bony abnormalities. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors developed only in the radiation port. Animal studies support the clinical observation that malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors can occur as a delayed effect of irradiation.

  8. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27660729

  9. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma.

  10. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gleason, James Benjamin; Tashtoush, Basheer; Diacovo, Maria Julia

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. PMID:27660729

  11. Caveolin-1 overexpression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Nazhvani, Ali Dehghani; Azizi, Zahra

    2016-02-01

    Caveolin-1, a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein, is supposed to have different regulatory roles as promoter or suppressor in many human cancers. However, no published study concerned its expression in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the expression of Cav-1 in the most common benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and evaluate its correlation with proliferation activity. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and Ki67 were evaluated in 49 samples, including 11 normal salivary glands, 15 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 13 adenoid cystic carcinomas (AdCC), and 10 mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC). The expression of Cav-1 was seen in 18 % of normal salivary glands and 85 % of tumors. The immunoreaction in the tumors was significantly higher than normal tissues (P = 0.001), but the difference between benign and malignant tumors was not significant (P = 0.07). Expression of Cav-1 was correlated with Ki67 labeling index in PAs, but not in malignant tumors. Cav-1 expression was not in association with tumor size and stage. Overexpression of Cav-1 was found in salivary gland tumors in comparison with normal tissues, but no significant difference was observed between benign and malignant tumors. Cav-1 was inversely correlated with proliferation in PA. Therefore, this marker may participate in tumorigenesis of salivary gland tumors and may be a potential biomarker for cancer treatments.

  12. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor

    PubMed Central

    Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  13. Transformation of benign fibroadenoma to malignant phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Linda M; Daigle, Megan E; Tortora, Matthew; Panasiti, Ryane

    2015-07-01

    The transformation of a benign fibroadenoma into a phyllodes tumor is uncommon and unpredictable. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with a core biopsy proven fibroadenoma that underwent transformation into a malignant phyllodes tumor after 3 years of size stability. We present ultrasound and magnetic resonance images, as well as pathology slides from core biopsy and surgical excision, to illustrate this transformation. It has been suggested that phyllodes tumors may be misdiagnosed as fibroadenomas by core biopsy. However, in this case, pathology supports correct initial diagnosis of fibroadenoma and demonstrates a portion of the original fibroadenoma along the periphery of the malignant phyllodes tumor. PMID:26331090

  14. Rare Malignant Tumors of the Breast

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Trevor; Albarracin, Constance; Carkaci, Selin; Whitman, Gary J; Adrada, Beatriz E

    2015-01-01

    While the more common forms of breast cancer are well understood and recognized, there are many important rare malignancies that are less appreciated. Many of these cancers have imaging findings that, when understood, help to formulate a more educated differential diagnosis. In this article, the clinical features, imaging, and pathologic findings of rare breast malignancies will be discussed. PMID:26664775

  15. Disseminated malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongquan; Lucas, David R; Pass, Harvey I; Che, Mingxin

    2004-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura typically forms a localized pleura-based mass, and most are benign. A rare case of disseminated malignant SFT of the pleura is reported. The patient was a 71-year-old man who presented with complaints of shortness of breath to his primary care physician. A diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma was suspected, based on clinical, radiological and needle biopsy findings. He was referred to our institution for surgery. An extrapleural pneumonectomy, encompassing all pleural masses, was performed. Gross examination of the resected specimen was remarkable for numerous masses, ranging in size from 0.2 to 13.5 cm, covering the majority of the visceral pleura. Histologically, the tumor was composed of short spindle cells admixed with variable proportions of collagenous stroma. There were great intra- and intertumoral heterogeneity in tumor growth pattern, cellularity, pleomorphism and mitoses. Histologically malignant areas were present in all of the masses examined. The neoplastic cells were diffusely and intensely positive for bcl-2. Most tumor cells were also strongly stained for CD34 and CD99. Staining for cytokeratin was negative. The tumor also revealed p53 over-expression. Thus, the histological and immunohistochemical features of the tumor were consistent with a disseminated malignant SFT. This report shows that SFT rarely presents with disseminated pleural involvement, and a panel with CD34, bcl-2 and cytokeratin are valuable for differentiating SFT from malignant mesothelioma and other malignant spindle cell neoplasms of the pleura.

  16. Rare Malignant and Benign Salivary Gland Epithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R; Barnes, E Leon

    2011-12-01

    Although at least 24 distinct histologic salivary gland carcinomas exist, many of them are rare, comprising only 1% to 2% of all salivary gland tumors. These include epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, (hyalinizing) clear cell carcinoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, cystadenocarcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma (low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma), oncocytic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. Few tumors (clear cell carcinoma and basal cell adenocarcinoma) have unique molecular correlates. Benign tumors, although histologically less diverse, are far more common, with pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor the most common salivary gland tumors. Many benign tumors have malignant counterparts for which histologic distinction can pose diagnostic challenge.

  17. Applications of Nanomaterials in Radiotherapy for Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanchao; Liang, Ruichao; Fang, Fang

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumors are tremendous heath problems facing by the medical world. In order to achieve the purpose of curing malignant tumor, numerous therapeutic strategies have been developed. Radiotherapy is one of the main therapeutic strategies for malignant tumors. Current imaging strategies cannot display exact infiltrating margins, radio-resistance generated by irradiated tissue, and intercurrent damage to healthy tissues during radiotherapy. Therefore, novel strategies to solve these problems are urgently needed. Nanomaterials have specific physical and biological properties that can help clinician to distinguish margins of infiltrating tumors as a novel contrast agent. Besides, nanoparticles can significantly enhance the effect of radiotherapy by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) or influence cell cycle. In addition, nanomaterials can also help in diminishing the intercurrent damage caused by radiotherapy. So nanomaterials have very promising prospect in the radiotherapy of malignant tumors. This review mainly focuses on the applications of nanomaterials in radiotherapy for malignant tumors; especially it applies to lesion imaging and their radiosensitizing effects. PMID:26369108

  18. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Hao; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Lee, Chen-Hui; Ou, Yen-Chung; Cheng, Chen-Li

    2012-09-01

    A 67-year-old man was examined for persistent pain over his lower abdomen and was found to have a large pelvic tumor. During surgery, we detected a 16 × 9 × 9 cm(3) urinary bladder tumor with small intestinal adhesions, and performed partial cystectomy and segmental resection. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations established the diagnosis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Only 10 cases of urinary bladder SFT have been reported in the English literature; our patient is the second one with malignancy and had a longer follow-up period than the other case.

  19. A multicenter study of oral malignant tumors from Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Dhanuthai, Kittipong; Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral malignant tumors in Thailand have not been extensively studied. Hence the following study was conducted. Aims: To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic data of the oral malignant tumors from Thailand. Subjects and Methods: Biopsy records of the Oral Pathology Department, Chulalongkorn University; Department of Oral Biology and Diagnostic Sciences, Chiang Mai University; Department of Oral Diagnosis, Khon Kaen University and Department of Stomatology, Prince of Songkla University, were reviewed for lesions diagnosed in the category of oral malignant tumors from 2005–2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results: Of the 22,639 accessioned cases, 1411 cases (6.23%) were diagnosed as oral malignant tumors. The mean age of the patients was 59.13 ± 17.32 years. A total of 651 cases (46.14%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 759 cases (53.79%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 0.86:1. The sites of predilection for oral malignant tumors were the gingiva, followed by tongue and alveolar mucosa. The three most common oral malignant tumors in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions: This study provides extensive data on the oral malignant tumors from several university biopsy services located in virtually all parts of Thailand. The data from the present study show some similarities with previous studies; however, differences such as gender and site of predilection still exist. PMID:27721612

  20. Carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma and malignant mixed tumors. Histomorphologic indexes.

    PubMed

    Tortoledo, M E; Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G

    1984-03-01

    Clinical and pathologic differences exist between the several neoplasms encompassed by the term malignant mixed tumors of salivary glands. The majority of the neoplasms are carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. True malignant mixed tumors (carcinosarcomas) are rare, and even more rare are the benign metastasizing mixed tumors. This study of 40 malignant mixed tumors indicates that two previously unreported variables, measured invasion in millimeters and histologic subclassifications of the malignant neoplasm, are valuable guides to prognosis and biologic behavior. All patients whose malignant neoplasm extended for more than 8 mm beyond residual capsule or benign residual tumor died of their disease. The extent of invasion also correlated with perineurial invasion, involvement of bone, and metastases to lymph nodes. Histologic subclassification points out that there is no prototypical carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and that high- and low-grade carcinomas can be found. Only one of the patients with low-grade (terminal duct) carcinomas died of his disease during follow-up periods extending to over 20 years.

  1. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the right atrium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Hao; Wang, Yan-Li; Chen, Gang; Jiang, Ge-Ning

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are extremely rare, with only 4 cases described to date. Here, we describe the case of a 55-year-old man with a primary, malignant SFT that arose in the right atrium of his heart. His presenting complaint was of chest distress and shortness of breath. Physical examination revealed jugular venous engorgement. Computed tomography showed a tumor of 15 × 10 × 8 cm in the anterior mediastinum. The tumor was surgically resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. A grayish white neoplasm was discovered lying within the right atrium. The histological appearance of the tumor was of a hypercellular distribution of spindle cells with nuclear atypia, arranged in a storiform pattern and intermixed with collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was positive for CD34. Based on the aforementioned features, the diagnosis of malignant SFT was made. The patient subsequently died as a result of respiratory and circulatory failure.

  2. Immunotherapy of Malignancy by in vivo Gene Transfer into Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plautz, Gregory E.; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Bei-Yue; Gao, Xiang; Huang, Leaf; Nabel, Gary J.

    1993-05-01

    The immune system confers protection against a variety of pathogens and contributes to the surveillance and destruction of neoplastic cells. Several cell types participate in the recognition and lysis of tumors, and appropriate immune stimulation provides therapeutic effects in malignancy. Foreign major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins also serve as a potent stimulus to the immune system. In this report, a foreign MHC gene was introduced directly into malignant tumors in vivo in an effort to stimulate tumor rejection. In contrast to previous attempts to induce tumor immunity by cell-mediated gene transfer, the recombinant gene was introduced directly into tumors in vivo. Expression of the murine class I H-2K^s gene within the CT26 mouse colon adenocarcinoma (H-2K^d) or the MCA 106 fibrosarcoma (H-2K^b) induced a cytotoxic T-cell response to H-2K^s and, more importantly, to other antigens present on unmodified tumor cells. This immune response attenuated tumor growth and caused complete tumor regression in many cases. Direct gene transfer in vivo can therefore induce cell-mediated immunity against specific gene products, which provides an immunotherapeutic effect for malignancy, and potentially can be applied to the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases in man.

  3. [The observatory of rare malignant gynecologic tumors].

    PubMed

    Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Vacher-Lavenu, Marie-Cécile

    2014-02-01

    The observatory of gynecological rare tumors (TMRG) has been initially created for ovarian rare neoplasms (TMRO). Because of the similarities between ovarian and other gynecological tumors, this observatory has been then extended to all gynecological rare tumors. The recognition by INCa of three national expert centers (centre Léon-Bérard, hôpitaux de Paris, institut Gustave-Roussy) in rare gynecological cancers and a network of regional expert centers in 2010, expend the experience of the website "Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire". The major goals of this gynecology rare tumors experts network, are to promote systematic second opinion for initial diagnostic by experts in gynecopathology, systematic multidisciplinary advice by surgeons and medical oncologist experts, to disseminate clinical guidelines dedicated to rare gynecological tumors, to promote specific fundamental and translational research within clinical trials dedicated to rare tumors. At the end, we would like to improve benefit in term of survival and/or fertility for all these potential young patients.

  4. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of breast: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian-He; Dai, Shun-Dong; Li, Qing-Chang; Xu, Hong-Tao; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Liang; Fan, Chui-Feng; Wang, En-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is rare mesenchymal neoplasm that has been originally and most often documented in the pleura. Recently, the ubiquitous nature of the SFT has been recognized with reports of involvement of numerous sites all over the body such as: upper respiratory tract, somatic tissue, mediastinum, head, and neck. Less than 10 cases SFT of breast have been reported. Herein, we presented a 52-year-old Asian female with SFT of breast, this tumor showed predominant malignant features. To our knowledge, SFT of breast with such malignant evidence is extremely rare.

  5. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura with liposarcomatous differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, H; Aswad, B I; Gaissert, H; Gnepp, D R

    2001-03-01

    Pleural solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon tumors. Although these tumors have been well characterized, malignant pleural SFTs with liposarcomatous differentiation have not been reported. We report an unusual malignant pleural SFT intermixed with foci of well-differentiated liposarcoma. The patient was a 66-year-old, white man with a large, solid right pleural mass that measured 13.5 x 10.3 x 8.5 cm. The tumor was composed of spindle-shaped and plump cells embedded in dense collagenous stroma. The tumor cells were arranged in interlacing fascicles or in a patternless pattern. Marked nuclear atypia, a high mitotic rate (21 mitoses per 10 high-power fields), and areas of prominent necrosis were evident. In addition, numerous adipocytes mixed with typical lipoblasts were seen scattered throughout portions of the tumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed the tumor cells were strongly positive for CD34 and vimentin and negative for cytokeratin, desmin, smooth muscle actin (IA4), and S100. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first example of a malignant SFT with liposarcomatous differentiation.

  6. Rho GTPases in primary brain tumor malignancy and invasion.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Bassem D; El-Sibai, Mirvat

    2012-07-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of malignant primary brain tumor in humans, accounting for 80 % of malignant cases. Expression and activity of Rho GTPases, which coordinate several cellular processes including cell-cycle progression and cell migration, are commonly altered in many types of primary brain tumor. Here we review the suggested effects of deregulated Rho GTPase signaling on brain tumor malignancy, highlighting the controversy in the field. For instance, whereas expression of RhoA and RhoB has been found to be significantly reduced in astrocytic tumors, other studies have reported Rho-dependent LPA-induced migration in glioma cells. Moreover, whereas the Rac1 expression level has been found to be reduced in astrocytic tumor, it was overexpressed and induced invasion in medulloblastoma tumors. In addition to the Rho GTPases themselves, several of their downstream effectors (including ROCK, mDia, and N-WASP) and upstream regulators (including GEFs, GAPs, PI3K, and PTEN) have also been implicated in primary brain tumors.

  7. Malignant Triton Tumors in Sisters with Clinical Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Alina, Basnet; Sebastian, Jofre A.; Gerardo, Capo

    2015-01-01

    Malignant triton tumors (MTTs) are rare and aggressive sarcomas categorized as a subgroup of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). MTTs arise from Schwann cells of peripheral nerves or existing neurofibromas and have elements of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation. We report the occurrence of MTTs in two sisters. The first patient is a 36-year-old female who presented with left sided chest wall swelling. She also had clinical features consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). Debulking of the mass showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with skeletal muscle differentiation (MTT). The patient was treated with ifosfamide and adriamycin along with radiation. Four years after treatment, she still has no evidence of disease recurrence. Her sister subsequently presented to us at the age of 42 with left sided lateral chest wall pain. Imaging showed a multicompartmental retroperitoneal cystic mass with left psoas involvement. The tumor was resected and, similarly to her sister, it showed high-grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation (MTT). The patient was started on chemotherapy and radiation as described above. PMID:26114002

  8. Ovarian mucinous tumor with malignant mural nodules: dedifferentiation or collision?

    PubMed

    Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo; Crispens, Marta A; Fadare, Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian mucinous tumors with mural nodules are rare surface epithelial-stromal tumors. The mural nodules are divergent neoplasms that may be benign or malignant. The latter may be in the form of a sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, anaplastic carcinoma, or a variety of other recognized histotypes of carcinoma, which raises the question of whether malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors or whether they represent collision tumors. We recently reported the K-RAS gene mutation status in a case of ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma with mural nodule of high-grade sarcoma. The mucinous and sarcomatous components revealed a mutation in codon 12 of the K-RAS gene of a different nucleotide substitution, indicating that these 2 tumor components were different clones of the same tumor. Herein, we are reporting another case of a 20-yr-old woman who presented with 22 cm pelvic mass, omental caking, and ascites. A diagnosis of invasive mucinous carcinoma with mural nodules of anaplastic carcinoma was rendered. K-RAS gene mutation studies revealed p.G12V, c.35G>T mutation in the 2 components of the tumor, which is the most common mutation reported in mucinous tumors of the ovary. The fact that sarcomatous or anaplastic carcinomatous mural nodules in ovarian mucinous tumors display the same K-RAS mutations as their underlying mucinous neoplasms provides supportive evidence that at least some malignant mural nodules represent a form of dedifferentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors, rather than a collision of 2 divergent tumor types.

  9. A Rare Malignant Fetal Brain Tumor.

    PubMed

    Iruretagoyena, Jesus Igor; Heiser, Timothy; Iskandar, Bermans; Shah, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    A gravida 4, para 3 female at 37 weeks' gestation presented for a routine ultrasound. She had an otherwise uncomplicated low-risk pregnancy. The sonographic evaluation of the fetus revealed a macrocephaly and a deviation of the brain midline structures with a mass effect as well as a massively dilated left cerebral ventricular system with ill-defined echogenic ventricular delineation. Multiple free intracavitary echogenicities and disruptions of the brain mantle were visible. Our images were suggestive of either an intracranial bleed with the presence of an underlying tumor or a spontaneous bleed. A postnatal MRI was consistent with our prenatal findings of a possible tumor. The postnatal biopsy revealed an anaplastic astroblastoma within a hemorrhagic background. The infant received multiple courses of chemotherapy and further tumor debulking. At present, the infant is 18 months old. This is only the 4th case of an astrocytoma identified in the fetal period, and our case has the longest known survival yet. PMID:26044034

  10. The therapy of infantile malignant brain tumors: current status?

    PubMed

    Kalifa, Chantal; Grill, Jacques

    2005-12-01

    Malignant brain tumors are not uncommon in infants as their occurrence before the age of three represents 20-25% of all malignant brain tumors in childhood [1]. Genetic predisposition to infantile malignant brain tumors are known in Gorlin syndrome for example who present with desmoplastic medulloblastoma in about 5% of the affected patients. In addition, sequelae from tumor and its treatment are more severe at this age [2]. Thus, malignant brain tumors represent a true therapeutic challenge in neuro-oncology. Before the era of modern imaging and modern neurosurgery these malignant brain tumors were misdiagnosed or could not benefit of the surgical procedures as well as older children because of increased risks in this age group. Since the end of the 80s, noninvasive imaging procedures produce accurate diagnosis of brain tumors and improvement in neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia and perioperative intensive care permit safe tumor resections or at least biopsies. Consequently, the pediatric oncologists are more often confronted with very young children who need a complementary treatment. Before the development of specific approaches for this age group, these children received the same kind of treatment than the older children did, but their survival and quality of life were significantly worse. The reasons of these poor results were probably due in part to the fear of late effects induced by radiation therapy, leading to decrease the necessary doses of irradiation which increased treatment failures without avoiding treatment related complications [3]. At the end of the 80s, pilot studies were performed using postoperative chemotherapy in young medulloblastoma patients. Van Eys treated 12 selected children with medulloblastoma with MOPP regimen and without irradiation; 8 of them were reported to be long term survivors [4]. Subsequently, the pediatric oncology cooperative groups studies have designed therapeutic trials for very young children with malignant brain tumors

  11. Reconstruction after resection of malignant parapharyngeal space tumor

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Nakamizo, Munenaga; Yokoshima, Kazuhiko; Nara, Shimpei; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Primary malignant tumor of the parapharyngeal space (PPS) is rare. After surgical resection, primary closure could be considered if the oropharynx mucosa remains. This report describes two patients who underwent reconstruction by free tissue transfer after the resection of PPS tumors. This report was presented at the 56th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 4 April, 2013. PMID:27252950

  12. Suboccipital malignant solitary fibrous tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, M Geraldine; Orr, Brent A; Chang, Steven S; Tufano, Ralph P

    2012-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare soft-tissue sarcomas usually arising in the pleura of the thoracic cavity. Thirty percent of SFTs present in extrapleural locations, and infrequently in the head and neck region. While the majority of SFTs are benign, aggressive variants have been described. We report a case of a patient with a malignant SFT arising in the suboccipital soft tissues of the neck. We elucidate the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in managing this tumor in this unusual location.

  13. MTA1 Expression in Benign and Malignant Salivary gland Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Andisheh-Tadbir, Azadeh; Dehghani-Nazhvani, Ali; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Khademi, Bijan; Mirhadi, Hosein; Torabi-Ardekani, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Salivary gland tumors (SGTs) are important parts of human neoplasms. The most common SGT is pleomorphic adenoma and the most common malignant SGTs are mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Metastasis-associated genes 1 (MTA1), a member of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex, is one newly discovered gene which recruits histone deacetylation, causing ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling, and regulating transcription. MTA1 had been shown to be overexpressed in malignant tumors with the enhancement of invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six samples of salivary gland tumors from the Khalili Hospital archive, including 20 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 17 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 19 cases of ACC, and 23 cases of normal salivary gland tissues were chosen for immunohistochemical analysis of MTA1. Results: MTA1 expression in the malignant tumors was significantly higher than that in pleomorphic adenoma (P<0.001), and higher in pleomorphic adenoma than the normal salivary glands(P< 0.001). In total, 69.6% of normal salivary gland tissues showed MTA1, but all cases of salivary gland tumors were positive for MTA1. High nuclear expression of MTA1 was detected in 83.3% (30/36) of the malignant salivary gland tumors and 45% (9/20) of pleomorphic adenoma, while low MTA1 expression was seen in all of the normal salivary gland tissues. No statistically significant correlation was found between MTA1 protein expression and any clinicopathological features (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that MTA1 was significantly overexpressed in malignant salivary gland neoplasm in comparison to a lower level in benign pleomorphic adenoma, suggesting that MTA1 protein might be involved in carcinogenesis. PMID:26878004

  14. Malignant mammary tumor in female dogs: environmental contaminants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mammary tumors of female dogs have greatly increased in recent years, thus demanding rapid diagnosis and effective treatment in order to determine the animal survival. There is considerable scientific interest in the possible role of environmental contaminants in the etiology of mammary tumors, specifically in relation to synthetic chemical substances released into the environment to which living beings are either directly or indirectly exposed. In this study, the presence of pyrethroid insecticide was observed in adjacent adipose tissue of canine mammary tumor. High Precision Liquid Chromatography - HPLC was adapted to detect and identify environmental contaminants in adipose tissue adjacent to malignant mammary tumor in nine female dogs, without predilection for breed or age. After surgery, masses were carefully examined for malignant neoplastic lesions. Five grams of adipose tissue adjacent to the tumor were collected to detect of environmental contaminants. The identified pyrethroids were allethrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin and tetramethrin, with a contamination level of 33.3%. Histopathology demonstrated six female dogs (66.7%) as having complex carcinoma and three (33.3%) with simple carcinoma. From these tumors, seven (77.8%) presented aggressiveness degree III and two (22.2%) degree I. Five tumors were positive for estrogen receptors in immunohistochemical analysis. The contamination level was observed in more aggressive tumors. This was the first report in which the level of environmental contaminants could be detected in adipose tissue of female dogs with malignant mammary tumor, by HPLC. Results suggest the possible involvement of pyrethroid in the canine mammary tumor carcinogenesis. Hence, the dog may be used as a sentinel animal for human breast cancer, since human beings share the same environment and basically have the same eating habits. PMID:20587072

  15. [Assay of urine cysteine proteinase in diagnosing gynecological malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z L

    1992-09-01

    Cysteine proteinases (CP) belong to the subclass of endopeptidase, and have been considered to play an important role in spreading cancer cells. Cysteine proteinases in urine (UCP) were determined in 71 healthy women, 76 patients with gynecological benign tumors and 125 cases (173 samples) with gynecological malignant tumors. Enzyme levels were assayed using the artificial substrate CSZ-Ala-Arg-AFC by detecting the release of free AFC with the aid of a fluorometer. The value ranged from upper 80% to 99% of UCP in 71 normal women and was calculated with the percentile method. The results showed that ROC curve displayed a highly sensitive character. The sensitivity and specificity for gynecological malignant tumor were 91.8%, and 71.7% respectively. The sensitivities of UCP for ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, carcinoma of endometrium and cancer of vulva were 96%, 91%, 85.7% and 72.7% respectively. Due to its high sensitivity. It was suggested that UCP assay can be a good screening test to distinguish gynecological malignancy from benign tumors. The accuracy of diagnosing gynecological malignancy may be improved if UCP assay is combined with other tests with higher specificity.

  16. Nucleolar organizer regions in malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Takahashi, H; Okabe, H

    1992-10-01

    Proliferative activity of carcinomas arising from salivary glands was analyzed by enumeration of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs). The mean numbers of AgNORs in the various tumors were as follows: mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 2.20; acinic cell carcinoma, 2.51; adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 2.57; carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, 1.00 (benign component) and 3.99 (cancer-bearing area); salivary duct carcinoma, 4.49; polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, 3.37; sebaceous carcinoma, 2.57; oncocytic carcinoma, 4.63; adenocarcinoma, 4.53. Cells of most tumors showed heterogeneous activity within the same tumor. In mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the mucous cells had suppressed activity in comparison with the epidermoid cells and intermediate cells. In ACC, the activity of the tumor cells increased according to growth pattern in the order tubular, glandular and solid. In carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, vigorous proliferative activity was observed in the malignant component, whereas less active cells were seen in the myxoid or chondroid matrix. AgNOR staining was useful for distinguishing benign from malignant regions in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma. Our results suggest that mucoepidermoid carcinoma, acinic cell carcinoma and ACC, except for that with a solid growth pattern, may be considered as low-grade malignancies, whereas solid-type ACC, the cancer component in carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma and some of the other carcinomas have high-grade malignant behavior.

  17. TUMOR CONTAMINATION IN THE BIOPSY PATH OF PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study factors possibly associated with tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors. Method: Thirty-five patients who underwent surgical treatment with diagnoses of osteosarcoma, Ewing's tumor and chondrosarcoma were studied retrospectively. The sample was analyzed to characterize the biopsy technique used, histological type of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy used, local recurrences and tumor contamination in the biopsy path. Results: Among the 35 patients studied, four cases of contamination occurred (11.43%): one from osteosarcoma, two from Ewing's tumor and one from chondrosarcoma. There was no association between the type of tumor and presence of tumor contamination in the biopsy path (p = 0.65). There was also no association between the presence of tumor contamination and the biopsy technique (p = 0.06). On the other hand, there were associations between the presence of tumor contamination and local recurrence (p = 0.01) and between tumor contamination and absence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Tumor contamination in the biopsy path of primary malignant bone tumors was associated with local recurrence. On the other hand, the histological type of the tumor and the type of biopsy did not have an influence on tumor contamination. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy had a protective effect against this complication. Despite these findings, tumor contamination is a complication that should always be taken into consideration, and removal of the biopsy path is recommended in tumor resection surgery. PMID:27047877

  18. Malignant tumors in an area with an asbestos processing plant.

    PubMed

    Sarić, M; Vujović, M

    1994-01-01

    Incidence rate of malignant tumors of the lung/bronchus, pleura, larynx, pharynx, and peritoneum during the period 1974 to 1987 was studied in a Croatian coastal area with an asbestos processing plant which started to operate in 1954. The study area covers 169 km2 with 11,270 inhabitants: 5590 men and 5710 women (average number during the study period). The calculated number of inhabitants aged 35 and older was 4639 (41.1%), 11.5% were aged 60 or older, and the average age was 32 years. Over the observed 14-year period there were 51 cases of malignant tumors, 40 in men and 11 in women: lung/bronchus cancer, 36-29 men and 7 women; mesothelioma, 5-2 men and 3 women; laryngeal cancer, 5 men; pharyngeal cancer, 4-3 men and 1 women; and peritoneal cancer, 1 man. The results of the study showed that the incidence of lung/bronchus cancer in the studied population was half that in Croatia. There were also fewer malignant tumors of the pharynx and peritoneum in this area than in Croatia. On the other hand, the incidence of primary tumors of the pleura was more than 5 times as high and of laryngeal tumors more than 2 times as high as in Croatia. Evaluation of the data showed that distance from the source of emissions was not crucial for the development of tumors. The incidence of the tumors in the town with the asbestos factory was the lowest. Among and within different towns/villages the tumor incidence varied; in some the observed rate was higher than the expected rate. A more detailed analysis indicated a possible influence of the relief and prevailing wind direction on the environmental contamination with asbestos from the emissions source and consequently on an uneven distribution of the tumor incidence among separate settlements in the area under study.

  19. Three mutant genes cooperatively induce brain tumor formation in Drosophila malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Riede, I

    1996-09-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster strain Malignant Brain Tumor reveals temperature-sensitive transformation of the larval brain tissue. Genetic analysis shows that three gene defects, spzMBT, yetiMBT, and tldMBT, cooperatively induce brain tumor formation. Whereas spz and tld belong to the genes inducing differentiation patterns in the embryo, yeti induces cell overgrowth. spzMBT-, yetiMBT-, and tldMBT-containing animals are larval lethal, whereas Malignant Brain Tumor is kept as a homozygous strain at a permissive temperature. This reveals that this tumor-forming strain is the result of a number of adaptive mutation events.

  20. Recurrent Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Owada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Muto, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Yonechi, Atsushi; Kanno, Ryuzo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura; the so-called inverted pattern, which appears to grow into the lung parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced a 66-year-old woman with an intrapulmonary SFT that recurred locally with malignant transformation 2 years after wedge resection of the left upper lobe for the primary tumor. Subsequently, she underwent a lobectomy of the residual left upper lobe. Six years after the second operation she was well, without rerecurrence. Complete excision and long-term follow-up of intrapulmonary SFTs of the pleura are important, even when the primary tumor displays benign histopathologic features.

  1. Recurrent Intrapulmonary Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Owada, Yuki; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Muto, Satoshi; Okabe, Naoyuki; Yonechi, Atsushi; Kanno, Ryuzo; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura; the so-called inverted pattern, which appears to grow into the lung parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced a 66-year-old woman with an intrapulmonary SFT that recurred locally with malignant transformation 2 years after wedge resection of the left upper lobe for the primary tumor. Subsequently, she underwent a lobectomy of the residual left upper lobe. Six years after the second operation she was well, without rerecurrence. Complete excision and long-term follow-up of intrapulmonary SFTs of the pleura are important, even when the primary tumor displays benign histopathologic features. PMID:27343529

  2. Immunocompetent cells in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kärjä, V J; Syrjänen, K J; Syrjänen, S M

    1996-10-01

    IgA-, IgG, and IgM-producing plasma cells as well as 3- and T-lymphocytes were immunophenotyped and quantitated in a series of 216 benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, with special emphasis placed on the clinical behavior of the tumors. Highest number of plasma cells were found in mucoepidermoid carcinomas, where IgG-plasma cells were the sole Ig-class secreted. No IgA-immunoreactivity was found in adenoid cystic, undifferentiated, acinic cell, carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In squamous cell carcinomas, the number of IgM-plasma cells was higher than that in other salivary gland tumors. Basal cell adenomas contained only IgM-positive plasma cells. In logistic regression analysis, IgG- and IgM-producing plasma cells in malignant salivary gland tumors were related to an increased tumor diameter (p = 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). In benign tumors, neither clinical nor prognostic value could be attributed to the distribution of plasma cells. T-cells and B-cells were present in 63.9% and 33.8% of all tumors, found in 63.8% and 26.7% (p = 0.0048) of the benign tumors, and in 64.1% and 41.7% (not significant) of the malignant tumors, respectively. The presence of T- of B-lymphocytes was of no prognostic significance in malignant tumors. In benign tumors, however, the mean age of the patients was significantly higher (p = 0.010) and the mean time to recurrence significantly shorter (p = 0.018) in patients with tumors containing T-cells than in those devoid of these cells. In conclusion, the cell-mediated immunity (T-cells and their subsets) seems to play a more important role in pathogenesis and prognostication of salivary gland neoplasms than do the cells of the B-cell lineage, and, clearly, further studies are needed to elucidate these issues.

  3. Molecular subtypes of serous borderline ovarian tumor show distinct expression patterns of benign tumor and malignant tumor-associated signatures.

    PubMed

    Curry, Edward W J; Stronach, Euan A; Rama, Nona R; Wang, Yuepeng Y P; Gabra, Hani; El-Bahrawy, Mona A

    2014-03-01

    Borderline ovarian tumors show heterogeneity in clinical behavior. Most have excellent prognosis, although a small percentage show recurrence or progressive disease, usually to low-grade serous carcinoma. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular relationship between these entities and identify potential markers of tumor progression and therapeutic targets. We studied gene expression using Affymetrix HGU133plus2 GeneChip microarrays in 3 low-grade serous carcinomas, 13 serous borderline tumors and 8 serous cystadenomas. An independent data set of 18 serous borderline tumors and 3 low-grade serous carcinomas was used for validation. Unsupervised clustering revealed clear separation of benign and malignant tumors, whereas borderline tumors showed two distinct groups, one clustering with benign and the other with malignant tumors. The segregation into benign- and malignant-like borderline molecular subtypes was reproducible on applying the same analysis to an independent publicly available data set. We identified 50 genes that separate borderline tumors into their subgroups. Functional enrichment analysis of genes that separate borderline tumors to the two subgroups highlights a cell adhesion signature for the malignant-like subset, with Claudins particularly prominent. This is the first report of molecular subtypes of borderline tumors based on gene expression profiling. Our results provide the basis for identification of biomarkers for the malignant potential of borderline ovarian tumor and potential therapeutic targets for low-grade serous carcinoma.

  4. Malignant soft tissue tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Mihir M

    2013-10-01

    Soft tissue masses are frequently seen in children. Although most are benign or reactive, soft tissue sarcomas (STS)-both rhabdomyosarcoma (most common) and non-rhabdo STS, do occur in the extremities. Appropriate evaluation of extremity soft tissue tumors often includes a biopsy as the clinical and imaging features may not be enough to establish a definitive diagnosis. Much needs to be done for improving the treatment of these rare but often devastating sarcomas. Given the small numbers of these cases seen at various centers, collaborative efforts should be made to further our understanding and improve the management of these challenging cases. PMID:24095080

  5. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor in the extremity: Cytopathologic findings.

    PubMed

    Khanchel, Fatma; Driss, Maha; Mrad, Karima; Romdhane, Khaled Ben

    2012-04-01

    Malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an extremely rare neoplasm. There are only rare published accounts of the cytopathologic features of this tumor. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman presented with a 10-year history of a right thigh mass. A preoperative fine needle aspiration (FNA) was performed. Smears were hypercellular, with cohesive and crowded tissue fragments, haphazard cell arrangements and many single cells. The tumor cells were polymorphous, plump spindled or round with often indented or bare nuclei. A differential diagnosis of low grade sarcoma was favored. The diagnosis of malignant SFT is extremely difficult on FNA and must be included in the differential diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasms.

  6. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Daniel M; Kanowitz, Seth J; Har-El, Gady

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unusual mesenchymal tumors that were first described as primary spindle-cell neoplasms of the pleura. These tumors have been described in many other locations, including the urogenital system, orbit, mediastinum, and upper respiratory tract. Twenty-two cases of an SFT of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity have been reported, but none described a malignant SFT extending through the anterior skull base. A 70-year-old man had a 6-month history of unilateral left-sided epiphora and nasal obstruction. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large left-sided nasal cavity mass with extension into the left extraconal orbit and intracranial extension through the left cribriform plate and ethmoid roof. The patient underwent preoperative embolization of the internal maxillary artery and a subsequent anterior craniofacial resection via a midfacial degloving approach and a left anterior craniotomy. Histopathological analysis of the specimen was consistent with a malignant SFT.

  7. Tumor type influences the effectiveness of pleurodesis in malignant effusions.

    PubMed

    Bielsa, Silvia; Hernández, Paula; Rodriguez-Panadero, Francisco; Taberner, Teresa; Salud, Antonieta; Porcel, José M

    2011-04-01

    Pleurodesis is commonly indicated for symptom relief in patients with malignant pleural effusions. A number of factors may influence pleurodesis outcome, but whether tumor type is one of them is a matter of debate. This study investigates the impact of tumor type on the efficacy of bedside doxycycline and thoracoscopic talc poudrage pleurodesis in order to determine which patients may benefit most from these procedures. A retrospective study of 138 and 450 doxycycline and talc poudrage pleurodesis procedures, respectively, evaluated their overall successes and failures, according to primary tumor types. In addition, a logistic regression model addressed whether the pleurodesis outcome in different tumor types was influenced by or attributable to pleural tumor burden. In the talc group, patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma had significantly lower complete response rates (63 and 61%, respectively) as compared with breast (77%) and other metastatic effusions (74%, p = 0.012). In the doxycycline group, the data followed the same trend in that complete response rates were lower in patients with lung carcinomas (31%) than in those with breast cancer (54%) or metastases from other primary sites (74%, p = 0.001). The regression analysis showed pleural burden and tumor type as independent predictors of pleurodesis failure in the talc group. The tumor type involving the pleural surfaces influences the success of a pleurodesis, regardless of the sclerosing agent used. Malignant effusions due to mesothelioma and lung cancer are particularly prone to a failed procedure.

  8. Tumor type influences the effectiveness of pleurodesis in malignant effusions.

    PubMed

    Bielsa, Silvia; Hernández, Paula; Rodriguez-Panadero, Francisco; Taberner, Teresa; Salud, Antonieta; Porcel, José M

    2011-04-01

    Pleurodesis is commonly indicated for symptom relief in patients with malignant pleural effusions. A number of factors may influence pleurodesis outcome, but whether tumor type is one of them is a matter of debate. This study investigates the impact of tumor type on the efficacy of bedside doxycycline and thoracoscopic talc poudrage pleurodesis in order to determine which patients may benefit most from these procedures. A retrospective study of 138 and 450 doxycycline and talc poudrage pleurodesis procedures, respectively, evaluated their overall successes and failures, according to primary tumor types. In addition, a logistic regression model addressed whether the pleurodesis outcome in different tumor types was influenced by or attributable to pleural tumor burden. In the talc group, patients with lung cancer and mesothelioma had significantly lower complete response rates (63 and 61%, respectively) as compared with breast (77%) and other metastatic effusions (74%, p = 0.012). In the doxycycline group, the data followed the same trend in that complete response rates were lower in patients with lung carcinomas (31%) than in those with breast cancer (54%) or metastases from other primary sites (74%, p = 0.001). The regression analysis showed pleural burden and tumor type as independent predictors of pleurodesis failure in the talc group. The tumor type involving the pleural surfaces influences the success of a pleurodesis, regardless of the sclerosing agent used. Malignant effusions due to mesothelioma and lung cancer are particularly prone to a failed procedure. PMID:21331598

  9. No Detectable Hypoxia in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Wijffels, Karien; Hoogsteen, Ilse J.; Lok, Jasper; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is detected in most solid tumors and is associated with malignant progression and adverse treatment outcomes. However, the oxygenation status of malignant salivary gland tumors has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential clinical relevance of hypoxia in this tumor type. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients scheduled for surgical resection of a salivary gland tumor were preoperatively injected with the hypoxia marker pimonidazole and the proliferation marker iododeoxyuridine. Tissue samples of the dissected tumor were immunohistochemically stained for blood vessels, pimonidazole, carbonic anhydrase-IX, glucose transporters-1 and -3 (Glut-1, Glut-3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}, iododeoxyuridine, and epidermal growth factor receptor. The tissue sections were quantitatively assessed by computerized image analysis. Results: The tissue material from 8 patients was of sufficient quality for quantitative analysis. All tumors were negative for pimonidazole binding, as well as for carbonic anhydrase-IX, Glut-1, Glut-3, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. The vascular density was high, with a median value of 285 mm{sup -2} (range, 209-546). The iododeoxyuridine-labeling index varied from <0.1% to 12.2% (median, 2.2%). Epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels were mostly moderate to high. In one-half of the cases, nuclear expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was observed. Conclusion: The absence of detectable pimonidazole binding, as well as the lack of expression of hypoxia-associated proteins in all tumors, indicates that malignant salivary gland tumors are generally well oxygenated. It is unlikely that hypoxia is a relevant factor for their clinical behavior and treatment responsiveness.

  10. De novo malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tsan-Yu; ChangChien, Yi-Che; Chen, Wen-Hsiang; Chen, Siu-Chung; Chang, Liang-Che; Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Chein, Hui-Ping; Chen, Jim-Ray

    2011-01-01

    The kidney is a relatively infrequent site for solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Among the previously reported cases, only two cases of malignant renal SFT developing via dedifferentiation from a pre-existing benign SFT have been reported. Here we reported a case of de novo malignant renal SFT clinically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma in a 50-year-old woman. The tumor was circumscribed but unencapsulated and showed obvious hemorrhagic necrosis. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of patternless sheets of alternating hypercellular and hypocellular areas of spindle cells displaying mild to moderate nuclear atypia, frequent mitoses up to 8 per 10 high power fields, and a 20% Ki-67 proliferative index. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99 and vimentin, with no staining for all other markers, confirming the diagnosis of SFT. No areas of dedifferentiation were seen after extensive sampling. Based on the pathologic and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of de novo malignant renal SFT was warranted. Our report expands the spectrum of malignant progression in renal SFTs. Even though this patient has been disease-free for 30 months, long-term follow-up is still mandatory.

  11. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; KAWABATA, Shinji; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; KUROIWA, Toshihiko; SUZUKI, Minoru; KONDO, Natsuko; ONO, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  12. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting.

  13. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kawabata, Shinji; Hiramatsu, Ryo; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Ono, Koji

    2016-07-15

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a biochemically targeted radiotherapy based on the nuclear capture and fission reactions that occur when non-radioactive boron-10, which is a constituent of natural elemental boron, is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to yield high linear energy transfer alpha particles and recoiling lithium-7 nuclei. Therefore, BNCT enables the application of a high dose of particle radiation selectively to tumor cells in which boron-10 compound has been accumulated. We applied BNCT using nuclear reactors for 167 cases of malignant brain tumors, including recurrent malignant gliomas, newly diagnosed malignant gliomas, and recurrent high-grade meningiomas from January 2002 to May 2014. Here, we review the principle and history of BNCT. In addition, we introduce fluoride-18-labeled boronophenylalanine positron emission tomography and the clinical results of BNCT for the above-mentioned malignant brain tumors. Finally, we discuss the recent development of accelerators producing epithermal neutron beams. This development could provide an alternative to the current use of specially modified nuclear reactors as a neutron source, and could allow BNCT to be performed in a hospital setting. PMID:27250576

  14. Simian virus 40 transformation, malignant mesothelioma and brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Fang; Carbone, Michele; Yang, Haining; Gaudino, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a DNA virus isolated in 1960 from contaminated polio vaccines, that induces mesotheliomas, lymphomas, brain and bone tumors, and sarcomas, including osteosarcomas, in hamsters. These same tumor types have been found to contain SV40 DNA and proteins in humans. Mesotheliomas and brain tumors are the two tumor types that have been most consistently associated with SV40, and the range of positivity has varied about from 6 to 60%, although a few reported 100% of positivity and a few reported 0%. It appears unlikely that SV40 infection alone is sufficient to cause human malignancy, as we did not observe an epidemic of cancers following the administration of SV40-contaminated vaccines. However, it seems possible that SV40 may act as a cofactor in the pathogenesis of some tumors. In vitro and animal experiments showing cocarcinogenicity between SV40 and asbestos support this hypothesis. PMID:21955238

  15. Tumor-associated macrophages: unwitting accomplices in breast cancer malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Carly Bess; Yeh, Elizabeth S; Soloff, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious inflammation is a primary feature of breast cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that macrophages, the most abundant leukocyte population in mammary tumors, have a critical role at each stage of cancer progression. Such tumor-associated macrophages facilitate neoplastic transformation, tumor immune evasion and the subsequent metastatic cascade. Herein, we discuss the dynamic process whereby molecular and cellular features of the tumor microenvironment act to license tissue-repair mechanisms of macrophages, fostering angiogenesis, metastasis and the support of cancer stem cells. We illustrate how tumors induce, then exploit trophic macrophages to subvert innate and adaptive immune responses capable of destroying malignant cells. Finally, we discuss compelling evidence from murine models of cancer and early clinical trials in support of macrophage-targeted intervention strategies with the potential to dramatically reduce breast cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:26998515

  16. True malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Kameda, N; Katayama, K; Hiruta, N; Nakada, M; Takeda, Y

    1990-02-01

    A case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland is reported. The submandibular tumor, occurring in a 52-year-old man, started to grow rapidly after a long history without any change in size. Surgical resection was carried out and the resected tumor measured 5.5 cm with a cut surface showing mixed solid structures. Microscopically, the tumor had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements, the former consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with squamous cell differentiation and the latter consisting of osteosarcoma with chondrosarcomatous and fibrosarcomatous elements. A remnant of benign pleomorphic adenoma could also be identified. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated keratin and epithelial membrane antigen in the carcinoma cells and vimentin in all elements of the osteosarcoma. It is assumed from these clinical and histological findings that the tumor had transformed from a pre-existing benign pleomorphic adenoma.

  17. Phase II Study of Intraventricular Methotrexate in Children With Recurrent or Progressive Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Embryonal Tumor With Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm to the Leptomeninges

  18. Solitary fibrous tumor with malignant potential arising in sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ikuko; Sato, Sunao; Kudo, Yasusei; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Sugiyama, Masaru; Suei, Yoshikazu; Takata, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A rare case is described of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) with malignant potential arising in the sublingual gland. A 59-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of a slowly enlarging painless mass in the center of the floor of the mouth. The tumor was a well-demarcated, firm mass with a multicystic lesion. The tumor exhibited highly cellular areas of spindle cells with patternless architecture alternating with hypocellular areas. The tumor cells were positive for CD34 and bcl-2 as well as vimentin, and negative for epithelial, myogenic, neurogenic and histiocytic markers. The tumor cells formed multiple satellite nodules around dilated ducts in the multicystic lesion, indicating infiltrative growth. In addition, areas exhibiting higher cellularity with increased mitoses were noticed in the satellite nodules, although cellular atypia was not obvious. These findings led to a final diagnosis of SFT with malignant potential. There has been no recurrence or metastasis for 27 months after the surgery. Solitary fibrous tumor of the salivary gland must be differentiated from various spindle cell neoplasms including myogenic, peripheral nerve sheath, fibroblastic and fibro-histiocytic spindle cell neoplasms, hemangiopericytoma and myoepithelioma. In addition to characteristic morphological features, an immunohistochemical positivity for CD34 and bcl-2 may aid in the diagnosis of SFT.

  19. Ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (borderline tumors): immune morphology and current status.

    PubMed

    Neunteufel, W; Gitsch, G; Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Breitenecker, G

    1989-01-01

    CA 125, CA 19-9 and CEA were demonstrated in tissue samples of 30 ovarian borderline tumors by immunohistochemistry. Of the 21 serous and 9 mucinous borderline tumors, 23 were in stage I and 7 stage III. None of the patients died of disease. All mucinous borderline tumors were CA 125 negative, 89% CA 19-9 positive and 44% CEA positive. 62% of the serous borderline tumors were CA 125 positive, 52% CA 19-9 and 19% CEA positive. Tumors of low malignant potential responded to CA 19-9 like invasive carcinomas. The incidence of positive responses to CA 125 ands CEA fell between that of benign and malignant tumors. The marker pattern did not correlate with tumor stage and cytological grading. The biological behavior of ovarian borderline tumors ranges between that of benign tumors and invasive carcinomas and cannot be classified as definitely belonging to either group. It is plausible that they are primarily of the borderline type, and not benign tumors that undergo malignant degeneration.

  20. Tumor Volumes and Prognosis in Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Mohamad R.; Samuels, Stuart E.; Bellile, Emily; Shalabi, Firas L.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Wolf, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Tumor staging systems for laryngeal cancer (LC) have been developed to assist in estimating prognosis after treatment and comparing treatment results across institutions. While the laryngeal TNM system has been shown to have prognostic information, varying cure rates in the literature have suggested concern about the accuracy and effectiveness of the T-classification in particular. To test the hypothesis that tumor volumes are more useful than T classification, we conducted a retrospective review of 78 patients with laryngeal cancer treated with radiation therapy at our institution. Using multivariable analysis, we demonstrate the significant prognostic value of anatomic volumes in patients with previously untreated laryngeal cancer. In this cohort, primary tumor volume (GTVP), composite nodal volumes (GTVN) and composite total volume (GTVP + GTVN = GTVC) had prognostic value in both univariate and multivariate cox model analysis. Interestingly, when anatomic volumes were measured from CT scans after a single cycle of induction chemotherapy, all significant prognosticating value for measured anatomic volumes was lost. Given the literature findings and the results of this study, the authors advocate the use of tumor anatomic volumes calculated from pretreatment scans to supplement the TNM staging system in subjects with untreated laryngeal cancer. The study found that tumor volume assessment after induction chemotherapy is not of prognostic significance. PMID:26569309

  1. [Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract: triple malignant and one benign tumor].

    PubMed

    Dudnyikova, Anna; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Pete, Imre

    2012-03-01

    Synchronous tumors of the female genital tract are rare, accounting for 0.7-1.8% of all cases. Double synchronous tumors are most often mentioned in the literature. Reviewing the English literature on this topic, we have found only one case report of a triple synchronous tumor. The 55-year-old patient mentioned in our case has had advanced diabetes mellitus, and has been treated with corticosteroid therapy for a long time because of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). She was examined because of her vulvar tumor. During the diagnostic procedure, cervical and endometrial malignant tumors and a benign ovarian cyst have also been found. This event brings to our attention the fact that we should be prepared to manage synchronous even triple malignant gynecological tumors.

  2. Malignant tumors in two ancient populations: An approach to historical tumor epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Andreas G; Rohrbach, Helmut; Bachmeier, Beatrice; Zink, Albert

    2006-07-01

    The actual increase in the rate of malignant tumors has been ascribed to a higher life expectancy and the influence of various environmental factors. Herein, we present data on the frequency of malignant tumors in paleopathologically well-defined historic populations. Thereby, we looked for malignant growth affecting the skeleton in three study populations of 905 individuals that have been excavated from the necropoles of Thebes-West and Abydos, Upper Egypt covering the time period between 3200 and 500 BC and 2547 individuals that have been buried in a Southern German ossuary dating from between AD 1400 and 1800. The tissue preservation of both the Egyptian and Southern German material was excellent. All available specimens were subjected to a very careful macroscopic examination; isolated findings were also radiologically investigated. In parallel, anthropological data, such as gender and age at death, were recorded. We identified 5 cases of malignant tumors affecting the skeleton in the Egyptian material and 13 cases affecting the skeletal material from Southern Germany. In most instances, multiple osteolytic lesions with slight osteoblastic reaction are strongly suggestive for metastatic carcinoma. Few cases with poorly reactive osteolyses were most compatible with plasmacytoma. Relative tumor frequencies on an age- and sex-adjusted population basis (using a mathematic model of skeletal involvement of malignant tumors in a well-defined English study population from AD 1901 to 1905) indicated that the tumor rates were not statistically different between ancient Egyptian, the historical Southern German and the recent English reference population. These observations indicate that malignant tumors were present in spatially and temporarily different populations over the last 4000 years with an age- and gender-adjusted frequency not different from Western industrial populations of c. 100 years ago. Therefore, we conclude that the current rise in tumor frequencies in

  3. Malignant giant solitary fibrous tumor of the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    De Raet, Jan; Sacré, Robert; Hoorens, Anne; Fletcher, Christopher; Lamote, Jan

    2008-09-01

    Malignant giant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the mediastinum is a rare neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue. Owing to its large size, a complete resection of the tumor can present many challenges, particularly given its proximity to vital neighboring structures. We report a successful en-bloc resection of a massive mediastinal SFT, which was compressing the inferior trachea and heart, by means of a median sternotomy and an anterior left thoracotomy. We emphasize the rarity of this uncommon mediastinal mass. Key points of mediastinal SFT are discussed.

  4. Training stem cells for treatment of malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengwen Calvin; Kabeer, Mustafa H; Vu, Long T; Keschrumrus, Vic; Yin, Hong Zhen; Dethlefs, Brent A; Zhong, Jiang F; Weiss, John H; Loudon, William G

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of malignant brain tumors remains a challenge. Stem cell technology has been applied in the treatment of brain tumors largely because of the ability of some stem cells to infiltrate into regions within the brain where tumor cells migrate as shown in preclinical studies. However, not all of these efforts can translate in the effective treatment that improves the quality of life for patients. Here, we perform a literature review to identify the problems in the field. Given the lack of efficacy of most stem cell-based agents used in the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we found that stem cell distribution (i.e., only a fraction of stem cells applied capable of targeting tumors) are among the limiting factors. We provide guidelines for potential improvements in stem cell distribution. Specifically, we use an engineered tissue graft platform that replicates the in vivo microenvironment, and provide our data to validate that this culture platform is viable for producing stem cells that have better stem cell distribution than with the Petri dish culture system. PMID:25258664

  5. Is There a Role for PET/CT Parameters to Characterize Benign, Malignant, and Metastatic Parotid Tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karagulle; Magliocca, Kelly R.; Corey, Amanda; Galt, James R.; Switchenko, Jeffrey; Wadsworth, J. Trad; El-Deiry, Mark W.; Schuster, David M.; Saba, Nabil F.; Hudgins, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland, including metastatic lesions, is challenging with current imaging methods. Fluorine-18 FDG PET/CT is a noninvasive imaging modality that provides both anatomic and metabolic information. Semiquantitative data obtained from PET/CT, also known as PET/CT parameters, are maximum, mean, or peak standardized uptake values (SUVs); metabolic tumor volume; total lesion glycolysis; standardized added metabolic activity; and normalized standardized added metabolic activity. Our aim was to determine whether FDG PET/CT parameters can differentiate benign, malignant, and metastatic parotid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-four patients with parotid neoplasms underwent PET/CT before parotidectomy; maximum SUV, mean SUV, peak SUV, total lesion glycolysis, metabolic tumor volume, standardized added metabolic activity, and normalized standardized added metabolic activity were calculated on a dedicated workstation. Univariate analyses were performed. A ROC analysis was used to determine the ability of PET/CT parameters to predict pathologically proven benign, malignant, and metastatic parotid gland neoplasms. RESULTS Fourteen patients had a benign or malignant primary parotid tumor. Twenty had metastases to the parotid gland. When the specificity was set to at least 85% for each parameter to identify cut points, the corresponding sensitivities ranged from 15% to 40%. Assessment of benign versus malignant lesions of parotid tumors, as well as metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma versus other metastatic causes, revealed that none of the PET/CT parameters has enough power to differentiate among these groups. CONCLUSION PET/CT parameters, including total lesion glycolysis, metabolic tumor volume, standardized added metabolic activity, and normalized standardized added metabolic activity, are not able to differentiate benign from malignant parotid tumors, primary parotid tumors from metastasis, or metastasis

  6. [Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry in the grading of malignant tumors of the salivary gland].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W Z

    1992-05-01

    Nuclear morphometry and DNA cytometry were performed in 6 normal salivary glands and 37 malignant tumors of the salivary gland. Multivariate discrimination analysis was used to grade the malignant salivary gland tumors. The discrimination rate was 100% for normal salivary gland, benign tumor, high malignant carcinoma and low malignant carcinoma. It was 66.7% for borderline malignancies. These results indicate that quantitative cytological analysis is effective and reproducible in the grading of salivary gland tumors. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed that there was a very complicated correlation between DNA content and nuclear morphometric parameters of salivary gland tumors.

  7. Measles may be a Risk Factor for Malignant Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Sheryl; Rendo, Angela; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.

    2015-01-01

    Background A possible risk factor for brain tumor might be measles, since late neurologic sequelae are part of measles pathology. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a devastating neurologic illness, is prone to develop years after measles infection. Methods Because measles damage to the brain might increase the risk of brain tumor, we examined the relationship of measles incidence in 1960 and brain tumor incidence in 50 US States and the District of Columbia, 2004-2007. Data on number of cases of measles by state in 1960 are from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. In 1960 measles was a childhood illness. We calculated measles incidence by obtaining the population of each state from the 1960 US Census and then age adjusting our results to the cumulative percent of the state population under age 21, since this would have been the measles-infected group. Data on the percentage white population by state are from the US Census (www.census.gov). Age-adjusted incidence (to the 2000 US standard population) of brain tumors is from the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States 2011 report. Results There was a significant correlation between 1960 measles incidence and incidence of malignant brain tumors in persons 20 and older in 2004-2007 (r=0.321, p=0.026). Because glioblastoma is more frequent in whites and males, multivariate linear regression was performed with tumor incidence as the dependent variable, measles incidence, percent white population, and sex ratio by state as independent variables. Measles incidence was significantly correlated with malignant brain tumor incidence (β=0.361, p<0.001) and independent of the effect of race (β=0.734, p<0.001) and sex ratio m/f (β=-0.478, p<0.001). There was no correlation of measles incidence with brain tumor incidence in persons younger than 20. Conclusion Inflammation is a critical component of tumor development. The inflammation of measles-induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, even subclinical

  8. Optically measured microvascular blood flow contrast of malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Choe, Regine; Putt, Mary E; Carlile, Peter M; Durduran, Turgut; Giammarco, Joseph M; Busch, David R; Jung, Ki Won; Czerniecki, Brian J; Tchou, Julia; Feldman, Michael D; Mies, Carolyn; Rosen, Mark A; Schnall, Mitchell D; DeMichele, Angela; Yodh, Arjun G

    2014-01-01

    Microvascular blood flow contrast is an important hemodynamic and metabolic parameter with potential to enhance in vivo breast cancer detection and therapy monitoring. Here we report on non-invasive line-scan measurements of malignant breast tumors with a hand-held optical probe in the remission geometry. The probe employs diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), a near-infrared optical method that quantifies deep tissue microvascular blood flow. Tumor-to-normal perfusion ratios are derived from thirty-two human subjects. Mean (95% confidence interval) tumor-to-normal ratio using surrounding normal tissue was 2.25 (1.92-2.63); tumor-to-normal ratio using normal tissues at the corresponding tumor location in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.94-2.66), and using normal tissue in the contralateral breast was 2.27 (1.90-2.70). Thus, the mean tumor-to-normal ratios were significantly different from unity irrespective of the normal tissue chosen, implying that tumors have significantly higher blood flow than normal tissues. Therefore, the study demonstrates existence of breast cancer contrast in blood flow measured by DCS. The new, optically accessible cancer contrast holds potential for cancer detection and therapy monitoring applications, and it is likely to be especially useful when combined with diffuse optical spectroscopy/tomography. PMID:24967878

  9. Molecular biology of malignant melanoma and other cutaneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Pons, M; Quintanilla, M

    2006-07-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. Its incidence is doubling every 15-20 years likely because of an aging population, changes in behaviour towards sun exposure, and increased UV light fluency at the earth surface due to ozone depletion. In this review, we summarize the most important genetic changes contributing to the development of malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the main tumor entities arising in the skin. While our understanding of the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes involved in the development and progression of skin tumors is still fragmentary, recent advances have shown alterations affecting conserved signalling pathways that control cellular proliferation and viability. These pathways include INK4alpha/Rb, ARF/p53, RAS/MAPKs, and sonic hedgehog/Gli. PMID:16870533

  10. Tet1 is a tumor suppressor of hematopoietic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Cimmino, Luisa; Dawlaty, Meelad M.; Ndiaye-Lobry, Delphine; Yap, Yoon Sing; Bakogianni, Sofia; Yu, Yiting; Bhattacharyya, Sanchari; Shaknovich, Rita; Geng, Huimin; Lobry, Camille; Mullenders, Jasper; King, Bryan; Trimarchi, Thomas; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Liu, Cynthia; Shen, Steven; Verma, Amit K.; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Aifantis, Iannis

    2015-01-01

    The TET methylcytosine dioxygenase 1 (TET1) enzyme is an important regulator of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) in embryonic stem cells. Decreased expression of TET proteins and loss of 5hmC in many tumors suggests a critical role for the maintenance of this epigenetic modification. Here we show that deletion of Tet1 promoted the development of B cell lymphoma in mice. Tet1 was required for maintaining normal content of 5hmC, preventing DNA hypermethylation and in the regulation of B cell lineage, chromosome maintenance and DNA repair genes. Whole-exome sequencing of Tet1-deficient tumors revealed mutations frequently found in Non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma, where TET1 was hypermethylated and transcriptionally silenced. These findings provide in vivo evidence of TET1 function as a tumor suppressor of hematopoietic malignancy. PMID:25867473

  11. Increased risk of concurrent primary malignancies in patients diagnosed with a primary malignant epithelial ovarian tumor.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, Catharina C; Vooijs, G Peter; Bulten, Johan; van Dijck, Jos A A M; Verbeek, Andre L M

    2007-03-01

    Ovarian cancer and second malignant neoplasms are found to occur rather frequently in the same patient. From a clinical perspective, it is important to have quantitative information on concurrent malignancies in the same year of diagnosis of the epithelial ovarian cancer. In this population-based study, we used data from the Netherlands Nationwide Network for Registry of histo- and cytopathology (PALGA) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Data of the ovarian cancer as well as data on previous or later cancers were obtained. Age-specific cancer rates from the NCR were used to calculate expected numbers of cancer. Between 1987 and 1993, histopathology reports were identified of 4577 patients with primary epithelial malignant or primary borderline malignant ovarian cancers and its longitudinal data. As the database may lack detailed information on histopathology, a recent sample of 789 patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 1996-2003 was comprehensively studied as well. In the eventual data analysis of 5366 patients, 244 cases (4.5%) of concurrent primary malignancy were reported in the same year that the malignant epithelial ovarian tumor had been diagnosed against 51 expected. The observed vs expected ratio was 4.8 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.3-5.5). For cancer of the uterus/endometrium the observed vs expected ratio was 62.3 (95% CI 52.5-73.5). For skin, breast, colorectal, urinary bladder, renal and cervical cancer the ratio was also larger than unity. The elevated risk of concurrent cancer may lead to clinical screening protocols. The findings on endometrial cancer may prompt research on common etiologies and biomarkers.

  12. Total Humeral Endoprosthetic Replacement following Excision of Malignant Bone Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Suhel; Moon, Bryan; Lin, Patrick; Satcher, Robert; Lewis, Valerae

    2016-01-01

    Humerus is a common site for malignant tumors. Advances in adjuvant therapies and reconstructive methods provide salvage of the upper limb with improved outcomes. Reports of limb salvage with total humeral replacement in extensive humeral tumors are sparse. We undertook a retrospective study of 20 patients who underwent total humeral endoprosthetic replacement as limb salvage following excision of extensile malignant tumor from 1990 to 2011. With an average followup of 42.9, functional and oncological outcomes were analyzed. Ten patients were still alive at the time of review. Mean estimated blood loss was 1131 mL and duration of surgery was 314 minutes. Deep infection was encountered in one patient requiring debridement while mechanical loosening of ulnar component was identified in one patient. Subluxation of prosthetic humeral head was noted in 3 patients. Mean active shoulder abduction was 12.5° and active flexion was 15°. Incompetence of abduction mechanism was the major determinant of poor active functional outcome. Mean elbow flexion was 103.5° with 30.5° flexion contracture in 10 patients with good and useful hand function. Average MSTS score was 71.5%. Total humeral replacement is a reliable treatment option in restoring mechanical stability and reasonable functional results without compromising patient survival, with low complication rate. PMID:27042158

  13. Calcium Channels and Associated Receptors in Malignant Brain Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Fernanda B; Gehring, Marina P; Nicoletti, Natália F

    2016-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are highly lethal and aggressive. Despite recent advances in the current therapies, which include the combination of surgery and radio/chemotherapy, the average survival rate remains poor. Altered regulation of ion channels is part of the neoplastic transformation, which suggests that ion channels are involved in cancer. Distinct classes of calcium-permeable channels are abnormally expressed in cancer and are likely involved in the alterations underlying malignant growth. Specifically, cytosolic Ca(2+) activity plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, and Ca(2+) signaling is altered in proliferating tumor cells. A series of previous studies emphasized the importance of the T-type low-voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in different cancer types, including gliomas, and remarkably, pharmacologic inhibition of T-type VGCC caused antiproliferative effects and triggered apoptosis of human glioma cells. Other calcium permeable channels, such as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, contribute to changes in Ca(2+) by modulating the driving force for Ca(2+) entry, and some TRP channels are required for proliferation and migration in gliomas. Furthermore, recent evidence shows that TRP channels contribute to the progression and survival of the glioblastoma patients. Likewise, the purinergic P2X7 receptor acts as a direct conduit for Ca(2+)-influx and an indirect activator of voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel. Evidence also shows that P2X7 receptor activation is linked to elevated expression of inflammation promoting factors, tumor cell migration, an increase in intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+), and membrane depolarization in gliomas. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent findings on calcium channels and associated receptors as potential targets to treat malignant gliomas. PMID:27418672

  14. Midkine expression in malignant salivary gland tumors and its role in tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ota, Tomoko; Ota, Kazutoshi; Jono, Hirofumi; Fujimori, Hiromi; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Shinriki, Satoru; Sueyoshi, Takanao; Shinohara, Masanori; Ando, Yukio

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate midkine (MK) expression patterns in salivary gland tumors (SGTs) and to evaluate the correlation between MK expression and the degree of malignancy. We performed immunohistochemistry to examine MK expression in specimens of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), and pleomorphic adenoma (PA). In addition, we performed immunohistochemistry for CD31 and measured microvessel density (MVD), which is an indicator of angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry showed that MK protein expression was significantly higher in specimens of malignant SGTs (ACC [P<0.01] and MEC [P<0.001]) than in benign SGT (PA) samples. Furthermore, MVD values tended to be higher in cases that exhibited high expression of MK, which indicated a significant correlation between the degree of MK expression and MVD (P<0.001). These results suggest that MK may play important roles in malignant transformation and tumor angiogenesis in SGTs.

  15. Primary malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor at unusual location

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu Sekhar; Das, Srikant; Dhir, Manmath Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. Most arise in association with major nerve trunks. Their most common anatomical sites are the proximal portions of the upper and lower extremities and the trunk. MPNSTs have rarely been reported in literature to occur in other unusual body parts. We review all such cases reported till now in terms of site of origin, surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and outcome and shortly describe our experience with two of these cases. Both of our case presented with lump at unusual sites resembling neurofibroma, one at orbitotemporal area and other in the paraspinal region with characteristic feature of neurofibroma with the exception that both had very short history of progression. They underwent gross total removal of the tumor with adjuvant radiotherapy postoperatively. At 6-month follow-up both are doing well with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:24174807

  16. [Positron emission tomography (PET) in malignant ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Fularz, Maciej; Adamiak, Paulina; Czepczyński, Rafał; Jarzabek-Bielecka, Grazyna; Kedzia, Witold; Ruchała, Marek

    2013-08-01

    Accessibility of positron emission tomography integrated with computed tomography (PET/CT) has improved significantly in recent years. PET/CT with the use of 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) is widely used in patients with ovarian malignancies at different stages of the management. FDG PET/CT shows high diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian lesions with the exception of borderline tumors that may cause false negative results. Moreover FDG PET/CT is used in some centers for preoperative staging and determining the prognosis of ovarian cancer However further studies including larger groups of patients are needed to confirm the applicability of FDG PET/CT in case of the two abovementioned indications. Until now, the best documented indication for FDG PET/ CT in patients with ovarian cancer has been the detection of recurrence, especially in subjects with elevated CA 125 marker and negative results of other imaging techniques. This review focuses on the applicability of PET with the use of FDG in ovarian malignancies and points out to the limitations of this method.

  17. A case of diffused malignant pleural mesothelioma forming small multiple disseminations with intraoperatively suspicious carcinoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Suemitsu, Ryuichi; Takeo, Sadanori; Hamatake, Motoharu; Furuya, Kiyomi; Uesugi, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    A 65-year-old male, having symptoms suggestive of pulmonary malignant tumor, underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Surgery revealed a solid tumor originating from the thoracic wall, with many small solid tumors in the thoracic wall and diaphragm near the tumor. The intraoperative observation of a frozen section typed the tumor as carcinoid; however, hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological findings provided the definitive diagnosis of diffused, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM).

  18. Malignant transformation in concurrent benign mixed tumors of the parotid and submaxillary glands.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M H

    1980-05-01

    This patient is the only reported case of concomitant mixed tumors of the parotid and contralateral submaxillary gland. Each lesion had histologic changes consistent with different stages in the transformation of a benign to a malignant mixed tumor. Identifying premalignant disease in the parotid tumor and early preinvasive carcinoma in the submaxillary tumor lends support to the concept of malignant progression in salivary gland mixed tumors.

  19. Malignant pleomorphic adenoma (malignant mixed tumor) of the trachea: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Demirağ, Funda; Topçu, Salih; Kurul, Cüneyt; Memiş, Leyla; Altinok, Tamer

    2003-02-01

    A case of malignant mixed tumor of the trachea in a 56-year-old man is described. His tumor was removed by segmental tracheal resection, and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a biphasic composition showing admixtures of epithelial elements in varying proportions; these were cytologically atypical with prominent mitotic figures. However, stromal elements were osteoid and mixoid with a benign appearance. The patient had no evidence of disease in the head and neck region and had no history of previous surgery for a salivary gland tumor. These findings were interpreted as indicative of malignant pleomorphic adenoma of the trachea.

  20. Tumor malignancy is engaged to prokaryotic homolog toolbox.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Janaina; Guedes, Patrícia G; Lage, Celso Luiz S; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola F; Lage, Claudia de Alencar S

    2012-04-01

    Cancer cells display high proliferation rates and survival provided by high glycolysis, chemoresistance and radioresistance, metabolic features that appear to be activated with malignancy, and seemed to have arisen as early in evolution as in unicellular/prokaryotic organisms. Based on these assumptions, we hypothesize that aggressive phenotypes found in malignant cells may be related to acquired unicellular behavior, launched within a tumor when viral and prokaryotic homologs are overexpressed performing likely robust functions. The ensemble of these expressed viral and prokaryotic close homologs in the proteome of a tumor tissue gives them advantage over normal cells. To assess the hypothesis validity, sequences of human proteins involved in apoptosis, energetic metabolism, cell mobility and adhesion, chemo- and radio-resistance were aligned to homologs present in other life forms, excluding all eukaryotes, using PSI-BLAST, with further corroboration from data available in the literature. The analysis revealed that selected sequences of proteins involved in apoptosis and tumor suppression (as p53 and pRB) scored non-significant (E-value>0.001) with prokaryotic homologs; on the other hand, human proteins involved in cellular chemo- and radio-resistance scored highly significant with prokaryotic and viral homologs (as catalase, E-value=zero). We inferred that such upregulated and/or functionally activated proteins in aggressive malignant cells represent a toolbox of modern human homologs evolved from a similar key set that have granted survival of ancient prokaryotes against extremely harsh environments. According to what has been discussed along this analysis, high mutation rates usually hit hotspots in important conserved protein domains, allowing uncontrolled expansion of more resistant, death-evading malignant clones. That is the case of point mutations in key viral proteins affording viruses escape to chemotherapy, and human homologs of such retroviral

  1. Malignant tumor formation at the site of previously irradiated acanthomatous epulides in four dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, D.E.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.

    1981-01-15

    The radiation response of acanthomatous epulis in 32 dogs was good, with an estimated median survival time of 21 months. Of the 32 patients, 14 have died. In 4 of those 14, malignant tumors developed at the site of the acanthomatous epulis. The tumors were of epithelial origin in 3 patients and of mesenchymal origin in 1 patient. Possibilities explaining the appearance of the malignancies included spontaneous malignant transformation, radiation induction of neoplasms, and radiation induction of malignant transformation. This uncommon complication was not considered contradictory to radiotherapy of acanthomatous epulides, because of their excellent response to irradiation and the long latent period between irradiation and appearance of the malignant tumor.

  2. Repression of malignant tumor progression upon pharmacologic IGF1R blockade in a mouse model of insulinoma.

    PubMed

    Zumsteg, Adrian; Caviezel, Christoph; Pisarsky, Laura; Strittmatter, Karin; García-Echeverría, Carlos; Hofmann, Francesco; Christofori, Gerhard

    2012-06-01

    NVP-AEW541, a specific ATP-competitive inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) tyrosine kinase, has been reported to interfere with tumor growth in various tumor transplantation models. We have assessed the efficacy of NVP-AEW541 in repressing tumor growth and tumor progression in the Rip1Tag2 transgenic mouse model of pancreatic β-cell carcinogenesis. In addition, we have tested NVP-AEW541 in Rip1Tag2;RipIGF1R double-transgenic mice which show accelerated tumor growth and increased tumor malignancy compared with Rip1Tag2 single-transgenic mice. Previously, we have shown that high levels of IGF-2, a high-affinity ligand for IGF1R, are required for Rip1Tag2 tumor cell survival and tumor growth. Unexpectedly, treatment of Rip1Tag2 mice with NVP-AEW541 in prevention and intervention trials neither did affect tumor growth nor tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis. Yet, it significantly repressed progression to tumor malignancy, that is, the rate of the transition from differentiated adenoma to invasive carcinoma. Treatment of Rip1Tag2;RipIGF1R double-transgenic mice resulted in moderately reduced tumor volumes and increased rates of tumor cell apoptosis. Sustained expression of IGF-2 and of the IGF-2-binding form of insulin receptor (IR-A) in tumor cells suggests a compensatory role of IR-A upon IGF1R blockade. The results indicate that inhibition of IGF1R alone is not sufficient to efficiently block insulinoma growth and imply an overlapping role of IGF1R and insulin receptor in executing mitogenic and survival stimuli elicited by IGF-2. The reduction of tumor invasion upon IGF1R blockade on the other hand indicates a critical function of IGF1R signaling for the acquisition of a malignant phenotype.

  3. Intralesional Bleomycin as an Adjunct Therapeutic Modality in Eyelid and Extraocular Malignancies and Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, David; Gooding, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    To present our recent experience with intralesional bleomycin (IBI) in nonmelanoma extraocular tumors, and present previous experience on periocular capillary hemangiomas and orbital lymphangiomas in a tertiary referral hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with eyelid and extraocular malignancies where conventional therapies failed, or surgery was contraindicated or refused and were offered IBI as an alternate therapy. All patients were recruited from the Oculoplastics Clinic at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. A solution containing 1 international unit of bleomycin per milliliter saline was injected intralesionally together with 2% lignocaine in a ratio of 4:1. The injected volume was calculated to be equivalent to the estimated volume of the lesion. A multipuncture technique with a 29-gauge needle was used. Patients requiring retreatment were injected every 4–8 weeks until satisfactory clinical endpoints were achieved. Our previous experience with IBI in extensive capillary hemangiomas and orbital lymphangiomas is reviewed. Cases are presented to illustrate that IBI induced significant regression and reduction in tumor size and marked clinical improvement of the eyelid and orbital basal cell carcinomas, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. The improvements obviated the need for further surgical intervention in most cases. Based on clinical experience we propose that IBI should be considered a treatment modality in select cases of the malignant eyelid and ophthalmic vascular tumors where the conventional standard of care is not possible. IBI is a reasonable alternative or adjunct to consider in such cases. PMID:26692709

  4. Intralesional Bleomycin as an Adjunct Therapeutic Modality in Eyelid and Extraocular Malignancies and Tumors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, David; Gooding, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    To present our recent experience with intralesional bleomycin (IBI) in nonmelanoma extraocular tumors, and present previous experience on periocular capillary hemangiomas and orbital lymphangiomas in a tertiary referral hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study of patients with eyelid and extraocular malignancies where conventional therapies failed, or surgery was contraindicated or refused and were offered IBI as an alternate therapy. All patients were recruited from the Oculoplastics Clinic at Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. A solution containing 1 international unit of bleomycin per milliliter saline was injected intralesionally together with 2% lignocaine in a ratio of 4:1. The injected volume was calculated to be equivalent to the estimated volume of the lesion. A multipuncture technique with a 29-gauge needle was used. Patients requiring retreatment were injected every 4-8 weeks until satisfactory clinical endpoints were achieved. Our previous experience with IBI in extensive capillary hemangiomas and orbital lymphangiomas is reviewed. Cases are presented to illustrate that IBI induced significant regression and reduction in tumor size and marked clinical improvement of the eyelid and orbital basal cell carcinomas, Kaposi sarcoma, and mycosis fungoides. The improvements obviated the need for further surgical intervention in most cases. Based on clinical experience we propose that IBI should be considered a treatment modality in select cases of the malignant eyelid and ophthalmic vascular tumors where the conventional standard of care is not possible. IBI is a reasonable alternative or adjunct to consider in such cases. PMID:26692709

  5. [Gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) in adult gliomas].

    PubMed

    Kantor, G; Loiseau, H; Vital, A; Mazeron, J J

    2001-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiform and astrocytoma are the most frequent primary cancer of the central nervous system of adult. Definitions of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) are based on the confrontation of clinical presentation (age, performance status, neurologic symptoms...), histological type and imaging aspects. For glioblastoma multiform, the GTV can be defined by the area of contrast enhancement observed on the CT scan or MRI. Definition of the CTV can be more difficult and have to take into account the risk of presence of isolated malignant cells in the oedema surrounding the tumor or in the adjacent brain structures. The classical concept of GTV plus a safety margin of 2 cm around is discussed with a CTV containing at least all the oedematous area and eventually adjacent brain structures (nuclei, corpus callosum or other long associative fibers...). For low grade astrocytoma, the definition of GTV can be difficult if the tumoral infiltration is diffuse without nodular visible tumor. CTV corresponds to at least T2 MRI hypersignal area when visible. For postoperative tumor, technical considerations are important for the detection of residual tumor. A safety margin around the resected area is designed according to the risk of presence of isolated cells or involvement of adjacent brain structures. PMID:11715309

  6. Histological and clinical characteristics of malignant giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lihua; Liu, Weifeng; Sun, Xiaoqi; Sajdik, Constantin; Tian, Xinxia; Niu, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiaoyuan

    2012-03-01

    Malignant giant cell tumors of bone (MGCTB) are rare, and the diagnosis can be difficult due to the occurrence of a variety of malignant tumors containing giant cells. To better understand its clinicopathological features, we have reviewed our experience with 17 cases of MGCTB. Five cases were primary malignant giant cell tumor of bone (PMGCTB), and 12 cases were giant cell tumors of bone initially diagnosed as benign but malignant in a recurrent lesion (secondary MGCTB, SMGCTB). The patients included six women and 11 men (age ranged from 17 to 52 years; mean, 30.5 years). The tumor arose in the femur (six cases), the tibia (seven cases), the humerus (three cases), and the fibula (one case). Microscopically, PMGCTB showed both conventional giant cell tumor and malignant sarcoma features. SMGCTB were initially diagnosed as conventional giant cell tumor of bone, the recurrent lesion showing malignant features. Histologically, the malignant components included osteosarcoma (11 cases), undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma (two cases), and fibrosarcoma (four cases). SMGCTB cases showed strong expression of p53. Follow-up information revealed that four patients died of lung metastasis, two patients are alive with lung metastases, and 11 patients are alive without tumor. MGCTB should be considered as a high-grade sarcoma. It must be distinguished from GCTB and other malignant tumors containing giant cells. p53 might play a role in the malignant transformation of GCTB. PMID:22350004

  7. Prognostic value of immunohistochemical markers in malignant thymic epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Leisibach, Priska; Schneiter, Didier; Soltermann, Alex; Yamada, Yoshi; Weder, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Background Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare neoplasms with inconsistent treatment strategies. When researching for molecular pathways to find new therapies, the correlation between specific molecular markers and outcome has only rarely been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between survival, metastatic potential and invasiveness of aggressive subtypes of TET and immunohistochemical markers. Methods Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) of patients with WHO type B2/B3 mixed type thymoma (MT), thymoma type B3 (B3) and thymic carcinoma (TC), undergoing surgery [1998–2013] were determined. Tumor specimens were stained using a tissue microarray (TMA) (CD117, CD5, p63, p40, p21, p27, p53, Bcl-2, Ki67, podoplanin, synaptophysin, PTEN and Pax8). Invasive behavior of primary tumors and the presence of extrathoracic metastases were assessed. Results We found in 23 patients included into this study (four MT, ten B3, nine TC) that (I) p21 expression in the cytoplasm significantly correlated with a decrease of OS (P=0.016), PFS (P=0.034) and MFS (P=0.005); (II) MFS was significantly shorter when the combination of p21-low p27-low p53-high was present (P=0.029); and (III) nuclear p27 (P=0.042), Ki-67 (P=0.024) and podoplanin (P=0.05) expression correlated with the presence of extrathoracic metastases. Conclusions The main finding of this study is that cytoplasmic p21 expression negatively influences the outcome of malignant TETs and correlates with metastatic activity. Additionally, selected immunohistochemical markers correlate with the distant metastatic potential of TETs. These results may contribute to the stratification of diagnosis and improvement of treatment strategies for thymic malignancies. PMID:27747012

  8. Postoperative irradiation in malignant epithelial tumors of the parotid

    SciTech Connect

    McNaney, D.; McNeese, M.D.; Guillamondegui, O.M.; Fletcher, G.H.; Oswald, M.J.

    1983-09-01

    From 1954 through 1979, 77 patients with malignant tumors of the parotid gland were referred from the Department of Head and Neck Surgery for postoperative irradiation. The analysis has been made by grouping the patients according to the estimated amount of disease left after the surgical procedure and by the histological types. There were no local failures in the low-grade tumors, and there were 6 in the 63 patients with high-grade tumors. With gross residual disease or potential residual disease the patients received slightly higher doses than those without. Although there were only 6 failures in the various histological types, there was perhaps a trend to more failures in the adenocarcinomas. There was no difference in the failure rates in patients having had a total resection of the facial nerve or partial resection or no resection. The preferred treatment has been a combination of 20 MeV photons and 18 MeV electrons. Five neck failures were essentially a result of lack of electrive irradiation of the neck. Severe complications appeared only in the patients irradiated either for gross residual disease or excision of a recurrence with a high risk of widespread microscopic residual disease.

  9. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  10. Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast With Malignant Melanoma Component: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vergine, Marco; Guy, Catherine; Taylor, Mark R

    2015-09-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast display a wide variation in histological appearance and are classified into benign, borderline, and malignant categories based on a combination of histological parameters. These tumors may include a malignant heterologous component that is believed to originate through a process of multidirectional differentiation from a cancer stem cell. In these cases, the tumor is classified as a malignant phyllodes tumor. Among the heterologous elements that have been described in malignant phyllodes tumors are rhabdomyosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, liposarcoma and angiosarcoma. We present the first case of a phyllodes tumor with a malignant melanoma component in the breast of a 71-year-old lady, discussing the clinical implications of this diagnosis. PMID:26113664

  11. Primary malignant chest wall tumors: analysis of 40 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary chest wall tumors originate from different constructions of thoracic wall. We report our multidisciplinary experience on primary thoracic tumor resection and thoracic reconstruction, the need to additional therapy and evaluating prognostic factors affecting survival. Methods We performed a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained database of 40 patients treated for malignant primary chest wall tumor from 1989 to 2009. Patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, clinical presentation, type of imaging, tissue diagnosis methods, pathology, surgical technique, early complications, hospital mortality, prevalence of recurrence and distant metastases, additional treatment, 3 years survival and factors affecting survival. Results Male/Female (F/M) = 1, with median age of 43.72 years. Mass was the most common symptoms and the soft tissue sarcoma was the most common pathology. Resection without reconstruction was performed in 5 patients and Thirty-five patients (87.5%) had extensive resection and reconstruction with rotatory muscular flap, prosthetic mesh and/or cement. Overall, 12.5% (5/40) of patients received neoadjuvant therapy and 75% (30/40) of patients were treated with adjuvant therapy. The 3-year survival rate was 65%. Recurrences occurred in 24 patients (60%), 14 developed local recurrences, and 10 developed distant metastases. The primary treatment modality for both local and distant recurrences was surgical resection; among them, 10 underwent repeated resection, 9 adjuvant therapy and 5 were treated with lung metastasectomy. The most common site of distant metastasis was lung (n = 7). Factors that affected survival were type of pathology and evidence of distant metastasis. Conclusion Surgery with wide margin is the safe and good technique for treatment of primary chest wall tumors with acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:24947314

  12. Immunotherapy with autologous dendritic cells and tumor antigens for children with refractory malignant solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Suminoe, Aiko; Matsuzaki, Akinobu; Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Koga, Yuhki; Hara, Toshiro

    2009-09-01

    Immature DCs were generated from the peripheral blood monocytes from five children with refractory solid tumors (Ewing sarcoma, synovial sarcoma, neuroblastoma) using GM-CSF and IL-4. These DCs were then pulsed with tumor-specific synthetic peptides or tumor lysates in the presence of the immunogenic protein KLH for 12 h. Pulsed DCs were administered subcutaneously every one or two weeks in an outpatient setting without any toxicity. In one patient with Ewing sarcoma, the residual tumor disappeared following autologous PBSCT and DC therapy, and a complete remission has been maintained for 77 months. In two patients with synovial sarcoma or with neuroblastoma, growth of the tumors was temporally suppressed for one and 10 months, respectively, followed by their exacerbation. A DTH response was detected against KLH in all five patients and against the tumor lysate in one patient. In the patients with a possible DC-mediated anti-tumor effect, the number of CD8(+) HLA-DR(+) lymphocytes and INF-gamma(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes increased and an elevation of the NK cell cytotoxic activity was observed during and/or after DC therapy. DC-based immunotherapy may therefore be a feasible, well-tolerated and promising approach in the treatment of children with refractory malignant tumors.

  13. Methionine dependency of malignant tumors: a possible approach for therapy.

    PubMed

    Breillout, F; Antoine, E; Poupon, M F

    1990-10-17

    When methionine (Met), an essential amino acid, was substituted for by its precursor homocysteine (Hcy) in the culture medium, normal cells such as fibroblasts proliferated normally. In contrast, many tumor cells failed to grow or grew at a lower rate. Met dependency is acquired simultaneously with cell transformation, as observed with HBL 100, a human mammary epithelial cell line that acquired increased malignancy as a function of in vitro passage number, and NIH/3T3 (J10), a mouse fibroblast line transformed by transfection with the human HRAS oncogene. A relationship was observed between Met dependency and metastatic potential of the RMS-21, RMS-S4T, and RMS-J1 sublines derived from RMS-0, a rat rhabdomyosarcoma cell line: the higher the metastatic potential of the cell line, the higher the concentration of Met required to maintain its proliferation. Met-independent cells derived from the RMS-0 line, obtained by a progressive decrease of Met in the culture medium lost their tumorigenicity when injected into rats fed with Met-deprived diets. In addition, the in vitro motility of RMS-S4T tumor cells, a marker of metastatic capability, decreased in Met-free Hcy-complemented (Met- Hcy+) medium. Similarly, RMS-0 tumor cells, preincubated in a Met- Hcy+ culture medium for 24 hours, evidenced a decreased capacity to form lung colonies when injected into syngeneic rats: the median number of lung colonies was 27 and 3 (P less than .05) for cells cultivated in Met+ Hcy- and Met- Hcy+ media, respectively. An amino acid-defined mixture reproducing casein composition was used as a protein source in the diets fed to RMS-J1 tumor-bearing rats. Dietary substitution of Hcy for Met (i.e., met deprivation) resulted in decreased tumor growth (from 44.4 +/- 1.0 to 40.6 +/- 1.4; P less than .05) and prevention of metastatic spread (from 37 to 0; P less than .05). In conclusion, exogenous Met can be substituted for Hcy to maintain the survival of normal cells but is essential for

  14. Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the skin. A malignant tumor mimicking many different neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Santos-Juanes1, Jorge; Vivanco-Allende, Blanca; Galache, Cristina Galache

    2016-01-01

    Epithelioid angiosarcomas are rare malignant mesenchymal tumors. The main problem of these tumors is the complicate clinical and histological diagnosis. We report a case with an immunohistochemical panel. We propose the use of CD31 in the immunohistochemical panel of an undifferenciated tumor with epithelioid features, because it appears to be the only endothelial marker these tumors constantly express. PMID:27617941

  15. Discrimination of benign versus malignant mixed tumors of the salivary gland using digital image analysis.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Hall, T L; Fu, Y S

    1989-03-01

    Seven benign and four malignant mixed tumors of the salivary gland, biopsied using fine-needle aspiration, were analyzed using digital image analysis. Mean nuclear form factor, perimeter, and area were significantly increased in malignant cases. Better separation between diagnostic categories, however, was achieved by utilizing the coefficient of variation (CV) within a case rather than mean value. Form factor CV alone divided cases into nonoverlapping diagnostic categories. This quantitative analog of "pleomorphism" provided a useful marker for malignancy in mixed tumors.

  16. Subacute brain atrophy after radiation therapy for malignant brain tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, A.; Matsutani, M.; Kohno, T.; Nakamura, O.; Tanaka, H.; Fujimaki, T.; Funada, N.; Matsuda, T.; Nagata, K.; Takakura, K.

    1989-05-15

    Brain atrophy with mental and neurologic deterioration developing a few months after radiation therapy in patients without residual or recurrent brain tumors has been recognized. Two illustrative case reports of this pathologic entity are presented. Six autopsy cases with this entity including the two cases were reviewed neurologically, radiographically, and histopathologically. All patients presented progressive disturbances of mental status and consciousness, akinesia, and tremor-like involuntary movement. Computerized tomography (CT) demonstrated marked enlargement of the ventricles, moderate widening of the cortical sulci, and a moderately attenuated CT number for the white matter in all six patients. Four of the six patients had CSF drainage (ventriculoperitoneal shunt or continuous lumbar drainage), however, none of them improved. Histologic examination demonstrated swelling and loss of the myelin sheath in the white matter in all patients, and reactive astrocytosis in three of the six patients. Neither prominent neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex or basal ganglia, nor axonal loss in the white matter was generally identified. The blood vessels of the cerebral cortex and white matter were normal. Ependymal layer and the surrounding brain tissue were normal in all patients. These findings suggested that this pathologic condition results from demyelination secondary to direct neurotoxic effect of irradiation. The authors' previous report was reviewed and the differential diagnoses, the risk factors for this pathologic entity, and the indication for radiation therapy in aged patients with a malignant brain tumor are discussed.

  17. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma “de novo.” We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported. PMID:26600963

  18. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Associated with Osteosarcoma in a True Malignant Mixed Tumor of the Submandibular Region.

    PubMed

    Marcotullio, Dario; de Vincentiis, Marco; Iannella, Giannicola; Cerbelli, Bruna; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. True malignant mixed tumor, also known as carcinosarcoma, is a rare tumor of the salivary gland composed of both malignant epithelial and malignant mesenchymal elements. Frequently carcinosarcoma arises in the background of a preexisting pleomorphic adenoma; however, if no evidence of benign mixed tumor is present, the lesion is known as carcinosarcoma "de novo." We reported the first case of true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland composed of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Caucasian male came to our department complaining of the appearance of an asymptomatic left submandibular neoformation progressively increasing in size over 3 months. We opted for surgical treatment. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of carcinosarcoma with the coexistence of high grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma and osteosarcoma. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, in the true malignant mixed tumor of the submandibular gland, mucoepidermoid carcinoma associated with osteosarcoma has never been previously reported.

  19. Sub-diffuse optical biomarkers characterize localized microstructure and function of cortex and malignant tumor.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Jaime J; Paulsen, Keith D; Roberts, David W; Kanick, Stephen C

    2016-02-15

    This study uses a sub-diffusive light transport model to analyze fiber-optic measurements of reflectance spectra to recover endogenous tissue biomarkers and to correct raw fluorescence emissions for distortions from background optical properties. Measurements in tissue-simulating phantoms validated accurate recovery of the reduced scattering coefficient [(0.3-3.4  mm-1), error 10%], blood volume fraction [(1-3 vol%), error 7%], and a dimensionless metric of anisotropic scattering, γ, that is sensitive to submillimeter tissue ultrastructure [(1.29-2.06), error 11%]. In vivo sub-diffusive optical data acquired during clinical neurosurgeries characterize differences in microstructure (γ), perfusion (blood volume), and metabolism (PpIX fluorescence) between normal cortex and malignant tumor. PMID:26872187

  20. Hyponatremia with intracranial malignant tumor resection in children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Cydni; Simon, Tamara D.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Bratton, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Object Intracranial neoplasms are the second most common childhood cancer, and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Hyponatremia is a complication associated with neurosurgical procedures, but children undergoing intracranial tumor resection have not been selectively studied. In this study, the authors aimed to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with hyponatremia among children undergoing intracranial neoplasm resection. Methods A retrospective cohort was compiled using the 2006 Kids' Inpatient Database to identify children younger than 21 years of age who underwent intracranial neoplasm resection. Hyponatremia was ascertained by diagnosis codes. Bivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Logistic regression models were developed to evaluate factors associated with hyponatremia in bivariate analyses. Results Hyponatremia occurred in 205 (8.7%) of 2343 annual weighted cases, and was independently associated with tumor location in the deep brain structures and ventricles compared with the cortical area (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.4; 95% CI 1.17–5.3). Hyponatremia was also associated with obstructive hydrocephalus (aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7–4.3) and emergency department admission (aOR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1–2.4). Hyponatremia was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation, ventriculostomy placement, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and sepsis. Hyponatremia was also associated with a significantly longer average length of stay (24.6 vs 10.2 days), higher average charges ($191,000 vs $92,000), and a higher percentage of discharges to intermediate-care facilities. Conclusions Hyponatremia commonly occurs with resection of intracranial malignant tumors, especially for lesions located in the deep brain and in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. Hyponatremia was associated with higher morbidity. Further research is needed to develop targeted monitoring and intervention strategies to decrease

  1. Functional Expression of TWEAK and the Receptor Fn14 in Human Malignant Ovarian Tumors: Possible Implication for Ovarian Tumor Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Ding, Chuanwei; Xu, Hai-bo; Qiu, Lihua; Di, Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this current study was to investigate the expression of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) in human malignant ovarian tumors, and test TWEAK’s potential role on tumor progression in cell models in-vitro. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found that TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were expressed in human malignant ovarian tumors, but not in normal ovarian tissues or in borderline/benign epithelial ovarian tumors. High levels of TWEAK expression was detected in the majority of malignant tumors (36 out of 41, 87.80%). Similarly, 35 out of 41 (85.37%) malignant ovarian tumors were Fn14 positive. In these malignant ovarian tumors, however, TWEAK/Fn14 expression was not corrected with patients’ clinical subtype/stages or pathological features. In vitro, we demonstrated that TWEAK only inhibited ovarian cancer HO-8910PM cell proliferation in combination with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas either TWEAK or TNF-α alone didn’t affect HO-8910PM cell growth. TWEAK promoted TNF-α production in cultured THP-1 macrophages. Meanwhile, conditioned media from TWEAK-activated macrophages inhibited cultured HO-8910PM cell proliferation and invasion. Further, TWEAK increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in cultured HO-8910PM cells to possibly recruit macrophages. Our results suggest that TWEAK/Fn14, by activating macrophages, could be ovarian tumor suppressors. The unique expression of TWEAK/Fn14 in malignant tumors indicates that it might be detected as a malignant ovarian tumor marker. PMID:23469193

  2. Multiple recurrent malignant solitary fibrous tumors: long-term follow-up of 24 years.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Kwon; Lee, Deok Heon; Park, Ji Young; Park, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Kun Young

    2011-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura is a rare, generally benign, neoplasm that accounts for less than 5% of all pleural tumors. However, 10% to 30% of SFTs display aggressive behavior with local recurrence, malignant transformation, and distant metastasis. We report a case of multiple recurrent SFTs of the thorax in a 77-year-old Korean woman. During a 24-year period, she underwent six surgical resections for six recurrent SFTs. The tumor eventually underwent morphologically malignant transformation. This unique case highlights the necessity of long-term follow-up in cases of SFT because of the potentially malignant biological behavior of this type of tumor.

  3. MICROBIAL DRIVEN TLR5-DEPENDENT SIGNALING GOVERNS DISTAL MALIGNANT PROGRESSION THROUGH TUMOR-PROMOTING INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Stephen, Tom L.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Allegrezza, Michael J.; Tesone, Amelia J.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Brencicova, Eva; Escovar-Fadul, Ximena; Nguyen, Jenny M.; Cadungog, Mark G.; Zhang, Rugang; Salatino, Mariana; Tchou, Julia; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    The dominant TLR5R392X polymorphism abrogates flagellin responses in >7% of humans. We report that TLR5-dependent commensal bacteria drive malignant progression at extra-mucosal locations by increasing systemic IL-6, which drives mobilization of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Mechanistically, expanded granulocytic MDSCs cause γδ lymphocytes in TLR5-responsive tumors to secrete galectin-1, dampening anti-tumor immunity and accelerating malignant progression. In contrast, IL-17 is consistently up-regulated in TLR5-unresponsive tumor-bearing mice, but only accelerates malignant progression in IL-6-unresponsive tumors. Importantly, depletion of commensal bacteria abrogates TLR5-dependent differences in tumor growth. Contrasting differences in inflammatory cytokines and malignant evolution are recapitulated in TLR5-responsive/unresponsive ovarian and breast cancer patients. Therefore, inflammation, anti-tumor immunity and the clinical outcome of cancer patients are influenced by a common TLR5 polymorphism. PMID:25533336

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wankhede, Mamta; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. Delivery of nanoparticles to malignant brain tumors represents a formidable challenge due to the presence of the blood–brain barrier and infiltrating cancer cells in the normal brain. Newer strategies permit better delivery of MNPs systemically and by direct convection-enhanced delivery to the brain. Completion of a human clinical trial involving direct injection of MNPs into recurrent malignant brain tumors for thermotherapy has established their feasibility, safety and efficacy in patients. Future translational studies are in progress to understand the promising impact of MNPs in the treatment of malignant brain tumors. PMID:22390560

  5. In-vivo NIR autofluorescence of rat mammary tumors discriminates pathological malignancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Laure S.; Lucidi, Vincenzo; Rosenau, Werner; Demos, Stavros G.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2003-10-01

    Benign and malignant mammary tumors were induced in rats using a potent carcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU). Induced tumors were examined under near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging (excitation wavelength 670 to 730 nm, detection wavelength 750 and 800 nm) to search for a difference in the photophysical properties of the tumors reflecting their pathologic status. Three benign and eight malignant tumors were examined optically and pathologically. The non-enhanced optical images showed a significantly lower (P<0.05) spontaneous fluorescent signal in the benign tumors than in their malignant counterparts. The precise chemical origin for the observed differences in tumor autofluorescence remains undetermined. It can be hypothesized that the reported high concentration of porphyrins, NIR-fluorescing compounds, in the malignant lesions, could account for the observed increased autofluorescence.

  6. Malignant proliferating pilar tumors arising in KID syndrome: a report of two patients.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Gurston G; Mumm, Christina; Grau, Renee; Crowson, A Neil; Shurman, Daniel L; Benedetto, Paul; Allen, Pamela; Lovelace, Kelli; Smith, David W; Frieden, Ilona; Hybarger, C Patrick; Richard, Gabriele

    2007-04-01

    We report on two young adults with KID syndrome and follicular hyperkeratosis, hidradenitis suppurativa of the groin, progressive development of proliferative pilar cysts and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, who developed metastatic malignant pilar tumors. Based on our findings, we believe that cancer surveillance in patients with KID syndrome should include screening for pilar tumors and their early removal to avoid development of malignant proliferating pilar tumors with poor prognosis. PMID:17330861

  7. Whole-genome sequencing of a malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Song; Conroy, Jeffrey; Wang, Jianmin; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Glenn, Sean T.; Murakami, Mitsuko; Liu, Lu; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jacob; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Nowak, David E.; Liu, Biao; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Omilian, Angela R.; Head, Karen; Bianchi, Michael; Burgher, Blake; Darlak, Christopher; Kane, John; Merzianu, Mihai; Cheney, Richard; Fabiano, Andrew; Salerno, Kilian; Talati, Chetasi; Khushalani, Nikhil I.; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.; Morrison, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are an uncommon soft tissue neoplasm. Malignant granular cell tumors comprise <2% of all granular cell tumors, are associated with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome, and are poorly understood in terms of tumor etiology and systematic treatment. Because of its rarity, the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumor remains unknown. We performed whole-genome sequencing of one malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib. This tumor exhibited a very low mutation rate and an overall stable genome with local complex rearrangements. The mutation signature was dominated by C>T transitions, particularly when immediately preceded by a 5′ G. A loss-of-function mutation was detected in a newly recognized tumor suppressor candidate, BRD7. No mutations were found in known targets of pazopanib. However, we identified a receptor tyrosine kinase pathway mutation in GFRA2 that warrants further evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of a malignant granular cell tumor exhibiting a response to pazopanib, and the first whole-genome sequencing of this uncommon tumor type. The findings provide insight into the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumors and identify potential targets for further investigation. PMID:27148567

  8. Whole-genome sequencing of a malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lei; Liu, Song; Conroy, Jeffrey; Wang, Jianmin; Papanicolau-Sengos, Antonios; Glenn, Sean T; Murakami, Mitsuko; Liu, Lu; Hu, Qiang; Conroy, Jacob; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Nowak, David E; Liu, Biao; Qin, Maochun; Bshara, Wiam; Omilian, Angela R; Head, Karen; Bianchi, Michael; Burgher, Blake; Darlak, Christopher; Kane, John; Merzianu, Mihai; Cheney, Richard; Fabiano, Andrew; Salerno, Kilian; Talati, Chetasi; Khushalani, Nikhil I; Trump, Donald L; Johnson, Candace S; Morrison, Carl D

    2015-10-01

    Granular cell tumors are an uncommon soft tissue neoplasm. Malignant granular cell tumors comprise <2% of all granular cell tumors, are associated with aggressive behavior and poor clinical outcome, and are poorly understood in terms of tumor etiology and systematic treatment. Because of its rarity, the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumor remains unknown. We performed whole-genome sequencing of one malignant granular cell tumor with metabolic response to pazopanib. This tumor exhibited a very low mutation rate and an overall stable genome with local complex rearrangements. The mutation signature was dominated by C>T transitions, particularly when immediately preceded by a 5' G. A loss-of-function mutation was detected in a newly recognized tumor suppressor candidate, BRD7. No mutations were found in known targets of pazopanib. However, we identified a receptor tyrosine kinase pathway mutation in GFRA2 that warrants further evaluation. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of a malignant granular cell tumor exhibiting a response to pazopanib, and the first whole-genome sequencing of this uncommon tumor type. The findings provide insight into the genetic basis of malignant granular cell tumors and identify potential targets for further investigation. PMID:27148567

  9. Breast tumor malignancy modelling using evolutionary neural logic networks.

    PubMed

    Tsakonas, Athanasios; Dounias, Georgios; Panagi, Georgia; Panourgias, Evangelia

    2006-01-01

    The present work proposes a computer assisted methodology for the effective modelling of the diagnostic decision for breast tumor malignancy. The suggested approach is based on innovative hybrid computational intelligence algorithms properly applied in related cytological data contained in past medical records. The experimental data used in this study were gathered in the early 1990s in the University of Wisconsin, based in post diagnostic cytological observations performed by expert medical staff. Data were properly encoded in a computer database and accordingly, various alternative modelling techniques were applied on them, in an attempt to form diagnostic models. Previous methods included standard optimisation techniques, as well as artificial intelligence approaches, in a way that a variety of related publications exists in modern literature on the subject. In this report, a hybrid computational intelligence approach is suggested, which effectively combines modern mathematical logic principles, neural computation and genetic programming in an effective manner. The approach proves promising either in terms of diagnostic accuracy and generalization capabilities, or in terms of comprehensibility and practical importance for the related medical staff.

  10. Procedure for quantitative determination of effectiveness of photoinduced destruction of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizyuk, S. A.; Istomin, Yu. P.; Dzhagarov, B. M.

    2006-07-01

    We have developed a procedure for analysis of the functional status of blood vessels in tumor tissues using computer-assisted color scanning of tumor slices and also for a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of photoinduced destruction of tumor tissues in animal experiments. Its major advantage is direct determination of the size of the tumor necrosis zone. The procedure has been tested in an experiment on three strains of malignant tumors with different morphologies.

  11. Case report of malignant pulmonary parenchymal glomus tumor: imaging features and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jane D; Plodkowski, Andrew J; Giri, Dilip D; Hwang, Sinchun

    2016-01-01

    Glomus tumor is rare tumor which arises from glomus body and is most frequently found in the soft tissue of the extremities. The lung is a rare ectopic site, and a malignant glomus tumor arising from pulmonary parenchyma is particularly uncommon. To deepen our understanding on their imaging features, we report a case of malignant glomus tumor of pulmonary parenchyma confirmed with surgical histopathology and immunochemistry and review the medical literature on pulmonary parenchymal glomus tumors with emphasis on their imaging features. PMID:26498485

  12. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary (Hypercalcemic Type): Malignant Rhabdoid Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kascak, Peter; Zamecnik, Michal; Bystricky, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant rhabdoid tumor (ovarian small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type) in a 24-year-old female with fulminant course. Clinically, hypercalcemia was not found at the time of primary diagnosis. However, it appeared later during the course of tumor progression. Histologically, the tumor showed classical features of small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type. Therapy included radical surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite this intensive therapy, the disease recurred and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis. We discuss the diagnosis and therapy of this tumor, as well as its recent classification as malignant rhabdoid tumor. PMID:27462229

  13. Expression and mutation patterns of p53 in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nordkvist, A; Röijer, E; Bang, G; Gustafsson, H; Behrendt, M; Ryd, W; Thoresen, S; Donath, K; Stenman, G

    2000-03-01

    The expression and mutation patterns of p53 were studied in a series of 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas and 237 malignant salivary gland tumors. p53 overexpression (nuclear staining exceeding 10%) was detected in 20% of the malignant salivary gland tumors, with the highest prevalence observed in polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma and the lowest in adenoid cystic carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. In contrast, none of the 68 benign pleomorphic adenomas had nuclear staining exceeding 10%. SSCP and nucleotide sequence analysis of exons 4 to 9 of p53 in 19 malignant tumors revealed 9 mutations in 7 tumors. Our findings indicate that p53 may be a useful marker to help discriminate between benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

  14. Dual FISH analysis of benign and malignant tumors of the salivary glands and paranasal sinuses.

    PubMed

    Götte, Karl; Ganssmann, Stefan; Affolter, Annette; Schäfer, Carsten; Riedel, Frank; Arens, Norbert; Finger, Sonja; Hörmann, Karl

    2005-11-01

    To date, the underlying genomic changes in benign and malignant tumors of salivary-gland and paranasal-sinus origin are poorly understood. This is due in part to the low incidence of these tumors and the enormous histological variety of tumors within this head and neck region. We examined 58 of these tumors (14 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 9 adenocarcinomas, 5 cylindrical carcinomas, 11 pleomorphic adenomas, and 19 inverted papillomas) by dual fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere-specific probes on six chromosomes (3, 7, 9, 11, 17, and 18) for numerical changes. In adenoid cystic carcinomas, monosomy of chromosome 17 and polysomy of chromosomes 3, 9 and 11 were most frequently encountered. In adenocarcinomas, monosomy of chromosome 17 and polysomy of chromosomes 7 and 11 were most frequent. In cylindrical cell carcinomas, polysomy of chromosomes 7, 9, 11 and 17 was present in the majority of tumors. Disomy is rare, even in benign tumors. Polysomy is more frequent in malignant tumors than in benign. Tetrasomy is found almost only in malignant tumors. In summary, the occurrence of polysomy might reflect a step towards malignancy in tumors of the salivary glands and paranasal mucosa. Polysomy of chromosome 11 could be defined as typical for all investigated histological types of malignant tumor in this region of the head and neck. PMID:16211271

  15. Flow cytometric analysis of benign and malignant tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region.

    PubMed

    Chen, R B

    1989-06-01

    One hundred eight fresh tissue samples obtained from normal tissues, benign tumors, and malignant tumors of the oral and maxillofacial region were analyzed for nuclear DNA content and cell kinetics by flow cytometric analysis (FCM). Mean DNA indices for 22 normal tissues and 18 benign tumors were 1.00 and 1.02, respectively, and all samples but one showed diploid pattern. On the other hand, the value for 68 malignant tumors was 1.38, and 66% of them showed an aneuploid pattern. The S phase and G2 + M phase cell populations for malignant tumors were 17.2% and 7.0%, respectively. With the exception of G2 + M phase cell population, all values for malignant tumors were significantly higher than those of normal tissue and benign tumors. Although statistical differences were not observed in most of the values, they were higher in squamous cell carcinomas than in malignant salivary gland tumors. The incidence of aneuploidy and DNA index showed a tendency to increase with the increase of T classification, in N2 and N3 tumors, and in the group of patients with recurrence or who died. The DNA index and the type of DNA ploidy were well correlated to malignancy grade determined by six histologic parameters, whereas the S phase cell population was correlated to mitosis. The analysis by the two-dimensional diagnostic supporting system showed that more than 80% of malignant tumors can be correctly diagnosed by combined values of DNA index and S phase cell population. The results indicate that nuclear DNA analysis by FCM is quite useful as a supplement to histologic diagnosis and evaluation of malignancy grade.

  16. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (giant cell type) associated with a malignant mixed tumor in the salivary gland of a dog.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, C; García Fernández, R A; Reyes Avila, L E; Pérez-Pérez, V; González, N; García-Iglesias, M J

    2000-07-01

    A 12-year-old male Boxer dog presented with a 5 x 5 x 7-cm partially encapsulated mass in the right mandibular salivary gland. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The mesenchymal component consisted of two cell populations arranged in different patterns: coalescing nodules of neoplastic mononuclear cells with rare osteoid and numerous osteoclastlike giant cells; and sheets of neoplastic spindle cells intermingled with neoplastic epithelial cells and containing osteoid and well-formed bone trabeculae lined by osteoblasts and few osteoclastlike giant cells. On the basis of these histological features, two malignant salivary tumors were diagnosed: a malignant fibrous histiocytoma (giant cell type) and a malignant mixed tumor. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated keratin 5 and 8 expression by the neoplastic epithelial cells, indicating a probable salivary ductal origin, and vimentin expression by all mesenchymal elements, suggesting a fibroblastic line of differentiation.

  17. Malignant chondroblastoma presenting as a recurrent pelvic tumor with DNA aneuploidy and p53 mutation as supportive evidence of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, M L; Johnson, M E; Truong, L D; Hicks, M J; Smith, F E; Spjut, H J

    1999-11-01

    We report a rare case of malignant chondroblastoma, which presented in a 47-year-old man as a recurrent tumor, 18 years following wide excision of a typical pelvic chondroblastoma. Radiologic studies of the recurrent tumor showed a large, lytic, destructive lesion of the right pelvic bones and femur, with a pathologic fracture of the latter, a large pelvic soft tissue mass, and multiple pulmonary metastases. Biopsy tissue showed typical features of chondroblastoma, but also increased nuclear atypia, hyperchromasia, and pleomorphism, compared to the original tumor, and, most significantly, abnormal mitotic figures. Immunohistochemical studies of the recurrent tumor revealed p53 mutation and extensive proliferative activity, and flow cytometric studies showed DNA aneuploidy, none of which was present in the original tumor. The patient received chemotherapy and radiation, but died of disease eight months after presentation. We also review chondroblastoma in general, to assign this unusual lesion to a tumor subtype.

  18. Clinical outcome and prognosis of carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sha

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side-response of high-LET carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors. Methods Ten patients with pathological confirmed thoracic malignant tumors received treatment using heavy ion accelerator, which included 6 cases with non-small lung cancer, one case with small lung cancer, 2 cases with metastatic sarcomas and one case with invasive thymoma. The applied regimen included fractioned dose (5.5-6.8GyE/Fraction), one faction/day, and 7 fractions/week. The total dose ranged from 55 to 70 GyE. Results The short-term results showed that the response rate (the complete response (CR) rate +the partial response (PR) rate) was 10% at the first month, 40% at the third month and 90% at the sixth month. The overall response rate was 90% and the rate of stable disease was 10%. There was no relation between the response rate and tumor pathology (P>0.05) while significance between the response rate and the tumor volume.At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 6 to 36 months), the local control rate and free-disease rate were respectively 100% an 90% at the first year, 90% and 80% at the secondary year, 80% and 70% at the third year. The death rate due to disease progression was 20% and the non-specific death rate was 10%. Side and toxicity effects: Grade I skin effect occurred in three cases and Grade I lung effect occurred in two cases. The blood counts didn’t reach significance among pre-radiation course, peri-radiation course and post-radiation course (P>0.05). The subgoups of T cells detected in humoral immunity and cytoimmunity didn’t change between pre-radiation and post radiation(P>0.05). Conclusions Carbon ion radiotherapy is effective and safe in the management of patients with thoracic malignant tumors. There were no obvious side effects. The long term of clinical outcome and the late effect need to be further observed.

  19. [Predictors of malignancy in the management of parotid tumors: about 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumor pathology is complex and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A good analysis of predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors seems currently necessary for better therapeutic planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors through a retrospective study of 76 cases of parotid tumor treated in a service of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico Facial Surgery of Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech between January 2000 and December 2012. The study involved 40 women and 36 men. The average age was 44 years for benign tumours whereas it was 50 years for malignant tumours. The median of consultation time was 24 months for benign tumors and 16 month for malignant tumours. Swelling in the area of the parotid was always a patient detecting sign. Malignancy is clinically suspected based on pain, facial paralysis, surface structure and deeper structure fixity and on the presence of adenopathy. MRI has become the methodology of choice for evaluating parotid tumors due to its good diagnostic value in the assessment of benignity and malignancy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has no value unless it is positive. Explorative parotidectomy with extemporaneous anatomopathological examination remains the key to positive diagnosis. Parotid benign tumors represent the most frequent entity (80%) and pleomorphic adenoma remains the predominant histologic type (61%). With regard to malignant tumors, they are rare, mainly dominated by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (6,5%). Surgical treatment is the first choice and it is often associated with lymph node dissection and radiation therapy for malignant tumors. Facial paralysis is the most common complication of parotid surgery. PMID:27279939

  20. [Predictors of malignancy in the management of parotid tumors: about 76 cases].

    PubMed

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumor pathology is complex and poses a diagnostic and therapeutic problem. A good analysis of predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors seems currently necessary for better therapeutic planning. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive factors for malignancy in parotid tumors through a retrospective study of 76 cases of parotid tumor treated in a service of Otorhinolaryngology and Cervico Facial Surgery of Avicenne military hospital of Marrakech between January 2000 and December 2012. The study involved 40 women and 36 men. The average age was 44 years for benign tumours whereas it was 50 years for malignant tumours. The median of consultation time was 24 months for benign tumors and 16 month for malignant tumours. Swelling in the area of the parotid was always a patient detecting sign. Malignancy is clinically suspected based on pain, facial paralysis, surface structure and deeper structure fixity and on the presence of adenopathy. MRI has become the methodology of choice for evaluating parotid tumors due to its good diagnostic value in the assessment of benignity and malignancy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy has no value unless it is positive. Explorative parotidectomy with extemporaneous anatomopathological examination remains the key to positive diagnosis. Parotid benign tumors represent the most frequent entity (80%) and pleomorphic adenoma remains the predominant histologic type (61%). With regard to malignant tumors, they are rare, mainly dominated by mucoepidermoid carcinomas (6,5%). Surgical treatment is the first choice and it is often associated with lymph node dissection and radiation therapy for malignant tumors. Facial paralysis is the most common complication of parotid surgery.

  1. Capacity of tumor necrosis factor to augment lymphocyte-mediated tumor cell lysis of malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, R.V.; Manning, L.S.; Davis, M.R.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (rHuTNF) was evaluated both for direct anti-tumor action against human malignant mesothelioma and for its capacity to augment the generation and lytic phases of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity against this tumor. rHuTNF was directly toxic by MTT assay to one of two mesothelioma cell lines evaluated, but had no effect on susceptibility to subsequent lymphocyte-mediated lysis of either line. TNF alone was incapable of generating anti-mesothelioma lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity. Furthermore, it did not augment the degree or LAK activity produced by submaximal interleukin-2 (IL-2) concentrations nor did it augment lysis of mesothelioma cells by natural killer (NK) or LAK effector cells during the 4-hr 51chromium release cytolytic reaction. The studies also suggest that mesothelioma targets are less responsive to TNF plus submaximal IL-2 concentrations than the standard LAK sensitive target Daudi, raising the possibility that intermediate LAK sensitive tumors such as mesothelioma may require separate and specific evaluation in immunomodulation studies. This in vitro study indicates that use of low-dose rHuTNF and IL-2 is unlikely to be an effective substitute for high-dose IL-2 in generation and maintenance of LAK activity in adoptive immunotherapy for mesothelioma.

  2. The effects of sequential treatments on hippocampal volumes in malignant glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Nolen, Shantell C; Lee, Brian; Shantharam, Shruti; Yu, Hon J; Su, Lydia; Billimek, John; Bota, Daniela A

    2016-09-01

    Malignant gliomas (MG) are very aggressive tumors. In an effort to improve the outcome, the patients receive multi-modal therapies such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy (temozolomide followed in many cases by bevacizumab). The survivors are affected by multiple learning and memory deficits. Greater deterioration over time in hippocampal specific cognitive tasks was shown in patients receiving bevacizumab in addition to radiation and temozolomide for a longer period of time (RTOG 0825). The rate of hippocampal atrophy in patients treated with radiation and temozolomide followed by bevacizumab is not yet determined, and is the goal of the present study. We used the serial MRIs obtained as parts of standard clinical care in patients with MG. Measurements were done using the Medical Image Processing, Analysis and Visualization (MIPAV) software. The hippocampus in the contralateral hemisphere was manually traced and measured, to avoid morphological structure changes induced by the tumor, radiation fields or surgical markers. We determined a longitudinal progression of hippocampal atrophy-with the maximum volume loss (33.26 %) for the patients that were on treatment for 5 years. There was no detectable hippocampal atrophy during the chemo-radiation followed by adjuvant temozolomide. A significant decrease in the absolute hippocampus volume was noted after 6 months of continuous bevacizumab treatment (p < 0.05). The hippocampal volume loss progressed over the next 3 years, and was higher than the one previously reported in Alzheimer disease patients. The hippocampal volume loss is minimal during the 1 month after diagnosis, when the patients receive chemo-radiation and adjuvant temozolomide. However, prolonged treatment including bevacizumab is associated with a significant rate of hippocampal volume loss. PMID:27393350

  3. Tissue Expander Placement to Prevent the Adverse Intestinal Effects of Radiotherapy in Malignant Pelvic Tumors.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shuichiro; Oue, Takaharu; Adachi, Kana; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Nakahata, Kengo; Ueno, Takehisa; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2016-03-01

    We herein report the findings of 3 patients with primary Ewing sarcoma in a pelvic lesion who underwent the placement of a tissue expander (TE) before radiation therapy to prevent the adverse effects of radiotherapy. The simulation study showed that the TE drastically reduced volume of the intestine that was irradiated at all dose levels. All patients could receive the scheduled dose of radiotherapy without any acute and late complications such as diarrhea, melena, the dislodging of the TE, infection, or the formation of fistulae. In the 4-year (minimum) observation period, we did not observe intestinal complications in any of our patients. TE placement is considered to be a safe and effective method for preventing the adverse effects of radiotherapy in pediatric malignant pelvic tumors.

  4. Physiologic Effect of Stent Therapy for Inferior Vena Cava Obstruction Due to Malignant Liver Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kishi, Kazushi Sonomura, Tetsuo; Fujimoto, Hisashi; Kimura, Masashi; Yamada, Katsuya; Sato, Morio; Juri, Masanobu

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To understand systemic the influence of stent therapy for inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction due to advanced liver tumor. Methods. Seven patients with symptomatic IVC obstruction due to advanced primary (n 4) or secondary (n = 3) liver tumor were subjected to stent therapy. Enrollment criteria included high IVC pressure over 15 mmHg and the presence of edema and ascites. Z-stents were deployed using coaxial sheath technique via femoral venous puncture. Physiologic and hematobiochemical parameters were analyzed. Results. All procedures were successful, and the stents remained patent until patient death. Promptly after stent placement, the IVC flow recovered, and the venous blood pressure in the IVC below the obstruction level showed a significant decrease from 20.8 {+-} 1.2 mmHg (mean {+-} SE) to 10.7 {+-} 0.7 mmHg (p < 0.01). Transient mild increase of right atrial pressure was observed in 1 patient. During the following week prominent diuresis was observed in all patients. Mean urine output volume in the 3 days before the stent therapy was 0.81 {+-} 0.09 l/day compared with 2.1 {+-} 0.2 l/day (p < 0.01) in the 3 days after. The edema and ascites decreased in all patients. The caval pressure change correlated well (r > 0.6) with the urine volume increase, and with the decreased volume of edema and ascites. The urine volume increase correlated well with the decrement of edema, but not with that of ascites. Improvements for various durations in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, fibrinogen, and platelet count were found (p < 0.05). These hematobiochemical changes were well correlated with each other and with the decrement of ascites. Two patients showed a low blood sodium level of 128.5 mEq/l after intensive natriuresis, and one of them died on day 21 with hepatic failure, which was interpreted as maladaptation aggravation. The mean survival time was 94.1 {+-} 34.1 days (mean {+-} SD), ranging from 21 to 140 days

  5. Surgical treatment of potentially primary malignant adrenal tumors: an unresolved issue.

    PubMed

    Zografos, George N; Perysinakis, Iraklis; Kyrodimou, Eustathia; Kassi, Eva; Kaltsas, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Although the great majority of incidentalomas are adrenocortical adenomas, a number of them, depending on the size and radiological characteristics of the lesions, will turn out to be carcinomas. These tumors may present as suspicious on initial evaluation and potentially malignant or malignant on histology. Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy with evolving diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Laparoscopic surgery has become the gold standard for surgery of benign adrenal tumors. Despite the extensive experience gained in laparoscopic adrenalectomy, controversy still remains in the management of adrenal tumors with high suspicion or evidence of malignancy. The aim of this review is to update the existing information regarding the diagnostic approach and surgical management of suspicious and potentially malignant primary adrenal tumors.The interpretation of radiologic characteristics is a cornerstone in pre-operative assessment of large adrenal masses, since open surgery remains the preferred procedure when malignancy is suspected in large tumors with possible local invasion. Despite the improvement of imaging techniques, they lack sufficient accuracy to exclude primary malignancy in tumors from 4 cm to 10 cm in size. An initial laparoscopic approach can be used in this group of patients, but early conversion to open technique is mandatory if curative resection cannot be performed. Adrenal tumors >10 cm of malignant potential should be treated by the open approach from the start. Solitary adrenal metastasis from another primary malignancy is usually amenable to laparoscopic surgery. Patients with suspected adrenal cancer should be referred to tertiary centers that perform laparoscopic and open adrenal surgery with minimal morbidity and mortality.

  6. Secondary malignant giant-cell tumor of bone. Clinicopathological assessment of nineteen patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, M.G.; Sim, F.H.; Unni, K.K.; Witrak, G.A.; Frassica, F.J.; Schray, M.F.; Beabout, J.W.; Dahlin, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-six patients who had a malignant giant-cell tumor of bone--a sarcoma either juxtaposed to a zone of typical benign giant-cell tumor or occurring at the site of a previously documented benign giant-cell tumor--have been seen at the Mayo Clinic. Of the twenty-six tumors, nineteen were secondary to a previous attempt at local control of a benign giant-cell tumor. All but one of these nineteen patients with a secondary tumor had received therapeutic irradiation four to thirty-nine years earlier. The nature and duration of the symptoms and the sites of predilection of the malignant giant-cell tumors were the same as for benign giant-cell tumor. Fibrosarcoma occurred three times as frequently as osteosarcoma. The best results of treatment of the secondary sarcoma were obtained with early ablation.

  7. Benign and malignant mammary tumors induced by DMBA in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, M; Cabrita, S; Sousa, E; França, B; Patrício, J; Oliveira, C

    1999-01-01

    This study pretends to characterize 7, 12-dimetylbenz[a]anthracene-induced benign and malignant tumors. One hundred and twenty female Wistar rats were randomly allocated to two groups: Control Group and Induction Group; IG animals were given a single dose of DMBA and killed 24 weeks after. Other tumors besides breast tumors were diagnosed, mainly tumors of the salivary glands and ovarian benign epithelial tumors. Incidence of breast disorders was about 60%. Macroscopic mammary tumors varied in dimension from 2 mm to 55 mm. Malignant breast tumors (n = 56) were essentially invasive ductal carcinomas (91.1%), G1 (92.2%), presenting histologic characteristics of good prognosis. Predominant benign breast disorders consisted of glandular (68.6%) and atypical (20%) hyperplasias reproducing histologic types of human breast diseases. Different individual susceptibility to DMBA apparently occurs; while some rats never developed neoplasias, others exhibited several tumors.

  8. [Application of the puncture biopsy in diagnosis of malignant tumors of suprarenal glands].

    PubMed

    Komissarenko, I V; Rybakov, S I; Rodzaevskiĭ, S A; Kvacheniuk, A N

    2004-10-01

    Possibilities of application of the fine-needle aspiration puncture biopsy (FNAPB) in diagnosis of suprarenal glands tumors were studied. Of 43 patients, to whom FNAPB was performed, in 27 the suprarenal gland tumor was diagnosed, in 11--renal tumor, in 5--the puncture biopsy material occurred noninformative. Of 27 patients with tumor of suprarenal gland in 15 it was malignant, in 11--benign adenoma and cyst of suprarenal gland were revealed. FNAPB of the suprarenal gland tumor is a safe, informative and in some situations curative method. FNAPB is recommended for diagnosis of primarily revealed tumors of suprarenal glands more than 2 cm in diameter. The procedure should be performed by specially trained physician, who determines technical conditions of its conduction by himself and possesses the method o fultrasonography. Data of cytological investigationspermits to differentiate benign and malignant tumor, to determine the tumor type, what constitutes diagnostic background for the tactic choice of surgical intervention and the disease prognosis.

  9. Bone and Gallium scintigraphy in primary malignant and benign bone tumors of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Sepahdari, S.; Martin, W.B.; Ryan, J.; Simon, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1985-05-01

    A six yer prospective evaluation of 129 patients suspected of having a primary bone tumor included Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy followed by Ga-67 imaging at 48-72 hours. Blood pool images were part of bone scintigraphy in nearly half of the patients. Extent and intensity of tracer uptake in tumor and adjacent bone and joints were recorded for each tracer by two observers blind to the diagnosis. Tissue samples obtained in every patient by biopsy or tumor excision after scintigraphy, revealed 72 malignant and 57 benign bone tumors. The bone scan was positive in 95% (69/72) of malignancies. The scintigraphic intensity of benign and malignant lesions was comparable with both Tc-99m MDP and Ga-67. On the other hand, bone scintigraphy showed 72% (52/72) of bone malignancies to have abnormal proximal and distal bone/joint uptake whereas the Ga-67 images revealed this in only 6% (4/65) of malignancies. Benign lesions manifested this enhanced contiguous bone/joint uptake on only 8% (5/55) of bone and 0% of Ga-67 scans. This study concludes positive bone, blood pool, or Ga-67 images have less specificity for malignancy than the presence of increased Tc-99m MDP deposition in a contiguous bone/joint, but negative scintigraphic results strongly favor a benign lesion. Ga-67 was more accurate than Tc-99m MDP in portraying intraosseous extent of malignant tumors; however, this is now preferably done with C.T.

  10. Hemostatic alterations are unrelated to the stage of tumor in untreated malignant melanoma and breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, P M; Vaglini, M; Maniezzo, M; Magni, E; Mari, D; Cascinelli, N

    1985-06-01

    A study of hemostatic variables was carried out in 80 untreated patients with breast adenocarcinoma or malignant melanoma, chosen as examples of tumors that can be accurately staged for localization or spread. The most marked abnormalities were high levels of clotting factors V and VIII, plasminogen, von Willebrand factor and fibrogen-fibrin degradation products. These abnormalities occurred in both types of tumors, albeit slightly more markedly in melanomas, and were also present in localized tumors. Our data indicate that in tumors, abnormalities of the hemostatic system are an early phenomenon unrelated to the presence of widespread malignancy.

  11. Malignant Potential of Murine Stromal Cells after Transplantation of Human Tumors into Nude Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, David M.; Pavia, Rose A.

    1981-04-01

    Human malignant cancer tumors grafted into nude mice produce tumors containing both human cancer cells and the host's stromal cells. After short-term propagation of these tumors in vitro, the murine mesenchymal cells appear transformed and are tumorigenic in nude mice. However, established human cancer cell lines fail to similarly alter adjacent murine stromal cells when used to produce tumors in nude mice. These experiments suggest that cancer cells may recruit normal cells to become malignant, qualifying the view of the clonal (unicellular) origin of cancer.

  12. A recurrent solitary fibrous tumor of the thigh with malignant transformation: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Yasuo; Sano, Kenji; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Aoki, Kaoru; Kito, Munehisa; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We describe an unusual case of a uniformly high-grade malignant solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the thigh with recurrence after wide resection in a 31-year-old man. Presentation of case Our current case showed a long-term benign course before the operation, although the subcutaneous tumor was larger than 10 cm at presentation. The SFT was diagnosed by needle biopsy, and wide resection was performed. Histological findings showed proliferation of capillaries surrounded by masses of spindle-shaped cells without any cytologic atypia, and the percentage of MIB-1-positive nuclei was 2.1%. However, a rapidly enlarging recurrent tumor was observed 11 months after the operation. A second wide resection for the recurrent tumor was performed. Histologically, the tumor cells uniformly displayed significant cytologic atypia and pleomorphism, and had 40–50 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. The proportion of MIB-1-positive nuclei was 48%. Consequently, the tumor was diagnosed as a SFT with malignant transformation. Discussion The malignant transformation described in past studies showed high-grade areas within benign, low-grade, or intermediate-grade SFTs. Therefore, in contrast to our case, uniformly high-grade malignant histological findings at recurrence were not described. Conclusion Even if a tumor is non-malignant during the clinical course, as confirmed by tissue biopsy, the possibility of tumor progression to high-grade sarcoma at recurrence should be considered, and the treatment strategy should be determined carefully. PMID:26967903

  13. Multiplatform molecular profiling identifies potentially targetable biomarkers in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

    PubMed

    Gatalica, Zoran; Vranic, Semir; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Xiu, Joanne; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; McGill, John; Bender, Ryan P; Discianno, Erin; Schlum, Aaron; Sanati, Souzan; Palazzo, Juan; Reddy, Sandeep; Pockaj, Barbara

    2016-01-12

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare breast malignancy with sarcomatous overgrowth and with limited effective treatment options for recurrent and metastatic cases. Recent clinical trials indicated a potential for anti-angiogenic, anti-EGFR and immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with sarcomas, which led us to investigate these and other targetable pathways in malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Thirty-six malignant phyllodes tumors (including 8 metastatic tumors with two cases having matched primary and metastatic tumors) were profiled using gene sequencing, gene copy number analysis, whole genome expression, and protein expression. Whole genome expression analysis demonstrated consistent over-expression of genes involved in angiogenesis including VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2, VCAM1, PDGFRA, and PTTG1. EGFR protein overexpression was observed in 26/27 (96%) of cases with amplification of the EGFR gene in 8/24 (33%) cases. Two EGFR mutations were identified including EGFRvIII and a presumed pathogenic V774M mutation, respectively. The most common pathogenic mutations included TP53 (50%) and PIK3CA (15%). Cases with matched primary and metastatic tumors harbored identical mutations in both sites (PIK3CA/KRAS and RB1 gene mutations, respectively). Tumor expression of PD-L1 immunoregulatory protein was observed in 3/22 (14%) of cases. Overexpression of molecular biomarkers of increased angiogenesis, EGFR and immune checkpoints provides novel targeted therapy options in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast.

  14. Multiplatform molecular profiling identifies potentially targetable biomarkers in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Gatalica, Zoran; Vranic, Semir; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Xiu, Joanne; Ocal, Idris Tolgay; McGill, John; Bender, Ryan P.; Discianno, Erin; Schlum, Aaron; Sanati, Souzan; Palazzo, Juan; Reddy, Sandeep; Pockaj, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare breast malignancy with sarcomatous overgrowth and with limited effective treatment options for recurrent and metastatic cases. Recent clinical trials indicated a potential for anti-angiogenic, anti-EGFR and immunotherapeutic approaches for patients with sarcomas, which led us to investigate these and other targetable pathways in malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. Thirty-six malignant phyllodes tumors (including 8 metastatic tumors with two cases having matched primary and metastatic tumors) were profiled using gene sequencing, gene copy number analysis, whole genome expression, and protein expression. Whole genome expression analysis demonstrated consistent over-expression of genes involved in angiogenesis including VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2, VCAM1, PDGFRA, and PTTG1. EGFR protein overexpression was observed in 26/27 (96%) of cases with amplification of the EGFR gene in 8/24 (33%) cases. Two EGFR mutations were identified including EGFRvIII and a presumed pathogenic V774M mutation, respectively. The most common pathogenic mutations included TP53 (50%) and PIK3CA (15%). Cases with matched primary and metastatic tumors harbored identical mutations in both sites (PIK3CA/KRAS and RB1 gene mutations, respectively). Tumor expression of PD-L1 immunoregulatory protein was observed in 3/22 (14%) of cases. Overexpression of molecular biomarkers of increased angiogenesis, EGFR and immune checkpoints provides novel targeted therapy options in malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast. PMID:26625196

  15. Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvic peritoneum with central malignant degeneration on CT and MRI.

    PubMed

    Vossough, Arastoo; Torigian, Drew A; Zhang, Paul J; Siegelman, Evan S; Banner, Marc P

    2005-11-01

    We describe a 61-year-old man who presented with an extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pelvic peritoneum with central malignant degeneration as seen on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and histopathology. When a central focus of heterogeneity and variable contrast enhancement are identified within a fibrous tumor of the pelvis on CT or MRI, malignant degeneration of an extrathoracic SFT, although rare, should be considered as a diagnostic possibility.

  16. A Prospective, Multi-Institutional Study of Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Resection of Malignant Phyllodes Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Richard J.; Wells, Wendy A.; Mitchell, Sandra E.; Cole, Bernard F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant phyllodes tumors of the breast are unusual neoplasms, with an incidence of approximately 500 cases annually in the United States. Published local recurrence rates after margin-negative breast-conserving resections of borderline malignant and malignant phyllodes tumors are unacceptably high, at 24 and 20%, respectively. It is uncertain whether radiotherapy after resection of phyllodes tumors is beneficial. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients who were treated with a margin-negative breast-conserving resection of borderline malignant or malignant phyllodes tumors to adjuvant radiotherapy. The primary endpoint was local recurrence. Results Forty-six women were treated at 30 different institutions. The mean patient age was 49 years (range, 18–76 years). Thirty patients (65%) had malignant phyllodes tumors; the rest were borderline malignant. The mean tumor diameter was 3.7 cm (range, .8–11 cm). Eighteen patients had a negative margin on the first excision. The median size of the negative margin was .35 cm (range, <.1–2 cm). Twenty-eight patients underwent a re-excision because of positive margins in the initial resection. Two patients died of metastatic phyllodes tumor. During a median follow-up of 56 months (range, 12–129 months), none of the 46 patients developed a local recurrence (local recurrence rate, 0%; 95% confidence interval, 0–8). Conclusions Margin-negative resection combined with adjuvant radiotherapy is very effective therapy for local control of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. The local recurrence rate with adjuvant radiotherapy was significantly less than that observed in reported patients treated with margin-negative resection alone. PMID:19424757

  17. Divergent differentiation in malignant soft tissue neoplasms: the paradigm of liposarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Peter; Taxy, Jerome B; Krausz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In tumors clonality does not always translate into morphologic uniformity. While most sarcomas exhibit only one line of histologic differentiation, a minority may display a strikingly diverse phenotype in addition to the main lineage. This phenomenon not only presents a diagnostic problem but also raises questions about the commitment of tumor cells toward a specific phenotype. Among sarcomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma are two entities in which divergent differentiation is a relatively frequent event. Diagnostically it is crucial to recognize the "primary" sarcoma in such tumors correctly and distinguish it from the "secondary" divergent elements. The presence of the latter could be the first morphologic clue to a specific sarcoma type. Even though it may be difficult to explain the pathogenesis of divergent differentiation, divergence still illustrates that the phenotype of a tumor cell is not set in stone but can be modulated or switched by a number of factors.

  18. WT1 immunoprofiling and comparison of malignant Mullerian mixed tumors of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Franko, Angela; Magliocco, Anthony M; Duan, Quili; Duggan, Máire A

    2010-09-01

    A malignant Mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) is a biphasic homologous or heterologous malignancy of the female genital tract. WT1 (Wilms tumor 1) is both a tumor suppressor gene and oncogene overexpressed in the nuclei of some gynecologic carcinomas. Expression in MMMT is incompletely described. Whole sections from 16 MMMTs were stained with WT1 (N terminus) using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. There were 7 heterologous and 9 homologous tumors and 10 were endometrial, 5 were ovarian, and 1 was of peritoneal origin. The tissue and cell staining pattern and score (intensity by amount) were evaluated and correlated with the tumor subtype and anatomic location. Among the 16 tumors, 81.3% showed mostly stromal and cytoplasmic staining and a score of 3 or 6. Staining was positive in 80% of the endometrial and ovarian tumors and the 1 peritoneal tumor and in all heterologous and 66.7% of the homologous tumors. The immunoprofile correlated with tumor subtype but not with anatomic location. Stromal and epithelial staining was more frequent (83.3%) in homologous tumors and differed significantly (P=0.009) from the heterologous types where stromal staining prevailed (85.7%). MMMT is another genital tract malignancy which can over express WT1 and the immunoprofile may assist in tumor subtyping.

  19. Malignant mixed salivary tumor presenting as a mandibular metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mellor, T K; Scott, J

    1985-11-01

    A rare case of a central mandibular metastatic mixed salivary gland tumor is reported which presented following a 45-year history of recurrent benign mixed salivary gland tumor of the parotid gland on the same side. The mandibular tumor included a predominantly benign mixed salivary gland component as well as frankly invasive adenocarcinoma. The clinicopathologic features of the mandibular and residual parotid tumors suggested that the metastatic event may have occurred prior to the development of frank carcinoma in the parotid tumor.

  20. Bone Windows for Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Primary Bone Tumors on FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Costelloe, Colleen M.; Chuang, Hubert H.; Chasen, Beth A.; Pan, Tinsu; Fox, Patricia S.; Bassett, Roland L.; Madewell, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The default window setting on PET/CT workstations is soft tissue. This study investigates whether bone windowing and hybrid FDG PET/CT can help differentiate between malignant and benign primary bone tumors. Materials and methods. A database review included 98 patients with malignant (n=64) or benign primary bone (n=34) tumors. The reference standard was biopsy for malignancies and biopsy or >1 year imaging follow-up of benign tumors. Three radiologists and/or nuclear medicine physicians blinded to diagnosis and other imaging viewed the lesions on CT with bone windows (CT-BW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-BW), and separate PET-only images for malignancy or benignity. Three weeks later the tumors were viewed on CT with soft tissue windows (CT-STW) without and then with PET (PET/CT-STW). Results. Mean sensitivity and specificity for identifying malignancies included: CT-BW: 96%, 90%; CT-STW: 90%, 90%; PET/CT-BW: 95%, 85%, PET/CT-STW: 95%, 86% and PET-only: 96%, 75%, respectively. CT-BW demonstrated higher specificity than PET-only and PET/CT-BW (p=0.0005 and p=0.0103, respectively) and trended toward higher sensitivity than CT-STW (p=0.0759). Malignant primary bone tumors were more avid than benign lesions overall (p<0.0001) but the avidity of benign aggressive lesions (giant cell tumors and Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis) trended higher than the malignancies (p=0.08). Conclusion. Bone windows provided high specificity for distinguishing between malignant and benign primary bone tumors and are recommended when viewing FDG PET/CT. PMID:23983816

  1. [Extracting and study of biochemical properties of thiamine pyrophosphokinase from non-malignant and tumor tissue of myometrium].

    PubMed

    Orishaka, O V; Vovchuk, I L; Petrov, S A

    2014-01-01

    The method of extraction and purification of thiamine pyrophosphokinase from non-malignant and tumor tissue of myometrium has been elaborated. Kinetic characteristics of T-kinase from non-malignant and tumor tissue of women myometrium have been studied. It has been shown, that malignization of myometrium is accompanied by a decrease in affinity of thiamine pyrophosphokinase from tumor to thiamine and by an increase in sensitivity of the enzyme from tumor to thiochrome.

  2. Genetic methylation and lymphoid malignancies: biomarkers of tumor progression and targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoid malignancies, mainly including lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma, are a group of heterogeneous diseases. Although the clinical outcome of patients has been significantly improved with current immuno-chemotherapy, definitive biomarkers remain to be investigated, particularly those reflecting the malignant behavior of tumor cells and those helpful for developing optimal targeted therapy. Recently, genome-wide analysis reveals that altered genetic methylations play an important role in tumor progression through regulation of multiple cellular transduction pathways. This review describes the pathogenetic effect of the aberrant genetic methylation in lymphoid malignancies, with special emphasis on potential therapeutic strategies targeting key signaling networks. PMID:24252620

  3. Solitary fibrous tumor: histological and immunohistochemical spectrum of benign and malignant variants presenting at different sites.

    PubMed

    Hanau, C A; Miettinen, M

    1995-04-01

    Twenty-nine tumors (from 26 patients, including two with recurrent disease) diagnosed as solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the pleura (n = 23), mediastinum (n = 4), abdominal cavity (n = 1), and parotid gland (n = 1) were studied immunohistochemically. Three histologically malignant tumors showed areas of high cellularity and mitotic activity (more than 4 mitoses/10 high-power fields) with features resembling malignant fibrous histiocytoma, malignant hemangiopericytoma, or fibrosarcoma, together with areas typical of benign solitary fibrous tumor. Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues and avidin-biotin-complex immunostaining were used. All of the tumors showed vimentin positivity and did not stain for cytokeratin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, or muscle cell markers, except for focal desmin reactivity in seven tumors, mostly seen in frozen sections, and focal keratin reactivity in one histologically malignant tumor. The neoplastic cells were positive for CD34 and negative for CD31; these patterns also were seen in the three histologically malignant cases. In nine of the cases acetone-fixed frozen sections showed variable focal positivity for neurofilament proteins of 68 kd. We conclude that SFT is a neoplasm of fibroblasts/primitive mesenchymal cells with features of multidirectional differentiation. We also report the finding of a novel site for SFT, the parotid gland.

  4. Distinct Malignant Behaviors of Mouse Myogenic Tumors Induced by Different Oncogenetic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Hettmer, Simone; Bronson, Roderick T.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are heterogeneous cancers with myogenic differentiation features. The cytogenetic and mutational aberrations in RMS are diverse. This study examined differences in the malignant behavior of two genetically distinct and disease-relevant mouse myogenic tumor models. Kras; p1619null myogenic tumors, initiated by expression of oncogenic Kras in p16p19null mouse satellite cells, were metastatic to the lungs of the majority of tumor-bearing animals and repopulated tumors in seven of nine secondary recipients. In contrast, SmoM2 tumors, initiated by ubiquitous expression of a mutant Smoothened allele, did not metastasize and repopulated tumors in 2 of 18 recipients only. In summary, genetically distinct myogenic tumors in mice exhibit marked differences in malignant behavior. PMID:25759794

  5. Metachronous Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Kidney: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Felix; Talanki, Varun R; Liu, Jingxuan; Davis, James E; Waltzer, Wayne C; Corcoran, Anthony T

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are well described in the pleura, but rare extra-pleural neoplasms have been reported. We describe a patient with a solitary left renal fibrous tumor who after undergoing a nephrectomy, presented 8 years later with a contralateral metachronous solitary fibrous tumor. Malignant metastatic extra-pleural solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare, and to our knowledge, this is the first case of contralateral recurrence of solitary renal fibrous tumor. The patient underwent a robotic assisted partial nephrectomy of the right renal mass. Both tumors showed overlapping histopathology.

  6. Metachronous Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Kidney: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Felix; Talanki, Varun R; Liu, Jingxuan; Davis, James E; Waltzer, Wayne C; Corcoran, Anthony T

    2016-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors are well described in the pleura, but rare extra-pleural neoplasms have been reported. We describe a patient with a solitary left renal fibrous tumor who after undergoing a nephrectomy, presented 8 years later with a contralateral metachronous solitary fibrous tumor. Malignant metastatic extra-pleural solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare, and to our knowledge, this is the first case of contralateral recurrence of solitary renal fibrous tumor. The patient underwent a robotic assisted partial nephrectomy of the right renal mass. Both tumors showed overlapping histopathology. PMID:26793578

  7. Basic FGF and Ki-67 proteins useful for immunohistological diagnostic evaluations in malignant solitary fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuliang; Naito, Zenya; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Shotaro; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Asano, Goro

    2003-05-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon soft tissue tumor initially reported in the pleura but recently described in other sites in the body. Morphological distinction between benign and malignant SFT is often difficult. An immunohistochemical study was performed in pleural and extrapleural sites. The aim of this study was to determine if an immunohistochemical method is helpful in distinguishing benign SFT from malignant SFT, and providing valid information to predict the prognosis associated with malignant SFT. Twenty-four cases of benign (14 patients) and malignant (10 patients) SFT in the pleura, pelvic space, prostate and other sites of soft tissue were analyzed. Tumors from 10 patients were diagnosed as malignant on the basis of markedly increased cellularity, mitotic activity (>4/10 high-power fields), nuclear pleomorphism and areas of necrosis. Immunohistochemically, we found a mean basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) labeling index of 48.67% (48.67 +/- 8.52%) for benign SFT and 74.5% (74.5 +/- 6.92%) for malignant SFT (P < 0.05). We also found a mean Ki-67 labeling index of 1.9% (1.9 +/- 0.43%) for benign SFT and 6.11% (6.11 +/- 1.05%) for malignant SFT (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that bFGF and Ki-67 are diagnostically relevant to the evaluation of malignant SFT and these proteins are thought to be potentially useful markers for prognosis of SFT.

  8. Infrared absorption spectra of human malignant tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Butra, V. A.

    2008-05-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study the molecular structure of tissues from human organs removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material from breast, thyroid, and lung are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, a change occurs in the hydrogen bonds of protein macromolecules found in the tissue of the studied organs. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathology.

  9. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Theodore S.; Munn, David H.; Maria, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance. PMID:22312408

  10. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-26

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Anaplastic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer

  11. TLR5 signaling, commensal microbiota and systemic tumor promoting inflammation: the three parcae of malignant progression

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    We have reported that TLR5-mediated recognition of commensal microbiota modulates systemic tumor-promoting inflammation and malignant progression of tumors at distal locations. Approximately 7–10% of the general population harbors a deleterious single nucleotide polymorphism in TLR5, implicating a novel role for genetic variation during the initiation and progression of cancer. PMID:26405577

  12. Increased mast cell counts in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ashraf, Mohammad-Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Mast cells are one of the characteristic factors in angiogenesis, growth, and metastatic spread of tumors. The distribution and significance of mast cells in many tumors have been demonstrated. However, few studies have evaluated mast cell infiltration in salivary gland tumors. In this study, mast cell counts were evaluated in benign and malig-nant salivary gland tumors. Materials and methods. This descriptive and cross-sectional study assessed 30 cases of pleomorphic adenoma, 13 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (diagnosed on the basis of 2005 WHO classifica-tion), with adequate stroma in peritumoral and intratumoral areas, and 10 cases of normal salivary glands. The samples were stained with 5% diluted Giemsa solution and the average stained cell counts were calculated in 10 random microscopic fields in peri- and intra-tumoral areas. Data were analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney and Krusskal-Wallis tests. Results. The average mast cell counts increased in the tumors compared to normal salivary glands. There was no signifi-cant difference between benign and malignant tumors and also between different malignant tumors. Infiltration was signifi-cantly denser in peri-tumoral stroma in both tumoral groups (P = 0.001). Minor salivary glands contained significantly more numerous mast cells. Conclusion. Although mast cell counts increased in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, there were no signifi-cant differences between the tumoral groups. Further studies are suggested to determine the type of these cells which might be useful in the assessment of biological nature of the tumor and its future treatment modality.

  13. Successful Preoperative Chemoembolization in the Treatment of a Giant Malignant Phyllodes Tumor.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kazuki; Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasunori; Doi, Masatomo; Kojima, Yasuyuki; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-07-01

    The malignant phyllodes tumor is a relatively rare neoplasm and has not previously been a therapeutic target of interventional radiology. Herein, we report a successful case of preoperative chemoembolization of a giant malignant phyllodes tumor. The objective was to achieve sufficient tumor shrinkage before surgery to avoid the requirement for skin grafting after resection. Intra-arterial epirubicin infusion and subsequent embolization with Embosphere Microspheres (BioSphere Medical, Rockland, MA, USA) was undertaken three times over the course of 6 weeks and was well tolerated. The patient underwent surgery without skin grafting. Neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was observed at 6 months after surgery. PMID:26916453

  14. Intraductal papillary tumors of the major salivary glands: case reports of benign and malignant variants.

    PubMed

    Nagao, T; Sugano, I; Matsuzaki, O; Hara, H; Kondo, Y; Nagao, K

    2000-02-01

    Intraductal papilloma is an extremely rare benign salivary gland tumor that occurs most commonly in the minor salivary glands. To our knowledge, a malignant counterpart of intraductal papilloma has not been described previously. We report one case each of benign and malignant intraductal papillary tumors. The benign tumor occurred in the sublingual gland and was a typical example of intraductal papilloma, with the exception that we found no previously published reports of this type of tumor in this location. The other patient had a left parotid gland tumor that was architecturally similar to the intraductal papilloma, with the addition of cytologic atypia, intraductal extension, microinvasion, and lymph node metastases. This tumor was diagnosed as intraductal papillary adenocarcinoma with an invasive component. Both patients were alive and well without evidence of recurrence 2 years and 6 months (case 1) and 6 years (case 2) after surgery. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumor cells resembled duct luminal cells in both cases. The 2 tumors had different immunoreactivities for carcinoembryonic antigen, p53, and Ki-67. The malignant counterpart of intraductal papilloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors with a predominantly papillary structure, even though this tumor is extremely rare.

  15. Congenital renal tumor: metanephric adenoma, nephrogenic rest, or malignancy?

    PubMed

    Yin, Minzhi; Cai, Jiaoyang; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-01-01

    We report a renal tumor detected by prenatal ultrasound and resected at 2 months of age. This 9-cm, solid mass was composed of tubular and papillary structures lined by small, uniform epithelial cells. There was local invasion into renal parenchyma and a tumor deposit in a hilar lymph node. The tumor was immunopositive for WT1, pankeratin, and CD10; focally positive for CK7; and negative for EMA and TFE3. Based on morphology and immunophenotype, the favored diagnosis was metanephric adenoma over Wilms tumor, renal cell carcinoma, and nephrogenic rest. However, metanephric adenoma only occasionally occurs in children and has never been reported prenatally. Alternatively, this tumor might be a congenital Wilms tumor that differentiated completely. Although the nature of the tumor remains unconfirmed, resection appears to have been curative; the patient remains disease-free 18 months following surgery alone. PMID:25734608

  16. Localized malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma misdiagnosed as benign localized fibrous tumor

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Hong-Phuc

    2016-01-01

    Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor with good prognosis by surgical resection. We report an atypical case of malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) in an asymptomatic 65-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to asbestos. She presented with a small pleural mass without pleural effusion and was misdiagnosed as a benign localized fibrous tumor (BLFT) on pathologic examination through a surgical tumor specimen. However, seven months later, the patient returned with serious cancerous symptoms. A large recurrent tumor mass was found within the chest wall invading at the old surgical resection site. SM, a subtype of LMPM, was confirmed with histopathogy and immunohistochemisty. In conclusion, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can present with typical radiologic finding similar to a BLFT, and has a wide histopathologic presentation in biopsy specimen. A thorough pathologic investigation should be attempted even when a pleural mass resembles benign, localized, and small on radiologic studies. PMID:27293862

  17. Localized malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma misdiagnosed as benign localized fibrous tumor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan-Chang; Vo, Hong-Phuc

    2016-06-01

    Localized malignant pleural mesothelioma (LMPM) is a rare tumor with good prognosis by surgical resection. We report an atypical case of malignant pleural sarcomatoid mesothelioma (SM) in an asymptomatic 65-year-old woman, who had no history of exposure to asbestos. She presented with a small pleural mass without pleural effusion and was misdiagnosed as a benign localized fibrous tumor (BLFT) on pathologic examination through a surgical tumor specimen. However, seven months later, the patient returned with serious cancerous symptoms. A large recurrent tumor mass was found within the chest wall invading at the old surgical resection site. SM, a subtype of LMPM, was confirmed with histopathogy and immunohistochemisty. In conclusion, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) can present with typical radiologic finding similar to a BLFT, and has a wide histopathologic presentation in biopsy specimen. A thorough pathologic investigation should be attempted even when a pleural mass resembles benign, localized, and small on radiologic studies. PMID:27293862

  18. [Gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) in radiotherapy of benign skull base tumors].

    PubMed

    Maire, J P; Liguoro, D; San Galli, F

    2001-10-01

    Skull base tumours represent about 35 to 40% of all intracranial tumours. There are now many reports in the literature confirming the fact that about 80 to 90% of such tumours are controlled with fractionated radiotherapy. Stereotactic and 3-dimensional treatment planning techniques increase local control and central nervous system tolerance. Definition of the gross tumor volume (GTV) is generally easy with currently available medical imaging systems and computers for 3-dimensional dosimetry. The definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) is more difficult to appreciate; it is defined from the CTV plus a margin, which depends on the histology and anterior therapeutic history of the tumour. It is important to take into account the visible tumour and its possible extension pathways (adjacent bone, holes at the base of skull) and/or an anatomic region (sella turcica + adjacent cavernous sinus). It is necessary to evaluate these volumes with CT Scan and MRI to appreciate tumor extension in a 3-dimentional approach, in order to reduce the risk of marginal recurrences. The aim of this paper is to discuss volume definition as a function of tumour site and tumour type to be irradiated. PMID:11715310

  19. The impact of additional malignancies in patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Smith, Myles J; Smith, Henry G; Mahar, Alyson L; Law, Calvin; Ko, Yoo-Joung

    2016-10-15

    A higher incidence of additional malignancies has been described in patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). This study aimed to identify risk factors for developing additional malignancies in patients diagnosed with GIST and evaluate the impact on survival. Individuals diagnosed with GIST from 2001 to2009 were identified from the SEER database. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of additional malignancies and Cox-proportional hazards regression used to identify predictors of survival. In the study period, 1705 cases of GIST were identified, with 181 (10.6%) patients developing additional malignancies. Colorectal cancer was the most common cancer developing within 6 months of GIST diagnosis (30%). The median time to diagnosis of a malignancy after 6 months of GIST diagnosis was 21.9 months. Older age (p < 0.0001) and extraoesophagogastric GIST (p = 0.0027) were significant prognostic factors associated with additional malignancies. The overall 5-year survival was 65%, with the presence of additional malignancies within 6 months of GIST diagnosis associated with poor overall survival (54%, HR 1.55 1.05-2.3 95% CI, p = 0.04). Predictive factors of additional malignancies in patients diagnosed with GIST are increasing age and the primary disease site. Developing additional malignancies within 6 months of GIST diagnosis is associated with poorer overall survival. Targeted surveillance may be warranted in patients diagnosed with GIST that are at high risk of developing additional malignancies. PMID:27299364

  20. Atypical features in salivary gland mixed tumors: their relationship to malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Auclair, P L; Ellis, G L

    1996-06-01

    Although criteria for distinction between the benign and malignant elements in carcinoma ex mixed tumor have been adequately described, there have not been any attempts to identify clinical or histologic features in benign mixed tumors that indicate increased risk of malignant change. For this reason, 65 mixed tumors of the major and minor salivary glands that exhibited atypical histologic features were examined in an attempt to analyze which, if any, of these features might indicate a greater likelihood of malignant transformation. The atypical features evaluated were hypercellularity, capsule violation, hyalinization, necrosis, and cellular anaplasia. The mitotic rate was also analyzed. The age of the patient, and the site, size, and prediagnostic duration of the tumor were recorded and, together with the histologic findings, were correlated with follow-up information. Nine (13.8%) of the 65 tumors underwent malignant transformation. Five of these patients died of the tumor, two others had distant metastases and were alive with the disease, and two were free of disease. Benign mixed tumors that showed prominent zones of hyalinization or at least moderate mitotic activity were more likely to develop carcinoma than those that did not. chi 2 analysis indicated that only hyalinization was significant (P < 0.05), but, with Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), this and all of the other features evaluated revealed a P value greater than 0.05. The other atypical features failed to correlate with malignant change. Clinical findings at the initial diagnosis that indicated a greater likelihood of malignant transformation were occurrence in the submandibular gland, older patient age, and large tumor size.

  1. Differentiating histologic malignancy of primary brain tumors: Pentavalent Technetium-99m-DMSA

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Tsuneo; Otake, Hidenori; Shibasaki, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    This study assessed pentavalent {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA uptake in primary brain tumors and evaluated the relationship between retention and histologic malignancy. SPECT images of the brain were obtained at 30 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of approximately 555 MBq {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA in patients with brain tumors. Sixty studies were performed in 57 patients and 63 lesions were demonstrated: 11 glioblastomas, 13 anaplastic astrocytomas (Grade 3), 11 astrocytomas (Grade 2), 18 meningiomas and 10 schwannomas. Uptake ratios, retention ratio and retention index were calculated and compared with tumor histology and malignancy grade. Approximately 95% of both benign and malignant primary brain tumors were demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA SPECT images. False negative was noted in three cases. The early uptake ratios were closely related to the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor vascularity but had no statistically significant difference in the tumor histology or histologic malignancy. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. [Carcinoma with low malignant potential (borderline tumor) of the ovary: immunomorphology and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Neunteufel, W; Gitsch, G; Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Breitenecker, G

    1989-01-01

    Four of 28 patients with borderline tumors of the ovary died of intercurrent disease. Twenty-four are alive without clinical evidence of disease, despite the fact that six of them were stage III; joined with the invasive carcinomas they would distort the survival rates. The development of monoclonal antibodies specific to borderline tumors could improve the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of borderline tumors. Our results show that the rates of expression of CA 125, CA 19-9, and CEA indicate that borderline tumors are an independent group between benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

  3. Clear Cell “Sugar” Tumor of the Lung: Benign or Malignant?

    PubMed Central

    Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert H.; Rodriguez, Abraham Elias

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell “sugar” tumors of the lung are rare pulmonary tumors. This case study illustrates a patient who was found to have a persistent nodule in the left-upper lobe of the lung. Positron emission tomographic scanning showed mild-moderate 18-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Based on these findings, a video-assisted resection of the tumor was undertaken. The mass was identified histologically, as a clear cell “sugar” tumor of the lung. This case report discusses the benign versus malignant nature of this rare tumor. PMID:26011217

  4. Yoga Therapy in Treating Patients With Malignant Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-27

    Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor

  5. Malignant phyllodes tumors display mesenchymal stem cell features and aldehyde dehydrogenase/disialoganglioside identify their tumor stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although breast phyllodes tumors are rare, there is no effective therapy other than surgery. Little is known about their tumor biology. A malignant phyllodes tumor contains heterologous stromal elements, and can transform into rhabdomyosarcoma, liposarcoma and osteosarcoma. These versatile properties prompted us to explore their possible relationship to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to search for the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in phyllodes tumors. Methods Paraffin sections of malignant phyllodes tumors were examined for various markers by immunohistochemical staining. Xenografts of human primary phyllodes tumors were established by injecting freshly isolated tumor cells into the mammary fat pad of non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice. To search for CSCs, xenografted tumor cells were sorted into various subpopulations by flow cytometry and examined for their in vitro mammosphere forming capacity, in vivo tumorigenicity in NOD-SCID mice and their ability to undergo differentiation. Results Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the expression of the following 10 markers: CD44, CD29, CD106, CD166, CD105, CD90, disialoganglioside (GD2), CD117, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH), and Oct-4, and 7 clinically relevant markers (CD10, CD34, p53, p63, Ki-67, Bcl-2, vimentin, and Globo H) in all 51 malignant phyllodes tumors examined, albeit to different extents. Four xenografts were successfully established from human primary phyllodes tumors. In vitro, ALDH+ cells sorted from xenografts displayed approximately 10-fold greater mammosphere-forming capacity than ALDH- cells. GD2+ cells showed a 3.9-fold greater capacity than GD2- cells. ALDH+/GD2+cells displayed 12.8-fold greater mammosphere forming ability than ALDH-/GD2- cells. In vivo, the tumor-initiating frequency of ALDH+/GD2+ cells were up to 33-fold higher than that of ALDH+ cells, with as few as 50 ALDH+/GD2+ cells being sufficient for engraftment. Moreover, we

  6. Characterization of highly proliferative secondary tumor clusters along host blood vessels in malignant glioma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Chung; Cheng, Chun-Yu; Yang, Wei-Hsun; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Pey-Jium

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extensive invasion of tumor cells into normal brain tissue, a life‑threatening feature of malignant gliomas. How invasive tumor cells migrate into normal brain tissue and form a secondary tumor structure remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the morphological and phenotypic changes of glioma cells during invasion in a C6 glioma model were investigated. C6 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the right putamen region of adult Sprague‑Dawley rats. The brain tissue sections were then subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining. High magnification views of the tissue sections revealed that C6 cells formed tumor spheroids following implantation and marked invasion was observed shortly after spheroid formation. In the later stages of invasion, certain tumor cells invaded the perivascular space and formed small tumor clusters. These small tumor clusters exhibited certain common features, including tumor cell multilayers surrounding an arteriole, which occurred up to several millimeters away from the primary tumor mass; a high proliferation rate; and similar gene expression profiles to the primary tumor. In conclusion, the present study revealed that invading tumor cells are capable of forming highly proliferative cell clusters along arterioles near the tumor margin, which may be a possible cause of the recurrence of malignant glioma.

  7. Characterization of highly proliferative secondary tumor clusters along host blood vessels in malignant glioma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TING-CHUNG; CHENG, CHUN-YU; YANG, WEI-HSUN; CHEN, WEN-CHENG; CHANG, PEY-JIUM

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the extensive invasion of tumor cells into normal brain tissue, a life-threatening feature of malignant gliomas. How invasive tumor cells migrate into normal brain tissue and form a secondary tumor structure remains to be elucidated. In the present study, the morphological and phenotypic changes of glioma cells during invasion in a C6 glioma model were investigated. C6 glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the right putamen region of adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The brain tissue sections were then subjected to hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemical or immunofluorescent staining. High magnification views of the tissue sections revealed that C6 cells formed tumor spheroids following implantation and marked invasion was observed shortly after spheroid formation. In the later stages of invasion, certain tumor cells invaded the perivascular space and formed small tumor clusters. These small tumor clusters exhibited certain common features, including tumor cell multilayers surrounding an arteriole, which occurred up to several millimeters away from the primary tumor mass; a high proliferation rate; and similar gene expression profiles to the primary tumor. In conclusion, the present study revealed that invading tumor cells are capable of forming highly proliferative cell clusters along arterioles near the tumor margin, which may be a possible cause of the recurrence of malignant glioma. PMID:26299849

  8. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney: significantly improved response to pre-operative treatment intensified with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Nourkami-Tutdibi, Nasinien; Leuschner, Ivo; Vokuhl, Christian; Niggli, Felix; Kager, Leo; Ebinger, Martin; Frühwald, Michael C; Graf, Norbert

    2014-09-01

    Case reports and in vitro testing suggest sensitivity of malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK) to anthracyclines. Prospective study data supporting doxorubicin's efficacy is lacking. We compared the change of tumor volume in the kidney to upfront treatment with either actinomycin D and vincristine (AV) or doxorubicin-intensified AV (AVD) in all patients with MRTK, who had been treated from 1991-2013 in Austria, Switzerland, and Germany in the framework of three prospective Société International d'Oncologie Pédiatrique/Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie nephroblastoma studies. A total of 37 patients with MRTK received pre-operative chemotherapy (AV, n = 19; AVD, n = 18). Initial and tumor volume after pre-operative treatment was reported in all patients who received AV and 15 of 18 (83%) patients who received AVD. Mean tumor volume at diagnosis was 247 (±48) mL in the AV cohort and 345 (±47) mL in the AVD cohort. Mean volume at surgery was 249 (±46) mL and 137 (±27) mL, respectively. Relative change in tumor volume was +19 (±16)% in patients who received AV and -63 (±26)% in patients who received AVD (P < 0.001). Change in volume to AV ranged from -60 to +224%, whereas the change to AVD ranged from -9 to -92%. We provide good evidence of doxorubicin's activity in MRTK in vivo by demonstrating a significantly better response to neoadjuvant AVD compared with AV alone.

  9. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun; Kim, Kee-Hong; Furusato, Bungo; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Chu, Wei-Sing; McLeod, David G.; Srivastava, Shiv; Ewing, Charles M.; Isaacs, William B.; Rhim, Johng S. . E-mail: jrhim@cpdr.org

    2006-04-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferative capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. [Results of surgical treatment of malignant brain tumors].

    PubMed

    Goldhahn, W E

    1987-05-29

    Although surgical treatment seldom cures any malignant brain tumours, it remains the basis of the management of these tumours. Studies by others and our own statistical studies demonstrate the absence of any real or significant improvement in survival time for most of the patients. Hence we must await progress in other oncological disciplines to provide a solution.

  11. Survival with concurrent temozolomide and radiotherapy in pediatric brainstem glioma with relation to the tumor volume

    PubMed Central

    Taran, Shachi Jain; Taran, Rakesh; Batra, Manika; Ladia, Deah Deepak; Bhandari, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brainstem gliomas account for approximately 25% of all posterior fossa tumors. In pediatric age group, it constitutes about 10% of all brain tumors. Brainstem glioma is an aggressive and lethal type of malignancy with poor outcome despite all treatments. Aim: We studied the incidence and treatment outcome in pediatric patients with brainstem glioma depending on their tumor volume presenting in our institution in last 5 years. Brain tumors comprised 2.95% of all cancers and brainstem gliomas were 8% of all brain tumors. Materials and Methods: Nine pediatric patients were included in this analysis, who were treated with localized external radiotherapy 54–59.4 Gy along with temozolomide 75 mg/m2 during the whole course of radiotherapy. Results: The median survival in all these patients was 20 months and the overall 2 years survival is 44.4% (4/9). The median survival of patients with primary disease volume <40cc is 26 months whereas when the volume is more than 40cc the median survival is 13.5 months as calculated by Chi-square test. Conclusion: As this study includes a small number of patients with unknown histology and treated on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging findings, no definite opinion can be given as some patients may have a low-grade tumor. More studies are required to establish the relation of size of the tumor with survival. PMID:26962339

  12. [Advance in Research of Angiotensin II and Its Receptor and Malignant Tumor].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lulu; Shi, Jian

    2016-09-20

    Angiotensin AngII, a linear small peptide,which is composed of eight amino acids, is the main effectors of renin-angiotensin systen (Renin-angiotensin system, RAS). AngII, a main biopolypeptide of the RAS, has important pathophysiologic in effects participating in cardiac hypertrophy, vascular cell proproliferation, inflammation and tissue remodeling through G-protein-coupled receptors. In recent years, Ang II can promote tumor cell proliferation, tumor vessel formation and inhibit the differentiation of the tumor cells. This suggests that inhibit the production of AngII or block its effect is expected to become a new measure for the treatment of malignant tumors. This article reviews the advances in research on the relationship between AngII and its receptor and malignant tumor in recent years. PMID:27666553

  13. Interleukin-33 Expression Indicates a Favorable Prognosis in Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Matthias; Cathomas, Gieri; Bonapace, Laura; Sachs, Melanie; Dehler, Silvia; Storz, Martina; Huber, Gerhard; Moch, Holger; Junt, Tobias; Mertz, Kirsten D

    2016-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) is abundantly expressed in epithelial barrier tissues such as salivary glands. Here, we characterized nuclear IL-33 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and associated it with disease outcome. Most benign salivary gland tumors expressed IL-33, and all Warthin's tumors showed strong and consistent IL-33 expression in the basally oriented cells of their bilayered epithelium. In the malignant group of neoplasms, nuclear IL-33 expression was limited to specific tumor entities-for example, to epithelial-myopepithelial carcinomas (n = 9/11), acinic cell carcinomas (n = 13/27), and oncocytic carcinomas (n = 2/2). IL-33 expression in the combined group of malignant salivary gland neoplasms was significantly associated with favorable histological parameters, lack of metastasis, and longer overall survival, compared with IL-33-negative tumors. We conclude that IL-33 expression is a novel prognostic marker for malignant salivary gland tumors with potential use in clinical diagnostics.

  14. A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors harbors alterations in the Rb/p16 pathway.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Hicks, Jessica L; Sharma, Rajni; Vang, Russell; Illei, Peter B; De Marzo, Angelo; Emens, Leisha A; Argani, Pedram

    2013-11-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial neoplasms with variable risk of aggressive local recurrence and distant metastasis, and the molecular pathogenesis is unclear. Here, we systematically study p16 and Rb expression in 34 phyllodes tumors in relation to proliferation. Tissue microarrays were constructed from 10 benign, 10 borderline, and 14 malignant phyllodes (5 cores/tumor) and from 10 fibroadenomas (2 cores/tumor). Tissue microarrays were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p16, Rb, and Ki-67 and by in situ hybridization for high-risk human papillomavirus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear p16 were scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >95%) and intensity. Nuclear Rb was scored by percentage labeling (0%-100%, diffuse >75%) and intensity. p16 and Rb labeling were repeated on whole sections of cases with Rb loss on the tissue microarray. Twenty-nine percent (4/14) malignant phyllodes showed diffuse strong p16 labeling with Rb loss in malignant cells (diffuse p16+/Rb-), whereas 21% (3/14) malignant phyllodes showed the reverse pattern of p16 loss with diffuse strong Rb (p16-/diffuse Rb+). Results were consistent between tissue microarrays and whole sections. No borderline phyllodes, benign phyllodes, or fibroadenoma showed diffuse p16+/Rb- or p16-/diffuse Rb+ phenotypes. No cases contained high-risk human papillomavirus. Average Ki-67 proliferation indices were 15% in malignant phyllodes, 1.7% in borderline phyllodes, 0.5% in benign phyllodes, and 0% in fibroadenoma. Ki-67 was highest in malignant phyllodes with diffuse p16+/Rb- labeling. In summary, 50% malignant phyllodes display evidence of Rb/p16 pathway alterations, likely reflecting p16 or Rb inactivation. These and other mechanisms may contribute to the increased proliferation in malignant phyllodes relative to other fibroepithelial neoplasms.

  15. Pleural malignant solitary fibrous tumor with sarcomatous overgrowth showing PDGFRbeta mutation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giulio; Schirosi, Laura; Giovanardi, Filippo; Sartori, Giuliana; Paci, Massimiliano; Cavazza, Alberto

    2006-08-01

    Pleural malignant solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are uncommon, and little is known about their histogenesis and molecular features. We report a case of pleural SFT with sarcomatous overgrowth that showed expression for PDGFRbeta and a missense mutation on exon 18 of the PDGFRbeta gene. The involvement of the PDGFRbeta gene in SFT is compatible with a pericytic derivation, also supporting a possible role of this tyrosine kinase in malignant transformation and in the adoption of novel molecular therapies.

  16. Malignant and benign bone tumors that you are likely to see.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Valerae O; Morris, Carol D; Parsons, Theodore W

    2013-01-01

    Although primary malignancies of bone are rare, thousands of benign bone tumors are diagnosed annually. It is important to be able to distinguish benign lesions from malignant lesions and differentiate those lesions that can be watched versus lesions that require further treatment and referral to an orthopaedic oncologist. Learning to distinguish these entities and their appropriate treatment or triage will positively affect the patient and the surgeon's practice. PMID:23395056

  17. [Prevalence and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the elderly over 75 years old in China].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Chunxiao

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal malignant tumors are the most common malignant neoplasms among the elderly people over 75 years old in China. There are 122.1 thousand new gastric cases and 78.2 thousand new colorectal cancer cases diagnosed each year in China, which accounts for 42.73% and 18.08% respectively of the cases with same age in the world. The gastric cancer accounts for 25.13% and colorectal cancer accounts for 28.86%of all the malignancies in the elderly. The gastric cancer death accounts for 36.38% and colorectal cancer death accounts for 44.68% in those people over 75 years old in China. It was estimated that the risk of developing gastrointestinal malignant tumors of these elderly people was about 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal malignant tumors was about 7-8 times of the general population. Compared with the general population and the people of 55-74 years old, the incidence of gastric cancer in the elderly decreased more slowly and the incidence of colorectal cancer increased more quickly over the past 40 years, which brought significant double burden. The survival rate of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in these elderly was lower than that of the general population. We summarized the incidence, mortality, survival and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the Chinese elderly, in order to provide data for predicting the age distribution and disease burden in the future, to improve the awareness for cancer prevention and control among these elderly, and to call attention to epidemiology, preclinical and clinical medicine for the elderly, especially in the field of study on the influence between comorbidity and cancer treatment, with the aim of improving survival and quality of life among the elderly.

  18. [Rare malignant tumors of the ovaries in adolescents--clinical aspects in deciding therapeutic aggressiveness].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Bau, O

    1990-01-01

    4 patients below the age of 20 years have been treated for a malignant tumor of the ovary during the period November 1, 1984 until April 30, 1988. Dysgerminoma was the diagnosis in two cases, as the third patient suffered from a bilateral malignant teratoma. Burkitt's Lymphoma involved both ovaries primarily in an 17-year-old girl. Retrospectively we analyzed diagnosis, therapy and clinical course of these young patients. Regarding the different histological types of the tumors that have been found we discuss critically current recommendations in therapeutic managements referring chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Defined conditions provided surgical treatment, that preserves fertility in early stages of malignant germ cell tumors of adolescent women, may be justified, especially for dysgerminomas. A real benefit relate to survival and quality of life by using chemotherapeutic agents can only be expected, if all prognostic factors are regarded.

  19. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: report of a case with cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    de Leval, Laurence; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Hermans, Gilberte; Dôme, Florence; Boniver, Jacques; Herens, Christian

    2003-04-01

    The majority of solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the pleura are benign, but 10-30% locally recur or metastasize. Pathogenic factors relevant to the determinism of their biological properties are largely unknown. Cytogenetic data on SFTs of the pleura are sparse. We report herein a case of a malignant SFT of the pleura where successful karyotyping was obtained from the primary and recurrent tumors. The initial karyotype showed two abnormal clones: 48, XY; +8; +8; del(9)(q22; q32) [19] and 46, XY, t(1;16)(q25;p12) [7]. Culture of the recurrent tumor yielded one clone identical to the dominant clone of the initial karyotype. Demonstration of a recurrent abnormal karyotype largely supports its relevance to the malignant clone and suggests a role of supernumerary chromosome(s) 8 in the determinism of malignant behavior in SFT.

  20. Postoperative Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Solitary Fibrous Tumor With Malignant Transformation of the Pelvic

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Chao; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ming; Qu, Wei; Li, Jia; Zhao, Xiang-Rong; Yu, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Solitary fibrous tumor of the pelvic is an uncommon neoplasm with nonspecific symptoms. Reports of malignant transformation are especially rare. We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor in pelvic. A unique feature of our case compared with previously reported is that this patient relapsed with malignant transformation and had significant response to radiotherapy. The patient was initially treated with surgery, followed by postoperative dimensional conformal intensity modulated radiation therapy (dynamic MLC VRIAN 23EX Linac, inversely optimized by the Eclipse system) to provide a radical cure for residual tumor. In this case, there were no signs of recurrence after six and a half years of further follow-up, indicating that postoperation radiotherapy may be an effective treatment for SFT with malignant transformation in pelvic. PMID:26765426

  1. miR-21 induces myofibroblast differentiation and promotes the malignant progression of breast phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chang; Nie, Yan; Qu, Shaohua; Liao, Jian-You; Cui, Xiuying; Yao, Herui; Zeng, Yunjie; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-15

    Phyllodes tumors of breast, even histologically diagnosed as benign, can recur locally and have metastatic potential. Histologic markers only have limited value in predicting the clinical behavior of phyllodes tumors. It remains unknown what drives the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors. We found that the expression of myofibroblast markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is progressively increased in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors. Microarray showed that miR-21 was one of the most significantly upregulated microRNAs in malignant phyllodes tumors compared with benign phyllodes tumors. In addition, increased miR-21 expression was primarily localized to α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. More importantly, α-SMA and miR-21 are independent predictors of recurrence and metastasis, with their predictive value of recurrence better than histologic grading. Furthermore, miR-21 mimics promoted, whereas miR-21 antisense oligos inhibited, the expression of α-SMA, FAP, and SDF-1, as well as the proliferation and invasion of primary stromal cells of phyllodes tumors. The ability of miR-21 to induce myofibroblast differentiation was mediated by its regulation on Smad7 and PTEN, which regulate the migration and proliferation, respectively. In breast phyllodes tumor xenografts, miR-21 accelerated tumor growth, induced myofibroblast differentiation, and promoted metastasis. This study suggests an important role of myofibroblast differentiation in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors that is driven by increased miR-21.

  2. Malignant giant cell tumor in the carpal tunnel: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Carla I J M; Bras, Johannes; Lienden, Krijn P van; Obdeijn, Miryam C

    2013-08-01

    Background Malignant tenosynovial giant cell tumors (GCTs) are extremely rare, and their etiology is unknown. However, this type of malignancy is associated with high metastasis and mortality rates. Therefore, the treatment of choice is wide excision. Case Description A 66-year-old man complained of tingling and loss of sensation in the left hand, caused by a tumor that compressed the median nerve. The tumor was excised. Histopathologic examination revealed a ganglion cyst. Two years later, the patient visited our clinic with recurrent and similar complaints of the left hand. This time, however, the lesion turned out to be a malignant tenosynovial GCT and was treated by amputation of the forearm. Literature Review Since 1979, only 37 malignant tenosynovial GCTs have been reported in literature. Follow-up of these patients showed that 11 patients died of the disease, 4 patients were still living with the disease, and 14 patients had no evidence of disease after treatment. The other seven patients were lost to follow-up, and one patient died of other causes. In these 37 patients, a high incidence of lymph node metastasis (41%) and a high mortality rate (30%) were seen. Clinical Relevance Although this malignant tenosynovial GCT is very rare, high mortality rates have been observed because of the high incidence of lymph node metastases. Therefore, more awareness has to be created, to recognize and treat this tumor timely. PMID:24436827

  3. Malignant thyroid teratoma: report of an aggressive tumor in a 64-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Vilallonga, R; Zafon, C; Ruiz-Marcellan, C; Obiols, G; Fort, J M; Baena, J A; Villanueva, B; Garcia, A; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    2013-09-01

    Malignant teratoma of the thyroid is a rare and aggressive tumor, frequent in children than in adults. Histologically, thyroid teratomas usually show a predominance of a neuroectodermal component. Mature cartilage and bone may be present. We present the case of primary malignant teratoma of the thyroid in a 64-year-old man. Histologically, the tumor displayed a predominant neuroectodermal component. The diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The patient underwent a radical thyroidectomy with central neck dissection as primary treatment and radioiodine treatment afterwards. The patient had local and distant recurrence. A second surgery was performed with poor results and the patient died 3 months afterwards.

  4. True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of palatal minor salivary gland origin.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y

    1991-01-01

    True malignant mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma) of salivary gland origin is exceedingly rare and is distinguishable from the more frequently occurring carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. This paper reports a case of true malignant mixed tumor originating from a palatal minor salivary gland of a 55-year-old male. Histologically, nests of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma were scattered in a sarcomatous background which partially showed an unequivocal chondrosarcoma. Clinical course of the present patient suggested that a pre-existing benign minor salivary gland lesion developed to a carcinosarcoma.

  5. Modern chemoradiation practices for malignant tumors of the trachea: An institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Joshi, N; Mallick, S; Haresh, K P; Gandhi, A; Prabhakar, R; Laviraj, M A; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malignant tumors of the trachea are rare. A multimodality treatment approach is often necessary. Outcomes of radical non-surgical approaches are sparse. Radiation combined with sequential or concurrent chemotherapy is an important treatment option. Materials and Methods: We present an analysis of outcomes using modern radiotherapy and chemotherapy for tracheal tumors. Results: Radiation dose escalation using modern techniques is of benefit for these tumors. The results with chemotherapy are encouraging. Conclusions: Radiation plays a distinct role and should be a part of treatment for these tumors. The role of chemotherapy needs to be studied further. PMID:25494113

  6. Metastatic Malignant Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jessica; John, Veena S.; Liang, Sharon X.; D'Agostino, Catherine A.; Menzin, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of malignant ovarian steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) in a 47-year-old female who presented with hirsutism, virilization, and amenorrhea. At the time of laparotomy, the tumor had already spread to the pelvic cul-de-sac. She underwent a total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and tumor resection with no residual disease. She received three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) and is now free of disease 24 months after surgery. Literature review of ovarian steroid cell tumors NOS including clinicopathological features and clinical management was performed. PMID:27375912

  7. [Relation between location of elements in periodic table and affinity for the malignant tumor (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ando, A; Hisada, K; Ando, I

    1977-10-01

    Affinity of many inorganic compounds for the malignant tumor was examined, using the rats which were subcutaneously transplanted with Yoshida sarcoma. And the relations between the uptake rate into the malignant tumor and in vitro binding power to the protein were investigated in these compounds. In these experiments, the bipositive ions and anions had not affinity for the tumor tissue with a few exceptions. On the other hand, Hg, Au and Bi, which have strong binding power to the protein, showed high uptake rate into the malignant tumor. As Hg++, Au+ and Bi+++ are soft acids according to classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these elements would bind strongly to soft base (R-SH, R-S-) present in the tumor tissue. In many hard acids (according to classification of Lewis acids), the uptake rate into the tumor was shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. It is presumed that the chemical bond of these hard acids in the tumor tissue is ionic bond to hard base (R-COO-, R-PO3(2-), R-SO3-, R-NH2).

  8. Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed in Benign versus Malignant Thyroid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nijaguna B.; Somervell, Helina; Tufano, Ralph P.; Dackiw, Alan P.B.; Marohn, Michael R.; Califano, Joseph A.; Wang, Yongchun; Westra, William H.; Clark, Douglas P.; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Libutti, Steven K.; Zeiger, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most useful diagnostic tool in evaluating a thyroid nodule, preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules is frequently imprecise, with up to 30% of fine-needle aspiration biopsy cytology samples reported as “suspicious” or “indeterminate.” Therefore, other adjuncts, such as molecular-based diagnostic approaches are needed in the preoperative distinction of these lesions. Experimental Design In an attempt to identify diagnostic markers for the preoperative distinction of these lesions, we chose to study by microarray analysis the eight different thyroid tumor subtypes that can present a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. Results Our microarray-based analysis of 94 thyroid tumors identified 75 genes that are differentially expressed between benign and malignant tumor subtypes. Of these, 33 were overexpressed and 42 were underexpressed in malignant compared with benign thyroid tumors. Statistical analysis of these genes, using nearest-neighbor classification, showed a 73% sensitivity and 82% specificity in predicting malignancy. Real-time reverse transcription – PCR validation for 12 of these genes was confirmatory. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of one of the genes, high mobility group AT-hook 2, further validated the microarray and real-time reverse transcription – PCR data. Conclusions Our results suggest that these 12 genes could be useful in the development of a panel of markers to differentiate benign from malignant tumors and thus serve as an important first step in solving the clinical problem associated with suspicious thyroid lesions. PMID:18519760

  9. Do tumor volume, percent tumor volume predict biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yang; Li, He; Xu, Peng; Wang, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the effects of tumor volume (TV) and percent tumor volume (PTV) on biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). An electronic search of Medline, Embase and CENTRAL was performed for relevant studies. Studies evaluated the effects of TV and/or PTV on BCR after RP and provided detailed results of multivariate analyses were included. Combined hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models. A total of 15 studies with 16 datasets were included in the meta-analysis. Our study showed that both TV (HR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.07; P=0.03) and PTV (HR 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02; P=0.02) were predictors of BCR after RP. The subgroup analyses revealed that TV predicted BCR in studies from Asia, PTV was significantly correlative with BCR in studies in which PTV was measured by computer planimetry, and both TV and PTV predicted BCR in studies with small sample sizes (<1000). In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that both TV and PTV were significantly associated with BCR after RP. Therefore, TV and PTV should be considered when assessing the risk of BCR in RP specimens. PMID:26885209

  10. [Recurrent malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the orbit].

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, K; Stropahl, G; Guthoff, R F

    2011-03-01

    A 53-year-old female patient presented with a palpable mass in the right medial orbit which had been present for 18 months. The left eye had been enucleated in childhood due to a perforating injury. An orbital biopsy performed ex domo showed unspecific inflammatory tissue but no definite diagnosis was made and systemic therapy with corticosteroids was unsuccessful. A second orbital biopsy was performed in our clinic and revealed a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the orbit. Medial orbitotomy with tumor excision followed and the histological examination of the excised tumor established the diagnosis of SFT of the orbit with focal sarcomatous transformation. The patient presented 3 years later with a new orbital mass in a control MRI examination. Relapse was suspected and orbitotomy with excision of the mass was performed. The histological examination revealed a relapse of the SFT with sarcomatous transformation in the whole extent of the tumor. Radiotherapy with a dosis of 59.4 Gy was subsequently performed. The patient remained tumor-free in the most recent control examination 3 years later.

  11. Radiation-Inducible Caspase-8 Gene Therapy for Malignant Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurushima, Hideo Yuan Xuan; Dillehay, Larry E.; Leong, Kam W.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: Patients with malignant gliomas have a poor prognosis. To explore a novel and more effective approach for the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas, we designed a strategy that combines caspase-8 (CSP8) gene therapy and radiation treatment (RT). In addition, the specificity of the combined therapy was investigated to decrease the unpleasant effects experienced by the surrounding normal tissue. Methods and Materials: We constructed the plasmid pEGR-green fluorescence protein that included the radiation-inducible early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) promoter and evaluated its characteristics. The pEGR-CSP8 was constructed and included the Egr-1 promoter and CSP8 complementary DNA. Assays that evaluated the apoptosis inducibility and cytotoxicity caused by CSP8 gene therapy combined with RT were performed using U251 and U87 glioma cells. The pEGR-CSP8 was transfected into the subcutaneous U251 glioma cells of nude mice by means of in vivo electroporation. The in vivo effects of CSP8 gene therapy combined with RT were evaluated. Results: The Egr-1 promoter yielded a better response with fractionated RT than with single-dose RT. In the assay of apoptosis inducibility and cytotoxicity, pEGR-CSP8 showed response for RT. The pEGR-CSP8 combined with RT is capable of inducing cell death effectively. In mice treated with pEGR-CSP8 and RT, apoptotic cells were detected in pathologic sections, and a significant difference was observed in tumor volumes. Conclusions: Our results indicate that radiation-inducible gene therapy may have great potential because this can be spatially or temporally controlled by exogenous RT and is safe and specific.

  12. Liquid cooled brassiere and method of diagnosing malignant tumors therewith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elkins, W.; Williams, B. A.; Tickner, E. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A device for enhancing the detection of malignant tissue in the breasts of a woman was described. A brassiere-like garment which is fitted with a pair of liquid-perfused cooling panels which completely and compliantly cover the breasts and upper torso was studied. The garment is connected by plastic tubing to a liquid cooling system comprising a fluid pump, a solenoid control valve for controlling the flow of fluid to either the cooling unit or the heating unit, a fluid reservoir, a temperature sensor in the reservoir, and a restrictor valve to control the pressure in the garment inlet cooling line.

  13. Characteristics and Patterns of Rare Malignancies Published in Rare Tumors.

    PubMed

    Habboush, Jacob; Hollant, Laeticia; Smart, Brigit; Single, Megan; Gaines, Katherine; Patel, Ajaykumar; Miller, Robert

    2016-06-28

    Rare Tumors is an international peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2009. The journal is focused on rare cancers and aims to expand upon current knowledge on their presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes. We reviewed the 335 case reports published from 2009 to 2015. We found great diversity in both the country of origin as well as specialty of first authors. Outside of the United States (US) and European Union (EU), there were 20 countries with contributions to the journal. Similarly, there was representation from twelve medical specialties with first authorship of reports. Rare Tumors continues to encourage involvement from physicians across the globe and from all medical disciplines. PMID:27441071

  14. Characteristics and Patterns of Rare Malignancies Published in Rare Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Habboush, Jacob; Hollant, Laeticia; Smart, Brigit; Single, Megan; Gaines, Katherine; Patel, Ajaykumar; Miller, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rare Tumors is an international peer-reviewed medical journal established in 2009. The journal is focused on rare cancers and aims to expand upon current knowledge on their presentation, diagnosis, management, and outcomes. We reviewed the 335 case reports published from 2009 to 2015. We found great diversity in both the country of origin as well as specialty of first authors. Outside of the United States (US) and European Union (EU), there were 20 countries with contributions to the journal. Similarly, there was representation from twelve medical specialties with first authorship of reports. Rare Tumors continues to encourage involvement from physicians across the globe and from all medical disciplines. PMID:27441071

  15. Angiomyolipoma and Malignant PEComa: Discussion of Two Rare Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kwazneski II, Douglas; Merrill, Megan; Young, Jessica; Sell, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma and PEComa are rare tumors descending from perivascular epithelial cells (PECs), with distinctive IHC, morphological, and ultrastructural features. The kidney is the most frequent site of origin, but not the only one; however, adrenal gland angiomyolipomas are extremely rare. We describe two cases being found in the adrenal glands. Given the paucity of literature on the subject, more information on this disease is necessary for diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe two complete case reports, from presentation to treatment and follow-up, along with imaging and microscopic pathology samples, and provide a comprehensive review as to the history and current literature available regarding these extremely rare tumors. PMID:26998374

  16. Large Malignant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast with Metastases to the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Alexander; Sahoo, Sunati; Wooldridge, Rachel D

    2015-05-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast account for less than 0.5% of breast cancers and present most commonly in women 45 to 49 years old. The importance in managing fibroepithelial lesions lies in distinguishing fibroadenomas, which are benign, from phyllodes tumors, which can be malignant and require complete surgical excision. We report the case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in her right breast 18 cm in maximum dimension that completely effaced the breast and distorted the nipple. The patient underwent a successful total mastectomy after core biopsy revealed a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor. Surgical resection is the primary treatment modality; neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies remain controversial. Here, we report the case of a large malignant phyllodes tumor metastatic to the lungs, review the literature, and discuss diagnostic modalities and adjunct nonsurgical therapies.

  17. Large Malignant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast with Metastases to the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Augustyn, Alexander; Sahoo, Sunati; Wooldridge, Rachel D.

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast account for less than 0.5% of breast cancers and present most commonly in women 45 to 49 years old. The importance in managing fibroepithelial lesions lies in distinguishing fibroadenomas, which are benign, from phyllodes tumors, which can be malignant and require complete surgical excision. We report the case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in her right breast 18 cm in maximum dimension that completely effaced the breast and distorted the nipple. The patient underwent a successful total mastectomy after core biopsy revealed a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor. Surgical resection is the primary treatment modality; neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies remain controversial. Here, we report the case of a large malignant phyllodes tumor metastatic to the lungs, review the literature, and discuss diagnostic modalities and adjunct nonsurgical therapies. PMID:26266007

  18. MED12 mutations occurring in benign and malignant mammalian smooth muscle tumors.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique Nadine; Huhle, Sonja; Nimzyk, Rolf; Stenman, Göran; Löning, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2013-03-01

    Mutations of the mediator subcomplex 12 gene (MED12) recently have been described in a large group of uterine leiomyomas (UL) but only in a single malignant uterine smooth muscle tumor. To further address the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in smooth muscle tumors, we have analyzed samples from 34 leiomyosarcomas (LMS), 21 UL, two extrauterine leiomyomas (EL), and 10 canine genital leiomyomas for the presence of MED12 mutations of the UL-type. Interestingly, besides UL MED12 mutations were found in one uterine LMS, one EL, and two canine vaginal leiomyomas. The results confirm the occurrence of fibroid-type MED12 mutations in malignant uterine smooth muscle tumors thus suggesting a rare but existing leiomyoma-LMS sequence. In addition, for the first time MED12 mutations are reported in smooth muscle tumors in a non-primate mammalian species. PMID:23225304

  19. Large Malignant Phyllodes Tumor of the Breast with Metastases to the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Augustyn, Alexander; Sahoo, Sunati; Wooldridge, Rachel D

    2015-05-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast account for less than 0.5% of breast cancers and present most commonly in women 45 to 49 years old. The importance in managing fibroepithelial lesions lies in distinguishing fibroadenomas, which are benign, from phyllodes tumors, which can be malignant and require complete surgical excision. We report the case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a rapidly enlarging mass in her right breast 18 cm in maximum dimension that completely effaced the breast and distorted the nipple. The patient underwent a successful total mastectomy after core biopsy revealed a diagnosis of phyllodes tumor. Surgical resection is the primary treatment modality; neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies remain controversial. Here, we report the case of a large malignant phyllodes tumor metastatic to the lungs, review the literature, and discuss diagnostic modalities and adjunct nonsurgical therapies. PMID:26266007

  20. Deregulation of miR-183 and KIAA0101 in Aggressive and Malignant Pituitary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Magali; Wierinckx, Anne; Croze, Séverine; Rey, Catherine; Legras-Lachuer, Catherine; Morel, Anne-Pierre; Fusco, Alfredo; Raverot, Gérald; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Lachuer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) expression in many types of cancer suggest that they may be involved in crucial steps during tumor progression. Indeed, miRNAs deregulation has been described in pituitary tumorigenesis, but few studies have described their role in pituitary tumor progression toward aggressiveness and malignancy. To assess the role of miRNAs within the hierarchical cascade of events in prolactin (PRL) tumors during progression, we used an integrative genomic approach to associate clinical–pathological features, global miRNA expression, and transcriptomic profiles of the same human tumors. We describe the specific down-regulation of one principal miRNA, miR-183, in the 8 aggressive (A, grade 2b) compared to the 18 non-aggressive (NA, grades 1a, 2a) PRL tumors. We demonstrate that it acts as an anti-proliferative gene by directly targeting KIAA0101, which is involved in cell cycle activation and inhibition of p53–p21-mediated cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we show that miR-183 and KIAA0101 expression significantly correlate with the main markers of pituitary tumors aggressiveness, Ki-67 and p53. These results confirm the activation of proliferation in aggressive and malignant PRL tumors compared to non-aggressive ones. Importantly, these data also demonstrate the ability of such an integrative genomic strategy, applied in the same human tumors, to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for tumoral progression even from a small cohort of patients. PMID:26322309

  1. The clinical pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small intestine primary malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaochuan; Mao, Zhiyuan; Su, Dan; Jiang, Zhaocai; Bai, Li

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the clinicopathological features and diagnosis of Chinese patients with small intestine primary malignant tumors and to explore the best therapy to small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). More than 26,000 patients with digestive tract malignant tumors received treatment in PLA hospital from 2000 to 2011, and among them, there were 887 patients who had small intestine primary malignant tumors, and 666 of 887 patients had the completed basic clinical documents. We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between clinical and pathological features of the 666 patients and analyzed the survival and prognosis of 173 SBA patients with follow-up data. Both the number of patients with primary malignant tumors of the small intestine and the number of patients who received chemotherapy showed an increasing trend. The ratio of male to female was 1.58:1. The male patients significantly exceed the female patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and duodenal ampulla; and most of the patients are over 60 years of age. For patients burdened with either of the pathological types of tumors, the males exceeded the females, but there was no significant difference. Abdominal pain was the main clinical manifestation for patients with tumors of non-ampullary duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and the most common clinical manifestations were jaundice and abdominal pain for patients with ampullary duodenal tumors, adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors and sarcoma. In addition, patients with stromal tumors were prone to gastrointestinal bleeding. Gastrointestinal endoscopy was the most common examinational procedure. Patients under 60 years of age were prone to surgery and chemotherapy after surgery, and patients over 60 years of age were prone to supportive treatment and chemotherapy without surgery. The medium overall survival of patients who received surgery without chemotherapy, chemotherapy after surgery, chemotherapy without surgery

  2. Genotypic alterations in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors: histogenetic and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, A K; Hurr, K; Kagan, J; Gillenwater, A; Callender, D; Luna, M A; Batsakis, J G

    1997-06-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MI) were examined at 24 microsatellite loci in 46 primary benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. Among the 27 benign tumors, 11 (40.7%), manifested microsatellite alterations in at least one locus; of these, five (18.5%) showed LOH and four (14.8%) had microsatellite instability at two or more loci. Four of 11 pleomorphic adenomas (36.4%) had allele loss on the long arm of chromosome 8. Among the 19 malignant neoplasms examined, 10 (52.6%) and one (5.2%) had allele losses and MI, respectively, at multiple loci; three tumors showed MI at only one locus. Frequent LOH was detected at D8S166 (8q11-12), D17S799, and D17S122 (17p-17p11-2) loci, with an incidence of 40%, 37.5%, and 43%, respectively. In general, malignant neoplasms with LOH exhibited aggressive tumor characteristics. Statistically significant correlation's were found between LOH and pathologic classification (chi 2, p = 0.05), higher grade (p = 0.02), DNA aneuploidy (p = 0.005), and a proliferative index of > 6% (p = 0.005) of the malignant tumors. Carcinomas with 17p loci alterations, including two carcinomas expleomorphic adenoma with concurrent 8q LOH, showed more aggressive features. The results suggested that (a) loci on chromosome 8q may harbor a tumor suppressor gene or genes associated with the development or progression of some salivary neoplasms; (b) alterations on the short arm of chromosome 17 may represent an event related to tumor progression; and (c) tumors with LOH at multiple loci have aggressive biologic characteristics.

  3. Nuances in the Treatment of Malignant Tumors of the Clival and Petroclival Region

    PubMed Central

    Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Prevedello, Daniel M.; Jamshidi, Ali O.; Filho, Leo F.S. Ditzel; Carrau, Ricardo L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignancies of the clivus and petroclival region are mainly chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although a spectrum of malignancies may present in this area, a finite group of commonly encountered malignant pathologies will be the focus of this review, as they are recognized to be formidable pathologies due to adjacent critical neurovascular structures and challenging surgical approaches. Objectives The objective is to review the literature regarding medical and surgical management of malignant tumors of the clival and petroclival region with a focus on clinical presentation, diagnostic identification, and associated adjuvant therapies. We will also discuss our current treatment paradigm using endoscopic, open, and combined approaches to the skull base. Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted, searching for basic science and clinical evidence from PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database. The selection criteria encompassed original articles including data from both basic science and clinical literature, case series, case reports, and review articles on the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and management of skull base malignancies in the clival and petroclival region. Conclusions The management of petroclival malignancies requires a multidisciplinary team to deliver the most complete surgical resection, with minimal morbidity, followed by appropriate adjuvant therapy. We advocate the combination of endoscopic and open approaches (traditional or minimally invasive) as required by the particular tumor followed by radiation therapy to optimize oncologic outcomes. PMID:25992140

  4. Barriers Prevent Patient Access to Personalized Therapies Identified by Molecular Tumor Profiling of Gynecologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R. Tyler; Ward, Kristy; Saenz, Cheryl; McHale, Michael; Plaxe, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of commercial molecular tumor profiling to discover actionable mutations and to identify barriers that might prevent patient access to personalized therapies. Methods. We conducted an IRB-approved retrospective review of 26 patients with gynecologic malignancies who underwent commercial tumor profiling at our institution during the first 18 months of test availability. Tumor profiles reported targeted therapies and clinical trials matched to patient-specific mutations. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results. Most patients who underwent tumor profiling had serous epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma (46%). Patients underwent profiling after undergoing a median of two systemic therapies (range 0 to 13). A median of one targeted therapy was suggested per patient profile. Tumor profiling identified no clinically actionable mutations for seven patients (27%). Six patients sought insurance approval for a targeted therapy and two were declined (33%). One patient (4%) received a targeted therapy and this was discontinued due to tumor progression. Conclusions. There are formidable barriers to targeted therapy for patients with gynecologic malignancies. These barriers include a dearth of FDA-approved targeted agents for gynecologic malignancies, lack of third party insurance coverage and limited geographic availability of clinical trials. PMID:26011384

  5. Malignant granular cell tumor of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve: report of a case with cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Tommaso, Luca; Magrini, Elisabetta; Consales, Alessandro; Poppi, Massimo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Dorji, Tsering; Benedetti, Giovanni; Baccarini, Paola

    2002-12-01

    Malignant granular cell tumors (MGCTs) are rare neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis. We report a case of MGCT involving a peripheral nerve with peritoneal and omental dissemination in which cytogenetic findings are available. Our results show that MGCTs share some cytogenetic abnormalities with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), supporting the hypothesis that they may represent histogenetically related lesions.

  6. Malignant Small Bowel Tumors: Diagnosis, Management and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hélder; Rodrigues, João Tiago; Marques, Margarida; Ribeiro, Armando; Vilas-Boas, Filipe; Santos-Antunes, João; Rodrigues-Pinto, Eduardo; Silva, Marco; Maia, José Costa; Macedo, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Apesar de entidades raras, a incidência dos tumores malignos do intestino delgado parece estar a aumentar. O desenvolvimento da cápsula endoscópica e da enteroscopia assistida por balão permitiram um avanço na avaliação das lesões do intestino delgado. Temos como objetivo descrever as características clínicas e patológicas dos doentes com cancro do intestino delgado e averiguar o papel que estas técnicas endoscópicas assumem atualmente. Material e Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo retrospetivo dos doentes diagnosticados com cancro do intestino delgado, desde janeiro de 2010 até outubro de 2014. Os dados foram submetidos a análise estatística. Resultados: Dos 28 doentes diagnosticados, 54% eram do sexo feminino. A idade média ao diagnóstico foi de 61 anos. O tumor mais frequente foi o adenocarcinoma (n = 11), seguido do sarcoma (n = 6), linfoma (n = 6) e tumores neuroendócrinos (n = 3). A principal forma de apresentação esteve relacionada com perdas hemáticas ou obstrução intestinal. Ao diagnóstico, 46% dos doentes tinhammetástases distantes/tumor irressecável. A maioria dos tumores foi diagnosticada por técnicas endoscópicas (41%) ou imagiológicas (35%). No primeiro ano após o diagnóstico, 29% dos doentes faleceram. Na análise multivariada, o adenocarcinoma permaneceu fator independente para pior sobrevida. Discussão: Os doentes com adenocarcinoma apresentaram-se em estádios tardios e com tumores irressecáveis, contribuindo para um pior prognóstico. Ã necessário um elevado grau de suspeita clínica para o diagnóstico de cancro do intestino delgado. Conclusão: As características dos doentes foram globalmente consistentes com o descrito na literatura. A cápsula endoscópica e a enteroscopia assistida por balão são úteis no diagnóstico, gestão e vigilância do cancro do intestino delgado.

  7. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy via epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Y; Onodera, Y; Kuroiwa, M; Nomimura, S; Kubo, Y; Nam, J-M; Kajiwara, K; Nada, S; Oneyama, C; Sabe, H; Okada, M

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial tumor cells often acquire malignant properties, such as invasion/metastasis and uncontrolled cell growth, by undergoing epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanisms by which EMT contributes to malignant progression remain elusive. Here we show that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy in a manner dependent on EMT status. We previously identified ARHGEF5, a member of the Dbl family of GEFs, as a multifunctional mediator of Src-induced cell invasion and tumor growth. In the present study, ARHGEF5 was upregulated during tumor growth factor-β-induced EMT in human epithelial MCF10A cells, and promoted cell migration by activating the Rho-ROCK pathway. ARHGEF5 was necessary for the invasive and in vivo metastatic activity of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. These findings underscore the crucial role of ARHGEF5 in cell migration and invasion/metastasis. An in vivo tumorigenesis assay revealed that ARHGEF5 had the potential to promote tumor growth via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. However, ARHGEF5 was not required for tumor growth in epithelial-like human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas the growth of mesenchymal-like SW480 and SW620 cells depended on ARHGEF5. Induction of EMT by tumor necrosis factor-α or Slug in HCT116 cells resulted in the dependence of tumor growth on ARHGEF5. In these mesenchymal-like cells, Akt was activated via ARHGEF5 and its activity was required for tumor growth. Analysis of a transcriptome data set revealed that the combination of ARHGEF5 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation or Snail upregulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancers. Taken together, our findings suggest that EMT-induced ARHGEF5 activation contributes to the progression of tumor malignancy. ARHGEF5 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of malignant tumors that have undergone EMT. PMID

  8. The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Y; Onodera, Y; Kuroiwa, M; Nomimura, S; Kubo, Y; Nam, J-M; Kajiwara, K; Nada, S; Oneyama, C; Sabe, H; Okada, M

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial tumor cells often acquire malignant properties, such as invasion/metastasis and uncontrolled cell growth, by undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanisms by which EMT contributes to malignant progression remain elusive. Here we show that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) ARHGEF5 promotes tumor malignancy in a manner dependent on EMT status. We previously identified ARHGEF5, a member of the Dbl family of GEFs, as a multifunctional mediator of Src-induced cell invasion and tumor growth. In the present study, ARHGEF5 was upregulated during tumor growth factor-β-induced EMT in human epithelial MCF10A cells, and promoted cell migration by activating the Rho-ROCK pathway. ARHGEF5 was necessary for the invasive and in vivo metastatic activity of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. These findings underscore the crucial role of ARHGEF5 in cell migration and invasion/metastasis. An in vivo tumorigenesis assay revealed that ARHGEF5 had the potential to promote tumor growth via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. However, ARHGEF5 was not required for tumor growth in epithelial-like human colorectal cancer HCT116 and HT29 cells, whereas the growth of mesenchymal-like SW480 and SW620 cells depended on ARHGEF5. Induction of EMT by tumor necrosis factor-α or Slug in HCT116 cells resulted in the dependence of tumor growth on ARHGEF5. In these mesenchymal-like cells, Akt was activated via ARHGEF5 and its activity was required for tumor growth. Analysis of a transcriptome data set revealed that the combination of ARHGEF5 upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation or Snail upregulation was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with colorectal cancers. Taken together, our findings suggest that EMT-induced ARHGEF5 activation contributes to the progression of tumor malignancy. ARHGEF5 may serve as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of malignant tumors that have undergone EMT. PMID

  9. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising in a traumatic neuroma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kos, Zuzana; Robertson, Susan J; Purgina, Bibianna M; Verma, Shailendra; Gravel, Denis H

    2013-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with a soft tissue mass at the site of a remote, non-neoplastic lumbar surgery. Excisional biopsy revealed a traumatic neuroma. Five years later she re-presented with a rapidly growing, tender nodule at the same site. An excisional biopsy was again performed and revealed a tumor composed of malignant epithelioid and spindle cells merging imperceptibly with residual traumatic neuroma. The malignant cells were positive for vimentin, S-100 and micropthalmia transcription factor. They were negative for cytokeratins, muscle markers, Melan-A, HMB45, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein. Electron microscopy showed no melanosomes. The diagnosis of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising within a long-standing traumatic neuroma was rendered and represents a hitherto unreported origin of this rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma.

  10. Fluorescein Sodium-Guided Surgery of Malignant Brain Tumors: History, Current Concepts, and Future Project.

    PubMed

    Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Brawanski, Alexander; Hohenberger, Christoph; Hohne, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescein sodium (FL)-guided resection has become an important and beneficial treatment method for malignant brain tumors. FL-guided resection improves the rate of gross total resection in high-grade gliomas (HGG) and cerebral metastases (CM). FL sensitively visualizes the disruption of the blood-brain barrier in the area surrounding malignant lesions, similar to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences. This review of the current literature summarizes the history of FL in neurosurgery from 1946 until today. We discuss the molecular mechanism of FL accumulation in cerebral malignant tumors and provide an overview of the current practice of using FL and applying a dedicated surgical microscope filter. Additionally, we outline and discuss ongoing trials and future projects. PMID:26956810

  11. The effects of "BAR" therapy on oral malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Sakaizumi, K; Asanami, S; Lian, S L; Tomita, O; Hirayama, T

    1978-05-01

    "BAR" therapy is a combined therapy with BUdR (Radiosensitizer), Antimetabolites (5-FU, FT-207 etc.) and Radiation for malignant tumours. How radiation can be reduced as far as possible and how the effects of treatment can be increased as much as possible are the objectives of this study of combining radiation and BUdR therapy. The authors attempted to irradiate 3-5 days after the BUdR and antimetabolite had been infused via the superficial temporal artery, in 12 malignant oral tumours (11 squamous cell carcinomas and 1 reticulum-cell sarcoma). BUdR 50-250 mg/day, antimetabolites (5-FU) 10-250 mg/day and a total irradiation dose of 6000 rads by 6 MeV Linac X-ray or Co-60 gamma ray, 200 rads/day were given. 9 marked responses, 2 moderate responses and 1 no response (2 cases were operated on by local resection) were obtained by the authors. Side effects of treatment were observed during the course of "BAR" therapy. Stomatitis was found in all patients and it occurred on the mucosa of the tumour-affected site especially. Dermatitis of the skin of the face was noted in 6 cases, resembling irradiation dermatitis. Fever was observed in 4 cases and it always occurred after irradiation. Diarrhoea was noted in 3 cases and occurred before irradiation, 2 out of 3 were given BUdR 0.1 g and the remaining one was given BUdR 1 g, and 5-FU lg. In addition, there were: 1 loss of appetite, 1 nausea and 1 exfoliation of nails. PMID:353211

  12. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Current progress on this research includes the synthesis of chemical structures for malignant brain tumors. These structures include boron-containing derivatives of lipophilic anticonvulsants and CNS depressants; carboranyl precursors of nucleic acids and related structures; and carboranyl amino acids. Cellular uptake and persistence studies have also been carried out with F98 rat glioma cells. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Advanced malignant solitary fibrous tumor in pelvis responding to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Shinobu; Nakamura, Takafumi; Oya, Takeshi; Ishizawa, Shin; Sakai, Yuta; Tanaka, Tomonori; Saito, Shigeru; Fukuoka, Junya

    2007-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell neoplasm that is benign in most cases. Although SFT was first recognized to arise only in the pleura, recent reports indicate that SFT can involve a wide range of anatomical sites. To date, 17 cases of pelvic SFT have been reported. Herein is reported a case of a 74-year-old woman with a giant malignant SFT in the pelvis. Along with massive invasion to adjacent organs and multiple lung metastases detected on radiography, biopsy from the tumor through the vaginal wall showed malignant looking spindle-cell neoplasm with increased cellularity, areas of necrosis, and high mitotic activity (5/10 high-power fields). Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely and strongly positive for CD34, CD99, and bcl-2. Based on pathological features and clinical presentation, diagnosis of malignant SFT was made. The patient received systemic and the intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by whole pelvic radiation therapy (50 Gy). Initial chemotherapies failed to control the tumor. Afterwards, improvement was observed radiologically and pathologically in the 12 months' follow up after the radiation therapy. This is the first report related to therapeutic remarks on advanced malignant SFT.

  14. Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Krausz, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands. The clinicopathologic spectrum ranges from benign to malignant but there are important differences as compared with those of their salivary counterpart. In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup. Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent. It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner. Most of these tumors are capable of differentiating along both epithelial and myoepithelial lines, but the amount of each lineage-component varies from case to case, contributing to diagnostic difficulties. Well established examples of this group include pleomorphic adenoma, adenomyoepithelioma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Another family of salivary gland-type mammary epithelial neoplasms is devoid of myoepithelial cells. Key examples include mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. The number of cases of salivary gland-type mammary neoplasms in the published data is constantly increasing but some of the rarest subtypes like polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and oncocytic carcinoma are "struggling" to become clinically relevant entities in line with those occurring more frequently in salivary glands.

  15. Multi-course PDT of malignant tumors: the influence on primary tumor, metastatic spreading and homeostasis of cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Sukhin, Garry M.; Nemtsova, E. R.; Belous, T. A.; Zharkova, Natalia N.

    1996-12-01

    The first clinical trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer with two photosensitizers, PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS, were started in P.A. Hertzen Research Oncological Institute (Moscow, Russia) in 1992 and 1994. Up to now, 208 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic malignant tumors (469) of skin (34 patients/185 tumors), breast cancer (24/101), head and neck (30/31), trachea and bronchus (31/42), esophagus (35/35), stomach (31/32), rectum (4/4), vagina and uterine cervix (7/8) and bladder (12/31) have been treated by PDT. One-hundred-thirty patients were injected with PHOTOHEME, 64 patients were injected with PHOTOSENS, 14 patients were injected with PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS. Totally, 302 courses of treatment were performed: 155 patients had one course and 53 patients were subjected to two to nine PDT sources with intervals from 1 to 18 months. A therapeutic effect of a one-course and multi- course PDT of malignant tumors (respiratory, digestive and urogenital systems) was evaluated clinically, histologically, roentgenologically, sonographically and endoscopically. The biochemical, hematological and immunological investigations were performed for all the patients in dynamics. Results of our study showed that a multi-course PDT method seems to be perspective in treatment of malignant tumors of basic localizations.

  16. Malignant mixed tumors arising in salivary glands. I. Carcinomas arising in benign mixed tumors: a clinicopathologic study.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Perzin, K H

    1977-05-01

    Forty-seven cases of malignant mixed tumor (MMT) arising in major and minor salivary glands are presented. By definition, all these lesions contained both a benign mixed tumor (BMT) as well as a malignant neoplasm, usually a poorly differentiated carcinoma. In some cases, the carcinoma developed in a previously untreated salivary gland mass which was known to have been present for many years, others evolved in a recurrent previously resected BMT and still others originated in a previously undetected BMT. Adverse prognostic factors included: carcinomatous involvement of the resection lines, perineural invasion, metastases in lymph nodes, and origin in a major salivary gland. Lesions arising in the palate had a better prognosis as compared to major salivary gland tumors. Some patients died of locally uncontrollable tumor and others because of metastatic disease. Local recurrences of MMT were seen frequently; 18 patients (38%) had a total of 32 local recurrences. Of patients followed five years or more, seven (35%) had died of tumor, 11 (55%) had no evidence of disease, and two (10%) had died of other causes. Prolonged follow-up is required because recurrences and death from tumor may be seen many years following the diagnosis of MMT. Recommendations for therapy are made. Criteria for differentiating MMT from recurrent BMT and from cylindromatous carcinoma are discussed.

  17. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S. )

    1990-02-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy.

  18. Radionuclide salivary scan imaging of a "functioning" malignant parotid tumor (mucous-producing papillary adenocarcinoma).

    PubMed

    Noyek, A M; Greyson, N D; Fernandes, B J; Chapnik, J S

    1982-04-01

    To date, all "functioning" or "hot" tumors on salivary gland scan have been benign - either the not uncommon Warthin's tumor or the rare oncocytoma. A positive salivary scan was obtained in a functioning malignant tumor of the parotid gland (a mucous-producing papillary adenocarcinoma). This occurrence has not previously been reported. The pathologic findings and the radionuclide images are demonstrated in this elderly female. It is presumed that the Technetium Tc99m pertechnetate has been concentrated in the tumor. The functioning epithelial cell, however, is not the benign oncocyte associated with other previously reported benign functioning tumors. Clinical discretion is therefore suggested in interpreting the significance of a functioning salivary gland tumor if encountered in an elderly female.

  19. Molecular classification of breast phyllodes tumors: validation of the histologic grading scheme and insights into malignant progression.

    PubMed

    Ang, Mei Kim; Ooi, Aik Seng; Thike, Aye Aye; Tan, Patrick; Zhang, Zhongfa; Dykema, Karl; Furge, Kyle; Teh, Bin Tean; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2011-09-01

    Phyllodes tumors of the breast are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms with a potential for recurrence. Current histological classification is not always predictive of clinical behavior. The aim of this study was to identify genetic changes associated with the development of borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors in an Asian population, and to assess if genetic data supported the categorization of these tumors into the existing three grades of benign, borderline, and malignant. Expression profiling of 21 phyllodes tumors (6 benign, 10 borderline, 5 malignant) was performed using Affymetrix U133Plus 2.0 GeneChips(®). Gene expression among benign, borderline, and malignant tumors was compared and a 29 gene list was able to classify them according to their histologic grade. Among these 29 genes are those responsible for matrix formation, cell adhesion, epidermis formation, and cell proliferation. Comparative genomic microarray analysis showed that the most common chromosomal alteration associated with borderline and malignant tumors was 1q gain, and an increasing number of chromosomal changes was noted with increasing histological grade. Upregulation of HOXB13 was seen in malignant relative to borderline phyllodes tumors and further investigated by immunohistochemistry in a corresponding set of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors. HOXB13 protein overexpression was found to be correlated with stromal hypercellularity and atypia (P = 0.03, P = 0.039, respectively) and may be implicated in the development of malignant phyllodes tumors.

  20. Potential of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST).

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Andoh, Tooru; Sudo, Tamotsu; Fujita, Ikuo; Fukase, Naomasa; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Hirose, Tkanori; Sakuma, Toshiko; Moritake, Hiroshi; Sugimoto, Tohru; Kawamoto, Teruya; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Satomi; Atagi, Shinji; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji; Ichikawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-12-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are relatively rare neoplasms with poor prognosis. At present there is no effective treatment for MPNST other than surgical resection. Nonetheless, the anti-tumor effect of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was recently demonstrated in two patients with MPNST. Subsequently, tumor-bearing nude mice subcutaneously transplanted with a human MPNST cell line were injected with p-borono-L-phenylalanine (L-BPA) and subjected to BNCT. Pathological studies then revealed that the MPNST cells were selectively destroyed by BNCT.

  1. [The use of fast neutrons in treatment of malignant tumors of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Gribova, O V; Musabaeva, L I; Choinzonov, E L; Novikov, V A; Lisin, V A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents issues of the application of neutron therapy in the combined and radiation therapy for head and neck tumors. There were developed methods of neutron and neutron-photon therapy in pre- and postoperative periods as well as in stand-alone option in unresectable tumors. The data obtained clearly demonstrate the superiority of new ways over standard methods of treatment. Neutron therapy is satisfactorily tolerated and allows improving the results of combined and radiation therapy patients with malignant tumors of the head and neck.

  2. Epidemiologic and molecular characteristics of borderline and malignant epithelial ovarian tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Eugenia Maria Chaves De Moraes

    Data from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone Study, a multicenter, population-based, case-control study were used to identify risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer according to tumor behavior, histologic types, as well as p53 expression. Cases were women between 20 to 54 years old diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer from 1980 to 1982. Controls were women selected by random digit dialing. Tumor samples were analyzed for p53 overexpression using immunohistochemistry. Case-case and case-control conditional logistic regression models matched on age and diagnosing centers were used to calculate odds ratios (OR's) and 95% confidence intervals (CI's) for borderline, malignant, mucinous, and nonmucinous tumors, and p53 positive and p53 negative cases. The OR's for high number of lifetime ovulatory cycles (376-533 compared with less than 234) were 3.1 (95% CI 1.6-6.1) for malignant and 1.4 (95% CI 0.5-3.7) for borderline cases. The high number of ovulatory cycles was also a strong risk factor among nonmucinous cases. OR's for current and recent ex-smokers compared with never smokers were 2.8 (95% CI 1.7-4.8) for mucinous and 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1) for nonmucinous types. Infertility showed a positive association with borderline ovarian cancer. Family history of ovarian or breast cancer was positively associated with malignant and nonmucinous cases. Parity had an inverse association with malignant ovarian cancer cases. When cases were subdivided by p53 results, the OR for tobacco smoking and p53 positive ovarian cancer was elevated for mucinous (OR = 3.9; 95% CI 0.8-18) at localized stage. Alcohol use showed a positive association with p53 positive malignant cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.2) and with p53 positive nonmucinous cases at advanced stage (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.2-3.4). A positive association between high number of ovulatory cycles and p53 positive malignant cases was observed in cases with localized stage (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.0-45) and advanced

  3. Hypoxia Drives Breast Tumor Malignancy through a TET-TNFα-p38-MAPK Signaling Axis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Zu; Chen, Su-Feng; Nieh, Shin; Benner, Christopher; Ger, Luo-Ping; Jan, Chia-Ing; Ma, Li; Chen, Chien-Hung; Hishida, Tomoaki; Chang, Hong-Tai; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Montserrat, Nuria; Gascon, Pedro; Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2015-09-15

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors that drives malignant progression by altering epigenetic controls. In breast tumors, aberrant DNA methylation is a prevalent epigenetic feature associated with increased risk of metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the mechanism by which hypoxia alters DNA methylation or other epigenetic controls that promote breast malignancy remains poorly understood. We discovered that hypoxia deregulates TET1 and TET3, the enzymes that catalyze conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), thereby leading to breast tumor-initiating cell (BTIC) properties. TET1/3 and 5hmC levels were closely associated with tumor hypoxia, tumor malignancy, and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Mechanistic investigations showed that hypoxia leads to genome-wide changes in DNA hydroxymethylation associated with upregulation of TNFα expression and activation of its downstream p38-MAPK effector pathway. Coordinate functions of TET1 and TET3 were also required to activate TNFα-p38-MAPK signaling as a response to hypoxia. Our results reveal how signal transduction through the TET-TNFα-p38-MAPK signaling axis is required for the acquisition of BTIC characteristics and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo, with potential implications for how to eradicate BTIC as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:26294212

  4. Current Understanding of Circulating Tumor Cells – Potential Value in Malignancies of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Lukasz A.; Williams, Hannah; Frankow, Aleksandra; Ellis, Hayley Patricia; Haynes, Harry R.; Perks, Claire; Holly, Jeff M. P.; Kurian, Kathreena M.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood via so-called “liquid biopsies” carries enormous clinical potential in malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS) because of the potential to follow disease evolution with a blood test, without the need for repeat neurosurgical procedures with their inherent risk of patient morbidity. To date, studies in non-CNS malignancies, particularly in breast cancer, show increasing reproducibility of detection methods for these rare tumor cells in the circulation. However, no method has yet received full recommendation to use in clinical practice, in part because of lack of a sufficient evidence base regarding clinical utility. In CNS malignancies, one of the main challenges is finding a suitable biomarker for identification of these cells, because automated systems, such as the widely used Cell Search system, are reliant on markers, such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule, which are not present in CNS tumors. This review examines methods for CTC enrichment and detection, and reviews the progress in non-CNS tumors and the potential for using this technique in human brain tumors. PMID:26322014

  5. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: a case-report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alves Filho, Wellington; Mahmoud, Renata Regina da Graça Lorencetti; Ramos, Daniel Marin; Araujo-Filho, Vergilius José Furtado de; Lima, Patricia Picciarelli de; Cernea, Claudio Roberto; Brandão, Lenine Garcia

    2014-06-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon spindle-cell neoplasm that most often involves the pleura, rarely occurring in extra-thoracic locations. Twenty-six cases of SFT arising in the thyroid gland have been described. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman presenting an 8-month history of enlargement of the neck associated with dysphagia. The patient underwent a right hemithyroidectomy and SFT of the thyroid was diagnosed. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for CD34 marker, and the high number of mitoses and the presence of cellular atypia suggested that the tumor was malignant. To our knowledge, this is the second case of malignant SFT of the thyroid gland ever reported. Due to the rarity of these tumors, the indication of adjuvant therapy and prognosis are uncertain. Long-term follow-up after surgical resection seems to be advisable.

  6. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as orbito temporal lump: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu S.; Mishra, Sanjib; Das, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. The most common anatomical sites include the upper and lower extremities and trunk and less commonly the head and neck. To our knowledge, few patients with a cranial or facial MPNST have been reported. We report such a lesion in a 35-year-old woman who presented with left sided rapidly progressive proptosis and visual loss due to an orbital lump extending up to the temporal lobe. Cranial imaging showed a huge mass invading the orbital wall and temporal bone. The presumptive diagnosis was a malignant orbital tumor. Preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology of the orbital mass came to be neurofibroma. Near total resection of the tumor was done. Histopathology revealed MPNST which was subsequently confirmed on the basis of immunopositivity for S-100. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 8 days after surgery with an advice to attend cancer institute for possible radiotherapy. PMID:27057226

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor presenting as orbito temporal lump: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Souvagya; Mishra, Sudhansu S; Mishra, Sanjib; Das, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is a rare soft tissue sarcoma. The most common anatomical sites include the upper and lower extremities and trunk and less commonly the head and neck. To our knowledge, few patients with a cranial or facial MPNST have been reported. We report such a lesion in a 35-year-old woman who presented with left sided rapidly progressive proptosis and visual loss due to an orbital lump extending up to the temporal lobe. Cranial imaging showed a huge mass invading the orbital wall and temporal bone. The presumptive diagnosis was a malignant orbital tumor. Preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology of the orbital mass came to be neurofibroma. Near total resection of the tumor was done. Histopathology revealed MPNST which was subsequently confirmed on the basis of immunopositivity for S-100. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 8 days after surgery with an advice to attend cancer institute for possible radiotherapy. PMID:27057226

  8. Epithelial-mesenchymal, mesenchymal-epithelial, and endothelial-mesenchymal transitions in malignant tumors: An update

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Sabin; Kovecsi, Attila; Contac, Anca Otilia; Jung, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) represents conversion of an epithelial cell in an elongated cell with mesenchymal phenotype, which can occur in physiologic and pathologic processes such as embryogenesis (type 1 EMT), wound healing and/or fibrosis (type 2 EMT) and malignant tumors (type 3 EMT). The proliferation rate, metastasizing and recurrence capacity, as also the individualized response at chemotherapics, in both epithelial and mesenchymal malignant tumors is known to be influenced by reversible switch between EMT and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Although much research work has already been done in these fields, the specific molecular pathways of EMT, relating to the tumor type and tumor localization, are yet to be elucidated. In this paper, based on the literature and personal experience of the authors, an update in the field of EMT vs MET in epithelial and mesenchymal tumors is presented. The authors tried to present the latest data about the particularities of these processes, and also of the so-called endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on tumor location. The EMT-angiogenesis link is discussed as a possible valuable parameter for clinical follow-up and targeted therapeutic oncologic management. The paper begins with presentation of the basic aspects of EMT, its classification and assessment possibilities, and concludes with prognostic and therapeutic perspectives. The particularities of EMT and MET in gastric and colorectal carcinomas, pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinomas, and lung, breast and prostate cancers, respectively in sarcomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors are presented in detail. PMID:25984514

  9. Molecular analyses of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Enlund, Fredrik; Persson, Fredrik; Stenman, Göran

    2004-12-01

    Deletions affecting the long arm of chromosome 6 are a characteristic feature of all major subtypes of malignant salivary gland tumors. Moreover, a subgroup of adenoid cystic carcinomas have t(6;9)(q23-25;p21-24) translocations with breakpoints located within the commonly deleted region. Here we have examined the possible involvement of the candidate tumor suppressor gene, PLAGL1, in these deletions and translocations. Northern blot and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of a series of 27 salivary gland tumors revealed no significant changes in the gene expression or rearrangements of PLAGL1. FISH analysis also demonstrated that the 6q translocation breakpoint in adenoid cystic carcinomas with t(6;9) is proximal to the PLAGL1 locus. Collectively, these results indicate that PLAGL1 is not likely to be the major target gene of the 6q rearrangements in salivary gland tumors.

  10. Bone morphogenetic protein modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and controls invasive cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Heinke, J; Kerber, M; Rahner, S; Mnich, L; Lassmann, S; Helbing, T; Werner, M; Patterson, C; Bode, C; Moser, M

    2012-06-14

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that exert important functions in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Till date, multiple human tumors have been reported to display a dysregulation of several members of the BMP pathway that is associated with enhanced malignant tumor growth and metastasis. BMPER (BMP endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator) is a direct BMP modulator that is necessary for BMPs to exert their full-range signaling activity. Moreover, BMPER is expressed by endothelial cells and their progenitors, and has pro-angiogenic features in these cells. Here, we describe the expression of BMPER in human specimens of lung, colon and cervix carcinomas and cell lines derived from such carcinomas. In contrast to healthy tissues, BMPER is highly expressed upon malignant deterioration. Functionally, loss of BMPER in the lung tumor cell line A549 impairs proliferation, migration, invasion as well as tumor cell-induced endothelial cell sprout formation. In contrast, stimulation of A549 cells with exogenous BMPER had no further effect. We found that the BMPER effect may be transduced by regulation of the BMP target transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 9 and 2. These facilitators of cell migration are downregulated when BMPER is absent. To prove the relevance of our in vitro results in vivo, we generated Lewis lung carcinoma cells with impaired BMPER expression and implanted them into the lungs of C57BL/6 mice. In this model, the absence of BMPER resulted in severely reduced tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Taken together, these data unequivocally demonstrate that the BMP modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and tumor growth is dependent on the presence of BMPER.

  11. Bone morphogenetic protein modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and controls invasive cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Heinke, J; Kerber, M; Rahner, S; Mnich, L; Lassmann, S; Helbing, T; Werner, M; Patterson, C; Bode, C; Moser, M

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that exert important functions in cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Till date, multiple human tumors have been reported to display a dysregulation of several members of the BMP pathway that is associated with enhanced malignant tumor growth and metastasis. BMPER (BMP endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator) is a direct BMP modulator that is necessary for BMPs to exert their full-range signaling activity. Moreover, BMPER is expressed by endothelial cells and their progenitors, and has pro-angiogenic features in these cells. Here, we describe the expression of BMPER in human specimens of lung, colon and cervix carcinomas and cell lines derived from such carcinomas. In contrast to healthy tissues, BMPER is highly expressed upon malignant deterioration. Functionally, loss of BMPER in the lung tumor cell line A549 impairs proliferation, migration, invasion as well as tumor cell-induced endothelial cell sprout formation. In contrast, stimulation of A549 cells with exogenous BMPER had no further effect. We found that the BMPER effect may be transduced by regulation of the BMP target transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (Id1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 9 and 2. These facilitators of cell migration are down-regulated when BMPER is absent. To prove the relevance of our in vitro results in vivo, we generated Lewis lung carcinoma cells with impaired BMPER expression and implanted them into the lungs of C57BL/6 mice. In this model, the absence of BMPER resulted in severely reduced tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Taken together, these data unequivocally demonstrate that the BMP modulator BMPER is highly expressed in malignant tumors and tumor growth is dependent on the presence of BMPER. PMID:22020334

  12. Malignant mixed tumors of the salivary gland: a study of loss of heterozygosity in tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Melissa H; Fowler, Jason; Ducatman, Barbara; Barnes, Leon; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2006-03-01

    Carcinosarcomas and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands are rare tumors that fit into the broader category of malignant mixed tumors. Although most evidence has suggested that the different morphologic components arise from a common clonal origin, there are very few studies that have provided molecular evidence for this clonality. In this study, we examined a set of seven carcinosarcomas and four carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma for tumor suppressor gene loss of heterozygosity, in order to assess the clonal patterns in the varying components. Microdissection was performed to obtain each morphological component and tumor suppressor gene loci on 3p, 5q, 9p, 17p, 17q, and 18q were analyzed. The fractional allelic loss (FAL) was calculated for each area, and the different targets were compared for their molecular profile. The overall mean FAL of the malignant targets was 42%. In carcinosarcomas, the sarcomatous targets had a higher mean FAL than the carcinomatous targets (68 vs 46%, respectively) and in carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma, the mean FAL in the benign component was 11 vs 46% seen in the carcinomatous component. The most frequently lost genetic loci were p53 (17p13, 73%), nm23-H1 (17q21, 55%), and DCC (18q21, 50%). Loss of heterozygosity of 17q21 and 9p21 only occurred in carcinosarcomas and not in carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma. Within the carcinosarcomas, the mutational profiles were conserved between epithelial and sarcomatous areas. In carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma, loss of heterozygosity was uncommon in the benign component, but the mutations were conserved in the corresponding malignant areas. These results support the hypothesis that the carcinomatous and sarcomatous components of carcinosarcomas are clonally related. Furthermore, these data support prior studies that suggest a common clonal origin for the benign and malignant components of carcinomas ex pleomorphic adenoma.

  13. Partial dependence of breast tumor malignancy on ultrasound image features derived from boosted trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Su; Li, Wenying; Chen, Yaqing; Lu, Hongtao; Chen, Wufan; Chen, Yazhu

    2010-04-01

    Various computerized features extracted from breast ultrasound images are useful in assessing the malignancy of breast tumors. However, the underlying relationship between the computerized features and tumor malignancy may not be linear in nature. We use the decision tree ensemble trained by the cost-sensitive boosting algorithm to approximate the target function for malignancy assessment and to reflect this relationship qualitatively. Partial dependence plots are employed to explore and visualize the effect of features on the output of the decision tree ensemble. In the experiments, 31 image features are extracted to quantify the sonographic characteristics of breast tumors. Patient age is used as an external feature because of its high clinical importance. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the tree ensembles can reach 0.95 with sensitivity of 0.95 (61/64) at the associated specificity 0.74 (77/104). The partial dependence plots of the four most important features are demonstrated to show the influence of the features on malignancy, and they are in accord with the empirical observations. The results can provide visual and qualitative references on the computerized image features for physicians, and can be useful for enhancing the interpretability of computer-aided diagnosis systems for breast ultrasound.

  14. A pathology study of malignant and benign ovarian tumors among atomic-bomb survivors--case series report.

    PubMed

    Inai, Kouki; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kawai, Kioko; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Land, Charles E; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2006-03-01

    The present article describes the series of incident primary ovarian tumors in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, with particular emphasis on case ascertainment and characterization of histological features of the tumors. We identified 723 ovarian tumors (260 malignant, 463 benign) in 648 individuals of about 70,000 female LSS subjects; 71 cases had more than one ovarian tumor. We histologically confirmed 601 tumors (182 malignant, 419 benign tumors). The most frequent histological type was common epithelial tumor (90.7% for malignant and 59.7% for benign tumors). The distributions of ovarian tumors by histological type were similar to those from other studies. Among malignancies, the frequency of common epithelial types relative to other tumor types increased with radiation dose (p = 0.02). Among benign tumors, the relative frequency of sex-cord stromal tumors increased with radiation dose (p = 0.04). The women with mucinous cancer had better survival than those with serous cancers (p = 0.03). Within tumor types, there was no consistent pattern of survival by radiation dose. Variations in histological types of ovarian tumors in response to radiation dose, suggested by the case series data need to be followed up by population-based incidence analysis.

  15. Tumor Volume-Adapted Dosing in Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy of Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Trakul, Nicholas; Chang, Christine N.; Harris, Jeremy; Chapman, Christopher; Rao, Aarti; Shen, John; Quinlan-Davidson, Sean; Filion, Edith J.; Wakelee, Heather A.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Whyte, Richard I.; and others

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Current stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) protocols for lung tumors prescribe a uniform dose regimen irrespective of tumor size. We report the outcomes of a lung tumor volume-adapted SABR dosing strategy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the outcomes in 111 patients with a total of 138 primary or metastatic lung tumors treated by SABR, including local control, regional control, distant metastasis, overall survival, and treatment toxicity. We also performed subset analysis on 83 patients with 97 tumors treated with a volume-adapted dosing strategy in which small tumors (gross tumor volume <12 mL) received single-fraction regimens with biologically effective doses (BED) <100 Gy (total dose, 18-25 Gy) (Group 1), and larger tumors (gross tumor volume {>=}12 mL) received multifraction regimens with BED {>=}100 Gy (total dose, 50-60 Gy in three to four fractions) (Group 2). Results: The median follow-up time was 13.5 months. Local control for Groups 1 and 2 was 91.4% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.24) at 12 months. For primary lung tumors only (excluding metastases), local control was 92.6% and 91.7%, respectively (p = 0.58). Regional control, freedom from distant metastasis, and overall survival did not differ significantly between Groups 1 and 2. Rates of radiation pneumonitis, chest wall toxicity, and esophagitis were low in both groups, but all Grade 3 toxicities developed in Group 2 (p = 0.02). Conclusion: A volume-adapted dosing approach for SABR of lung tumors seems to provide excellent local control for both small- and large-volume tumors and may reduce toxicity.

  16. Expression of the ERBB2 protein in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sandros, J; Nordkvist, A; Mark, J; Sahlin, P

    1991-03-01

    Fifty-two primary human salivary gland tumors were analyzed for expression of the p185ERBB2 protein using immunohistochemical and immunoblotting techniques. About 63% (33/52) of the tumors expressed the ERBB2 protein. The highest expression levels were detected among the carcinomas, where 32% of the tumors showed intense membrane staining in 25-100% of the tumor cells. In benign pleomorphic adenomas, the corresponding figure was only 12%. Clinical follow-up data available for 18 of the 19 patients with carcinomas suggested an association between high ERBB2 protein levels and poor prognosis as measured by recurrence of disease and/or the appearance of metastases. These results indicate that ERBB2 activation and overexpression could be an important genetic event with possible prognostic implications in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors.

  17. Over-expression of tetraspanin 8 in malignant glioma regulates tumor cell progression

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Si-Jian; Wu, Yue-Bing; Cai, Shang; Pan, Yi-Xin; Liu, Wei; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang

    2015-03-13

    Tumor cell invasion and proliferation remain the overwhelming causes of death for malignant glioma patients. To establish effective therapeutic methods, new targets implied in these processes have to be identified. Tetraspanin 8 (Tspn8) forms complexes with a large variety of trans-membrane and/or cytosolic proteins to regulate several important cellular functions. In the current study, we found that Tspn8 was over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues, and its expression level correlated with the grade of tumors. Tspn8 expression in malignant glioma cells (U251MG and U87MG lines) is important for cell proliferation and migration. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Tspn8 markedly reduced in vitro proliferation and migration of U251MG and U87MG cells. Meanwhile, Tspn8 silencing also increased the sensitivity of temozolomide (TMZ), and significantly increased U251MG or U87MG cell death and apoptosis by TMZ were achieved with Tspn8 knockdown. We observed that Tspn8 formed a complex with activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in both human malignant glioma tissues and in above glioma cells. This complexation appeared required for FAK activation, since Tspn8 knockdown inhibited FAK activation in U251MG and U87MG cells. These results provide evidence that Tspn8 contributes to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma probably by promoting proliferation, migration and TMZ-resistance of glioma cells. Therefore, targeting Tspn8 may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for malignant glioma. - Highlights: • Tspn8 is over-expressed in multiple clinical malignant glioma tissues. • Tspn8 expression is correlated with the grade of malignant gliomas. • Tspn8 knockdown suppresses U251MG/U87MG proliferation and in vitro migration. • Tspn8 knockdown significantly increases TMZ sensitivity in U251MG/U87MG cells. • Tspn8 forms a complex with FAK, required for FAK activation.

  18. [Utility of hyperbaric oxygenation in radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Beppu, Takaaki; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Kohshi, Kiyotaka

    2009-06-01

    Over the past 50 years, hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy has been used in a wide variety of medical conditions; this theraphy causes an increase in oxygen tension in blood and tissues. In the treatment of malignant gliomas, HBO therapy is used for the radiosensitization of cells in combination with radiotherapy (RT). Further, HBO therapy is applied for the treatment and prevention of radiation-induced brain necrosis that is the most serious complication observed after radiosurgery. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the manner in which HBO therapy contributes to clinical fields in cases of RT administration for malignant brain tumors.

  19. Malignant mixed müllerian tumor of primary peritoneal origin☆

    PubMed Central

    Kanis, Margaux; Kesterson, Joshua P.; Shroff, Stuti; Lele, Shashikant; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe 2 cases of primary peritoneal malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT). Two patients with primary peritoneal MMMT were examined for their clinical and pathologic features. We describe 2 cases of primary peritoneal MMMT in which the carcinomatous and mesenchymal components were readily identifiable, predominantly involving the peritoneum, with no ovarian involvement. The peritoneum and ovaries, with their common embryologic origin, likely account for the peritoneum’s ability to undergo a similar malignant transformation, with the resultant genesis of an MMMT of peritoneal origin. PMID:20952288

  20. Malignant mixed tumor of salivary gland with a solitary metastasis to the tibia.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, O; Onder, C; Yildiz, K

    2001-05-01

    A 23-year-old, male patient previously operated on four times for a recurring, benign, paranasal mass was admitted to our clinic with pain and swelling under the knee. Physical and radiological examination revealed a malignant process. The histopathological examination of the fine-needle biopsy specimen of the tibia was a malignant mixed tumor. Then. en-bloc resection, free fibular grafting, and fixation with blade plate was performed for one-third of the tibia, conserving the knee joint. Recurrences and metastasis were not observed after surgery and radiotherapy.

  1. Kallikrein 4 and matrix metalloproteinase-20 immunoexpression in malignant, benign and infiltrative odontogenic tumors

    PubMed Central

    Crivelini, Marcelo Macedo; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; de Mesquita, Ricardo Alves; de Sousa, Suzana Cantanhede Orsini Machado; Loyola, Adriano Motta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) (enamelysin) and kallikrein 4 (KLK4) are enzymes secreted by ameloblasts that play an important role in enamel matrix degradation during amelogenesis. However, studies have shown that neoplastic cells can produce such enzymes, which may affect the tumor infiltrative and metastatic behaviors. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the biological role of MMP20 and KLK4 in odontogenic tumors. Materials and Methods: The enzymes were analyzed immunohistochemically in ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT), calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, keratocystic odontogenic tumor with or without recurrence and odontogenic carcinoma. Statistical Analysis Used: Clinicopathological parameters were statistically correlated with protein expression using the Fisher's exact test. Kruskal–Wallis and Wilcoxon-independent methods were used to evaluate the differences in median values. Results: Positive Immunoexpression was detected in all benign lesions, with a prevalence of 75–100% immunolabeled cells. Patients were predominantly young, Caucasian, female, with slow-growing tumors located in the mandible causing asymptomatic swelling. No KLK4 expression was seen in carcinomas, and the amount of MMP20-positive cells varied between 20% and 80%. Rapid evolution, recurrence and age >60 years characterized the malignant nature of these lesions. Conclusions: Data showed that KLK4 and MMP20 enzymes may not be crucial to tumoral infiltrative capacity, especially in malignant tumors, considering the diversity and peculiarity of these lesions. The significant immunoexpression in benign lesions, remarkably in AOT, is likely associated with differentiated tumor cells that can produce and degrade enamel matrix-like substances. This would be expected since the histogenesis of odontogenic tumors commonly comes from epithelium that recently performed a secretory activity in tooth formation. PMID:27601817

  2. MicroRNA142-3p promotes tumor-initiating and radioresistant properties in malignant pediatric brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Yen; Yang, Yi-Ping; Huang, Ming-Chao; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yen, Sang-Hue; Huang, Pin-I; Chen, Yi-Wei; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Lan, Yuan-Tzu; Ma, Hsin-I; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Teh

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is an extremely malignant pediatric brain tumor observed in infancy and childhood. It has been reported that a subpopulation of CD133(+) cells isolated from ATRT tumors present with cancer stem-like and radioresistant properties. However, the exact biomolecular mechanisms of ATRT or CD133-positive ATRT (ATRT-CD133(+)) cells are still unclear. We have previously shown that ATRT-CD133(+) cells have pluripotent differentiation ability and the capability of malignant cells to be highly resistant to ionizing radiation (IR). By using microRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR in this study, we showed that expression of miR142-3p was lower in ATRT-CD133(+) cells than in ATRT-CD133(-) cells. miR142-3p overexpression significantly inhibited the self-renewal and tumorigenicity of ATRT-CD133(+) cells. On the contrary, silencing of endogenous miR142-3p dramatically increased the tumor-initiating and stem-like cell capacities in ATRT cells or ATRT-CD133(-) cells and further promoted the mesenchymal transitional and radioresistant properties of ATRT cells. Most importantly, therapeutic delivery of miR142-3p in ATRT cells effectively reduced its lethality by blocking tumor growth, repressing invasiveness, increasing radiosensitivity, and prolonging survival time in orthotropic-transplanted immunocompromised mice. These results demonstrate the prospect of developing novel miRNA-based strategies to block the stem-like and radioresistant properties of malignant pediatric brain cancer stem cells. PMID:24816458

  3. Benign, malignant salivary gland tumors: comparison of immunohistochemical expression of e-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Sudeendra; Kaveri, H; Rekha, K

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess any variation in the immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A total of 60 cases of benign and malignant salivary gland tumors were evaluated immunohistochemically for E-cadherin expression. These included 10 cases of pleomorphic adenoma (PA), 2 cases of canalicular adenoma (CA), 2 cases of myoepithelioma (MY), 24 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), 12 cases of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC), 9 cases of adenocarcinoma (AC) and 1 case of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca Ex PA). 48 cases (80%) showed positive expression, in which benign tumors exhibited relatively increased reactivity (85.7%) as compared to the malignant tumors (78.3%). 10 PA, 2 MY, 20 ACC, 9 MEC, 6 AC and 1 Ca Ex PA expressed E-cadherin. Negative expression was evident in CA, ACC, MEC and AC. Statistically significant reduction in reactivity was evident in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, when compared to pleomorphic adenoma.

  4. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K. )

    1990-06-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system.

  5. Comparison of the expression of 5 heat shock proteins in benign and malignant salivary gland tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guilan; Gu, Xiaolin; Chen, Li; Wang, Yinmei; Cao, Bin; E, Qun

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the significance and potential value of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in salivary gland tumors. We found that expression of HSP60, HSP70, HSP86 and HSP84 were all upregulated in both salivary gland benign tumors and malignant tumors, and that the expression of HSP70, HSP86 and HSP84 was more greatly overexpressed in the malignant tumors (each P<0.01). For HSP27, expression was upregulated both in malignant and benign tumors, with less expression observed in malignant tumors (P<0.01). In malignant tumors, expression of HSP27 was negatively correlated with the age of the patients, size of the tumor tissue, occurrence of neural invasion and metastasis (each P<0.05). Additionally, in malignant tumors, HSP70 and HSP86 were both positively correlated with occurrence site, neural invasion and metastasis (each P<0.05), while HSP60 was only negatively correlated with the age of the patients (P<0.05). HSP86 was also positively correlated with malignant degree (P<0.01). In malignant tumors, the proliferation index (PI), which was marked by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA; PCNA-PI) was 49.95±14.569, which was significantly higher compared with that in benign tumors (P<0.001), which was in accordance with the upregulation of HSP70, HSP86 or HSP84; however, an adverse correlation was found between HSP27 expression and PCNA (each P<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that HSPs are involved in the occurrence and development of salivary gland tumors. HSP70, HSP86 and HSP84 retained the higher multiplication capability of the malignant tumor cells, however, HSP27 did not. Thus, the upregulation of HSP70, HSP86 and HSP84 and the downregulation of HSP27 may all be used as biomarkers of the occurrence and development of malignant salivary gland tumors. Moreover, the extremely high expression of HSP86 and HSP84 in benign tumors indicates the malignant transformation potential.

  6. PAX2 Expression in Low Malignant Potential Ovarian Tumors and Low-Grade Ovarian Serous Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Celestine S.; Mok, Samuel C.; Tsang, Yvonne T.M.; Zu, Zhifei; Song, Huijuan; Liu, Jinsong; Deavers, Michael; Malpica, Anais; Wolf, Judith K.; Lu, Karen H.; Gershenson, David M.; Wong, Kwong-Kwok

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas are thought to represent different stages on a tumorigenic continuum and to develop along pathways distinct from high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. We performed gene expression profiling on 3 normal human ovarian surface epithelia samples, and 10 low-grade and 10 high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. Analysis of gene expression profiles of these samples has identified 80 genes up-regulated and 232 genes down-regulated in low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas. PAX2 was found to be one of the most up-regulated genes in low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma. The up-regulation of PAX2 was validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated a statistically significant difference in PAX2 mRNA expression (expressed as fold change in comparison to normal human ovarian surface epithelia) among ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (1837.38, N=8), low-grade (183.12, N=17), and high-grade (3.72, N=23) carcinoma samples (p=0.015). Western blot analysis revealed strong PAX2 expression in ovarian tumors of low-malignant potential (67%, N=3) and low-grade carcinoma samples (50%, N=10) but no PAX2 protein expression in high-grade carcinomas (0%, N=10). Using immunohistochemistry, tumors of low-malignant potential (59%, N=17) and low-grade carcinoma (63%, N=16) samples expressed significantly stronger nuclear staining than high-grade ovarian carcinoma samples (9.1%, N=263). Furthermore, consistent with previous immunohistochemical findings, PAX2 expression was found to be expressed in the epithelial cells of fallopian tubes but not in normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our findings further support the two-tiered hypothesis that tumors of low-malignant potential and low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma are on a continuum and are distinct from high-grade ovarian carcinomas. Additionally, the absence of PAX2 expression in normal

  7. Prostatic Stromal Tumor of Uncertain Malignant Potential Which Was Difficult to Diagnose

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Satoko; Nohara, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Seto, Chikashi; Nakanishi, Yuko; Uchiyama, Akio; Ishizawa, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a case of stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) that was difficult to diagnose. A 53-year-old male was found to have a hard nodule on digital rectal examination; magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large nodule on the left side of the prostate, indicating prostate cancer. However, pathological diagnosis of the biopsy specimen was benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although a papillary tumor in the prostatic urethra was also seen on urethrocystoscopy, the tumor specimen obtained from transurethral resection was not malignant. The tumor in the prostatic urethra recurred only 3 months after transurethral resection, and pathological findings revealed benign hyperplasia not only in the stromal tissue but also in the epithelium; therefore, the prostate tumor was suspected to be STUMP. It took many prostate pathologists a long time to reach the final diagnosis of STUMP. STUMP is a rare benign tumor, difficult to diagnose, and sometimes transforms into stromal sarcoma. Thus, we should consider radical resection in such cases. PMID:26839730

  8. Expression of β-adrenergic receptors in pediatric malignant brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    SARDI, IACOPO; GIUNTI, LAURA; BRESCI, CECILIA; BUCCOLIERO, ANNA MARIA; DEGL’INNOCENTI, DUCCIO; CARDELLICCHIO, STEFANIA; BARONI, GIANNA; CASTIGLIONE, FRANCESCA; ROS, MARTINA DA; FIORINI, PATRIZIO; GIGLIO, SABRINA; GENITORI, LORENZO; ARICÒ, MAURIZIO; FILIPPI, LUCA

    2013-01-01

    β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors that activate signal transduction pathways involved in angiogenesis, resulting in enhanced tumor vascularization and more aggressive growth. In this study, we evaluated the expression of β-ARs in a population of 12 children affected by malignant primary brain tumors. We found a significant expression of β1- and β2-ARs in all 12 samples as well as the 3 cell lines tested (U87MG, T98G and DAOY). The mean absolute β1-AR mRNA level standardized to GAPDH was 5.81 (range, -7.91 to 11.29) for brain tumors and 8.59 (range, 6.046 to 12.59) for cell lines (U87MG, DAOY and T98G), respectively. The mean absolute β2-AR mRNA level was 4.74 (range, −9.30 to 8.45) for tumor specimens and 7.64 (range, 5.85 to 8.88) for cell lines. These real-time quantitative (qRT)-PCR expression data were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Our study evaluated the presence of β1- and β2-ARs in malignant pediatric brain tumors and brain tumor cell lines. PMID:23255924

  9. Malignant glomus tumor with oncocytic features: an unusual presentation of dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Nesrin; Yercİ, Ömer; Yalçınkaya, Ulviye; Gülcü, Barış; Öztürk, Ersin; Yıldırım, Çınar; Çavuşoğlu, İlkin

    2015-07-01

    Glomus tumors in the gastrointestinal tract are unusual, as the previous series in the literature have been mainly limited to the stomach. Less than 10 cases of esophageal glomus tumors have been described in the literature. Oncocytic glomus tumors are a recently identified, rare variant of the glomus tumor. We report a 47-year-old female who presented with an approximately 3-month history of dysphagia and weight loss. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a black-purple, hypervascular, protruding lesion measuring approximately 65 mm at the 37th cm of the esophagus. The patient underwent an Ivor Lewis operation via open thoracotomy. The resected specimen had a protuberant, ulcerated mass measuring 80 × 35 mm in the posterior wall of the esophagus. Based on the histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscope findings, the final diagnosis was a malignant glomus tumor with oncocytic features. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a malignant glomus tumor with oncocytic features in an esophageal location. PMID:25908295

  10. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor with high-grade nuclear atypia: an alternate entity for the undetermined tumor group.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuichi; Kohashi, Kenichi; Bekki, Hirofumi; Ishii, Takeaki; Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yoshinao

    2015-02-01

    Recently, a novel fusion transcript, NAB2-STAT6, and its variants have also been reported to be specific diagnostic markers for solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs). In this study, we validated the existence of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene in SFTs and examined its relation with the pathological features. Frozen samples from 9 tumors were assessed for fusion gene. The detected fusion genes exhibited large intron sequences and the insertion of unknown and previously unreported sequences. The fusion genes were not detected in the 2 malignant cases with high-grade nuclear atypia, nuclear pleomorphism and necrosis, that was confirmed by multiplex PCR method. In addition, 1 of the 2 NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene-negative tumors showed amplification of the MDM2 and CDK4 genes. It was suggested that a certain proportion of tumors previously diagnosed as malignant SFTs with high-grade nuclear atypia lacking NAB2-STAT6 should be categorized into a special subtype of SFT, which is genetically different from conventional SFTs, and which cannot be apparently distinguished from dedifferentiated liposarcoma or undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

  11. A subset of malignant phyllodes tumors express p63 and p40: a diagnostic pitfall in breast core needle biopsies.

    PubMed

    Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Sharma, Rajni; Illei, Peter B; Vang, Russell; Argani, Pedram

    2014-12-01

    Breast phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of variable grade, and one key differential of malignant phyllodes on core biopsy is sarcomatoid carcinoma. p63 is reported to be sensitive and specific for sarcomatoid carcinoma, with rare expression in phyllodes in limited series. The p63 deltaNp63 isoform, p40, is postulated to be more specific for squamous differentiation but has not previously been evaluated in breast phyllodes or sarcomatoid carcinoma. Tissue microarrays containing 34 unambiguous phyllodes tumors (10 benign, 10 borderline, 14 malignant), 13 sarcomatoid carcinomas, and 10 fibroadenomas were labeled by immunohistochemistry for p63, p40, CD34, and cytokeratins AE1/AE3, 34betaE12, and CK8/18. No borderline phyllodes tumor, benign phyllodes tumor, or fibroadenoma labeled with p63, p40, or cytokeratin. However, p63 labeled 57% malignant phyllodes tumors and 62% sarcomatoid carcinomas, and p40 labeled 29% malignant phyllodes (focal) and 46% sarcomatoid carcinomas. Among established markers, cytokeratins labeled 21% malignant phyllodes tumors (focal) and 100% sarcomatoid carcinomas. CD34 labeled 57% malignant phyllodes tumors and no sarcomatoid carcinomas. Focal p63, p40, and cytokeratin labeling can be seen in malignant phyllodes tumors but not in lower-grade fibroepithelial lesions, and immunoreactivity with these markers alone is not diagnostic of sarcomatoid carcinoma on core needle biopsy. In the differential diagnosis of malignant phyllodes, p40 is a more specific but less sensitive marker of sarcomatoid carcinoma than p63. These results are consistent with the sarcoma literature in which p63 labeling has been increasingly reported and suggest caution in classifying malignant spindle cell tumors of the breast on core biopsy.

  12. Benign and malignant ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified: case studies, comparison, and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Tao, Xiang; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Shaofen; Xu, Congjian

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (NOS) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary with malignant potential. So far only a few cases were reported in English literature through the Pubmed search. Here we report two cases of such tumor, one was benign (first case underwent laparoscopic cystectomy) and the other was malignant (died 10 months later after initial diagnosis), both presented with amenorrhea and clinical signs or symptoms of virilization. In malignant case, we provided evidence (tumor embolus) in addition to the reported five characteristics associated with malignancy. On further evaluation, laboratory investigations revealed hyperandrogenism in the male range, while follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) levels were within normal limits. Various aspects of the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors are discussed.

  13. Malignant mesenchymoma: a very rare tumor of the peritoneum. Case report with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hauser, H; Beham, A; Schmid, C; Uranüs, S

    1991-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old male patient with a malignant mesenchymoma. The tumor arose from the parietal peritoneum closely attached to the ascending colon. It consisted of a larger liposarcomatous and a smaller leiomyosarcomatous component which was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. To our knowledge this is the first report of a malignant mesenchymoma of this histological composition originating from the parietal peritoneum. The tumor was completely removed surgically, which is the treatment of choice for such tumors. In agreement with other authors, we believe that malignant mesenchymomas arise from a primitive mesenchymal cell with the capacity for totipotent differentiation.

  14. Breast malignant phyllodes tumor with rare pelvic metastases and long-term overall survival

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinlan; Zhang, Shizhen; Wang, Zhen; Fu, Yanbiao; Li, Ling; Wang, Xiaochen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Malignant phyllodes tumor (PT) is a rare fibro epithelial neoplasm of the breast, which is poor prognosis due to high risk of recurrence and distant metastasis. Methods: We report a case of malignant PT. It had recurred locally five times, and the sixth relapse was occurred 54 months after first diagnosis, presenting a huge pelvic mass (14 cm × 11 cm) by CT scan. Histopathological examination has demonstrated a metastatic phyllodes tumor. After postoperative chemotherapy treatment, a longer survival has been achieved, which is more than 72 months. Results: Our case report describes a breast PT with several local recurrences and a rare metastasis (pelvic cavity), but long-term overall survival was achieved after surgery and chemotherapy. Conclusion: We conclude that trustworthy prognosticators that identify patients with excessive potential of aggressive clinical course should be explored. Moreover, proper treatment could prolong overall survival of metastatic PT patients. PMID:27661051

  15. An aggressive solitary fibrous tumor with evidence of malignancy: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Vimi, S; Punnya, V A; Kaveri, H; Rekha, K

    2008-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is rare mesenchymal neoplasm that has been originally and most often documented in the pleura. Recently, the ubiquitous nature of the SFT has been recognized with reports of involvement of numerous sites all over the body, i.e, upper respiratory tract, breast, somatic tissue, mediastinum, head, and neck, etc. The diagnosis of SFT still remains an enigma in our field. Furthermore, malignant SFT is extremely rare and only two cases have been reported in the oral cavity till date. Here, we present a rare case report of an aggressive solitary fibrous tumor which presented as a palatal mass and extended throughout the middle cranial fossa and exhibited features of malignancy.

  16. Lung and skeleton malignant tumor induction due to high let emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Buldakov, L.A.; Lyubchansky, E.R.; Kalmikova, Z.I.; Buhtoyarova, Z.M.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental studies show that malignant tumor induction is of primary importance in regard to the biological action of transuranium elements on the animal body. Clarification of quantitative relationship between these parameters for low-level radiation is aproblem to be solved by health physics. This report aims at analysis of the dose-response relationship following rat exposure to PU-239, Am-241, and NP-237 over a wide range of doses, and also at comparison between risk fact obtained experimentally and tose recommended by the ICRP. The biological effect of transuranium elements was investigated regarding malignant tumor incidence in rat bone for all the pathways of intake covered and in the lung for intakes of radionuclides into the respiratory system.

  17. Multifrequency solid state YAG:Nd laser for diagnosis of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalayan, Asatur A.; Aidinian, Lusine E.; Galstian, Hayro M.

    1998-09-01

    The possibility of laser fluorescence diagnosis of malignant tumors with the aid of multifrequency (355, 440, 446, 532, 660, 670 nm) solid state YAG:Nd laser and the rise in accuracy of this method were discussed. Permitted for clinical employment sodium fluorescein has been used as human tumor-localizing dye. The fluorescence spectra of sodium fluorescein containing human normal tissue and breast, stomach, intestine, skin cancer during excitation with the third harmonics of YAG:Nd and with help of multichannel fiber-optic spectrofluorometer were studied. The contrast accumulation of the dye in tumors of different localization was investigated. The fluorescence spectra of chlorine e6, containing animal tissues at different excitation wavelength (355, 532 and 660 nm) were obtained. The pharmacokinetic behavior of chlorine e6, containing different organs and tumor tissues of rats, infected with Sarcoma-45 has been investigated.

  18. Comparison of Percutaneous Ablation Technologies in the Treatment of Malignant Liver Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyeon; Burke, Charles T.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique used to deliver chemical, thermal, electrical, or ultrasonic damage to a specific focal tumor in an attempt to achieve substantial tumor destruction or complete eradication. As the technology continues to advance, several image-guided tumor ablations have emerged to effectively manage primary and secondary malignancies in the liver. Percutaneous chemical ablation is one of the oldest and most established techniques for treating small hepatocellular carcinomas. However, this technique has been largely replaced by newer modalities including radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, cryoablation, high-intensity–focused ultrasound ablation, and irreversible electroporation. Because there exist significant differences in underlying technological bases, understanding each mechanism of action is essential for achieving desirable outcomes. In this article, the authors review the current state of each ablation method including technological and clinical considerations. PMID:25071303

  19. Tumor-induced solid stress activates β-catenin signaling to drive malignant behavior in normal, tumor-adjacent cells

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guanqing; Weaver, Valerie Marie

    2016-01-01

    Recent work by Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers examining the impact of applied pressure on the malignant phenotype of murine colon tissue in vivo revealed that mechanical perturbations can drive malignant behavior in genetically normal cells. Their findings build upon an existing understanding of how the mechanical cues experienced by cells within a tissue become progressively modified as the tissue transforms. Using magnetically stimulated ultra-magnetic liposomes to mimic tumor growth -induced solid stress, Fernández-Sánchez and coworkers were able to stimulate β-catenin to promote the cancerous behavior of both a normal and genetically modified colon epithelium. In this perspective, we discuss their findings in the context of what is currently known regarding the role of the mechanical landscape in cancer progression and β-catenin as a mechanotransducer. We review data that suggest that mechanically regulated activation of β-catenin fosters development of a malignant phenotype in tissue and predict that mechanical cues may contribute to tumor heterogeneity. PMID:26439949

  20. A massive chondroblastoma in the proximal humerus simulating malignant bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Manabe, Hiroaki; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Iwamoto, Seiji; Takao, Shoichiro; Kagawa, Seiko; Kudo, Eiji; Yasui, Natsuo

    2013-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a mostly benign bone neoplasm that typically affects the second decade of life and exhibits a lytic lesion in the epiphysis of long bones. We report an extreme case of massive, destructive chondroblastoma of the proximal humerus in a 9-year-old girl. It was difficult to differentiate using imaging information the lesion from malignant bone tumors such as osteosarcoma. Histopathological examination from biopsy proved chondroblastoma. The tumor was resected after preoperative transcatheter embolization. Reconstructive procedure for the proximal humerus was not performed due to the local destruction. The present case demonstrates clinical and radiological differentiations of the massive chondroblastoma from the other lesions and histopathological understandings for this lesion.

  1. Detection and Identification of Hematologic Malignancies and Solid Tumors by an Electrochemical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Xiaoping; Wang, Xuemei; Cheng, Jian; Chen, Baoan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Develop and evaluate an electrochemical method to identify healthy individuals, malignant hematopathic patients and solid tumor patients by detecting the leukocytes in whole-blood. Methods A total of 114 individual blood samples obtained from our affiliated hospital in China (June 2015- August 2015) were divided into three groups: healthy individuals (n = 35), hematologic malignancies (n = 41) and solid tumors (n = 38). An electrochemical workstation system was used to measure differential pulse voltammetry due to the different electrochemical behaviors of leukocytes in blood samples. Then, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analyze the scanning curves and to compare the peak potential and peak current. Results The scanning curve demonstrated the specific electrochemical behaviors of the blank potassium ferricyanide solution and that mixed with blood samples in different groups. Significant differences in mean peak potentials of mixture and shifts (ΔEp (mV)) were observed of the three groups (P< = 0.001). 106.00±9.00 and 3.14±7.48 for Group healthy individuals, 120.90±11.18 and 18.10±8.81 for Group hematologic malignancies, 136.84±11.53 and 32.89±10.50 for Group solid tumors, respectively. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the peak currents and shifts. Conclusions The newly developed method to apply the electrochemical workstation system to identify hematologic malignancies and solid tumors with good sensitivity and specificity might be effective, suggesting a potential utility in clinical application. PMID:27115355

  2. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis—mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no consensus on the role of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One year following the surgery, the patient had left-sided nephrectomy performed because of a rapidly growing tumor of the kidney. Renal cancer was suspected; however, a histopathological examination revealed that it was a metastatic phyllodes tumor. At the same time, the patient was diagnosed as having metastases in the other kidney, the lungs, liver, and bones. Our case report describes not only an unusual localization of the metastases (in the kidneys), but also failure of the chemotherapy and the aggressive course of malignant phyllodes tumor. Identification of patients with high risk for distant metastasis and the introduction of uniform rules for the management of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy would make planning treatment as efficacious as possible. PMID:26287414

  3. [Hormone dependence of malignant ovarian tumors--an in vitro model].

    PubMed

    Schieder, K; Bieglmayer, C; Kölbl, H

    1989-05-01

    The steroid hormone receptor content of 32 malignant ovarian tumors was compared with the in vitro effectiveness of 4 hydroxytamoxifen (OH-TAM) and medroxy-progesterone acetate (MPA) tested in the Human Tumor Colony Forming Assay (HTCFA). The sensitivity for the receptor determination was 5 fmol/mg cytosol protein. Estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) were found in 15 (47%) and 13 (41%) of the tumors respectively. As standard criteria for the HTCFA, a minimum of 30 colonies with a diameter of more than 60 microns and 100 microns was used in the control group. The in-vitro sensitivity of ovarian tumors to OH-TAM and MPA was independent on the ER or PR content, and amounted to 9% for OH-TAM and 6% for MPA. However, all 12 ER-PR-tumors proved resistant to OH-TAM and MPA. 18 ovarian tumors showed a sufficient colony growth, even in the size class exceeding 100 microns. With a minimum colony size of 60 microns and 100 microns, 17% and 33% respectively were sensitive to OH-TAM. A similar effect on the proliferative capacity of the Tumor Colony Forming Units (TCFUs), unrelated to PR, was observed with MPA. Dependent on colony size, we found an increasing sensitivity against MPA from 11% to 22%. The in-vitro effectiveness of both OH-TAM and MPA in the clonogenic assay of malignant ovarian tumors was certainly not as potent as suggested by the results obtained in biochemical steroid hormone receptor analysis. To prove the hormonal response in the HTCFA, it is necessary to determine number and size of the colonies as an expression of their proliferative potential.

  4. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K.; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P.; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis. PMID:26831065

  5. Concise review: genetically engineered stem cell therapy targeting angiogenesis and tumor stroma in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    PubMed

    Keung, Emily Z; Nelson, Peter J; Conrad, Claudius

    2013-02-01

    Cell-based gene therapy holds considerable promise for the treatment of human malignancy. Genetically engineered cells if delivered to sites of disease could alleviate symptoms or even cure cancer through expression of therapeutic or suicide transgene products. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), nonhematopoietic multipotent cells found primarily in bone marrow, have garnered particular interest as potential tumor-targeting vehicles due to their innate tumortropic homing properties. However, recent strategies go further than simply using MSCs as vehicles and use the stem cell-specific genetic make-up to restrict transgene expression to tumorigenic environments using tumor-tissue specific promoters. This addresses one of the concerns with this novel therapy that nonselective stem cell-based therapy could induce cancer rather than treat it. Even minimal off-target effects can be deleterious, motivating recent strategies to not only enhance MSC homing but also engineer them to make their antitumor effect selective to sites of malignancy. This review will summarize the advances made in the past decade toward developing novel cell-based cancer therapies using genetically engineered MSCs with a focus on strategies to achieve and enhance tumor specificity and their application to targeting gastrointestinal malignancies such as hepatocellular carcinoma and pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  6. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of tandem lesions in the skull and spine.

    PubMed

    Son, Seong; Lee, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Dong-Hae; Yoo, Chan Jong

    2013-09-01

    A Solitary Fibrous Tumor (Sft) Is A Rare Neoplasm Originated From The Pleura, But They Can Occur In A Variety Of Extrathoracic Regions. Although Many Cases Of Primary Sft Have Been Reported, There Are Extremely Rare Repots To Date Of A Malignant Sft In The Spine Or Skull. A 54-year-woman Visited Our Hospital Due To Low Back Pain And Both Leg Radiating Pain. Several Imaging Studies Including Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Computed Tomography Revealed Expansive Enhanced Lesions In The Occipital Bone, T8, S1-2, And Ilium, With Neural Tissue Compression. We Performed Surgical Resection Of The Tumor In Each Site, And Postoperative Radiosurgery And Chemotherapy Were Performed. However, After Six Months, Tumors Were Recurred And Metastasized In Multiple Regions Including Whole Spine And Lung. The Authors Report Here The First Case Of Patient With Malignant Sft Of Tandem Lesions In The Various Bony Structures, Including Skull, Thoracic Spine, And Sacral Spine, With A Rapid Recurrence And Metastasis. Although Malignant Sft Is Extremely Rare, It Should Be Considered In The Differential Diagnosis And Carful Follow-up Is Needed.

  7. Dynamic holographic endoscopy--ex vivo investigations of malignant tumors in the human stomach.

    PubMed

    Avenhaus, Wolfgang; Kemper, Björn; Knoche, Sabine; Domagk, Dirk; Poremba, Christopher; von Bally, Gert; Domschke, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    Laser holographic interferometry is based on the superimposition of the holograms of different motional states of an object on a single holographic storing medium. Using a combination of holographic interferometry and endoscopic imaging, we tried to detect areas of focally disturbed tissue elasticity in gastric cancer preparations. By connecting a mobile electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) camera system (light source: double frequency Nd:YAG laser, lambda = 532 nm) to different types of endoscopes, ex vivo experiments were performed on ten formalin fixed human stomachs, nine containing adenocarcinomas and one with a gastric lymphoma. Linking the endoscopic ESPI camera complex to a fast image processing system, the method of double pulse exposure image subtraction was applied at a video frame rate of 12.5 Hz. Speckle correlation patterns and corresponding phase difference distributions resulting from gastric wall deformation by gentle touch with a guide wire were analyzed. Tumor-free gastric areas showed high-contrast concentric fringes around the point of stimulation. In contrast, fringe patterns and filtered phase difference distributions corresponding to the areas of malignancy in all the cases were characterized by largely parallel lines, indicating that stimulation of rigid tumor tissue primarily led to tilting. Our ex vivo investigations of malignant gastric tumors show that the application of dynamic holographic endoscopy makes it possible to distinguish areas of malignancy from surrounding healthy tissue based on the differences in tissue elasticity. PMID:15726298

  8. Tumor microenvironment (TME)-driven immune suppression in B cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Nicole S; Apollonio, Benedetta; Ramsay, Alan G

    2016-03-01

    Immune checkpoint blockade antibodies and immunomodulatory drugs can unleash anti-tumor T cell immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions. However, only a fraction of patients currently respond to immunotherapy. Lymphoid malignancies are known to have clinically exploitable immune sensitivity and their intrinsic lymphoid tumor-microenvironment (TME) should make them natural targets for immunotherapy. However, accumulating evidence is showing that malignant cells engage in novel associations/interdependencies with reprogrammed immune and stromal cells in the TME that provide crucial contributions to the licencing of tumour progression and immune evasion (suppression of antitumor immune responses). In this review, we outline TME-driven contributions to the licencing of immune evasion mechanisms including the expression and activity of the immune checkpoint network, focussing on two types of B cell malignancy: indolent chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and aggressive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We also highlight recent therapeutic strategies to re-educate the TME to have anti-tumorigenic effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza.

  9. Malignant fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor (lipomatous hemangiopericytoma) in the neck: Imaging and histopathological findings of a case.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alice Duarte; Abrahão-Machado, Lucas Faria; Viana, Cristiano Ribeiro; de Castro Capuzzo, Renato; Mamere, Augusto Elias

    2013-03-01

    Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare variant of solitary fibrous tumor, a mesenchymal fibroblastic neoplasia with a particular branching hypervascular pattern. This tumor is usually classified as benign and only very few fat-forming SFTs with malignant histologic features have been reported. We report a histologically malignant fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor in a 61-year-old man, located in his neck. Ultrasonography examination was first performed showing a heterogeneous lesion, predominantly hyperechoic, with sound beam attenuation, containing two hypoechoic solid nodules. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography examinations demonstrated a heterogeneous and predominantly adipose mass, containing post contrast enhancing solid nodules and thin septations. Treatment consisted of total removal of the lesion. Histologically, the tumor showed hypercellularity, numerous mitoses and cytological atypia, fulfilling the criteria for malignancy. The patient had no metastasis. This rare tumor may be confused with other fat-containing lesions on imaging examinations, mainly liposarcoma.

  10. Incidence of malignant skin tumors in 14,140 patients after grenz-ray treatment for benign skin disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeloef, B.E.; Eklund, G.

    1986-12-01

    During the years 1949 to 1975, 14,237 patients received therapeutic doses of grenz rays for the treatment of benign skin disorders such as chronic eczema, psoriasis, and warts. The records of 14,140 of these patients (99.3%) formed the basis for an epidemiologic study of the incidence of skin malignancies in this population. Information about the patients, diagnoses, doses, and sites of treatment was obtained from separate records. The follow-up time was 15 years on the average. We searched the Swedish Cancer Registry, Stockholm, for records reporting the incidence of malignant skin tumors in the study population (incidences of basal cell carcinoma are not registered). The expected number of malignancies was calculated on the basis of age- and sex-standardized incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. In 58 patients, a malignant skin tumor was diagnosed more than five years after grenz-ray therapy had first been administered. Nineteen patients had malignant melanomas, and 39 patients had other malignant skin tumors. The expected number of melanomas was 17.8, and that of other malignant skin tumors was 26.9. None of the patients with melanomas, and only eight of the patients with other malignant skin tumors, had received grenz-ray therapy at the site of the tumor. Six of these eight patients had also been exposed to other known carcinogens. Four hundred eighty-one patients had received an accumulated high dose of grenz rays (greater than or equal to 10 000 rad (greater than or equal to 100 Gy)) on one and the same area. No malignancies were found on those areas. Although we cannot exclude grenz-ray therapy as a risk factor in the development of nonmelanoma skin malignancies, this risk, if any, is small, if recommendations for therapy are followed.

  11. Tumor classification using perfusion volume fractions in breast DCE-MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Jong Hyo; Park, Jeong Seon; Park, Sang Joon; Jung, Yun Sub; Song, Jung Joo; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to classify contrast enhancement curves using both three-time-points (3TP) method and clustering approach at full-time points, and to introduce a novel evaluation method using perfusion volume fractions for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions. DCE-MRI was applied to 24 lesions (12 malignant, 12 benign). After region growing segmentation for each lesion, hole-filling and 3D morphological erosion and dilation were performed for extracting final lesion volume. 3TP method and k-means clustering at full-time points were applied for classifying kinetic curves into six classes. Intratumoral volume fraction for each class was calculated. ROC and linear discriminant analyses were performed with distributions of the volume fractions for each class, pairwise and whole classes, respectively. The best performance in each class showed accuracy (ACC), 84.7% (sensitivity (SE), 100%; specificity (SP), 66.7% to a single class) to 3TP method, whereas ACC, 73.6% (SE, 41.7%; SP, 100% to a single class) to k-means clustering. The best performance in pairwise classes showed ACC, 75% (SE, 83.3%; SP, 66.7% to four class pairs and SE, 58.3%; SP, 91.7% to a single class pair) to 3TP method and ACC, 75% (SE, 75%; SP, 75% to a single class pair and SE, 66.7%; SP, 83.3% to three class pairs) to k-means clustering. The performance in whole classes showed ACC, 75% (SE, 83.3%; SP, 66.7%) to 3TP method and ACC, 75% (SE, 91.7%; 58.3%) to k-means clustering. The results indicate that tumor classification using perfusion volume fractions is helpful in selecting meaningful kinetic patterns for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions, and that two different classification methods are complementary to each other.

  12. Malignant dermal cylindroma in a patient with multiple dermal cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and bilateral dermal analogue tumors of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Rockerbie, N; Solomon, A R; Woo, T Y; Beals, T F; Ellis, C N

    1989-08-01

    A malignant dermal cylindroma of the scalp arose from one of multiple long-standing dermal cylindromas in a 76-year-old man with coexisting trichoepitheliomas and bilateral dermal analogue tumors of the parotid gland. The histologic transition from a benign dermal cylindroma to an anaplastic keratinocytic neoplasm was readily apparent. The malignant dermal cylindroma is a rare neoplasm. To our knowledge, the constellation of benign and malignant dermal cylindromas, multiple trichoepitheliomas, and salivary gland neoplasms has not been previously reported.

  13. Treatment efficacy of radiofrequency ablation of 338 patients with hepatic malignant tumor and the relevant complications

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min-Hua; Yang, Wei; Yan, Kun; Gao, Wen; Dai, Ying; Wang, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Yin, Shan-Shan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the treatment efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic malignant tumor and the relevant complications. METHODS: A total of 338 patients with 763 hepatic tumors underwent ultrasound-guided RFA (565 procedures). There were 204 cases of hepatic cellular carcinoma (HCC) with 430 tumors, the mean largest diameter was 4.0 cm. Of them, 48 patients (23.5%) were in stages I-II (UICC Systems) and 156 (76.5%) in stages III-IV There were 134 cases of metastatic liver carcinoma (MLC), with 333 metastases in the liver, the mean diameter was 4.1 cm, the liver metastases of 96 patients (71.6%) came from gastrointestinal tract. Ninety-three percent of the 338 patients were treated using the relatively standard protocol. Crucial attention must be paid to monitor the abnormal changes in ultrasound images as well as the vital signs of the patients to find the possible hemorrhage and peripheral structures injury in time. The tumors were considered as ablated completely, if no viability was found on enhanced CT within 24 h or at 1 mo after RFA. These patients were followed up for 3-57 mo. RESULTS: The ablation success rate was 93.3% (401/430 tumors) for HCC and was 96.7% (322/333 tumors) for MLC. The local recurrence rate for HCC and MLC was 7.9% (34/430 tumors) and 10.5% (35/333 tumors), respectively. A total of 137 patients (40.5%) underwent 2-11 times of repeated ablations because of tumor recurrence or metastasis. The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year survival rate was 84.6%, 66.6%, and 63.1%, respectively; the survival rate from 48 patients of I-II stage HCC was 93.7%, 80.4%, and 80.4%, respectively. The major complication rate in this study was 2.5% (14 of 565 procedures), which consisted of 5 hemorrhages, 1 colon perforation, 5 injuries of adjacent structures, 2 bile leakages, and 1 skin burn. CONCLUSION: RFA, as a minimally invasive local treatment, has become an effective and relatively safe alternative for the patients of hepatic malignant tumor, even of

  14. Extracellular vesicles from malignant effusions induce tumor cell migration: inhibitory effect of LMWH tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Gamperl, Hans; Plattfaut, Corinna; Freund, Annika; Quecke, Tabea; Theophil, Friederike; Gieseler, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Elevated levels of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been correlated with inflammatory diseases as well as progressive and metastatic cancer. By presenting tissue factor (TF) on their membrane surface, cellular microparticles (MPs) activate both the coagulation system and cell-signaling pathways such as the PAR/ERK pathway. We have shown before that malignant effusions are a rich source of tumor cell-derived EVs. Here, we used EVs from malignant effusions from three different patients after serial low-speed centrifugation steps as recommended by the ISTH (lsEV). Significant migration of human pancreatic carcinoma cells could be induced by lsEVs and was effectively inhibited by pre-incubation with tinzaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin. Tinzaparin induced tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release from tumor cells, and recombinant TFPI inhibited EV-induced tumor cell migration. EVs also induced ERK phosphorylation, whereas inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suppressed EV-induced tumor cell migration. LsEVs have been characterized by high-resolution flow cytometry and, after elimination of smaller vesicles including exosomes, by further high-speed centrifugation (hsEV). The remaining population consisting primarily of MPs is indeed the main migration-inducing population with tenase activity. Compared to other LMWHs, tinzaparin is suggested to have high potency to induce TFPI release from epithelial cells. The migration-inhibitory effect of TFPI and the interruption of tumor cell migration by inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suggest that lsEVs induce tumor cell migration by activating the PAR2 signaling pathway. Tinzaparin might inhibit this process at least partly by inducing the release of TFPI from tumor cells, which blocks PAR-activating TF complexes. The clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  15. Extracellular vesicles from malignant effusions induce tumor cell migration: inhibitory effect of LMWH tinzaparin.

    PubMed

    Gamperl, Hans; Plattfaut, Corinna; Freund, Annika; Quecke, Tabea; Theophil, Friederike; Gieseler, Frank

    2016-10-01

    Elevated levels of extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been correlated with inflammatory diseases as well as progressive and metastatic cancer. By presenting tissue factor (TF) on their membrane surface, cellular microparticles (MPs) activate both the coagulation system and cell-signaling pathways such as the PAR/ERK pathway. We have shown before that malignant effusions are a rich source of tumor cell-derived EVs. Here, we used EVs from malignant effusions from three different patients after serial low-speed centrifugation steps as recommended by the ISTH (lsEV). Significant migration of human pancreatic carcinoma cells could be induced by lsEVs and was effectively inhibited by pre-incubation with tinzaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin. Tinzaparin induced tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) release from tumor cells, and recombinant TFPI inhibited EV-induced tumor cell migration. EVs also induced ERK phosphorylation, whereas inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suppressed EV-induced tumor cell migration. LsEVs have been characterized by high-resolution flow cytometry and, after elimination of smaller vesicles including exosomes, by further high-speed centrifugation (hsEV). The remaining population consisting primarily of MPs is indeed the main migration-inducing population with tenase activity. Compared to other LMWHs, tinzaparin is suggested to have high potency to induce TFPI release from epithelial cells. The migration-inhibitory effect of TFPI and the interruption of tumor cell migration by inhibitors of PAR2 and ERK suggest that lsEVs induce tumor cell migration by activating the PAR2 signaling pathway. Tinzaparin might inhibit this process at least partly by inducing the release of TFPI from tumor cells, which blocks PAR-activating TF complexes. The clinical relevance of the results is discussed. PMID:27435911

  16. Risk factors for lymphatic metastasis of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors: a retrospective cohort study of 242 patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Saito, Kenichi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Metastasis to the lymph nodes is relatively rare in malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors, and its risk factors remains unknown, except for tumors of the lymphogenous histotype, including rhabdomyosarcoma, epithelioid sarcoma, and clear cell sarcoma. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for lymph node metastasis of malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. We retrospectively reviewed 242 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors. The predictors of interest for the risk of lymph node metastasis included age, sex, histopathological diagnosis, location(s) of the primary tumor(s), local recurrence, residual tumor(s), and the size of the primary tumors. To identify the risk factors for lymph node metastasis, Cox regression analyses were performed. Among the 242 patients with malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors in the current study, 60, 29, and 28 were detected to have lung, lymph node, and bone metastases, respectively. In the univariate analyses, the lymphogenous histotype and a primary tumor invading the subcutis were the risk factors for lymph node metastasis. In the multivariate analysis, the lymphogenous histotype (P < 0.01) and a primary tumor in the subcutis (P < 0.01) remained significantly associated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis with 5.15 and 3.48 of hazard ratios, respectively. Lymph node metastasis was detected in malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors more frequently than that has been previously reported, and the risk factors for lymph node metastasis were the lymphogenous histotype and primary tumors invading the subcutis.

  17. Treatment of locally advanced, high-grade, malignant tumors of major salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.P.; Marks, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    A retrospective review of 45 patients with Stage III and IV malignant tumors of the major salivary glands was undertaken to determine tumor control and patient survival after treatment with surgery and conventional ionizing-radiation therapy. Eight of the 23 patients received early postoperative radiotherapy after initial surgical resection, with a local control rate of 75%. Twelve of 23 patients had surgery as definitive treatment and the tumor recurred locally in all; seven of these 12 patients were subsequently salvaged by further surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy or by radiotherapy alone, with 58% ultimate local control. The remaining three patients had unresectable tumors at diagnosis and received radiation alone, with a local tumor control rate of 33%. Patients were also analyzed according to the extent of surgical resection prior to radiation therapy and according to radiation dose. Eighty-eight percent of completely resected, 50% of partially resected, and 44% of unresected tumors were locally controlled for an overall local control rate of 61%. The 5-year survival rate was significantly higher for patients with local tumor control than for patients who failed locally (31% vs. 0%).

  18. Frequence, Spectrum and Prognostic Impact of Additional Malignancies in Patients With Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors1234

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, K.; Wolf, S.; Mayer, B.; Schmidt, S.A.; Agaimy, A.; Henne-Bruns, D.; Knippschild, U.; Schwab, M.; Schmieder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available data on prognostic implication of additional neoplasms in GIST miss comprehensive information on patient outcome with regard to overall or disease specific and disease free survival. Registry data of GIST patients with and without additional neoplasm were compared in retrospective case series. We investigated a total of 836 patients from the multi-center Ulmer GIST registry. Additionally, a second cohort encompassing 143 consecutively recruited patients of a single oncology center were analyzed. The frequency of additional malignant neoplasms in GIST patients was 31.9% and 42.0% in both cohorts with a mean follow-up time of 54 and 65 months (median 48 and 60 months), respectively. The spectrum of additional neoplasms in both cohorts encompasses gastrointestinal tumors (43.5%), uro-genital and breast cancers (34.1%), hematological malignancies (7.3%), skin cancer (7.3%) and others. Additional neoplasms have had a significant impact on patient outcome. The five year overall survival in GIST with additional malignant neoplasms (n = 267) was 62.8% compared to 83.4% in patients without other tumors (n = 569) (P < .001, HR=0.397, 95% CI: 0.298-0.530). Five-year disease specific survival was not different between both groups (90.8% versus 90.9%). 34.2% of all deaths (n = 66 of n = 193) were GIST-related. The presented data suggest a close association between the duration of follow-up and the rate of additional malignancies in GIST patients. Moreover the data indicate a strong impact of additional malignant neoplasms in GIST on patient outcome. A comprehensive follow-up strategy of GIST patients appears to be warranted. PMID:25622906

  19. Exploration of paclitaxel (Taxol) as a treatment for malignant tumors in cats: a descriptive case series.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer; Doerr, Mary; Kitchell, Barbara E

    2015-02-01

    Paclitaxel, an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human oncology, has received little evaluation in feline patients. The diluent used to solubilize paclitaxel, polyoxyethylated castor oil (Cremophor EL), causes anaphylactoid reactions in human and dogs, which limits enthusiasm for use of this agent in veterinary oncology. Nine feline patients with measurable malignant tumors were treated with paclitaxel at a dosage of 80 mg/m(2) intravenously every 21 days for up to two doses. Adverse effects, including evidence of toxicity and anaphylactoid reactions, were assessed. Tumor response, progression and patient time to progression (TTP) were also recorded. Adverse effects included grade III and IV thrombocytopenia, grade III gastrointestinal signs (vomiting and constipation) and hypersensitivity reactions, seen in a total of five patients. Anaphylactoid reactions resolved with appropriate management. Stable disease and partial response were observed in 56% of feline patients. Median TTP was 28 days (range 15-45 days). Intravenous paclitaxel is a safe treatment option for feline malignant tumor patients. Future investigation is warranted to explore the effectiveness and appropriate application of this agent for specific tumor types.

  20. HuR in pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas - overexpression in verified malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Helena; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Hagström, Jaana; Louhimo, Johanna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Ristimäki, Ari; Paavonen, Timo; Metso, Saara; Mäenpää, Hanna; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are rare, neural crest-originating, neuroendocrine tumors. HuR is an mRNA-binding protein of the ELAV/Hu-protein family, which participates in posttranscriptional regulation of many cancer-associated genes. HuR expression has been connected with aggressive behavior of several malignancies. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is also expressed in several malignant tumors, and its expression is regulated by HuR. Tissue microarray of 153 primary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas was investigated for the expression of HuR and COX-2 proteins by immunohistochemistry using two different HuR antibodies (HuR19F12 and HuR3A). In these tumors, the expression of both intranuclear and cytoplasmic HuR was detectable. Increased cytoplasmic HuR expression was significantly associated with metastatic tumors. Increased COX-2 and MIB-1 expression also was associated with metastatic potential, and moreover, HuR and COX-2 expression correlated with each other. Our data suggest that increased expression of HuR protein is associated with metastatic potential of paragangliomas and pheochromocytomas, and COX-2 seems to be a target of HuR.

  1. Intraoperative vascular DIVA surgery reveals angiogenic hotspots in tumor zones of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Hore, Nirjhar; Fan, Zheng; Buslei, Rolf; Merkel, Andreas; Buchfelder, Michael; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas belong to the most threatening tumor entities and are hallmarked by rapid proliferation, hypervascularization and an invasive growth pattern. The primary obstacle in surgical treatment lies in differentiation between healthy and pathological tissue at the tumor margins, where current visualization methods reach their limits. Here, we report on a novel technique (vascular dual intraoperative visualization approach - vDIVA) enabling visualization of different tumor zones (TZ I–III) on the basis of angiogenic hotspots. We investigated glioblastoma patients who underwent 5-ALA fluorescence-guided surgery with simultaneous intraoperative ICG fluorescence angiography. This vDIVA technique revealed hypervascularized areas which were further histologically investigated. Neuropathological assessments revealed tissue areas at the resection margins corresponding to TZ II, and postoperative CD34- and Map2 immunostaining confirmed these angiogenic hotspots to be occupied by glioma cells. Hence, the vascular architecture in this transitional zone could be well differentiated from both primary tumor bulk and healthy brain parenchyma. These data demonstrate that ICG fluorescence angiography improves state-of-the-art glioma surgery techniques and facilitates the future characterization of polyclonal attributes of malignant gliomas. PMID:25609379

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of boron compounds for neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy offers the potentiality for treating brain tumors currently resistant to treatment. The success of this form of therapy is directly dependent upon the delivery of sufficient numbers of thermal-neutrons to tumor cells which possess high concentrations of B-10. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methodology to synthesize boron-containing compounds with the potential for becoming incorporated into rapidly-dividing malignant brain tumor cells and excluded from normal components of the brain and surrounding tissues, to develope biological methods for assessing the potential of the compound by use of cell culture or intratumoral injection, to develop analytical methodology for measuring boron in cells and tissue using direct current plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (DCP-AES) and alpha track autoradiography, to develop biochemical and HPLC procedures for evaluating compound uptake and tissue half-life, and to develop procedures required to assess both in vitro and vivo efficacy of BNCT with selected compounds.

  3. [The serum copper/serum iron ratio in malignant tumors of the female genitalia].

    PubMed

    Maas, D H; Hinckers, H J

    1975-08-01

    Copper and iron in blood of 83 women with maligne tumors of the genitalia were regulary controled before, during and till 69 weeks after therapy. The relation between the copper/iron-ratio and the expansion and histology of the tumors, the success of the therapy and the incidence of a recurrence was checked for any significancy. Our results show the improtance of the ratio in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of the ovarian-cancer and the corpus-uteri-cancer, and in the success-controll during tumor-therapy. In the group of the patients with collum-uteri-cancer we found a significant difference in the copper/iron-ratio of the patients with and without a recurrence during the controllperiod after therapy, which emphasizes the importance of this copper/iron-ratio.

  4. Emerging therapies targeting tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and other hematologic and solid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Podar, K; Anderson, K C

    2011-11-01

    Research on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in general and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in particular is a major focus in biomedicine and has led to the clinical approval of the monoclonal anti- VEGF antibody bevazicumab; and the second-generation multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib. Although these agents show significant preclinical and clinical anti-cancer activity, they prolong overall survival of cancer patients for only months, followed by a restoration of tumor growth and progression. Therefore, there is a clear need to increase our understanding of tumor angiogenesis and the development of resistance. In this review we discuss up-to-date knowledge on mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis, and summarize preclinical and clinical data on existing and potential future anti-angiogenic agents and treatment strategies for Multiple Myeloma (MM) and other hematologic and solid malignancies. PMID:21933109

  5. [Primary malignant solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma of the parotid gland].

    PubMed

    Messa-Botero, Oscar Alberto; Romero-Rojas, Alfredo Ernesto; Chinchilla Olaya, Sandra Isabel; Díaz-Pérez, Julio Alexander; Tapias-Vargas, Luis Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) was first described in the pleura by Lietaud in 1767; later in 1870, Wagner described the localized nature of this type of tumor and Klemperer and Rabin classified pleural tumors into two types: diffuse mesotheliomas and localized mesotheliomas. Recent years have seen the redefinition of this neoplasm, due to better technology; it is now proven that this neoplasm may have multiple different extrapleural origins including the head and neck regions. This diversity of locations is related to the particular mesenchymal histogenesis of SFT which allows its development from very unusual sites such as the salivary glands (SGs). In this particular site, this neoplasm is very infrequent and most of reported cases refer to benign disease, with just one case informed so far of primary malignant SFT.

  6. Metastatic malignant mixed tumor of the skin. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization, histogenetic considerations and comparison with benign mixed tumors of skin and salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Pinto de Moraes, H; Herrera, G A; Mendonca, A M; Estrela, R R

    1986-01-01

    Malignant mixed tumors of the skin (chondroid syringoma) are exceedingly rare. Few reports can be found in the literature and there are only two published cases in which electron microscopy has been performed. The precise histogenesis of this neoplasm is still disputed and the nature and mechanism of secretion of the intercellular substance is unknown as yet. Some authors believe that in mixed tumors of salivary glands this material could be produced by myoepithelial cells. A case is reported in which ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were performed in an effort to elucidate the histogenesis of malignant mixed tumors of skin and their relationship to other benign mixed tumors of the skin and salivary glands. The new information that has been obtained is interpreted in light of the findings provided by all published reports of malignant mixed tumors of the skin.

  7. Transarterial Fiducial Marker Placement for Image-guided Proton Therapy for Malignant Liver Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Kengo Shimohira, Masashi; Sasaki, Shigeru Iwata, Hiromitsu Nishikawa, Hiroko Ogino, Hiroyuki Hara, Masaki; Hashizume, Takuya Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-10-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to analyze the technical and clinical success rates and safety of transarterial fiducial marker placement for image-guided proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.Methods and MaterialsFifty-five patients underwent this procedure as an interventional treatment. Five patients had 2 tumors, and 4 tumors required 2 markers each, so the total number of procedures was 64. The 60 tumors consisted of 46 hepatocellular carcinomas and 14 liver metastases. Five-mm-long straight microcoils of 0.018 inches in diameter were used as fiducial markers and placed in appropriate positions for each tumor. We assessed the technical and clinical success rates of transarterial fiducial marker placement, as well as the complications associated with it. Technical success was defined as the successful delivery and placement of the fiducial coil, and clinical success was defined as the completion of proton therapy.ResultsAll 64 fiducial coils were successfully installed, so the technical success rate was 100 % (64/64). Fifty-four patients underwent proton therapy without coil migration. In one patient, proton therapy was not performed because of obstructive jaundice due to bile duct invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the clinical success rate was 98 % (54/55). Slight bleeding was observed in one case, but it was stopped immediately and then observed. None of the patients developed hepatic infarctions due to fiducial marker migration.ConclusionTransarterial fiducial marker placement appears to be a useful and safe procedure for proton therapy for malignant liver tumors.

  8. Fibrobronchoscopic cryosurgery for secondary malignant tumors of the trachea and main bronchi

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianli; Tian, Yanchu; Liu, Deruo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with secondary malignant tracheal and main bronchial tumors may suffer severe symptoms as a result of major airway obstruction. Curative surgical resection is usually not suitable because of the presence of metastatic disease and poor performance status. In this study, the use of bronchoscopic cryosurgery to reopen the airway is analyzed. Methods The clinical records of 37 patients who experienced secondary maglinancies from December 2001 to January 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Low temperature cryotherapy (−50°C to −70°C) was delivered to the central part of the tumor by cryoprobe for four to six minutes causing destruction of the tumor mass (Cryo‐melt method). Subsequently, the edge of the tumor was frozen for 30 seconds to two minutes, followed by piecemeal removal of the frozen tumor tissue (Cryo‐resection method). Results The endpoints of the study were degree of symptomatic improvement and survival. The rates of dramatic and partial symptomatic alleviation were 57.1% and 28.6%, respectively, there were no intraoperative deaths, and median survival was 16.0 months. Prolonged survival was significantly correlated to age (under 60 years of age 22.2% vs. over 60 100%, P = 0.011), tumor location (main bronchi 0% vs. trachea 77.8%, P = 0.003), and cryorecanalization times (once 33.3% vs. twice or more 80.0%, P = 0.037). Conclusion Bronchoscopic cryorecanalization is a safe, effective, non‐invasive choice for improving the symptoms of malignant airway obstruction. In addition to achieving local‐regional control, the technique may also contribute to improved survival. PMID:27385989

  9. Pazopanib monotherapy in a patient with a malignant granular cell tumor originating from the right orbit: A case report

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, SACHI; HIRAMATSU, MARIKO; SUGISHITA, MIHOKO; GYAWALI, BISHAL; SHIBATA, TAKASHI; SHIMOKATA, TOMOYA; URAKAWA, HIROSHI; MITSUMA, AYAKO; MORITANI, SUZUKO; KUBOTA, TOSHINOBU; ICHIHARA, SHU; ANDO, YUICHI

    2015-01-01

    Granular cell tumors are uncommon, usually benign tumors of Schwann cell origin. The malignant variant is extremely rare, representing <2% of all granular cell tumors. Therefore, standard systemic chemotherapy for this disease does not exist. The present study reports the case of a 40-year-old female with a malignant granular cell tumor that originally arose in the right orbit and subsequently relapsed. The patient was started on pazopanib monotherapy following treatment with two investigational drugs, a smoothened inhibitor and then a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, as part of a clinical trial. Although additional radiotherapy for local control was necessary, the lung metastases remained stable during the pazopanib monotherapy, which lasted for 7 months, following which a clinically stable disease state was determined. This case suggests that pazopanib can be a treatment option for the stabilization of disease progression in metastatic malignant granular cell tumor. PMID:26622607

  10. May Sonic Hedgehog proteins be markers for malignancy in uterine smooth muscle tumors?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Natalia; Bozzini, Nilo; Baiocchi, Glauco; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes; Soares Junior, José Maria; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Carvalho, Katia Candido

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway (SHH) plays an important role in tumorigenesis and cellular differentiation. We analyzed the protein expression of SHH pathway components and evaluated whether their profile could be useful for the diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of the risk of malignancy for uterine smooth muscle tumors (USMTs). A total of 176 samples (20 myometrium, 119 variants of leiomyoma, and 37 leiomyosarcoma) were evaluated for the protein expression of the SHH signaling components, HHIP1 (SHH inhibitor), and BMP4 (SHH target) by immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis was performed to verify the specificity of the antibodies. We grouped leiomyoma samples into conventional leiomyomas and unusual leiomyomas that comprise atypical, cellular, mitotically active leiomyomas and uterine smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that SMO, SUFU, GLI1, GLI3, and BMP4 expression gradually increased depending on to the histologic tissue type. The protein expression of SMO, SUFU, and GLI1 was increased in unusual leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma samples compared to normal myometrium. The inhibitor HHIP1 showed higher expression in myometrium, whereas only negative or basal expression of SMO, SUFU, GLI1, and GLI3 was detected in these samples. Strong expression of SHH was associated with poorer overall survival. Our data suggest that the expression of SHH proteins can be useful for evaluating the potential risk of malignancy for USMTs. Moreover, GLI1 and SMO may serve as future therapeutic targets for women with USMTs. PMID:26997437

  11. Cancer procoagulant: a factor X activator, tumor marker and growth factor from malignant tissue.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S G; Mielicki, W P

    1997-03-01

    Hemostatic abnormalities associated with malignant disease led to the search for and discovery of a proteolytic enzyme that activated factor X in the blood coagulation cascade. It was named cancer procoagulant (CP). CP is a cysteine proteinase that is found in malignant and fetal (human amnion-chorion) tissue; it has not been found in normally differentiated tissue. It is a calcium-dependent, Mn2+ stimulated enzyme that has enhanced activity and inhibition in a reduced environment. This review presents a complete compilation and discussion of the known chemical and enzymatic characteristics of CP as well as many purification and assay procedures. Several unique properties of these procedures are described. Some problems and controversies are highlighted in each of the sections. An immunoassay for CP as a tumor marker and some of its potential applications in the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer are reviewed. Some therapeutic implications of CP are noted in light of the observation that antibodies to CP block the metastatic seeding of lung colonies in vivo and diminish the viability of tumor cells in vitro. Finally, comments about the relationship between tissue factor and CP in the malignant cells are provided.

  12. Primary hepatic solitary fibrous tumor with histologically benign and malignant areas.

    PubMed

    Silvanto, Anna; Karanjia, Nariman D; Bagwan, Izhar N

    2015-12-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm, presenting most commonly in the intrathoracic sites but which has been reported at numerous extrathoracic locations. The majority of intra-thoracic SFTs are benign, but 10%-15% behave aggressively. We report a case of primary hepatic SFT with histologically benign and malignant areas. A 65-year-old man underwent an abdominal CT scan following a cerebrovascular accident, which demonstrated a sharply demarcated large liver mass with a heterogenous enhancing area and occupying most of the left lobe of the liver. Histological examination following a hemihepatectomy showed an SFT with morphological patterns ranging from benign to malignant areas, including pleomorphism, increased cellularity, herringbone pattern, necrosis and a raised mitotic count. On review of the literature, only an occasional case report with malignant areas in a hepatic SFT was identified. This case highlights that SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic spindle cell lesion, and that on rare occasions, malignant areas can occur in this already uncommon neoplasm. PMID:26663016

  13. Primary hepatic solitary fibrous tumor with histologically benign and malignant areas.

    PubMed

    Silvanto, Anna; Karanjia, Nariman D; Bagwan, Izhar N

    2015-12-01

    Extrapleural solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm, presenting most commonly in the intrathoracic sites but which has been reported at numerous extrathoracic locations. The majority of intra-thoracic SFTs are benign, but 10%-15% behave aggressively. We report a case of primary hepatic SFT with histologically benign and malignant areas. A 65-year-old man underwent an abdominal CT scan following a cerebrovascular accident, which demonstrated a sharply demarcated large liver mass with a heterogenous enhancing area and occupying most of the left lobe of the liver. Histological examination following a hemihepatectomy showed an SFT with morphological patterns ranging from benign to malignant areas, including pleomorphism, increased cellularity, herringbone pattern, necrosis and a raised mitotic count. On review of the literature, only an occasional case report with malignant areas in a hepatic SFT was identified. This case highlights that SFT should be included in the differential diagnosis of a hepatic spindle cell lesion, and that on rare occasions, malignant areas can occur in this already uncommon neoplasm.

  14. Elastosis in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. A histochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    David, R; Buchner, A

    1980-05-01

    One hundred sixteen cases of various types of salivary gland tumors were examined for the presence of elastic tissue. Almost all the pleomorphic adenomas (97%) and all the malignant pleomorphic adenomas contained elastic tissue in varying amounts. A high percentage (82%) of adenoid cystic carcinomas also contained elastic tissue but the overall quantity was significantly less than in pleomorphic adenomas. All other salivary gland tumors studied, i.e. adenolymphomas, oxyphilic adenomas, mucoepidermoid tumor, and various variants of monomorphic adenomas, were devoid of significant elastic tissue. At the ultrastructural level, the elastic fibers were mainly seen close to neoplastic myoepithelial-like cells, and all stages of elastogenesis were present, ranging from young elastic fibers with a high microfibrilelastin ratio, usually associated with basal-membrane-like material, to mature fibers consisting mainly of an amorphous electron lucent central elastin component. It is postulated that elastic tissue in the salivary gland tumors is produced by the myoepithelial-like tumor cells rather than by tumor stromal induction as has been described in some types of breast carcinomas.

  15. Surgery for massive malignant tumors of the left atrium – one center’s experience

    PubMed Central

    Andrushchuk, Uladzimir; Ostrovsky, Youry; Zharkov, Vladimir; Krutau, Valery; Yudina, Olga; Ilyina, Tatsiana; Grinchuk, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surgery for primary non-resectable malignant tumors of the left atrium is controversial. Today heart autotransplantation as a method of surgical treatment for patients suffering primary massive malignant tumors of the left atrium is still not sufficiently studied. Material and methods We provide information on our single-center 5-year experience in performing surgical interventions for massive malignant tumors of the left atrium and including cases of 5 patients (3 males – 60%, 2 females – 40%). One case (1/5, 20%) involved debulking surgery with partial resection of the left atrial (LA) wall and its reconstruction using a xenopericardium patch. Orthotopic heart transplantation was performed in 1 patient (1/5, 20%) and heart autotransplantation (HA) in the 3 other cases (3/5, 60%). Results Mean myocardial ischemia duration was 165.6 ±12.0 minutes (range: 137–198), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration was 248.6 ±36.6 minutes (range: 188–392), and intervention duration was 498.0 ±77.4 minutes (range: 330–780). Mean total blood loss was estimated to be 2432 ±616.5 ml (range: 1610–4880). Major in-hospital complications were registered in 4 patients (4/5, 80%). In-hospital mortality was registered in 3 patients (3/5, 60%). Survival time in 2 (2/5, 40%) patients discharged from the hospital was 29 and 9 months, respectively. Both died because of disease progression. Conclusions Surgery in patients with massive resectable primary malignant tumor of the left atrium is associated with high incidence of major hospital complications and mortality. Heart autotransplantation with radical tumor resection is the treatment of choice for these cases. The surgical approach implies thorough primary hemostasis and selection of a proper surgical approach, allowing revision of all the regions of intervention during each step. The possibility of excessive tension and bleeding in the area of bicaval anastomosis should be considered when performing heart

  16. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and ADC map to predict malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji; Miyokawa, Naoyuki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu; Aburano, Tamio

    2007-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) of the pleura are rare soft-tissue tumors that are presumed to be of mesenchymal origin. Most SFTs are histologically benign, but up to 20% of SFTs may be malignant. In addition, malignant transformation may occur within histologically benign SFTs, though it is rare. However, it is difficult to diagnose malignant SFTs of the pleura by means of conventional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this article we present the first case of malignant SFT of the pleura in an 81-year-old man in which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value and ADC map based on diffusion-weighted MRI were very useful for identifying malignant transformation.

  17. Case series of cerebral infarction with Trousseau's syndrome associated with malignant gynecological tumors

    PubMed Central

    ISHIKAWA, MASAKO; NAKAYAMA, KENTARO; ISHIBASHI, TOMOKA; SATO, EMI; NAKAMURA, KOHEI; KATAGIRI, HIROSHI; KYO, SATORU

    2016-01-01

    The association between neoplastic disease and thromboembolic disorders was first recognized by Trousseau in 1865. Blood coagulation abnormalities have been reported in the majority of patients with cancer, including those with ovarian carcinoma. However, Trousseau's syndrome (TS) has rarely been reported in women with ovarian carcinoma. We herein report a case series of TS, notably in the brain, in association with gynecological malignant disease, and emphasize the difficulties associated with the management of these thromboembolic effects. The aim of this study was to present our experience with 5 TS patients whose condition was effectively controlled through treatment of the primary malignant disease. Therefore, we suggest that patients with TS may be cured by tumor resection, even if they have severe thromboembolic disease, such as cerebral or pulmonary infarction. PMID:27330786

  18. Recurrent malignant sino-nasal solitary fibrous tumor: Eliminate the enemy at the first instance.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumyajit; Mallick, Supriya; Kakkar, Anchal; Jana, Manisha; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that usually arise in the pleura or less commonly in relation to other serosal surfaces. Infrequent case reports of extra-pleural SFTs have been described at various sub sites within the head and neck area. We report a case of recurrent sino-nasal SFTs treated with surgery followed by re-excision and adjuvant radiation on recurrence and then salvage chemotherapy on progression. Further discussed are the challenges associated with accurate histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis, the difficulty in assessing the aggressiveness and malignant potential of these lesions and the appropriate treatment and follow-up duration that these neoplasms require. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent malignant sino-nasal SFT in available scientific literature in English language.

  19. False Positive Radioiodinated Metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) Uptake in Undifferentiated Adrenal Malignant Tumor.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee Soo; Moon, Seok Jun; Kim, Yun Mi; Kang, Hye Rim; Lee, Seok Mo; Jung, Soo Jin; Choi, Seok Jin; Kim, Tae Kyoon; Kwon, Min Jeong; Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Soon Hee

    2015-01-01

    (123)I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) scintigraphy is a widely used functional imaging tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. However, rare cases of false positive reactions have been reported. A 67-year-old male patient was admitted with epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneous left adrenal mass 6 cm in diameter; following hormone testing, (123)I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed to determine the presence of pheochromocytoma, which confirmed eccentric uptake by a large left adrenal gland mass. Chest CT and PET-CT confirmed metastatic lymphadenopathy; therefore, endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration was performed. Metastatic carcinoma of unknown origin was suspected from a lymph node biopsy, and surgical resection was performed for definitive diagnosis and correction of excess hormonal secretion. A final diagnosis of undifferentiated adrenal malignant tumor was rendered, instead of histologically malignant pheochromocytoma, despite the uptake of (123)I-MIBG demonstrated by scintigraphy.

  20. Recurrent malignant sino-nasal solitary fibrous tumor: Eliminate the enemy at the first instance.

    PubMed

    Roy, Soumyajit; Mallick, Supriya; Kakkar, Anchal; Jana, Manisha; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms that usually arise in the pleura or less commonly in relation to other serosal surfaces. Infrequent case reports of extra-pleural SFTs have been described at various sub sites within the head and neck area. We report a case of recurrent sino-nasal SFTs treated with surgery followed by re-excision and adjuvant radiation on recurrence and then salvage chemotherapy on progression. Further discussed are the challenges associated with accurate histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis, the difficulty in assessing the aggressiveness and malignant potential of these lesions and the appropriate treatment and follow-up duration that these neoplasms require. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of recurrent malignant sino-nasal SFT in available scientific literature in English language. PMID:26458621

  1. Chromosomal imbalances in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor detected by metaphase and microarray comparative genomic hybridization.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yasuko; Yoshida, Aki; Numoto, Kunihiko; Kunisada, Toshiyuki; Wai, Daniel; Ohata, Norihide; Takeda, Ken; Kawai, Akira; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2006-02-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are highly malignant tumors affecting adolescents and adults. There have been a few reports on chromosomal aberrations of MPNSTs; however, the tumor-specific alteration remains unknown. We characterized the genomic alterations in 8 MPNSTs and 8 schwannomas by metaphase comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). In 5 of 8 MPNSTs, microarray CGH was added for more detailed analyses. Frequent gains were identified on 3q13-26, 5p13-14, and 12q11-23 and frequent losses were at 1p31, 10p, 11q24-qter, 16, and 17. Microarray CGH revealed frequent gains of EGFR, DAB2, MSH2, KCNK12, DDX15, CDK6, and LAMA3, and losses of CDH1, GLTSCR2, EGR1, CTSB, GATA3, and SULT2A1. These genes seem to be responsible for developing MPNSTs. The concordance rate between metaphase CGH and microarray CGH was 66%. Metaphase CGH was useful for identifying chromosomal alterations before applying microarray CGH. PMID:16391845

  2. Previously Undiagnosed Malignant Brain Tumor Discovered During Examination of a Patient Seeking Chiropractic Care

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objective This case report describes the diagnosis of a malignant brain tumor in a patient requesting chiropractic care for headaches after a motor vehicle accident. Clinical Features A 30-year-old man presented with numbness and tingling in all extremities, lower extremity muscle weakness, and a recent increase in headaches with the loss of ability to concentrate. He was involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision approximately 4 months before the onset of symptoms. Examination showed slow gait with a lack of arm swing, bilateral hip flexors and knee extensors were all graded as 4/5 on muscle testing, and cranial nerve examination was unremarkable with the exception of 2 beats of nystagmus on left lateral eye movement. Because of these findings and a family history of multiple sclerosis, the patient was referred for a brain magnetic resonance imaging scan. Intervention and Outcome Imaging showed a craniocervical junction mass centered at the floor of the fourth ventricle with obstruction of foramina and marked impingement on the medulla. A posterior fossa craniotomy and tumor removal procedure was performed by a neurosurgeon, followed by 34 sessions of radiation therapy. The final diagnosis was a grade II glioma with features of ependymoma. Conclusions This report describes the clinical presentation, examination, and medical management of a 30-year-old man presenting to a chiropractic practice with an unsuspected malignant brain tumor. PMID:27069431

  3. Management of bilateral malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: Experience of a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Hongyuan; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) are rare. Determination of the optimal treatment modalities is crucial, as these malignancies mainly affect girls and young women who may wish to preserve their fertility. In order to review the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of bilateral MOGCTs, we performed a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with bilateral MOGCTs and underwent primary surgery at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University (Shanghai, China) between January, 2001 and December, 2014. Of the 130 patients investigated, 8 were diagnosed with bilateral disease, most of whom were International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage I. There was no significant difference in overall and disease-free survival between patients with unilateral and those with bilateral disease. Cases with dysgerminoma, dysgerminoma coexisting with gonadoblastoma, yolk sac tumor and ovarian primary choriocarcinoma were included in this study. Fertility was spared in 2 patients (1 with dysgerminoma and 1 with ovarian primary choriocarcinoma). The patient with ovarian choriocarcinoma experienced relapse and was finally salvaged by radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. According to our results and the published data, patients affected by bilateral MOGCTs have a satisfactory prognosis. The treatment modalities largely depend on the histological type of the tumor. Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe for patients affected by dysgerminoma, but should be considered with caution in patients with ovarian primary choriocarcinoma. PMID:27446585

  4. Progress in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Otte, Jean-Bernard

    2010-06-01

    During the last decade, important progress has been made in the surgical treatment of malignant liver tumors in children. For hepatoblastoma, there is a general consensus for combining surgical resection with neoadjuvant (and adjuvant) chemotherapy. Long-term disease-free survival of around 85-90% can be achieved for resectable HB involving no more than three sections of the liver (PRETEXT I-III). For unresectable HB without extrahepatic invasion (PRETEXT IV with involvement of all four sections and some cases of PRETEXT III with invasion of, or close contact with major venous structures), similar results can be obtained with total hepatectomy and liver transplantation. For hepatocellular carcinoma, most often without underlying liver disease in children of the western world, results of resection with partial hepatectomy remain dismal, due to a high rate of recurrence. In contrast, remarkable survival rates have been obtained during the last decade with liver transplantation. There is no argument, either biological or based on evidence, that the selection of pediatric candidates for transplantation should be based on the same criteria as in adult patients (the Milan criteria). Optimization of results require to concentrate children with a malignant liver tumors in specialized, multidisciplinary pediatric centers with expertise in chemotherapy and in both major liver resections and transplantation. Enrolling these children in prospective trials should be encouraged, as well as prospective registration of transplanted patients in PLUTO (Pediatric Liver Unresectable Tumor Observatory-http://Pluto.cineca.org) in order to clarify issues unresolved by retrospective studies. PMID:20227190

  5. KIT (CD117) Expression in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Haruto; Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Urabe, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Gamachi, Ayako; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    KIT (CD117, c-kit) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the tumorigenesis of several neoplasms. KIT is expressed by the secretory cells of normal sweat glands. We studied the KIT expression and KIT mutational status in various benign and malignant tumors of eccrine and apocrine glands. We included a total of 108 cases comprising 10 benign and 6 malignant sweat gland tumors, and KIT expression was immunohistochemically detected (positive rate): 10 syringomas (0%), 8 poromas (25%), 20 mixed tumors (40%), 21 spiradenomas (43%), 1 cylindroma (0%), 5 hidradenomas (40%), 7 syringocystadenoma papilliferum cases (0%), 1 papillary hidradenoma (100%), 2 tubulopapillary hidradenomas (50%), 8 hidrocystomas (29%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (100%), 5 porocarcinomas (20%), 6 apocrine carcinomas (33%), 10 extramammary Paget diseases (30%), 1 spiradenocarcinoma (100%), and 1 syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (0%). Most KIT-positive cells were luminal cells, arising from glandular structures. We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism for detecting KIT mutational status. All cases showed no mutations at hot spots for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17). KIT mutation does not seem to be mechanism for KIT expression, but the expression may be from native sweat glands.

  6. Survivin Expression and Prognostic Significance in Pediatric Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNST)

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Daniela; Merlo, Anna; Gambini, Claudio; Ferrari, Andrea; Dall'Igna, Patrizia; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Martines, Annalisa; Bonaldi, Laura; De Salvo, Gian Luca; Zanovello, Paola; Rosato, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are very aggressive malignancies comprising approximately 5–10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. In this study, we focused on pediatric MPNST arising in the first 2 decades of life, as they represent one the most frequent non-rhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcomas in children. In MPNST, several genetic alterations affect the chromosomal region 17q encompassing the BIRC5/SURVIVIN gene. As cancer-specific expression of survivin has been found to be an effective marker for cancer detection and outcome prediction, we analyzed survivin expression in 35 tumor samples derived from young patients affected by sporadic and neurofibromatosis type 1-associated MPNST. Survivin mRNA and protein expression were assessed by Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, while gene amplification was analyzed by FISH. Data were correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of patients. Survivin mRNA was overexpressed in pediatric MPNST and associated to a copy number gain of BIRC5; furthermore, increased levels of transcripts correlated with a higher FNCLCC tumor grade (grade 1 and 2 vs. 3, p = 0.0067), and with a lower survival probability (Log-rank test, p = 0.0038). Overall, these data support the concept that survivin can be regarded as a useful prognostic marker for pediatric MPNST and a promising target for therapeutic interventions. PMID:24303016

  7. Salivary flow rates among women diagnosed with benign and malignant tumors.

    PubMed

    Napeñas, Joel J; Miles, Leslie; Guajardo-Streckfus, Cynthia; Streckfus, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare salivary flow rates (SWS) among patients diagnosed with benign and varying malignant solid tumors with the comparison group, prior to the initiation of any treatment. An evaluation of the results found that mean baseline SWS flow rates were higher for healthy patients (1.55 ml/min) when compared to patients diagnosed with benign tumors (1.13 ml/min), breast cancer (1.09 ml/min), and reproductive carcinomas (0.94 ml/min). The overall model (F = 7.76; p < .001) and the Dunnett's post hoc analyses were statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Additionally, medications, race, and season of the year had significant effects on mean SWS flow rates. The results suggest that salivary secretion is lower among both benign and malignant tumor subjects prior to the initiation of treatment. Salivary evaluations of subjects prior to treatment may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for oral complications during chemotherapy.

  8. CTLA4 aptamer delivers STAT3 siRNA to tumor-associated and malignant T cells

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Andreas; Priceman, Saul J.; Kujawski, Maciej; Xin, Hong; Cherryholmes, Gregory A.; Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Chunyan; Lahtz, Christoph; Kowolik, Claudia; Forman, Steve J.; Kortylewski, Marcin; Yu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular therapeutic targets that define tumor immunosuppression in both tumor cells and T cells remain intractable. Here, we have shown that administration of a covalently linked siRNA to an aptamer (apt) that selectively binds cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA4apt) allows gene silencing in exhausted CD8+ T cells and Tregs in tumors as well as CTLA4-expressing malignant T cells. CTLA4 expression was upregulated in CD8+ T cells in the tumor milieu; therefore, CTLA4apt fused to a STAT3-targeting siRNA (CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA) resulted in internalization into tumor-associated CD8+ T cells and silencing of STAT3, which activated tumor antigen–specific T cells in murine models. Both local and systemic administration of CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA dramatically reduced tumor-associated Tregs. Furthermore, CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA potently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in various mouse tumor models. Importantly, CTLA4 expression is observed in T cells of patients with blood malignancies, and CTLA4apt–STAT3 siRNA treatment of immunodeficient mice bearing human T cell lymphomas promoted tumor cell apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition. These data demonstrate that a CTLA4apt-based siRNA delivery strategy allows gene silencing in both tumor-associated T cells and tumor cells and inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:24892807

  9. Endoscopic photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative in the treatment of malignant tumors: report of 120 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Mao-en; Liu, Fa-wen; Qian, Jia-ping; Ji, Qing; Feng, Yun-qiu

    1993-03-01

    One-hundred-twenty cases of malignant tumors treated by endoscopic photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative from August 1982 - July 1990 are reported. Of the 120 cases, including 97 males and 23 females ages varying from 39 to 77 years old, 40 cases were primary tumors and 80 cases were local residual or recurrent after surgery or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. All cases were confirmed in pathological biopsy, including 58 squamous cell carcinoma, 28 various adenocarcinoma, and 34 transitional cell carcinoma. Twenty-four, 48 and/or 72 hours after intravenous injection of HpD 2.0 - 3.0 mg/kg, or DHE 1.5 - 2.0 mg/kg, or Y-HpD 5.0 mg/kg, the tumor was irradiated with 630 nm wavelength of argon dye laser via a quartz light fiber inserted through the forceps channel of the endoscope. Of the 120 cases treated, CR was obtained in 38 cases, PR in 25 cases, MR in 52 cases, and NR in 5 cases. Total response rate was 95.8%; significant response rate 52.5%; and tumor eradicated rate 31.7%. The 38 cases included: 14 cases of early esophageal carcinoma, 3 cases of early cardiac carcinoma, 1 case of early lung cancer, 1 case of early gastric carcinoma, 15 cases of superficial bladder carcinoma, 3 cases of local residual recurrent micro lung cancer, and 1 case of cardiac carcinoma. The longest cancer-free survival was over eight years. Endoscopic photodynamic therapy is, therefore, curative effective in the treatment of early and superficial carcinoma, and palliative effective in the treatment of advanced carcinoma. Standardized and controlled trials are required to assess its place in combined treatment of malignant tumors.

  10. Molecular sublocalization and characterization of the 11; 22 translocation breakpoint in a malignant rhabdoid tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Newsham, I.; Daub, D.; Besnard-Guerin, C.; Cavenee, W. )

    1994-02-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors are extremely aggressive soft-tissue sarcomas that tend to be widely metastatic at diagnosis. These tumors were first described as variants of the kidney neoplasm Wilms' tumor, although tumors of similar clinicopathologic features have been cited in a variety of extrarenal sites. Here, the authors have characterized the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p15.5;q11.23) from a retroperitoneal rhabdoid tumor. Somatic cell hybrids with segregated copies of the derivative 11 and derivative 22 chromosomes allowed sublocalization of the chromosome 11 breakpoint to a 1- to 2-Mb region between the proximal marker D11S12 and the distal locus tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Translocation-associated aberrant fragments were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with the smallest resulting from BssHII digestion as detected with a probe for TH. These data indicate that the locus or loci disrupted by this genetic abnormality might lie less than 60 kb proximal to this marker and place it in the chromosomal vicinity of genes involved in the etiologies of rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms' tumor, and the congenital overgrowth disorder, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Analysis of two other tumor-associated loci, EWS1 and NF2, that have been mapped to the general region of 22q11.2 indicated that they were not involved in this translocation breakpoint. Isolation of the genes present at this translocation junction on both chromosomes 11 and 22 may yield important clinicopathologic and genetic markers for this enigmatic tumor as well as other pediatric diseases. 45 refs., 3 figs.

  11. The Diagnostic Value of B-Mode Sonography in Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Tumors of the Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Khalife, Ali; Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Davachi, Behrouz; Mashhadi, Leila; Khazaeni, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Different imaging modalities are used to evaluate salivary gland diseases, including tumors. Ultrasonography (US) is the preferred method on account of its ease of use, affordability, safety profile, and good tolerance among patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of US in differentiating malignant from benign parotid tumors, in the context of previous controversy in the literature on this subject. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in patients who presented to Qaem Medical Center with parotid masses and who were candidates for parotidectomy between June 2013 and January 2015. Patients were initially referred for a diagnostic US of the parotid. US examinations were performed and sonographic features were reported. The tumors were then classified as benign or malignanton the basis of literature descriptions of the US features of parotid tumors, and were next diagnosed pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for the purpose of differentiating malignant from benign tumors were then calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (aged 18–92 years) underwent US of parotid masses. Twenty-three tumors were diagnosed as benign and five were diagnosed as malignant. The final histopathologic examination showed 21 benign and seven malignant tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of US for differentiating malignant from benign tumors were calculated as 57%, 95%, 80%, and 87%, respectively. Conclusion: US has a high specificity in differentiating between malignant and benign tumors. However, fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy is advocated for an exact diagnosis. PMID:27738606

  12. Coexistence of malignant phyllodes tumor and her2-positive locally advanced breast cancer in distinct breasts: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tomoi; Muto, Ichiro; Sakai, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare biphasic neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all breast tumors. Coexistence of phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts is extremely rare. Case presentation A 47-year-old Japanese woman presented with bilateral breast lumps. A HER2-positive, unresectable invasive carcinoma in the right breast and fibroadenoma in the left were diagnosed via core needle biopsy. During chemotherapy with anti-HER2 therapy, the breast cancer shrank quickly, while the left breast lump suddenly enlarged. Under a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of the breast, left mastectomy was performed. Malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed by postoperative histological examination and recurred in multiple areas as early as 2 months after surgery. Discussion Only 10 cases of coexisting phyllodes tumor and breast cancer in distinct breasts have been reported in the English literature. Phyllodes tumor associated with breast cancer in distinct breasts tends to be malignant. This is the first case of phyllodes tumor rapidly enlarging during anti-HER2 chemotherapy for locally advanced HER2-positive breast cancer. Conclusion Even during effective treatment of advanced or recurrent breast cancer, attention should also be paid to the contralateral breast for the possible association of a second malignancy such as phyllodes tumor. PMID:26773878

  13. The Continuum of Serous Tumors of Low Malignant Potential and Low-Grade Serous Carcinomas of the Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Gershenson, David

    2007-01-01

    The role of serous tumors of low malignant potential (LMP) in the development of invasive epithelial cancer of the ovary is debatable. This review summarizes the current clinical, genetic, and genomic evidence for the existence of a continuum comprising both LMP serous tumors and low-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. PMID:18057521

  14. Volume change determination of metastatic lung tumors in CT images using 3-D template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, Robert D.; Wang, Peng; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a clinician to properly detect changes in the size of lung nodules over time is a vital element to both the diagnosis of malignant growths and the monitoring of the response of cancerous lesions to therapy. We have developed a novel metastasis sizing algorithm based on 3-D template matching with spherical tumor appearance models that were created to match the expected geometry of the tumors of interest while accounting for potential spatial offsets of nodules in the slice thickness direction. The spherical template that best-fits the overall volume of each lung metastasis was determined through the optimization of the 3-D normalized cross-correlation coefficients (NCCC) calculated between the templates and the nodules. A total of 17 different lung metastases were extracted manually from real patient CT datasets and reconstructed in 3-D using spherical harmonics equations to generate simulated nodules for testing our algorithm. Each metastasis 3-D shape was then subjected to 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 90% scaling of its volume to allow for 5 possible volume change combinations relative to the original size per each reconstructed nodule and inserted back into CT datasets with appropriate blurring and noise addition. When plotted against the true volume change, the nodule volume changes calculated by our algorithm for these 85 data points exhibited a high degree of accuracy (slope = 0.9817, R2 = 0.9957). Our results demonstrate that the 3-D template matching method can be an effective, fast, and accurate tool for automated sizing of metastatic tumors.

  15. Endovascular Therapy for Management of Oral Hemorrhage in Malignant Head and Neck Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kakizawa, Hideaki Toyota, Naoyuki; Naito, Akira; Ito, Katsuhide

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy in oral hemorrhage from malignant head and neck tumors. Methods. Ten patients (mean age 56 years) with oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors underwent a total of 13 emergency embolization procedures using gelatin sponge particles, steel and/or platinum coils, or a combination of these embolic materials. Angiographic abnormalities, technical success rate, clinical success rate, recurrence rate, complications, hemostatic period, hospital days, survival days, and patient outcome were all analyzed. Results. Angiographic abnormalities were identified during 85% of procedures (11/13). The technical success rate was 100% (13/13 procedures). The primary and secondary clinical success rates were 77% (10/13 procedures) and 67% (2/3 procedures), respectively. The overall clinical success rate was 92%, and the recurrence rate was 22% (2/9 procedures) in patients whom we were able to observe during the 1-month period after embolization. No major complications occurred. Several patients in whom gelatin sponge particles had been used complained of transient local pain after the procedure. The median hemostatic period was 71 days (range 0-518 days). Median hospital and survival days were 59 days (range 3-209 days) and 141 days (range 4-518 days), respectively. Three patients survived and 7 patients died during the observation period. Only 1 of these 7 patients died from hemorrhage. Conclusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that endovascular therapy is an effective, safe, and repeatable treatment for oral hemorrhage caused by malignant head and neck tumors.

  16. The comparison of plasma D-dimer levels in benign and malignant tumors of cervix, ovary and uterus

    PubMed Central

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Marzieh; Ahmari, Soraya; Alipour, Sadaf; Tehranian, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thromboembolism is the most important complication of cancers.The aim of this study was to determine D-dimer levels in benign and malignant tumors of the uterus, ovary and cervix. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross sectional study and it was conducted on 90 female patients referred to Imam Khomeini and Arash Hospitals because of uterine, cervical and ovarian tumors in 2013-2014. After surgical resection or tissue biopsy, 2 cc of each patient’s blood was taken to be sent to laboratory of hospitals. “Nycocard” kit was chosen to measure D-dimer levels in Mg/Lit by neflumetry method. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 by T-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Results: The highest mean of D-dimer was 3.9 (± 2.9SD) in malignant cervical tumors. The mean plasma levels of D-dimer in malignant uterine cancers (P = 0.008), ovarian cancers (P = 0.007) and cervical cancers (P = 0.006) was significantly higher than benign tumors. In all three types of uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers, D-dimer was significantly higher in advanced stages than lower stages. Conclusion: The plasma D-dimer levels in patients with malignant tumors of the uterus, cervix and ovary were higher than benign types. By increasing the stage of gynecologic malignant tumors, the levels of plasma D-dimer were increased. PMID:26261694

  17. [Technological problems in use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors].

    PubMed

    Mardynskií, I S; Sysoev, A S; Gulidov, I A; Obaturov, G M; Sokolov, V A; Ul'ianenko, S E; Kotukhov, I I

    1997-01-01

    The authors discuss the technological problems associated with the use of fast neutrons in radiotherapy of cancer patients and outline the approaches to the solution of these problems. The state of the art is assessed. Physical and radiobiological prerequisites for the use of fast reactors for radiotherapy of patients with malignant tumors are analyzed. Results of clinical use of BR-10 reactor at the Medical Radiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, are presented. Experimental and clinical findings indicate that the results of radiotherapy may be appreciably improved if a novel perspective source of fast neutrons, a nuclear reactor, is used.

  18. [Toxic effects of cisplatin in the treatment of malignant bone and soft tissue tumors].

    PubMed

    Umeda, T; Takada, N; Hodaka, E; Endoh, F; Ishii, T

    1986-05-01

    A total of 31 patients with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors were evaluated for toxic effects after receiving cisplatin (104 courses) at doses of 2.0-3.0 mg/kg with aggressive hydration. Nausea was common and in 86% of cisplatin courses severe vomiting was observed. Nephrotoxicity was observed in less than 10% of all courses but ototoxicity, especially tinnitis, developed in 5 of 6 patients whose total doses of cisplatin were over 500mg, and one of them showed hearing disorder in the upper frequency above 5,000 Hz. There were no other toxic effects such as severe myelosuppression, allergic reaction or peripheral neuropathy. PMID:3707148

  19. Role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xinhua; Zhang, Hongbin; Meng, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chuge

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the diagnostic values of computed tomography (CT) and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors and a meta-analysis to further confirm our results on DW-MRI. Methods: Totally 64 patients pathologically confirmed as ovarian cancer were included in this study. CT scan and DWI-MRI were performed and analyzed to get compared with pathological results, thereby assessing their accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was conducted by database searching and strict eligibility criteria, using STATA 12.0 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA) software. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for diagnosis of ovarian cancer in CT were 81.82%, 84.48%, 76.67%, 87.50% and 71.88%, respectively; those in DW-MRI were 89.77%, 93.10%, 83.33%, 91.53% and 86.21%, respectively. The Kappa coefficient of DW-MRI (K = 0.771) compared with pathological results was higher than CT (K = 0.602). The average apparent diffusion coefficient values of DW-MRI in diagnosis of benign and malignant ovarian tumors suggested statistically significant difference (1.325 ± 0.269×10-3 mm2/s vs. 0.878 ± 0.246×10-3 mm2/s, P < 0.001). Meta-analysis results showed that the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of DW-MRI in discriminating benign versus malignant ovarian tumors were 0.93, 0.88, 7.70, 0.08 and 101.24, respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. Conclusions: Both CT and DW-MRI were of great diagnostic value in differentiating malignancies from benign ovarian tumors, while DW-MRI was superior to CT with higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26884905

  20. Microsurgical management of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the scalp: two case reports and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ou, Shao-wu; Guo, Zong-ze; Wang, Yun-jie; Xing, De-guang

    2013-10-10

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the scalp are rare lesions of the nervous system. Only 14 cases have been reported to date. The field of neurosurgery has struggled with diagnosing and treating these tumors. In this report, we present two cases of giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the scalp and retrospectively analyze the clinical features, imaging findings, pathological features, and prognoses of these two patients. Each underwent microsurgery and radiotherapy. In addition, based on a literature review, we discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies used to treat these unusual lesions.

  1. [Value of the tumor colony assay in therapy planning in malignant ovarian tumors].

    PubMed

    Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Bieglmayer, C

    1987-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the clinical value of the human tumour colony assay for the treatment of patients suffering from advanced malignant ovarian tumours. Using this in vitro culture system the growth and chemosensitivity of clonogenic tumour cells could be studied. Cultures were obtained of only 52.6% of the 133 tumour samples; only 33 of 70 assays showed a sufficient growth of colonies. However, the significance of the stem cell assay for clinical use is represented by the prediction of drug resistance. In 17 trials the assay had a 67% true positive rate and a 100% true negative rate for predicting drug sensitivity and resistance, respectively. Apart from the methodical errors inherent in this method, the false positive prediction of drug sensitivity might be caused by the heterogeneity of the tumour.

  2. Second and third malignant solid tumor in a girl with ovarian Sertoli-Leydig tumor.

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, John P; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Sofou, Kalliopi; Vanvliet-Constantinidou, Catherine; Papandreou, Evangelos; Haidas, Stavros

    2006-05-01

    We report a Sertoli-Leydig cell (SLC) tumor of the right ovary in a 10-year-old girl, which was dealt with surgical removal. Three months after resection, she presented with a new episode of acute abdomen because of an abdominal mass, which histologically was compatible with an undifferentiated embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Chemotherapy, according to SIOP-??? 89 protocol, was administered additionally to radiotherapy (3,960 cGy). Three years after completing treatment, the patient developed a painful swelling at her left upper arm. The diagnosis was Ewing sarcoma of the humerus, which was confirmed by identification of the typical 11; 22 translocation on cytogenetic and molecular analysis of the tumor tissue. The patient died 14 months from Ewing diagnosis due to progressive disease.

  3. p16INK4A and p14ARF Tumor Suppressor Pathways Are Deregulated in Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Venneti, Sriram; Le, Paul; Martinez, Daniel; Eaton, Katherine W.; Shyam, Nikhil; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L.; Pawel, Bruce; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Judkins, Alexander R.

    2011-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT) are aggressive tumors associated with mutations in the SMARCB1 gene. In experimental systems, the loss of SMARCB1 is hypothesized to alter p16INK4A pathways resulting in repression of tumor suppressors. To determine whether these pathways are deregulated in human MRT, we used immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to evaluate p16INK4A/E2F1/RB and p14ARF/MDM2/p53 pathways in 25 atypical teratoid/ rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) and 11 non-CNS MRT. p16INK4A was negative or showed focal weak expression. The p16INK4A downstream targets CDK4/cyclin D1/ppRB were variably expressed at moderate to low levels; E2F1 was negative. Unexpectedly, p14ARF expression was seen in many cases, which correlated positively with p53 and inversely with MDM2 immunostaining in AT/RT. TP53 mutational analysis in 19/25 AT/RT and 8/11 non-CNS MRT cases showed point mutations in only 3 AT/RT cases, suggesting that p53 expression was driven mainly by p14ARF. Finally, nucleophosmin, a protein that stabilizes p53, was positive in the majority of cases and colocalized with p53. Together, these data suggest that in MRT there is deregulation of not only p16INK4A, but also the p14ARF pathway. These results provide insights into cell cycle deregulation in the pathogenesis of human MRT and may aid in the design and evaluation of potential therapies for these tumors. PMID:21666498

  4. Four cases of cell cannibalism in highly malignant feline and canine tumors.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fernando Costa; Soares, Maria João; Carvalho, Sandra; Borralho, Liliana; Vicente, Gonçalo; Branco, Sandra; Correia, Jorge; Peleteiro, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    Four cases of tumors in which cell internalization was frequently visualized are reported: one feline mammary carcinoma, one feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, one canine pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and one canine pleural mesothelioma. Cell internalization was observed by cytology in two of these cases (the feline mammary tumour and the pleural effusion in the canine mesothelioma) and by histopathology in all but the canine mesothelioma. Immunohistochemical staining for pancytokeratin was positive for both internalized and host cells, while E-cadherin expression was frequently absent, although internalized cells occasionally stained positive. This cell-to-cell interaction seems to be associated with tumors displaying a strong epithelial-mesenchymal transitional phenotype, in which cancer cells become engulfed by other cancer cells. Such event could be regarded as an important hallmark of very high malignancy. PMID:26525147

  5. Hemi-Bernard method: straightforward reconstruction of lower lip after malignant tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Okochi, Masayuki; Ueda, Kazuki; Okochi, Hiromi

    2015-06-01

    The Bernard method is a straightforward method for reconstructing lower lip defects after tumor resection. However, this method is difficult to apply when the defect is located on the unilateral side of the lower lip. This report describes the reconstruction of unilateral lower lip defects using a modified Bernard method, which is referred to as the hemi-Bernard method. Three patients (2 male and 1 female; mean defect, 55%) underwent reconstruction using the hemi-Bernard method after lower lip malignant tumor resection. No infection or flap necrosis occurred, and none of the 3 patients had difficulty with oral ingestion. Movement of the orbicularis oris muscle was retained in all patients. The hemi-Bernard method is straightforward and has several advantages, including extension of lower lip length. This method could be useful for reconstructing full-thickness defects located on the unilateral side of the lower lip. PMID:25869747

  6. Malignant mixed tumor of bronchus: a biphasic neoplasm of epithelial and myoepithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M M; van der Westhuizen, N G; Forgie, R

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an unusual malignant mixed tumor of the bronchus arising in a 71-yr-old male and provides evidence of an epithelial-myoepithelial origin based on the findings on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The neoplasm contained elements of recognizable benign tumor resembling salivary gland-type pleomorphic adenoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and a spindle-cell sarcomatous component. Immunohistochemical stains showed the characteristic relationship between epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the benign component of the neoplasm. In addition, the spindle cells stained for myoepithelial markers (S-100 protein and actin) but were also positive for keratin (AE1/AE3). The relationship of this neoplasm to classical carcinosarcoma and the recently described adenosquamous carcinoma with amyloid-like stroma is discussed.

  7. The use of reflectance confocal microscopy for examination of benign and malignant skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wielowieyska-Szybińska, Dorota; Białek-Galas, Kamila; Podolec, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a modern, non-invasive diagnostic method that enables real-time imaging of epidermis and upper layers of the dermis with a nearly histological precision and high contrast. The application of this technology in skin imaging in the last few years has resulted in the progress of dermatological diagnosis, providing virtual access to the living skin erasing the need for conventional histopathology. The RCM has a potential of wide application in the dermatological diagnostic process with a particular reference to benign and malignant skin tumors. This article provides a summary of the latest reports and previous achievements in the field of RCM application in the diagnostic process of skin neoplasms. A range of dermatological indications and general characteristics of confocal images in various types of tumors are presented. PMID:25610353

  8. Malignant lymphoma arising from heterotopic Warthin's tumor in the neck: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Shigeki; Numata, Tsutomu; Kawada, Sawako; Nakano, Masayuki; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2007-06-01

    Warthin's tumor (WT), so-called adenolymphoma, is a benign salivary gland tumor with both epithelial and lymphoid histological characteristics, so the histogenesis remains unclear. Treatment consists primarily of tumor removal or conservative follow up. Here we present a rare case of malignant lymphoma arising from heterotopic (ectopic) WT. A 102-year-old man presented with a mass in the left side of the neck which was painless but gradually enlarged over 1 month. The mass was 2-3 cm in diameter, and freely moveable below the angle of the mandible. The mass was totally removed. The histological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell type, arising from heterotopic WT. Postoperative staging examination including chest radiography, bone scan, and computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed no evidence of dissemination of malignant lymphoma. Malignant transformation within WT is rarer in the lymphoid component than in the epithelial component. Only 16 cases of malignant transformation arising from WT have been reported, including only three cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma apparently arising from heterotopic WT. Tumor removal or careful follow up is recommended in patients with WT because of the potential risk posed by such malignant transformation.

  9. Differences in pteridine urinary levels in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors in comparison with healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Zvarik, M; Martinicky, D; Hunakova, L; Sikurova, L

    2015-12-01

    Pteridines belong to a class of fluorescent metabolites that are excreted by humans in urine and their concentrations can reflect various pathophysiological states. We quantified the differences in urinary pteridine levels in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors and in healthy individuals. Urine samples were centrifuged and supernatants were oxidized by MnO2 before analysis. Levels of neopterin, biopterin, and pterin were assessed by fluorescence analysis of human urine after HPLC separation. We have revealed that the median neopterin levels were higher in urine samples from patients with malignant (0.226 μmol/mmol creatinine) and benign ovarian tumors (0.150 μmol/mmol creatinine) than in healthy subjects (0.056 μmol/mmol creatinine). The median neopterin levels of patients with malignant tumors were higher (1.5-times) than in patients with benign tumors. The median biopterin level in urine of patients with benign ovarian tumors (0.268 μmol/mmol creatinine) was found to be very close to the level in patients with malignant ovarian tumors (0.239 μmol/mmol creatinine), and both were higher than in healthy samples (0.096 μmol/mmol creatinine). The levels of urine pterin followed a pattern similar to neopterin levels for both ovarian tumors, but their concentrations were about three times lower than neopterin levels.

  10. EMT Inducers Catalyze Malignant Transformation of Mammary Epithelial Cells and Drive Tumorigenesis towards Claudin-Low Tumors in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fauvet, Frédérique; Courtois-Cox, Stéphanie; Wierinckx, Anne; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Treilleux, Isabelle; Tissier, Agnès; Gras, Baptiste; Pourchet, Julie; Puisieux, Isabelle; Browne, Gareth J.; Spicer, Douglas B.; Lachuer, Joël; Ansieau, Stéphane; Puisieux, Alain

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an embryonic transdifferentiation process consisting of conversion of polarized epithelial cells to motile mesenchymal ones. EMT–inducing transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in multiple tumor types and are known to favor the metastatic dissemination process. Supporting oncogenic activity within primary lesions, the TWIST and ZEB proteins can prevent cells from undergoing oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis by abolishing both p53- and RB-dependent pathways. Here we show that they also downregulate PP2A phosphatase activity and efficiently cooperate with an oncogenic version of H-RAS in malignant transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. Thus, by down-regulating crucial tumor suppressor functions, EMT inducers make cells particularly prone to malignant conversion. Importantly, by analyzing transformed cells generated in vitro and by characterizing novel transgenic mouse models, we further demonstrate that cooperation between an EMT inducer and an active form of RAS is sufficient to trigger transformation of mammary epithelial cells into malignant cells exhibiting all the characteristic features of claudin-low tumors, including low expression of tight and adherens junction genes, EMT traits, and stem cell–like characteristics. Claudin-low tumors are believed to be the most primitive breast malignancies, having arisen through transformation of an early epithelial precursor with inherent stemness properties and metaplastic features. Challenging this prevailing view, we propose that these aggressive tumors arise from cells committed to luminal differentiation, through a process driven by EMT inducers and combining malignant transformation and transdifferentiation. PMID:22654675

  11. Malignant hair follicle tumors of the periorbital region: A review of literature and suggestion of a management guideline.

    PubMed

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Allende, Alexandra; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-06-01

    Malignant hair follicle tumors are rare skin adnexal malignancies that have a predilection for the head and neck region. They can be categorized into a number of different subtypes. Histologically, they are distinct from their benign counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive review of these malignancies, especially in the periorbital region. We aim to provide a literature review and a guideline for management of these malignant tumors in the periorbital region. Database from Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 16 cases from the literature on hair follicle malignancies in the periorbital region were included in this review. The clinical presentations, diagnostic patterns, investigations used, and best management approach of these tumors are discussed. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7(th) edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system was used to describe their behaviors. We recommend wide excision surgery and a close follow-up for these tumors. Tumors presenting with a late stage require work-up for distant metastasis and consideration for exenteration procedures. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this context is still uncertain.

  12. Malignant hair follicle tumors of the periorbital region: A review of literature and suggestion of a management guideline.

    PubMed

    Sia, Paul Ikgan; Figueira, Edwin; Allende, Alexandra; Selva, Dinesh

    2016-06-01

    Malignant hair follicle tumors are rare skin adnexal malignancies that have a predilection for the head and neck region. They can be categorized into a number of different subtypes. Histologically, they are distinct from their benign counterpart. To the best of our knowledge, there is no extensive review of these malignancies, especially in the periorbital region. We aim to provide a literature review and a guideline for management of these malignant tumors in the periorbital region. Database from Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were consulted. A total of 16 cases from the literature on hair follicle malignancies in the periorbital region were included in this review. The clinical presentations, diagnostic patterns, investigations used, and best management approach of these tumors are discussed. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) 7(th) edition carcinoma of the eyelid staging system was used to describe their behaviors. We recommend wide excision surgery and a close follow-up for these tumors. Tumors presenting with a late stage require work-up for distant metastasis and consideration for exenteration procedures. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in this context is still uncertain. PMID:27171562

  13. Targeting MCM2 function as a novel strategy for the treatment of highly malignant breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Shinya; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Kurata, Morito; Abe-Suzuki, Shiho; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Kitagawa, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Highly malignant tumors express high levels of the minichromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2) protein, which is associated with advanced tumor grade, advanced stage, and poor prognosis. In a previous study, we showed that Friend leukemia virus (FLV) envelope protein gp70 bound MCM2, impaired its nuclear translocation, and enhanced DNA-damage-induced apoptosis in FLV-infected hematopoietic cells when the cells expressed high levels of MCM2. Here, we show that MCM2 is highly expressed in clinical samples of invasive carcinoma of the breast, especially triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and in cancer stem cell (CSC) marker-positive breast cancer cells. To generate a cancer therapy model using gp70, we introduced the gp70 protein into the cytoplasm of murine breast cancer cells that express high levels of MCM2 by conjugating the protein transduction domain (PTD) of Hph-1 to gp70 (Hph- 1-gp70). Hph-1-gp70 was successfully transduced into the cytoplasm of breast cancer cells. The transduced protein enhanced the DNA damage-induced apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, an MCM2-targeted strategy using Hph-1-gp70 treatment to induce DNA damage might be a successful therapy for highly malignant breast cancers such as TNBC and for the eradication of CSC-like cells from breast cancer tissue. PMID:26430873

  14. Infratentorial brain metastases of pediatric non-epithelial malignant tumors: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Shin-ichiro; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Saito, Ryuta; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Niizuma, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mika; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-04-01

    Three pediatric patients with infratentorial metastatic non-epithelial malignant brain tumors were successfully treated by radical surgical resection followed by aggressive radiochemotherapy. One patient with neuroblastoma and two with rhabdomyosarcoma were successfully treated by first line multimodal treatments, but developed infratentorial metastasis after several months of remission. All patients revealed intracranial metastases manifesting as rapidly progressing neurological symptoms caused by mass effect in the posterior fossa. Radical surgical resection was performed without morbidity. The patients were then treated by adjuvant radiochemotherapy with or without autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, resulting in complete remission. Two patients developed extracranial recurrences 4 months after the treatments for intracranial metastases. One patient was treated by second high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic cord blood transplantation, again resulting in complete remission. Another patient was treated by second chemotherapy and maintaining stable disease. The other patient maintained complete remission. All three patients were alive without neurological deficit for 8, 11, and 12 months after diagnosis of brain metastasis. Patients with infratentorial brain metastases of highly malignant pediatric non-epithelial tumors are in a severe clinical state, but still can have longer and useful lives with aggressive multimodal treatments combined with radical surgical resection.

  15. The use of giant cell tumor conditioned media in cytogenetic studies of hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Wason, D; Richkind, K E

    1992-07-15

    The use of conditioned media produced from solid tumor cell lines has been beneficial in the study of hematologic malignancies. Conditioned media from giant cell tumors (GCT), human lung adenocarcinoma, and human bladder carcinoma express growth factors that have been used to stimulate growth of bone marrow cells and improve the quality of the preparations. It has been reported that addition of Lu-CSF1-conditioned media from a lung adenocarcinoma cell line masks abnormalities in cases of acute leukemia [1.] Because we routinely use GCT-CM in bone marrow and leukemic blood cultures for chromosome analysis in our lab, we investigated this potential effect on our case analysis. We have performed a serial study of a 100 cases of hematologic malignancies received for analysis in our lab to determine the effect of the addition of GCT-CM to our culture media with respect to 1) mitotic index, 2) quality of preparation, and 3) differential selection of either chromosomally normal or abnormal cell lines. Our results indicate that the mitotic index and quality of metaphases is enhanced with the addition of GCT media and that there is no difference in the rate of abnormality detection with or without the addition of GCT media.

  16. [In vitro evaluation of the chemosensitivity of malignant gastrointestinal tumors by stem cell assay].

    PubMed

    Scheithauer, W; Temsch, E M; Schieder, H; Funovics, J; Schiessel, R; Grabner, G

    1984-01-01

    The Human Tumor Stem Cell Assay, originally described by Hamburger and Salmon, was shown to be a useful in-vitro technique for predicting response or lack of response in individual patients' tumors. In the present study 34 GI-tumors were assayed for evaluation of in-vitro growth characteristics and sensitivity-patterns to standard chemotherapeutic drugs as well as to recombinant interferon alpha-2(rIF). Sufficient growth for evaluation of anticancer drug activity (greater than 30 colonies/control plate) was obtained in 56% of specimens: 2/9 colorectal, 0/3 stomach, 0/3 pancreatic tumors and 1/4 hepatomas revealed a 50% (or more) decrease of TCFUs, that was considered the minimum for in-vitro efficacy. Our results suggest a very limited overall activity of rIF in gastrointestinal malignancies. Only 1 pancreatic cancer (of 18 evaluable specimens) showed a significant decrease of colony formation (70%), when 100 U of interferon/ml were added to the culture system.

  17. Role of the tumor microenvironment in mature B-cell lymphoid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Nathan H.; Cheah, Chan Yoon; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Gribben, John; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Ghia, Paolo; Bollard, Catherine; Ansell, Stephen; Curran, Michael; Wilson, Wyndham H.; O’Brien, Susan; Grant, Cliona; Little, Richard; Zenz, Thorsten; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is the cellular and molecular environment in which the tumor exists and with which it continuously interacts. In B-cell lymphomas, this microenvironment is intriguing in that it plays critical roles in the regulation of tumor cell survival and proliferation, fostering immune escape as well as the development of treatment resistance. The purpose of this review is to summarize the proceedings of the Second Annual Summit on the Immune Microenvironment in Hematologic Malignancies that took place on September 11–12, 2014 in Dublin, Ireland. We provide a timely overview of the composition and biological relevance of the cellular and molecular microenvironment interface and discuss the role of interactions between the microenvironment and neoplastic cells in a variety of B-cell lymphomas. In addition, we focus on various novel therapeutic strategies that target the tumor microenvironment, including agents that modulate B-cell receptor pathways and immune-checkpoints, chimeric antigen receptor T cells and immunomodulatory agents. PMID:27132279

  18. Significance of defect closure following transanal local full-thickness excision of rectal malignant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Yasui, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Transanal excision (TAE) for rectal tumors is increasingly applied and it is generally recommended that the defect following full-thickness excision should be closed. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and anal function following TAE between cases where the defect was closed and those where it was not. A total of 43 consecutive rectal malignant tumor patients eligible for TAE were investigated. Regarding anorectal function, incontinence was assessed using the Wexner score. The defect of the rectum was closed in 21 of the 43 patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding gender, distance from the anal verge, tumor size, diagnosis and tumor site. There was a significantly higher number of postoperative complications of all grades and ≥Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa in the closure group (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Regarding the Wexner score, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.24). Compared with the closure group, the non-closure group had significantly fewer postoperative complications of all grades and ≥Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. Moreover, there was no significant difference regarding the anorectal function between the two groups. Thus, suturing the rectal defect is not necessarily recommended following TAE.

  19. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Malignant Tumor with Increased Antioxidant Defense Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rovcanin, Branislav R; Gopcevic, Kristina R; Kekic, Dusan Lj; Zivaljevic, Vladan R; Diklic, Aleksandar Dj; Paunovic, Ivan R

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy worldwide for which the radiation exposure is the most influential risk factor. The levels of oxidative stress in PTC are not well characterized on the tissue level. The objective of this study was to evaluate total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in PTC and benign goiter (BG) tissues and to examine their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Tumor and normal thyroid tissue samples were collected from 59 PTC patients, and goiter tissues were collected from 50 BG patients. TOS and TAS were quantified in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometric assays. TOS values in tumor tissues did not differ significantly from normal and goiter tissues; however, PTC tissues have significantly higher TAS values than normal and goiter tissues. TOS values correlated with retrosternal growth in BG patients. The significant correlations were found between TOS and TAS values and thyroid function parameters. In 17 PTC patients with multiple tumor foci (multicentric phenotype), TAS values were significantly lower, compared to 42 patients with unicentric PTC. TAS and TOS are the most useful predictors of thyroid capsular invasion by PTC. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking, familial history of thyroid disease and nodule size did not influence TOS and TAS in PTC or BG patients. In conclusion, we show the profiles of TOS and TAS in PTC and BG tissues. Importantly, PTC tissues possess increased antioxidant capacity. The redox status influences the parameters of the thyroid function and tumor's biological behavior. PMID:27615359

  20. Significance of defect closure following transanal local full-thickness excision of rectal malignant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Yasui, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Transanal excision (TAE) for rectal tumors is increasingly applied and it is generally recommended that the defect following full-thickness excision should be closed. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and anal function following TAE between cases where the defect was closed and those where it was not. A total of 43 consecutive rectal malignant tumor patients eligible for TAE were investigated. Regarding anorectal function, incontinence was assessed using the Wexner score. The defect of the rectum was closed in 21 of the 43 patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding gender, distance from the anal verge, tumor size, diagnosis and tumor site. There was a significantly higher number of postoperative complications of all grades and ≥Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa in the closure group (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Regarding the Wexner score, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.24). Compared with the closure group, the non-closure group had significantly fewer postoperative complications of all grades and ≥Clavien-Dindo grade IIIa. Moreover, there was no significant difference regarding the anorectal function between the two groups. Thus, suturing the rectal defect is not necessarily recommended following TAE. PMID:27699041

  1. Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 is expressed in cultured benign and malignant salivary gland tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Queimado, L; Lopes, C; Du, F; Martins, C; Bowcock, A M; Soares, J; Lovett, M

    1999-05-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is activated by reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving 8q12 in a subset of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. PLAG1 encodes a zinc finger protein and was initially reported to be expressed in placenta and fetal tissues, with no detectable expression in other normal adult tissues. By Northern blotting we have detected PLAG1 expression in a wide set of normal adult tissues, including heart, placenta, spleen, prostate, testis, ovary, and small intestine. We have performed reverse transcriptase-PCR and Northern blot analyses to study the expression of PLAG1 in normal salivary gland tissues and in primary cultures and cell lines derived from salivary gland tumors. PLAG1 was expressed in all tumor-derived primary cultures and cell lines, irrespective of their histological type or the presence of genomic rearrangements involving PLAG1, but was not detected by our assays in normal salivary glands. Our data indicate that the presence or absence of PLAG1 expression is not an unequivocal marker for the differential diagnosis of benign versus malignant salivary gland tumors, and that a simple de novo activation of this gene does not fully explain the involvement of this gene in salivary gland tumors.

  2. Uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor (Metaplasic carcinoma) in the cat: clinicopathologic features and proliferation indices.

    PubMed

    Nicòtina, P A; Zanghì, A; Catone, G

    2002-01-01

    A homologous malignant mixed Müllerian tumor of the uterus occurring in an 8-year-old Persian cat was described with regard to its clinical and pathologic features. A polypoid multinodular mass of the right uterine horn was shown by an ultrasound examination. Grossly, the right uterine horn was enlarged because of a vegetative and infiltrating tumor, grayish-white in color, that penetrated the uterine wall to the level of the perimetrium. Many metastatic nodules were found in abdominal and thoracic cavities. Histologically, the neoplasm had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and was diagnosed as an uterine malignant mixed Müllerian tumor. This is the fourth case reported in cats. The histologic features and proliferation rate of this tumor were similar to the corresponding human neoplasms, which occur mainly in postmenopausal women. The possible hormone dependence of the tumor is briefly discussed.

  3. Resonant Spectra of Malignant Breast Cancer Tumors Using the Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Fast Multipole Model. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Shenawee, Magda

    2003-01-01

    An intensive numerical study for the resonance scattering of malignant breast cancer tumors is presented. The rigorous three-dimensional electromagnetic model, based on the equivalence theorem, is used to obtain the induced electric and magnetic currents on the breast and tumor surfaces. The results show that a non-spherical malignant tumor can be characterized based its spectra regardless of its orientation, the incident polarization, or the incident or scattered directions. The tumor's spectra depend solely on its physical characteristics (i.e., the shape and the electrical properties), however, their locations are not functions of its burial depth. This work provides a useful guidance to select the appropriate frequency range for the tumor's size.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of saliva proteins for the noninvasive differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Shaohua; Lin, Duo; Chen, Guannan; Xu, Yuanji; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    The capability of saliva protein analysis, based on membrane protein purification and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), for detecting benign and malignant breast tumors is presented in this paper. A total of 97 SERS spectra from purified saliva proteins were acquired from samples obtained from three groups: 33 healthy subjects; 33 patients with benign breast tumors; and 31 patients with malignant breast tumors. Subtle but discernible changes in the mean SERS spectra of the three groups were observed. Tentative assignments of the saliva protein SERS spectra demonstrated that benign and malignant breast tumors led to several specific biomolecular changes of the saliva proteins. Multiclass partial least squares-discriminant analysis was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from healthy subjects, benign breast tumor patients, and malignant breast tumor patients, yielding diagnostic sensitivities of 75.75%, 72.73%, and 74.19%, as well as specificities of 93.75%, 81.25%, and 86.36%, respectively. The results from this exploratory work demonstrate that saliva protein SERS analysis combined with partial least squares-discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for the noninvasive and label-free detection of breast cancer.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of saliva proteins for the noninvasive differentiation of benign and malignant breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Shaohua; Lin, Duo; Chen, Guannan; Xu, Yuanji; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    The capability of saliva protein analysis, based on membrane protein purification and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), for detecting benign and malignant breast tumors is presented in this paper. A total of 97 SERS spectra from purified saliva proteins were acquired from samples obtained from three groups: 33 healthy subjects; 33 patients with benign breast tumors; and 31 patients with malignant breast tumors. Subtle but discernible changes in the mean SERS spectra of the three groups were observed. Tentative assignments of the saliva protein SERS spectra demonstrated that benign and malignant breast tumors led to several specific biomolecular changes of the saliva proteins. Multiclass partial least squares–discriminant analysis was utilized to analyze and classify the saliva protein SERS spectra from healthy subjects, benign breast tumor patients, and malignant breast tumor patients, yielding diagnostic sensitivities of 75.75%, 72.73%, and 74.19%, as well as specificities of 93.75%, 81.25%, and 86.36%, respectively. The results from this exploratory work demonstrate that saliva protein SERS analysis combined with partial least squares–discriminant analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for the noninvasive and label-free detection of breast cancer. PMID:25609959

  6. Multiple cytokeratin-negative malignant tumors composed only of rhabdoid cells in the renal pelvis: a sarcomatoid urothelial carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Terada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The author presents a unique case of multiple cytokeratin-negative malignant tumors consisting only of rhabdoid cells in the renal pelvis. A 54-year-old man complained of hematuria. A transurethral endoscopic examination revealed multiple papillary tumors, and transurethral resection of the bladder tumors was performed. Pathologically, they were ordinary papillary urothelial transitional cell carcinomas. Imaging modalities revealed multiple tumors of the right renal pelvis, and nephrectomy was performed. Grossly, three polypoid tumors measuring 2-4 cm were present in the pelvis. Histologically, they were composed only of malignant cells with rhabdoid features. There were no elements of transitional cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the pelvic tumors were positive for vimentin and Ki-67 antigen (labeling=40%). They were negative for pancytokeratins (AE1/3, CAM5.2, KL-1 and polyclonal wide), 34βE12, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7, CK8, CK14, CK18, CK19, CK20, melanosome, EMA, CEA, desmin, S100 protein, α-smooth muscle actin, myoglobin, myogenin, CD34, p53 protein, p63, CD3, CD20, CD30, CD45, CD45RO, chromograin, synaptophysin, CD56, CD68, and KIT. NSE and PDGFRA were focally present, but this appeared nonspecific. Namely, the pelvic tumors expressed only vimentin. The author speculates that the pelvic multiple malignant “rhabdoid” tumors are not sarcomas but urothelial “rhabdoid” carcinoma with complete loss of CKs. PMID:23573320

  7. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor-Bearing Microparticles are Associated with Venous Thromboembolic Events in Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Liebman, Howard A.; Neuberg, Donna; Lacroix, Romaric; Bauer, Kenneth A.; Furie, Barbara C.; Furie, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Despite the strong association between malignant disease and thromboembolic disorders, the molecular and cellular basis of this relationship remains uncertain. We evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-derived tissue factor-bearing microparticles in plasma contribute to cancer-associated thrombosis. Experimental Design We developed impedance-based flow cytometry to detect, quantitate and size microparticles in platelet-poor plasma. We evaluated the number of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in a cohort of cancer patients of different histologies (N=96) and performed a case control study of 30 cancer patients diagnosed with an acute venous thromboembolic event (VTE) compared to 60 cancer patients of similar age, stage, sex, diagnosis without known VTE as well as 22 patients with an idiopathic VTE. Results Tissue factor-bearing microparticles were detected in patients with advanced malignancy including two thirds of patients with pancreatic carcinoma. Elevated levels of tissue factor-bearing microparticles were associated VTE in cancer patients (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.18-11.76, P=0.01). In cancer patients without VTE, a retrospective analysis revealed a one-year cumulative incidence of VTE of 34.8% in patients with tissue factor-bearing microparticles versus 0% those without detectable tissue factor-bearing microparticles (Gray test p-value=0.002). The median number of tissue factor-bearing microparticles in the cancer VTE cohort (7.1 × 104 microparticles/μl) was significantly greater than both the idiopathic VTE and cancer-no VTE groups (P=0.002 and P=0.03, respectively). Pancreatectomy in three patients eliminated or nearly eliminated these microparticles which co-expressed the epithelial tumor antigen, MUC-1. Conclusion We conclude that tumor-derived tissue factor-bearing microparticles are associated with VTE in cancer patients and may be central to the pathogenesis of cancer-associated thrombosis. PMID:19861441

  8. Potential role for inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor in salivary gland malignancies.

    PubMed

    Routila, Johannes; Mäkelä, Juho-Antti; Luukkaa, Heikki; Leivo, Ilmo; Irjala, Heikki; Westermarck, Jukka; Mäkitie, Antti; Ventelä, Sami

    2016-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of salivary gland malignancies remain unknown. To reveal novel molecular factors behind the development of salivary gland cancer, we performed gene expression analyses from Smgb-Tag mouse salivary gland samples. The overall purpose was to apply these results for clinical use to find new approaches for both possible therapeutic targets and more accurate diagnostic tools. Smgb-Tag mouse strain, in which salivary neoplasms arise through a dysplastic phase in submandibular glands, was investigated using genome-wide microarray expression analysis, ingenuity pathway analysis, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. Thirty-eight human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma samples were investigated using immunohistochemistry for validation purposes. Our genome-wide study showed that Ppp2r1b, a PP2A subunit encoding tumor suppressor gene, is underexpressed in submandibular gland tumors of Smgb-Tag mice. mTOR signaling pathway was significantly enriched and mTOR linked PP2A subunit gene B55 gamma was significantly underexpressed in the analyses. Furthermore, parallel immunohistochemical analysis of three PP2A inhibitors demonstrated that two PP2A inhibitors, CIP2A and SET, are highly expressed in both dysplastic and adenocarcinomatous tumors of the Smgb-Tag mice. In addition, all 38 investigated human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma samples stained positively for CIP2A and most for SET. Finally, p-S6 staining showed activation of mTOR pathway in human adenoid cystic carcinoma samples. Our results suggest that PP2A inhibition either via PP2A subunit underexpression or PP2A inhibitor overexpression play an important role in the formation of salivary gland malignancy, potentially due to mTOR signaling activation.

  9. Photodynamic therapy of malignant brain tumors: supplementary postoperative light delivery by implanted optical fibers: field fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.

    1991-06-01

    Sixty-three patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with intraoperative photodynamic therapy (PDT) using an argon dye pump laser and preoperatively administered hematoporphyrin derivative or dihematoporphyrin ether. In 13 cases, in addition to cavitary photo-illumination, cylindrical diffusion fibers were used to increase the amount of light energy administered to the tumor tissue intraoperatively. This interstitial photo-illumination was tolerated at light energy densities of less than 450 J/cm. In six recent cases, all of whom had large malignant gliomas and could not be illuminated adequately at a single session, cylindrical diffusion fibers were left in situ after intraoperative cavitary photo-illumination of the tumor residuum. The fibers were protected from fracturing by placing all but the exposed diffusing end in a red rubber catheter of the appropriate diameter. The fibers were externalized through a separate stab wound as would be the case for a ventricular drain. Photo-illumination was continued one or two days post-operatively. The optimal fiber couple to the argon dye pump laser was achieved by assessing the fiber side scatter with a photometer. These six patients received 585-2730 Joules during the post-operative photo-illumination. The patients tolerated the fractionated photo-illumination well. A transient scalp inflammation occurred as the consequence light transmission to skin from the implanted fibers in one case. The median survival for the whole series was 8.5 months (40 weeks) with a 1- and 2-year actuarial survival rate of 33, respectively.

  10. Malignant fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor (so-called "lipomatous hemangiopericytoma"): clinicopathologic analysis of 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jen-Chieh; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2011-08-01

    Fat-forming solitary fibrous tumor is a rare variant of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT). Generally regarded as benign, very few fat-forming SFTs with malignant histologic features have been reported. Here, we report 14 histologically malignant fat-forming SFTs to better characterize this subset. Seven patients were female and 7 were male, with ages ranging 20 to 93 years (median, 57 y). Five tumors were located in the lower limb, 3 in the trunk, 3 in abdominopelvic locations, 2 in the head and neck region, and 1 in the upper limb. The tumor size ranged from 3.4 to 20 cm (median, 8.6 cm). Histologically, all exhibited at least focal hypercellularity; 12 tumors had mitoses >4/10 high-power fields (range, 2 to 37; median, 8), 12 showed at least moderate atypia, and 8 showed necrosis. It should be noted that 7 tumors contained only mature adipose tissue, whereas 5 contained multivacuolated lipoblasts and 2 had areas resembling atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT). Immunohistochemically, CD34 and CD99 were positive in most cases (11 of 14 and 8 of 10, respectively); MDM2 and CDK4 were both negative in all 4 cases tested (including both tumors with ALT-like areas). Follow-up data from 10 cases (median duration, 47.5 mo; range, 5 to 76) showed 2 patients with multiple metastases (both to lung and bones, and 1 each to breast and to soft tissue), both of whom died of disease. In conclusion, fat-forming SFTs exhibiting malignant histologic features have potential for aggressive behavior. The presence of lipoblasts and/or ALT-like areas, although described in some "benign" examples of fat-forming SFT, seems much more common in the malignant subset and may prompt a careful search for morphologic evidence of malignancy in any case of fat-forming SFT.

  11. CD30 expression in malignant vascular tumors and its diagnostic and clinical implications: a study of 146 cases.

    PubMed

    Alimchandani, Meghna; Wang, Zeng-Feng; Miettinen, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare malignant vascular tumor, whereas epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a vascular tumor of low-grade malignancy. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 (TNFRSF8). Although the expression of CD30 is most commonly associated with lymphoid malignancies or germ cell tumors, occasional ASs have been reported as CD30 positive. However, there are limited data to evaluate its role definitively in malignant vascular tumors. In this study, we evaluated 91 ASs, 30 EHEs from various sites, and 25 Kaposi sarcomas. Overall, CD30 was expressed in 31/91 cases (34%) of AS, in 7/30 cases (30%) of EHE, but in none of the Kaposi sarcomas. CD30 was expressed in a membranous staining pattern and positivity in tumor cells varied from focal to diffuse. The positive ASs included vasoformative more differentiated tumors and also solid, undifferentiated, lymphoma-like examples, one of which was classified as lymphoma before the era of immunohistochemistry. The CD30 expression was seen in >50% of tumor cells in a majority of ASs but only in 7% of EHEs. None of the 55 ASs studied were immunohistochemically positive for TIA-1 or Granzyme B, antigens used as more specific markers for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Compared with AS, normal vascular endothelia of capillaries and muscular vessels showed variable positivity. Among hemangiomas, cavernous and spindle cell hemangiomas showed most frequent endothelial CD30 positivity, whereas in most other hemangiomas, CD30 positivity was scant. In conclusion, CD30 expression occurs in a significant subset of ASs and EHEs and needs to be included in the differential diagnosis with other CD30-positive malignancies to avoid a diagnostic pitfall. It remains to be determined whether patients with strongly CD30-positive ASs could be candidates for targeted therapy using the recently introduced CD30 antibody drug conjugates.

  12. Comprehensive management of head and neck tumors, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thawley, S.E.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book consists of 14 parts, each containing several papers. The parts are: General Considerations in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Tumors, Tumors of the Ear, Tumors of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses, Tumors of the Oral Cavity, Tumors of the Pharynx, Tumors of the Larynx, Tumors of the Skin, Dental and Jaw Tumors, Tumors of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands, Tumors of the Trachea, Tumors of the Eye, Orbit, and Lacrimal Apparatus, and Special Topics.

  13. Ras-Driven Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Aurora Kinase A as a Potential Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami V.; Eaves, David; Jessen, Walter J.; Rizvi, Tilat A.; Ecsedy, Jeffrey A.; Qian, Mark G.; Aronow, Bruce J.; Perentesis, John P.; Serra, Eduard; Cripe, Timothy P.; Miller, Shyra J.; Ratner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) develop malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) which are often inoperable and do not respond well to current chemotherapies or radiation. The goal of this study was to utilize comprehensive gene expression analysis to identify novel therapeutic targets. Experimental Design Nerve Schwann cells and/or their precursors are the tumorigenic cell types in MPNST due to the loss of the NF1 gene, which encodes the RasGAP protein neurofibromin. Therefore, we created a transgenic mouse model, CNP-HRas12V, expressing constitutively-active HRas in Schwann cells and defined a Ras-induced gene expression signature to drive a Bayesian factor regression model analysis of differentially expressed genes in mouse and human neurofibromas and MPNSTs. We tested functional significance of Aurora kinase over-expression in MPNST in vitro and in vivo using Aurora kinase shRNAs and compounds that inhibit Aurora kinase. Results We identified 2000 genes with probability of linkage to nerve Ras signaling of which 339 were significantly differentially expressed in mouse and human NF1-related tumor samples relative to normal nerves, including Aurora kinase A (AURKA). AURKA was dramatically over-expressed and genomically amplified in MPNSTs but not neurofibromas. Aurora kinase shRNAs and Aurora kinase inhibitors blocked MPNST cell growth in vitro. Furthermore, an AURKA selective inhibitor, MLN8237, stabilized tumor volume and significantly increased survival of mice with MPNST xenografts. Conclusion Integrative cross-species transcriptome analyses combined with preclinical testing has provided an effective method for identifying candidates for molecular-targeted therapeutics. Blocking Aurora kinases may be a viable treatment platform for MPNST. PMID:22811580

  14. Malignant seminoma with metastasis, Sertoli cell tumor, and pheochromocytoma in a spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and malignant seminoma with metastasis in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Estep, J S; Baumgartner, R E; Townsend, F; Pabst, D A; McLellan, W A; Friedlaender, A; Dunn, D G; Lipscomb, T P

    2005-05-01

    Seminoma with metastasis was diagnosed in a spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) and an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Sertoli cell tumor and pheochromocytoma were also diagnosed in the spotted dolphin. The spotted and bottlenose dolphins were adult males that stranded and died on the coasts of northwest Florida and southeast North Carolina, respectively. Neoplasia is infrequently reported in cetaceans. This is the first report of seminoma, Sertoli cell tumor, and pheochromocytoma in a dolphin, the first report of three distinct neoplasms in a dolphin, and one of the few reports of malignant neoplasia in dolphins. PMID:15872383

  15. Serum cystine aminopeptidase and leucine aminopeptidase activity in women with benign and malignant uterine and ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Blum, M; Sirota, P

    1977-09-01

    The serum enzymatic activities of cystine aminopeptidase and leucine aminopeptidase were measured in a group of 113 patients of whom 90 had benign uterine or ovarian tumors, and 23 had cancer of the endometrium or ovary. Thirty healthy nonpregnant women and 260 women at different stages of normal pregnancy served as control groups. The presence of pregnancy-specific enzymes in women with uterine or ovarian tumors showed once again that similar processes occur during pregnancy and malignancy. When ovarian or uterine malignancy is suspected on clinical examination, determination of the activities of these enzymes in serum may be of diagnostic value.

  16. Liquid biopsies for liquid tumors: emerging potential of circulating free nucleic acid evaluation for the management of hematologic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Jay; Mithraprabhu, Sridurga; Kalff, Anna; Spencer, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Circulating free nucleic acids; cell free DNA and circulating micro-RNA, are found in the plasma of patients with hematologic and solid malignancies at levels higher than that of healthy individuals. In patients with hematologic malignancy cell free DNA reflects the underlying tumor mutational profile, whilst micro-RNAs reflect genetic interference mechanisms within a tumor and potentially the surrounding microenvironment and immune effector cells. These circulating nucleic acids offer a potentially simple, non-invasive, repeatable analysis that can aid in diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic decisions in cancer treatment. PMID:27458529

  17. Epiphyseal Sparing and Reconstruction by Frozen Bone Autograft after Malignant Bone Tumor Resection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hamed Kassem Abdelaal, Ahmed; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Limb salvage surgery has become the standard treatment for malignant primary bone tumors in the extremities. Limb salvage represents a challenge in skeletally immature patients. Several treatment options are available for limb reconstruction after tumor resection in children. We report our results using the technique of epiphyseal sparing and reconstruction with frozen autograft bone in 18 children. The mean follow-up period for the all patients included in this study is 72 ± 26 m. Eight patients remained disease-free, seven patients lived with no evidence of disease, two were alive but with disease, and one patient died of the disease. Five- and ten-year rates of survival were 94.4%. Graft survival at 5 and 10 years was 94.4%. Functional outcome using the Enneking scale was excellent in 17 patients (94.4%) and poor in one patient (5.5%). Complications include 2 nonunions, 2 fractures, 2 deep infections, 1 soft tissue recurrence, and leg length discrepancy in 7 cases. This technique is a good reconstructive choice in a child with a nonosteolytic primary or secondary bone tumor, responsive to chemotherapy, without involvement of the articular cartilage. It is a straight forward, effective, and biological technique, which affords immediate mobilization of joints and possible cryoimmune effects, with excellent long term functional outcome and less complication. PMID:27034614

  18. Molecular surgery for the treatment of malignant tumors: bioincompatible material apheresis for cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Nosé, Yukihiko; Ohta, Kazuhide; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Takaba, Junji; Natsume, Kuniaki

    2011-03-01

    Controlled immunological shock, induced by bioincompatible material apheresis for cancer (BIC MAC) therapy, produces an immunoactive status in experimental subjects. However, in order to provide a safe, painless, effective, and reproducible BIC MAC therapy, it is mandatory to provide general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation not only during apheresis procedures of 1-h duration but also for an additional 5 h. Using this procedure, there was no mortality experienced during animal experiments. Also, there were no procedurally related physical or sensory abnormalities demonstrated. This general anesthesia of 6 h covered not only the initial 30 min of the hypotension and hypoxic stages but also the recovery stages to hemodynamically normalize the experimental animals. After 6 h, the accumulated leukocytes in the lung are released back to the systemic circulation. In general, granulocytes decreased almost 100% while lymphocytes decreased only 40-50%. During these 6 h, increases of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, etc.) sometimes up to 1000 times occurred. After the 6-h procedure, leukocytes returned nearly to preoperative levels but tended to be continuously increased. After the fourth day, leukocyte counts more than doubled. These cellular and humoral activations were normalized after 2 weeks. These studies were conducted on six normal mongrel dogs. Currently, similar studies are planned to be conducted on tumor-bearing experimental animals. This procedurally induced immunoactivation by apheresis may be able to produce effective apoptosis in malignant tumor cells.

  19. Luteolin and its inhibitory effect on tumor growth in systemic malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, Shailendra

    2013-04-01

    Lamy et al have provided interesting data in their recent article in your esteemed journal. Luteolin augments apoptosis in a number of systemic malignancies. Luteolin reduces tumor growth in breast carcinomas. Luteolin mediates this effect by up-regulating the expression of Bax and down-regulating the expression of Bcl-xL. EGFR-induced MAPK activation is also attenuated. As a result there is increased G2/ M phase arrest. These effects have been seen both in vivo as well as in vitro. It also reduces ERα expression and causes inhibition of IGF-1 mediated PI3K–Akt pathway. Luteolin also activates p38 resulting in nuclear translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor. Simultaneously it also activates ERK. As a result there is increased intra-tumoral apoptosis which is caspase dependent as well as caspase independent. - Highlights: ► Luteolin and tumor growth in breast carcinomas. ► Luteolin and pulmonary cancer. ► Luteolin and colon cancer.

  20. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pilon, Catia; Rebellato, Andrea; Urbanet, Riccardo; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Cappellesso, Rocco; Sasano, Hironobu; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas) were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis. PMID:26843863

  1. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets in SNF5-Deleted Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Simon; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W. M.; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs. PMID:24204904

  2. PCTAIRE1 regulates p27 stability, apoptosis and tumor growth in malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Reed, John C.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    PCTAIRE1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase family protein that has been implicated in spermatogenesis. Although we recently revealed the function of PCTAIRE1 in tumorigenesis of epithelial carcinoma cells, its tumorigenic function in melanoma remains unclear. Interrogation of the Oncomine database revealed that malignant melanoma showed up-regulation of PCTAIRE1 mRNA compared to normal skin and benign melanocytic nevus tissues. In the melanoma cell lines A2058 and SK-MEL-28, PCTAIRE1 gene knockdown using siRNA or shRNA diminished melanoma cell proliferation as assessed by cellular ATP levels, cell counting and clonogenic assays. Moreover, FACS analyses of annexin V-PI staining and DNA content showed that PCTAIRE1 knockdown caused apoptosis in A2058 cells. In contrast, PCTAIRE1 does not appear to be involved in the proliferation of immortalized human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Depletion of PCTAIRE1 by siRNA/shRNA led to p27 accumulation in melanoma cells but not HaCaT cells. In tumor xenografts of melanoma A2058 cells, conditional knockdown of PCTAIRE1 restored p27 protein expression and suppressed tumor growth. Our findings reveal a crucial role for PCTAIRE1 in regulating p27 protein levels and tumor growth in melanoma cells, suggesting that PCTAIRE1 could provide a target for melanoma treatment. PMID:25593992

  3. The changing role of external-beam irradiation in the management of malignant tumors of the major salivary glands

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, C.T.; Sagerman, R.H.; Ryoo, M.C.; King, G.A.; Yu, W.S.; Dalal, P.S.

    1982-10-01

    Postoperative irradiation reduces the local recurrence rate for malignant salivary gland tumors. Less extensive surgery followed by immediate radiotherapy is possible without decreasing local control; moreover, cosmetic appearance and physiological function are preserved. Local tumor control was achieved in 16 out of 17 patients without gross tumor using a dose of 6,000 rad/6 wk. Combined photon and electron beams give better cosmetic and functional results than either modality alone. Irradiation with greater than or equal to 7,000 rad should be employed in unresectable cases and may effect tumor control.

  4. Atypical and malignant solitary fibrous tumors in extrathoracic locations: evidence of their comparability to intra-thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Vallat-Decouvelaere, A V; Dry, S M; Fletcher, C D

    1998-12-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT), first described as a pleural lesion, has been reported at numerous extrathoracic sites over the past 10 years. About 10% to 15% of intrathoracic SFTs are histologically or clinically malignant, but such cases have very rarely been described at other locations. Among 92 cases of extrathoracic SFT in our files, we identified 10 that either had recurred (2 cases) or had a least one atypical histologic feature (8 cases). The ten tumors occurred in five men and five women, 32 to 81 years old (median 56), measured 1.9 cm to 20 cm (median 11.5 cm), and were located in the abdomen/pelvis (4 cases), retroperitoneum (3 cases), groin, trunk, and upper arm. Nuclear atypia (8 cases), markedly increased cellularity (6 cases), areas of necrosis (4 cases), and greater than 4 mitoses/10 HPFs (3 cases) were seen in addition to the typical histologic features of SFT. Six tumors had at least two of these atypical histologic features. Nine cases were positive for CD34, six were positive for O-13, and one was focally positive for smooth muscle actin. Eight were excised completely. Subsequent follow-up revealed tumor relapse in eight cases (follow up 6-180 months, median 24). Four patients had local recurrence at 12 to 168 months. Distant metastasis developed at 1 to 6 years in five cases with spread to lung (2 cases), liver (4 cases), and bone. Metastasis or local recurrence developed within 2 years in five patients. To date, no patient has died of their tumor. These findings demonstrate that nuclear atypia, hypercellularity, greater than 4 mitoses/10 HPFs, and necrosis may be seen in up to 10% of extrathoracic SFTs, and are associated with, but are not by themselves predictive of, aggressive clinical behavior. In addition, our findings confirm that the behavior of extrathoracic SFTs is unpredictable, entirely comparable to that of their better known pleural counterparts, and confirm that patients with SFTs in all locations require careful, long-term follow

  5. Is Serum Prostate-specific Antigen a Diagnostic Marker for Benign and Malignant Breast Tumors in Women?

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Abdollahi, Alireza; Shoar, Saeed; Omranipour, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a marker of prostate gland malignancy, which has been considered in cases with breast cancer in recent years. The goal of this study was to determine total and free PSA levels in cases with malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: In this case–control study, ninety women with histological proved malignant breast masses and 90 with benign breast masses were enrolled. Total and free PSA levels along with Histological grade and conditions of vascular and perinural invasion, status of hormonal tumor receptors, immune-histo-chemistry markers recorded for all cases. Total and free PSA levels were assessed after treatment in cases with malignant masses. Results: Total and free PSA levels were significantly higher in cases with malignant masses. The best cut-off point for total PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.31 with sensitivity and specificity of 100%, 100% (area under the curve [AUC] =1, P < 0.001) and the best cut-off point for free PSA to differentiate benign and malignant masses was 0.19 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 100% (AUC = 1, P < 0.001). After treatment, mean free PSA level was significantly lower than free PSA before treatment (0.23 ± 0.1 vs. 0.3 ± 0.08, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Serum PSA level could be applied for differentiating benign and malignant breast masses. PMID:25789147

  6. Giant malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MIN; YANG, SHUO; LIU, BIN; GUO, LIANG; BAO, XUEYING; LIU, BAILONG; DONG, LIHUA

    2016-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast (MPTB) is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to nonspecific radiological and histological features, and the prognostic factors and optimal treatment remain controversial. The current report describes the case of a middle-aged female with giant MPTB who underwent multidisciplinary intervention, including surgery, postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To date, the disease-free survival (DFS) of the patient has reached 18 months. Furthermore, a related literature review summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment progress regarding MPTB is presented, along with an analysis of the indications for therapeutic strategy in the current case. In the future, multi-center clinical trials must be initiated to identify the criteria for diagnosis and optimal treatment consensus for MPTB. In conclusion, the present case highlights that multidisciplinary management may contribute to DFS following the treatment of giant MPTB. PMID:27347111

  7. Disorder of Endothelia Vessels' Functional State with Malignant Tumors in Patients Exposed Anthropogenic Radiation.

    PubMed

    Pak, Laura; Noso, Yoshihiro; Chaizhunusova, Nailya; Anambaeva, Zukhra; Adylkhanov, Tasbolat; Takeichi, Nobuo; Lzhaev, Sayakhat; Aldyngurov, Daniyar; Tuleutayeva, Raikhan; Argynbekova, Ainur; Tanysheva, Gulyash; Zhazykbayeva, Lashyn; Baissalbayeva, Ainur; Rakhypbekov, Tolebay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the characteristics of endothelial factors and the hemostatic system conditions with malignant neoplasms patients, which were exposed to ionizing radiation. Total number of examined people is 223, 153 of them are patients with gastrointestinal tract oncopathology. The article presents the results of the analysis of numerical indicators of endothelial condition and platelet hemostasis of patients, who had cancer. They lived in the regions of Kazakhstan, subjected to contamination of radionuclides as a result of nuclear weapons tests, which took place in this region from 1949 to 1989. These results then were compared to cancer patients and healthy individuals with no radiation risk. The study revealed the presence of higher levels of endothelial dysfunction and following trigger of the hemostatic system in patients with malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In particular, the defined high degree of endothelial dysfunction include endothelium- dependent vasodilation, content desquamated endothelial cells in peripheral blood and von Willebrand factor. These indicators have a clear correlation with the degree of disorder of studied parameters of the hemostasis, which can cause the development of thrombotic complications. PMID:26925646

  8. Round cell pattern of prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential: a subtle newly recognized variant.

    PubMed

    Sadimin, Evita T; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-06-01

    Prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a distinct entity which includes several different patterns. Four patterns of STUMP have been described including stroma with (1) degenerative atypia, (2) hypercellular spindle cells, (3) myxoid spindle cells, and (4) phyllodes-like pattern. The current study identified a novel round cell pattern. We searched our database from 1999 to 2015 and identified 7 patients with round cell pattern out of a total number of 98 patients with STUMP. All 7 cases showed mildly increased stromal cellularity with rounded nuclei, diagnosed on core biopsies in 5 cases, transurethral resection in 1 case, and radical prostatectomy in 1 case. Some degree of glandular displacement was observed in 4 cases. In 2 of the cases, STUMP was not recognized histologically by the referring pathologists and was initially diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. As has been described with other patterns of STUMP, several cases showed associated epithelial proliferations that in some instances masked the neoplastic stromal process. The round cell pattern of STUMP is a new deceptively subtle pattern that may not be recognized as a neoplasm and may be misdiagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although there was no direct evidence in our study that the round cell pattern of STUMP has the same behavior as other variants of STUMPs, increased recognition of this entity will hopefully lead to additional studies to further understand its malignant potential. PMID:26980017

  9. Phase II Study of Aflibercept in Recurrent Malignant Glioma: A North American Brain Tumor Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, John F.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Chang, Susan M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Aldape, Kenneth; Yao, Jun; Jackson, Edward F.; Lieberman, Frank; Robins, H. Ian; Mehta, Minesh P.; Lassman, Andrew B.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Chen, Alice; Prados, Michael D.; Wen, Patrick Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy is a promising treatment approach for patients with recurrent glioblastoma. This single-arm phase II study evaluated the efficacy of aflibercept (VEGF Trap), a recombinantly produced fusion protein that scavenges both VEGF and placental growth factor in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Patients and Methods Forty-two patients with glioblastoma and 16 patients with anaplastic glioma who had received concurrent radiation and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide were enrolled at first relapse. Aflibercept 4 mg/kg was administered intravenously on day 1 of every 2-week cycle. Results The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 7.7% for the glioblastoma cohort and 25% for patients with anaplastic glioma. Overall radiographic response rate was 24% (18% for glioblastoma and 44% for anaplastic glioma). The median progression-free survival was 24 weeks for patients with anaplastic glioma (95% CI, 5 to 31 weeks) and 12 weeks for patients with glioblastoma (95% CI, 8 to 16 weeks). A total of 14 patients (25%) were removed from the study for toxicity, on average less than 2 months from treatment initiation. The main treatment-related National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria grades 3 and 4 adverse events (38 total) included fatigue, hypertension, and lymphopenia. Two grade 4 CNS ischemias and one grade 4 systemic hemorrhage were reported. Aflibercept rapidly decreases permeability on dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular analysis of baseline tumor tissue identified tumor-associated markers of response and resistance. Conclusion Aflibercept monotherapy has moderate toxicity and minimal evidence of single-agent activity in unselected patients with recurrent malignant glioma. PMID:21606416

  10. Statistical survey from 1982 to 1991 of 49 patients with malignant melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ueda, E; Kishimoto, S; Yasuno, H

    1995-07-01

    We investigated the clinical characteristics and outcome of 49 patients with malignant melanoma: 17 with acral lentiginous melanoma; 14 with nodular melanoma, six with superficial spreading melanoma, one with lentigo maligna melanoma, eight with melanoma in situ, one with malignant blue nevus, and two with melanoma of unknown origin. Of the 41 patients without melanoma in situ, 34.1% were in stage I, 17.1% in stage II, and 48.8% in stage III. No patients had reached stage IV. All patients with stage I, II, and III melanoma were treated with wide resection, lymph node dissection including prophylactic dissection, and combination chemotherapy with dacarbazine, nimustine hydrochloride, and vincristine (DAV) with or without Interferon-beta. The statistical analysis revealed that tumor thickness and level of invasion were factors significantly associated with outcome. A gradual increase in the number of new cases of melanoma was seen each year of the registration period (1982-1991); there was an approximately 4-fold increase during this decade over the previous decade. The majority of the primary lesions (80.5%) were located on the upper or lower extremities, the pT4 tumor thickness subgroup was the most frequent (39.0% of all melanomas), and invasion level IV was the most common (42.5%). About half (51.2%) of the melanoma patients were stage I or II; this group had a 5-year survival rate of 100%. The stage III patients had a 5-year survival rate of only 54.2% (p < 0.05).

  11. Photodynamic therapy of human malignant tumors: a comparative study between photohem and tetrasulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Skobelkin, Oleg K.; Litvin, Grigory D.; Astrakhankina, Tamara A.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of the results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treating malignant neoplasms of the skin, mammary glands, tongue, oral mucous, lower lip, larynx, lungs, urinary bladder, rectum and other locations has been made. During 1992-1995 543 tumoral foci in 146 patients have been treated with PDT. All patients were previously treated with conventional techniques without effect or they were not treated due to contraindications either because of severe accompanying diseases or because of old age. A part of the patients had PDT because of recurrences or intradermal metastases in 1-2 years after surgical, radial or combined treatment. Two home-made preparations were used as photosensitizers: Photohem (hematoporphyrine derivative) and Photosense (aluminum sulfonated phthalocyanine). Light sources were: the argon pumped dye laser ('Innova-200,' 'Coherent') and home-made laser devices: copper-vapor laser-pumped dye laser ('Yakhroma-2,' Frjazino), gas-discharge unit 'Xenon' (wavelength 630 nm), gold-vapor laser (wavelength 627.8 nm) for Photohem; while for Photosense sessions we used solid-state laser on ittrium aluminate 'Poljus-1' (wavelength 670 mn). Up to now we have follow-up control data within 2 months and 3 years. Positive effect of PDT was seen in 92.4% of patients including complete regression of tumors in 62.3% and partial -- in 30.1%. Currently, this new perspective technique of treating malignant neoplasms is successfully being used in Russia; new photosensitizers and light sources for PDT and fluorescent tumour diagnostics are being developed as well.

  12. Malignant rhabdoid tumor of the floor of mouth: first reported case in the oral cavity of an adult.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Stephanie L; Kerpel, Stanley; Reich, Renee F; Freedman, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are exceedingly rare lesions. To our knowledge, only 2 cases have been reported in the oral cavity, with both examples occurring in infants. The current case is the third reported case of MRT of the oral cavity and the first reported case to occur in an adult at this location. The following report describes the clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor.

  13. Malignant characteristics of circulating tumor cells and corresponding primary tumor in a patient with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chuanli; He, Ping; Zhang, Jinqiang; Zheng, Zhaoxu; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2011-04-01

    We report the malignant characteristics of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and the corresponding molecular features of the primary tumor in a patient with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A 70-year-old male patient was diagnosed with TNM stage T3N0M0 ESCC. Before surgery, seven intact CTCs and 12 CTCs with a fragmented membrane were detected in 7.5 mL of peripheral blood by immunofluorescence staining. One week after radical resection of the primary tumor, four CTCs were identified in 7.5ml peripheral blood. All CTCs were confirmed as having a malignant phenotype by chromosomal analysis and routine cell staining. Ninety percent of the CTCs were found to have polysomic chromosomes 8 and 20 by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Immunofluorescence analysis showed that all of the primary tumor cells detected were cytokeratin8/18/19 (CK8/18/19)-positive, but only 1% were CD133-positive. The serum CA19-9 and CEA level were normal in the process of diseases. The patient died 6 months after surgery as a result of lung metastases and other complications. The results of this study suggest that the dynamics and malignant characteristics of both CTCs and the corresponding primary tumor during the disease process may predict tumor burden and the risk of relapse and metastasis.

  14. Current and future strategies for the treatment of malignant brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Castro, M G; Cowen, R; Williamson, I K; David, A; Jimenez-Dalmaroni, M J; Yuan, X; Bigliari, A; Williams, J C; Hu, J; Lowenstein, P R

    2003-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. These tumors are highly invasive, very aggressive, and often infiltrate critical neurological areas within the brain. The mean survival time after diagnosis of GB has remained unchanged during the last few decades, in spite of advances in surgical techniques, radiotherapy, and also chemotherapy; patients' survival ranges from 9 to 12 months after initial diagnosis. In the same time frame, with our increasing understanding and knowledge of the physiopathology of several cancers, meaningful advances have been made in the treatment and control of several cancers, such as breast, prostate, and hematopoietic malignancies. Although a number of the genetic lesions present in GB have been elucidated and our understanding of the progressions of this cancer has increased dramatically over the last few years, it has not yet been possible to harness this information towards developing effective cures. In this review, we will focus on the classical ways in which GB is currently being treated, and will introduce a novel therapeutic modality, i.e., gene therapy, which we believe will be used in combination with classical treatment strategies to prolong the life-span of patients and to ultimately be able to control and/or cure these brain tumors. We will discuss the use of several vector systems that are needed to introduce the therapeutic genes within either the tumor mass, if these are not resectable, or the tumor bed, after successful tumor resection. We also discuss different therapeutic modalities that could be exploited using gene therapy, i.e., conditional cytotoxic approach, direct cytotoxicity, immunotherapy, inhibition of angiogenesis, and the use of pro-apoptotic genes. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the current vector systems available to transfer genes into the CNS are also discussed. With the advances in molecular techniques, both towards the elucidation of the physiopathology

  15. [An analysis of 117 cases of patients who died from tumor recurrence or from the progression of ovarian malignancies].

    PubMed

    Kano, T; Sakakibara, K; Kamiya, N; Mizuno, K; Miyazaki, T; Ohta, M; Tomoda, Y

    1987-10-01

    Out of 403 patients with ovarian with malignancies during 1978 to, 1985, 117 (29.0%) died from the progression of a non-curative cancer (56 cases, 47.9%) or from a cancer recurrence (61 cases, 52.1%). The mean survival rate 117 cases was 13.4 months, of which 103 (88.0%) cases concerned patients who died within 2 years and 114 (97.4%) who died within 3 years. A histological analysis revealed that patients with a serous or an endometrial cancer had a longer survival rate than others. Among 61 recurrent cases, 59 (96.7%) fell into recurrence within 2 years. Regarding the relationship between a recurrent of cancer and its prognosis, patients with a recurrence of an ascitic or a metastatic disease had a poorer prognosis than patients with a pelvic or an abdominal mass. An aggressive operation, such as a resection of a recurrent tumor, even if small in volume, led to a better prognostic result than no therapy. PMID:3694804

  16. Expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors. Frequent expression of androgen receptor in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Selim M; Faquin, William C; Dayal, Yogeshwar

    2003-06-01

    The expression of sex hormone receptors in some tumors suggests a role for these receptors in tumor pathogenesis and therapy. Previous studies of the expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors in salivary gland tumors have reported conflicting results. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors (AR, ER, and PR) in a series of 78 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded salivary gland tumors. Immunoreactivity for AR was seen in 14 of 14 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 6 of 6 salivary duct carcinomas, and 2 of 2 basal cell adenocarcinomas but in only 2 of 10 acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenoid cystic carcinomas each. AR expression was distributed evenly between the sexes. ER and PR were expressed in only a few cases of salivary gland tumors. All 26 benign salivary gland tumors were negative for AR, ER, and PR. The uniform expression of AR exclusively in a subset of malignant salivary gland tumors suggests a possible role for AR in the histogenesis and possibly in the clinical management of these malignant salivary gland tumors.

  17. Instrument of millimetre wave radiation and its effect on malignant tumor in mice and its application in clinic

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Baoqing; Wang Zhengqui

    1995-12-31

    An animated test is made for mice with malignant tumors irradiated by a self-made millimetre wave radiator for medical purpose. It is observed that S-180 sarcomas in mice after irradiation has been distinctly suppressed. And remarkable effects are shown through a lot of clinical practices on peptic ulcer, skin-deep ulcer, acute and chromic soft tissue injuries etc.

  18. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  19. Diagnostic dilemma involving a mass in the parapharyngeal space: A metastatic breast carcinoma masquerading as a malignant salivary gland tumor.

    PubMed

    Murhekar, Kanchan; Majhi, Urmila; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Parapharyngeal space (PPS) tumors are rare and account for about 0.5% of all head and neck neoplasms. Most PPS tumors are benign (up to 80%) while the remaining 20% are malignant. These tumors are either primaries; most commonly arising from salivary glands or metastatic tumors or due to direct extension of tumors from the adjacent sites. Distant metastasis from breast cancers more commonly involves the lungs, bones, brain and liver. Metastasis to the PPS from a primary breast carcinoma is rare, with only one case reported in literature. We, to the best of our knowledge report the second case of a carcinoma breast metastasizing to the PPS and further discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges involved in its management. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan apart from explicitly defining the extent of the PPS tumor, majorly influenced the therapeutic decision making process by ruling out other sites of metastasis.

  20. Breast metastases from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the kidney: An unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Koppisetty, Shalini; Alessio, Ricardo C; Rajpurkar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are extremely rare soft tissue sarcomas of ectomesenchymal origin. They are commonly seen in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), but can also occur without a history of NF (isolated MPNST). MPNSTs are most commonly located on the extremities (brachial and sacral plexus), head and neck, and trunk regions and are rarely reported in genitourinary organs. These tumors are aggressive, with a high recurrence rate and distant metastases. MPNST involving the kidney is extremely rare, and review of the literature using PubMed from 2001 to 2014 revealed eight cases of MPNST involving the kidney (seven, primarily involving the kidney and one metastatic MPNST of the kidney). Herein, we describe a case of breast metastases from an MPNST of the kidney without a history of NF-1. The patient was initially diagnosed with a spindle cell neoplasm of the kidney with peripheral nerve sheath differentiation. Eventually, the patient developed a right breast mass that was diagnosed as metastatic MPNST. The patient refused any kind of treatment and died 6 months later in hospice care. PMID:27453670

  1. Medullary metastasis of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hagi, Tomohito; Nakamura, Tomoki; Yokoji, Ayumu; Matsumine, Akihiko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a case of medullary metastasis without lung metastasis that occurred as a result of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). An 81-year-old woman presented with a MPNST in the left brachial plexus, arising from the cervical nerve root. The patient underwent carbon ion radiotherapy; however, tumor recurrence was identified in the left shoulder. Subsequently, the patient underwent wide excision. Three weeks subsequent to surgery, imbalance and dysarthria developed suddenly. Dysphagia emerged and left upper limb pain disappeared on the day after symptom development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that this was due to metastasis to the medulla. Five days subsequent to the onset of dysarthria, the patient succumbed due to respiratory failure. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of medullary metastasis arising from a MPNST in the absence of lung metastasis have been reported. MRI is a useful examination tool for the identification of brain metastases; however, the high cost of MRI as a routine examination must be considered due to the rarity of brain metastases. Therefore, methods to detect brain metastasis warrant further investigation. PMID:27588138

  2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the vulva, an unusual differential diagnosis for vulvar mass

    PubMed Central

    Özdal, Bülent; Öz, Murat; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ataoğlu, Ömür; Güngör, Tayfun; Meydanli, Mehmet Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare, up to one half of the MPNSTs occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1), while the rest are sporadic. Here, we present a 52-year-old woman with MPNST of the vulva without NF-1. We will discuss basics of the disease, treatment options and follow-up strategies. PRESENTATION OF CASE 52-year-old female admitted to our hospital with complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding and rapidly growing vulvar mass. Excisional biopsy of the mass showed MPNST of the vulva. Afterwards, the patient underwent radical vulvectomy with inguinofemoral lymph node dissection. Short after the surgery, multiple lung metastasis were shown and responded to chemotherapy, but rapid local recurrence occurred short after the completion of the chemotherapy. DISCUSSION The primary treatment option in MPNSTs is surgical excision with or without adjuvant therapy. There is not enough data about the role of systemic chemotherapy in the management of MPNSTs and it still remains controversial. CONCLUSION In general, radiation therapy has not been demonstrated to improve overall survival. Complete surgical resection of the primary tumor is the mainstay of the treatment. PMID:25290384

  3. Breast metastases from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the kidney: An unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Koppisetty, Shalini; Alessio, Ricardo C.; Rajpurkar, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are extremely rare soft tissue sarcomas of ectomesenchymal origin. They are commonly seen in association with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1), but can also occur without a history of NF (isolated MPNST). MPNSTs are most commonly located on the extremities (brachial and sacral plexus), head and neck, and trunk regions and are rarely reported in genitourinary organs. These tumors are aggressive, with a high recurrence rate and distant metastases. MPNST involving the kidney is extremely rare, and review of the literature using PubMed from 2001 to 2014 revealed eight cases of MPNST involving the kidney (seven, primarily involving the kidney and one metastatic MPNST of the kidney). Herein, we describe a case of breast metastases from an MPNST of the kidney without a history of NF-1. The patient was initially diagnosed with a spindle cell neoplasm of the kidney with peripheral nerve sheath differentiation. Eventually, the patient developed a right breast mass that was diagnosed as metastatic MPNST. The patient refused any kind of treatment and died 6 months later in hospice care. PMID:27453670

  4. Clinical trials of a new chlorin photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Seliverstov, Oleg V.; Faizrakhmanov, Alexey B.; Yarovoy, Nicolay N.; Kochneva, Elena V.; Evnevich, Michail V.; Anikina, Alla S.; Reshetnicov, Andrey V.; Zalevsky, Igor D.; Kemov, Yuriy V.

    2002-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was performed with a new photosensitizer, a water soluble form of chlorins (Radachlorin, Russia) possessing an absorption peak around 662 nm. As light source there was used the diode laser (ML-662-SP, Russia) with 662 nm wavelength and 2.5 W optical power. The sensitizer had passed broad pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo studies, which showed safety and efficiency of it. PDT was applied to 51 patients with basal cell cancer of the skin (about 60% of all cases), breast cancer, lip cancer, melanoma, cancer of esophagus, stomach, and rectum, cancer and leucoplacia of vulva, malignant ganglioneuroma, sarcoma of soft tissue, cancer and reticular sarcoma of thyroid gland, cancer of ductus choledochus. Most of non-basalioma patients had either forth stage or recurrence of disease. The sensitizer was injected intravenously or applied externally (Radachlorin gel). There were used surface, endoscopic, and interstitial ways of irradiation. Full tumor regression with excellent cosmetic effect was reached in 100% cases of 1-3 stage basal cell cancer patients treated with intravenous Radachlorin injection. In most other (non-basalioma) cases significant regression of tumors and improvement of life quality of patients (recanalization and regain of conductivity) was obtained.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of drugs used in the treatment of malignant tumors in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Carstocea, Benone D.; Staicu, Angela; Ionita, Marcel A.; Truica, Sorina; Pascu, Ruxandra

    2001-10-01

    Two classes of substances which may be used in the treatment of malignant tumors in ophthalmology are studied from the point of view of their spectroscopic properties: synthetic porphyrines such as TNP, TPP, TSPP and Zn-TSPP and cytostatics such as 5-fluorouracil. The absorption, excitation and fluorescence spectra of the porphyrins are measured in water and DMSO solutions to allow their efficient use in photodynamic therapy studies at irradiation with UV-laser light. A spectroscopic study of 5-fluorouracyl, a cytostatic drug used in the treatment of ophthalmologic tumors is reported. Absorption, fluorescence excitation/emission spectra were measured for solutions of 5-fluorouracyl at 5 X 10-5 M concentration. The effects of UV-VIS irradiation of on the 5-fluorouracyl solutions were investigated. The irradiation was performed with a classical Xe lamp having a power density of 11 mW/cm2, at time intervals between 15 min and 60 min. While the absorption is not affected by light irradiation, the fluorescence of the solutions is increasing with the irradiation duration.

  6. Raspberry pulp polysaccharides inhibit tumor growth via immunopotentiation and enhance docetaxel chemotherapy against malignant melanoma in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Jing; Xu, Han-Mei; Suo, You-Rui

    2015-09-01

    It has been reported previously that the systemic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents is substantially restricted for some cancer types, including malignant melanoma. Therefore, the development of more effective treatment modalities remains a critical, albeit elusive, goal in anticancer therapy. The study presented here evaluates the antitumor activity of raspberry pulp polysaccharides (RPPs) against malignant melanoma using a murine tumor-bearing model. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism of this antitumor activity has also been investigated. The results show that while RPP exhibits no direct cytotoxic effect on HT-29, MGC-803, HeLa, Bel-7402, L02 and B16F10 cells in vitro, it does demonstrate a dose-dependent growth inhibition of melanoma in vivo with an inhibition ratio of 59.95% at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1). Besides this, the body weight and spleen index in tumor-bearing mice have also been improved in RPP-treated groups. RPP is also found to induce splenocyte proliferation and is able to upregulate the activity of immune-related enzymes, including acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the spleen of tumor-bearing mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in the serum of tumor-bearing mice show to be effectively increased upon RPP treatment. Histopathological analyses show that RPP induces tumor tissue necrosis by increasing inflammatory cell infiltration and causes no lesions to liver and kidney tissues. Remarkably, RPP further enhances the antitumor effect of the chemotherapeutic drug docetaxel and alleviates docetaxel-induced liver and kidney lesions in tumor-bearing mice. These findings indicate that RPP exhibits antitumor activity in vivo against malignant melanoma, partly by enhancing the cellular immune response of the host organism. In summary, RPP features critical properties to potentially find use as an

  7. Diffusion abnormalities of the corpus callosum in patients receiving bevacizumab for malignant brain tumors: suspected treatment toxicity.

    PubMed

    Futterer, Stephen F; Nemeth, Alexander J; Grimm, Sean A; Ragin, Ann B; Chandler, James P; Muro, Kenji; Marymont, Maryanne H; Raizer, Jeffrey J

    2014-05-01

    Bevacizumab has been reported to cause diffusion restriction in the tumor bed of patients with malignant gliomas. This study evaluated prolonged diffusion restriction, in the corpus callosum (CC), of patients with malignant brain tumors treated with bevacizumab. We retrospectively reviewed our database of patients treated with bevacizumab for malignant brain tumors looking for those with restricted diffusion in the CC. CC ADC ratio measurements were obtained prior to and following treatment. Correlation was made with biopsy (n = 3) and MR perfusion (n = 7) and PET (n = 4). The temporal evolution of these changes relative to therapy was examined with mixed effects regression analysis. Nine patients (eight malignant gliomas, one malignant meningioma) out of 146 patients were found to have developed areas of diffusion restriction in the CC. These areas tended to enlarge and coalesce over serial MRIs and persisted for up to 22 months. Hypoperfusion was demonstrated in MR perfusion in 7/7. PET was hypometabolic in all 4. Biopsy of the CC showed no tumor in 3/3. ADC ratio measurements indicated a significant overall effect of time (F(16,60) = 11.2; p < 0.0001), consistent with persistent diffusion restriction over the measured time periods. Bevacizumab causes prolonged diffusion restriction in the CC. The negative MR perfusion, FDG PET and histopathology suggest this is a toxicity of bevacizumab and not active tumor. Awareness of these changes can assist in patient care. PMID:24574050

  8. Dasatinib, Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide in Treating Young Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Malignant Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-10

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lymphoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  9. High Blood Glucose Levels Correlate with Tumor Malignancy in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ge; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Fan; Feng, Wen-Ming; Yao, Yunliang; Cui, Jie; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Shi, Qi-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Research shows that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects the risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the clinicopathological features of CRC patients correlate with their blood glucose levels. Material/Methods We enrolled 391 CRC patients hospitalized in our center between 2008 and 2013. Data of their first fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h postprandial glucose (2hPPG) level after admission, their clinicopathological features, and survival were collected. The correlations between blood glucose level and clinicopathological features were analyzed by Pearson chi-square analysis. Patient survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression analysis. Results There were 116 out of the 391 CRC patients who had high blood glucose level (H-G group, 29.67%), among which 58 (14.83%), 18 (4.60%), and 40 (10.23%) were diabetes mellitus (DM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), respectively, while 275 (70.33%) patients had normal glucose level (N-G group). Compared with the N-G group, patients in the H-G group had larger tumor diameters and lower tumor differentiation (p<0.05). A higher ratio of patients in the H-G group also had more advanced TNM staging and more ulcerative CRC gross type (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in patient overall survival among different glucose groups. No effect of insulin therapy on CRC development and patient survival was observed. Conclusions Blood glucose level in CRC patients correlates significantly with local tumor malignancy, but no significant effect on distant metastasis and patient overall survival was observed. PMID:26644185

  10. Molecular Characteristics of Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors and Comparison With Testicular Counterparts: Implications for Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Abeler, Vera M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  11. Glioma Stem Cell-Targeted Dendritic Cells as a Tumor Vaccine Against Malignant Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Baowei; Liu, Baohui; Wu, Liquan; Tian, Daofeng; Guo, Zhentao; Yi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cancer stem cells have recently been thought to be closely related to tumor development and reoccurrence. It may be a promising way to cure malignant glioma by using glioma stem cell-targeted dendritic cells as a tumor vaccine. In this study, we explored whether pulsing dendritic cells with antigens of glioma stem cells was a potent way to induce specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and anti-tumor immunity. Materials and Methods Cancer stem cells were cultured from glioma cell line U251. Lysate of glioma stem cells was obtained by the repeated freezing and thawing method. Dendritic cells (DCs) were induced and cultured from the murine bone marrow cells, the biological characteristics were detected by electron microscope and flow cytometry. The DC vaccine was obtained by mixing DCs with lysate of glioma stem cells. The DC vaccine was charactirizated through the mixed lymphocyte responses and cell killing experiment in vitro. Level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in the supernatant was checked by ELISA. Results After stimulation of lysate of glioma stem cell, expression of surface molecules of DC was up-regulated, including CD80, CD86, CD11C and MHC-II. DCs pulsed with lysate of glioma stem cells were more effective than the control group in stimulating original glioma cells-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responses, killing glioma cells and boosting the secretion of IFN-γ in vitro. Conclusion The results demonstrated DCs loaded with antigens derived from glioma stem cells can effectively stimulate naive T cells to form specific cytotoxic T cells, kill glioma cells cultured in vitro. PMID:23225804

  12. Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts: implications for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Skotheim, Rolf I; Abeler, Vera M; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Lothe, Ragnhild A

    2013-06-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome profiles of mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), and biomarkers (DNA methylation, gene mutation, individual protein expression) for each mOGCT histological subtype. Parallels between the origin of mOGCT and their male counterpart testicular GCT (TGCT) are discussed from the perspective of germ cell development, endocrinological influences, and pathogenesis, as is the GCT origin in patients with disorders of sex development. Integrated molecular profiles of the 3 main histological subtypes, dysgerminoma (DG), yolk sac tumor (YST), and immature teratoma (IT), are presented. DGs show genomic aberrations comparable to TGCT. In contrast, the genome profiles of YST and IT are different both from each other and from DG/TGCT. Differences between DG and YST are underlined by their miRNA/mRNA expression patterns, suggesting preferential involvement of the WNT/β-catenin and TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways among YSTs. Characteristic protein expression patterns are observed in DG, YST and IT. We propose that mOGCT develop through different developmental pathways, including one that is likely shared with TGCT and involves insufficient sexual differentiation of the germ cell niche. The molecular features of the mOGCTs underline their similarity to pluripotent precursor cells (primordial germ cells, PGCs) and other stem cells. This similarity combined with the process of ovary development, explain why mOGCTs present so early in life, and with greater histological complexity, than most somatic solid tumors. PMID:23575763

  13. Comprehensive Glycomics of a Multistep Human Brain Tumor Model Reveals Specific Glycosylation Patterns Related to Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazue; Kimura, Taichi; Piao, Jinhua; Tanaka, Shinya; Shinohara, Yasuro

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells frequently express glycans at different levels and/or with fundamentally different structures from those expressed by normal cells, and therefore elucidation and manipulation of these glycosylations may provide a beneficial approach to cancer therapy. However, the relationship between altered glycosylation and causal genetic alteration(s) is only partially understood. Here, we employed a unique approach that applies comprehensive glycomic analysis to a previously described multistep tumorigenesis model. Normal human astrocytes were transformed via the serial introduction of hTERT, SV40ER, H-RasV12, and myrAKT, thereby mimicking human brain tumor grades I-IV. More than 160 glycans derived from three major classes of cell surface glycoconjugates (N- and O-glycans on glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids) were quantitatively explored, and specific glycosylation patterns related to malignancy were systematically identified. The sequential introduction of hTERT, SV40ER, H-RasV12, and myrAKT led to (i) temporal expression of pauci-mannose/mono-antennary type N-glycans and GD3 (hTERT); (ii) switching from ganglio- to globo-series glycosphingolipids and the appearance of Neu5Gc (hTERT and SV40ER); (iii) temporal expression of bisecting GlcNAc residues, α2,6-sialylation, and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4, accompanied by suppression of core 2 O-glycan biosynthesis (hTERT, SV40ER and Ras); and (iv) increased expression of (neo)lacto-series glycosphingolipids and fucosylated N-glycans (hTERT, SV40ER, Ras and AKT). These sequential and transient glycomic alterations may be useful for tumor grade diagnosis and tumor prognosis, and also for the prediction of treatment response. PMID:26132161

  14. Classification of Extraovarian Implants in Patients With Ovarian Serous Borderline Tumors (Tumors of Low Malignant Potential) Based on Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Jesse K; Gilks, C Blake; Kalloger, Steve; Longacre, Teri A

    2016-09-01

    The classification of extraovarian disease into invasive and noninvasive implants predicts patient outcome in patients with high-stage ovarian serous borderline tumors (tumors of low malignant potential). However, the morphologic criteria used to classify implants vary between studies. To date, there has been no large-scale study with follow-up data comparing the prognostic significance of competing criteria. Peritoneal and/or lymph node implants from 181 patients with high-stage serous borderline tumors were evaluated independently by 3 pathologists for the following 8 morphologic features: micropapillary architecture; glandular architecture; nests of epithelial cells with surrounding retraction artifact set in densely fibrotic stroma; low-power destructive tissue invasion; single eosinophilic epithelial cells within desmoplastic stroma; mitotic activity; nuclear pleomorphism; and nucleoli. Follow-up of 156 (86%) patients ranged from 11 to 264 months (mean, 89 mo; median, 94 mo). Implants with low-power destructive invasion into underlying tissue were the best predictor of adverse patient outcome with 69% overall and 59% disease-free survival (P<0.01). In the evaluation of individual morphologic features, the low-power destructive tissue invasion criterion also had excellent reproducibility between observers (κ=0.84). Extraovarian implants with micropapillary architecture or solid nests with clefts were often associated with tissue invasion but did not add significant prognostic value beyond destructive tissue invasion alone. Implants without attached normal tissue were not associated with adverse outcome and appear to be noninvasive. Because the presence of invasion in an extraovarian implant is associated with an overall survival analogous to that of low-grade serous carcinoma, the designation low-grade serous carcinoma is recommended. Even though the low-power destructive tissue invasion criterion has excellent interobserver reproducibility, it is further

  15. Malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ning, Shanglei; Song, Xie; Xiang, Lei; Chen, Yuxin; Cheng, Yu; Chen, Hongqiang

    2011-09-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors of the thyroid gland (T-SFT) are rarely described, with only 21 cases being reported in the English literatures, all showing benign clinical characteristics. We herein present a 76-year-old woman presenting with a 3-month history of rapidly enlarging neck masses and the CT showed masses with partial calcification in the right thyroid lobe. We performed right hemithyroidectomy and isthmectomy with negative margin under general anesthesia. Histologically, the masses consisted of pleomorphic spindle cells with high mitoses and collagen bands. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed positive reactions for CD34, vimentin and bcl-2, then a diagnosis of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the right thyroid was made. Six months postoperatively, the CT showed the recurrence of the thyroid tumor and the presence of many nodules of varying sizes throughout bilateral pulmonary lobes. To our knowledge, this is the first case of malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland (T-SFT) with local recurrence and pulmonary metastasis and T-SFT must be considered in the differential diagnosis of spindle cells lesions in the thyroid gland. Correct diagnosis of the malignant T-SFT plays an important role in choosing appropriate therapeutic strategies and long-term follow-up is also extremely essential for these patients.

  16. Simultaneous presentation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and moyamoya disease associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a child.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun Young; Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, Min Kyung; Jo, Dae Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a rare hereditary disorder, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by multiple caféau- lait spots of the skin, benign cutaneous neurofibromas, skeletal dysplasia and learning disability. The association of NF-1 with benign and malignant tumors is well established. The lifetime risk of patients with NF-1 developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) has been estimated to be 8-13%. Such tumors can develop in any part of the body, but their occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract is rare. Patients with NF-1 have a wide spectrum of vascular abnormalities. Cerebrovascular lesions have been found in approximately 2.5% of children with NF1. We encountered a case of NF-1 with MPNSTs in the gastrointestinal tract and moyamoya disease.

  17. Simultaneous presentation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and moyamoya disease associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 in a child.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sun Young; Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, Min Kyung; Jo, Dae Sun; Hwang, Pyoung Han

    2015-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is a rare hereditary disorder, which is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It is characterized by multiple caféau- lait spots of the skin, benign cutaneous neurofibromas, skeletal dysplasia and learning disability. The association of NF-1 with benign and malignant tumors is well established. The lifetime risk of patients with NF-1 developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) has been estimated to be 8-13%. Such tumors can develop in any part of the body, but their occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract is rare. Patients with NF-1 have a wide spectrum of vascular abnormalities. Cerebrovascular lesions have been found in approximately 2.5% of children with NF1. We encountered a case of NF-1 with MPNSTs in the gastrointestinal tract and moyamoya disease. PMID:26690608

  18. Spectrum of malignancy in mixed tumors of salivary gland: a morphological and immunohistochemical review of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asim; Barakzai, Abrar; Sahar, Najam Ul; Gulzar, Rubina; Ahmad, Zubair; Hassan, Sheema H

    2009-01-01

    Malignancy arising in mixed tumors of the salivary gland is a distinct entity that can occur sporadically or in association with a background of pleomorphic adenoma. Carcinoma arising with a background of pleomorphic adenoma is well documented. However, there are rare occurrences of aggressive de novo carcinosarcomas of the parotid that have been reported. Various cell lineages such as the epithelial glandular cells and the stromal spindle cells are involved. We report 23 cases of tumors of the salivary gland comprising 18 cases of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, four cases of carcinosarcoma of the parotid and one case of benign metastasizing pleomorphic adenoma. The occurrence of various malignancies suggests that this phenomenon is not very uncommon and should be looked for when reporting a mixed tumor.

  19. Telomerase activity is a biomarker for high grade malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in neurofibromatosis type 1 individuals.

    PubMed

    Mantripragada, Kiran K; Caley, Matthew; Stephens, Phil; Jones, Christopher J; Kluwe, Lan; Guha, Abhijit; Mautner, Victor; Upadhyaya, Meena

    2008-03-01

    Telomerase activity (TA) and the expression of its enzymatic subunits, which have been demonstrated in many tumors, remain poorly investigated in tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this study, we analysed the association of TA and the expression of telomerase RNA (TR) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) in 23 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) (17 high grade and 6 low grade tumors), 11 plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) and 6 dermal neurofibromas (DNF). TA was studied using telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay and expression of TR and TERT was investigated using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. TA was detected in 14 out of 17 (82%) high grade MPNST, whereas all 6 low grade MPNST and 17 benign tumors were telomerase negative. The TERT transcripts were detected in all high grade MPNST, 50% of the low grade MPNST, and 4 benign tumors. However, the expression level of the TERT strikingly correlated with TA and high grade MPNST. Thus, while TERT expression was similar in both low grade MPNST and PNF (P = 0.115), it was significantly higher in high grade MPNST when compared to either low grade MPNST (P = 0.042), PNF (P = 0.001) or DNF tumors (P = 0.010). These findings indicate that TA and expression level of TERT are potential markers for high grade malignancy in NF1 patients.

  20. Clinical effects of vinorelbine administration in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs: 58 cases (1997–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Wouda, Raelene M.; Miller, Mairin E.; Chon, Esther; Stein, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of vinorelbine in the management of various malignant tumor types in dogs. Design Retrospective case series. Animals 58 dogs with malignant tumors, including pulmonary carcinoma (n = 31), histiocytic sarcoma (9), mast cell tumor (5), lymphoma (4), melanoma (2), and 7 other tumor types (1 each). Procedures Medical records of dogs treated with vinorelbine from December 1997 to December 2012 were reviewed for data regarding signalment, clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic test results, diagnostic imaging results, vinorelbine doses and dose frequency, surgery and radiotherapy details when applicable, other chemotherapeutics administered, and outcomes. Descriptive, comparative, and survival statistics were computed for all dogs and for dogs by histologic subgroup of tumors. Results Vinorelbine was administered palliatively to 44 (76%) dogs. One (2%) dog had a complete response for 162 days, 5 (11%) dogs had a partial response for a median duration of 91 days, 19 (43%) dogs had stable disease for a median duration of 68 days, and 19 (43%) dogs developed progressive disease after a median duration of 21 days. Clinical benefit was more difficult to assess in the remaining 14 (24%) dogs that received vinorelbine as an adjuvant treatment. Overall median time to tumor progression was 103 days (range, 5 to 1,533 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Vinorelbine appeared to be effective in the treatment of several tumor types in dogs. Follow-up prospective studies of the clinical benefit of the drug in specific clinical scenarios will be necessary to support this conclusion. PMID:25970220

  1. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  2. A Simple, Quantitative Method Using Alginate Gel to Determine Rat Colonic Tumor Volume In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-01-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the ApcPirc/+ rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm3. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained. PMID:24674588

  3. Prognostic roles for fibroblast growth factor receptor family members in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fengju; Zheng, Hong; Chen, Kexin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Jilong

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are rare, highly malignant, and poorly understood sarcomas. The often poor outcome of MPNST highlights the necessity of identifying prognostic predictors for this aggressive sarcoma. Here, we investigate the role of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family members in human MPNSTs. Results aCGH and bioinformatics analysis identified frequent amplification of the FGFR1 gene. FISH analysis revealed that 26.9% MPNST samples had amplification of FGFR1, with both focal and polysomy patterns observed. IHC identified that FGFR1 protein expression was positively correlated with FGFR1 gene amplification. High expression of FGFR1 protein was associated with better overall survival (OS) and was an independent prognostic predictor for OS of MPNST patients. Additionally, combined expression of FGFR1 and FGFR2 protein characterized a subtype of MPNST with better OS. FGFR4 protein was expressed 82.3% of MPNST samples, and was associated with poor disease-free survival. Materials and Methods We performed microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) profiling of two cohorts of primary MPNST tissue samples including 25 patients treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and 26 patients from Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to validate the gene amplification detected by aCGH analysis. Another cohort of 63 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded MPNST samples (including 52 samples for FISH assay) was obtained to explore FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4 protein expression by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Conclusions Our integrated genomic and molecular studies provide evidence that FGFRs play different prognostic roles in MPNST. PMID:26993773

  4. Breast cancer cell behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices derived from tumor cells at various malignant stages

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshiba, Takashi; Tanaka, Masaru

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Models mimicking ECM in tumor with different malignancy were prepared. •Cancer cell proliferation was suppressed on benign tumor ECM. •Benign tumor cell proliferation was suppressed on cancerous ECM. •Chemoresistance of cancer cell was enhanced on cancerous ECM. -- Abstract: Extracellular matrix (ECM) has been focused to understand tumor progression in addition to the genetic mutation of cancer cells. Here, we prepared “staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices” which mimic in vivo ECM in tumor tissue at each malignant stage to understand the roles of ECM in tumor progression. Breast tumor cells, MDA-MB-231 (invasive), MCF-7 (non-invasive), and MCF-10A (benign) cells, were cultured to form their own ECM beneath the cells and formed ECM was prepared as staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices by decellularization treatment. Cells showed weak attachment on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. The proliferations of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 was promoted on the matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells whereas MCF-10A cell proliferation was not promoted. MCF-10A cell proliferation was promoted on the matrices derived from MCF-10A cells. Chemoresistance of MDA-MB-231 cells against 5-fluorouracil increased on only matrices derived from MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results showed that the cells showed different behaviors on staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices according to the malignancy of cell sources for ECM preparation. Therefore, staged tumorigenesis-mimicking matrices might be a useful in vitro ECM models to investigate the roles of ECM in tumor progression.

  5. Statistical assessment of bi-exponential diffusion weighted imaging signal characteristics induced by intravoxel incoherent motion in malignant breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Oi Lei; Lo, Gladys G.; Chan, Helen H. L.; Wong, Ting Ting; Cheung, Polly S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to statistically assess whether bi-exponential intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) model better characterizes diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) signal of malignant breast tumor than mono-exponential Gaussian diffusion model. Methods 3 T DWI data of 29 malignant breast tumors were retrospectively included. Linear least-square mono-exponential fitting and segmented least-square bi-exponential fitting were used for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and IVIM parameter quantification, respectively. F-test and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) were used to statistically assess the preference of mono-exponential and bi-exponential model using region-of-interests (ROI)-averaged and voxel-wise analysis. Results For ROI-averaged analysis, 15 tumors were significantly better fitted by bi-exponential function and 14 tumors exhibited mono-exponential behavior. The calculated ADC, D (true diffusion coefficient) and f (pseudo-diffusion fraction) showed no significant differences between mono-exponential and bi-exponential preferable tumors. Voxel-wise analysis revealed that 27 tumors contained more voxels exhibiting mono-exponential DWI decay while only 2 tumors presented more bi-exponential decay voxels. ADC was consistently and significantly larger than D for both ROI-averaged and voxel-wise analysis. Conclusions Although the presence of IVIM effect in malignant breast tumors could be suggested, statistical assessment shows that bi-exponential fitting does not necessarily better represent the DWI signal decay in breast cancer under clinically typical acquisition protocol and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Our study indicates the importance to statistically examine the breast cancer DWI signal characteristics in practice. PMID:27709078

  6. Wavelet-Based 3D Reconstruction of Microcalcification Clusters from Two Mammographic Views: New Evidence That Fractal Tumors Are Malignant and Euclidean Tumors Are Benign

    PubMed Central

    Batchelder, Kendra A.; Tanenbaum, Aaron B.; Albert, Seth; Guimond, Lyne; Kestener, Pierre; Arneodo, Alain; Khalil, Andre

    2014-01-01

    The 2D Wavelet-Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) method was used to detect microcalcifications (MC) in human breast tissue seen in mammograms and to characterize the fractal geometry of benign and malignant MC clusters. This was done in the context of a preliminary analysis of a small dataset, via a novel way to partition the wavelet-transform space-scale skeleton. For the first time, the estimated 3D fractal structure of a breast lesion was inferred by pairing the information from two separate 2D projected mammographic views of the same breast, i.e. the cranial-caudal (CC) and mediolateral-oblique (MLO) views. As a novelty, we define the “CC-MLO fractal dimension plot”, where a “fractal zone” and “Euclidean zones” (non-fractal) are defined. 118 images (59 cases, 25 malignant and 34 benign) obtained from a digital databank of mammograms with known radiologist diagnostics were analyzed to determine which cases would be plotted in the fractal zone and which cases would fall in the Euclidean zones. 92% of malignant breast lesions studied (23 out of 25 cases) were in the fractal zone while 88% of the benign lesions were in the Euclidean zones (30 out of 34 cases). Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical analysis shows that, with 95% credibility, the probability that fractal breast lesions are malignant is between 74% and 98%. Alternatively, with 95% credibility, the probability that Euclidean breast lesions are benign is between 76% and 96%. These results support the notion that the fractal structure of malignant tumors is more likely to be associated with an invasive behavior into the surrounding tissue compared to the less invasive, Euclidean structure of benign tumors. Finally, based on indirect 3D reconstructions from the 2D views, we conjecture that all breast tumors considered in this study, benign and malignant, fractal or Euclidean, restrict their growth to 2-dimensional manifolds within the breast tissue. PMID:25222610

  7. Loss of CD34 and high IGF2 are associated with malignant transformation in solitary fibrous tumors.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Birte; Altendorf-Hofmann, Annelore; Kirchner, Thomas; Katenkamp, Detlef; Petersen, Iver; Knösel, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the subgroups of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) and to investigate the expression of different biomarkers including CD34 and IGF2 in malignant transformation. Two hundred and ninety-four (294) SFTs from a single German consultation center of soft tissue tumors were categorized into the new proposal of SFT designation. We found the fibrous variant in 223 (75.9%), the cellular variant in 65 (22.1%), the fat forming variant in 4 (1.4%), and the giant cell-rich variant in 2 (0.6%) cases. Anatomical location, size, mitotic index, necrosis, cellularity, collagenous ropes, and growth pattern of the vessels were recorded. Criteria of malignancy were found in 68 (23%) tumors. Expression of IGF2, IGF1R, CD34, BCL2, CD99, SMA, S100, PanCK, and Ki67 was analyzed immunohistochemically. Low expression of CD34 and high expression of IGF2 were significantly associated with malignant transformation and the metastatic rate. Moreover the presence of necrosis showed the most significant p-value (p<0.004). Of all SFTs, the fibrous variant is the most common, followed by the cellular variant. The fat-forming and giant cell-rich variants are very rare. Low expression of CD34 and high expression of IGF2 are significantly associated with malignant transformation, and might be an interesting target of individualized therapy.

  8. Immune regulatory cells and IL17-producing lymphocytes in patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Khademi, Bijan; Faghih, Zahra; Ghaderi, Abbas; Erfani, Nasrollah

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between salivary gland tumors and immune system has not been well inspected. We aimed to investigate the distribution of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells, CTLA4(+)CD4(+) lymphocytes, as well asIL-17 producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) (Th17 and Tc17) lymphocytes in peripheral blood of patients with benign and malignant salivary gland tumors and a group of healthy controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 27 patients with salivary gland tumors (19 benign and 8 malignant; mean age of 49.2±18.3), as well as19 age/sex matched healthy donors. Fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies were used to stain the cell surface markers, as well as intracellular molecules following cell-membrane fixation and permeabilization. The stained cells were acquired on a FACSCalibur four-color flowcytometer and analyzed by CellQuest Pro software package. The data were presented as mean percentages±SEM. Results indicated that the patients with malignant salivary gland tumors have increased percentage of Treg cells (7.74±1.1) and intracellular CTLA4 (inCTLA4)-positive CD4(+) lymphocytes (8.18±1.77) in comparison to the patients with benign tumors (4.38±0.56 for Treg cells and 3.83±0.56 for CTLA4(+)CD4(+) cells), as well as control subjects (2.34±0.28 for Treg cells and 2.22±0.25 for CTLA4(+)CD4(+) cells) (p≤0.001). Conversely these patients had reduced percentage of Th17 cells (0.84±0.14) comparing to the patients with benign tumors (2.09±0.31) as well as control subjects (2.31±0.23) (p≤0.001). In addition, the ratio of Th17/Treg lymphocytes was significantly lower in both malignant (0.12±0.03) and benign (0.48±0.09) tumors in comparison to control subjects (1.26±0.23) (p<0.001). The mean percentage of Tc17 cells in patients with benign (1.14±0.15) and malignant (0.60±0.13) tumors was nearly similar to those in control subjects (0.83±0.14) but the mean expression intensityofIL-17 by these cells was significantly higher in patients with

  9. Comparison of Cerebral Blood Volume and Plasma Volume in Untreated Intracranial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Joana; Eldeniz, Cihat; An, Hongyu; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plasma volume and blood volume are imaging-derived parameters that are often used to evaluation intracranial tumors. Physiologically, these parameters are directly related, but their two different methods of measurements, T1-dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)- and T2-dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MR utilize different model assumptions and approaches. This poses the question of whether the interchangeable use of T1-DCE-MRI derived fractionated plasma volume (vp) and relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) assessed using DSC-MRI, particularly in glioblastoma, is reliable, and if this relationship can be generalized to other types of brain tumors. Our goal was to examine the hypothetical correlation between these parameters in three most common intracranial tumor types. Methods Twenty-four newly diagnosed, treatment naïve brain tumor patients, who had undergone DCE- and DSC-MRI, were classified in three histologically proven groups: glioblastoma (n = 7), meningioma (n = 9), and intraparenchymal metastases (n = 8). The rCBV was obtained from DSC after normalization with the normal-appearing anatomically symmetrical contralateral white matter. Correlations between these parameters were evaluated using Pearson (r), Spearman's (ρ) and Kendall’s tau-b (τB) rank correlation coefficient. Results The Pearson, Spearman and Kendall’s correlation between vp with rCBV were r = 0.193, ρ = 0.253 and τB = 0.33 (p-Pearson = 0.326, p-Spearman = 0.814 and p-Kendall = 0.823) in glioblastoma, r = -0.007, ρ = 0.051 and τB = 0.135 (p-Pearson = 0.970, p-Spearman = 0.765 and p-Kendall = 0.358) in meningiomas, and r = 0.289, ρ = 0.228 and τB = 0.239 (p-Pearson = 0.109, p-Spearman = 0.210 and p-Kendall = 0.095) in metastasis. Conclusion Results indicate that no correlation exists between vp with rCBV in glioblastomas, meningiomas and intraparenchymal metastatic lesions. Consequently, these parameters, as calculated in this study, should not be used interchangeably in

  10. Identical Allelic Losses in Mature Teratoma and Other Histologic Components of Malignant Mixed Germ Cell Tumors of the Testis

    PubMed Central

    Kernek, Kevin M.; Ulbright, Thomas M.; Zhang, Shaobo; Billings, Steven D.; Cummings, Oscar W.; Henley, John D.; Michael, Helen; Brunelli, Matteo; Martignoni, Guido; Foster, Richard S.; Eble, John N.; Cheng, Liang

    2003-01-01

    Teratomas of the testis in post-pubertal patients are histologically diverse tumors that often coexist with other types of germ cell tumors. Using laser capture microdissection and loss of heterozygosity analysis, we investigated the clonality of mature teratoma and its relationship to other components of malignant mixed germ cell tumors to gain potential insight into the histogenetic relationship of teratoma with other germ cell tumor components. All 16 patients had mature teratoma as one component of their mixed germ cell tumors. The other histological subtypes included immature teratoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and choriocarcinoma. Laser-assisted microdissection was performed on the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify genomic DNA at specific loci on chromosome 1p36.2 (D1S508), 2q22–32 (D2S156), 9p21–22 (D9S162), 11p13 (D11S903), 12q22–23 (D12S1051), and 18q21 (D18S46). Fourteen of 16 (88%) cases showed allelic loss in one or more components of the mixed germ cell tumors. Fourteen of 16 mature teratomas showed allelic loss in at least one of six microsatellite polymorphic markers analyzed. The frequency of allelic loss in mature teratoma was 50% (7 of 14) with D1S508, 33% (5 of 15) with D2S156, 58% (7 of 12) with D9S162, 43% (6 of 14) with D11S903, 20% (3 of 15) with D12S1051, and 33% (5 of 15) with D18S46. Completely concordant allelic loss patterns between mature teratoma and all of the other germ cell tumor components were seen in 10 of 14 tumors in which mature teratoma showed loss of heterozygosity. Our data support the common clonal origin of mature teratoma with other components of malignant mixed germ cell tumors of the testis. PMID:14633619

  11. Malignant adenolymphoma.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, H; Ryan, C; Schwartz, S; Donnelly, J A

    1980-01-01

    Adenolymphoma (Warthin's tumor) is a well studied benign tumor of the salivary gland. Malignant transformation of such a tumor is rare and not well documented in the literature. The light microscopic and ultrastructural features of an undifferentiated carcinoma arising in an adenolymphoma in the parotid gland of a middle aged male are described, and the relevant literature is reviewed. Similarities between the benign adenolymphoma and the undifferentiated malignant tumor, such as the presence of interstitial lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrates, dark and light epithelial cells, similar cytoplasmic organelles, and nuclear morphology, suggest a malignant transformation of a previously existing benign adenolymphoma.

  12. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma of Parotid Gland with a Regressed Primary Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Aynali, Giray; Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Çiriş, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the parotid gland is often metastatic and mainly originates from malignant melanomas in the head and neck. Nevertheless, some malignant melanomas may metastasize and subsequently regress. Therefore, it may not be possible to observe a metastatic malignant melanoma and its primary melanoma simultaneously. The investigation of a patient's old photographs may help in the detection of preexisting and regressed pigmented lesions in the facial and neck regions. PMID:27478668

  13. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy.

    PubMed

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-10-01

    Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (Ras(V12)) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib(1)). We show that malignant transformation of the ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to ras(V12)scrib(1) tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with Ras(V12) in inducing malignant clones that, like ras(V12)scrib(1) tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While ras(V12)ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In

  14. Interplay among Drosophila transcription factors Ets21c, Fos and Ftz-F1 drives JNK-mediated tumor malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Külshammer, Eva; Mundorf, Juliane; Kilinc, Merve; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer initiation and maintenance of the transformed cell state depend on altered cellular signaling and aberrant activities of transcription factors (TFs) that drive pathological gene expression in response to cooperating genetic lesions. Deciphering the roles of interacting TFs is therefore central to understanding carcinogenesis and for designing cancer therapies. Here, we use an unbiased genomic approach to define a TF network that triggers an abnormal gene expression program promoting malignancy of clonal tumors, generated in Drosophila imaginal disc epithelium by gain of oncogenic Ras (RasV12) and loss of the tumor suppressor Scribble (scrib1). We show that malignant transformation of the rasV12scrib1 tumors requires TFs of distinct families, namely the bZIP protein Fos, the ETS-domain factor Ets21c and the nuclear receptor Ftz-F1, all acting downstream of Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Depleting any of the three TFs improves viability of tumor-bearing larvae, and this positive effect can be enhanced further by their combined removal. Although both Fos and Ftz-F1 synergistically contribute to rasV12scrib1 tumor invasiveness, only Fos is required for JNK-induced differentiation defects and Matrix metalloprotease (MMP1) upregulation. In contrast, the Fos-dimerizing partner Jun is dispensable for JNK to exert its effects in rasV12scrib1 tumors. Interestingly, Ets21c and Ftz-F1 are transcriptionally induced in these tumors in a JNK- and Fos-dependent manner, thereby demonstrating a hierarchy within the tripartite TF network, with Fos acting as the most upstream JNK effector. Of the three TFs, only Ets21c can efficiently substitute for loss of polarity and cooperate with RasV12 in inducing malignant clones that, like rasV12scrib1 tumors, invade other tissues and overexpress MMP1 and the Drosophila insulin-like peptide 8 (Dilp8). While rasV12ets21c tumors require JNK for invasiveness, the JNK activity is dispensable for their growth. In conclusion, our study

  15. Differential CARM1 Isoform Expression in Subcellular Compartments and among Malignant and Benign Breast Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Shlensky, David; Mirrielees, Jennifer A.; Zhao, Zibo; Wang, Lu; Mahajan, Aparna; Yu, Menggang; Sherer, Nathan M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) is a coactivator for ERα and cancer-relevant transcription factors, and can methylate diverse cellular targets including histones. CARM1 is expressed in one of two alternative splice isoforms, full-length CARM1 (CARM1FL) and truncated CARM1 (CARM1ΔE15). CARM1FL and CARM1ΔE15 function differently in transcriptional regulation, protein methylation, and mediation of pre-mRNA splicing in cellular models. Methods To investigate the functional roles and the prognosis potential of CARM1 alternative spliced isoforms in breast cancer, we used recently developed antibodies to detect differential CARM1 isoform expression in subcellular compartments and among malignant and benign breast tumors. Results Immunofluorescence in MDA-MB-231 and BG-1 cell lines demonstrated that CARM1ΔE15 is the dominant isoform expressed in the cytoplasm, and CARM1FL is more nuclear localized. CARM1ΔE15 was found to be more sensitive to Hsp90 inhibition than CARM1FL, indicating that the truncated isoform may be the oncogenic form. Clinical cancer samples did not have significantly higher expression of CARM1FL or CARM1ΔE15 than benign breast samples at the level of mRNA or histology. Furthermore neither CARM1FL nor CARM1ΔE15 expression correlated with breast cancer molecular subtypes, tumor size, or lymph node involvement. Conclusions The analysis presented here lends new insights into the possible oncogenic role of CARM1ΔE15. This study also demonstrates no obvious association of CARM1 isoform expression and clinical correlates in breast cancer. Recent studies, however, have shown that CARM1 expression correlates with poor prognosis, indicating a need for further studies of both CARM1 isoforms in a large cohort of breast cancer specimens. PMID:26030442

  16. Malignant conversion and metastasis of mouse skin tumors: a comparison of SENCAR and CD-1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hennings, H.; Spangler, E.F.; Shores, R.; Mitchell, P.; Devor, D.; Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Elgjo, K.M.; Yuspa, S.H.

    1986-09-01

    The progression of papillomas to squamous cell carcinomas (malignant conversion) was studied in the skin of SENCAR and Charles River CD-1 mice, using a three-stage treatment protocol. After initiation with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (stage I) and limited promotion by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (stage II), papilloma-bearing mice were treated (stage III) with either tumor initiators, such as urethane, N-methyl-N'nitro-N nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or 4-nitroquinoline-n-oxide (R-NQO), the promoter TPA, or solvent (acetone). Similar final carcinoma yields were found in the mice treated in stage III with TPA or acetone, although carcinomas developed earlier in the TPA-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with tumor initiators in stage III increased both the rate of appearance and the final yield of carcinomas. Similar results were obtained in both SENCAR and CD-1 mice. A papilloma stage appears to be necessary for carcinoma development since elimination of TPA treatment in stage II greatly reduced the incidence of both papillomas and carcinomas in both stocks of mice. The heterogeneity of papillomas with regard to progression to carcinomas is demonstrated by the low rate of conversion of TPA-dependent papillomas and the high rate of conversion of persistent papillomas in CD-1 mice. The carcinomas that develop using the three-stage regimen vary in metastatic potential. In CD-1 mice, the frequency of metastases to lymph nodes were similar in groups treated in stage III with MNNG, urethane, 4-NQO, TPA, or acetone, but treatment with urethane substantially increased metastases to the lung. In SENCAR mice, this effect of urethane was not observed, but lymph node and lung metastases appeared too be increased by stage III treatment with MNNG.

  17. Thermoablation of Malignant Kidney Tumors Using Magnetic Nanoparticles: An In Vivo Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruners, Philipp; Braunschweig, Till; Hodenius, Michael; Pietsch, Hubertus; Penzkofer, Tobias; Baumann, Martin; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of CT-guided magnetic thermoablation for the treatment of malignant kidney tumors in a VX2 tumor rabbit model. VX2 tumors were implanted into the kidneys of five rabbits and allowed to grow for 2 weeks. After preinterventional CT perfusion imaging, CT-guided injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (300 {mu}l) was performed, followed by exposure of the animals to an alternating electromagnetic field for 15 min ({approx}0.32 kA/m). Then animals underwent CT perfusion imaging again. Afterward, animals were sacrificed and kidneys were dissected for macroscopic and histological evaluation. Changes in perfusion before and after exposure to the alternating magnetic field were analyzed. In one animal no tumor growth could be detected so the animal was used for optimization of the ablation procedure including injection technique and peri-interventional cross-sectional imaging (CT, MRI). After image-guided intratumoral injection of ferrofluids, the depiction of nanoparticle distribution by CT correlated well with macroscopic evaluation of the dissected kidneys. MRI was limited due to severe susceptibility artefacts. Postinterventional CT perfusion imaging revealed a perfusion deficiency around the ferrofluid deposits. Histological workup showed different zones of thermal damage adjacent to the ferrofluid deposits. In conclusion, CT-guided magnetic thermoablation of malignant kidney tumors is technically feasible in an animal model and results in a perfusion deficiency indicating tumor necrosis as depicted by CT perfusion imaging and shown in histological evaluation.

  18. Microwave-induced local hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy of human malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    U, R.; Noell, K.T.; Woodward, K.T.; Worde, B.T.; Fishburn, R.I.; Miller, L.S.

    1980-02-15

    Since 1976, two groups of patients have been treated with local microwave hyperthermia immediately following ionizing radiation. Group A patients had measurable multiple lesions assigned radiotherapy only, microwave hyperthermia only, or combined treatment. Ionizing radiation in 200 to 600 rad fractions was used 2 to 5 times per week to a total of 1800 to 4200 rad in 5 to 14 fractions. Group B patients had combination treatment only, with radiation fractions of 200 to 600 rad 2 to 5 times per week to a total of 200 to 4800 rad total in 6 to 20 fractions. Both groups received hyperthermia (42 to 44 C) 2 to 3 times per week, maximum ten sessions in four weeks. The 19 patients treated have had squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, malignant melanoma, plasmacytoma, epithelioid sarcoma, and undifferentiated carcinoma. After more than 150 hyperthermia sessions, we find: (1) local hyperthermia with microwave alone or in combination with ionizing radiation can be used with excellent normal tissue tolerance provided local tissue temperatures are carefully monitored and controlled; (2) a higher level of heat induction in tumor tissue as compared to surrounding normal tissues; and (3) repeated hyperthermia at 42 to 43.5 C for 45 minutes per session immediately following photon irradiation yields a favorable therapeutic result, occasionally dramatic. Local microwave hyperthermia in combination withradiotherapy offers the possibility of substantial impact on clinical cancer therapy, whether of curative or palliative intent.

  19. Exploring Spirituality in Family Caregivers of Patients With Primary Malignant Brain Tumors Across the Disease Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Newberry, Alyssa G.; Jean Choi, Chien-Wen; Donovan, Heidi S.; Schulz, Richard; Bender, Catherine; Given, Barbara; Sherwood, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To determine whether the perceived level of spirituality in family caregivers of patients with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBTs) changes across the disease trajectory. Design Ongoing descriptive, longitudinal study. Setting Southwestern Pennsylvania. Sample 50 family caregivers of patients with PMBT. Methods Caregivers and care recipients were recruited at time of diagnosis. Participants were interviewed at two subse-quent time points, four and eight months following diagnosis. Main Research Variables Care recipients’ symptoms, neuro-psychologic status, and physical function, as well as caregiver social support. Findings Results showed no significant difference in spirituality scores reported at baseline and eight months (p = 0.8), suggesting that spirituality may be a stable trait across the disease trajectory. Conclusions Spirituality remains relatively stable along the course of the disease trajectory. Reports of caregiver depressive symptoms and anxiety were lower when paired with higher reports of spirituality. Implications for Nursing Clinicians can better identify caregivers at risk for negative outcomes by identifying those who report lower levels of spirituality. Future interventions should focus on the development and implementation of interventions that provide protective buffers such as increased social support. Knowledge Translation Spirituality is a relatively stable trait. High levels of spirituality can serve as a protective buffer from negative mental health outcomes. Caregivers with low levels of spirituality may be at risk for greater levels of burden, anxiety, and stress. PMID:23615145

  20. Tumor-Associated CSF MicroRNAs for the Prediction and Evaluation of CNS Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a readily reachable body fluid that is reflective of the underlying pathological state of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence it has been targeted for biomarker discovery for a variety of neurological disorders. CSF is also the major route for seeding metastases of CNS malignancies and its analysis could be informative for diagnosis and risk stratification of brain cancers. Recently, modern high-throughput, microRNAs (miRNAs) measuring technology has enabled sensitive detection of distinct miRNAs that are bio-chemicallystable in the CSF and can distinguish between different types of CNS cancers. Owing to the fact that a CSF specimen can be obtained with relative ease, analysis of CSF miRNAs could be a promising contribution to clinical practice. In this review, we examine the current scientific knowledge on tumor associated CSF miRNAs that could guide diagnosis of different brain cancer types, or could be helpful in predicting disease progression and therapy response. Finally, we highlight their potential applications clinically as biomarkers and discuss limitations. PMID:26690130

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatments for Primary Malignant Bone Tumors Arising in the Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Ogura, Koichi; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Nakatani, Fumihiko; Chuman, Hirokazu; Kawai, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The functional and oncologic results of eighteen patients with primary malignant periacetabular tumors were reviewed to determine the impact of surgical treatment. The reconstruction procedures were endoprosthesis (11), hip transposition (4), iliofemoral arthrodesis (2), and frozen bone autograft (1). After a mean follow-up of 62 months, 13 patients were alive and 5 had died of their disease; the 5-year overall survival rate was 67.2%. The corresponding mean MSTS scores of patients with endoprosthesis (11) and other reconstructions (7) were 42% and 55% (49%, 68%, and 50%), respectively. Overall, postoperative complications including deep infection or dislocation markedly worsened the functional outcome. Iliofemoral arthrodesis provided better function than the other procedures, whereas endoprosthetic reconstruction demonstrated poor functional outcome except for patients who were reconstructed with the adequate soft tissue coverage. Avoiding postoperative complications is highly important for achieving better function, suggesting that surgical procedures with adequate soft tissue coverage or without the massive use of nonbiological materials are preferable. Appropriate selection of the reconstructive procedures for individual patients, considering the amount of remaining bone and soft tissues, would lead to better clinical outcomes. PMID:26451129

  2. [Intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation in local treatment of primary malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Buchner, M; Treiber, M; Wannenmacher, M; Ewerbeck, V; Parsch, D

    2003-11-01

    In 13 patients with primary malignant bone tumors (10 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 parosteal osteosarcoma, 1 adamantinoma recurrence, and 1 MFH) local therapy was performed as intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation (IEIR) of the involved bone segment (5 tibia, 2 femur, and 6 pelvis). Of the 13 patients (69%), 9 are alive at the time of the follow-up (5 CDF, 4 AWM(treated)) and 4 patients died of disease (DOD). Up to now during the follow-up of 32 months (6-57), no local recurrence was observed in the replanted bone segments. The complication rate was very high (18 complications in 11 of the 13 patients, including 6 cases with complication V degrees according to Ruggieri with loss of the reconstruction). The typical complication is severe local infection necessitating removal of the replant. In cases of mechanical failure, the replanted segment could mostly be preserved by surgical revision and autologous bone grafting. If serious complications can be managed or avoided, functional results can be achieved. IEIR must be seen as an extraordinary reconstruction procedure in cases where established procedures such as endoprosthesis, biological reconstructions, or rotationplasties cannot be used or are refused by the patient. PMID:14615850

  3. Malignant Eccrine Poroma of the Vulva: An Intriguing Case of a Rare Tumor at an Unusual Site.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pranshu; Sen, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Sen, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poroma is a rare malignancy of the eccrine sweat glands, occurring most frequently on the lower extremities. It affects both sexes equally usually in the 6(th) to 7(th) decade of life. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 20% that may be fatal in 60% cases. Its aggressive nature, rarity of occurrence, and unusual presentations make it very important to be evaluated properly by the clinician. We hereby report a case of a 75-year-old female presenting with two exophytic tumors over her vulva with local extension. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as malignant eccrine poroma. On magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, metastatic extension in regional lymph nodes was found. She was treated by radical vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy. PMID:27512190

  4. Malignant Eccrine Poroma of the Vulva: An Intriguing Case of a Rare Tumor at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pranshu; Sen, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Sen, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poroma is a rare malignancy of the eccrine sweat glands, occurring most frequently on the lower extremities. It affects both sexes equally usually in the 6th to 7th decade of life. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 20% that may be fatal in 60% cases. Its aggressive nature, rarity of occurrence, and unusual presentations make it very important to be evaluated properly by the clinician. We hereby report a case of a 75-year-old female presenting with two exophytic tumors over her vulva with local extension. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as malignant eccrine poroma. On magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, metastatic extension in regional lymph nodes was found. She was treated by radical vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy. PMID:27512190

  5. Reducing morbidity with surgical adhesives following inguinal lymph node dissections for the treatment of malignant skin tumors

    PubMed Central

    Stollwerck, Peter. L.; Schlarb, Dominik; Münstermann, Nicole; Stenske, Sebastian; Kruess, Christoph; Brodner, Gerhard; Krapohl, Björn Dirk; Krause-Bergmann, Albrecht F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) is associated with a high rate of morbidity. To evaluate the clinical benefit of surgical adhesives to reduce complications in patients undergoing ILND, we compared the use of TissuGlu® Surgical Adhesive and ARTISS® fibrin sealant with a control population. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing ILND for metastatic malignant skin tumors at one hospital, Fachklinik Hornheide (Münster, Germany), from January 2011 through September 2013, assessing 137 patients with a total of 142 procedures. Results: Complications occurred in 22/60 procedures in the TissuGlu group (TG), in 8/17 in the ARTISS group (AG), and in 29/65 in the control group (CG). Prolonged drainage and seroma were recorded in 16 (26.7%), four (23.5%), and 26 (40%) respectively (non-significant). TG showed less extended drainage vs. CG (p=0.082). Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000). With regard to wound infection, there was a 15% reduction in TG and 74% increase in AG group. Revision surgery was reduced by 36% in TG and increased by 54% in AG. Mean daily drain volumes were significantly lower in AG vs. CG (p=0.000). Mean total post-operative drain volume was lower in TG and AG vs. CG (p<0.001 among groups, CG vs. TG p<0.001, CG vs. AG p<0.001). The mean body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in patients with complications, 29.4±5.8 vs. 25.3±4.1 (p=0.000). Conclusion: The use of TissuGlu in our ILND patients was associated with a reduction in post-operative wound related complications and the need for revision surgeries compared to the control group. Daily drainage was significantly lower within the first 7 post-operative days with the use of ARTISS, but the benefit was lost due to the higher occurrence of wound infection and revision surgery. BMI above 29 is a risk factor for complications following ILND. (Level of evidence: level IV, retrospective case study) PMID

  6. SU-E-J-79: Internal Tumor Volume Motion and Volume Size Assessment Using 4D CT Lung Data

    SciTech Connect

    Jurkovic, I; Stathakis, S; Li, Y; Patel, A; Vincent, J; Papanikolaou, N; Mavroidis, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess internal tumor volume change through breathing cycle and associated tumor motion using the 4DCT data. Methods: Respiration induced volume change through breathing cycle and associated motion was analyzed for nine patients that were scanned during the different respiratory phases. The examined datasets were the maximum and average intensity projections (MIP and AIP) and the 10 phases of the respiratory cycle. The internal target volume (ITV) was delineated on each of the phases and the planning target volume (PTV) was then created by adding setup margins to the ITV. Tumor motion through the phases was assessed using the acquired 4DCT dataset, which was then used to determine if the margins used for the ITV creation successfully encompassed the tumor in three dimensions. Results: Results showed that GTV motion along the superior inferior axes was the largest in all the cases independent of the tumor location and/or size or the use of abdomen compression. The extent of the tumor motion was found to be connected with the size of the GTV. The smallest GTVs exhibited largest motion vector independent of the tumor location. The motion vector size varied through the phases depending on the tumor size and location and it was smallest for phases 20 and 30. The smaller the volume of the delineated GTV, the greater its volume difference through the different respiratory phases was. The average GTV volume change was largest for the phases 60 and 70. Conclusion: Even if GTV is delineated using both AIP and MIP datasets, its motion extent will exceed the used margins especially for the very small GTV volumes. When the GTV size is less than 10 cc it is recommended to use fusion of the GTVs through all the phases to create the planning ITV.

  7. Genome-Wide Profiles of Extra-cranial Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors Reveal Heterogeneity and Dysregulated Developmental Pathways | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare lethal tumors of childhood that most commonly occur in the kidney and brain. MRTs are driven by SMARCB1 loss, but the molecular consequences of SMARCB1 loss in extra-cranial tumors have not been comprehensively described and genomic resources for analyses of extra-cranial MRT are limited.

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of the oncogenic molecules active Stat3 and survivin in benign and malignant salivary gland tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Scheper, Mark A.; Papanicolaou, Vasileios S.; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Sauk, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) and survivin have been shown to exert oncogenic effects in various human neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of the tyrosine phosphorylated (active) Stat3 and survivin in various benign and malignant salivary gland tumors (SGTs). Study design Eighty-six SGTs (65 malignant and 21 benign tumors of various histopathologic subtypes) were immunohistochemically stained with anti-survivin or anti-phosphorylated tyrosine-705 (p-tyr) Stat3 antibodies. Immunohistochemical reactivity was graded in a semi-quantitative manner; a combined score of immunohistochemical positivity (0–6) was calculated for each tumor by adding the individual scores for percentage of tumor cells (0–3) and intensity of staining (0–3). Results Survivin was immunohistochemically detected in all studied benign and malignant SGTs; p-tyr Stat3 was also detected in the majority (91%) of SGTs. The average combined scores for survivin and p-tyr Stat3 immunohistochemical expression in the studied malignant SGTs was 4.40 and 3.35, respectively; the corresponding combined scores for survivin and p-tyr Stat3 in the studied benign SGTs were 4.37 and 3.22, respectively. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in p-tyr Stat3 or survivin expression were detected between the benign and malignant groups, or among the various examined histopathological subtypes of SGTs. In contrast, normal salivary gland elements in the vicinity of the studied tumors revealed only weak and focal survivin or p-tyr Stat3 immunoreactivity, mainly localized to ductal and mucous cells. Conclusions Our data indicate an almost universal expression of activated Stat3 and survivin in benign and malignant SGTs. Considering the well-established proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties of these molecules and their functional interrelationship, selective targeting techniques against Stat3 and/or survivin may represent promising

  9. Radioimmunoassay for human pancreatic ribonuclease and measurement of serum immunoreactive pancreatic ribonuclease in patients with malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Kurihara, M.; Ogawa, M.; Ohta, T.; Kurokawa, E.; Kitahara, T.; Murata, A.; Matsuda, K.; Kosaki, G.; Watanabe, T.; Wada, H.

    1984-05-01

    A method for radioimmunoassay of human pancreatic RNase was developed. The method is sensitive, reproducible, and specific. Almost no cross-reactivity exists between human pancreatic and liver RNases. A good correlation was observed between the serum concentration of pancreatic RNase as measured by radioimmunoassay and its enzymatic activity using polycytidylic acid as substrate. The concentration of serum pancreatic RNase correlates well with age, blood urea nitrogen, and albumin contents but does not correlate with serum amylase activity. Using the data of 52 patients with malignant tumors except pancreatic cancer, serum RNase level could be expressed by a multiple regression equation: Immunoreactive RNase content in pancreatic cancer was elevated in patients with complications from renal failure. Serum pancreatic RNase contents in patients with pancreatic cancer measured by radioimmunoassay agreed well with the values calculated using the equation derived from the data of patients with other malignant tumors.

  10. Olig2-Dependent Reciprocal Shift in PDGF and EGF Receptor Signaling Regulates Tumor Phenotype and Mitotic Growth in Malignant Glioma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fanghui; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Chuntao; Wang, Haibo; He, Danyang; Xu, Lingli; Wang, Jincheng; He, Xuelian; Deng, Yaqi; Lu, Ellen E; Liu, Xue; Verma, Ravinder; Bu, Hong; Drissi, Rachid; Fouladi, Maryam; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Burns, Dennis; Xin, Mei; Rubin, Joshua B; Bahassi, El Mustapha; Canoll, Peter; Holland, Eric C; Lu, Q Richard

    2016-05-01

    Malignant gliomas exhibit extensive heterogeneity and poor prognosis. Here we identify mitotic Olig2-expressing cells as tumor-propagating cells in proneural gliomas, elimination of which blocks tumor initiation and progression. Intriguingly, deletion of Olig2 resulted in tumors that grow, albeit at a decelerated rate. Genome occupancy and expression profiling analyses reveal that Olig2 directly activates cell-proliferation machinery to promote tumorigenesis. Olig2 deletion causes a tumor phenotypic shift from an oligodendrocyte precursor-correlated proneural toward an astroglia-associated gene expression pattern, manifest in downregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α and reciprocal upregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Olig2 deletion further sensitizes glioma cells to EGFR inhibitors and extends the lifespan of animals. Thus, Olig2-orchestrated receptor signaling drives mitotic growth and regulates glioma phenotypic plasticity. Targeting Olig2 may circumvent resistance to EGFR-targeted drugs. PMID:27165742

  11. Science to Practice: Can Focused Ultrasound Disruption of the Blood-Brain Barrier Improve Malignant Brain Tumor Treatment Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bryan, R Nick

    2016-10-01

    A relatively novel combination treatment for malignant brain tumors that includes focused ultrasound has been shown to improve tumor response and treatment outcome in a preclinical mouse model. This method directly addresses the great need for better treatments for this lethal disease. However, there are substantial technologic hurdles that must be addressed before clinical efficacy will be known. Unfortunately, few of these questions can be readily answered outside the clinical environment. Although it would be enormously challenging, a phase I clinical trial seems feasible and needed to determine the clinical value of this technique. PMID:27643762

  12. Chylous ascites after nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy for malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney: A rare occurrence and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Einama, Takahiro; Okada, Tadao; Sasaki, Fumiaki; Todo, Satoru

    2009-01-01

    Chylous ascites (CA) is an extremely rare complication of abdominal surgery in children. This report describes a 4-month-old girl with malignant rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (MRTK), who developed CA after left nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy, and who was successfully treated conservatively with enteral therapy. The literature on CA after nephrectomy without lymphadenectomy for MRTK is reviewed herein, and the clinical problems of postoperative CA are discussed. PMID:20419024

  13. Risk of solid tumors and hematological malignancy in persons with Turner and Klinefelter syndromes: A national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jianguang; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-08-15

    The risk of solid and hematological malignancy in patients with Turner syndrome, characterized by X chromosome monosomy in women, and Klinefelter syndrome, characterized with two and more X chromosomes in men, is not well established, but such evidence may have etiological implications on cancer development. We identified a total of 1,409 women with Turner syndrome and 1,085 men with Klinefelter syndrome from the Swedish Hospital Discharge and Outpatient Register. These individuals were further linked to the Swedish Cancer Register to examine the standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer using the general population without Turner and Klinefelter syndromes as reference. The overall risk of cancer was 1.34 for women with Turner syndrome; it was increased only for solid tumors. For a specific type of tumor, the risk of melanoma and central nervous system tumor was significantly increased. For persons with Klinefelter syndrome, the risk of solid tumors was decreased (SIR = 0.66), whereas the risk of hematological malignancy was increased (SIR = 2.72). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia showed an increased SIR of 3.02 and 3.62, respectively. Our study supported the hypothesis that X chromosome plays an important role in the etiology of solid tumors. The underlying mechanisms for the increased incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia in persons with Klinefelter syndrome need to be investigated further.

  14. In vivo use of hyperspectral imaging to develop a noncontact endoscopic diagnosis support system for malignant colorectal tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhimin; Zhang, Aoyu; Wang, Xiguang; Sun, Zongxiao; Wang, May D.; Xie, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    The early detection and diagnosis of malignant colorectal tumors enables the initiation of early-stage therapy and can significantly increase the survival rate and post-treatment quality of life among cancer patients. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive cancer detection. In the gastrointestinal field, most of the studies on HSI have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. In the present study, we aimed to assess the difference in the in vivo spectral reflectance of malignant colorectal tumors and normal mucosa. A total of 21 colorectal tumors or adenomatous polyps from 12 patients at Shanghai Zhongshan Hospital were examined using a flexible hyperspectral (HS) colonoscopy system that can obtain in vivo HS images of the colorectal mucosa. We determined the optimal wavelengths for differentiating tumors from normal tissue based on these recorded images. The application of the determined wavelengths in spectral imaging in clinical trials indicated that such a clinical support system comprising a flexible HS colonoscopy unit and band selection unit is useful for outlining the tumor region and enhancing the display of the mucosa microvascular pattern in vivo.

  15. Genetics and biology of human ovarian teratomas. III. Cytogenetics and origins of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, L; Shen-Schwarz, S; Deka, R; Chakravarti, A; Surti, U

    1992-08-01

    This report presents cytogenetic data on three cases of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors. All were diagnosed as malignant teratoma; case 1 with yolk sac elements; case 2 with elements of endodermal sinus tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and choriocarcinoma; and case 3 with yolk sac elements and embryonal carcinoma. Metaphase cells from each tumor, and normal tissue from the host, were karyotyped and scored for centromeric heteromorphisms in an attempt to determine the mechanism of origin. The karyotypes were 79,XXX,+1,+3,-6,+8,+12,+14,-15,+17, +20,+21,+22;49,XX,+8,+12,+22; and 48,XX,+3,+14, respectively. The analysis of centromeric heteromorphisms and DNA fingerprints of host and teratoma using the M13 probe revealed that one case originated from a germ cell before the first meiotic division. Normal host tissue was not available in case 2, but several centromeric markers were heterozygous in the tumor, indicating either meiosis I error or complete failure of germ cell meiosis. In the third case the centromeric heteromorphisms that were heterozygous in the host appeared to be homozygous for certain chromosomes and heterozygous for others in the tumor. These results suggest that germ cell teratomas could arise by the fusion of two ova. PMID:1521236

  16. Malignancy risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockers: an overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuehong; Sun, Jianhong; Yang, Yuan; Huang, Yupeng; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to systematically review the malignancy risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) agents. Databases of PubMed Medline, OVID EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify published systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized control trials, observational studies, and case series that evaluated malignancy risk of anti-TNFα blockers. Search time duration was restricted from January 1st, 2000 to July 16th, 2015. Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaires were used to assess the quality of included reviews. Two methodology trained reviewers separately and repeatedly screened searched studies according to study selection criteria, collected data, and assessed quality. Totally, 42 reviews proved eligible with only one Cochrane review. Anti-TNFα antagonists were extensively used to treat various diseases; nevertheless, malignancy risks were most commonly described in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In RA patients, no increased risks of breast cancer, lymphoma, and non-melanoma skin cancer were found, but if the use of anti-TNFα agents was associated with elevated risk of overall malignancy was still uncertainty. In IBD patients, the use of anti-TNFα inhibitors was not connected with enhanced risk of overall cancer. No increased cancer risk was found in other disease conditions. Twenty-nine reviews were rated as good quality, 12 as moderate, and one as poor. There are no sufficient evidences to draw the conclusion that anti-TNFα blockers have relationship with increased malignancy risk.

  17. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Increased serum concentration of soluble alpha-chain receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) has been noted in patients with a variety of inflammatory conditions and lymphoid malignancies including T cell leukemia and lymphoma. Elevated sIL-2R serum levels seen in lymphoid malignancies appear to correlate with the clinical stage of disease. However, because sIL-2R is produced by normal activated lymphocytes, it has been uncertain whether serum sIL-2R in such conditions is derived from tumor cells or normal immune cells responding to the tumor. To address this question, we used a model of human (CD30+) anaplastic, large T cell lymphoma transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tumor RNA showed that the tumor, designated mJB6, contains mRNA for alpha-chain of human IL-2R. Furthermore, 15 to 25% of tumor cells stained with anti-human IL-2R alpha-chain mAb. Solid phase ELISA analysis of serum samples from mice bearing mJB6 lymphoma showed high concentrations of human sIL-2R. None of the control mice without lymphoma or with human nonlymphoid tumors (prostatic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and glioblastoma multiforme) showed detectable human sIL-2R. The sIL-2R serum titers of mJB6-bearing mice correlated strongly with tumor volume (P < 0.0001). Tumors as small as 0.4 to 0.8 mm3 could be detected by this method. The sensitivity of sIL-2R ELISA exceeded at least 150 times the sensitivity of conventional radioisotopic tumor detection. Total resection of mJB6 tumors resulted in complete clearance of sIL-2R from the murine serum within 48 hours with a half-life of 6 hours. Accordingly, partial resection led to a significant decrease in sIL-2R followed by gradual increase with tumor regrowth. sIL-2R was also detected in the urine of mJB6-transplanted mice. As in serum, urine concentrations of sIL-2R were proportional to tumor mass (P < 0.02). Based on these findings we postulate that malignant cells are a major source of serum

  18. Tumor Volume Reduction Rate After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy as a Prognostic Factor in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Seung-Gu; Kim, Dae Yong; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Sun Young; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Byung Chang; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Min Ju

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic significance of tumor volume reduction rate (TVRR) after preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: In total, 430 primary LARC (cT3-4) patients who were treated with preoperative CRT and curative radical surgery between May 2002 and March 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Pre- and post-CRT tumor volumes were measured using three-dimensional region-of-interest MR volumetry. Tumor volume reduction rate was determined using the equation TVRR (%) = (pre-CRT tumor volume - post-CRT tumor volume) Multiplication-Sign 100/pre-CRT tumor volume. The median follow-up period was 64 months (range, 27-99 months) for survivors. Endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: The median TVRR was 70.2% (mean, 64.7% {+-} 22.6%; range, 0-100%). Downstaging (ypT0-2N0M0) occurred in 183 patients (42.6%). The 5-year DFS and OS rates were 77.7% and 86.3%, respectively. In the analysis that included pre-CRT and post-CRT tumor volumes and TVRR as continuous variables, only TVRR was an independent prognostic factor. Tumor volume reduction rate was categorized according to a cutoff value of 45% and included with clinicopathologic factors in the multivariate analysis; ypN status, circumferential resection margin, and TVRR were significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS. Conclusions: Tumor volume reduction rate was a significant prognostic factor in LARC patients receiving preoperative CRT. Tumor volume reduction rate data may be useful for tailoring surgery and postoperative adjuvant therapy after preoperative CRT.

  19. Comparative Multifractal Analysis of Dynamic Infrared Thermograms and X-Ray Mammograms Enlightens Changes in the Environment of Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, Evgeniya; Toner, Brian; Marin, Zach; Audit, Benjamin; Roux, Stephane G; Argoul, Francoise; Khalil, Andre; Gileva, Olga; Naimark, Oleg; Arneodo, Alain

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can create a niche favoring the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze breast skin temperature temporal fluctuations collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations superimposed on cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27555823

  20. Comparative Multifractal Analysis of Dynamic Infrared Thermograms and X-Ray Mammograms Enlightens Changes in the Environment of Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, Evgeniya; Toner, Brian; Marin, Zach; Audit, Benjamin; Roux, Stephane G.; Argoul, Francoise; Khalil, Andre; Gileva, Olga; Naimark, Oleg; Arneodo, Alain

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can create a niche favoring the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze breast skin temperature temporal fluctuations collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations superimposed on cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis. PMID:27555823

  1. Comparative Multifractal Analysis of Dynamic Infrared Thermograms and X-Ray Mammograms Enlightens Changes in the Environment of Malignant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova-Chechkina, Evgeniya; Toner, Brian; Marin, Zach; Audit, Benjamin; Roux, Stephane G; Argoul, Francoise; Khalil, Andre; Gileva, Olga; Naimark, Oleg; Arneodo, Alain

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the microenvironment surrounding a tumor plays a special role in cancer development and cancer therapeutic resistance. Tumors arise from the dysregulation and alteration of both the malignant cells and their environment. By providing tumor-repressing signals, the microenvironment can impose and sustain normal tissue architecture. Once tissue homeostasis is lost, the altered microenvironment can create a niche favoring the tumorigenic transformation process. A major challenge in early breast cancer diagnosis is thus to show that these physiological and architectural alterations can be detected with currently used screening techniques. In a recent study, we used a 1D wavelet-based multi-scale method to analyze breast skin temperature temporal fluctuations collected with an IR thermography camera in patients with breast cancer. This study reveals that the multifractal complexity of temperature fluctuations superimposed on cardiogenic and vasomotor perfusion oscillations observed in healthy breasts is lost in malignant tumor foci in cancerous breasts. Here we use a 2D wavelet-based multifractal method to analyze the spatial fluctuations of breast density in the X-ray mammograms of the same panel of patients. As compared to the long-range correlations and anti-correlations in roughness fluctuations, respectively observed in dense and fatty breast areas, some significant change in the nature of breast density fluctuations with some clear loss of correlations is detected in the neighborhood of malignant tumors. This attests to some architectural disorganization that may deeply affect heat transfer and related thermomechanics in breast tissues, corroborating the change to homogeneous monofractal temperature fluctuations recorded in cancerous breasts with the IR camera. These results open new perspectives in computer-aided methods to assist in early breast cancer diagnosis.

  2. Comparative analysis of P16 and P53 expression in uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors.

    PubMed

    Buza, Natalia; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that, in addition to cervical carcinomas, a substantial proportion of endometrial adenocarcinomas are also immunoreactive with p16. The expression of p16 in uterine malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMTs), in contrast, has not yet been analyzed in a large series. To our knowledge, we present the first study assessing p16 expression in both components of MMMTs. We performed p16 and p53 immunostains on 30 cases of uterine MMMTs. Both the epithelial and mesenchymal components were subclassified; p16 and p53 immunoreactions were assessed using a semiquantitative scoring system. p16 overexpression was noted in the carcinomatous component in 96.7% (29/30), and in the sarcomatous component in 86.7% (26/30) of cases. In comparison, p53 immunoreactivity was present in the carcinomatous component in 76.7% (23/30), and in the sarcomatous component in 83.3% (25/30) of cases. p16 immunoreactivity was more intense and diffuse than p53 in 40% of type I, 30% of type II carcinomas, and 27% of sarcomatous components. There was no significant difference in p16 or p53 immunoreactivity between the homologous and heterologous sarcomas. The concordance rates for p16 and p53 immunoreactivity between the 2 components were 83% and 90%, respectively. We conclude that p16 immunostain is positive in the vast majority of uterine MMMTs with no significant difference in staining between the 2 components. Compared with p53, p16 immunoreactivity is significantly more intense and diffuse in both components. Our findings indicate that alterations in the p16-Rb pathway play an important role in the pathogenesis of uterine MMMTs.

  3. Malignant breast tumors among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-74.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, M; Norman, J E; Asano, M; Tokuoka, S; Ezaki, H; Nishimori, I; Tsuji, Y

    1979-06-01

    For 1950-74, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche.

  4. Etiology and early pathogenesis of malignant testicular germ cell tumors: towards possibilities for preinvasive diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Elzinga-Tinke, Jenny E; Dohle, Gert R; Looijenga, Leendert HJ

    2015-01-01

    Malignant testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequent cancers in Caucasian males (20–40 years) with an 70% increasing incidence the last 20 years, probably due to combined action of (epi)genetic and (micro)environmental factors. It is expected that TGCT have carcinoma in situ (CIS) as their common precursor, originating from an embryonic germ cell blocked in its maturation process. The overall cure rate of TGCT is more than 90%, however, men surviving TGCT can present long-term side effects of systemic cancer treatment. In contrast, men diagnosed and treated for CIS only continue to live without these long-term side effects. Therefore, early detection of CIS has great health benefits, which will require an informative screening method. This review described the etiology and early pathogenesis of TGCT, as well as the possibilities of early detection and future potential of screening men at risk for TGCT. For screening, a well-defined risk profile based on both genetic and environmental risk factors is needed. Since 2009, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been published, reporting on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant associations in or near the genes KITLG, SPRY4, BAK1, DMRT1, TERT, ATF7IP, HPGDS, MAD1L1, RFWD3, TEX14, and PPM1E, likely to be related to TGCT development. Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal environmental factors also influence the onset of CIS. A noninvasive early detection method for CIS would be highly beneficial in a clinical setting, for which specific miRNA detection in semen seems to be very promising. Further research is needed to develop a well-defined TGCT risk profile, based on gene-environment interactions, combined with noninvasive detection method for CIS. PMID:25791729

  5. [Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on side effects of CAP therapy in gynecological malignant tumors].