Science.gov

Sample records for malle jrvan miralda

  1. It's a Mall, Mall, Mall, Mall World: Jobs in Shopping Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Provides information about a variety of nonsales jobs available in shopping malls: mall management, customer service, marketing, operations, security, maintenance, and administration. Includes information about educational requirements. (JOW)

  2. MALL: The Pedagogical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the development of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) over the past 20 years is reviewed with a particular focus on the pedagogical challenges facing its exploitation. Following a consideration of the definition of mobile learning, the paper describes the dominant mobile technologies upon which MALL applications have been…

  3. Functional Morphology at the Mall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hippensteel, Scott P.

    2012-01-01

    The primary decorative flooring tile in the Southpark Mall in Charlotte, North Carolina, is fossiliferous limestone that contains Jurassic ammonoids and belemnoids. Visible in these tiles are more than 500 ammonoids, many of which have been cross sectioned equatorially perpendicular to the plane of coiling. Upper-level undergraduate students from…

  4. Ivy-Covered Malls and Creeping Commercialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2005-01-01

    The Simon Property Group, United States' largest mall developer, since 1998 has partnered with local public school systems to open 19 alternative public schools in malls in 11 states through its nonprofit Simon Youth Foundation. Lafayette Square's school, with a 200-student capacity is the newest and largest, which according to a watchdog group,…

  5. The Shopping Mall: A Teenager Hangout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Kathryn H.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated teenagers' use of the shopping mall as a "hangout" through interviews with 51 adolescents using the mall, and 10 hours of behavioral observations. Results indicated that many teenagers visit the shopping center regularly to watch members of the opposite sex, play video games, see friends, shop, and people-watch. (Author/NRB)

  6. Ibn Battuta Mall: Edutaining the World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chae Ho

    2010-01-01

    Nakheel, a Dubai World Company has created the world's largest themed mall based on the narrative of Ibn Battuta, a 14th century Muslim explorer whose world travels are well documented. The Ibn Battuta Mall is located in the city of Dubai in the United Arab Emirates and utilizes a communication strategy called edutainment: a neologistic…

  7. On call at the mall: a mixed methods study of U.S. medical malls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The decline of the traditional U.S. shopping mall and a focus on more consumer- centered care have created an opportunity for “medical malls”. Medical malls are defined as former retail spaces repurposed for healthcare tenants or mixed-use medical/retail facilities. We aimed to describe the current reach of healthcare services in U.S. malls, characterize the medical mall model and emerging trends, and assess the potential of these facilities to serve low-income populations. Methods We used a mixed methods approach which included a comprehensive literature review, key informant interviews, and a descriptive analysis of the Directory of Major Malls, an online retail database. Results Six percent (n = 89) of large, enclosed shopping malls in the U.S. include at least one non-optometry or dental healthcare tenant. We identified a total of 28 medical malls across the U.S., the majority of which opened in the past five years and serve middle or high income populations. Stakeholders felt the key strengths of medical malls were more convenient access including public transportation, greater familiarity for patients, and “one stop shopping” for primary care and specialty services as well as retail needs. Conclusions While medical malls currently account for a small fraction of malls in the US, they are a new model for healthcare with significant potential for growth. PMID:24209495

  8. 3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. AERIAL VIEW OF THE MALL BETWEEN TWELFTH STREET AND THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT, LOOKING NORTH UP THE 14TH STREET AXIS FROM OVER THE WASHINGTON CHANNEL. - National Mall & Monument Grounds, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Analysis of Jingdong Mall Logistics Distribution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Kang; Cheng, Feng

    In recent years, the development of electronic commerce in our country to speed up the pace. The role of logistics has been highlighted, more and more electronic commerce enterprise are beginning to realize the importance of logistics in the success or failure of the enterprise. In this paper, the author take Jingdong Mall for example, performing a SWOT analysis of their current situation of self-built logistics system, find out the problems existing in the current Jingdong Mall logistics distribution and give appropriate recommendations.

  10. Mall Walking Program Environments, Features, and Participants: A Scoping Review

    PubMed Central

    Belza, Basia; Allen, Peg; Brolliar, Sarah; Brown, David R.; Cormier, Marc L.; Janicek, Sarah; Jones, Dina L.; King, Diane K.; Marquez, David X.; Rosenberg, Dori E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Walking is a preferred and recommended physical activity for middle-aged and older adults, but many barriers exist, including concerns about safety (ie, personal security), falling, and inclement weather. Mall walking programs may overcome these barriers. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence on the health-related value of mall walking and mall walking programs. Methods We conducted a scoping review of the literature to determine the features, environments, and benefits of mall walking programs using the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance). The inclusion criteria were articles that involved adults aged 45 years or older who walked in indoor or outdoor shopping malls. Exclusion criteria were articles that used malls as laboratory settings or focused on the mechanics of walking. We included published research studies, dissertations, theses, conference abstracts, syntheses, nonresearch articles, theoretical papers, editorials, reports, policy briefs, standards and guidelines, and nonresearch conference abstracts and proposals. Websites and articles written in a language other than English were excluded. Results We located 254 articles on mall walking; 32 articles met our inclusion criteria. We found that malls provided safe, accessible, and affordable exercise environments for middle-aged and older adults. Programmatic features such as program leaders, blood pressure checks, and warm-up exercises facilitated participation. Individual benefits of mall walking programs included improvements in physical, social, and emotional well-being. Limited transportation to the mall was a barrier to participation. Conclusion We found the potential for mall walking programs to be implemented in various communities as a health promotion measure. However, the research on mall walking programs is limited and has weak study designs. More rigorous research is needed to define best practices for mall walking

  11. "Lost in a shopping mall" -- a breach of professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Crook, Lynn S; Dean, Martha C

    1999-01-01

    The "lost in a shopping mall" study has been cited to support claims that psychotherapists can implant memories of false autobiographical information of childhood trauma in their patients. The mall study originated in 1991 as 5 pilot experiments involving 3 children and 2 adult participants. The University of Washington Human Subjects Committee granted approval for the mall study on August 10, 1992. The preliminary results with the 5 pilot subjects were announced 4 days laters. An analysis of the mall study shows that beyond the external misrepresentions, internal scientific methodological errors cast doubt on the validity of the claims that have been attributed to the mall study within scholarly and legal arenas. The minimal involvement -- or, in some cases, negative impact -- of collegial consultation, acadmic supervision, and peer review throughout the evolution of the mall study are reviewed.

  12. A New Look for the Shopping Mall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    STRUCTO-FAB, a product of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation, is a lightweight but extremely durable tent-like material made of Fiberglas coated with Teflon. It transmits daylight with a reduced need for artificial lighting. It is an outgrowth of a material formulated by NASA in 1967 as a new space suit fabric. Owens-Corning and DuPont provided the original material, which was the basis for Structo-Fab, a permanent architectural fabric used for shopping malls, sports stadiums, etc.

  13. Astronomy Festival on the National Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2015-11-01

    The annual Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (AFNM) takes place on 11 acres north of the Washington Monument in June (previous AFNM were April and July). AFNM, sponsored by Hofstra University, features optical and radio telescope viewing of the Sun, Moon, planets, stars, clusters, and nebulae; a live large-screen image, a cell phone imaging mount; exhibits; hands-on activities; videos; large outdoor banners and posters; citizen science activities; hand-outs; bookmarks, and teacher information materials. With no tall buildings almost the entire sky is visible and 10th mag. moons of Saturn and the Ring Nebula (9.75 mag.) were easily visible on clear nights. Representatives from some of the nation's foremost scientific and educational institutions presented exciting demonstrations and activities; and answered questions about careers in science, celestial objects, and the latest astronomical discoveries. Local amateur astronomers set up twenty telescopes on the Mall and long lines of 20-30 people waited to look through the telescopes. Visitors met astronaut Dr. John Grunsfeld (Associate Administrator, NASA) and astronomers Dr. Lisse, Dr. Livengood, Dr. Warren, and Dr. Paul Hertz (Director, Astrophysics Division, NASA). Important historical astronomers spoke to the attendees: Caroline Herschel (Lynn King); Tycho Brahe (Dean Howarth); and Johannes Kepler (Jeff Jones). Free telescopes, donated by Celestron, were raffled off.

  14. 75 FR 1406 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Notice of Availability of an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... National Park Service National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Notice of Availability of an... Mall Plan, within the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, DC. The National Mall Plan is a..., SW., Washington, DC 20024, and at local libraries around Washington, DC. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  15. Lost in the mall: misrepresentations and misunderstandings.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Elizabeth F

    1999-01-01

    Readers of Ethics and Behavior have been treated to a misrepresentation of my research on planting false memories, to a misstatement of the actual empirical finidngs, and to a distortion of the history of the development of the idea for this line of research. The partisan essay by Crook and Dean which appears in this issue ("'Lost in a Shopping Mall' -- A Breach of Professional Ethics") is disturbing not only because of its errors, exaggerations, and omissions, but because, in some instances, the quality of the argument makes one wonder whether these were innocent mistakes or a deliberate attempt to distort my work. Some of these errors can be explained by simple lack of scientific competence. However, others are sufficiently bizarre that they cast doubt on the process that led to the acceptance of a manuscript written by an individual who has continually made her animosity toward me very publicly known (e.g., Boerner, 1996; Neimark, 1996).

  16. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Context, view to north from mall; from left to right, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context, view to north from mall; from left to right, flight markers, camp buildings, and visitor center - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  19. 38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. STAIRS FROM ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET TO UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING SOUTH, summer 1985 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. STAIRS TO ENTRANCE AT SIXTEENTH STREET FROM UPPER MALL PARK, LOOKING NORTH, August 1976 - Meridian Hill Park, Bounded by Fifteenth, Sixteenth, Euclid & W Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Indoor air quality at nine shopping malls in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Li, W M; Lee, S C; Chan, L Y

    2001-06-12

    Hong Kong is one of the most attractive shopping paradises in the world. Many local people and international tourists favor to spend their time in shopping malls in Hong Kong. Good indoor air quality is, therefore, very essential to shoppers. In order to characterize the indoor air quality in shopping malls, nine shopping malls in Hong Kong were selected for this study. The indoor air pollutants included carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), formaldehyde (HCHO), respirable particulate matter (PM10) and total bacteria count (TBC). More than 40% of the shopping malls had 1-h average CO2 levels above the 1000 ppm of the ASHRAE standard on both weekdays and weekends. Also, they had average weekday PM10 concentrations that exceeded the Hong Kong Indoor Air Quality Objective (HKIAQO). The highest indoor PM10 level at a mall was 380 microg/m3. Of the malls surveyed, 30% had indoor airborne bacteria levels above 1000 cfu/m3 set by the HKIAQO. The elevated indoor CO2 and bacteria levels could result from high occupancy combined with insufficient ventilation. The increased PM10 levels could be probably attributed to illegal smoking inside these establishments. In comparison, the shopping malls that contained internal public transport drop-off areas, where vehicles were parked with idling engines and had major entry doors close to heavy traffic roads had higher CO and PM10 indoor levels. In addition, the extensive use of cooking stoves without adequate ventilation inside food courts could increase indoor CO2, CO and PM10 levels.

  2. Going to the Mines to Look for Diamonds. Experimenting with Military Recruiting Stations in Malls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    8330-3443-X (pbk.) 1. United States—Armed Forces—Recruiting, enlistment, etc.—Evaluation. 2. Shopping malls —United States. I. Fair, C. Christine...contribute both to enhanced marketing and recruiting. This use of retail malls is consistent with how some in the shopping - mall -building industry...further proof that shopping malls aren’t just for shopping anymore. The joint venture promises to make available thousands of new locations where car

  3. Pulling Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) into the Mainstream: MALL in Broad Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The researcher designed a smartphone app to help college students to learn English (L2) vocabulary. The app contained 3,402 English words that were compiled into an alphabetic wordlist with each word displayed on three features; namely: spelling, pronunciation and Chinese definitions. To test the effectiveness of the app, an experimental group (with app) was compared with a control group (without app) and knowledge of words was tested before and after the research. The study revealed that the students using the program significantly outperformed those in the control group in vocabulary acquisition. This paper introduced a research design method and set up a pedagogical paradigm which can be followed as a way to practice MALL. PMID:26010606

  4. Virtual Learning Environments on the Go: CALL Meets MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arús Hita, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents "Eating out," a Moodle-based digital learning resource for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching that can be run both on computers and mobile devices. It is argued that Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) resources do not necessarily need to be specifically designed for such platforms. Rather, a carefully…

  5. CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSER VIEW ALONG TENTH STREET MALL LOOKING TO FORRESTAL BUILDING - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WATERSIDE MALL SHOPPING CENTER (M STREET SIDE) DESIGNED BY CHLOETHIEL WOODARD SMITH & ASSOCIATES AND BUILT IN 1972 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Adolescents and Adults at the Mall: Dyadic Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Readdick, Christine A.; Mullis, Ronald L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines differences in interpersonal engagements between teen-teen dyads (n=865) and teen-adults dyads (n=190) in a mall. Results indicate that teen-teen dyads differed from teen-adult dyads on two variables: conversation and shopping evidence. Within teen-teen dyad comparisons yielded gender and racial differences, but only one age difference.…

  8. Let's Go to the Mall: Thinking outside the Neighborhood Branch, Libraries in Malls Make for Happy Partnerships and Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankinship, Donna Gordon

    2005-01-01

    Branches in shopping malls help build community by attracting new patrons to the library. They help libraries offer exciting new venues with a retail-like approach and raise awareness of the work libraries are doing. In some cases, though not at Glendale, the library is more cost-effective owing to the smaller space used to serve patrons. These…

  9. Return to Flight activities at The Mall at Cortana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Christian Gonzales, 11 (right), watches as his little brother Walter, 2, adds his own brand of good wishes to a banner encouraging the crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on NASA's Return to Flight mission, scheduled to launch in summer 2005. The brothers, of Baton Rouge, were participating in a Camp Kids event at The Mall at Cortana, where Return to Flight activities were presented by NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC).

  10. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Army and Air Force Exchange Service Mini-Mall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    fast food style restaurant would be accommodated in the mini- mall . Data on electrical consumption for the Burger King restaurant at MAFB (Building...proposed action, a new fast food restaurant would be accommodated in the mini- mall . Data on water consumption for the Burger King restaurant at MAFB...treatment plant in FY 2001. Under the proposed action, a new fast food restaurant would be accommodated in the mini- mall . The Burger King restaurant

  11. Vancouver shopping mall liable for discrimination against Aboriginal and disabled people.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2005-12-01

    In a decision released on 13 July 2005, the British Columbia Human Rights Tribunal (the Tribunal) found that the owners of a mall and the security company contracted by the mall had engaged in both individual and systemic discrimination. Among other findings, the Tribunal determined that Henderson Development (Canada) Limited (Henderson) and Securiguard Services Limited (Securiguard) discriminated against mall patrons who were Aboriginal, or who were perceived to be living with a disability, including drug dependence and HIV/AIDS.

  12. Discrimination against teenagers in the mall environment: a case from Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Mugan, Guliz; Erkip, Feyzan

    2009-01-01

    Teenagers spend much of their leisure time at shopping malls which is a result of factors such as parental constraints due to the incivility of the streets, financial dependence, and limited financial resources. Migros, a shopping mall in Ankara was chosen as the site for this research with the main purpose of studying discrimination patterns against teenagers in the mall environment. The research was carried out through observation and in-depth interviews with 104 teenagers. Results indicate that, although they have some complaints, most of the teenagers do not perceive discrimination in the mall, unlike their foreign counterparts.

  13. Exploring the Application of a Conceptual Framework in a Social MALL App

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Timothy; Bárcena, Elena; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a prototype social Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) app based on Kukulska-Hulme's (2012) conceptual framework. This research allows the exploration of time, place and activity type as key factors in the design of MALL apps, and is the first step toward a systematic analysis of such a framework in this type…

  14. A Survey of MALL Curriculum Integration: What the Published Research Doesn't Tell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of published articles dealing with Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) applications over the past two decades, very few relate to the curricular integration of mobile technologies beyond initial projects. This situation raises a primary research question as to whether or not MALL implementation publications reflect…

  15. 75 FR 39969 - National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Final Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... National Park Service National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC; Final Environmental Impact... National Mall and Memorial Parks Headquarters, 900 Ohio Drive, SW., Washington, DC, at local libraries around Washington, DC, and online at http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan . FOR FURTHER...

  16. 76 FR 66960 - Record of Decision on the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the National Mall Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Plan, National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Mall Plan, National Mall and Memorial Parks, Washington, DC. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... Memorial Parks, 900 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC 20024-2000. Copies are also posted online at...

  17. MALL liposuction: the natural evolution of subdermal superficial liposuction.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1994-01-01

    Subdermal superficial liposuction, first presented by the authors at the ISAPS Congress at Zurich in 1989, is performed with thin three-hole Mercedes cannulas (diameter ranges from 1.8 to 2 mm) to treat small and secondary adiposities and to allow better skin retraction. Suction of the subdermal layer of fat reduces the thickness and consistency of the superficial fat and enhances the possibility of skin retraction. In cases where there is a large adiposity of the abdomen, arms, or inner thighs, there is a conspicuous volume of fat whose weight tends to overstretch and to carry the overlying skin downward. In these cases we need to reduce the large fat volume to permit effective skin retraction. Therefore, we apply the principles of traditional liposuction with those of subdermal superficial liposuction to aspirate large amounts of fat from all the adipose layers. We call this technique Massive All Layer Liposuction (MALL). The amount of skin shrinkage after this "defatting" procedure is remarkable and the clinical results are very good. The MALL technique can be applied to other areas as well. In our experience this new liposuction technique has dramatically reduced the indications of abdominoplasties and dermolipectomies of inner thighs and arms.

  18. Learning English Vocabulary in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) Environment: A Sociocultural Study of Migrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Kham Sila; Sudweeks, Fay; Armarego, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study of a group of six non-native English speaking migrant women's experiences learning English vocabulary in a mobile assisted language learning (MALL) environment at a small community centre in Western Australia. A sociocultural approach to learning vocabulary was adopted in designing the MALL lessons that the women…

  19. Food consumption and buying patterns of students from a Philippine university fastfood mall.

    PubMed

    Patricia, M; Azanza, V

    2001-11-01

    A consumer survey was conducted in a university fastfood mall to determine the food consumption and buying patterns of Philippine university students. The survey established that a typical fastfood consumer in the test university foodmall is female between 16 and 22 years old, with a purchasing capability of < or = US$1.79 for a complete meal, and who generally frequents the mall only once a day during weekdays. Wholesomeness, affordability and variety of the foods were the general basis for satisfaction of the typical student consumer.

  20. A comparison of molecular mass determination of hyaluronic acid using SEC/MALLS and sedimentation equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hokputsa, Sanya; Jumel, Kornelia; Alexander, Catherine; Harding, Stephen E

    2003-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural polysaccharide with importance in the pharmaceutical, medical and cosmetic industries. Determining factors in its final applications are its physicochemical properties, particularly molecular mass. A high molecular mass HA was degraded using five different hydroxyl free-radical starting concentrations chemically produced from ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different hydroxyl free-radical concentrations on the chain length of HA and compare the molecular masses obtained from analytical ultracentrifugation using sedimentation equilibrium experiments and size exclusion chromatography/multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC/MALLS). The results indicated that their molecular masses varied, depending on the degree of hydroxyl free-radical starting concentration. Molecular mass values obtained from sedimentation equilibrium experiments for each sample showed the same trend as those obtained from the SEC/MALLS in the range of molecular masses studied. The molecular masses obtained from sedimentation equilibrium for high molecular mass samples from reciprocal plots of apparent weight average molecular mass against concentration gave values similar to those obtained by SEC/MALLS. In contrast, the molecular mass from conventional plots for high molecular mass samples were much lower than those from SEC/MALLS, even when high ionic strength buffers were used.

  1. Concierge or Information Desk: Teaching Social Stratification through the Malling of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Robert D.; Price, Derek V.; Rich, Henry J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate sociology project in which students conducted research at working class and upper-middle class shopping malls. The research focused on social stratification and its manifestation in architectural character, spatial relationships, advertising, and consumer behavior. Includes an appendix that reproduces the fieldwork…

  2. Winning at Child Caring: Easier Ways with Young Children in Child Care Centers, Homes and Malls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Bette

    This booklet is a compilation of articles from a column in the "Warner Center News" written by an experienced early childhood educator on various topics related to child care. The brief articles describe the problems and pleasures that preschool children bring to child care centers, homes, markets, and malls. The articles are grouped…

  3. Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) on EFL: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taj, Imtiaz Hassan; Sulan, Norrihan Binti; Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Ahmad, Waqar

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) has emerged as a potential tool in the instruction of English as a foreign language (EFL). Meta-analysis of 13 studies published between year 2008 and 2015 was conducted. Four point criteria for the selection of studies for analysis is based on the year of publication, quasi-experimental design, pretest and…

  4. Design and Implementation of BusinessApp, a MALL Application to Make Successful Business Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Yanes, Lourdes Pomposo; Pareja-Lora, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Little by little, (or, simply, MALL) is taking force in the field of education, as it supports language blended learning and language learning ubiquity. The study presented here belongs in the Social Ontology-based Cognitively Augmented Language Learning Mobile Environment (SO-CALL-ME) research project, whose final aim is to design and create…

  5. Pedestrian Choice Behavior at Shopping Mall Intersections in China and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitgood, Stephen; Davey, Gareth; Huang, Xiaoyi; Fung, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Pedestrian navigation through public spaces reflects the nature of interaction between behavior and environment. This study compared pedestrian choice behavior at shopping mall intersections in China and the United States. The study found that in both countries (a) pedestrians chose movement patterns that involved the fewest steps and (b) there…

  6. Negotiating Liberalism and Bio-Politics: Stylizing Power in Defense of the Mall Curfew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amsden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    While Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self" are useful in explaining the convergence of liberalism and bio-politics, they fail to account for the appeal of juridical mechanisms that administer the conventions of bio-political control. A productive site from which to explore this convergence is provided by the "mall curfew," a bio-political…

  7. Online Mall: How One District Got Started in E-Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Brian

    2001-01-01

    To address the problem of outdated vendor catalogs, Edmonton (Alberta) Public Schools created a view-only online shopping mall that evolved into an electronic shopping program. Buyers can use credit cards for some transactions and cost coding for others. They can also sell unwanted items online. (MLH)

  8. Safe, Affordable, Convenient: Environmental Features of Malls and Other Public Spaces Used by Older Adults for Walking

    PubMed Central

    King, Diane K.; Allen, Peg; Jones, Dina L.; Marquez, David X.; Brown, David R.; Rosenberg, Dori; Janicek, Sarah; Allen, Laila; Belza, Basia

    2016-01-01

    Background Midlife and older adults use shopping malls for walking, but little research has examined mall characteristics that contribute to their walkability. Methods We used modified versions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-Healthy Aging Research Network (HAN) Environmental Audit and the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool to systematically observe 443 walkers in 10 shopping malls. We also observed 87 walkers in 6 community-based nonmall/nongym venues where older adults routinely walked for physical activity. Results All venues had public transit stops and accessible parking. All malls and 67% of nonmalls had wayfinding aids, and most venues (81%) had an established circuitous walking route and clean, well-maintained public restrooms (94%). All venues had level floor surfaces, and one-half had benches along the walking route. Venues varied in hours of access, programming, tripping hazards, traffic control near entrances, and lighting. Conclusions Despite diversity in location, size, and purpose, the mall and nonmall venues audited shared numerous environmental features known to promote walking in older adults and few barriers to walking. Future research should consider programmatic features and outreach strategies to expand the use of malls and other suitable public spaces for walking. PMID:26181907

  9. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-07-16

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user's place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense.

  10. VisitSense: Sensing Place Visit Patterns from Ambient Radio on Smartphones for Targeted Mobile Ads in Shopping Malls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoungjip; Kang, Seungwoo; Ha, Jin-Young; Song, Junehwa

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel smartphone framework called VisitSense that automatically detects and predicts a smartphone user’s place visits from ambient radio to enable behavioral targeting for mobile ads in large shopping malls. VisitSense enables mobile app developers to adopt visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising for shopping mall visitors in their apps. It also benefits mobile users by allowing them to receive highly relevant mobile ads that are aware of their place visit patterns in shopping malls. To achieve the goal, VisitSense employs accurate visit detection and prediction methods. For accurate visit detection, we develop a change-based detection method to take into consideration the stability change of ambient radio and the mobility change of users. It performs well in large shopping malls where ambient radio is quite noisy and causes existing algorithms to easily fail. In addition, we proposed a causality-based visit prediction model to capture the causality in the sequential visit patterns for effective prediction. We have developed a VisitSense prototype system, and a visit-pattern-aware mobile advertising application that is based on it. Furthermore, we deploy the system in the COEX Mall, one of the largest shopping malls in Korea, and conduct diverse experiments to show the effectiveness of VisitSense. PMID:26193275

  11. Mall Walking as a Physical Activity Option: Results of a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culos-Reed, S. Nicole; Stephenson, Lynette; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and benefits (fitness and quality of life) of an 8-week mall-walking program. A total of 52 participants ( n = 39 at post-testing) took part in the pilot project (mean age = 66.4; range 46-83 years), with an overall attendance rate of 62.4 per cent. Participants self-selected pace, time, and…

  12. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  13. VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE TENTH STREET MALL (L’ENFANT PROMENADE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE TENTH STREET MALL (L’ENFANT PROMENADE) TOWARD THE JAMES FORRESTAL BUILDING (FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING NO. 5) AT 1000 INDEPENDENCE AVENUE; THE FORRESTAL BUILDING WAS DESIGNED BY CURTIS & DAVIS AND COMPLETED IN 1969 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Prevalence and construct validity of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; van den Brink, Wim; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-08-30

    Compulsive buying is a relatively new psychopathological concept and very few data are currently available regarding the prevalence and validity of compulsive buying disorder. In this cross-sectional study, we establish the prevalence of compulsive buying disorder in shopping mall visitors and explore the construct validity of the concept using the revised version of the Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale in 1441 shopping mall visitors looking at shopping habits, current substance use (smoking, alcohol and illicit drug) and various psychological characteristics. Overall, 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3-10.3) of our sample was classified as having a compulsive buying disorder. Compulsive buyers were younger, less educated and more likely to be female than non-compulsive buyers. They were also more likely to have used licit and illicit substances. Compulsive buyers also reported higher levels of impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, lower levels of well-being and self-esteem and more psychological distress. Finally, compulsive buyers were five times more likely to meet criteria for borderline personality disorder than non-compulsive buyers. Compulsive buying is a frequent disorder in shopping mall visitors and is associated with important and robust indicators of psychopathology thus supporting the validity of the construct.

  15. GENERAL VIEW ALONG L’ENFANT PROMENADE OR TENTH STREET MALL DESIGNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW ALONG L’ENFANT PROMENADE OR TENTH STREET MALL DESIGNED BY I.M. PEI & PARTNERS LOOKING SOUTH; VIEW INCLUDES THE L’ENFANT PLAZA WEST BUILDING (USPS) AT 475 L’ENFANT PLAZA WAS DESIGNED BY VLASTIMIL KOUBEK AND COMPLETED IN 1971 AND, TO THE EAST, THE NASA BUILDING AS WELL AS THE ASTRAL BUILDING AND COMSAT BUILDING, BOTH OF WHICH WERE DESIGNED BY ARALDO A. COSSUTTA, OF I.M. PEI & PARTNERS, IN 1968 - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. SEC-MALLS ANALYSIS OF HYALURONAN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS MADE BY MEMBRANE-BOUND HYALURONAN SYNTHASE

    PubMed Central

    Baggenstoss, Bruce A.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2006-01-01

    SEC-MALLS analyses of E. coli membranes expressing Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase (seHAS) demonstrated an inherent artifact (10–100 MDa) that co-eluted with HA, and skewed the apparent weight-average mass of HA to erroneously high values. Briefly heating samples to 65–75°C eliminated this artifact and increased the yield of recovered HA, due to the release of HA chains that were attached to membrane-bound HAS. Inclusion of alkaline phosphatase, which removed UDP produced during the reaction, improved the linearity of HA synthesis - even at high substrate utilization. Surprisingly, addition of EDTA, to chelate Mg+2 ions, did not completely stop the HAS reaction at 30°C or at 4°C. The best conditions for stopping the reaction without altering SEC-MALLS profiles of the product HA were to chill samples on ice in the presence of both EDTA and UDP. Even with excess substrate, the maximum size of product HA decreased as the enzyme concentration increased. Therefore, the maximum HA size made by HAS was determined by extrapolation to zero enzyme concentration. Using the above conditions, membrane-bound seHAS synthesized a cohort of HA products that steadily increased in weight-average molar mass, reaching a final maximal steady-state size of 4–6 MDa within 2–4 hours. PMID:16476403

  17. Automatic detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a shopping mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Huis, Jasper R.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.

    2014-10-01

    Proactive detection of incidents is required to decrease the cost of security incidents. This paper focusses on the automatic early detection of suspicious behavior of pickpockets with track-based features in a crowded shopping mall. Our method consists of several steps: pedestrian tracking, feature computation and pickpocket recognition. This is challenging because the environment is crowded, people move freely through areas which cannot be covered by a single camera, because the actual snatch is a subtle action, and because collaboration is complex social behavior. We carried out an experiment with more than 20 validated pickpocket incidents. We used a top-down approach to translate expert knowledge in features and rules, and a bottom-up approach to learn discriminating patterns with a classifier. The classifier was used to separate the pickpockets from normal passers-by who are shopping in the mall. We performed a cross validation to train and evaluate our system. In this paper, we describe our method, identify the most valuable features, and analyze the results that were obtained in the experiment. We estimate the quality of these features and the performance of automatic detection of (collaborating) pickpockets. The results show that many of the pickpockets can be detected at a low false alarm rate.

  18. Volatile organic compounds in a multi-storey shopping mall in guangzhou, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianhui; Chan, C. Y.; Wang, Xinming; Chan, L. Y.; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) specified in the USEPA TO-14 list were analysed in microenvironments of a multi-storey shopping mall in Guangzhou city, South China. The microenvironments studied include both indoor (department store, supermarket, fast-food court, electronic games room, children's playground, gallery and book store) and outdoor ones (rooftop and ground level entrance). The characteristics and concentration of VOCs varied widely in differing microenvironments. The average concentrations of the total VOCs in the indoor microenvironments ranged from 178.5 to 457.7 μg m -3 with a maximum of 596.8 μg m -3. The fast-food court and a leather products department store had the highest concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and chlorinated hydrocarbons. A high level of 1,4-dichlorobenzene was found in all indoor microenvironments with an average of 12.3 μg m -3 and a maximum of 44.3 μg m -3. The ratios of average indoor to outdoor concentrations (I/O ratio) in all indoor microenvironments fell between 1 and 3, except an average of 24.6 and a maximum of 77.8 in the fashion department store for 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Indoor emission sources of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the shopping mall might include cooking stoves, leather products and building materials. Chlorinated hydrocarbons, however, were possibly connected with their use as cleaning agents or deodorizers.

  19. RAINWATER FLOODING AND ITS COUNTER MEASURES IN URBAN AREA OF MEGA-UNDERGROUND MALL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikane, Masayuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Ozaki, Taira; Toda, Keiichi

    Frequency of rainfalls over the capacity of drainage system is increasing and underground inundations occurred in some Japanese cities in recent years. It is an urgent matter that managers of underground spaces plan for safe evacuation of users. In order to make the plan, they should know when and from which entrances the rainwater will flow into there. In this paper, inflow discharge was calculated by using 1D-2D urban drainage model in a drainage basin where one of mega-underground mall is located. And appropriate counter measures were investigated. From the results, it is found that peak discharge of inflow appears behind the rainfall peak and that the delay time is from 0.5 to 2.5 hours and depends on the rainfall conditions. It means that several rainfalls should be considered for planning of counter measures and evacuation.

  20. Viewing experience of 3DTV: An exploration of the feeling of sickness and presence in a shopping mall

    PubMed Central

    Obrist, Marianna; Wurhofer, Daniela; Meneweger, Thomas; Grill, Thomas; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The adoption and deployment of 3DTV can be seen as a major step in the history of television, comparable to the transition from analogue to digital and standard to high definition TV. Although 3D is expected to emerge from the cinema to peoples’ home, there is still a lack of knowledge on how people (future end users) perceive 3DTV and how this influences their viewing experience as well as their acceptance of 3DTV. Within this paper, findings from a three-day field evaluation study on people’s 3DTV experiences, focusing on the feeling of sickness and presence, are presented. Contrary to the traditional controlled laboratory setting, the study was conducted in the public setting of a shopping center and involved 700 participants. The study revealed initial insights on users’ feeling of presence and sickness when watching 3DTV content. Results from this explorative study show that most of the participants reported symptoms of sickness after watching 3DTV with an effect of gender and age on the reported feeling of sickness. Our results further suggest that the users’ previous experience with 3D content has an influence on how realistic people rate the viewing experience and how involved they feel. The particularities of the study environment, a shopping mall, are reflected in our findings and future research directions and action points for investigating people’s viewing experiences of 3DTV are summarized. PMID:23482894

  1. Viewing experience of 3DTV: An exploration of the feeling of sickness and presence in a shopping mall.

    PubMed

    Obrist, Marianna; Wurhofer, Daniela; Meneweger, Thomas; Grill, Thomas; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2013-02-01

    The adoption and deployment of 3DTV can be seen as a major step in the history of television, comparable to the transition from analogue to digital and standard to high definition TV. Although 3D is expected to emerge from the cinema to peoples' home, there is still a lack of knowledge on how people (future end users) perceive 3DTV and how this influences their viewing experience as well as their acceptance of 3DTV. Within this paper, findings from a three-day field evaluation study on people's 3DTV experiences, focusing on the feeling of sickness and presence, are presented. Contrary to the traditional controlled laboratory setting, the study was conducted in the public setting of a shopping center and involved 700 participants. The study revealed initial insights on users' feeling of presence and sickness when watching 3DTV content. Results from this explorative study show that most of the participants reported symptoms of sickness after watching 3DTV with an effect of gender and age on the reported feeling of sickness. Our results further suggest that the users' previous experience with 3D content has an influence on how realistic people rate the viewing experience and how involved they feel. The particularities of the study environment, a shopping mall, are reflected in our findings and future research directions and action points for investigating people's viewing experiences of 3DTV are summarized.

  2. Quantification of aldehyde terminated heparin by SEC-MALLS-UV for the surface functionalization of polycaprolactone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Scott A; Steele, Terry W J; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Li, Min; Boujday, Souhir; Prawirasatya, Melissa; Neoh, Koon Gee; Boey, Freddy Yin Chiang; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-08-01

    A straight forward strategy of heparin surface grafting employs a terminal reactive-aldehyde group introduced through nitrous acid depolymerization. An advanced method that allows simultaneously monitoring of both heparin molar mass and monomer/aldehyde ratio by size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle laser light scattering and UV-absorbance (SEC-MALLS-UV) has been developed to improve upon heparin surface grafting. Advancements over older methods allow quantitative characterization by direct (aldehyde absorbance) and indirect (Schiff-based absorbance) evaluation of terminal functional aldehydes. The indirect quantitation of functional aldehydes through labeling with aniline (and the formation of a Schiff-base) allows independent quantitation of both polymer mass and terminal functional groups with the applicable UV mass extinction coefficients determined. The protocol was subsequently used to synthesize an optimized heparin-aldehyde that had minimal polydispersity (PDI<2) and high reaction yields (yield >60% by mass). The 8 kDa weight averaged molar mass heparin-aldehyde was then grafted on polycaprolactone (PCL), a common implant material. This optimized heparin-aldehyde retained its antithrombin activity, assessed in freshly drawn blood or surface immobilized on PCL films. Anticoagulant activity was equal to or better than the 24 kDa unmodified heparin it was fragmented from.

  3. Twitter in the Cross Fire—The Use of Social Media in the Westgate Mall Terror Attack in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  4. Twitter in the cross fire--the use of social media in the Westgate Mall terror attack in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Simon, Tomer; Goldberg, Avishay; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Leykin, Dmitry; Adini, Bruria

    2014-01-01

    On September 2013 an attack on the Westgate mall in Kenya led to a four day siege, resulting in 67 fatalities and 175 wounded. During the crisis, Twitter became a crucial channel of communication between the government, emergency responders and the public, facilitating the emergency management of the event. The objectives of this paper are to present the main activities, use patterns and lessons learned from the use of the social media in the crisis. Using TwitterMate, a system developed to collect, store and analyze tweets, the main hashtags generated by the crowd and specific Twitter accounts of individuals, emergency responders and NGOs, were followed throughout the four day siege. A total of 67,849 tweets were collected and analyzed. Four main categories of hashtags were identified: geographical locations, terror attack, social support and organizations. The abundance of Twitter accounts providing official information made it difficult to synchronize and follow the flow of information. Many organizations posted simultaneously, by their manager and by the organization itself. Creating situational awareness was facilitated by information tweeted by the public. Threat assessment was updated through the information posted on social media. Security breaches led to the relay of sensitive data. At times, misinformation was only corrected after two days. Social media offer an accessible, widely available means for a bi-directional flow of information between the public and the authorities. In the crisis, all emergency responders used and leveraged social media networks for communicating both with the public and among themselves. A standard operating procedure should be developed to enable multiple responders to monitor, synchronize and integrate their social media feeds during emergencies. This will lead to better utilization and optimization of social media resources during crises, providing clear guidelines for communications and a hierarchy for dispersing

  5. Chronologic implications of new Miocene mammals from the Cura-Mallín and Trapa Trapa formations, Laguna del Laja area, south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Croft, Darin A.; Gans, Phillip B.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Wertheim, Jill A.; Wyss, André R.

    2008-12-01

    Recent work in the central Andean Main Range of Chile near Laguna del Laja (˜37.5°S, 71°W) has produced the first mammal fossils for the region. Fossils, locally abundant and well preserved, occur patchily across a wide area southeast of the lake. Mammalian remains are derived from generally strongly folded (kilometer-scale) exposures of the locally ˜1.8 km thick, early to middle Miocene Cura-Mallín Formation; two identifiable specimens have been recovered from the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation as well. Both formations consist primarily of well-stratified (1-5 m thick layers) volcaniclastic and volcanic strata, deposited predominantly in fluviatile systems. The Cura-Mallín Formation is possibly the southern continuation of (or lateral equivalent to) the richly fossiliferous Abanico Formation mapped between ˜32°S and 36°S. Intensive sampling in a series of localities east and south of Laguna del Laja has yielded diverse faunas, in addition to radioisotopically dateable horizons. The new fossil mammal faunas represent as many as six South American Land Mammal "Ages" (SALMAs). Fossils, together with preliminary 40Ar/ 39Ar radioisotopic dates, ranging from ˜9 to 20 Ma across the exposed thickness of the Cura-Mallín Formation and into the overlying Trapa Trapa Formation, provide a robust geochronological framework for middle Cenozoic strata in the Laguna del Laja region. The sequence of directly superposed mammalian assemblages at Laguna del Laja is one of the longest in all of South America, rivaled only by the classic Gran Barranca section of Patagonian Argentina. These data illuminate the geological history of the area and its record of mammalian evolution. The potential to isotopically date these diverse faunas with high precision (error ± 0.5 Ma) presents a rare opportunity to calibrate related portions of the SALMA sequence.

  6. Indoor air quality (IAQ) assessment in a multistorey shopping mall by high-spatial-resolution monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC).

    PubMed

    Amodio, M; Dambruoso, P R; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; de Gennaro, L; Loiotile, A Demarinis; Marzocca, A; Stasi, F; Trizio, L; Tutino, M

    2014-12-01

    In order to assess indoor air quality (IAQ), two 1-week monitoring campaigns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were performed in different areas of a multistorey shopping mall. High-spatial-resolution monitoring was conducted at 32 indoor sites located in two storehouses and in different departments of a supermarket. At the same time, VOC concentrations were monitored in the mall and parking lot area as well as outdoors. VOC were sampled at 48-h periods using diffusive samplers suitable for thermal desorption. The samples were then analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The data analysis and chromatic maps indicated that the two storehouses had the highest VOC concentrations consisting principally of terpenes. These higher TVOC concentrations could be a result of the low efficiency of the air exchange and intake systems, as well as the large quantity of articles stored in these small spaces. Instead, inside the supermarket, the food department was the most critical area for VOC concentrations. To identify potential emission sources in this department, a continuous VOC analyzer was used. The findings indicated that the highest total VOC concentrations were present during cleaning activities and that these activities were carried out frequently in the food department. The study highlights the importance of conducting both high-spatial-resolution monitoring and high-temporal-resolution monitoring. The former was able to identify critical issues in environments with a complex emission scenario while the latter was useful in interpreting the dynamics of each emission source.

  7. Classroom Shopping Mall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a learning activity intended to introduce students in fourth-grade social studies classes to basic business and consumer economics practices. The activity involves forming groups of business partners, deciding on a type of business to set up, deciding how to obtain land and set up a store, creating a money system, advertising, arranging…

  8. Using nanoelectrospray ion mobility spectrometry (GEMMA) to determine the size and relative molecular mass of proteins and protein assemblies: a comparison with MALLS and QELS.

    PubMed

    Kapellios, E A; Karamanou, S; Sardis, M F; Aivaliotis, M; Economou, A; Pergantis, S A

    2011-03-01

    The determination of protein assembly size and relative molecular mass is currently of great importance in biochemical analysis. In particular, the technique of nanoelectrospray (nES) with a gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (GEMMA) has received increased attention for such measurements. However, in order for the GEMMA technique to gain broader acceptance in protein analysis, it must be further evaluated and compared with other established bioanalytical techniques. In the present study, nES-GEMMA was evaluated for the analysis of a set of protein and protein complexes involved in the Sec and the bacterial type III secretion pathway of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. The same set of proteins, isolated and purified using standard biochemical protocols, were also analyzed using multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS), following size exclusion chromatography. This allowed for direct comparisons between the three techniques. It was found that nES-GEMMA, in comparison to the more established MALLS and QELS techniques, offers several complementary advantages. It requires considerably less amount of material, i.e., nanogram vs. milligram amounts, and time per sample analysis, i.e., few minutes vs. tens of minutes. Whereas the determined size and relative molecular mass are similar between the compared methods, the electrophoretic diameters determined using nES-GEMMA seem to be systematically smaller compared to the hydrodynamic diameter derived by QELS. Some of the GEMMA technique disadvantages include its narrow dynamic range, limited by the fact that at elevated protein concentrations there is increased potential for the occurrence of nES-induced oligomers. Thus, it is preferred to analyze dilute protein solutions because non-specific oligomers are less likely to occur whereas biospecific oligomers remain detected. To further understand the formation of nES-oligomers, the effect of buffer

  9. Mobile applications for participation at the shopping mall: content analysis and usability for persons with physical disabilities and communication or cognitive limitations.

    PubMed

    Auger, Claudine; Leduc, Emilie; Labbé, Delphine; Guay, Cassioppée; Fillion, Brigitte; Bottari, Carolina; Swaine, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the important features in content and usability of existing mobile applications evaluating environmental barriers and facilitators (EBF) to participation for persons with physical disabilities presenting mild communication or cognitive limitations. A rigorous process based on a user-centered design approach led to the identification of two relevant mobile applications to evaluate the EBF. An accessibility expert, the research team as well as five users then tested the mobile applications in a shopping mall. A thematic content analysis of the research team's and users' comments established 10 categories of key features that adequately respond to the needs of the clientele targeted in this study. In terms of content, granularity and contextualization of the information provided were considered important. With respect to usability, relevant features were place finding, rating system, presentation of results, compatibility, user-friendliness, aesthetics, credibility of the information as well as connectivity/interactiveness. The research team and the users agreed on some aspects such as aesthetics, but had different perspectives on features such as the rating system or the connectivity/interactiveness of the application. The users proposed new features suggesting that the existing mobile applications did not correspond to all their needs.

  10. Mobile Applications for Participation at the Shopping Mall: Content Analysis and Usability for Persons with Physical Disabilities and Communication or Cognitive Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Claudine; Leduc, Emilie; Labbé, Delphine; Guay, Cassioppée; Fillion, Brigitte; Bottari, Carolina; Swaine, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine the important features in content and usability of existing mobile applications evaluating environmental barriers and facilitators (EBF) to participation for persons with physical disabilities presenting mild communication or cognitive limitations. A rigorous process based on a user-centered design approach led to the identification of two relevant mobile applications to evaluate the EBF. An accessibility expert, the research team as well as five users then tested the mobile applications in a shopping mall. A thematic content analysis of the research team’s and users’ comments established 10 categories of key features that adequately respond to the needs of the clientele targeted in this study. In terms of content, granularity and contextualization of the information provided were considered important. With respect to usability, relevant features were place finding, rating system, presentation of results, compatibility, user-friendliness, aesthetics, credibility of the information as well as connectivity/interactiveness. The research team and the users agreed on some aspects such as aesthetics, but had different perspectives on features such as the rating system or the connectivity/interactiveness of the application. The users proposed new features suggesting that the existing mobile applications did not correspond to all their needs. PMID:25513999

  11. Rehabilitation Living Lab in the Mall Community of Practice: Learning Together to Improve Rehabilitation, Participation and Social Inclusion for People Living with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Mazer, Barbara; Kairy, Dahlia; Guindon, Andréanne; Girard, Michel; Swaine, Bonnie; Kehayia, Eva; Labbé, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoP) can facilitate collaboration between people who share a common interest, but do not usually work together. A CoP was initiated and developed including stakeholders from clinical, research, community and governmental backgrounds involved in a large multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial project: the Rehabilitation Living Lab in a Mall (RehabMaLL). This study aimed to evaluate the structure, process and outcomes of this CoP. A single case-study, using mixed-methods, evaluated the RehabMaLL CoP initiative after one year, based on Donabedian’s conceptual evaluation model. Forty-three participants took part in the RehabMaLL CoP with 60.5% (n = 26) participating at least once on the online platform where 234 comments were posted. Four in-person meetings were held. Members expressed satisfaction regarding the opportunity to share knowledge with people from diverse backgrounds and the usefulness of the CoP for the RehabMaLL project. Collaboration led to concrete outcomes, such as a sensitization activity and a research project. Common challenges included lack of time and difficulty finding common objectives. A CoP can be a useful strategy to facilitate knowledge sharing on disability issues. Future research is necessary to determine strategies of increasing knowledge creation between members. PMID:25913187

  12. It's, Like, Relative Motion at the Mall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinett, R. W.

    2003-03-01

    Almost all introductory textbooks, both algebra- and calculus-based, include sections on relative motion and relative velocity, in both one and two dimensions. The most popular examples in discussions of 2-D relative velocity in such texts seem to be the motion of airplanes/blimps flying in the presence of wind or the conceptually identical cases of boats/rafts piloted across rivers/streams, including the effects of currents. These and similar cases are rather removed from the everyday experience of some students, and the use of simple lecture demonstrations to illustrate these concepts can be quite useful. For example, the motion of a simple toy "wind-up" car moving at constant speed across a horizontal tabletop, with a plastic sheet underneath providing the "moving frame of reference," can illustrate many aspects of such problems, including the need to "point" the plane/boat in an appropriate direction, just as illustrated in many textbook figures. On the other hand, it is also useful if students can directly experience concepts for themselves, especially in a kinesthetic manner, but there are seemingly far fewer human-sized lecture demonstrations on this topic. In this paper, we will point out one such example which might well be just a short drive away.

  13. Art at the Mall: A Look at the Aesthetics of Popular Mall Art Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2008-01-01

    Currently there is a scarcity of information in the art education literature about purchasing art. This article examines how art acquires economic and social value, as well as how consumers make decisions when purchasing a piece of art. Where does an art student, or the general public learn about buying art? How much, if any, of this process is…

  14. A Social and Self-Reflective Approach to MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros i Sole, Cristina; Calic, Jelena; Neijmann, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that learning is increasingly taking place on the move and located beyond educational environments, "in the gaps of daily life" (Sharples et al., 2007). And yet, language learners have mostly been perceived as being fixed in particular contexts, whether in the educational environment, abroad, or in their…

  15. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  16. Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinnery, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Practically since their availability, a succession of audiovisual recording devices (e.g., reel-to-reel, VCRs, PCs) has been used to capture language samples, and myriad playback and broadcast devices (e.g., phonographs, radios, televisions) have provided access to authentic speech samples. The espousal of audiolingual theory in the 1950s brought…

  17. The Education Mall: "A 21st Century Learning Concept."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lyndon E.; Maas, Michael L.

    Real change in education has been hampered by at least three forces: education's lack of a vision of where society is moving and how education should play a part in this movement; the human makeup of educational institutions; and the need for the development of a new model for financing public postsecondary education. Regardless of these…

  18. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching…

  19. From Call to Mall: The Effectiveness of Podcast on EFL Higher Education Students' Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Qasim, Nada; Al Fadda, Hind

    2013-01-01

    Despite recognition that language can best be learned in an authentic context, and a growing emphasis on the importance of using technology to improve listening skills, only limited research in this area exists in a Saudi context. To add to this research, this quantitative study examines the influence of podcasting on the listening comprehension…

  20. Using Smart Phones in Language Learning--A Pilot Study to Turn CALL into MALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kétyi, András

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of smart phones has increased enormously in the last few years. Because of the increasing penetration of these devices and the above-average willingness of our students using new tools and devices in language courses, we decided to design a voluntary pilot project for mobile language learning for students who learn German as a…

  1. Identity and privacy. Unique in the shopping mall: on the reidentifiability of credit card metadata.

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Radaelli, Laura; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2015-01-30

    Large-scale data sets of human behavior have the potential to fundamentally transform the way we fight diseases, design cities, or perform research. Metadata, however, contain sensitive information. Understanding the privacy of these data sets is key to their broad use and, ultimately, their impact. We study 3 months of credit card records for 1.1 million people and show that four spatiotemporal points are enough to uniquely reidentify 90% of individuals. We show that knowing the price of a transaction increases the risk of reidentification by 22%, on average. Finally, we show that even data sets that provide coarse information at any or all of the dimensions provide little anonymity and that women are more reidentifiable than men in credit card metadata.

  2. The U.S. National Mall: a case study toward understanding microbial community assemblages in turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turf contains living assemblages of not only grass plants but also a plethora of microorganisms that may play critical roles in plant health through interactions such as predation, mutualism, and resource competition. Little is known about the turf microbiome, and how it might change in response to ...

  3. Using Audio Description to Improve FLL Students' Oral Competence in MALL: Methodological Preliminaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibáñez Moreno, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, audiovisual products began to be audio described in order to make them accessible to blind and visually impaired people (Benecke, 2004). This means that visual information is orally described in the gaps between dialogues. In order to meet the wishes of the so-called On Demand (OD) generation that wants…

  4. MALL in the Wild: Learners' Designs for Scaffolding Vocabulary Learning Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Joshua; Luckin, Rosemary; Winters, Niall

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to inform the design of mobile apps for vocabulary learning. Learning vocabulary involves developing, connecting, and sustaining various types of knowledge and skills. Learners do not typically acquire these all at once, but rather over the course of distinct episodes of activity. Yet, little is known about learning experience…

  5. Keep Active this Holiday Season: Take a Walk in the Mall!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Preparedness & Response Environmental Health Healthy Living Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers' Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get Email Updates To ...

  6. Teens: Want a Brighter Smile? Visit the Dentist, Not the Shopping Mall

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dentist Your Family's Oral Health About the AGD Dental care and oral health information you need from the ... be one of the safest, non-invasive and cost-efficient ways for teens to immediately boost their ...

  7. A Fresh Approach to Alternative Education: Using Malls to Reach At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Christopher Scott; Stelsel, Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Every 29 seconds, a U.S. student gives up on school. That's 124 students every hour; 2,979 every day; and more than 1 million every year. Most dropouts interviewed later in life stated they believe they could have succeeded in school if they had been given the right opportunity, and a special report in "Time" magazine reported "a full 88% of…

  8. Response to Comment on "Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata".

    PubMed

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Pentland, Alex Sandy

    2016-03-18

    Sánchez et al.'s textbook k-anonymization example does not prove, or even suggest, that location and other big-data data sets can be anonymized and of general use. The synthetic data set that they "successfully anonymize" bears no resemblance to modern high-dimensional data sets on which their methods fail. Moving forward, deidentification should not be considered a useful basis for policy.

  9. Solar Decathlon Visitors Guide 2011, National Mall, West Potomac Park, Washington, D.C., September 23 - October 2, 2011 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    Guide to the student-designed houses, ten contests, exhibits, and workshops of the U.S. Department of Energy 2011 Solar Decathlon, held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 through October 2, 2011. Teams of college students designed and built the solar-powered houses on display here. They represent 13 U.S. states, five countries, and four continents. Now the teams are rising to the challenge by competing in 10 contests over nine days, with the championship trophy on the line. This is their time to shine. The 2011 teams may share a common goal - to design and build the best energy-efficient house powered by the sun - but their strategies are different. One house is made of precast concrete, while another 'dances' in response to its environment. Another house is meant to sit atop a building, proving the sky's the limit for energy innovation. Whatever your idea of sustainable living may be, you are bound to find it at the Solar Decathlon.

  10. From PPP and CALL/MALL to a Praxis of Task-Based Teaching and Mobile Assisted Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw

    2015-01-01

    Two of the most significant trends in TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) over the last twenty years or so are the rise of task­-based language teaching (TBLT) and the growth of technology. With TBLT there is a challenging of more traditional structure-based models of delivery, and the increased capacity and mobility of…

  11. Implementing Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in an EFL Context: Iranian EFL Teachers' Perspectives on Challenges and Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has provided tremendous opportunities for language teachers to promote their computer literacy and adopt a learner-centered approach to teaching. Accordingly, with the rising advent of language learning technologies, language teachers would occupy a fundamental role in preparing and…

  12. The Mall, the Library and the Church: Inquiring into the Resourcing of Early Learning through New Spaces and Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Rainbird, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    Early learning has increasingly been the focus of social policy and programmes with a proliferation of public, community and commercial entities entering the field of production. Understanding this phenomenon requires educational researchers to conceptualise early learning both within a globalised network of circulating commodities and within…

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP41 and WASP47 photometric and RV data (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Brown, D. J. A.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Diaz, R. F.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lister, T.; Pepe, F.; Rojo, P.; Segransan, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.

    2015-10-01

    Photometric time-series obtained during transits of the hot Jupiter WASP-47b, and RV time-series obtained on WASP-41 and WASP-47. The photometric time-series were obtained using the LCOGT's Faulkes Telescope South, the TRAPPIST telescope and the 1.54-m Danish telescope. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE and the ESO/HARPS spectrographs. (7 data files).

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-94AB photometry and radial velocities (Neveu-VanMalle+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu-Vanmalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R.; Charbonnel, C.; Collier-Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Segransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Southworth, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    Photometric time-series obtained for the hot Jupiter WASP-94A b, and RV time-series obtained for the two hot Jupiters WASP-94A b and WASP-94B b. The photometric time-series were obtained using the TRAPPIST and Euler-Swiss telescopes. The RVs were obtained using the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. (5 data files).

  15. Efficacy of neem products and insecticides for the control of shoot fly Formosina flavipes Mall. of Cardamom (Elettaria Cardamomum Maton.).

    PubMed

    Naik, D Jemla; Belavadi, V V; Thippesha, D

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at Zonal Agricultural Research Station, Mudigere, India, for two years with an objective to study the population fluctuation, seasonal incidence and evaluation of neem products and insecticides for their efficacy against cardamom shoot fly. During the study period, it was noticed that shoot fly population the increased during the dry months (March, May and October) but was low from June to September months. The population exhibited a negative correlation with rainfall, minimum temperature and maximum relative humidity and positive correlations with maximum temperature and sunshine h. Among the six insecticides tested, phorate, phorate with neem cake and neem cake alone were found superior over other treatments. The present study clearly indicated that application of neem cake helps not only in reduction of shoot fly incidence but also enhances the production of side suckers compared to other treatments.

  16. "The Mall" and "the Plant": Choice and the Classed Construction of Possible Futures in Two Specialized Arts Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaztambide-Fernández, Rubén; VanderDussen, Elena; Cairns, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how conceptions of choice and visions of the future are constructed within the context of specialized arts programs in two Canadian public high schools. The authors consider how discourses of the arts are implicated in the way that possible futures are envisioned differently, delimiting the range of choices available to…

  17. A Multimedia Web-based Teaching/Learning Environment: One-Stop Shopping in an Online Educational Mall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, John A.; Levin, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Presents the results of several years of designing and implementing a Web-based multimedia distance learning system at Nova Southeastern University. Includes the methodology used, design issues for the software and hardware environment, user interfaces, functional aspects of the system including controls used by both teacher and learner, the…

  18. A resolution to express the sense of the Senate regarding the importance of recycling and the inception of recycling on the National Mall.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Carper, Thomas R. [D-DE

    2010-11-15

    11/15/2010 Referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7909) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Eldercare at Home: Mobility Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... summer or cold in winter. In many places groups of seniors meet daily and walk the mall. Some shopping malls even open an hour or so early to encourage this activity. Many social contacts are made when this occurs. ...

  20. Add School Spice: Stir Up Public Support for Your Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurdziel, Henry P.; Elbrand, Marcia L.

    1984-01-01

    The South Euclid-Lyndhurst School District, Ohio, organized a week-long demonstration of actual classroom activities at the local shopping mall that increased sales on the mall and publicity for the schools. (MLF)

  1. North Korean Policy Elites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    news. III-1 A. BACKGROUND AND DEFINITIONS As a foreign visitor to North Korea marveled, “There are no shopping malls or advertising... Shopping Mall , and Restaurant in Downtown Pyongyang, December 2003...INTERNET CAFÉ AT THE TAESONG SHOPPING MALL , AND RESTAURANT IN DOWNTOWN PYONGYANG, DECEMBER 2003 V

  2. Do Simple Warning Signs Enhance the Use of Stairs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksay, Ebubekir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the use of stairways/moving stairways in shopping malls and examine the extent to which simple warning signs determined whether people took the stairs. Design: Large posters that could readily be seen by mall visitors were situated between the stairs and moving stairways in shopping malls.…

  3. A resolution condemning the September 2013 terrorist attack at the Westgate Mall in Nairobi, Kenya, and reaffirming United States support for the people and Government of Kenya, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Coons, Christopher A. [D-DE

    2013-10-11

    11/06/2013 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S7888-7889) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. To authorize National Mall Liberty Fund D.C. to establish a memorial on Federal land in the District of Columbia to honor free persons and slaves who fought for independence, liberty, and justice for all during the American Revolution.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Payne, Donald M. [D-NJ-10

    2011-06-14

    07/11/2012 CHANGE OF PRIMARY SPONSOR REQUEST - Mr. Butterfield asked unanimous consent that he be considered the primary sponsor of H.R. 2181 in lieu of the late Donald Payne from New Jersey. Agreed to without objection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. General Design Memorandum Phase 1 Plan Formulation. Appendixes A-N

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    recently constructed major shopping center, "The Mall ." K-Al ID. Reach A. - Reach A consists of Marysville and that area enclosed by the surrounding...Capitol Mall Sacramento, California 95814 Subject: Marysville Lake Dear Colonel O’Shei: County staff has reviewed the "Study of Operation Costs and...Engineers 650 Capitol Mall Sacramento, California 95814 Dear Colonel O’Shei: The Board of Supervisors wishes at this time to express its support

  6. Public Role and Engagement in Counterterrorism Efforts: Implications of Israeli Practices for the U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-02

    restaurants, schools, shopping malls , and supermarkets. The graphic below (Figure 15), from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, depicts the frequency and... shopping mall , reports came out that a young girl had called the police before the attack to report suspicious behavior by an individual who turned to...Security, police, and military personnel are more obvious and prevalent in Israel. There are guards in shopping malls , checkpoints, restaurants

  7. CTC Sentinel. Volume 3, Issue 8, August 2010. Evaluating the Al-Qa`ida Threat to the U.S. Homeland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    offenses. One was Tarek Mehanna, a Boston resident charged in 2009 with plotting to blow up shopping malls in the United States,37 and the other...of local shopping malls and docks.9 It is unclear exactly when these pictures were taken, but it would appear as though it was before Rehman and...Najibullah Zazi and the conspiracy to bomb shopping malls in Manchester, both foiled in 2009.2 The alleged leader of the Norwegian cell, Mikael Davud, a

  8. The Importance of Teaching Preservice Teachers To Interpret Media and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Katherine L.

    Preservice teachers must learn about the media's impact so that they can educate their future students on how to become more savvy consumers and understand the negative effects of advertising. Students in every grade level can learn not to believe everything they read and see. Because teenagers hang out at malls, malls tend to capitalize on…

  9. Molecular characteristics of some commercial high-molecular-weight hyaluronans.

    PubMed

    Soltés, L; Mendichi, R; Lath, D; Mach, M; Bakos, D

    2002-10-01

    Commercially available hyaluronan (HA) samples were investigated by the method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The fractions eluted from the SEC column were on-line molecularly characterized by using a multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometer. Along with the SEC-MALLS technique, the high-molecular-weight HA biopolymers were (off-line) analyzed by capillary viscometry.

  10. Mobile Assisted Language Learning in University EFL Courses in Japan: Developing Attitudes and Skills for Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Mutsumi; Ishikawa, Yasushige; Smith, Craig; Sakamoto, Kishio; Shimomura, Hidenori; Wada, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a project in which researchers at universities in Japan explored the use of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) practices by developing a learning module intended to help improve students' scores on the TOEIC Listening and Reading Tests. MALL practices are currently being developed at universities in Japan because almost…

  11. Using Mixed-Modality Vocabulary Learning on Mobile Devices: Design and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou-Yang, Fang Chuan; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2017-01-01

    To achieve better adaptive learning for mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), individual prior knowledge proficiency, perceptual learning style, and learning behavior should all be considered in system development. While reviewing the existing literature about MALL research, the researchers of this study found very few recent studies exploring…

  12. Innovative School Facility Partnerships: Downtown, Airport, and Retail Space. Policy Study No. 276.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew D.; Snell, Lisa

    This document examines three locations that schools have utilized in partnership with private enterprises to help ease school overcrowding: downtown areas, airports, and malls. The downtown model serves students whose parents work in a downtown area. The mall model targets high school students who want an alternative education with job training.…

  13. Potential of Mobile Learning in Teaching of ESL Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaki, Arlina Ahmad; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    The potentials of mobile learning in teaching academic writing skills for ESL students are explored in this paper. Although there have been studies on MALL to improve writing skills, academic writing was never really touched. Few aspects are covered like the changes in educational technology, defining MALL, identifying issues in academic writing…

  14. Coastal Storm Surge Analysis: Storm Surge Results. Report 5: Intermediate Submission No. 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    unlimited. Prepared for Federal Emergency Management Agency 615 Chestnut Street One Independence Mall, Sixth Floor Philadelphia, PA 19106-4404...S) Federal Emergency Management Agency 615 Chestnut Street One Independence Mall, Sixth Floor Philadelphia, PA 19106-4404 Under US Army Corps of

  15. Leveraging the Trinity: A Clausewitzian Framework for Genocide Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    the other side, but to the stereotypes and negative 86Waller, 178. 87Felicia Pratto, James Sidanius, Lisa M. Stallworth, and Bertram F. Malle...Felicia, James Sidanius, Lisa M. Stallworth, and Bertram F. Malle. “Social dominance orientation: A personality variable predicting social and

  16. Candide in St. Louis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    A young, St. Louis, Missouri, architectural firm, seeking a personal style of practice, has succeeded in creating structures that reveal client input, and which are sensitive, articulate, and at ease with complexity. Describes an elementary school, a condominium, a shopping mall, a high school, and a "community mall." Illustrated with photographs…

  17. 75 FR 20375 - 60-Day Notice of Intention to Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... directly to: Ms. Robbin Owen, Chief, National Park Service, National Capital Region, National Mall and... at 202-401-2430; or via e-mail at Robbin_Owen@nps.gov . All responses to the notice will be...: Ms. Robbin Owen, Chief, NPS, National Capital Region, National Mall and Memorial Parks, Division...

  18. Social Acknowledgments for Children with Disabilities: Effects of Service Dogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Bonnie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined the effect of service dogs on the social acknowledgment of 5 disabled children of 10-17 years in shopping malls and school playgrounds. Social acknowledgments were more frequent when a service dog was present and more pronounced in shopping malls. (RJC)

  19. State of the Art of Language Learning Design Using Mobile Technology: Sample Apps and Some Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bárcena, Elena; Read, Timothy; Underwood, Joshua; Obari, Hiroyuki; Cojocnean, Diana; Koyama, Toshiko; Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Calle, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Talaván, Noa; Ávila-Cabrera, José; Ibañez, Ana; Vermeulen, Anna; Jordano, María; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Rodríguez, Pilar; Castrillo, María Dolores; Kétyi, Andras; Selwood, Jaime; Gaved, Mark; Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, experiences from different research groups illustrate the state-of-the-art of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (henceforth, MALL) in formal and non-formal education. These research samples represent recent and on-going progress made in the field of MALL at an international level and offer encouragement for practitioners who are…

  20. Vocabulary Learning by Mobile-Assisted Authentic Content Creation and Social Meaning-Making: Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, L-H.; Looi, C-K.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, we have witnessed the concomitant rise of communicative and contextualized approaches as well as the paradigmatic development of the mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) framework in analysing language learning. The focus of MALL research has gradually shifted from content-based (delivery of learning content through mobile…

  1. Mobile Assisted Language Learning: Review of the Recent Applications of Emerging Mobile Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jaeseok

    2013-01-01

    As mobile computing technologies have been more powerful and inclusive in people's daily life, the issue of mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has also been widely explored in CALL research. Many researches on MALL consider the emerging mobile technologies have considerable potentials for the effective language learning. This review study…

  2. Multi-phase galaxy formation and quasar absorption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maller, Ariyeh H.

    2005-03-01

    The central problem of galaxy formation is understanding the cooling and condensation of gas in dark matter halos. It is now clear that to match observations this requires further physics than the simple assumptions of single phase gas cooling. A model of multi-phase cooling (maller & bullock 2004) can successfully account for the upper cutoff in the masses of galaxies and provides a natural explanation of many types of absorption systems (mo & miralda-escude 1996). Absorption systems are our best probes of the gaseous content of galaxy halos and therefore provide important constraints on models for gas cooling into galaxies. All physical processes that effect gas cooling redistribute gas and therefore are detectable in absorption systems. Detailed studies of the nature of gas in galaxy halos using absorption systems are crucial for building a correct theory of galaxy formation.

  3. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of an Automatic Car Wash and Drive-Thru Coffee Kiosk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Shoppette on Ki1tland Air Force Base (AFB). Installation and operation of a Drive-Thru Coffee Kiosk in the parking lot east of the Mini Mall (Bldg...the corner of Gibson Boulevard and Second Street. The Drive-Thru Coffee Kiosk would be located in the parking lot of the Mini Mall , directly west...Shoppette located at the corner of Gibson Boulevard and Second Street. The Drive-Thru Coffee Kiosk would be located in the parking lot of the Mini Mall

  4. Solar Decathlon 2002: The Event in Review

    SciTech Connect

    Eastment, M.; Hayter, S.; Nahan, R.; Stafford, B.; Warner, C.; Hancock, E.; Howard, R.

    2004-06-01

    This book describes the first Solar Decathlon, a competition for college and university students, which took place on the National Mall in fall 2002. Student teams competed to design, build, and operate the most attractive, energy-efficient house that used only solar energy. In addition to the competition, the Solar Decathlon was also a public event. The book describes the events on the Mall, including technical details about the ten contests that comprised the competition and descriptions of the public's and the media's responses to the event. The book also provides information about the student teams' activities in the year and a half before they arrived to compete on the Mall.

  5. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 71 - Responsible Officials

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Division of Contract Services Chief, Division of Federal Assistance Director, Office of Human Resources... Director, Civil Rights Center Director, Human Resources Center Director, Information Technology Center... East, 170 S. Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA 19106 (FECA only) Penn Traffic Building,...

  6. The Case for Architecture by Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Design and Construction, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Multiple-architect designs and a preservative of chain-store identities accomplish visual variety for a one-of-a-kind campus at Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, and an enclosed shopping mall in Los Cerritos, California. (Author)

  7. 5 CFR 734.402 - Expression of an employee's individual opinion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the job. She may distribute the fliers at a shopping mall on the weekend. However, she may not... qualified candidate. Example 6: An employee, including a career SES employee, may wear a button with...

  8. Living Well with a Serious Illness: Talking with Your Doctor When the Future Is Uncertain

    MedlinePlus

    ... profit educational uses. Written permission is required for electronic and all other uses. 190 N Independence Mall ... Do I need a living will or durable power of attorney? • I want your best advice–but ...

  9. Making Medical Decisions for a Loved One at the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... profit educational uses. Written permission is required for electronic and all other uses. 190 N Independence Mall ... or she use a living will or durable power of attorney for health care? Do you have ...

  10. 78 FR 6833 - Final Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report for the San Joaquin River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Library, 914 Capitol Mall, Suite E-29, Sacramento, CA 95814-4802 University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Center Archives, 410 O'Brien Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1718 University of California, Davis,...

  11. 44 CFR 5.26 - Rules for public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Independence Mall, 6th Floor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. Region IV: 3003 Chamblee Tucker Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30341. Region V: 536 South Clark Street, 6th Floor, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Region VI:...

  12. 44 CFR 5.26 - Rules for public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Independence Mall, 6th Floor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. Region IV: 3003 Chamblee Tucker Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30341. Region V: 536 South Clark Street, 6th Floor, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Region VI:...

  13. 44 CFR 5.26 - Rules for public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Independence Mall, 6th Floor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. Region IV: 3003 Chamblee Tucker Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30341. Region V: 536 South Clark Street, 6th Floor, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Region VI:...

  14. 44 CFR 5.26 - Rules for public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Independence Mall, 6th Floor, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106. Region IV: 3003 Chamblee Tucker Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30341. Region V: 536 South Clark Street, 6th Floor, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Region VI:...

  15. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  16. Building Play Skills for Healthy Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... also enjoy interactive games like peek-a-boo, music, and books. Water play with toys that float ... such as spending time with friends, listening to music, talking, and going to the mall. This time ...

  17. Close view looking to left side of statue showing left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view looking to left side of statue showing left hand, shield, and laurel wreath - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Close view of statue showing her right hand on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close view of statue showing her right hand on the hilt of a sword - U.S. Capitol, Statue of Freedom, Intersection of North, South, & East Capitol Streets & Capitol Mall, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... Texting Lexi bumped into someone at the mall. Curtis slammed into a parking meter. Ryan tripped over ... the move. ER docs who treat people like Curtis (he cracked his ribs in his encounter with ...

  20. 76 FR 52314 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Commerce in Room 3720. Docket Number: 11-026. Applicant: Purdue University, 745 Agriculture Mall Dr., West..., 2011. Gregory Campbell, Director, IA Subsidies Enforcement Office. BILLING CODE 3510-DS-P...

  1. DC66814 AERIAL VIEW OF THE CAPITOL REFLECTING POOL, LOOKING NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-14 AERIAL VIEW OF THE CAPITOL REFLECTING POOL, LOOKING NORTHEAST UP LOUISIANA AVENUE TOWARD UNION STATION FROM ABOVE THE MALL - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. Market Potential of Downtown Cheyenne

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    merchants to draw customers past the convenient, well-designed and well-stocked shopping mall , something unique must be provided.Downtown Cheyenne...traffic signal pattern hampers the pedestrian oriented shopping experience. 0 ou P Bridges and W Although downtown Cheyenne will not be an enclosed mall ...ability to draw from a larger trade area than traditionally shopped in Laramie County. . Food store sales which represented 23 to 25 percent of total

  3. Suicide Bombers in CONUS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-07

    the first successful suicide bombings in U.S. mass transit systems and shopping malls , the military response will probably resemble that after 9/11...detonation SLPD/UPI 16-Feb-02 PFLP Karnei Shomron West Bank Mall 3 29 N Belt bomb 4 Outdoor food court CSS/ICT 17-Feb-02 Fatah Hadera Israel...in Lebanon, Hezbollah provided them with military, religious and operational training in addition to food and shelter. Thus, when the HAMAS and PIJ

  4. The Anatomy of Terrorism and Political Violence in South Asia Proceedings of the First Bi-Annual International Symposium of the Center for Asian Terrorism Research (CATR) October 19-21, 2005, Denpensar, Bali, Indonesia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    commodities like food , health, and clothes. • Maoists have also interfered in cultural affairs, for example, by banning the performance of the last...September, 2000 Jakarta Stock Car Bomb Jakarta December, 2000 Churches in some Timed Bomb Jakarta and _September, Plaza and Mall Timed Bomb Jakarta...injustice. Horrifying stories of youngsters with bombs attached to their bodies blowing themselves up in public places like malls , stations, and other

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of a Shopping Center at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Center on the installation. The center will include retail shopping space, a merchandise processing area, and a Food /Concession Mall . The project...to adequately satisfy the Base demand for retail and food services. The existing BX’s services mall is narrow and cannot accommodate short-term...concession kiosks , and the food court is currently undersized with limited seating. The facility is currently undersized for the sales volume, and the age

  6. Cyber Culture and Personnel Security: Report 2 - Ethnographic Analysis of Second Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    were placed in popular Second Life locations including art galleries, dance clubs, shopping malls , the researchers’ virtual office, and Second Life...variety of settings including strip clubs, role-play areas, shopping malls and villages, coffee houses, bars, dance and live music venues, informal...interviewed in public locations not requiring the collection of personally identifiable information, such as a coffee shop , in their town of

  7. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    U.s. Government. Kenyan soldiers take positions outside the Westgate Mall in Nairobi on September 21 , 2013. - Photo by Jeff Angote/Getty Images Report...on the Westgate Mall began just after noon on Saturday, September 21 , 2013, when an undetermined number of gunmen entered the facility and began...signif icant attention from journalists . 21 Since i ts debut on Twitter, al-Shabab has made great use of the micro-blogging format to del iver

  8. Transnational Terrorism in East Africa: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Recent Rise in Kenyan Violence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Westgate mall attack could 18 have killed shoppers from any corner of the globe.” It may be against this background that the Westgate mall...of weekend shoppers .” 1. Perpetration, Scale, and Impact of the Attack At least 67 innocent lives were lost in this single attack and more than 150... shoppers sustained injuries. Although no group has officially declared responsibility for the attack, it is widely accepted that most of the

  9. An Analysis of Wintertime Winds in Washington, D.C.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-06-20

    This report consists of a description of the wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction around the National Mall in Washington, D.C. Meteorological data for this study were collected at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (Reagan National), Dulles International Airport (Dulles), and a set of surface meteorological stations that are located on a number of building tops around the National Mall. A five-year wintertime climatology of wind speed and wind direction measured at Reagan National and Dulles are presented. A more detailed analysis was completed for the period December 2003 through February 2004 using data gathered from stations located around the National Mall, Reagan National, and Dulles. Key findings of our study include the following: * There are systematic differences between the wind speed and wind direction observed at Reagan National and the wind speed and wind direction measured by building top weather stations located in the National Mall. Although Dulles is located much further from the National Mall than Reagan National, there is better agreement between the wind speed and wind direction measured at Dulles and the weather stations in the National Mall. * When the winds are light (less than 3 ms-1 or 7 mph), there are significant differences in the wind directions reported at the various weather stations within the Mall. * Although the mean characteristics of the wind are similar at the various locations, significant, short-term differences are found when the time series are compared. These differences have important implications for the dispersion of airborne contaminants. In support of wintertime special events in the area of the National Mall, we recommend placing four additional meteorological instruments: three additional surface stations, one on the east bank of the Potomac River, one south of the Reflecting Pool (to better define the flow within the Mall), and a surface station near the Herbert C. Hoover Building; and wind

  10. Denver RTD range extension study. Task 2 - system definitions. Task 3 - system assessments. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This working paper presents the results obtained in Task 2: System Definition and Task 3: System Assessments of the Battery-Electric Bus Range Extension Study of the Denver Regional Transit District (RTD) study. The buses were tested on the following range extension techniques: baseline system battery exchange; hydro-pneumatic regeneration system to recover braking energy; fast recharge at the Mall terminals; series hybrid: on-board internal combustion engine and generator which charges the battery; and combination of hydro-pneumatic regeneration and fast recharge at the Mall terminals.

  11. A novel DTPA cross-linking of hyaluronic acid and metal complexation thereof.

    PubMed

    Buffa, Radovan; Běťák, Jiří; Kettou, Sofiane; Hermannová, Martina; Pospíšilová, Lucie; Velebný, Vladimír

    2011-09-27

    Macromolecular conjugates of a natural polysaccharide, hyaluronic acid, with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-metal complexes were synthesized and characterized by FTIR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and ICP analysis. Several parameters of the cross-linking reaction as molecular weight of starting HA, temperature, equivalent of DTPA bis-anhydride, concentration of HA, presence of transacylation catalyst DMAP and reaction time were studied. The mechanism for the reaction was suggested and relationship between the molecular weight assigned by SEC-MALLS, reaction parameters and rheological properties of the final cross-linked products were investigated.

  12. Railroad Redevelopment Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    and 30 specialty food kiosks are plannes to occupy approximately one half of the available area. Twenty to twenty-five specialty retail stores with 10...1977, the fate of the building was up In the air. However, In August, 1980 the Union Terminal reopened with a new use - a shopping mall . The developer...study for a new hotel and convention center In the Immediate area. A new In town shopping mall was planned within four blocks of the station. - -t -~ .2

  13. In-Service Evaluation of 2090 Aluminum-Lithium Alloy on F/A-18 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    nieevded ard =omnaetng end re= ==wan th Ouet f anomio sn omns ee gthe burden estimaate &Wm~- cet Of .1.",f = 4= ficud "n s’ggso tn c f ied g taii rden...6 Bethpage, NY 11714 (1 for Chief of Materials and Processes) (1 for P . Adler, Mall Stop A02-26) (1 for S...Demay, PL12, Dept. 441) (1 for J. Kennedy, Mall Stop A02-26 (1 for P . Shaw, Mail Stop A04-12) (1 for J. Greenspan, Mail Stop A04-12) Lockheed Aeronautical

  14. Modeling and simulation of queuing system for customer service improvement: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Tan Chai; Hong, Chai Weng; Hawari, Nurul Nazihah

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to develop a queuing model at UniMall by using discrete event simulation approach in analyzing the service performance that affects customer satisfaction. The performance measures that considered in this model are such as the average time in system, the total number of student served, the number of student in waiting queue, the waiting time in queue as well as the maximum length of buffer. ARENA simulation software is used to develop a simulation model and the output is analyzed. Based on the analysis of output, it is recommended that management of UniMall consider introducing shifts and adding another payment counter in the morning.

  15. Autonomous pedestrian localization technique using CMOS camera sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Chanwoo

    2014-09-01

    We present a pedestrian localization technique that does not need infrastructure. The proposed angle-only measurement method needs specially manufactured shoes. Each shoe has two CMOS cameras and two markers such as LEDs attached on the inward side. The line of sight (LOS) angles towards the two markers on the forward shoe are measured using the two cameras on the other rear shoe. Our simulation results shows that a pedestrian walking down in a shopping mall wearing this device can be accurately guided to the front of a destination store located 100m away, if the floor plan of the mall is available.

  16. Geothermal heat, BAS controls: a capitol investment for Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    At the Capitol Mall in Boise, the old old problem of space heating has been solved by a marriage of old and new technologies: a geothermal heating system and a high-tech building automation system (BAS). The result is savings of more than $200,000 a year in natural gas costs.

  17. Tablets for Informal Language Learning: Student Usage and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), a relatively new area of CALL inquiry, is gaining more and more attention from language educators with the development of new mobile devices. Tablet computers--featuring high mobility, convenient network connectivity, and smart application extendibility--are part of a wave of the latest mobile inventions;…

  18. Is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Really Useful? An Examination of Recall Automatization and Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Takeshi; Murase, Fumiko; Burden, Tyler

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the advantages of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL), especially vocabulary learning of English as a foreign or second language (L2) in terms of the two strands: automatization and learner autonomy. Previous studies articulate that technology-enhanced L2 learning could bring about some positive effects.…

  19. Approach to the Phenomenon of M-Learning in English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García, Sergio; Fombona, Javier

    2015-01-01

    This research analyzes the situation of mobile devices and some specific options of support for the teaching of the English language. The features of this complex and novel phenomenon of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) are addressed with an exploratory descriptive methodology. The article is part of a more extensive research which deals…

  20. 75 FR 63838 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... research methods, including individual indepth interviews, mall-intercept interviews, focus groups, self.... FDA must conduct needed research to ensure that such programs have the highest likelihood of being... three major purposes. First, as formative research it will provide critical knowledge needed...

  1. Opening the Doors: Engaging Young Children in the Art Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Thinking about three- to six-year-olds rarely brings to mind an image of young children engaged in conversation in the formal setting of an art museum, yet these are actual comments made by preschoolers and kindergartners who spend time on the Mall in Washington, DC, visiting museums as part of their early childhood program. Today, an increasing…

  2. Role of Cathepsin C During Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    angiogenesis related gene expression. Evaluate ultras mall super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) for detection of macrophages within...E, Preda A, Novikov V, Shames DM, et al. Tumor microvascular characterization using ultrasmall super paramagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO) in an...Stanford University to investigate whether iron oxide nanoparticles can be used to non-invasively measure macrophage density through MR imaging

  3. 48 CFR 552.238-72 - Identification of Products That Have Environmental Attributes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification of Products... System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES.... GSA Advantage! is an on-line shopping mall and ordering system that provides customers with access...

  4. Assessment of a Solar System Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.; Murrell, Steven R.; Kirchner, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The idea of sending students and the general public on a walk through a scale model of the solar system in an attempt to instill an appreciation of the relative scales of the sizes of the objects compared to the immense distances between them is certainly not new. A good number of such models exist, including one on the National Mall in…

  5. The National Museum of the American Indian: Sharing the Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Amanda J.

    2005-01-01

    Over twenty-five thousand American Indians from over five hundred Indigenous nations journeyed from their homes to the National Mall in Washington DC to witness the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) on September 25, 2005. They journeyed to participate in the largest gathering of Native peoples in modern history, to…

  6. Full Spectrum Tools for Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Cultural Data in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    self-sustaining system of relationships among social roles ( Malinowski , Radcliffe-Brown), a culturally consistent mode of thought (Nisbett) or set of...Introduction and critical Survey: Dover. Malinowski , B. (1984). Magic, Science, and Religion and Other Essays. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Malle

  7. Merging the Community & Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Douglas M.; Joyce, Kay

    2001-01-01

    An abandoned downtown shopping mall in Burnsville, Minnesota, was transformed into an innovative senior campus that also relieved overcrowding at the main facility. Seniors pursued "community-connections" experiences via programs involving mass media, the transit authority, the battered women's shelter, public affairs, creative writing, and…

  8. VIEW FROM BENEATH THE FORRESTAL BUILDING LOOKING TO THE NATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM BENEATH THE FORRESTAL BUILDING LOOKING TO THE NATIONAL MALL AND SMITHSONIAN CASTLE - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. VIEW AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING THROUGH PILOTIS OF THE FORRESTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW AT GROUND LEVEL LOOKING THROUGH PILOTIS OF THE FORRESTAL BUILDING ACROSS INDEPENDENCE AVENUE TO THE NATIONAL MALL AND SMITHSONIAN CASTLE BEYOND - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Robust Detection of Fading Narrow-Band Signals in Non-Gaussian Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    1978. 9. H.V. Poor, M. Mami and J.B. Thomas, "On robust detection of discrete-time sto- chastic signals," /. Franklin Inst., vol. 309, pp. 29-53...NSEA 05H) Crystal Mall #4, Rm. 129 Washington, DC 20036 1 B. E. Clark RR #2, Box 647-B Graham, NC 27253 1 Naval Underwater Systems Center Attn

  11. 75 FR 34706 - Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Department of Defense Comprehensive Review Working Group (CRWG) is the working group the Secretary of Defense... CRWG is studying what impact, if any, repeal would have on military readiness, military effectiveness... Comprehensive Review Working Group, Crystal Mall 2, 1801 S. Bell St., Suite 409, Arlington, VA; or call...

  12. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  13. Leasing Decision Is Complex, Say Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Nina

    1986-01-01

    The increase in the number of leased college stores is discussed. When the worlds of the non-profit institution and the retail store collide, even the most talented institutional managers can be crushed in the middle. Some think that mini-malls, rather than leased bookstores, will be the trend. (MLW)

  14. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Construction of Air Force Non-Appropriated Funds Bowling Center at Maxwell Air Force Base, Gunter Annex

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-04-01

    with a Signature Brand “Classics Diner”, could generate increased revenue by providing an additional number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income...number of bowling lanes. Food and beverage income is also anticipated to grow. The increased income would also create additional jobs and would be... Mall ...................................................................................... 5-2 5.3 CUMULATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS

  15. "We Don't Live like that Anymore": Native Peoples at the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, an annual event on the National Mall featuring tradition bearers from around the country, premiered a new American Indian program that combined presentations of Native traditions with panel discussions of contemporary social, political, and economic issues facing Native…

  16. In the Country of Anythink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oder, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the sprawling Denver International Airport, there's little to put Adams County, Colorado, on the map. The region's light rail only stretches south, so Adams County, a mostly working-class zone to the northeast, has come late to growth. There's no central city; the community is dominated by strip malls, big-box stores, and new developments.…

  17. Solar Decathlon: Powered by the Sun (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-08-01

    The Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition to design and build the most energy efficient, solar-powered house. It is also an event on the National Mall in Washington D.C. to which the public is invited. This gatefold brochure describes the Solar Decathlon 2005 competition and event, including a schedule of activities.

  18. 76 FR 54452 - Intent to Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Cordova Hills Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Prospect Park Drive, Rancho Cordova, CA 95670. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Lisa Gibson, (916) 557... the Draft EIS, please contact Lisa Gibson, 650 Capitol Mall, Suite 5-200, Sacramento, CA 95814-4708... 2012. Dated: August 15, 2011. William J. Leady, Colonel, U.S. Army District Engineer. BILLING CODE...

  19. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Student Attitudes to Using Smartphones to Learn English Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Neil; Hilber, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    This project examines mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) and in particular the attitudes of undergraduate engineering students at the South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences towards the use of the smartphone app Quizlet to learn English vocabulary. Initial data on attitudes to learning languages and to the use of mobile devices to do…

  20. A Seamless Learning Design for Mobile Assisted Language Learning: An Iranian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foomani, Elham Mohammadi; Hedayati, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in information communication technology (ICT) have resulted in a paradigm shift in e-Learning and there is a growing interest in developing design-based research (DBR) focusing on learners and their involvement in knowledge sharing in a contextualized mode. The present study reports a mobile-assisted language learning (MALL)…

  1. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  2. Systematising the Field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viberg, Olga; Grönlund, Åke

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic review of mobile assisted language (MALL) research within the specific area of second language acquisition (SLA) during the period of 2005-2012 in terms of research approaches, theories and methods, technology, and the linguistic knowledge and skills' results. The findings show a shift from the prevailing SMS-based…

  3. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  4. A Place in the Sun: Groundbreaking on the National Museum of the American Indian Puts Native Peoples in Nation's Cultural Spotlight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, Tanya

    1999-01-01

    Describes development of the National Museum of the American Indian, which was established by Congress in 1989 and will open in late 2002. Part of the Smithsonian, the museum will occupy 250,000 square feet on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., and will highlight the historic and contemporary accomplishments of Native peoples throughout the…

  5. Consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to conduct a consumer evaluation of new tangerine hybrids from the UF-CREC citrus breeding program, together with some commercial varieties. A total of 153 mall intercept interviews were conducted with a random sample of fresh citrus fruit consumers in three markets: ...

  6. Attitudes of the Public toward Educational Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Joan D.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 377 adults at a small city shopping mall showed positive attitudes toward mainstreaming of handicapped students with normal potential for learning, and less favorable attitudes toward students exhibiting disruptive behavior. Subjects showed attitudinal differences based on their race, age, and child in school, but not their gender.…

  7. 76 FR 26332 - Guam Disaster #GU-00001 Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Guam Disaster GU-00001 Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL) declaration for the Territory of Guam, dated 04/27/2011. Incident: Compadres Mall Fire. Incident Period: 01/28/2011....

  8. Block Building for Children: Making Buildings of the World with the Ultimate Construction Toy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lester

    This book presents a series of projects for children of all levels of expertise, beginning with abstract patterns, rows, and towers and progressing to step-by-step instructions for 18 projects, including a bridge, boat dock, airport, shopping mall, skyscraper, castle, Greek temple, Toy Store City, City of the Future, and The Emerald City of Oz.…

  9. You're a "What"? Santa Claus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Professional Santas entertain children and adults during the holiday season at all types of events. They work at shopping malls or stores; entertain crowds at parades and tree lightings; and make appearances at holiday parties, charity events, and people's homes. Most Santas work during the Christmas holiday season, which usually lasts from late…

  10. Glocalized New Age Spirituality: A Mental Map of the New Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, Deciphered through Its Visual Codes and Based on Ethno-Visual Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Peshat, Malka; Sitton, Shoshana

    2011-01-01

    We present here the findings of an ethno-visual research study involving the creation of a mental map of images, artifacts and practices in Tel Aviv's New Central Bus Station. This huge and complex building, part bus station, part shopping mall, has become a stage for multicultural encounters and interactions among diverse communities of users.…

  11. Using the Student Edition of Update on Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaszak, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    Provides accompanying learning activities for each of the articles in the same issue. The brief articles address a number of legal issues concerning young people including dress codes, teen smoking, curfews, restricted areas (such as the mall), and child labor. Includes a law term crossword puzzle. (MJP)

  12. School Wellness in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The list of issues confronting education leaders today seems to be growing longer, with school wellness being pushed to the forefront by the surge in childhood obesity rates. Whether walking the halls of the schools or the local shopping mall, it is easy to see why society needs to adopt healthier lifestyles. That is why more community leaders,…

  13. 36 CFR 1192.71 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General. 1192.71 Section 1192.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD....85. (2) Vehicles designed for, and operated on, pedestrian malls, city streets, or other areas...

  14. 36 CFR 1192.71 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General. 1192.71 Section 1192.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD....85. (2) Vehicles designed for, and operated on, pedestrian malls, city streets, or other areas...

  15. 36 CFR 1192.71 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General. 1192.71 Section 1192.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD....85. (2) Vehicles designed for, and operated on, pedestrian malls, city streets, or other areas...

  16. 36 CFR 1192.71 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true General. 1192.71 Section 1192.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD....85. (2) Vehicles designed for, and operated on, pedestrian malls, city streets, or other areas...

  17. Branded Food Service Operations Come in Different Flavors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Describes how one university got out of the food business and leased space in its student union comparable to the way that a mall food court leases space. The university acts as a commercial property owner and lessor, collects rent, pays the utility bills, services tenants, and aspires to break even. (RJM)

  18. Teen Chick Lit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meloni, Christine

    2006-01-01

    For young teen girls, reading has become hot again. With their appealing covers, witty heroines and humorous plots, teen chick lit books are bringing girls out of the malls and into local libraries and bookstores in search of the next must-have title. These fun books are about boys, friendship, family, fitting in, and growing up. What makes the…

  19. When the School Is a Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Ann

    1998-01-01

    Describes two new vocational schools--the Laurel Oaks Educational Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, where glass-walled classrooms look out on a mall to promote community, and the Tulsa, Oklahoma, Technology Center that will include two jet-sized hangars, a runway, and a pressure chamber to measure the physical effects of altitude. (JOW)

  20. Visualizing Separations: How Shopping Can Be Useful for Introducing Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Megan L.

    2013-01-01

    A trip to the mall is used as a classroom demonstration to illustrate the fundamentals of separations without the need for chemicals or any chemistry background. Student volunteers are the "mixture", and depending on the shopping list they have been given, they spend varying amounts of time in the "stores" versus moving through…

  1. Maryland: Sailing into the Electronic Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara G., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes information technology programs in Maryland, including the Sailor Project, that created a statewide telecommunications network providing Internet access without charge from libraries, homes, offices, schools, and shopping malls; University of Maryland initiatives; distance learning in higher education; and a project that allows worldwide…

  2. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  3. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box 66), Philadelphia, PA 19105...—1801 Fifth Avenue, North (P.O. Box 830447), Birmingham, AL 35283-0447 Jacksonville Branch—800...

  4. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  5. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  6. 31 CFR 100.17 - Location of Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Boston, MA 02106 New York—33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, NY 10045 Buffalo Branch—160 Delaware Avenue (P.O. Box 961), Buffalo, NY 14240 Philadelphia—Ten Independence Mall (P.O. Box... Jacksonville Branch—800 Water Street (P.O. Box 929) Jacksonville, FL 32231-0044 Miami Branch—9100 NW.,...

  7. Off-Campus Graduate Education: A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Graduate Schools in the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Graduate courses are increasingly being offered in a wide variety of non-traditional campus settings including industrial plants, military bases, shopping malls, and off-campus centers established by universities mainly for the purpose of providing clasroom instruction. This booklet provides guidelines for institutions considering such programs.…

  8. Fabryq: Using Phones as Smart Proxies to Control Wearable Devices from the Web

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-12

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Wearable ubiquitous computing devices are often size- and power-constrained, which...shuvo.roy@ucsf.edu 3Stanford CS 353 Serra Mall Stanford, CA wmcgrath@stanford.edu ABSTRACT Wearable ubiquitous computing devices are often size- and...exclusively with fabryq. Author Keywords Toolkits; ubiquitous computing; swarm devices; prototyping. ACM Classification Keywords Human-centered computing

  9. Ubiquitous Technology for Language Learning: The U-Japan Movement in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the u-Japan movement and recent reforms in the higher educational system in Japan, examines the needs as well as readiness for ubiquitous learning in Japanese universities, and reports on a selection of mobile-assisted language learning projects (MALL). It analyzes the current status of ubiquitous technology applications in…

  10. Preferred and Minimum Acceptable Listening Levels for Musicians while Using Floor and In-Ear Monitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federman, Jeremy; Ricketts, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact that changing on-stage music and crowd noise levels during musical performance had on preferred listening levels (PLLs) and minimum acceptable listening levels (MALLs) across both floor and in-ear monitors. Method: Participants for this study were 23- to 48-year-old musicians, with and without hearing loss,…

  11. International Briefing 26: Training and Development in the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udani, Zenon Arthur S.; Sunio, Varsolo C.; Dado, Raul H.; Udani, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    The Philippines has a population of more than 94 million. In addition, 10 million Filipinos work and live overseas. Filipino talent is ubiquitous overseas, working in offices, universities, hotels and restaurants, factories, shopping malls, theaters and arenas, and private homes around the world. The country's projected high rate of economic…

  12. OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    27601 PHONE: (919)715-7272 FAX: (919)715-7777 E-MAIL: srdaughe.sbdc@mhs.unc.e North Dakota Walter Kearns (Wally) State Director North Dakota Small...Road Telephone: (516) 334-3344 64 North Carolina Raleigh, NC 27601 Century Station, Room 438 300 Fayetteville Street Mall Telephone: (919) 856-4770

  13. Pinnacle: The Army’s Effort to Reform Its Accession Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-24

    other recruiting component or service. Stations are usually located in shopping centers or small strip malls. Many still occupy outdated facilities in...individual who has a compulsive need to win and hold the affection of others….a high level of energy, abounding self-confidence… a well-established habit

  14. Inter-comparison of air pollutant concentrations in different indoor environments in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Guo, Hai; Li, Wai-Ming; Chan, Lo-Yin

    Indoor air quality in selected indoor environments in Hong Kong such as homes, offices, schools, shopping malls and restaurants were investigated. Average CO 2 levels and total bacteria counts in air-conditioned classrooms, shopping malls and restaurants were comparatively higher than those measured in occupied offices and homes. Elevated CO 2 levels exceeding 1000 ppm and total bacteria counts resulted from high occupancy combined with inadequate ventilation. Average PM 10 levels were usually higher indoors than outdoors in homes, shopping malls and restaurants. The highest indoor PM 10 levels were observed at investigated restaurants due to the presence of cigarette smoking and extensive use of gas stoves for cooking. The restaurants and shopping malls investigated had higher formaldehyde levels than other indoor environments when building material, smoking and internal renovation work were present. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both indoor and outdoor environments mainly resulted from vehicle exhaust emissions. It was observed that interior decoration work and the use of industrial solvents in an indoor environment could significantly increase the indoor levels of VOCs.

  15. President Ronald Reagan speaks at STS 51-L Memorial service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    President Ronald Reagan tells a large turnout of JSC employees and family and friends of the 51-L crewmembers about their accomplishments and sacrifices during memorial services held following the Challenger accident at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).'They slipped the surly bonds of earth to touch the face of God' the President told the thousands gathered on the central mall at JSC.

  16. 76 FR 59014 - Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    .... The Commission is requiring a standard reference material cigarette, which was developed by the...'') developed a standard reference material (``SRM'') cigarette that could be used as the ignition source in the... highest ignition strength cigarette. NIST evaluated Pall Mall cigarettes of different vintages...

  17. Implementing Glossing in Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Environments: Directions and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hansol; Lee, Jang Ho

    2013-01-01

    While mobile technology, such as the touch-based smart-phone, has become part of our daily lives, research into and classroom practices surrounding mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) have generally not kept up with the pace of technological development. This situation may be caused in part by the fact that a considerable proportion of…

  18. Perceived Informativeness of and Irritation with Local Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasadeos, Yorgo

    1990-01-01

    Surveys mall shoppers to determine the relative informativeness of retail advertising. Finds that newspaper advertisements are considered the most informative with radio commercials next and television commercials least. Finds that newspaper ads are more irritating than radio or television advertising. Finds older and wealthier shoppers more…

  19. 75 FR 29601 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on a Proposed Highway Project in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Capitol Mall, 4-100, Sacramento, CA 95814, weekdays between 7 a.m. and 4 p.m., telephone (916) 498-5128... Transportation (Caltrans), 703 B Street, Marysville, CA 95901, (530) 741-4393, john_webb@dot.ca.gov , or Celia Mc..., Auburn, CA 95603, (530) 823-4030, cmcadam@pctpa.net . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Notice is hereby...

  20. Library Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Will; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The innovative designs of three libraries are described: the Tempe (Arizona) Public Library, which emphasizes services for children and students; an underground library at Park College, Missouri; and a public library located in the Vancouver (Washington) Mall. The fourth article describes the work going on to restore the Los Angeles (California)…

  1. Toward Mobile Assisted Language Learning Apps for Professionals That Integrate Learning into the Daily Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pareja-Lora, Antonio; Arús-Hita, Jorge; Read, Timothy; Rodríguez-Arancón, Pilar; Calle-Martínez, Cristina; Pomposo, Lourdes; Martín-Monje, Elena; Bárcena, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this short paper, we present some initial work on Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) undertaken by the ATLAS research group. ATLAS embraced this multidisciplinary field cutting across Mobile Learning and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) as a natural step in their quest to find learning formulas for professional English that…

  2. A Case for an Art Education of Everyday Aesthetic Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncum, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Argues for incorporating everyday sites, such as shopping malls, amusement parks, advertising, the Internet, and television, into art education. Also argues that everyday aesthetic experiences significantly impact the formation of individual identities and world views and that the dynamics behind the influence of everyday aesthetics will only…

  3. Decision Support Tool for Deep Energy Efficiency Retrofits in DoD Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Laboratory 148 1119 229 271 1370 13 528 33 1 1 3713 Lodging 14186 12886 14856 2590 12278 1970 2571 3421 755 903 66416 Mercantile (Retail other than...Houston Denver Usage Types Educatio n Food Servic e Health Care (Outpatient ) Laborator y Lodgin g Mercantil e (Retail other than mall

  4. Research Trends in Mobile Assisted Language Learning from 2000 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duman, Guler; Orhon, Gunseli; Gedik, Nuray

    2015-01-01

    In order to trace how mobile assisted language learning (MALL) has evolved in recent years, we analysed studies published from 2000 to 2012 to examine their characteristics and research trends. These studies were published in international journals listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). Sixty-nine studies that fit the time frame and…

  5. The Threat of High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulses: Why it Should be Keeping Combatant Commanders Up at Night

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-23

    on Guam. Kayakers can be seen paddling around the island, taking in the beautiful vistas. Tourists begin arriving at the many duty free malls that...more and is similar in nature to the magnetic effects of solar flares. This component can affect electrical systems with long transmission lines and

  6. Mobile-Assisted Grammar Exercises: Effects on Self-Editing in L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhi; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the development and implementation of a web-based mobile application, "Grammar Clinic," for an ESL writing class. Drawing on insights from the interactionist approach to Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the Noticing Hypothesis, and mobile-assisted language learning (MALL), "Grammar Clinic" was…

  7. DC66812 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DC-668-12 AERIAL VIEW OF THE 14TH AND 15TH STREET CORRIDORS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ABOVE EAST POTOMAC PARK TOWARD THE MALL AND BEYOND - L'Enfant-McMillan Plan of Washington, DC, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. How Many Chips off the Old Block?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Students analyze a photograph to solve mathematical questions related to the images captured in the photograph. This month, photographs of a massive sculpture near the National Mall in Washington, D.C., provide opportunities for counting problems, generalizing from a pattern, and fitting a quadratic to data.

  9. Effects of Verbal Components in 3D Talking-Head on Pronunciation Learning among Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Segaran, Kogilathah; Hoe, Tan Wee

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the benefit of inclusion of various verbal elements in 3D talking-head on pronunciation learning among non-native speakers. In particular, the study examines the effects of three different multimedia presentation strategies in 3D talking-head Mobile-Assisted-Language-Learning (MALL) on the learning…

  10. Students' Personal and Social Meaning Making in a Chinese Idiom Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Tan, Chee-Lay; Liu, May

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a design research study in Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) that emphasizes learner created content and contextualized meaning making. In learning Chinese idioms, students proactively used smartphones on a 1:1 basis to capture photos of the real-life contexts pertaining to the idioms, and to construct sentences…

  11. Keeping Kids on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Mary Ellen

    1992-01-01

    Open-campus policies can devastate school lunch programs. Some school systems compete with fast-food outlets by offering similar menus; others hire private contractors to construct mall-like food courts. Several Colorado and California school districts have devised innovative programs to halt lunchtime flight without sacrificing nutrition. A…

  12. A Typology of Tasks for Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: Recommendations from a Small-Scale Needs Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Moonyoung; Slater, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    In response to the research priorities of members of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), this study investigated language learners' realworld tasks in mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) to inform the future development of pedagogic tasks for academic English as a second language (ESL) courses. The data included…

  13. What Students Think and What They Actually Do in a Mobile Assisted Language Learning Context: New Insights for Self-Directed Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Botero, Gustavo; Questier, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to understand whether Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) could foster students' self-directed learning, this paper analyzes a self-directed learning experience by means of a language app: Duolingo. In this study, higher education language students were encouraged to use Duolingo outside of the classroom. The data collected via…

  14. Integrating Mobile Technologies into Very Young Second Language Learners' Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadykova, Gulnara; Gimaletdinova, Gulnara; Khalitova, Liliia; Kayumova, Albina

    2016-01-01

    This report is based on an exploratory case study of a private multilingual preschool language program that integrated a Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) project into the curriculum of five/six year-old children whose native language(s) is/are Russian and/or Tatar. The purpose of the study was to reveal teachers' and parents' perceptions…

  15. Excessive Eating and Compulsive Buying Behaviours in Women: An Empirical Pilot Study Examining Reward Sensitivity, Anxiety, Impulsivity, Self-Esteem and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Kate; Houston, James E.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    "Mall disorders" such as excessive eating and compulsive buying appear to be increasing, particularly among women. A battery of questionnaires was used in an attempt to determine this association between specific personality traits (i.e., reward sensitivity, impulsivity, cognitive and somatic anxiety, self-esteem, and social desirability) and…

  16. A Matter of Research: Preservice Teachers and Young Adolescent Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    Preservice secondary teachers were assigned research on the consumer behavior and habits of junior high school students for the purpose of allowing preservice teachers to discover their own knowledge of young adolescents. Observations were made of groups of students at two typical malls in a southeastern city of around 100,000 population. The…

  17. Underneath Hypercapitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Allan

    2007-01-01

    As Joel Spring's (2007/this issue) description of Singapore's Orchard Road suggests, Benetton, Zara, Nike, BMW, LG, and Microsoft dominate the visual and textual landscape where signage, advertising, packaging, labeling, and the environments of the connected underground malls and walkways merge into a wall-to-wall, 24/7 print and visual…

  18. From Cafeteria to Cafe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    If school architects, cafeteria designers, and some food service personnel have their way, the long, grey serving line characterizing most school cafeterias will go the way of meatloaf and mashed potatoes. This means booths and restaurant-like tables, school colors, brightly lit menu boards, windows overlooking courtyards, and mall-like…

  19. Monitoring and Decreasing Public Smoking among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Sanem, Julia R.; Adams, Monica L.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of tobacco possession laws on public smoking among youth. There were two intervention sites: a fast food restaurant and a shopping mall. Two control sites were also monitored for public smoking among youth. Preliminary findings suggest that when police issued tickets to minors for violating tobacco possession laws,…

  20. Desirable Characteristics of a Counseling Agency: Report on a Focus Group Research Study for the Center for Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sessions, Joan T.; Yanos, Janet Hagan

    This study sought to identify characteristics of counselors and counseling services that are important in the selection of a counseling service. Subjects (N=28) were recruited through a newspaper advertisement and through mall intercepts. The screening criteria were designed to locate potential or previous counseling service consumers whose…

  1. Examining EFL Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Adoption of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning: A Partial Least Square Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    This study examines EFL (English as a foreign Language) teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and how such knowledge affects the adoption of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL). A total of 158 in-service Taiwanese English teachers were surveyed. Two frameworks were employed to examine latent constructs: TPACK and the…

  2. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages--Still a Way to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Many Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) innovations mainly apply to the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCTLs), especially English. Recent manifestations of CALL for MCTLs such as corpora, Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) and Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are found less frequently in the world of Less Commonly Taught…

  3. High School Food Courts: A New Evolution in Student Dining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, George

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how traditional high school cafeterias have changed in recent years into food courts and dining areas usually found in shopping malls. Areas examined include food court design, traffic patterns, safety and after-hours usage, and kitchens and serving areas. How one school district turned its food court system into a successful…

  4. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... such as the Securities and Exchange Commission's online EDGAR database, and state and federal licensing... only at one store, chain of stores, or group of stores (such as stores in a shopping mall). See Act...

  5. Designing and Experimenting of English Instructional Material for Facilitating Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ritu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Constructivism has emerged as one of the greatest influences on the practice of education in the last twenty-five years. Teachers have embraced constructivist-based pedagogy with an enthusiasm that is rare in these days of quick fixes and a shopping mall approach to school improvement. For many teachers, the focus on constructing…

  6. Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Staff corridor (room 206, representing rooms 301, 305, 401, 405, 501, and 505), looking south towards the staff corridor vestibule (room 206A, representing rooms 305A, 405A, and 505A). - California State Office Building No. 1, 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. Rehabilitation of Visual and Perceptual Dysfunction after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    for the virtual-mall walking-simulator collision detection task was presented at the American Academy of Optometry 2012 meeting in October.  An...England College of Optometry about the methodology and early results from the study  Dr Luo’s postdoctoral fellow gave a talk at Schepens about the

  8. Art at the Airport: An Exploration of New Art Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Ilona

    2012-01-01

    Many airports have transformed empty waiting spaces into mini malls, children's play areas, and displays of beautiful art, making a long wait a bit more pleasant. For the modern airport, showcasing art has become an important component, with perks including a built-in global audience, as well as the vast spaces of modern architecture. For the art…

  9. Mobile Language Learning: More than Just "The Platform"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballance, Oliver James

    2012-01-01

    Mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) is attracting a great deal of attention at present (Stockwell & Sotillo, 2011). However, it is important that teacher and researcher exploitation of technological developments be guided by more than just enthusiasm. "Language Learning & Technology's" commitment to empirical studies is admirable but, for…

  10. The Transit Light Curve (TLC) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Winn, J. N.

    2006-09-01

    We present results from our recently initiated Transit Light Curve (TLC) Project, a program of long-term monitoring of transiting extrasolar planets. The principal scientific goals of this project are: (1) to refine the estimates of the physical and orbital properties of these planets, and (2) to search for variations in the transit times (Holman and Murray 2005, Agol et al. 2005) and light curve shapes that indicate the presence of additional, perturbing planets (Miralda-Escude 2002). To date, we have observed transits of nine of the ten known transiting planets. To observe the bright northern hemisphere targets, we are using the KeplerCam on the 1.2-m telescope at the F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, AZ. For the fainter and southern hemisphere OGLE planets, we are using the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the 6.5-m Magellan Baade telescope, and the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Magellan Instant Camera (MagIC) on the 6.5-m Magellan Clay telescope. In most cases, our photometry is accurate enough ( 1 mmag per minute of integration) that the resulting uncertainties in the planetary and stellar radii are dominated by the uncertainty in the assumed stellar mass, rather than by the statistical error. The noise in our KeplerCam photometry of XO-1b and TrES-1, in particular, is nearly Gaussian and time-averages down with the expected 1/sqrt(t) dependence all the way up to 30 minute time bins. This opens the possibility of detecting signals at the 0.1 mmag or even 0.01 mmag level, such as that produced by reflected light, by combining the results of many observations with small ground-based telescopes. Our transit timings for these systems are accurate to within 15 seconds.

  11. The Formation of the Local Group and the High Velocity Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, D. N.; Blitz, L.; Teuben, P. J.; Hartmann, D.; Burton, B.

    1996-12-01

    We simulate the formation and evolution of the Local Group. The dynamics of the Local Group is governed primarily by the its two largest members, Andromeda (M31) and the Galaxy (M0) and secondarily by the tidal effects of neighboring galaxies. In the simulation, a long filament forms which contains M31 and M0. While the gas near M31 and M0 is likely shock heated, we expect that much of the gas in the filament is cold. The kinematics of this gas in the simulation is remarkably similar to the kinematics of the High Velocity Clouds (HVCs). This similarity suggests reinterpreting the HVCs as primarily extragalactic. In this model, the HVCs are similar to the Lyman alpha clouds. Recent work (Hernquist et al. 996) suggests that the Lyman alpha clouds are primarily condensations in the filaments between galaxies. We suggest a similar picture for most of the HVCs: they are gravitationally confined, rather than pressure confined, clouds infalling into the Local Group and are likely associated with a substantial amount of dark matter. In this picture, the two phase structure seen in some of the HVCs (Wakker & Schwarz 1991) would be due to self shielding that arises in gas clouds ionized by external UV (Murakami & Ikeuchi 1990). This model suggests that there is a substantial amount of gas in the HVCs: ~ 1 x 10(10) M_sun. This gas is and was a reservoir of relatively unprocessed gas for both M31 and our Galaxy and likely plays an important role in the evolution of both galaxies. Hernquist, L, Katz, N., Weinberg, D. & Miralda-Escude, J. 1996, ApJ L 457, 51 Murakami, I. & Ikeuchi, S. 1990 PASJ, 41 , L11. Wakker, B.P. & Schwarz, U.J. 1991 A & A, 250, 48.

  12. The reluctant entrepreneur.

    PubMed

    Veit, K

    1992-01-01

    Unlike a lot of corporate executives, Ken Veit never longed to be his own boss. But after 30 years on the fast track, he lost his high-powered job at one of the world's largest insurance companies and was forced to take an entrepreneurial leap of faith. In 1989, Veit signed a franchise agreement to own and operate a Cartoon Corner store in a mall in Scottsdale, Arizona. Cartoon Corner was based on the Disney store idea, but it carried hundreds of products featuring cartoon characters from every movie studio. Most important, Cartoon Corner offered extensive training and an elaborate management support system for its franchisees. The company planned to franchise 100 stores over the next few years, then go public. If all went well, its young executives claimed, the Cartoon Corner chain would build a market valuation of up to $100 million by the mid-1990s. In addition, the mall, which was in the planning stages when Veit signed on, was supposed to become a new kind of entertainment mall, with seven movie theaters, a space-flight simulator, and a shark-filled aquarium. It had all sounded too good to be true--and it was. Despite Veit's careful forecasting, he suffered a series of unexpected catastrophes. The mall failed to keep its promises. The franchisor lost its venture capital. The Gulf War dried up retail traffic. But it was too late to back out. Veit went forward on his own, truly alone for the first time in his life. When the mall and his store finally opened in May 1991, they did so in the midst of a recession. Despite the inspirational stories of other former executives, Veit has learned that the life of an entrepreneur is not all it's cracked up to be. As he notes, "I began with well-above-average experience, a proven concept, and excellent capitalization, yet in my case, personal bankruptcy remains a distinct possibility."

  13. On-line direct determination of the second virial coefficient of a natural polysaccharide using size-exclusion chromatography and multi-angle laser light scattering.

    PubMed

    Girod, S; Baldet-Dupy, P; Maillols, H; Devoisselle, J M

    2002-01-11

    By combining a size-exclusion chromatographic (SEC) separation and an on-line multi-angle light scattering (MALLS) analysis, we have elaborated an original methodology permitting on-line direct determination of the second virial coefficient of molar mass fractions of polydisperse polysaccharides. By assimilating the SEC-MALLS data to a batch mode acquisition, we have obtained on-line the complete Zimm plot of the eluted fractions, leading to knowledge of their weight-average molar mass Mw, radius of gyration r(g) and second virial coefficient A2. Our methodology was successfully applied to a iota carrageenan sample in LiCl 100 mM, EDTA 1 g/l.

  14. Evaluating the impact of different exogenous factors on silk textiles deterioration with use of size exclusion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawcenis, Dominika; Smoleń, Mariusz; Aksamit-Koperska, Monika A.; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC), especially coupled with multiple angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) is a powerful tool in diagnostics of deterioration of historic and art objects to evaluate their condition. In this paper, SEC-UV-MALLS-DRI technique was applied to study degradation of silk fibroin samples ( Bombyx mori) artificially aged under various conditions: in the presence of oxygen, in different amount of water vapour and in volatile organic products (VOCs), all at temperature of 90 °C. Conditions were chosen in such a way that it mimicked real conditions of textiles' storing during exhibitions and in show cases. The influence of temperature, moisture and VOCs content on the state of silk textiles was examined with the use of size exclusion chromatography. Pseudo-zero-order Ekenstam equation was applied to study degradation rates of fibroin with use of the approximated values of DP of fibroin.

  15. Purifying and Testing Gecko Skin Compounds, a Promising Attractant for Small Brown Treesnakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    that is the case, applying the scent to a more natural- looking (i.e., lizard -like) object may render a stronger and more uniform (across snake ...to other islands. Attractants are particularly needed for <>mall snakes . which are resistant to current control techniques. We extracted skin...compounds from gcckos ( Hemidactylus frcnatus). a preferred prey of the small snakes . and used bioassays to identify which of the successively more purified

  16. 40 CFR 85.2207 - On-board diagnostics test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of SAE J2012 may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Copies may be inspected at the EPA Docket No. A-94-21 at EPA's Air Docket, (LE-131) Room 1500 M, 1st Floor, Waterside Mall, 401...

  17. JSC Aerial View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This North-looking view shows some of the Johnson Space Center's central buildings and facilities neighboring its Project Management Facility (Building 1) from which this scene was photographed. The Houston-based Mission Control Center is in the center of the frame. Visible buildings surrounding the mall area include the Flight Operations Facility, Crew Systems Laboratory, Photographic Technology Laboratory, Technical Services shop, branch cafeteria, Mission Control Center office wing and the Central Data Office.

  18. Exploring Terrorist Targeting Preferences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    consider assaults that create a level of fear disproportionate to the actual cost in human life. Repeated low-level attacks on the U.S. food supply ...strike targets that will disrupt consumer patterns and produce ripple effects. Assaults against the food chain or shopping malls could be instrumen...communications and supplies (Jehl, 2005) Tawfiq bin Attash (killed), deputy operational leader (“Bush Hails Capture of Top al Qaeda Operative,” 2003

  19. A multi-band environment-adaptive approach to noise suppression for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Saki, Fatemeh; Mirzahasanloo, Taher; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an improved environment-adaptive noise suppression solution for the cochlear implants speech processing pipeline. This improvement is achieved by using a multi-band data-driven approach in place of a previously developed single-band data-driven approach. Seven commonly encountered noisy environments of street, car, restaurant, mall, bus, pub and train are considered to quantify the improvement. The results obtained indicate about 10% improvement in speech quality measures.

  20. IRIT at TREC 2012 Contextual Suggestion Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    restaurant, shopping mall, zoo . • PS 2: aquarium, art gallery, bar, book store, bowling alley, cafe, movie theater, museum, park, restaurant, shopping...weekday weekend Spring PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 5 PS 5 Summer PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 5 PS 5 Fall PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS 1 PS 6 PS 6 Winter PS 3 PS 3 PS 4 PS

  1. Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement for Navigation Improvements at Bayou La Batre, Alabama. Volume 2. Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-12

    livestock and later resort hotels became the important economic pursuits. At the turn of C" I the 20th century, however, fishing and seafood processing...taken in the absence of a deeper channel are important in defining a sound Without-Project Condition. The without-project economic setting is...shrimp are the leading items for U.S. processors" (2). The mall fishing village of Bayou La Satre is an important economic center for landing and

  2. The Influence of Copper on Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1917-02-07

    quenching in oil instead of water. He con- cludes that the presence of copper need not cause apprehension, although tere may not be any advantage in its...present work of .r. Breuil, to be h- zein de- scribed, re 2 resents on; of the most extended investigations on the zffect of copper on the properties...Clevenger and Ray, which will now be described. Experimantal. MAKING INGOTS. 𔄂mall, circular, oil fired fuinace used, (using IoA pressure burner), to heat

  3. Trust and Influence in the Information Age: Operational Requirements for Network Centric Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    shopping malls . Now, not only do individuals have multiple ways of receiving and sending data, they can do so at greater than 1,000 times the...computerized check-in kiosks is an example of simple service related jobs disappearing. With fewer jobs that require simple tasking, entry level...practices within the groups and then share them company-wide. Creating “one company” was the number-one priority. In 1995, Kraft Foods reorganized into

  4. Non-Structural Flood Damage Reduction Within the Corps of Engineers: What Districts Are Doing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    businesses and antique malls at the I-75/Ringgold Road exit along Mack Smith Road North; 2). the Fountainbleu Apartments, a gas station, and medical...of Spring Creek; 4). the K-Mart shopping area between Interstate 24 and Spring Creek; and 5). various commercial structures along Ringgold Road at...two commercial structures, a multi-use structure, a florist shop , and ten residential structures which would lie on the right bank outside the Levee

  5. A Transducer/Equipment System for Capturing Speech Information for Subsequent Processing by Computer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-07

    have shown interest in a speech capture system that would operate in a noisy lobby, casino, airport and shopping mall floor for access to the Automated...control or selection. Vending machines, shopping dispenser kiosks , and entertainment virtual reality games of the future will all be voice activated...EVALUATION RESEARCH INC PAGE 1 TR-3150- 178 - High speech recognition accuracy for commercial applications; automated drive thru fast food ordering

  6. Currents of Change: A History of the Portland District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1980-2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    the Willamette River." The other emblem was a large copper statue of "Portlandia," which looks over the downtown bus mall and represents civic...supports at-risk youth, the District constructed a three-and-a-half foot wide boardwalk and interpretive kiosk along the lake’s south shoreline...The kiosk was designed to help identify plants and animals that visitors observed at the site, as well as explain the relationship between them

  7. Supplements to a Guide to Cultural and Environmental Interpretation in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    safety sea monster, was developed to make safety messages for children more memorable and fun. She visits campgrounds and shopping malls and has...of the seventh grade students completing the environmental education programs will organize the illustrations into a food * chain from the primary... kiosks , and directional signs for interpretive services/facilities. * P-Paleontological Sites: such as fossil beds or deposits. The number following the

  8. Factors Affecting Organizational Performance NRD San Diego FY 1997-2000: A Systems Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    shopping malls and public affairs events. Prospects typed their names, age, telephone numbers in the machines, which were linked via telephone line...location and quality of educational institutions, population centers36, and leisure time activity centers such as youth centers and fast- food ...Thanksgiving turkeys for those top-performers. She would buy food for us at MEPS during Mission Days. You could tell she genuinely cared about our well

  9. A Surveillance Society and the Conflict State: Leveraging Ubiquitous Surveillance and Biometrics Technology to Improve Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    hub; it is also part industrial complex and shopping mall . With millions of law-abiding people flying on planes, there is always the possibility...Julie Jacobson). ......................122 Figure 5.23. EDS’s Known Traveler kiosk at Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport. (From: Electronic Data Systems, 2002...reached 10 billion dollars.” (Future Harvest, 8 May 2002). “War often destroys food crops, leaving people without a source of food or income and laying

  10. WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT: Coordination of TANF Services Through One-Stops Has Increased Despite Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    program. They also plan to locate information kiosks for youth services in the shopping malls . Once job seekers are inside the door of the one-stop center...administered TANF, Food Stamps, and Medicaid, other programs that provide key services to TANF clients are administered by housing authorities, education...About half of the states coordinated their TANF cash assistance or Food Stamps or Medicaid programs with the one-stop centers, electronically, or by

  11. Responses to Fiscal Stress: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    within drug stores, grocery stores, and other retail chain stores, such as those in shopping centers and local malls ” (GAO, 2010, p. 34). The USPS...service kiosks . Amtrak implemented small efficiency improvements, cut departments, burden shared and centralized decision-making. Small efficiency...identify cost savings. Specifically, Amtrak consolidated operations and accountability for its food and beverage into a single department. They also

  12. The Best kept Secrets In Government.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Services Administration established the first electronic shopping mall for Federal customers, which cut the cost of real estate sales by 50 percent while...services that most people depend on—things like ensuring that our food and water are safe, that our neighborhoods are free from drugs and crime, that...employees use self-serve computer kiosks ? Why else would U.S. Customs Service employees have come up with the plan that eliminated an entire layer

  13. Domestic Catastrophes Flow Through Six Distinct Phases: An Analysis of the Los Angeles Riots of 1992 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    libraries, shopping malls and many businesses are shut down for the day. Cal State Los Angeles, Dominguez Hills and Northridge cancel classes. Final exams...medical airlift. 101 Military personnel performed other missions including search and rescue, security, evacuations, food and water distribution...34The demonstration outside Parker Center turns violent as the crowd throws rocks, smashes windows and torches a kiosk . Other demonstrators vandalize

  14. The psychological effects of cyber terrorism.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L; Canetti, Daphna; Vashdi, Dana R

    2016-01-01

    When ordinary citizens think of cyber threats, most are probably worried about their passwords and banking details, not a terrorist attack. The thought of a shooting in a mall or a bombing at an airport is probably more frightening than a cyber breach. Yet terrorists aim for mental as well as physical destruction, and our research has found that, depending on who the attackers and the victims are, the psychological effects of cyber threats can rival those of traditional terrorism.

  15. Matrix-Enabled Damage Tolerance in Oxide CFCCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Zawada Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7817 The present study explores the...alumina particles.’ 9 In com-bination, these phenomena should lead to increased I.L. P. Zawada , R. S. Hay, S. S. Lee, and J. Staehler, "Characterization...981-990 (2003). the fibers, consistent with the measurements and obser- 2. S. G. Steel, L. P. Zawada , and S. Mall, "Fatigue Behavior of a Nextel

  16. Proceeding of the 1999 Particle Accelerator Conference. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fabris, Alessandro fabris@elettra.trieste.it Drago, Alessandro drago@lnf.infn.it Sincrotrone Trieste, Sincrotrone Trieste, ss. 14 km 163,5 Basovizza...USA Fischer, Wolfram Wolfram.Fischer@bnl.gov Gallo, Alessandro Alessandro.Gallo@lnf.infn.it BNL, RHIC Project, P.O. Box 5000, Bldg. 1005S, Upton, NY...11714, TRIUMF, Cyclotron Div., 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T USA 2A3, Canada Ratti, Alessandro aratti@lbl.gov Poncet, Alain alain.poncet

  17. Performance Oriented Packaging Requirements of Wirebound Box for Small Caliber Ammunition Packed in PA108 Metal Container for Packing Group II Solid Hazardous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-05

    amunition. This wirebound box contains two PA108 metal containers containing 5.56= mall caliber wmuiticx for Squad Automatic Weapons . Tests were...REQUIREMENTS OF WIREBOUND BOX FOR SMALL CALIBER AMMUNITION PACKED IN PA108 METAL CONTAINER =0 QUALCTYI"’D 5 FOR Acl For PACKING GROUP II OTNC TAB...Squad Automatic Weapon . This box contains a maximum gross weight of 54 kg. POP tests were conducted using additional weight(62 kg test weight) to insure

  18. Trials Against Conqueror Tanks with Additional Ballistic Protection. Part 2: The Use of Large Hollow-Charge Warheads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1957-05-01

    photoelectric cell unit mounted on the right turret mall just below roof level, gave the rollowing peak flash illuminations:- Round 2 22.8 Lumens/sq...VMHICLBS RESEARCE AND DRVLM3TAJiu OPM NO: T.R2 S3C~T - DI3OR~T - I. * - - p WTSJJJE FIGUI~ 7. TYPICAL JET HOLES FIG~rI1~c. V~HI~ ~SEAR~i AND DFAT ~JO~T

  19. The Role of Flow Field Computation in Improving Turbomachinery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    sad total pressure within Solls-Royce t9 design turbine blade %hopes. loan. The comressors need in engines designed in Moruigesn and ReJily. 7 0 ) wrote... engine improve efficiency. In one case, blading designed specific fuel conaumption improved by some I Z. by NOTS for a mall Industrial turbine anufact...the corners Nost small aeronautical gas turbines have there- between wall and blade , and in due course also for fore chosen to use several axial stages

  20. Strengthening Hospital Surge Capacity in the Event of Explosive or Chemical Terrorist Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    services. Increased incidence of obesity , hypertension and diabetes contribute to costly health complications. Advances in medicine provide more...funding to complete. This training is in addition to hospital mandated training in infection control, child abuse, HIPPA, corporate compliance, risk...if not most, hospitals would not be prepared to handle hundreds of victims from a bombing or chemical release at a football game or inside a mall

  1. Dropping in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    It is not unusual to hear students at the Cesar Chavez Learning Center say that if they were not able to go to this kind of school, they would have given up on formal education a long time ago. Housed in a strip mall a mile and a half from the U.S.-Mexican border, the Chavez center allows students to attend school for a half day--morning or…

  2. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  3. An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi-Lagrangian Method (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-07

    An Unconditionally Stable Fully Conservative Semi- Lagrangian Method Michael Lentine∗, Jón Tómas Grétarsson∗, Ronald Fedkiw∗ Stanford University...353 Serra Mall Room 207, Stanford, CA 94305 Abstract Semi- Lagrangian methods have been around for some time, dating back at least to [3]. Researchers...the typical semi- Lagrangian interpolation step in order to guarantee that the amount of the con- servative quantity does not increase during this

  4. The Effects of Internal Tides on Acoustic Propagation in the Philippine Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    the focus depths. .............. 44  Figure 29.  Internal tidal fit to the +6 Ray ID for sensor depth 800m, 1300m, and 1385m...all tracked rays at each sensor depth...................................................... 47  Figure 31.  Tidal fit overlays for Oceanographic (black...variance for all tracked rays at each sensor depth. ......... 53  xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Wavelengths for diurnal and semidiurnal constituents

  5. Cyberculture and Personnel Security: Report 1 - Orientation, Concerns, and Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Mall-17095.html REFERENCES 60 Zavis, A. (2009). Judge tentatively dismisses case in MySpace hoax that led to teenage girl’s suicide . Retrieved...common across American society, and adults frequently participate, rather than just teenagers and college students. Social network participation is...extensive legal and media attention in conjunction with suicides . For example, Lori Drew, the mother of a former friend of 13-year-old Megan Meier

  6. Unconquerable Nation: Knowing Our Enemy, Strengthening Ourselves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    suicide bombers strapped with explosives walking into restaurants, shopping malls, buses, and hotel lobbies or driving trucks into embassies...planners to assemble specialized combinations of talent, in- cluding candidates suitable for pilot training who also were willing to carry out suicide ...Situation 27 the 7/7 London bombers were still able to create a suicide pact built upon local bonding. Subsequent Indicators of Progress? Captives and

  7. Visitors Center Educational Programs (Living and Working in Space)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Educational programs at the John C. Stennis Space Center Visitors Center reach more than 30,000 students in grades K-8 each year. Pictured above, a Stennis tour guide conducts a Living and Working in Space program for children at a local mall. This program, and others designed for specific age levels, is offered throughout the school year and summer for visiting students and youth groups.

  8. Reductions in Calcium Uptake Induced in Rat Brain Synaptosomes by Ionizing Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    was also reduced by radiation exposure. Nimodipine binding to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium uptake after irradiation in wh31e-brain, cortical...TERIz. and L.. GANDIA. Dihydropyridine Bay K 8644 aetivates chro- 2-32-286 (1950). mall’in cell calcium channels.Nature 309. 69-71 (1984). 33. E. L...TRIGGLE. Bay K 8644. a I .4-dihv- of dihydropyridine -sensitive calcium channels in rat brain synapto- dropyridinc Ca> channel activator: Dissociation

  9. Social Media Principles Applied to Critical Infrastructure Information Sharing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    BLANK xxiv I. INTRODUCTION On September 21, 2013, the shopping day of shoppers and mall employees typical was gravely disrupted. On this day...for online information delivery shifted to capabilities and user experiences that offer user participation and promote collaboration through user... online , group-authored resource in The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations.25 Jim Giles’ journal article on the

  10. Small Heat Shock Protein Responses Differ between Chaparral Shrubs from Contrasting Microclimates

    DOE PAGES

    Knight, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Smore » mall heat shock protein (sHsp) responses were studied for two evergreen perennial shrubs in the northern California chaparral; one common on warm, south-facing slopes ( Ceanothus cuneatus ), and the other on cooler, north-facing slopes ( Prunus ilicifolia ).mall Hsp expression was induced experimentally for field collected leaves. Leaf collections were made where the species co-occur.mall Hsp expression was quantified using two antibodies, one specific to a chloroplast 22 kD sHsp and another that detects a broad range of sHsps. Differences between chloroplast sHsp accumulation, which protects thermally labile proteins in PSII, and the general sHsp response were examined. The species from the cooler microclimate, Prunus , had a lower induction temperature and accumulated greater levels of sHsps at low temperatures. Both Prunus and Ceanothus reached peak sHsp expression at 42 ∘ C . The species from the warmer microclimate, Ceanothus , had greater sHsp expression at higher temperatures. Chloroplast sHsp expression generally tracked sHsp expression in Ceanothus , but in Prunus general Hsps were elevated before chloroplast sHsps. Variation between species for sHsp expression (induction temperatures, accumulation levels, and the duration of expression) coupled with the costs of Hsp synthesis, may contribute to differences in the abundance and distribution of plants across environmental gradients.« less

  11. The Evolution of Optical Depth in the Lyα Forest: Evidence Against Reionization at z~6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, George D.; Rauch, Michael; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2007-06-01

    We examine the evolution of the IGM Lyα optical depth distribution using the transmitted flux probability distribution function (PDF) in a high-resolution sample of 55 QSOs spanning absorption redshifts 1.7Miralda-Escudé et al. (2000; MHR00) and a lognormal distribution. Assuming a spatially uniform UV background and an isothermal IGM, as was done in previous works where transmitted flux statistics have been used to infer an end to cosmic reionization at z~6, the MHR00 model fails to reproduce the observed flux PDFs at redshifts where the optical depth distribution is well sampled unless large continuum corrections are applied. A lognormal τ distribution, in contrast, fits the data well at all redshifts with only minor continuum adjustments. Extrapolating the evolution of the lognormal distribution at z<5.4 predicts the observed upturn in the Lyα and Lyβ effective optical depths at z>5.7, while simultaneously reproducing the mean transmitted flux down to z=1.6. In this empirical sense, the evolution of the Lyα forest at z~6 is consistent with observed trends at lower redshift. If the evolution of the forest at z<~5 reflects a slowly evolving density field, temperature, and UV background, then no sudden change in the IGM, such as one due to late reionization, appears necessary to explain the disappearance of transmitted flux at z~6. If the MHR00 density distribution is correct, then a nonuniform UV background and/or IGM temperature may be required to produce the correct distribution of optical depths. We find that an inverse temperature-density relation for the MHR00 model significantly improves the PDF fits, but with a large scatter in the equation-of-state index. The observations were made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology and the University of

  12. Recall, appeal and willingness to try cigarettes with flavour capsules: assessing the impact of a tobacco product innovation among early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Thrasher, James F; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura; Barrientos-Gutíerrez, Inti; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Mejía, Raúl; Sargent, James D

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of flavour capsule varieties (FCVs) of cigarettes has rapidly increased in many countries. Adolescents are attracted to flavours; yet, surprisingly, no quantitative study has explored adolescents' perceptions of these products. Objective To characterise the appeal of FCVs for young adolescents in Mexico. Methods In 2015, surveys were conducted with a representative sample of Mexican middle school students (n=10 124; ages 11–16 years; mean 12.4 years). Students viewed and rated packs for FCVs and non-FCVs from major brands (Marlboro, Camel, Pall Mall), with brand names removed. For each pack, students were asked to write the brand name (ie, brand recall), to evaluate pack attractiveness, and to indicate the pack they were most interested in trying (including a ‘none’ option). Logistic generalised estimating equation (GEE) models regressed brand recall, pack attractiveness and interest in trying on brand and FCV (yes vs no), controlling for sociodemographics and smoking risk factors. Results Marlboro regular, Camel regular, Camel light and Pall Mall FCVs were most often recalled (25%, 17%, 9%, 8%). Packs for Pall Mall FCVs and Camel FCVs were most often rated as very attractive (13%, 9%, respectively) and of interest for trial (22%, 13%) along with Marlboro regular (14%). In GEE models, FCVs were independently associated with greater attractiveness (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.83, 95% CI 1.72 to 1.94) and interest in trying (AOR=1.74, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.96). Perceived pack attractiveness was also independently associated with greater interest in trying (AOR=5.63, 95% CI 4.74 to 6.68). Conclusions FCVs appear to be generating even greater appeal among young adolescents than established non-FCVs in dominant brand families. PMID:27060099

  13. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: analysis of molecular weight and heparinase-I digest patterns.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Cynthia D; Ye, Hongping; Kolinski, Richard E; Nasr, Moheb; Buhse, Lucinda F; Al-Hakim, Ali; Keire, David A

    2011-11-01

    We evaluated polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) approaches to determine weight-average molecular weight (M(w)) and polydispersity (PD) of heparins. A set of unfractionated heparin sodium (UFH) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) samples obtained from nine manufacturers which supply the US market were assessed. For SEC-MALLS, we measured values for water content, refractive index increment (dn/dc), and the second virial coefficient (A(2)) for each sample prior to molecular weight assessment. For UFH, a mean ± standard deviation value for M(w) of 16,773 ± 797 was observed with a range of 15,620 to 18,363 (n = 20, run in triplicate). For LMWHs by SEC-MALLS, we measured mean M(w) values for dalteparin, tinzaparin, and enoxaparin of 6,717 ± 71 (n = 4), 6,670 ± 417 (n = 3), and 3,959 ± 145 (n = 3), respectively. PAGE analysis of the same UFH, dalteparin, tinzaparin, and enoxaparin samples showed values of 16,135 ± 643 (n = 20), 5,845 ± 45 (n = 4), 6,049 ± 95 (n = 3), and 4,772 ± 69 (n = 3), respectively. These orthogonal measurements are the first M(w) results obtained with a large heparin sample set on product being marketed after the heparin crisis of 2008 changed the level of scrutiny of this drug class. In this study, we compare our new data set to samples analyzed over 10 years earlier. In addition, we found that the PAGE analysis of heparinase digested UFH and neat LMWH samples yield characteristic patterns that provide a facile approach for identification and assessment of drug quality and uniformity.

  14. A rapid and accurate method for the quantitative estimation of natural polysaccharides and their fractions using high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering and refractive index detector.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-06-26

    In this study, a rapid and accurate method for quantitative analysis of natural polysaccharides and their different fractions was developed. Firstly, high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was utilized to separate natural polysaccharides. And then the molecular masses of their fractions were determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Finally, quantification of polysaccharides or their fractions was performed based on their response to refractive index detector (RID) and their universal refractive index increment (dn/dc). Accuracy of the developed method for the quantification of individual and mixed polysaccharide standards, including konjac glucomannan, CM-arabinan, xyloglucan, larch arabinogalactan, oat β-glucan, dextran (410, 270, and 25 kDa), mixed xyloglucan and CM-arabinan, and mixed dextran 270 K and CM-arabinan was determined, and their average recoveries were between 90.6% and 98.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were ranging from 10.68 to 20.25 μg/mL, and 42.70 to 68.85 μg/mL, respectively. Comparing to the conventional phenol sulfuric acid assay and HPSEC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPSEC-ELSD) analysis, the developed HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions is much more simple, rapid, and accurate with no need of individual polysaccharide standard, as well as free of calibration curve. The developed method was also successfully utilized for quantitative analysis of polysaccharides and their different fractions from three medicinal plants of Panax genus, Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Panax quinquefolius. The results suggested that the HPSEC-MALLS-RID method based on universal dn/dc could be used as a routine technique for the quantification of polysaccharides and their fractions in natural resources.

  15. Avian Influenza Virus H3 Hemagglutinin May Enable High Fitness of Novel Human Virus Reassortants

    PubMed Central

    Kreibich, Anne; Stech, Olga; Hundt, Jana; Ziller, Mario; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Reassortment of influenza A virus genes enables antigenic shift resulting in the emergence of pandemic viruses with novel hemagglutinins (HA) acquired from avian strains. Here, we investigated whether historic and contemporary avian strains with different replication capacity in human cells can donate their hemagglutinin to a pandemic human virus. We performed double-infections with two avian H3 strains as HA donors and a human acceptor strain, and determined gene compositions and replication of HA reassortants in mammalian cells. To enforce selection for the avian virus HA, we generated a strictly elastase-dependent HA cleavage site mutant from A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) (Hk68-Ela). This mutant was used for co-infections of human cells with A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8) (DkUkr63) or the more recent A/Mallard/Germany/Wv64-67/05 (H3N2) (MallGer05) in the absence of elastase but presence of trypsin. Among 21 plaques analyzed from each assay, we found 12 HA reassortants with DkUkr63 (4 genotypes) and 14 with MallGer05 (10 genotypes) that replicated in human cells comparable to the parental human virus. Although DkUkr63 replicated in mammalian cells at a reduced level compared to MallGer05 and Hk68, it transmitted its HA to the human virus, indicating that lower replication efficiency of an avian virus in a mammalian host may not constrain the emergence of viable HA reassortants. The finding that HA and HA/NA reassortants replicated efficiently like the human virus suggests that further HA adaptation remains a relevant barrier for emergence of novel HA reassortants. PMID:24265752

  16. Secondhand smoke assessment in the first African country adopting a comprehensive smoke-free law (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    López, María José; Burhoo, Premduth; Moussa, Leelmanee; Nebot, Manel

    2011-11-01

    A new smoking regulation came into force in Mauritius in March 2009. Environmental nicotine and particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were measured in 60 hospitality venues and shopping malls on December 2009. There was presence of secondhand smoke in 69% of the samples. The overall median [IQR] nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were 0.05 [

  17. 40. SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING M STREET (NOW CAPITOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. SACRAMENTO APPROACH TO BRIDGE, SHOWING M STREET (NOW CAPITOL MALL) APPROACHING FROM LOWER RIGHT, WATCHMAN'S SHANTY AT CENTER, TRACKS OF SACRAMENTO NORTHERN RAILWAY ALONG CENTERLINE OF M STREET AND BRIDGE, AND TRACKS OF SOUTHERN PACIFIC RAILROAD CROSSING M STREET ON FRONT STREET. RIVER LINES BUILDING AT LEFT WAS SACRAMENTO TERMINAL FOR RIVER STEAMERS DELTA QUEEN AND DELTA KING. Pencil and wash drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1935. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  18. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban Stormwater, Madison, Wisconsin, 2005-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of 18 PAH compounds were characterized from six urban source areas (parking lots, feeder street, collector street, arterial street, rooftop, and strip mall) around Madison, Wisconsin. Parking lots were categorized into those that were or were not sealed. On average, chrysene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were the dominant PAH compounds in all urban stormwater samples. Geometric mean concentrations for most individual PAH compounds were significantly greater for a parking lot that was sealed than for lots that were not sealed. Results from this study are consistent with similar studies that measured PAH concentrations in urban stormwater samples in Marquette, Mich., and Madison, Wis.

  19. Carrier Battle Group (CVBG) Homeporting in the Puget Sound Area, Washington State. Technical Appendices.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Mall 603 36 1049 945 1479 6. Edmonds, Lynnwood, Mountlake Terrace 419 14 740 607 1027 7. North Creek, Maltby, 1 Cathcart , Mill Valley 365 20 637 554 923...45 -- 81 66 40 402 259 80 4 140 115 377 TOTAL 419 14 740 607 1027 North Creek, Maltby, Cathcart 389 390 251 40 10 62 54 40 391 252 50 -- 90 78 60 392...filtered (0.45 um pore size membrane filter), digested using procedures developed by Chain and DeWalle (1975) for chlorides in sanitary landfill leachate

  20. KSC volunteers help Meals on Wheels as part of Days of Caring '99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    KSC volunteers at Miracle City Mall, Titusville, help unload containers for Meals on Wheels delivery as part of their '99 Days of Caring participation. The volunteers will also help deliver the meals. Coordinated by the KSC Community Relations Council, Days of Caring provides an opportunity for employees to volunteer their services in projects such as painting, planting flowers, reading to school children, and more. Organizations accepting volunteers include The Embers, Yellow Umbrella, Serene Harbor, Domestic Violence Program, the YMCA of Brevard County, and others.

  1. The Future: Challenges and Opportunities for Air War College.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    electronic shopping from home, and ill the creation of "e~ectronic malls where customers shop by computer at these electronic kiosks , are waiting in...lifestyle. (47:38) There will be a wider variety of health foods available in the future, many of which will be developed using future technology.(79:cptr 10...work to an older age," and will stay ii the workforce longer than in the past. (179:1CS; 117:89) In fact, the food industry today is tapping older

  2. Bel Marin Keys Unit V Expansion of the Hamilton Wetland Restoration Project. Volume 3. Responses to Comments, Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    parking area, restrooms, and 31 information kiosks (referred to as "access area"). Only land required for these 32 approved features can be cost-shared by...Com Dcv X State Lands Canom (eu 7 9r• - Food & Agricultre __ Tahoe Rgl Plan Agency (Resources: I= Health Services Other: California State Coastal...Rayrrtond Seid U.S.- Environmental Protection Agency Mall Code H-9-4 75 Hawthorne Street San Francisco, California.94105 Ms. Beckye Stanton -U.S. Fi~h and

  3. Change and Continuity in Librarianship: Approaching the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the 40th Military Librarians Workshop, 20-22 November 1996, Annapolis, Maryland,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    a change of address. WINGS is also the prototype of a proposed kiosk system which would place kiosks with these services in local malls , libraries...of frozen food ; there would only be one detergent; and there would only be one national newspaper. We would all read Weekly World News before getting...and grill in the library, you have to do that. In fact, we do have people who bring food in, bring drinks in. But we haven’t sold beer or wine--yet

  4. Mode I and Mode II Interlaminar Crack Growth Resistances of Ceramic Matrix Composites at Ambient Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-02

    Sci. Proc., 25[4] 71-78 (2004). 9. L. P. Zawada , “Longitudinal and Transthickness Tensile Behavior of Several Oxide/Oxide Composites,” Ceram. Eng...Unidirectional C-C Composite,” J. Nucl. Mater., 230 226-232 (1996). 11. S. Mall, R. P. Vozzola, and L. Zawada , “Characterization of Fracture in Fiber...Behavior of a Unidirectional C-C Composite,” J. Nucl. Mater., 230 226-232 (1996). 34. L. P. Zawada , “Longitudinal and Transthickness Tensile Behavior

  5. Afghanistan: Post-Taliban Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-23

    Chivers. “Afghan Conflict Losing Air Power as U.S. Pulls Out.” New York Times, July 7, 2012. 34 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/12/world/ asia ...Administration is emphasizing development of a Central Asia -South Asia trading hub—part of a “ New Silk Road” (NSR)—in an effort to keep Afghanistan... new privately run airlines, such as Safi Air (run by the Safi Group, which has built a modern mall in Kabul), and Kam Air . Another, Pamir, was ordered

  6. Advanced Scavenge Systems for an Integrated Engine Inlet Particle Separator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    INSTRUMENTAT10N............ .oooo.....& 117 TEST RIG FACILITY INSTALLAT ION ..................... 124 TEST PLA.N OUJTLINE. . ... . .. .. .. .. . ... IZ...CDD 40 - 00 COD 0 cc 0a co 0 im 0 00 0-4 < -i 4L B LA SECT ION I (HUB) I1- SECTION 2 2- SECTION 3 3- SECTION 4 4 SECTION 5 5 STACKING POINT L.o in...based on previous particle seoarator experienc*, the difference in separation ef~iciency from 20-percent scavenge to 25 percent scavenge is mall, and

  7. Buying success, Saudi style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2009-11-01

    Oil - it is what has made Saudi Arabia rich. Without this black gold, none of the country's shopping malls, luxury hotels, six-lane highways or the airconditioned comfort that keeps the terrible heat at bay would be possible. From the first deposits harvested in the early 1950s, Saudi Arabia is now the world's leading exporter of petroleum, which accounts for nearly three-quarters of government revenue. And without the wealth from oil, the huge new King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), built on hard, desert soil in less than two years, would have been impossible.

  8. Maintaining U.S. Government Business Operations within the National Capital Region after an Aerosolized Anthrax Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-28

    1999, the United States had 81 anthrax threats, most of which were hoaxes .14 The capabilities to make or acquire weapons grade anthrax and then deliver...National Mall on a warm spring work day, there would be thousands of people outside enjoying the weather and over 300,000 Federal workers at or near...Monitors Screen Air Quality for Bacteria Attack," Houston Chronicle, July 29, 2003, A11. 29 The White House, “Progress Report On The Global War On Terrorism

  9. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  10. Solid Reactants for Fluorine Gas Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-15

    VOBrF 4 . The two interhalogen derivatives, KDrF 6 and KCIF 4 , were carried through mall-scale grain testing (10 to 20 g). Test data shoved the KBrF 6...Ig 3N2 and KCIF4 /AIN reactant systems to be most amenable to ignition and combustion in the scale tested . Studies of these two reactant systemd mere...systems mere difficult to achieve on the scale tested . The most promising candidate based on the grains tested consisted of a LiMnF 5/M formulation. An

  11. From Earth to the Universe: Image Exhibitions in the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watzke, M.; Arcand, K. K.; Christensen, L. L.

    2008-02-01

    The fantastic images of the Universe are largely responsible for the magical appeal that astronomy has for lay people. Indeed, popular images of the cosmos can engage the general public not only in the aesthetics of the visual realm, but also in the science of the knowledge and understanding behind them. The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) is an unprecedented opportunity to present astronomy to the global community. From Earth to the Universe (www.fromearthtotheuniverse.org) endeavours to bring these images to a wider audience in non-traditional venues, such as art museums, public galleries, shopping malls and public gardens.

  12. Operation Strong Wind (Fort Lee’s Response to a Local Tornado Disaster, 6 August 1993)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    A. Maps of area and mall B. AAR of HQ 49th QM Group(Petroleum) by MAJ Victoria Spinelli C. 49th Gp, EOC Log D. Fort Lee’s Duty Officer’s Log E. Kenner...for cellular phone services. Reaction and Organization On Fort Lee, MAJ Victoria Spinelli , acting commander of the 49th Quartermaster Group (Petroleum...the tornado had touched down. After the phone conversation with COL Ferguson, MAJ Spinelli drove to his office in Mifflin Hall about 1355, and met with

  13. The not so new electric car -- Step child of Detroit

    SciTech Connect

    Lough, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    In the first decade of the 20th century, gas and electric vehicles were in a head to head battle. Actually until after 1915, electric trucks dominated the urban scene. At this time it was not only commercial concerns who preferred electric`s but women too, for they were clean, easy to start and drive, and you know something--they still are! In lacking the foresight to develop electric car technology the US has created a global monster. Urban sprawl, suburbs, malls, pollution on a global scale, and an infrastructure which is not going to give up market share without a fight.

  14. Game-Based Learning Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Persistent Immersive Synthetic Environments (PISE) are not just connection points, they are meeting places. They are the new public squares, village centers, malt shops, malls and pubs all rolled into one. They come with a sense of 'thereness" that engages the mind like a real place does. Learning starts as a real code. The code defines "objects." The objects exist in computer space, known as the "grid." The objects and space combine to create a "place." A "world" is created, Before long, the grid and code becomes obscure, and the "world maintains focus.

  15. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  16. Early fire sensing using near-IR diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.

    2002-09-01

    We describe research leading to a trace gas detection system based on optical absorption using near-IR diode lasers that is intended to provide early warning of incipient fires. Applications include "high loss" structures such as office buildings, hospitals, hotels and shopping malls as well as airplanes and manned spacecraft where convention smoke detectors generate unacceptably high false alarm rates. Simultaneous or near-simultaneous detection of several gases (typically carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, acetylene and hydrogen cyanide) provides high sensitivity while reducing the chance of false alarms. Continuous measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations also provides an internal check of instrument performance because ambient levels will not drop below ~350 ppm.

  17. A Wind Dependent Desert Aerosol Model: Radiative Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-19

    picb~) Air Force Geophycics LaboraýC.oLy fC. ADDREýS (OI’v, Slae, 411(1 ZIP CO’.) 7t8 ADDRESS ( City , State, and ZIP Code) 50 Mall Road Hlanscom Air...IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if applicable) Air Force Geophysics Labi F19628-85-C-0178 Sc. ADDRESS ( City , State, and ZIP Cod#) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING...2.5.3 Concerns Over the Reported Values 18 2.6 Radiative Impacts 20 2.7 Conclusions That Can Be Drawn From Previous Studies 22 3. THE PRESENT DESERT

  18. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories.

  19. Calcium with the β-tin structure at high pressure and low temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Zou, Bo; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas; Park, Changyong; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2012-10-09

    Using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperatures, we have established the phase diagram for calcium up to 110 GPa and 5-300 K. We discovered the long-sought for theoretically predicted β-tin structured calcium with I4(1)/amd symmetry at 35 GPa in a s mall low-temperature range below 10 K, thus resolving the enigma of absence of this lowest enthalpy phase. The stability and relations among various distorted simple-cubic phases in the Ca-III region have also been examined and clarified over a wide range of high pressures and low temperatures.

  20. WPSS: watching people security services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Borsboom, Sander; van Zon, Kasper; Luo, Xinghan; Loke, Ben; Stoeller, Bram; van Kuilenburg, Hans; Dijk, Judith

    2013-10-01

    To improve security, the number of surveillance cameras is rapidly increasing. However, the number of human operators remains limited and only a selection of the video streams are observed. Intelligent software services can help to find people quickly, evaluate their behavior and show the most relevant and deviant patterns. We present a software platform that contributes to the retrieval and observation of humans and to the analysis of their behavior. The platform consists of mono- and stereo-camera tracking, re-identification, behavioral feature computation, track analysis, behavior interpretation and visualization. This system is demonstrated in a busy shopping mall with multiple cameras and different lighting conditions.

  1. Tensile Fabrics Enhance Architecture Around the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Using a remarkable fabric originally developed to protect Apollo astronauts, Birdair Inc. of Amherst, New York, has crafted highly durable, safe, environmentally friendly, and architecturally stunning tensile membrane roofs for over 900 landmark structures around the world. Travelers in airports, sports fans at stadiums, and shoppers in malls have all experienced the benefits of the Teflon-coated fiberglass fabric that has enabled Birdair to grow from a small company established in its founder?s kitchen in 1955 to a multimillion-dollar specialty contractor today.

  2. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  3. Reliable dn/dc Values of Cellulose, Chitin, and Cellulose Triacetate Dissolved in LiCl/N,N-Dimethylacetamide for Molecular Mass Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuko; Ishida, Takashi; Soeta, Hiroto; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2016-01-11

    Freeze-dried microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was directly dissolved in 8.0% w/w lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl/DMAc), and MFC/LiCl/DMAc solutions with accurate MFC concentrations were prepared. The different MFC solutions were diluted to 1.0% and 0.5% w/v LiCl/DMAc, and subjected to size-exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser-light scattering and refractive index analyses (SEC/MALLS/RI), and off-line RI analysis to determine their refractive index increments (dn/dc). Chitin, cellulose triacetate, a poly(styrene) standard, and cellobiose were used for comparison. Each of the two determination methods gave different dn/dc values for MFC and chitin but similar dn/dc values for cellulose triacetate and poly(styrene). The anomalously small dn/dc values of MFC and chitin were explainable in terms of stable cellulose-LiCl and chitin-LiCl structures (i.e., formation of apparent covalent bonds between hydroxyl groups and LiCl) in the solutions. Thus, the SEC/MALLS/RI method provides reliable molecular mass parameters for cellulose and chitin.

  4. Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering analysis of hyaluronan size distributions made by membrane-bound hyaluronan synthase.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Bruce A; Weigel, Paul H

    2006-05-15

    Size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analyses of Escherichia coli membranes expressing Streptococcus equisimilis hyaluronan synthase (seHAS) demonstrated an inherent artifact (10-100 MDa) that coeluted with hyaluronan (HA) and skewed the apparent weight-average mass of HA to erroneously high values. Briefly heating samples to 65-75 degrees C eliminated this artifact and increased the yield of recovered HA due to the release of HA chains that were attached to membrane-bound HAS. Inclusion of alkaline phosphatase, which removed uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP) produced during the reaction, improved the linearity of HA synthesis-even at high substrate use. Surprisingly, the addition of EDTA, to chelate Mg(2+) ions, did not completely stop the HAS reaction at 30 degrees C or at 4 degrees C. The best conditions for stopping the reaction without altering SEC-MALLS profiles of the product HA were to chill samples on ice in the presence of both EDTA and UDP. Even with excess substrate, the maximum size of product HA decreased as the enzyme concentration increased. Therefore, the maximum HA size made by HAS was determined by extrapolation to zero enzyme concentration. Using the above conditions, membrane-bound seHAS synthesized a cohort of HA products that steadily increased in weight-average molar mass, reaching a final maximal steady-state size of 4 to 6 MDa within 2-4 h.

  5. Track-based event recognition in a realistic crowded environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huis, Jasper R.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Burghouts, Gertjan J.; Eendebak, Pieter T.; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Dijk, Judith; van Rest, Jeroen H.

    2014-10-01

    Automatic detection of abnormal behavior in CCTV cameras is important to improve the security in crowded environments, such as shopping malls, airports and railway stations. This behavior can be characterized at different time scales, e.g., by small-scale subtle and obvious actions or by large-scale walking patterns and interactions between people. For example, pickpocketing can be recognized by the actual snatch (small scale), when he follows the victim, or when he interacts with an accomplice before and after the incident (longer time scale). This paper focusses on event recognition by detecting large-scale track-based patterns. Our event recognition method consists of several steps: pedestrian detection, object tracking, track-based feature computation and rule-based event classification. In the experiment, we focused on single track actions (walk, run, loiter, stop, turn) and track interactions (pass, meet, merge, split). The experiment includes a controlled setup, where 10 actors perform these actions. The method is also applied to all tracks that are generated in a crowded shopping mall in a selected time frame. The results show that most of the actions can be detected reliably (on average 90%) at a low false positive rate (1.1%), and that the interactions obtain lower detection rates (70% at 0.3% FP). This method may become one of the components that assists operators to find threatening behavior and enrich the selection of videos that are to be observed.

  6. Electrophysiological measurement of interest during walking in a simulated environment.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Okuma, Takashi; Kimura, Motohiro; Kurata, Takeshi; Takenaka, Takeshi; Iwaki, Sunao

    2014-09-01

    A reliable neuroscientific technique for objectively estimating the degree of interest in a real environment is currently required in the research fields of neuroergonomics and neuroeconomics. Toward the development of such a technique, the present study explored electrophysiological measures that reflect an observer's interest in a nearly-real visual environment. Participants were asked to walk through a simulated shopping mall and the attractiveness of the shopping mall was manipulated by opening and closing the shutters of stores. During the walking task, participants were exposed to task-irrelevant auditory probes (two-stimulus oddball sequence). The results showed a smaller P2/early P3a component of task-irrelevant auditory event-related potentials and a larger lambda response of eye-fixation-related potentials in an interesting environment (i.e., open-shutter condition) than in a boring environment (i.e., closed-shutter condition); these findings can be reasonably explained by supposing that participants allocated more attentional resources to visual information in an interesting environment than in a boring environment, and thus residual attentional resources that could be allocated to task-irrelevant auditory probes were reduced. The P2/early P3a component and the lambda response may be useful measures of interest in a real visual environment.

  7. Rice starch, amylopectin, and amylose: molecular weight and solubility in dimethyl sulfoxide-based solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Wang, Qian; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2006-03-22

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), with either 50 mM LiBr, 10% water, or both, was used as solvent for multi-angle laser-light scattering (MALLS) batch mode analysis of rice starch, and amylopectin and amylose weight-average molecular weight (Mw). DMSO/50 mM LiBr was a better solvent for these measurements than was DMSO/10% water, based on this solvent's ability to dissolve starch and to reduce the size of starch aggregates. Starch concentration decreased and amylose:amylopectin ratio increased when starch suspended in DMSO was centrifuged or filtered prior to size-exclusion chromatography (SEC)-MALLS analysis. A higher amylose:amylopectin ratio made starch more soluble, and the higher this ratio, the lower the Mw of eluted amylopectin. For SEC analysis of Mw, fractions of starch amylopectin and amylose dispersed in DMSO-based solvents yielded better results than starch dispersed directly into the solvents, because dispersion of these fractions decreased starch aggregation. When these two starch components were fractionated and then dissolved separately in DMSO/50 mM LiBr, the Mw of dispersed amylopectin ranged from 40 to 50 million, and that of amylose was ca. 3 million, whereas starch from three rice varieties of varying amylose content ranged from 60 to 130 million. We recommend that SEC evaluation of amylopectin and amylose be accomplished with fractionated samples as in this study; such evaluations were superior to evaluations of natural mixtures of amylopectin and amylose.

  8. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  9. Walking simulator for evaluation of ophthalmic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabas, James; Woods, Russell L.; Peli, Eli

    2005-03-01

    Simulating mobility tasks in a virtual environment reduces risk for research subjects, and allows for improved experimental control and measurement. We are currently using a simulated shopping mall environment (where subjects walk on a treadmill in front of a large projected video display) to evaluate a number of ophthalmic devices developed at the Schepens Eye Research Institute for people with vision impairment, particularly visual field defects. We have conducted experiments to study subject's perception of "safe passing distance" when walking towards stationary obstacles. The subject's binary responses about potential collisions are analyzed by fitting a psychometric function, which gives an estimate of the subject's perceived safe passing distance, and the variability of subject responses. The system also enables simulations of visual field defects using head and eye tracking, enabling better understanding of the impact of visual field loss. Technical infrastructure for our simulated walking environment includes a custom eye and head tracking system, a gait feedback system to adjust treadmill speed, and a handheld 3-D pointing device. Images are generated by a graphics workstation, which contains a model with photographs of storefronts from an actual shopping mall, where concurrent validation experiments are being conducted.

  10. Fermentation optimization for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Ying; Cheong, Kit-Leong; Wu, Ding-Tao; Meng, Lan-Zhen; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The optimal fermentation conditions and medium for the production of bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis fungus UM01 were investigated by using orthogonal design and high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multi-angel laser light scattering and refractive index detector (HPSEC-MALLS-RID). Results showed that the optimal temperature, initial pH, rotation speed, medium capacity (ratio of medium volume to the volume of flask bottle) and inoculums volume for the mycelium growth were 15 °C, pH 6.0, 150 rpm, 2/5 (v/v), and 3% (v/v), respectively. Furthermore, bioactive polysaccharides from the mycelium of C. sinensis fungus UM01 were determined as polysaccharide fractions with the molecular weight above 10 kDa. The optimal fermentation medium was determined as a composition of glucose 30.0 g/L, sucrose 30.0 g/L, KH2PO4 1.0 g/L, CaCl2 0.5 g/L, yeast extract 3.0 g/L, and MgCl2 0.1g/L according to the maximum amount of the bioactive polysaccharides (486.16±19.60 mg/L) measured by HPSEC-MALLS/RID. Results are helpful to establish an efficient and controllable fermentation process for the industrial production of bioactive polysaccharides from C. sinensis UM01, and beneficial to develop a unique health and functional product in future.

  11. Simulating large-scale pedestrian movement using CA and event driven model: Methodology and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Jia, Hongfei; Li, Yanzhong; Guo, Yi

    2015-11-01

    Large-scale regional evacuation is an important part of national security emergency response plan. Large commercial shopping area, as the typical service system, its emergency evacuation is one of the hot research topics. A systematic methodology based on Cellular Automata with the Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model has been proposed, and the methodology has been examined within context of a case study involving the evacuation within a commercial shopping mall. Pedestrians walking is based on Cellular Automata and event driven model. In this paper, the event driven model is adopted to simulate the pedestrian movement patterns, the simulation process is divided into normal situation and emergency evacuation. The model is composed of four layers: environment layer, customer layer, clerk layer and trajectory layer. For the simulation of movement route of pedestrians, the model takes into account purchase intention of customers and density of pedestrians. Based on evacuation model of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven model, we can reflect behavior characteristics of customers and clerks at the situations of normal and emergency evacuation. The distribution of individual evacuation time as a function of initial positions and the dynamics of the evacuation process is studied. Our results indicate that the evacuation model using the combination of Cellular Automata with Dynamic Floor Field and event driven scheduling can be used to simulate the evacuation of pedestrian flows in indoor areas with complicated surroundings and to investigate the layout of shopping mall.

  12. Cell Wall N-Linked Mannoprotein Biosynthesis Requires Goa1p, a Putative Regulator of Mitochondrial Complex I in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    She, Xiaodong; Calderone, Richard; Kruppa, Michael; Lowman, Douglas; Williams, David; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Ying; Khamooshi, Kasra; Liu, Weida; Li, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The Goa1p of Candida albicans regulates mitochondrial Complex I (CI) activities in its role as a putative CI accessory protein. Transcriptional profiling of goa1∆ revealed a down regulation of genes encoding β-oligomannosyl transferases. Herein, we present data on cell wall phenotypes of goa1∆ (strain GOA31). We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), GPC/MALLS, and NMR to compare GOA31 to a gene-reconstituted strain (GOA32) and parental cells. We note by TEM a reduction in outer wall fibrils, increased inner wall transparency, and the loss of a defined wall layer close to the plasma membrane. GPC-MALLS revealed a reduction in high and intermediate Mw mannan by 85% in GOA31. A reduction of β-mannosyl but not α-mannosyl linkages was noted in GOA31 cells. β-(1,6)-linked glucan side chains were branched about twice as often but were shorter in length for GOA31. We conclude that mitochondrial CI energy production is highly integrated with cell wall formation. Our data also suggest that not all cell wall biosynthetic processes are dependent upon Goa1p even though it provides high levels of ATP to cells. The availability of both broadly conserved and fungal-specific mutants lacking CI subunit proteins should be useful in assessing functions of fungal-specific functions subunit proteins. PMID:26809064

  13. Rationale of subdermal superficial liposuction related to the anatomy of subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system.

    PubMed

    Gasperoni, C; Salgarello, M

    1995-01-01

    The liposuction technique has changed greatly over the years. In 1989, the authors presented subdermal superficial liposuction which treats the superficial fat layer and yields better skin retraction. With this technique the surgeon can treat thin adipose layers to obtain better results in more cases than the traditional liposuction technique. The technique can be used in cases with difficult skin adjustment and in secondary cases when "deep only" liposuction has been performed and there were residual adiposities. Subdermal superficial liposuction evolved so that one could obtain good skin retraction by performing massive liposuction of all the fat layers. The authors named this technique MALL (Massive All Layer Liposuction). The technique is applied in body areas where the fat layer is very thick and stretches the skin because of its volume and weight such as in the abdomen, posterior arms, and internal surface of the upper third of the thighs. MALL liposuction drastically reduces the indications for abdominoplasty and inner thigh and arm dermolipectomies. Knowledge of the anatomy of the subcutaneous fat and the superficial fascial system allows one to explain the subdermal superficial liposuction from an anatomical point of view, to perform a more rational and effective procedure, and to differentiate the technique depending on the area of the body.

  14. Size exclusion chromatography and viscometry in paper degradation studies. New Mark-Houwink coefficients for cellulose in cupri-ethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Łojewski, Tomasz; Zieba, Katarzyna; Lojewska, Joanna

    2010-10-15

    The paper deals with the application of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the studies of paper degradation phenomena. The goal is to solve some of the technical problems connected with the calibration of multi-detector SEC system and to find the correlation between SEC and viscometric results of degree of polymerization of cellulose. The results gathered for the paper samples degraded by acidic air pollutant (NO(2)) are used as an example of SEC-MALLS application. From the correlation between intrinsic viscosities and absolute value of molecular masses obtained with SEC/MALLS (Multi Angle Laser Light Scattering) technique, Mark-Houwink coefficients for cellulose in cupri-ethylenediamine solution were determined. Thus obtained coefficients were used for the determination of viscometric degree of polymerization (molecular mass) of the aged samples. An excellent correlation was found between the chromatographic values of molecular masses obtained with SEC-UV/VIS detection and the viscometric ones utilizing the improved values of Mark-Houwink coefficients.

  15. Measuring compulsive buying behaviour: psychometric validity of three different scales and prevalence in the general population and in shopping centres.

    PubMed

    Maraz, Aniko; Eisinger, Andrea; Hende, Borbála; Urbán, Róbert; Paksi, Borbála; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-02-28

    Due to the problems of measurement and the lack of nationally representative data, the extent of compulsive buying behaviour (CBB) is relatively unknown. The validity of three different instruments was tested: Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale (ECBS; Edwards, E.A., 1993. Development of a new scale for measuring compulsive buying behaviour. Financial Counseling and Planning. 4, 67-85), Questionnaire About Buying Behavior (QABB; Lejoyeux, M., Ades, J., 1994. Les achats pathologiques: une addiction comportementale. Neuro-Psy. 9, 25-32.) and Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (RCBS; Ridgway, N.M., Kukar-Kinney, M., Monroe, K.B., 2008. An expanded conceptualization and a new measure of compulsive buying. Journal of Consumer Research. 35, 622-639.) using two independent samples. One was nationally representative of the Hungarian population (N=2710) while the other comprised shopping mall customers (N=1447). As a result, a new, four-factor solution for the ECBS was developed (Edwards Compulsive Buying Scale Revised (ECBS-R)), and confirmed the other two measures. Additionally, cut-off scores were defined for all measures. Results showed that the prevalence of CBB is 1.85% (with QABB) in the general population but significantly higher in shopping mall customers (8.7% with ECBS-R, 13.3% with QABB and 2.5% with RCBS-R). Conclusively, due to the diversity of content, each measure identifies a somewhat different CBB group.

  16. Disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    2011-07-01

    This paper introduces a network-enabled model to examine the disaster coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations (STOs). Little attention is devoted to this matter in recent research. This study places emphasis on such organisations and the proposed model tests hypotheses related to network relation and coordination preparedness. It analyses the data set entitled 'Preparedness of large retail malls to prevent and respond to terrorist attack, 2004', which contains 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls in the United States.(1) The following questions form the basis of this study: 'What do STOs need to be better prepared to respond to a disaster?'; 'How does network relationship between STOs and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of STOs for disaster recovery?'; and 'Which centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse coordination preparedness?' The results show that STOs with a high level of connectedness and strong ties to other emergency agencies are better prepared for disaster response.

  17. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  18. Molecular mass and molecular-mass distribution of TEMPO-oxidized celluloses and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Hiraoki, Ryoya; Ono, Yuko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Isogai, Akira

    2015-02-09

    Native wood cellulose was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and the fibrous TEMPO-oxidized celluloses (TOCs) thus obtained were disintegrated in water to prepare TOC nanofibrils (TOCNs). The carboxyl groups of TOCs and TOCNs were methyl-esterified, and the methylated samples were dissolved in 8% LiCl/N,N-dimethylacetamide for size-exclusion chromatography/multiangle laser-light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis to obtain their molecular-mass (MM) values and MM distributions (MMDs). The results showed that remarkable depolymerization occurred in TOCs and TOCNs and depended on the oxidation and sonication conditions. Because single peaks without bimodal patterns were observed in the MMDs for all of the TOC and TOCN samples, depolymerization may have randomly occurred on whole cellulose molecules and oxidized cellulose molecules in the microfibrils during these treatments. Compared with the MM values obtained by SEC-MALLS, the intrinsic viscosities of TOCs dissolved in 0.5 M copper ethylenediamine solution provided lower MM values owing to depolymerization during the dissolution and postreduction processes.

  19. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat

    In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency.

  20. Genetic and biochemical characterization of an oligo-α-1,6-glucosidase from Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Susana; Flórez, Ana Belén; Guadamuro, Lucía; Mayo, Baltasar

    2017-04-04

    Although encoded in the genome of many Lactobacillus spp. strains, α-glucosidases have received little attention compared to other glycosyl hydrolases. In this study, a putative oligosaccharide(oligo)-α-1,6-glucosidase-encoding gene (malL) was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus plantarum LL441. malL coded for 572 amino acid residues with a calculated total molecular mass of 66.31kDa. No predicted signal peptide was observed, suggesting this enzyme to be localized within the cytoplasm of the cell. Homology studies of the deduced amino acid sequence in the area of its active sites classified the enzyme as a member of the α-amylase (AmyAC) superfamily of glycosyl hydrolases (GH), family 13 (GH13), subfamily 31 (GH13_31). malL was cloned in Escherichia coli and the coded enzyme overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein (MalLHis). It was then purified and characterized. MalLHis protein showed strong hydrolytic activity towards 4-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (pNP-α-Glu) but not to other pNP-α-d- or pNP-β-d-derivatives. When using pNP-α-Glu as a substrate, MalLHis showed similar specific activities between pH5.0 and 6.0, and between 20 and 42°C (optimum 30°C). Among the natural carbohydrates assayed, MalLHis showed specificity towards isomaltose (Vmax and Km values of 40.64μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) and 6.22mM) and much less to isomaltulose (Vmax and Km values of 168.86μmolmin(-1)mg(-1) and 244.52mM). However, under the conditions of the assay, the enzyme showed no transglycosylation activity. Characterization of the entire complement of glycosidases in L. plantarum might reveal how strains of this species could be used in new biotechnological applications or in the development of functional foods.

  1. The development of an Alzheimer's disease channel for the Michigan Interactive Health Kiosk Project.

    PubMed

    Connell, Cathleen M; Shaw, Benjamin A; Holmes, Sara B; Hudson, Margaret L; Derry, Holly A; Strecher, Victor J

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this article is to describe the development and implementation of an Alzheimer's disease (AD) module for the Michigan Interactive Health Kiosk Project. This project provides access to health information via 100 kiosks located in public places throughout the state (e.g., churches, senior centers, schools, shopping malls, grocery stores, hospitals) using interactive multimedia software. Because the kiosk screen was designed to resemble a television set, program modules are referred to as "channels." The AD channel is designed to increase knowledge and awareness of the disease among the general public. After an overview of the overall project, the steps involved in developing the AD channel and strategies designed to monitor its use are described, including touch-screen usage data and an on-line user survey. Finally, marketing and promotion of the channel and the implications of this initiative for disseminating information about AD are discussed.

  2. Multimedia electronic mail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Brian

    1990-08-01

    Electronic mail is a facility, analogous to postal mail, in which computers are used to compose, deliver, and receive messages. Traditional electronic mail systems rely solely on text as the medium of communication. A multi-media electronic mall application, Mail, combines the media of Rich Text, voice, images, and electronic documents to facilitate interpersonal communication. With Mail, these various media can be integrated into a single message. The variety of available media and the complexity of the messages that result from their combination make it important for Mail to have a simple user interface. It was possible to develop a simple, graphically-based interface that would accommodate Mail's message complexity. The integration of these diverse media is made practical by the rich operating environment in which Mail runs. Modern advances in hardware, operating systems, libraries, and servers make possible this powerful multi-media electronic mail application.

  3. Molecular weight changes induced in an anionic polydimethylsiloxane by gamma irradiation in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satti, Angel J.; Andreucetti, Noemí A.; Ciolino, Andrés E.; Vitale, Cristian; Sarmoria, Claudia; Vallés, Enrique M.

    2010-11-01

    An anionic almost monodisperse linear polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was subjected to gamma irradiation under vacuum at room temperature. The molecular weight changes induced by the radiation process have been investigated using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with refraction index (RI) and multi angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detectors, to obtain the number and weight average molecular weights of the irradiated samples. The analysis of the data indicates that crosslinking reactions predominated over scission reactions. The results obtained by an SEC-RI have confirmed the presence of small, but measurable amounts of scission. A previously developed mathematical model of the irradiation process that accounts for simultaneous scission and crosslinking and allows for both H- and Y-crosslinks, fitted well the measured molecular weight data. This prediction is in accordance with the experimental data obtained by 29Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and previously reported data for commercial linear PDMS ( Satti et al., 2008).

  4. Denver RTD range extension study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This final report presents the results obtained in Task 4, Recommendations, of the Battery-Electric Bus Range Extension Study. In the second section of the report, the five range extension techniques, i.e. battery exchange (baseline); hydro-pneumatic regeneration to recover braking energy; fast recharge at the mall terminals; series hybrid: on-board internal combustion engine and generator which changes the battery; and combination of hydropneumatic regeneration and fast recharge. The third section of the report covers the system evaluation factors, rating schemes and facts, boundaries and weights. The results of the system evaluation and MCR Technology recommendations are presented in section four. The last section of the report covers the implementation program outline for the recommended range extension technique.

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Adherence to a Walking Intervention in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wang, Edward; McDevitt, Judith; Oh, April; Block, Richard; McNeil, Sue; Savar, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This secondary analysis examined relationships between the environment and adherence to a walking intervention among 252 urban and suburban midlife African-American women. Participants received an enhanced or minimal behavioral intervention. Walking adherence was measured as the percentage of prescribed walks completed. Objective measures of the women’s neighborhoods included: walkability (land use mix, street intersection density, housing unit density, public transit stop density), aesthetics (physical deterioration, industrial land use), availability of outdoor (recreational open space) and indoor (recreation centers, shopping malls) walking facilities/spaces, and safety (violent crime incidents). Ordinary least squares regression estimated relationships. We found presence of one and especially both types of indoor walking facilities were associated with greater adherence. No associations were found between adherence and the other environmental variables. The effect of the enhanced intervention on adherence did not differ by environmental characteristics. Aspects of the environment may influence African-American women who want to be more active. PMID:18669878

  6. Reductive alkylation of hyaluronic acid for the synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels by click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Němcová, Miroslava; Příkopová, Eva; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Pravda, Martin; Kučera, Lukáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2012-11-06

    Hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogels have been synthesized combining chemical modification of the polysaccharide by partial oxidation, reductive amination and 'click chemistry'. HA was oxidized by 4-acetamido-TEMPO-mediated reaction, using sodium hypochlorite as primary oxidant and NaBr in buffered pH, so that the produced aldehyde moieties (hemiacetals) were trapped in situ by adding primary amines containing azide or alkyne-terminal groups. The structure of the reaction products, oxidized-HA and primary amines bonded to HA, was elucidated using 2D NMR spectroscopy. SEC-MALLS analysis of the modified substrates showed a negligible degradation of the polysaccharide using this procedure. Furthermore, azido- and alkynyl derivatives underwent cross-linking by click chemistry into hydrogels, which were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, swelling degree and mechanical properties. Possible application of the material as scaffold for tissue engineering was tested by seeding and proliferation of chondrocytes for up to 15 days.

  7. Precise Geolocation Of Persistent Scatterers Aided And Validated By Lidar DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ling; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanessen, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    Persistent Scatterers (PS) interferometry results in the de- formation history of time-coherent scatterers. Although several applications focus on smooth, spatially correlated signals, we aim for the detection, identification and analysis of single anomalies. These targets can be indicative of, e.g., strain in structures, potentially leading to the failure of such structures. For the identification and analysis it is of the greatest importance to know the exact position of the effective scattering center, to avoid an improper interpretation of the driving mechanism. Here we present an approach to optimize the geolocation of important scatterers, when necessary aided by an a priori Lidar-derived DSM (AHN-1 data) with 15cm and 5m resolution in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. The DSM is also used to validate the geocoding. We implement our approach on a near-collapse event of a shopping mall in Heerlen, the Netherlands, to generate the precise geolocation of local PS points.

  8. Radiation exposure in whole body CT screening.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Pamidighantam; Ratnam, S V; Rao, K V J

    2011-04-01

    Using a technology that "takes a look" at people's insides and promises early warnings of cancer, cardiac disease, and other abnormalities, clinics and medical imaging facilities nationwide are touting a new service for health conscious people: "Whole body CT screening" this typically involves scanning the body from the chin to below the hips with a form of x-ray imaging that produces cross-sectional images. In USA direct-to-consumer marketing of whole body CT is occurring today in many metropolitan areas. Free standing CT screening centres are being sited in shopping malls and other high density public areas, and these centres are being advertised in the electronic and print media. In this context the present article discussed the pros and cons of having such centres in India with the advent of multislice CT leading to fast scan times.

  9. Pre- and post-sinusoidal origin of hepatic exudate in anesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Greenway, C V; Innes, I R; Scott, G D

    1991-12-01

    In cats anesthetized with pentobarbital, hepatic venous pressure was increased to cause drops of exudate to appear on the surface of the liver. These drops were collected during steady-state infusions of small doses of ethanol and galactose when there was a large arteriovenous gradient across the liver. Comparison of the concentrations of these substances in arterial, portal, and hepatic venous blood and exudate showed that the exudate concentrations were slightly higher than the hepatic venous concentrations but markedly lower than arterial and portal blood concentrations. We conclude that the exudate cannot be entirely formed in the space of Mall (presinusoidal) but a substantial part is postsinusoidal in origin. If the exudate is a mixture of fluids equilibrated with inflowing and outflowing blood, then 75-80% of the exudate is postsinusoidal and 20-25% is presinusoidal in origin.

  10. Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Information and Services: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Women's Needs and Experiences in Soweto, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Hargey, Adila; Holt, Kelsey; Shochet, Tara

    2015-03-01

    Young women and girls in South Africa are at high risk of unintended pregnancy and HIV. Previous studies have reported barriers to contraceptive and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services among young women in this context. We aimed to assess young women's SRH knowledge and experiences and to determine how they get SRH information and services in Soweto, South Africa using quantitative and qualitative methods. Young women, aged 18-24, recruited from primary health clinics and a shopping mall, reported that they have access to SRH information and know where to obtain services. However there are challenges to accessing and utilizing information and services including providers' unsupportive attitudes, uneven power dynamics in relationships and communication issues with parents and community members. There is a need to assist young women in understanding the significance of SRH information. They need access to age-appropriate, youth-friendly services in order to have healthy sexual experiences.

  11. Characterization of gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia): a structural and rheological approach.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Jaspreet; Singh, Harjinder

    2009-08-01

    Gatifolia, a commercial gum ghatti (Anogeissus latifolia) product was studied for its structural, thermal, and rheological characteristics. This study may prove helpful for the use of gum ghatti in a diverse range of food applications. The molecular weight (M(W)) and R(g) (radius of gyration) for gum ghatti were calculated to be approximately 8.94 x 10(7) g/mol and 140 nm, respectively, using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS). Gum ghatti solutions exhibited pseudoplastic behavior (as determined by flow experiments), which became more prevalent with increasing concentrations. Gum ghatti also displayed time-dependent shear-thickening behavior and showed negative hysteresis during up-down flow measurements. Under the measurement conditions at the range of frequencies and temperatures studied, the gum did not behave as a typical viscoelastic gel.

  12. Intelligent web image retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungyong; Lee, Chungwoo; Nah, Yunmook

    2001-07-01

    Recently, the web sites such as e-business sites and shopping mall sites deal with lots of image information. To find a specific image from these image sources, we usually use web search engines or image database engines which rely on keyword only retrievals or color based retrievals with limited search capabilities. This paper presents an intelligent web image retrieval system. We propose the system architecture, the texture and color based image classification and indexing techniques, and representation schemes of user usage patterns. The query can be given by providing keywords, by selecting one or more sample texture patterns, by assigning color values within positional color blocks, or by combining some or all of these factors. The system keeps track of user's preferences by generating user query logs and automatically add more search information to subsequent user queries. To show the usefulness of the proposed system, some experimental results showing recall and precision are also explained.

  13. Interface: reflections of an ethnic toygirl.

    PubMed

    Yue, A

    1999-01-01

    This essay interrogates the colonial modernity of Anglo-Australian lesbian hegemony through an experimental text which plays with the aesthetics of cyberspace. Mobilizing the hypertext mark up language (HTML) form of the Internet, it spatializes the creative, the erotic, and the political that landscape the vicissitudes of everyday life for a lesbian of Southeast Asian background living in Australia. "interface" performs as a tryst that drives the queer body politic through the postcolonial in-formations of color, race, gender and identity. This text bears indelible marks from multiple sites and sources: the charges of electronic conversations and etchings on the World Wide Web; the raw pulp of inner-urban graffiti scrawls; passionate voicemails; racist policies in queer venues; fury banner posts; luscious lesbian cinema screenings; sexy fantasy malls; and fleshy style shopping.

  14. Development of microporous drug-releasing films cast from artificial nanosized latexes of poly(styrene-co-methyl methacrylate) or poly(styrene-co-ethyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Otto, Daniel P; Vosloo, Hermanus C M; Liebenberg, Wilna; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2008-08-01

    Two sets of copolymers comprising of styrene and either methyl or ethyl methacrylate as comonomer were conveniently synthesized by microemulsion copolymerization. The purified materials were characterized by GPC-MALLS and were shown to form artificial nanolatexes in THF. ATR-FTIR analysis revealed differences in copolymer composition and based on the copolymer properties, a selection of copolymers was chosen to cast drug-loaded, microporous films that exhibit microencapsulation of drug agglomerates. The contact angles of the copolymers suggested potential applications in medical devices to prevent the formation of bacterial biofilms that commonly result in infections. Additionally, the different copolymeric films showed two phases of drug release characterized by a rapid initial drug release followed by a zero-order phase. Depending on the application, one could select the copolymer films that best suited the application i.e. for short-term drug release applications such as urinary catheters or long-term applications such as artificial implants.

  15. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-27

    Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems.

  16. JV Task 86 - Identifying the Source of Benzene in Indoor Air Using Different Compound Classes from TO-15 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Steven B. Hawthorne

    2007-04-15

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) data that had already been collected using EPA method TO-15 at four different sites under regulatory scrutiny (a school, strip mall, apartment complex, and business/residential neighborhood) were evaluated to determine whether the source of indoor air benzene was outdoor air or vapor intrusion from contaminated soil. Both the use of tracer organics characteristic of different sources and principal component statistical analysis demonstrated that the source of indoor air at virtually all indoor sampling locations was a result of outdoor air, and not contaminated soil in and near the indoor air-sampling locations. These results show that proposed remediation activities to remove benzene-contaminated soil are highly unlikely to reduce indoor air benzene concentrations. A manuscript describing these results is presently being prepared for submission to a peer-reviewed journal.

  17. Propensity of lignin to associate: light scattering photometry study with native lignins.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Sofía; Gaspar, Armindo R; Guerra, Anderson; Lucia, Lucian A; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2008-12-01

    Many studies of lignins in solution invoke association and aggregation phenomena to explain their solution behavior (e.g., reprecipitation onto pulp fibers, condensation, etc.). Following their colloidal (apparent) molecular weights in solution as a function of time allows us to explore observable dissociation phenomena. These measurements were carried out using multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometry in the static mode. The challenges and opportunities of measuring the specific refractive index increment (dn/dC) of lignin solutions and determining the kinetics of the dissociation process were thus investigated. Hardwood and softwood representative lignins were isolated, and method for their full dissolution in THF was further developed, which then lead to accurate dn/dC values being obtained as a function of time. When coupled to additional work using light scattering static measurements and Zimm plots for the same solutions, this effort offers insight into the aggregation and ensuing dissociative events that operate within the lignin macromolecules.

  18. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci—principally malls and schools—we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation. PMID:26166907

  19. Clean Technology Evaluation & Workforce Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Glaza

    2012-12-01

    The overall objective of the Clean Technology Evaluation portion of the award was to design a process to speed up the identification of new clean energy technologies and match organizations to testing and early adoption partners. The project was successful in identifying new technologies targeted to utilities and utility technology integrators, in developing a process to review and rank the new technologies, and in facilitating new partnerships for technology testing and adoption. The purpose of the Workforce Development portion of the award was to create an education outreach program for middle & high-school students focused on clean technology science and engineering. While originally targeting San Diego, California and Cambridge, Massachusetts, the scope of the program was expanded to include a major clean technology speaking series and expo as part of the USA Science & Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

  20. Teaching preventive cardiology through community programs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, D M

    1990-01-01

    Entering medical students currently report positive attitudes toward the concept of preventive cardiology but express a lack of confidence in the physician's ability to change unhealthful habits of their patients. One approach to this problem has been the involvement of medical students and house staff physicians in cardiovascular health programs offered in the community. With the goal of enhancing the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of the trainees, these programs have been carried out in educational institutions at all levels, in churches, and at work sites, shopping malls, and health fairs. Informal assessment of these programs suggests that medical trainees develop an increased sense of confidence in their ability to influence positively the health habits of children and adults.

  1. Focal Points, Endogenous Processes, and Exogenous Shocks in the Autism Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S

    2015-05-01

    Autism prevalence has increased rapidly in the United States during the past two decades. We have previously shown that the diffusion of information about autism through spatially proximate social relations has contributed significantly to the epidemic. This study expands on this finding by identifying the focal points for interaction that drive the proximity effect on subsequent diagnoses. We then consider how diffusion dynamics through interaction at critical focal points, in tandem with exogenous shocks, could have shaped the spatial dynamics of autism in California. We achieve these goals through an empirically calibrated simulation model of the whole population of 3- to 9-year-olds in California. We show that in the absence of interaction at these foci-principally malls and schools-we would not observe an autism epidemic. We also explore the idea that epigenetic changes affecting one generation in the distal past could shape the precise spatial patterns we observe among the next generation.

  2. The effect of high moisture heat-acid treatment on the structure and digestion property of normal maize starch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Liang, Rong; Antoniou, John; Liu, Fei; Shoemaker, Charles F; Li, Yue; Zhong, Fang

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of thermal-acid treatment on the formation of resistant starch (RS). The maximum RS content in citric acid-heat treated starches (CAHT) reached 36.55%, which was 7 times higher of that in native starch. According to HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis, amylopectin was more susceptible to hydrolysis than amylose during citric acid-heat treatment (CAH). X-ray measurement revealed that even though the starch crystalline pattern was changed from A-type to a more resistant B-type after CAH, the fraction of crystalline region decreased from 21.16% to 8.37%. The hydroxyls on the starch chains were substituted by the citric acid anhydrides during CAH according to FT-IR analysis, which led to the formation of ester bond cross-linking structures in starch granules, and it could be the main contribution to the increase of RS content in CAHT samples.

  3. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  4. Evacuation of aged persons from inundated underground space.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, T; Asai, Y; Nakahata, Y; Shimada, H; Baba, Y; Toda, K

    2010-01-01

    Underground is an important space that supports function of cities, such as subways, shopping malls and basement parking. However in consequence a new type of disaster, the "urban flood" menaces these spaces. In the last decade, urban floods struck Tokyo, Nagoya and Fukuoka. When underground inundation occurs, people must evacuate to the ground as soon as possible. But, when such an inundation situation happens, aged persons may not be able to evacuate quickly to ground level. In this paper, the method of safety assessment for aged persons is discussed on the experimental results and flood simulation data in an underground space. As a criterion of the safety evacuation, the specific force per unit width is used in this study. From the result of experiments, it is difficult to implement safety evacuation when the specific force per unit width is over 0.100 m(2) for the aged male.

  5. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements.

  6. Robot soccer anywhere: achieving persistent autonomous navigation, mapping, and object vision tracking in dynamic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragone, Mauro; O'Donoghue, Ruadhan; Leonard, John J.; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Patrikalakis, Andrew; Leederkerken, Jacques

    2005-06-01

    The paper describes an ongoing effort to enable autonomous mobile robots to play soccer in unstructured, everyday environments. Unlike conventional robot soccer competitions that are usually held on purpose-built robot soccer "fields", in our work we seek to develop the capability for robots to demonstrate aspects of soccer-playing in more diverse environments, such as schools, hospitals, or shopping malls, with static obstacles (furniture) and dynamic natural obstacles (people). This problem of "Soccer Anywhere" presents numerous research challenges including: (1) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic, unstructured environments, (2) software control architectures for decentralized, distributed control of mobile agents, (3) integration of vision-based object tracking with dynamic control, and (4) social interaction with human participants. In addition to the intrinsic research merit of these topics, we believe that this capability would prove useful for outreach activities, in demonstrating robotics technology to primary and secondary school students, to motivate them to pursue careers in science and engineering.

  7. Calcium with the β-tin structure at high pressure and low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Ding, Yang; Yang, Wenge; Wang, Lin; Zou, Bo; Shu, Jinfu; Sinogeikin, Stas; Park, Changyong; Zou, Guangtian; Mao, Ho-kwang

    2012-01-01

    Using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray diffraction at cryogenic temperatures, we have established the phase diagram for calcium up to 110 GPa and 5–300 K. We discovered the long-sought for theoretically predicted β-tin structured calcium with I41/amd symmetry at 35 GPa in a s mall low-temperature range below 10 K, thus resolving the enigma of absence of this lowest enthalpy phase. The stability and relations among various distorted simple-cubic phases in the Ca-III region have also been examined and clarified over a wide range of high pressures and low temperatures. PMID:23012455

  8. Making Stuff Outreach at the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University

    SciTech Connect

    Ament, Katherine; Karsjen, Steven; Leshem-Ackerman, Adah; King, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory in Ames, Iowa was a coalition partner for outreach activities connected with NOVA's Making Stuff television series on PBS. Volunteers affiliated with the Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, with backgrounds in materials science, took part in activities including a science-themed Family Night at a local mall, Science Cafes at the Science Center of Iowa, teacher workshops, demonstrations at science nights in elementary and middle schools, and various other events. We describe a selection of the activities and present a summary of their outcomes and extent of their impact on Ames, Des Moines and the surrounding communities in Iowa. In Part 2, results of a volunteer attitude survey are presented, which shed some light on the volunteer experience and show how the volunteers participation in outreach activities has affected their views of materials education.

  9. Wording effect leads to a controversy over the construct of the social dominance orientation scale.

    PubMed

    Xin, Ziqiang; Chi, Liping

    2010-01-01

    Most investigations of individuals' social dominance orientation (SDO) have used the 16-item SDO scale developed by F. Pratto, J. Sidanius, L. M. Stallworth, and B. F. Malle (1994). The scale's authors believed it to be a unidimensional scale, but other researchers have found the scale has 2 or more factors. The present authors proposed a new hypothesis: The controversy of the scale structure was related to the wording effect of the scale. Based on a sample of Americans, Canadians, and Chinese, the present study indicated that what the scale measured was not only 1 trait of SDO, but also a negative-wording effect factor and that the scale structure was invariant across the 3 cultural groups. The existence of a wording effect reminds us to be cautious of the construct validity of the scale and interpretations of results.

  10. HYDROGEN COMMERCIALIZATION: TRANSPORTATION FUEL FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    SciTech Connect

    APOLONIO DEL TORO

    2008-05-27

    Since 1999, SunLine Transit Agency has worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to develop and test hydrogen infrastructure, fuel cell buses, a heavy-duty fuel cell truck, a fuel cell neighborhood electric vehicle, fuel cell golf carts and internal combustion engine buses operating on a mixture of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG). SunLine has cultivated a rich history of testing and demonstrating equipment for leading industry manufacturers in a pre-commercial environment. Visitors to SunLine's "Clean Fuels Mall" from around the world have included government delegations and agencies, international journalists and media, industry leaders and experts and environmental and educational groups.

  11. Effect of Microwave Irradiation on the Physicochemical and Digestive Properties of Lotus Seed Starch.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaoxiao; Chen, Bingyan; Zeng, Hongliang; Guo, Zebin; Lu, Xu; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-03-30

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of microwave irradiation on the physicochemical and digestive properties of lotus seed starch. The physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch were characterized by light microscopy, (1)H NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. The starch-water interaction and crystalline region increased due to the changed water distribution of starch granules and the increase of the double-helix structure. The swelling power, amylose leaching, molecular properties, and radius of gyration reduced with the increasing microwave power, which further affected the sensitivity of lotus seed starch to enzymatic degradation. Furthermore, the resistant starch and slowly digestible starch increased with the increasing microwave irradiation, which further resulted in their decreasing hydrolysis index and glycemic index. The digestive properties of lotus seed starch were mainly influenced by the reduced branching degree of amylopectin and the strong amylose-amylose interaction.

  12. Survey mode effects on valuation of environmental goods.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W Kip

    2011-04-01

    This article evaluates the effect of the choice of survey recruitment mode on the value of water quality in lakes, rivers, and streams. Four different modes are compared: bringing respondents to one central location after phone recruitment, mall intercepts in two states, national phone-mail survey, and an Internet survey with a national, probability-based panel. The modes differ in terms of the representativeness of the samples, non-response rates, sample selection effects, and consistency of responses. The article also shows that the estimated value of water quality can differ substantially depending on the survey mode. The national Internet panel has the most desirable properties with respect to performance on the four important survey dimensions of interest.

  13. Purification of a low molecular weight fucoidan for SPECT molecular imaging of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Saboural, Pierre; Chaubet, Frédéric; Rouzet, Francois; Al-Shoukr, Faisal; Azzouna, Rana Ben; Bouchemal, Nadia; Picton, Luc; Louedec, Liliane; Maire, Murielle; Rolland, Lydia; Potier, Guy; Guludec, Dominique Le; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-09-23

    Fucoidans constitute a large family of sulfated polysaccharides with several biochemical properties. A commercial fucoidan from brown algae, containing low molecular weight polysaccharidic species constituted of l-fucose, uronic acids and sulfate groups, was simply treated here with calcium acetate solution. This treatment led to a purified fraction with a yield of 45%. The physicochemical characterizations of the purified fucoidan using colorimetric assay, MALLS, dRI, FT-IR, NMR, exhibited molecular weight distributions and chemical profiles similar for both fucoidans whereas the sulfate and l-fucose contents increased by 16% and 71%, respectively. The biodistribution study in rat of both compounds labeled with 99mTc evidenced a predominant renal elimination of the purified fucoidan, but the crude fucoidan was mainly retained in liver and spleen. In rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, we then demonstrated the better efficiency of the purified fucoidan. This purified sulfated polysaccharide appears promising for the development of molecular imaging in acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Apparel shopping behavior of elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, U

    1989-06-01

    70 interested elderly (65 yr. and over) men and women participated in an investigation of older consumers' apparel-shopping behavior and satisfactions and dissatisfactions with available clothing and facilities. Analysis showed that the participants considered shopping ease, wide variety, and label/brand as some of the important factors while shopping for clothes. The respondents were satisfied with good selection, closeness of the mall, and reasonable sales. However, their dissatisfactions ranged from service to fit and size, youthful styles, and abundance of imported clothing. In-store displays, mail order catalogs, and window shopping were the most commonly used sources of apparel information. Several implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions for further research were made.

  15. Washington, D.C. and the Baltimore, Maryland area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Washington, D.C. and the Baltimore, Maryland area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Chesapeake Bay is on the right (east) side of the picture. The Potomac River flows through the Washington area in the lower left (southwest) corner of the photograph. Several transportation routes and major highways stand out distinctly. Identifiable features in the Washington area include the Capitol Building, the Mall area, Robert F. Kennedy Stadium (white circle), the five bridges across the Potomac, Andrews Air Force Base (on east loop), and the smaller Anacostia River. Chesapeake Bay circulation patterns are indicated by contrast of dark and light blue. Sediment plumes (red) are seen entering the bay north and east of Baltimore. The bay bridge stands out white against the blue water.

  16. Body-Based Gender Recognition Using Images from Visible and Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Gender information has many useful applications in computer vision systems, such as surveillance systems, counting the number of males and females in a shopping mall, accessing control systems in restricted areas, or any human-computer interaction system. In most previous studies, researchers attempted to recognize gender by using visible light images of the human face or body. However, shadow, illumination, and time of day greatly affect the performance of these methods. To overcome this problem, we propose a new gender recognition method based on the combination of visible light and thermal camera images of the human body. Experimental results, through various kinds of feature extraction and fusion methods, show that our approach is efficient for gender recognition through a comparison of recognition rates with conventional systems. PMID:26828487

  17. Solar Decathlon: Collegiate Challenge to Build the Future; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, C.; King, R.; Nahan, R.; Eastment, M.

    2002-05-01

    A new collegiate competition, called the Solar Decathlon, is under way. Fourteen teams from colleges and universities across the United States, including Puerto Rico, will assemble on the National Mall in Washington, DC, in late September 2002. They will compete to capture, convert, store, and use enough solar energy to power small, solar-powered, energy-efficient homes that they have designed, built, and transported to the site. Solar Decathletes will be required to provide all the energy for an entire household, including a home-based business and the transportation needs of the household and business. During the event, only the solar energy available within the perimeter of each house may be used to generate the power needed to compete in the ten Solar Decathlon contests. The event is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and private-sector partners BP Solar, American Institute of Architects, Electronic Data Systems, and Home Depot.

  18. Optimal design of spatial distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastner, Michael T.; Newman, M. E. J.

    2006-07-01

    We consider the problem of constructing facilities such as hospitals, airports, or malls in a country with a nonuniform population density, such that the average distance from a person’s home to the nearest facility is minimized. We review some previous approximate treatments of this problem that indicate that the optimal distribution of facilities should have a density that increases with population density, but does so slower than linearly, as the two-thirds power. We confirm this result numerically for the particular case of the United States with recent population data using two independent methods, one a straightforward regression analysis, the other based on density-dependent map projections. We also consider strategies for linking the facilities to form a spatial network, such as a network of flights between airports, so that the combined cost of maintenance of and travel on the network is minimized. We show specific examples of such optimal networks for the case of the United States.

  19. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens.

  20. Mapping of A1 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora idaei and dw (dwarfing habit) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) using AFLP and microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Daniel J; Fernández-Fernández, Felicidad; Rys, Alicja; Knight, Victoria H; Simpson, David W; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2007-01-01

    Background Raspberry breeding programmes worldwide aim to produce improved cultivars to satisfy market demands and within these programmes there are many targets, including increased fruit quality, yield and season, and improved pest and disease resistance and plant habit. The large raspberry aphid, Amphorophora idaei, transmits four viruses and vector resistance is an objective in raspberry breeding. The development of molecular tools that discriminate between aphid resistance genes from different sources will allow the pyramiding of such genes and the development of raspberry varieties with superior pest resistance. We have raised a red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) F1 progeny from the cross 'Malling Jewel' × 'Malling Orion' (MJ × MO), which segregates for resistance to biotype 1 of the aphid Amphorophora idaei and for a second phenotypic trait, dwarf habit. These traits are controlled by single genes, denoted (A1) and (dw) respectively. Results The progeny of 94 seedlings was scored for the segregation of 95 AFLP and 22 SSR markers and a linkage map was constructed that covers a total genetic distance of 505 cM over seven linkage groups. The average linkage group length was 72.2 cM and there was an average of 17 markers per linkage group, of which at least two were codominant SSRs, allowing comparisons with previously published maps of raspberry. The two phenotypic traits, A1 and dw, mapped to linkage groups 3 and 6 respectively. Conclusion The mapping of A1 will facilitate the discrimination of resistance genes from different sources and the pyramiding of aphid resistance genes in new raspberry cultivars; the mapping of dw will allow further investigations into the genetics of dwarfing habit in Rubus. PMID:17374159

  1. Structure of the Branched-chain Amino Acid and GTP-sensing Global Regulator, CodY, from Bacillus subtilis*

    PubMed Central

    Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Blagova, Elena; Young, Vicki L.; Belitsky, Boris R.; Lebedev, Andrey; Sonenshein, Abraham L.

    2017-01-01

    CodY is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and GTP sensor and a global regulator of transcription in low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. It controls the expression of over 100 genes and operons, principally by repressing during growth genes whose products are required for adaptations to nutrient limitation. However, the mechanism by which BCAA binding regulates transcriptional changes is not clear. It is known that CodY consists of a GAF (cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterases, adenylate cyclases, FhlA) domain that binds BCAAs and a winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) domain that binds to DNA, but the way in which these domains interact and the structural basis of the BCAA dependence of this interaction are unknown. To gain new insights, we determined the crystal structure of unliganded CodY from Bacillus subtilis revealing a 10-turn α-helix linking otherwise discrete GAF and wHTH domains. The structure of CodY in complex with isoleucine revealed a reorganized GAF domain. In both complexes CodY was tetrameric. Size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) experiments showed that CodY is a dimer at concentrations found in bacterial cells. Comparison of structures of dimers of unliganded CodY and CodY-Ile derived from the tetramers showed a splaying of the wHTH domains when Ile was bound; splaying is likely to account for the increased affinity of Ile-bound CodY for DNA. Electrophoretic mobility shift and SEC-MALLS analyses of CodY binding to 19–36-bp operator fragments are consistent with isoleucine-dependent binding of two CodY dimers per duplex. The implications of these observations for effector control of CodY activity are discussed. PMID:28011634

  2. Sap flow measurement in a street and park of a hot and arid city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S.; Shashua-Bar, L.; Potchter, O.; Yaakov, Y.; Bar-Kutiel, P.; Tanny, J.

    2012-04-01

    Urban trees mitigate hot climate by shading, but also through transpirational cooling. Transpiration from urban trees can be a significant part of the urban energy budget, but is difficult to quantify. A direct method for measuring tree transpiration is through the use of sap flow sensors. Several methods have been developed for this, where the most common use heat as a tracer of sap flow. The most popular method among plant environmental ecologists is the thermal dissipation or 'Granier' method, the latter name for its inventor. In this method continuously heated and unheated sensors are inserted into the tree stem and the temperature difference between the two is roughly inversely proportional to sap flux density. Although the method can be accurate, sap flux density can be highly variable in the stem, depending on depth in the stem and azimuth. Inter-tree variation is also large, so a number of sensors per tree and a number of trees need to be monitored for accurate determinations. Finally, it is a good idea to calibrate the sensors for the configuration and species being monitored. We measured sap flow in a tree covered open mall and a city park in Beer Sheva, Israel - a hot and arid city. Trees that shaded the open mall were of the Delonix regia species while those in the park were Prosopis and Tamarix sp. Individual tree sap flux for large trees exceeded 100 liters on many of the days, equivalent to over 100 W m-2 at mid-day. This paper will discuss methodological issues as well as some of the results.

  3. Medical Genetics and the First Studies of the Genetics of Populations in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Barahona, Ana

    2016-09-01

    Following World War II (WWII), there was a new emphasis within genetics on studying the genetic composition of populations. This probably had a dual source in the growing strength of evolutionary biology and the new international interest in understanding the effects of radiation on human populations, following the atomic bombings in Japan. These global concerns were shared by Mexican physicians. Indeed, Mexico was one of the leading centers of this trend in human genetics. Three leading players in this story were Mario Salazar Mallén, Adolfo Karl, and Rubén Lisker. Their trajectories and the international networks in human genetics that were established after WWII, paved the way for the establishment of medical and population genetics in Mexico. Salazar Mallén's studies on the distribution and characterization of ABO blood groups in indigenous populations were the starting point while Karl's studies on the distribution of abnormal hemoglobin in Mexican indigenous populations showed the relationships observed in other laboratories at the time. It was Lisker's studies, however, that were instrumental in the development of population genetics in the context of national public policies for extending health care services to the Mexican population. In particular, he conducted studies on Mexican indigenous groups contributing to the knowledge of the biological diversity of human populations according to international trends that focused on the variability of human populations in terms of genetic frequencies. From the start, however, Lisker was as committed to the reconstruction of shared languages and practices as he was to building networks of collaboration in order to guarantee the necessary groundwork for establishing the study of the genetics of human populations in Mexico. This study also allows us to place Mexican science within a global context in which connected narratives describe the interplay between global trends and national contexts.

  4. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B.; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli’s association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ- mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ+ strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922’s association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization. PMID:27014210

  5. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  6. Patterns of tobacco consumption in food facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mandil, Ahmed; Yamani, Mohammad; BinSaeed, Abdulaziz; Ahmad, Shaffi; Younis, Afnan; Al-Mutlaq, Ahmad; Al-Baqmy, Omar; Al-Rajhi, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WHO-CDC-Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use at food facilities was found to be 40.3 %, of which 74% were customers, 18.8% were food handlers and 7.2% were managers. The consumption of tobacco was higher at restaurants (39.9%), but lowest at food courts of shopping malls. Water pipe (55.3%) was the main consumption type, followed by cigarettes (42.6%) and chewing tobacco (2.1%). Multivariate analysis showed that gender (male), marital status (single), and type of food facility (Estaraha and café/coffee shop) were independent risk factors associated with tobacco use at food facilities. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use is very common in food facilities in Riyadh as reflected by results of our study, especially among single males Saudis. We should build on success encountered in banning smoking in airports, airplanes, shopping malls, market places, educational institutions and healthcare facilities, extending the ban to include food facilities as well. This is important for the health of non-smokers as well as smokers themselves. PMID:24987478

  7. [Preliminary Investigation of the Amount, the Molecular Weight and the Activity of Polysaccharides from Chaenomeles Speciosa Fruits in Ethanol Fractional Precipitation].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-mei; Xie, Xiao-mei; Shen, Pan-pan; Yang, Mo; Zhang, Sheng-long; Tang, Qing-jiu

    2015-05-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruits were extracted using water. The extracts were precipitated with 20%~95% (φ) ethanol, respectively. The amount of total polysaccharide was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. A method using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multiangle laser-light-scattering photometry (MALLS) and differential refractometry (RI) was presented for determining the molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution. RAW264.7 macrophage were cultured and stimulated with the polysaccharides in vitro and the production of nitric oxide in the cells was determined by the Griess assay. The aim of the study is to determine the amount and the molecular weight of the polysaccharides from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits, and preliminary investigate the immunomodulatory activity, The study provided the basis datas for the further research of Chaenomeles speciosa fruits. , and provided a simple and system method for the research of natural polysaccharide. The ethanol fractional precipitation showed that the order of total polysaccharide content was 95%>80%>40% ≥60%>20%. The results indicated that most polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits might be precipitated when ethanol concentration was up to 95% (T) and the crude polysaccharide purity had risen from 35. 1% to 45. 0% when the concentration of ethanol increased from 20% to 95%. HPSEC-MALLS-RI system showed that all the polysaccharide samples had the similar compositions. They appeared three chromatographic peaks and the retention time were not apparently different. The Mw were 6. 570 X 10(4) g . mol-1 and 1. 393 X 10(4) g . mol-1 respectively, and one less than 10 000 which was failure to obtain accurate values. The molecular weight of the first two polysaccharide distribution index(Mw/Mn)were 1. 336 and 1. 639 respectively. The polysaccharide samples had not exhibited immunomodulatory activity assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW264. 7 macrophage

  8. EPS-SJ Exopolisaccharide Produced by the Strain Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8 Is Involved in Adhesion to Epithelial Intestinal Cells and Decrease on E. coli Association to Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Živković, Milica; Miljković, Marija S; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Markelić, Milica B; Veljović, Katarina; Tolinački, Maja; Soković, Svetlana; Korać, Aleksandra; Golić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of an exopolysaccharide produced by natural dairy isolate Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei BGSJ2-8, in the adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and a decrease in Escherichia coli's association with Caco-2 cells. Annotation of the BGSJ2-8 genome showed the presence of a gene cluster, epsSJ, which encodes the biosynthesis of the strain-specific exopolysaccharide EPS-SJ, detected as two fractions (P1 and P2) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detection. SEC-MALLS analysis revealed that an EPS-SJ(-) mutant (EPS7, obtained by insertion mutagenesis of the glps_2198 gene encoding primary glycosyltransferase) does not produce the P2 fraction of EPS-SJ. Transmission electron microscopy showed that EPS7 mutant has a thinner cell wall compared to the EPS-SJ(+) strain BGSJ2-83 (a plasmid free-derivative of BGSJ2-8). Interestingly, strain BGSJ2-83 showed higher adhesion to Caco-2 epithelial intestinal cell line than the EPS7 mutant. Accordingly, BGSJ2-83 effectively reduced E. coli ATCC25922's association with Caco-2 cells, while EPS7 did not show statistically significant differences. In addition, the effect of EPS-SJ on the proliferation of lymphocytes in gastrointestinal associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) was tested and the results showed that the reduction of GALT lymphocyte proliferation was higher by BGSJ2-83 than by the mutant. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report indicating that the presence of EPS (EPS-SJ) on the surface of lactobacilli can improve communication between bacteria and intestinal epithelium, implying its possible role in gut colonization.

  9. Astronomy Outreach for Large, Unique, and Unusual Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    My successful outreach program venues include: outdoor concerts and festivals; the US National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island and Chicago; the Winthrop U. Hospital Children’s Medical Center the Fresh Air Fund summer camps (low-income and special needs); a Halloween star party (costumed kids look through telescopes); a Super Bowl Star Party (targeting women); Science Festivals (World, NYC; Princeton U.; the USA Science and Engineering Festival); and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage lifelong learning. In 2010 I created Astronomy Festival on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, scientific institutions and with Tyco Brahe, Johannes Kepler, and Caroline Herschel making guest appearances. My programs include solar, optical, and radio telescope observations, hands-on activities, a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations.My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program (60 events 2009 - 2013) reached 50,000 music lovers at local parks and the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood Music Festivals with classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts assisted by astronomy clubs. Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large crowds. Young kids participated in this family learning experience - often the first time they looked through a telescope. While < 50% of the participants took part in a science activity in the past year, they

  10. Kinetics of hyaluronan hydrolysis in acidic solution at various pH values.

    PubMed

    Tømmeraas, Kristoffer; Melander, Claes

    2008-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) was hydrolyzed using varying temperatures (40, 60, and 80 degrees C) and acid concentrations (0.0010, 0.010, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 M HCl). The degradation process was monitored by determination of weight average molecular weight ( M w) by size-exclusion chromatography with online multiangle laser light scattering, refractive index, and intrinsic viscosity detectors (SEC-MALLS-RI-visc) on samples taken out continuously during the hydrolysis. SEC-MALLS-RI-visc showed that the degradation gave narrow molecular weight distributions with polydispersity indexes ( M w/ M n) of 1.3-1.7. Kinetic plots of 1/ M w versus time gave linear plots showing that acid hydrolysis of HA is a random process and that it follows a first order kinetics. For hydrolysis in HCl at 60 and 80 degrees C, it was shown that the kinetic rate constant ( k h) for the degradation depended linearly on the acid concentration. Further, the dependence of temperature on the hydrolysis in 0.1 M HCl was found to give a linear Arrhenius plot (ln k h vs 1/ T), with an activation energy ( E a) of 137 kJ/mol and Arrhenius constant ( A) of 7.86 x 10 (15) h (-1). (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the product of extensive hydrolysis (48 h at 60 degrees C in 0.1 M HCl). No indication of de- N-acetylation of the N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) units or other byproducts were seen. Additionally, a low molecular weight HA was hydrolyzed in 0.1 M DCl for 4 h at 80 degrees C. It was shown that it was primarily the beta-(1-->4)-linkage between GlcNAc and glucuronic acid (GlcA) that was cleaved during hydrolysis at pH < p K a,GlcA. The dependence of the hydrolysis rate constant was further studied as a function of pH between -0.3 and 5. The degradation was found to be random (linear kinetic plots) over the entire pH range studied. Further, the kinetic rate constant was found to depend linearly on pH in the region -0.3 to 3. Above this pH (around the p K a of HA), the kinetic constant

  11. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  12. How Do Spherical Diblock Copolymer Nanoparticles Grow during RAFT Alcoholic Dispersion Polymerization?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMA) chain transfer agent (CTA) is used for the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) alcoholic dispersion polymerization of benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol at 70 °C. THF GPC analysis indicated a well-controlled polymerization with molecular weight increasing linearly with conversion. GPC traces also showed high blocking efficiency with no homopolymer contamination apparent and Mw/Mn values below 1.35 in all cases. 1H NMR studies confirmed greater than 98% BzMA conversion for a target PBzMA degree of polymerization (DP) of up to 600. The PBzMA block becomes insoluble as it grows, leading to the in situ formation of sterically stabilized diblock copolymer nanoparticles via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Fixing the mean DP of the PDMA stabilizer block at 94 units and systematically varying the DP of the PBzMA block enabled a series of spherical nanoparticles of tunable diameter to be obtained. These nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, DLS, MALLS, and SAXS, with mean diameters ranging from 35 to 100 nm. The latter technique was particularly informative: data fits to a spherical micelle model enabled calculation of the core diameter, surface area occupied per copolymer chain, and the mean aggregation number (Nagg). The scaling exponent derived from a double-logarithmic plot of core diameter vs PBzMA DP suggests that the conformation of the PBzMA chains is intermediate between the collapsed and fully extended state. This is in good agreement with 1H NMR studies, which suggest that only 5−13% of the BzMA residues of the core-forming chains are solvated. The Nagg values calculated from SAXS and MALLS are in good agreement and scale approximately linearly with PBzMA DP. This suggests that spherical micelles grow in size not only as a result of the increase in copolymer molecular weight during the PISA synthesis but also by exchange of individual copolymer chains between micelles

  13. Fitting bevacizumab aggregation kinetic data with the Finke-Watzky two-step model: Effect of thermal and mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alexis; Llabrés, Matías; Fariña, José B

    2015-09-18

    Size exclusion chromatography with light scattering detection (SEC-MALLS) was assessed as a means to characterize the type of bevacizumab aggregates that form under mechanical and thermal stress, quantitatively monitoring the aggregation kinetics. The analytical method was monitored and verified during routine use at two levels: (1) the "pre-study" validation shows that the method is specific, linear, accurate, precise, robust and stability indicating; (2) the "in-study" validation was verified by inserting quality control samples and the use of control charts, indicating that the analytical method is in statistical control and stable. The aggregation kinetics data were interpreted using a modified Lumry-Eyring model, but the quality of the fit can be considered poor (R(2)>0.96), especially at higher temperatures. This indicates that the order of the reaction could not be reliably determined, suggesting a different degradation mechanism. The kinetic data set also fit the minimalistic Finke-Watzky (F-W) 2-step model, with an excellent quality of fit (R(2)>0.99), yielding the first quantitative rate constant for the steps of nucleation and growth in bevacizumab aggregation. The bevacizumab pharmaceutical preparation contains (initially) dimers, approximately 1.6% of bevacizumab total concentration, and the effect on aggregation kinetics of seeding was analyzed using the F-W 2-step model assuming [B]0≠0 (for the seeded case). The results suggested that the seeding had no impact on aggregation kinetics. Furthermore, the Arrhenius equation cannot be used to extrapolate the shelf-life since no linear temperature dependence of the rate constant was found within the temperature range. Although the real-time stability data provides the basis for determining the product shelf-life, predictive methodologies such as Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VFT) or the Arrhenius approach can be misleading and result in overestimates of the product shelf-life. However, they can be successfully

  14. A comparative study of iron abundance estimation methods: Application to the western nearside of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Megha; Mall, Urs; Wöhler, Christian; Grumpe, Arne; Bugiolacchi, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The FeO weight percentage (wt.%) abundance of the Moon's western nearside (55°S-55°N and 5°E-40°W) is estimated using data from the InfraRed Spectrometer-2 (SIR-2) and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). In this study, we modified an FeO abundance estimation algorithm (Bhatt, M., Mall, U., Bugiolacchi, R., McKenna-Lawlor, S., Banaszkiewicz, M., Nathues, A., Ullaland, K. [2012]. Icarus 220, 51-64) which relies exclusively on the 2-μm absorption band parameters. The modified FeO abundance estimation algorithm and the regression-based elemental abundance estimation algorithm (Wöhler, C., Grumpe, A., Berezhnoy, A., Bhatt, M.U., Mall, U. [2014]. Icarus 235, 86-122) which is based on the 1-μm and 2-μm absorption band parameters is applied to the M3 data. We have compared results obtained from these two modified algorithms with a previously published Clementine's FeO wt.% map (Lucey, P.G., Blewett, D.T., Jolliff, B.L. [2000]. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20297-20306). The effects of topography and space weathering on FeO wt.% estimates have been successfully minimized using the modified algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption band parameters. Thus, this algorithm can be successfully applied at middle to high latitudes. Furthermore, a correction for TiO2 is applied to the FeO abundance estimation algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption band parameters using the M3 data. Our comparative study shows a good correspondence between the three algorithms discussed. There are two locations: the crater Tycho and the region around Rima Bode which show major discrepancies. Our modified algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption parameters predicts 3-4 wt.% less FeO for the ray system of Tycho than for the surrounding region. The average iron abundance for the lunar highlands is about 6 wt.% and for the mare regions is about 16 wt.% using the regression-based elemental abundance estimation algorithm and the algorithm based on the 2-μm absorption parameters. This result is consistent with

  15. Bringing Astronomy Directly to New Audiences (50,000 People) at Outdoor Concerts and Music Festivals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.

    2014-07-01

    My NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers at the National Mall (co-sponsor OSTP); Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Ravinia, or Tanglewood music festivals; and classical, folk, pop/rock, opera, Caribbean, or county-western concerts in parks assisted by astronomy clubs (55 events since 2009). Yo-Yo-Ma, the Chicago and Boston Symphony Orchestras, Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Tony Orlando, and Wilco performed at these events. MAUS combines solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; large posters/banners (From the Earth to the Universe; Visions of the Universe); videos; hands-on activities (Night Sky Network; Harvard-Smithsonian CfA); imaging with a cell phone mount; and hand-outs (info on science museums, astronomy clubs, and citizen science) before and after the concerts or at intermission. MAUS reached underserved groups and attracted large enthusiastic crowds. Many young children participated in this family learning experience-often the first time they looked through a telescope. Outcomes: While < 50% of the participants took part in a science museum or activity in the past year (survey result), they found MAUS enjoyable and understandable; learned about astronomy; wanted to learn more; and increased their interest in science (ave. rating 3.6/4). Taking science directly to people is effective in promoting science education!

  16. Un essai contrôlé randomisé: effet du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inferieur

    PubMed Central

    Koussihouèdé, Fifamè Eudia Nadège; Falola, Jean-Marie; Fousseni, El-Mansour Barres

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Véritable attribut de la féminité, le port de chaussures à talons est devenu une exigence professionnelle dans certaines structures des pays en développement comme le Bénin. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer les effets spécifiques du port de chaussures à talons hauts sur le squelette appendiculaire inférieur. Méthodes Des examens radiographiques de face et de profil de la cheville et du genou ont été effectués sur 122 femmes volontaires, âgées en moyenne de 25,09 ± 1,34 ans et ayant les genu varum qui ont participé à cette étude. Résultats Les résultats ont indiqué une augmentation significative de l’écart inter malléolaire, de l’écart inter condylien, de l'angle antérieur du pied et de l'angle fémoro-patellaire. Une diminution significative de l'angle postérieur du pied a été constatée. Conclusion Le port de chaussures à talons hauts est l'une des causes de la gonarthrose, des troubles des articulations de la cheville et du pied. PMID:26113922

  17. Filling the gap: Calibration of the low molar-mass range of cellulose in size exclusion chromatography with cello-oligomers.

    PubMed

    Oberlerchner, J T; Vejdovszky, P; Zweckmair, T; Kindler, A; Koch, S; Rosenau, T; Potthast, A

    2016-11-04

    Degraded celluloses are becoming increasingly important as part of product streams coming from various biorefinery scenarios. Analysis of the molar mass distribution of such fractions is a challenge, since neither established methods for mono- or disaccharides nor common methods for polysaccharide characterization cover the intermediate oligomer range appropriately. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), the standard approach for celluloses, suffers from decreased scattering intensities in the lower-molar mass range. The limitation in the low-molecular range can, in principle, be overcome by calibration, but calibration standards for such "short" celluloses are either not readily available or structurally remote and thus questionable. In this paper, we present the calibration of a SEC system- for the first time - with monodisperse cellooligomer standards up to about 3400gmol(-1). These cellooligomers are "short-chain celluloses" and can be seen as the "true" standard compounds, by contrast to commonly used standards that are chemically different from cellulose, such as pullulan, dextran, polystyrene, or poly(methyl methacrylate). The calibration is compared against those commercial standards and correction factors are calculated. Calibrations with non-cellulose standards can now be adjusted to yield better fitting results, and data already available can be corrected retrospectively.

  18. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions.

  19. Characterisation of assembly and ubiquitylation by the RBCC motif of Trim5α

    PubMed Central

    Keown, Jeremy R.; Yang, Joy X.; Douglas, Jordan; Goldstone, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The post-entry restriction factor Trim5α blocks infection of retroviral pathogens shortly after the virus gains entry to the cell, preventing reverse transcription and integration into the host genome. Central to the mechanism of restriction is recognition of the lattice of capsid protein that forms the inner-shell of the retrovirus. To recognise this lattice, Trim5α has been shown to assemble into a large hexagonal array, complementary to the capsid lattice. Structures of the Trim5α coiled-coil region reveal an elongated anti-parallel dimer consistent with the edges of this array placing the Bbox domain at each end of the coiled-coil to facilitate assembly. To investigate the nature of this assembly we have designed and characterised a monomeric version of the TRIM RBCC motif with a truncated coiled-coil. Biophysical characterisation by SEC-MALLS, AUC, and SAXS demonstrate that this construct forms compact folded domain that assembles into a trimer that would support the formation of a hexagonal lattice. Furthermore, the RING domain and elements of the coiled-coil region are shown to contribute to assembly. Ubiquitylation assays demonstrate that this assembly increases ubiquitylation activity providing a link from recognition of the capsid lattice and assembly to the activation of innate immune signalling and restriction. PMID:27230667

  20. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents. PMID:27213369

  1. Hospital design of the future--healing environments.

    PubMed

    Mayer, D

    1992-01-01

    Predicting the future of hospital design is hardly a consensus forming art. Crystal ball visions of the 21st-century hospital vary from expert to expert. Perhaps that's simply a sign of the diversity of our health care system. Or perhaps it's a problem inherent in reading the future. For example, some hospital architects and facility planners say tomorrow's hospitals will be smaller due to technological advances. Others say those same advances will create larger hospitals brimming with high-tech equipment. Some say hospitals will be part of medical malls; others see them in a campus setting, perhaps accompanied by satellite facilities in the surrounding community. Yet, despite their often diverse views of the future, architects and planners do share common thoughts about hospital architecture in the decades ahead. Without question, they most commonly agree that hospitals will offer a more patient-friendly environment. Achieving that goal could take many forms, but it is expected to include the use of soothing colors, attractive landscaping, natural lighting, wayfinder lobbies and entrances, private rooms, quieter hallways and accommodations for family and friends.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella strains isolated from public water sources in Macau and Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Lina; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Mo, Ziyao

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC50/MIC90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 8/16 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, and 0.031/0.062 mg/L, respectively. Legionella isolates were inhibited by either low concentrations of macrolides and fluoroquinolones, or high concentrations of CTX and tetracycline drugs. LEV was the most effective drug against different Legionella species and serogroups of L. pneumophila isolates. The latter were inhibited in decreasing order by MIN > CTX >DOC, while non-L. pneumophila isolates were inhibited by CTX> MIN >DOC. In this study, we evaluated drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from the environment. This may help predict the emergence of drug resistance, improve patient outcomes, and reduce hospitalization costs.

  3. Glucuronoarabinoxylan from coconut palm gum exudate: chemical structure and gastroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; Barraza, Ruth R; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Baggio, Cristiane H; Wagner, Ricardo; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Carbonero, Elaine R; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2014-07-17

    A glucuronoarabinoxylan (CNAL) was extracted with 1% aq. KOH (25°C) from Cocos nucifera gum exudate. It had a homogeneous profile on HPSEC-MALLS-RI (Mw 4.6 × 10(4)g/mol) and was composed of Fuc, Ara, Xyl, GlcpA (and 4-O-GlcpA) in a 7:28:62:3 molar ratio. Methylation data showed a branched structure with 39% of non-reducing end units, 3-O-substituted Araf (8%), 3,4-di-O- (15%), 2,4-di-O- (5%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-substituted Xylp units (17%). The anomeric region of CNAL (13)C NMR spectrum contained 9 signals, indicating a complex structure. The main chain of CNAL was characterized by analysis of a Smith-degraded polysaccharide. Its (13)C NMR spectrum showed 5 main signals at δ 101.6, δ 75.5, δ 73.9, δ 72.5, and δ 63.1 that were attributed to C-1, C-4, C-3, C-2 and C-5 of (1→4)-linked β-Xylp-main chain units, respectively. CNAL exhibited gastroprotective effect, by reducing gastric hemorrhagic lesions, when orally administered (1 and 3mg/kg) to rats prior to ethanol administration.

  4. Viscoelastic properties of waxy and nonwaxy rice flours, their fat and protein-free starch, and the microstructure of their cooked kernels.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Ana M; Wood, Delilah F; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Park, I M; Tinoco, Mario A; Hudson, Carol A; McKenzie, Kent S; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2007-08-08

    Physicochemistry and structural studies of two types of japonica rice, low amylose Calmochi-101 (CM101) and intermediate amylose M-202 (M202), were conducted to determine similarities and differences between the rices perhaps attributable to amylose content differences. The rheological behavior of the gelation and pasting processes of flours and starches was determined with high accuracy and precision using a controlled stress rheometer. Fat and protein, although minor constituents of milled rice, were shown to have significant effects on the physicochemical and pasting properties of starches and flours. Removal of protein and lipids with aqueous alkaline or detergent solutions caused lower pasting temperatures and higher overall viscosity in both starches, compared with their respective flours. There was less viscosity difference between M202 flour and its starch when isolated by enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. The protease did not reduce internally bound lipids, suggesting that fats help to determine pasting properties of rice flours and their respective starches. Structural integrity differences in individual granules of waxy and nonwaxy rice flours, starches, and whole raw, soaked, and cooked milled grain were revealed by fracture analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Calmochi 101 and M202 did not differ in weight-averaged molar mass (Mw) and root-mean-square radii (Rz) between flours and starches, as determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and multiple-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) (Park, I.; Ibanez, A. M.; Shoemaker, C. F. Starch 2007, 59, 69-77).

  5. We don’t live in igloos

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Janet

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine what health problems concern youth in the Canadian North and what solutions these youths propose to address these problems by interviewing Inuvik youths, using their photographs to spark discussion. DESIGN Qualitative study and photo-novella technique. SETTING Inuvik, NWT, from July 1 to August 31, 2004. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-five youths from Inuvik between the ages of 10 and 22. Two boys and 2 girls between the ages of 17 and 22 from the Inuvialuit and Gwich’in cultures featured in an educational video developed from the study. METHOD Disposable cameras were distributed to 35 youths; interviews structured around the photographs were recorded with 14 youths. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was completed; the themes identified formed the basis of a 19-minute video featuring 4 of these youths. MAIN FINDINGS Themes developed around mothers, culture, the land, and boredom. Specific health concerns identified were smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, and teen pregnancy. Solutions suggested included sources of recreation and distraction from substance abuse, such as a movie theatre, a shopping mall, and upgrades to the skatepark. CONCLUSION By having Inuvik youths share their stories and perspectives, health care providers can gain insight into the issues and concerns of youth in northern communities and expand their capacity to heal. Photo novella is a useful method for research in adolescent health. PMID:17872749

  6. Binding of RNA by the Nucleoproteins of Influenza Viruses A and B

    PubMed Central

    Labaronne, Alice; Swale, Christopher; Monod, Alexandre; Schoehn, Guy; Crépin, Thibaut; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a biochemical study for making complexes between the nucleoprotein of influenza viruses A and B (A/NP and B/NP) and small RNAs (polyUC RNAs from 5 to 24 nucleotides (nt)), starting from monomeric proteins. We used negative stain electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements to show how the NP-RNA complexes evolve. Both proteins make small oligomers with 24-nt RNAs, trimers for A/NP, and dimers, tetramers, and larger complexes for B/NP. With shorter RNAs, the affinities of NP are all in the same range at 50 mM NaCl, showing that the RNAs bind on the same site. The affinity of B/NP for a 24-nt RNA does not change with salt. However, the affinity of A/NP for a 24-nt RNA is lower at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, suggesting that the RNA binds to another site, either on the same protomer or on a neighbour protomer. For our fluorescence anisotropy experiments, we used 6-fluorescein amidite (FAM)-labelled RNAs. By using a (UC)6-FAM3′ RNA with 150 mM NaCl, we observed an interesting phenomenon that gives macromolecular complexes similar to the ribonucleoprotein particles purified from the viruses. PMID:27649229

  7. Rheological characterization of the galactomannan from Leucaena leucocephala seed.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, Louis M; Williams, Peter A

    2012-10-01

    A water soluble galactomannan isolated from Leucaena leucocephala seeds gave an intrinsic viscosity of 3.5 dl/g and viscosity average molecular mass, M(v), of 6.98 × 10(5) g/mol. This was in reasonably good agreement with the value of the weight average molecular mass, M(w), of 5.44 ± 0.20 × 10(5) g/mol determined by GPC-MALLS coupled to RI. The onset of polymer coil overlap occurred at c*[η] of 2.1, with slope of 3.0 above and 1.3 below the point of polymer coil overlap. The shear viscosity of the polysaccharide was temperature dependent and decreased with increasing temperature. The activation energy for viscous flow of 3.0% polysaccharide concentration obtained by Arrhenius plot of zero shear viscosity as a function of temperature was 26.4 kJ/mol. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) showed strong dependence on frequency indicating the presence of entangled coils. The Cox-Merz plot gave close superimposition of the complex and shear viscosities.

  8. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    PubMed

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1→4)-linked β-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked α-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, β-Arap, β-Galp, and α-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of α-GlcpA O-3 linked at β-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, α-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2.

  9. Architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dvoskin, Joel A; Radomski, Steven J; Bennett, Charles; Olin, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Robert L; Dotson, Linda A; Drewnicky, Irene N

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital. The project combined input from staff at all levels of the client organization, outside consultants, and a team of experienced architects. The design team was able to create a design that maximized patient dignity and privacy on one hand, and the ability of staff to observe all patient activity on the other. The design centers around 24-bed units, broken into smaller living wings of eight beds each. Each eight-bed living wing has its own private bathrooms (two) and showers (two), as well as a small living area solely reserved for these eight patients and their guests. An indoor-outdoor dayroom allows patients to go outside whenever they choose, while allowing staff to continue observing them. The heart of the facility is a large treatment mall, designed to foster the acquisition of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral skills that will help patients to safely return to their communities.

  10. Conformational and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqi; Xue, Changhu; Chang, Yaoguang; Chen, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-05

    This study aimed at investigating the chain conformation and physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate extracted from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas (Aj-fCS). By using HPSEC-MALLS-Visc-RI, Mw, z(1/2), Rh and [η] for Aj-fCS were determined as 58.0±4.4kDa, 21.8±1.3nm, 12.5±1.3nm and 27.8±0.5mL/g respectively. Conformation parameter αs derived from the relationship of Mw-z(1/2) (0.39) and structure-sensitive parameter ρ (1.74) consistently indicated that Aj-fCS adopted a random coil conformation in solution, which was also supported by atomic force microscopy. Stiffness parameters of Aj-fCS chains including q (2.72nm), d (1.03nm) and C∞ (5.28) were furthermore deduced from the worm-like cylinder model. Aj-fCS demonstrated a shear-thinning rheological behavior, relatively low apparent viscosity, negative charge in wide pH and ionic strength ranges, and favorable thermostability. These results have important implications for designing and fabricating functional foods or drugs based on Aj-fCS.

  11. Blood cholesterol screening in several environments using a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer and fingerstick blood samples. Lipid Research Clinics Cholesterol Screening Study Group.

    PubMed

    Bradford, R H; Bachorik, P S; Roberts, K; Williams, O D; Gotto, A M

    1990-01-01

    A multicenter study of blood cholesterol screening was performed in several typical environments, such as community sites (shopping malls and a supermarket), health care sites, work sites, a blood bank and a school. Cholesterol was measured with a portable, dry-chemistry analyzer using capillary blood obtained by fingerstick. Data are reported from a total of 13,824 participants, spanning the entire age spectrum. Overall, 25% of screened subjects had blood cholesterol levels above the age-specific cutpoints used in the current study. Although in the aggregate this screening experience very closely approximates the expected level of referrals, the proportion of referred screened subjects differed significantly among the 5 types of screening environments and by gender. Follow-up telephone interviews indicated that 53% of referrals had initiated a physician contact. More than 75% of those who had seen a physician reported that the diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia had been confirmed, and almost 72% had been prescribed a diet. A large proportion of referred screened subjects reported having modified their diet, particularly when recommended to do so by a physician. This study has yielded encouraging evidence that physicians gave referred screened subjects appropriate initial advice for managing hypercholesterolemia. The new technology for blood cholesterol measurement evaluated in the current study has proven to be a feasible and reliable means for measuring blood cholesterol in typical screening settings.

  12. Update on the Native American Holo-Portrait series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, Mark C.

    1995-02-01

    In March of 1990 I filmed the first in the Native American Holo-Portrait series which I showed video of at the last Lake Forest Symposium. Since then I have done several additional film shoots with almost 40 different holo-portraits currently in the can. With around 500 Native American nations within the northern hemisphere the prospect of filming one hologram per nation looks like a multi-decade project. All 35 mm cine has been shot to date in color on extremely fine grain T formula emulsion stocks. Some of the footage has been shot using the rotating subject configuration and others with the laterally translating camera configuration. In the future I may film all subjects in both formats if time allows. Other images have been shot at reservations and pow-wows. All location work is accomplished with lighting and generators on hand because of questionable power availability at some of the sites. I have received a favorable response for potential support from the Smithsonian's Native American Museum now under construction on the mall next to the Air & Space Museum in Washington, D.C. This will be a fine display space for these portraits. However, I am planning to produce editions in several formats in order to allow for global distribution of these images.

  13. 108th Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC, August 4-8, 2000

    PubMed

    2000-04-01

    Washington, DC--the nation's capital--celebrates a history rich in diversity and character. One of the most popular cities for sightseeing, Washington contains countless points of interest for its visitors. The world's largest museum complex, the Smithsonian Institution, invites you to explore exhibits that highlight the scientific, cultural, political, and technological developments of the United States and its people. Visit the home to original pieces of the American heritage, such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights, that have helped to shape the way we live today. The art lovers among you will delight in the seven major art galleries. See the modern art and sculpture of the Hirshhorn Museum and the newly opened Sculpture Garden; the Sackler Gallery's collection of Asian art; and the only museum devoted to the art and culture of Africa, the National Museum of African Art. In Washington, there is music in the air, from the Kennedy Center's many stages and the clubs of Georgetown and Adams Morgan to the military bands that give concerts on the Mall. Whatever your culinary desire, be it authentic Texas chili or the finest Asian cuisine, you'll find it at one of the city's internationally famous eateries. What a perfect place for APA to convene its first annual convention of the new millennium!

  14. Long-term degradation study of hyaluronic acid in aqueous solutions without protection against microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Simulescu, Vasile; Kalina, Michal; Mondek, Jakub; Pekař, Miloslav

    2016-02-10

    The degradation of hyaluronan (HA) of different molecular weights (Mw 14.3, 267.2 and 1160.6 kDa, measured for fresh solutions, before degradation) was studied in aqueous solutions by SEC-MALLS determination of molecular mass, polydispersity and conformation parameters. The solutions were stored either at laboratory or refrigerator temperatures for two months. After this period the weight average molecular weight decreased by 90% for 14.3 kDa, 95% for 267.2 kDa and 71% for 1160.6 kDa hyaluronan (room temperature) or 5.6% for 14.3 kDa, 6.2% for 267.2 kDa and 7.7% for 1160.6 kDa hyaluronan (refrigerator temperature). The hyaluronan aqueous solutions studied did not contain sodium azide or other protectants against microorganisms, because the aim of our study was to assess the degradation in solutions to be used in medicine or cosmetics (without any compounds that are poisonous or toxic for the human body). The solvent used to prepare the samples was pure water. The polydispersity of all the samples remained unaltered during the entire degradation at both temperatures. This indicates a non-random mechanism of degradation.

  15. Preparation of hyaluronan polyaldehyde-a precursor of biopolymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Šedová, Petra; Buffa, Radovan; Kettou, Sofiane; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Hermannová, Martina; Leierová, Veronika; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Moravcová, Martina; Velebný, Vladimír

    2013-04-19

    Native hyaluronan (HA) has been oxidized to polyaldehyde polymers with a degree of substitution (DS) of up to 50%. Two different procedures enabling the control of the degree of substitution were followed in this study. Selective oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine of hyaluronan was performed either in an aqueous solution containing AcNH-TEMPO/NaBr/NaOCl or in an aprotic solvent containing Dess-Martin periodinane (DMP). It was found that a change of reaction parameters (reaction time and temperature, type of catalyst, oxidant-to-HA ratio, presence of nitrogen, buffer type, and concentration) had an influence on the degree of substitution and molecular weight. The derivatives were characterized by MS, NMR spectroscopy, and SEC-MALLS. Degradation of hyaluronic acid by the oxidant was observed and confirmed by SEC. The effect of oxidized derivatives of hyaluronan on cells was studied by means of NIH 3T3 fibroblast viability, which indicates that prepared hyaluronan polyaldehydes are biocompatible and suitable for medical applications and tissue engineering. The function of polyaldehyde as precursor for other modification was illustrated in the reaction with lysine.

  16. Effect of microwave irradiation on the molecular and structural properties of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Bezáková, Zuzana; Hermannová, Martina; Dřímalová, Eugenie; Malovíková, Anna; Ebringerová, Anna; Velebný, Vladimír

    2008-09-05

    Hyaluronan (Na(+) salt of hyaluronic acid, HA) was extensively depolymerised by HCl-catalyzed hydrolysis at pH 3 for up to 500min under temperature-controlled microwave irradiation. The effects of microwave heating on the hydrodynamic properties of the polysaccharide were determined by SEC-MALLS and viscometry. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) of HA decreased from 1.44×10(6) to ∼5000, reaching the region of higher oligosaccharides. The scission of HA chains was found to proceed randomly during the whole degradation process. Treatment of the Mw and intrinsic viscosity data according to the Mark-Houwink equation, [η]=k×Mw(α) suggested three relationships with α1=0.46 for Mw>500,000, α2=0.84 for Mw between 500,000 and 50,000, and α3=1.13 for Mw<50,000. The results revealed that HA with Mw>10,000 adopts a stiffish coil conformation in solution. As monitored by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques, the primary structure of the HA chains was maintained during the microwave-assisted hydrolysis at pH 3 at 105°C. At reaction times larger than 240min, uv spectroscopy suggested the depolymerisation of HA was accompanied by formation of by-products produced by side reaction.

  17. Novel synthetic method for the preparation of amphiphilic hyaluronan by means of aliphatic aromatic anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Bobek, Martin; Příkopová, Eva; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-10-13

    The present work describes a novel and efficient method of synthesis of amphiphilic hyaluronan (HA) by esterification with alkyl fatty acids. These derivatives were synthesized under mild aqueous and well controlled conditions using mixed aliphatic aromatic anhydrides. These anhydrides characterized by the general formula RCOOCOC6H2Cl3 can be easily prepared by the reaction of the corresponding fatty acid (R) with 2,4,6-trichlorobenzoyl chloride (TCBC) in the presence of triethylamine. The aliphatic aromatic anhydrides RCOOCOC6H2Cl3 then react with the polysaccharide and enable the synthesis of aliphatic acid esters of HA in good yields. No hydrolytic degradation of hyaluronic acid could be observed. Parameters controlling the degree of esterification were systematically studied. Fatty acids with different chain lengths can be introduced applying this methodology. The degree of substitution was decreasing with increasing length of hydrophobic chain. The reaction products were fully characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), SEC-MALLS and chromatographic analyses. Although the esterified HA products exhibited aggregation in solution as demonstrated by NMR, microscopy and rheology, they were still water-soluble.

  18. Murder must memorise.

    PubMed

    Brainerd, C J

    2013-05-03

    Memory reports usually provide the evidence that is most determinative of guilt or innocence in criminal proceedings-including in the most serious proceedings, capital murder trials. Thus memory research is bedrock science when it comes to the reliability of legal evidence, and expert testimony on such research is a linchpin of just verdicts. This principle is illustrated with a capital murder trial in which several of the most powerful forms of memory distortion were present (e.g., phantom recollections, robust interrogation methods that stimulate false self-incrimination). A key question before the jury, whether to regard the defendant's confession as true or false, turned on a theoretical principle that is used to explain memory distortion in the laboratory, the verbatim-gist distinction, and on research showing that it is possible to create false memories that embody the gist of experience. The scientific testimony focused on instances in which false gist memories had been created under controlled conditions (e.g., of having been lost in a mall, of receiving surgery for a fictitious injury), as well as on real-life examples of false memory for the gist experience (e.g., recovered memories of sexual abuse, alien abduction memories). The defendant was found innocent of capital murder.

  19. First Results from the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area Lighting Map Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Hall, John; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, Bill; Zubrick, Steven

    2007-01-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6,54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4,2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  20. Bioethics and anti-bioethics in light of Nazi medicine: what must we remember?

    PubMed

    Wikler, D; Barondess, J

    1993-03-01

    Only recently have historians explored in depth the role of the medical profession in Nazi Germany. Several recent works reveal that physicians joined the Nazi party in disproportionate numbers and lent both their efforts and their authority to Nazi eugenic and racist programs. While the crimes of the physician Mengele and a few others are well known, recent research points to a much broader involvement by the profession, even in its everyday clinical work. Analogous activities existed in the German legal and industrial communities; disruption of the medical ethic thus sprang from the broader social contexts of Nazi Germany. The new United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, now opening on the Mall in Washington, D.C., will have an opportunity to educate the public about both the great crimes at Auschwitz and other camps, and the gradual but thorough degradation of ethics in the German medical profession. From this presentation, contemporary bioethics can ponder the proper use of the Nazi analogy in bioethical debate.

  1. Dodecenylsuccinic anhydride derivatives of gum karaya (Sterculia urens): preparation, characterization, and their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Padil, Vinod Vellora Thekkae; Senan, Chandra; Černík, Miroslav

    2015-04-15

    Esterifications of the tree-based gum, gum karaya (GK), using dodecenylsuccinic anhydride (DDSA) were carried out in aqueous solutions. GK was deacetylated using alkali treatment to obtain deacetylated gum karaya (DGK). The DGK and its DDSA derivative were characterized using gel permeation chromatography/multiangle laser light scattering (GPC/MALLS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and rheological studies. The degree of substitution was found to be 10.25% for DGK using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The critical aggregation concentration of DDSA-DGK was determined using dye solubilization and surface tension methods. The antibacterial activity of the DDSA-DGK derivative was then investigated against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The DDSA-DGK derivative has the potential for use as a stabilizing agent in food and nonfood applications. It can also be developed as an antibacterial agent.

  2. An empirical assessment of the Above the Influence advertising campaign.

    PubMed

    Scheier, Lawrence M; Grenard, Jerry L; Holtz, Kristen D

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Above the Influence (ATI), a national media-based health persuasion campaign to deter youth drug use. The campaign uses public service anti-drug prevention messages and targets youth between the ages of 14 and 16, a period of heightened susceptibility to peer influences. The evaluation utilized mall intercepts from geographically dispersed regions of the country. Theoretical impetus for the campaign combines elements of the theory of reasoned action (TRA), persuasion theory, and the health belief model. A series of structural equation models were tested with four randomly drawn cross-validation samples (N = 3,000). Findings suggest that awareness of ATI is associated with greater anti-drug beliefs, fewer drug use intentions, and less marijuana use. Congruent with the TRA, changes in beliefs and intentions are intermediate steps linking campaign awareness with behavior. This study provides further evidence of positive campaign effects and may strengthen reliance on mass media health persuasion campaigns as a useful adjunct to other programs targeting youth.

  3. Production, fractionation, characterization of extracellular polysaccharide from a newly isolated Trametes gibbosa and its hypoglycemic activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuping; Mao, Duobin; Geng, Lujing; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Chunping

    2013-07-25

    The submerged fermentation for extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production from Trametes gibbosa was optimized. An optimal medium for EPS production was obtained through central composite design (CCD) as follows: 53.12 g/L maltose and 4.21 g/L polypeptone in distilled water. Furthermore, four groups of EPSs (designated as Fr-I, Fr-II, Fr-III and Fr-IV) were obtained from the culture filtrates by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and their molecular characteristics were examined by a multiangle laser-light scattering (MALLS) and refractive index (RI) detector system. The weight-average molar mass of Fr-I was determined to be 3.872 x 10(5)g/mol and its molecular shape was revealed to be a rigid rod in an aqueous solution. Finally, the hypoglycemic effect of the EPS, investigated in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice, decreased plasma glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations by 17.4%, 14.0% and 12.6%, respectively. The results indicate the potential of this EPS to prevent hyperglycemia in diabetic patients.

  4. Absolute molecular weight determination of hypromellose acetate succinate by size exclusion chromatography: use of a multi angle laser light scattering detector and a mixed solvent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Raymond; Ilasi, Nicholas; Sekulic, Sonja S

    2011-12-05

    Molecular weight distribution is an important quality attribute for hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), a pharmaceutical excipient used in spray-dried dispersions. Our previous study showed that neither relative nor universal calibration method of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) works for HPMCAS polymers. We here report our effort to develop a SEC method using a mass sensitive multi angle laser light scattering detector (MALLS) to determine molecular weight distributions of HPMCAS polymers. A solvent screen study reveals that a mixed solvent (60:40%, v/v 50mM NaH(2)PO(4) with 0.1M NaNO(3) buffer: acetonitrile, pH* 8.0) is the best for HPMCAS-LF and MF sub-classes. Use of a mixed solvent creates a challenging condition for the method that uses refractive index detector. Therefore, we thoroughly evaluated the method performance and robustness. The mean weight average molecular weight of a polyethylene oxide standard has a 95% confidence interval of (28,443-28,793) g/mol vs. 28,700g/mol from the Certificate of Analysis. The relative standard deviations of average molecular weights for all polymers are 3-6%. These results and the Design of Experiments study demonstrate that the method is accurate and robust.

  5. Design and solid phase synthesis of new DOTA conjugated (+)-biotin dimers planned to develop molecular weight-tuned avidin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Melani, Fabrizio; Chinol, Marco; Carollo, Angela; Paganelli, Giovanni; Lumini, Marco; Bartoli, Mattia; Frediani, Marco; Rosi, Luca; Petrucci, Giorgio; Messori, Luigi; Papini, Anna Maria

    2015-04-07

    Chemical modifications of the biotin carrier in pretargeted avidin–biotin radionuclide therapy may be of paramount importance for tuning the amount of the radioactivity delivered to cancer cells by labelled biotins. We report here the synthesis of a collection of new synthetic DOTA-constructs bearing two (+)-biotin molecules (bis-biotins), designed for the creation of multimeric Av units (tetramers) bonded to the antibody. All the syntheses were carried out following the solid phase strategy and growing the molecules on a Rink Amide resin. The biotin heads are connected through spacers containing PEG or non-PEG residues. Molecular modelling calculations suggested that the Av cross-linking ability of the bis-biotins depends mainly on the spacers length, with the best results being expected for arms affording distances in the range of 10–25 Å between the biotin carboxylate atoms, in the fully extended conformation. SEC-HPLC MALLS analysis of the products of our Av/bis-biotin reaction mixtures have confirmed this hypothesis. The bis-biotin 16, where the non-PEG linker ensured a distance of 26.7 Å between the biotin moieties, gave about 50% of Av oligomers while the shorter analogue 18 (19.5 Å) afforded 100% of an Av polymer containing about 21 protein units. Remarkably, the solubility of both the bis-biotins, i.e.16 and 18, in aqueous solutions was good and they showed excellent stability against the action of peptidases.

  6. Phase and amplitude controlled micropatch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thursby, Michael H.

    1994-07-01

    As the wireless communications industry in the U.S. stands poised for an explosion of new commercial and military applications (e.g. the Radio Mall, the Airlink), reducing the high cost of phased array antennas becomes ever more important. Reducing these antenna costs is the primary objective of this research. We will describe an effort that to date has produced a working prototype of a micropatch antenna incorporating a single dollar per bit phase shifter. Since 1987, when we have been involved in designing antenna systems using micropatch elements, early work led to our discovery of the Smart Electromagnetic Structure concept which resulted in the development of a neural controlled, frequency agile antenna element capable of following the frequency of incoming radiation, and tuning the antenna center frequency to that of the incoming signal. This can be applied to systems like frequency-hop radios. In this paper we will describe a method of controlling a micropatch antenna to provide phase only variation of the antenna characteristics using a similar device to that used for the frequency control experiments. We have successfully varied the phase of the antenna element without significantly changing the operating frequency. This work has led us to pursue further the design and fabrication of an array of such phase adjustable element to test the hypothesis that such phase controlled micropatch elements can be used to fabricate a low cost phased array antenna.

  7. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg⁻¹, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material.

  8. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  9. Primary characterization and evaluation of anti ulcerogenic activity of an aqueous extract from callus culture of Cereus peruvianus Mill. (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Jayme, Milena O; Ames, Franciele Q; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Machado, Maria de Fatima P S; Mangolin, Claudete A; Goncalves, Regina A C; de Oliveira, Arildo J B

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we reported cultivation, extraction procedure, analysis and preliminary characterization of the aqueous extract from Cereus peruvianus callus culture and evaluated its anti ulcerogenic activity in vivo models of experimental ulcers in Wistar rats. The obtained aqueous extract from callus (AC) was dialyzed and subjected to freeze-thaw process, providing a possible polysaccharide. The carbohydrate and protein contents of the aqueous extract were estimated at 53.4% and 0.66%, respectively, composed primarily of galactose, arabinose and galacturonic acid, with minor amounts of glucose. This appeared heterogeneous when analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography and a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS). The AC was found to be significantly effective against ethanol-induced lesions but was ineffective against indomethacin-induced lesions. The callus culture of C. peruvianus is an alternative source for the synthesis of substances originally produced by plants. The calluses grown indefinitely in vitro under controlled conditions are stable tissues, and the aqueous extract from calluses may be used instead of fully developed plants using the protocols described in this study.

  10. An engineering-economic analysis of combined heat and power technologies in a (mu)grid application

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Owen; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Bartholomew, Emily; Marnay, Chris; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-03-01

    This report describes an investigation at Ernesto Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the potential for coupling combined heat and power (CHP) with on-site electricity generation to provide power and heating, and cooling services to customers. This research into distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid (mGrid), a semiautonomous grouping of power-generating sources that are placed and operated by and for the benefit of its members. For this investigation, a hypothetical small shopping mall (''Microgrid Oaks'') was developed and analyzed for the cost effectiveness of installing CHP to provide the mGrid's energy needs. A mGrid consists of groups of customers pooling energy loads and installing a combination of generation resources that meets the particular mGrid's goals. This study assumes the mGrid is seeking to minimize energy costs. mGrids could operate independently of the macrogrid (the wider power network), but they are usually assumed to be connected, through power electronics, to the macrogrid. The mGrid in this study is assumed to be interconnected to the macrogrid, and can purchase some energy and ancillary services from utility providers.

  11. iParking: An Intelligent Indoor Location-Based Smartphone Parking Service

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution. PMID:23202179

  12. Hyperbranched amphiphilic polymer with folate mediated targeting property.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hu, Chao-Hua; Cheng, Si-Xue; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2010-09-01

    Hyperbranched amphiphilic polymer PG6-PLA-PEG was synthesized through grafting hydrophobic poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) segments and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) blocks to hydrophilic hyperbranched polyglycerol core (PG6), subsequently. To achieve cell targeting property, folic acid (FA) was further incorporated to the hyperbranched polymer to obtain PG6-PLA-PEG-FA. The polymers were characterized by (1)H NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy and combined size-exclusion chromatography and multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Due to the amphiphilicity, PG6-PLA-PEG and PG6-PLA-PEG-FA could self-assemble to form nanoparticles in aqueous solutions. Antineoplastic drug, paclitaxel (PTX), was encapsulated into the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The targeting property of PG6-PLA-PEG-FA was evaluated in vitro. The results showed that the PTX loaded PG6-PLA-PEG-FA nanoparticles exhibited enhanced inhibition on folate receptor positive tumor cells due to the folate mediated targeting.

  13. Mission-driven marketing: a rural example.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, J E; Vaughn, T; Westermann, J

    1999-01-01

    Marketing receives little attention in the academic healthcare management literature, possibly because it is associated with pursuit of profit rather than community benefit. However, a marketing perspective can be applied to the pursuit of the traditional missions of healthcare delivery organizations. Mission-oriented market selection criteria could include characteristics such as relevance to mission, underserved or vulnerable population status, resistance to care, limited resources, and low accessibility. A survey conducted in a rural county is used to demonstrate ways that underserved market segments can be identified and targeted. In the market surveyed, men used less medical care than women; depressed people and those with low levels of education used less medical care than people without these characteristics. Consumers were more likely to defer care because of cost if they lacked health insurance coverage, were female, were under age 55, had fair health status, were depressed, and were chronically ill. Marketing strategies worthy of consideration relate to price (e.g., free care, coupons and sales for eligible individuals), distribution (e.g., visiting nurses, malls and fairs, occupational medicine programs), product (e.g., satisfaction, waiting time, attractiveness, assertive follow-up), and promotion (education about insurance benefits, facilitating development of regular sources of care, health education).

  14. The sensitivity of Flemish citizens to androstenone: influence of gender, age, location and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, K M; Tuyttens, F A M; Duchateau, L; De Brabander, H F; Aluwé, M; Millet, S; Vandendriessche, F; Vanhaecke, L

    2011-07-01

    Skatole and androstenone are the main boar taint compounds. Whereas nearly everybody is sensitive to skatole, the sensitivity to androstenone is genetically determined and differs between countries. In this study the methodology for testing androstenone sensitivity was refined and applied to 1569 consumers that were approached at six shopping malls in Flanders. Participants were asked to smell the contents of four bottles (three were filled with water and one with androstenone solved in water) and to identify and describe the odour of the strongest smelling bottle. This test was performed twice. 45.3% of the respondents were classified as sensitive to androstenone (i.e. the percentage of participants that identified the correct bottle in both tests minus a guess correction). Sensitivity differed between sexes (men: 38.3%-women: 51.1%, P<0.001), according to age (older people were less sensitive, P<0.001), and between the test locations (P<0.001), but not between smokers versus non-smokers.

  15. Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-11-01

    Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost.

  16. Social dominance orientation and gender: the moderating role of gender identity.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marc Stewart; Liu, James H

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the claim that gender differences in levels of social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), a personality variable measuring a general predisposition towards anti-egalitarianism, are essentially invariant (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). Previous findings have indicated that (regardless of covariate) males display higher levels of SDO than females. Two studies were conducted to test the expectation (derived from social identity theory) that the gender-SDO relationship would be moderated by strength of gender group identification. Both samples (150 non-students and 163 students) completed the full SDO(6) measure, and measures of gender group identification. Consistent with predictions, strength of gender identification was found to moderate the gender-SDO relationship, such that increasing group identification was associated with increasing SDO scores for males, and decreasing SDO for females. This result raises questions concerning the theoretical basis of social dominance theory, and whether gender group membership should be accorded a different status from other 'arbitrary-set' group memberships.

  17. SYNAISTHISI: an IoT-powered smart visitor management and cognitive recommendations system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanos, Giorgos Konstandinos; Karafylli, Christina; Karafylli, Maria; Zacharakis, Dimitris; Papadimitriou, Apostolis; Dimitros, Kostantinos; Kanellopoulou, Konstantina; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    Location-based and navigation services are really needed to help visitors and audience of big events, complex buildings, shopping malls, airports and large companies. However, the lack of GPS and proper mapping indoors usually renders location-based applications and services useless or simply not applicable in such environments. SYNAISTHISI introduces a mobile application for smartphones which offers navigation capabilities outside and inside buildings and through multiple floor levels. The application comes together with a suite of helpful services, including personalized recommendations, visit/event management and a helpful search functionality in order to navigate to a specific location, event or person. As the user finds his way towards his destination, NFC-enabled checkpoints and bluetooth beacons assist him, while offering re-routing, check-in/out capabilities and useful information about ongoing meetings and nearby events. The application is supported by a back-end GIS system which can provide a broad and clear view to event organizers, campus managers and field personnel for purposes of event logistics, safety and security. SYNAISTHISI system comes with plenty competitive advantages including (a) Seamless Navigation as users move between outdoor and indoor areas and different floor levels by using innovative routing algorithms, (b) connection to and powered by IoT platform, for localization and real-time information feedback, (c) dynamic personalized recommendations based on user profile, location and real-time information provided by the IoT platform and (d) Indoor localization without the need for expensive infrastructure and installations.

  18. A covalently cross-linked gel derived from the epidermis of the pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    PubMed

    Baum, C; Fleischer, L-G; Roessner, D; Meyer, W; Siebers, D

    2002-01-01

    The rheological properties of the stratum corneum of the pilot whale (Globicephala melas) were investigated with emphasis on their significance to the self-cleaning abilities of the skin surface smoothed by a jelly material enriched with various hydrolytic enzymes. The gel formation of the collected fluid was monitored by applying periodic-harmonic oscillating loads using a stress-controlled rheometer. In the mechanical spectrum of the gel, the plateau region of the storage modulus G' (<1200 Pa) and the loss modulus G" (>120 Pa) were independent of frequency (omega = 43.98 to 0.13 rad x s(-1), tau = 15 Pa, T = 20 degrees C), indicating high elastic performance of a covalently cross-linked viscoelastic solid. In addition, multi-angle laser light scattering experiments (MALLS) were performed to analyse the potential time-dependent changes in the weight-average molar mass of the samples. The observed increase showed that the gel formation is based on the assembly of covalently cross-linked aggregates. The viscoelastic properties and the shear resistance of the gel assure that the enzyme-containing jelly material smoothing the skin surface is not removed from the stratum corneum by shear regimes during dolphin jumping. The even skin surface is considered to be most important for the self-cleaning abilities of the dolphin skin against biofouling.

  19. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature. PMID:28184208

  20. Consumption, health attitudes and perception toward fast food among Arab consumers in Kuwait: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2014-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to consume "double" burgers (52%) than women (29.9%) (P < 0.001). The great majority of consumers (95%) considered fast food harmful to health. However, the consumers were continued to intake fast food (92%), indicating that health information on fast food not necessarly affects their consumption. Local foods were more likely to be considered fast food if eaten as a sandwich or without a disposal container. It can be concluded that fast food perceptions are influenced by gender, media and socio-cultural factors. Nutrition education programmes should focus on nutritive values of the foods rather than on their "fast food" classification.

  1. Effects of Molecular Weight on poly( -pentadecalactone) Mechanical and Thermal Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, J.; Liu, C; Cai, M; Zhu, J; Zuo, F; Hsiao, B; Gross, R

    2010-01-01

    A series of poly({omega}-pentadecalactone) (PPDL) samples, synthesized by lipase catalysis, were prepared by systematic variation of reaction time and water content. These samples possessed weight-average molecular weights (M{sub w}), determined by multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS), from 2.5 x 10{sup 4} to 48.1 x 10{sup 4}. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature of PPDL samples with M{sub W} between 4.5 x 10{sup 4} and 8.1 x 10{sup 4} showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. For PPDL with M{sub W} of 8.1 x 10{sup 4}, inter-fibrillar slippage dominates during deformation until fracture. Increasing M{sub W} above 18.9 x 10{sup 4} resulted in enhanced entanglement network strength and strain-hardening. The high M{sub W} samples also exhibited tough properties with elongation at break about 650% and tensile strength about 60.8 MPa, comparable to linear high density polyethylene (HDPE). Relationships among molecular weight, Young's modulus, stress, strain at yield, melting and crystallization enthalpy (by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC) and crystallinity (from wide-angle X-ray diffraction, WAXD) were correlated for PPDL samples. Similarities and differences of linear HDPE and PPDL molecular weight dependence on their mechanical and thermal properties were also compared.

  2. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC50 36.33±3.84μg/ml).

  3. Small signal gain measurement of liquid oxygen under different wavelength laser pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhe; Li, Hui; Zhou, Canhua; Liu, Jinbo; Cai, Xianglong; Hu, Shu; Gai, Baodong; Zhou, Dongjian; Liu, Dong; Guo, Jingwei; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    Oxygen molecules existed in pairs under liquid condition, the radiation from vibrational ground state of 1 Δ state to the first vibrational excited state of 3 ∑ state was electronic dipole moment transition allowed, and a photon with wavelength of 1580 nm was emitted. In our experiment, dye laser with wavelength of 581 nm, 634 nm, 764 nm was used to excite liquid oxygen to different excited states, while a tunable OPO was used as the seeder laser, and the small signal gain was measured to be 0.23 cm-1, 0.3 cm-1 and 0.076 cm-1 respectively. The small signal gain (pump by photon of 634 nm) was significantly higher than that of common solid state lasers and chemical lasers. When the fundamental output of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was used as the pump source, the corresponding small signal gain was 0.12 cm-1. The profiles of small signal gain form 1579.2 nm to 1580.8 nm were also presented. These results were consistent with theoretical calculation. The high positive gain indicated that the liquid oxygen was a potential medium for high energy laser. A comprehensive parameter optimization was still necessary in order to improve the mall signal gain.

  4. Migration of nanoparticles from plastic packaging materials containing carbon black into foodstuffs

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Johannes; Störmer, Angela; Franz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Carbon black was investigated to assess and quantify the possibility that nanoparticles might migrate out of plastic materials used in the food packaging industry. Two types of carbon black were incorporated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) at 2.5% and 5.0% loading (w/w), and then subjected to migration studies. The samples were exposed to different food simulants according to European Union Plastics Regulation 10/2011, simulating long-term storage with aqueous and fatty foodstuffs. Asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to a multi-angle laser light-scattering (MALLS) detector was used to separate, characterise and quantify the potential release of nanoparticles. The AF4 method was successful in differentiating carbon black from other matrix components, such as extracted polymer chains, in the migration solution. At a detection limit of 12 µg kg−1, carbon black did not migrate from the packaging material into food simulants. The experimental findings are in agreement with theoretical considerations based on migration modelling. From both the experimental findings and theoretical considerations, it can be concluded that carbon black does not migrate into food once it is incorporated into a plastics food contact material. PMID:25105506

  5. Distilling Big Data: Refining Quality Information in the Era of Yottabytes

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandramurthy, Sivaraman; Subramaniam, Srinivasan; Ramasamy, Chandrasekeran

    2015-01-01

    Big Data is the buzzword of the modern century. With the invasion of pervasive computing, we live in a data centric environment, where we always leave a track of data related to our day to day activities. Be it a visit to a shopping mall or hospital or surfing Internet, we create voluminous data related to credit card transactions, user details, location information, and so on. These trails of data simply define an individual and form the backbone for user-profiling. With the mobile phones and their easy access to online social networks on the go, sensor data such as geo-taggings and events and sentiments around them contribute to the already overwhelming data containers. With reductions in the cost of storage and computational devices and with increasing proliferation of Cloud, we never felt any constraints in storing or processing such data. Eventually we end up having several exabytes of data and analysing them for their usefulness has introduced new frontiers of research. Effective distillation of these data is the need of the hour to improve the veracity of the Big Data. This research targets the utilization of the Fuzzy Bayesian process model to improve the quality of information in Big Data. PMID:26495424

  6. Two quantitative trait loci, Dw1 and Dw2, are primarily responsible for rootstock-induced dwarfing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Toshi M; Celton, Jean-Marc; Chagné, David; Tustin, D Stuart; Gardiner, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    The apple dwarfing rootstock ‘Malling9’ (‘M9’) has been used worldwide both to reduce scion vigour and as a genetic source for breeding new rootstocks. Progeny of ‘M9’ segregate for rootstock-induced dwarfing of the scion, indicating that this trait is controlled by one or more genetic factors. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of a rootstock population derived from the cross between ‘M9’ × ‘Robusta5’ (non-dwarfing) and grafted with ‘Braeburn’ scions identified a major QTL (Dw1) on linkage group (LG) 5, which exhibits a significant influence on dwarfing of the scion. A smaller-effect QTL affecting dwarfing (Dw2) was identified on LG11, and four minor-effect QTLs were found on LG6, LG9, LG10 and LG12. Phenotypic analysis indicates that the combination of Dw1 and Dw2 has the strongest influence on rootstock-induced dwarfing, and that Dw1 has a stronger effect than Dw2. Genetic markers linked to Dw1 and Dw2 were screened over 41 rootstock accessions that confer a range of effects on scion growth. The majority of the dwarfing and semi-dwarfing rootstock accessions screened carried marker alleles linked to Dw1 and Dw2. This suggests that most apple dwarfing rootstocks have been derived from the same genetic source. PMID:26504562

  7. DNA recognition by peptide nucleic acid-modified PCFs: from models to real samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, S.; Coscelli, E.; Poli, F.; Passaro, D.; Cucinotta, A.; Lantano, C.; Corradini, R.; Marchelli, R.

    2010-04-01

    The increased concern, emerged in the last few years, on food products safety has stimulated the research on new techniques for traceability of raw food materials. DNA analysis is one of the most powerful tools for the certification of food quality, and it is presently performed through the polymerase chain reaction technique. Photonic crystal fibers, due to the presence of an array of air holes running along their length, can be exploited for performing DNA recognition by derivatizing hole surfaces and checking hybridization of complementary nucledotide chains in the sample. In this paper the application of a suspended core photonic crystal fiber in the recognition of DNA sequences is discussed. The fiber is characterized in terms of electromagnetic properties by means of a full-vector modal solver based on the finite element method. Then, the performances of the fiber in the recognition of mall synthetic oligonucleotides are discussed, together with a test of the possibility to extend this recognition to samples of DNA of applicative interest, such as olive leaves.

  8. Degradation of chitosan by gamma ray with presence of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Maznah; Naziri, Muhammad Ihsan; Yacob, Norzita; Talip, Norhashidah; Abdullah, Zahid

    2014-02-01

    The radiation degraded chitosan samples were prepared by swelling the chitosan powder in water and exposed for gamma irradiation. The ratio chitosan to water was 1:6 with the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 1%-5%. These chitosan-water mixtures were irradiated at 6kGy, which is the lowest irradiation dose that facility can offered. All samples were purified and proceed with characterization. The molecular weight (MW) study was monitored by size exclusion chromatography-multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS). Results showed that MW of chitosan reduced as the dose increased. Application of H2O2 enhanced the degradation rate of chitosan even at very low irradiation dose. Homogenous degradation also occurred during treatment with H2O2based on the polydispersity index (PDI) derived from the calculation of weight average molecular weight over number average molecular weight (Mw/Mn). Mechanism of chitosan radiation degradation with and without hydrogen peroxide was also discussed in this paper. Structure of degraded products was characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The degree of deacetylation (DDA) values of the samples was determined by acid-base titration. Solubility test results showed that, chitosan powder even at low Mw was insoluble in water even at low pH water. Chitosan as well as irradiated chitosan powder are soluble in strong and weak acid solution. Further discussion on behaviours of radiation degraded chitosan will be elaborated more in this paper.

  9. Light-induced melatonin suppression at night after exposure to different wavelength composition of morning light.

    PubMed

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Kubokawa, Ayaka; Taketomi, Ryunosuke; Hatae, Keisuke

    2016-03-11

    Bright nocturnal light has been shown to suppress melatonin secretion. However, bright light exposure during the day might reduce light-induced melatonin suppression at night. The human circadian system is sensitive to short wavelength light. This study evaluated the preventive effect of different wavelengths of daytime light on light-induced melatonin suppression at night. Twelve male subjects were exposed to various light conditions (dim, white, and bluish white light) between the hours of 09:00 and 10:30 (daytime light conditions). They were then exposed to light (300lx) again between 01:00 and 02:30 (night-time light exposure). Subjects provided saliva samples before (00:55) and after night-time light exposure (02:30). A two-tailed paired t-test yielded significant decrements in melatonin concentrations after night-time light exposure under daytime dim and white light conditions. No significant differences were found in melatonin concentrations between pre- and post-night-time light exposure with bluish-white light. Present findings suggest that daytime blue light exposure has an acute preventive impact on light-induced melatonin suppression in individuals with a general life rhythm (sleep/wake schedule). These findings may be useful for implementing artificial light environments for humans in, for example, hospitals and underground shopping malls to reduce health risks.

  10. Comparative Analyses of Lung Transcriptomes in Patients with Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins and in Foxf1 Heterozygous Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Majewski, Tadeusz; Mohammad, Mahmoud A.; Kalin, Tanya V.; Zabielska, Joanna; Ren, Xiaomeng; Bray, Molly; Brown, Hannah M.; Welty, Stephen; Thevananther, Sundararajah; Langston, Claire; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Justice, Monica J.; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V.; Gambin, Anna; Belmont, John; Stankiewicz, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia with Misalignment of Pulmonary Veins (ACDMPV) is a developmental disorder of the lungs, primarily affecting their vasculature. FOXF1 haploinsufficiency due to heterozygous genomic deletions and point mutations have been reported in most patients with ACDMPV. The majority of mice with heterozygous loss-of-function of Foxf1 exhibit neonatal lethality with evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage in some of them. By comparing transcriptomes of human ACDMPV lungs with control lungs using expression arrays, we found that several genes and pathways involved in lung development, angiogenesis, and in pulmonary hypertension development, were deregulated. Similar transcriptional changes were found in lungs of the postnatal day 0.5 Foxf1+/− mice when compared to their wildtype littermate controls; 14 genes, COL15A1, COL18A1, COL6A2, ESM1, FSCN1, GRINA, IGFBP3, IL1B, MALL, NOS3, RASL11B, MATN2, PRKCDBP, and SIRPA, were found common to both ACDMPV and Foxf1 heterozygous lungs. Our results advance knowledge toward understanding of the molecular mechanism of ACDMPV, lung development, and its vasculature pathology. These data may also be useful for understanding etiologies of other lung disorders, e.g. pulmonary hypertension, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or cancer. PMID:24722050

  11. The Effect of Priming with Photographs of Environmental Settings on Walking Speed in an Outdoor Environment.

    PubMed

    Franěk, Marek; Režný, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effect of priming with photographs of various environmental settings on the speed of a subsequent outdoor walk in an urban environment. Either photographs of urban greenery, conifer forests, or shopping malls were presented or no prime was employed. Three experiments were conducted (N = 126, N = 88, and N = 121). After being exposed to the priming or no-priming conditions, the participants were asked to walk along an urban route 1.9 km long with vegetation and mature trees (Experiment 1, Experiment 3) or along a route in a modern suburb (Experiment 2). In accord with the concept of approach-avoidance behavior, it was expected that priming with photographs congruent with the environmental setting of the walking route would result in slower walking speed. Conversely, priming with photographs incongruent with the environmental setting should result in faster walking speed. The results showed that priming with the photographs with vegetation caused a decrease in overall walking speed on the route relative to other experimental conditions. However, priming with incongruent primes did not lead to a significant increase in walking speed. In all experimental conditions, the slowest walking speed was found in sections with the highest natural character. The results are explained in terms of congruency between the prime and the environment, as well as by the positive psychological effects of viewing nature.

  12. Obama Boosts Science Education During White House Student Fair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    With the East Room of the White House flush with Nobel laureates and government officials, including freshly sworn-in U.S. National Science Foundation director Subra Suresh, President Barack Obama honored dozens of students who participated in a White House science fair on 18 October. The fair—many of whose participants have won other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) competitions—is part of a series of events that culminated 23-24 October in the USA Science and Engineering Festival on the National Mall in Washington, D. C., and at 50 satellite events around the country. “We welcome championship sports teams to the White House to celebrate their victories,” Obama said, noting that the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, New Orleans Saints football team, and others have been to the White House. “I thought we ought to do the same thing for the winners of science fair and robotic contests and math competitions, because often we don’t give these victories the attention that they deserve. When you win first place at a science fair, nobody is rushing the field or dumping Gatorade over your head [in celebration].”

  13. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  14. Epidemiological study on foot-and-mouth disease in cattle: seroprevalence and risk factor assessment in South Omo zone, south-western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Molla, B; Ayelet, G; Asfaw, Y; Jibril, Y; Ganga, G; Gelaye, E

    2010-10-01

    A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted in seven districts of the South Omo zone, south-western Ethiopia, between October 2008 and May 2009 with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and identifying the potential risk factors associated with the disease. In total, 770 cattle sera samples were collected and submitted to the National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, for screening using the 3ABC-ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of 8.18% (n=63) was recorded in the study. The highest district-level prevalence was observed in Bennatsemay district (30.2%), and the lowest prevalence was in Malle and Debub Aari districts, each with prevalence of 6.3%. The difference in seropositivity of FMD in the studied districts was found to be statistically significant. From the various risk factors analysed, age of animal, contact history with wild animals, distance of the herd from parks and wild animals' sanctuary and movement pattern of herds in search of pasture and water from area to area were found to be significantly associated (P<0.05) with the seroprevalence of FMD. The results of this study showed that FMD is an important cattle disease in the study areas. Thus, an appropriate control strategy has to be designed and applied, which could involve regulation of transboundary cattle movement, prevention of contact with wildlife and vaccination against the circulating virus strain.

  15. Structure, chain conformation, and immunomodulatory activity of the polysaccharide purified from Bacillus Calmette Guerin formulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hong; Yu, Juping; Liu, Yameng; Lu, Weisheng; Chai, Yin; Liu, Chao; Pan, Chun; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2016-10-05

    A polysaccharide, coded as BDP, purified from the injection powder of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) polysaccharide and nucleic acid, was composed mainly of α-D-(1→4)-linked glucan with (1→6)-linked branches and trace amounts of fucose and mannose from the results of FT-IR, HPAEC-PAD and NMR spectrum. The Mw, Mn, Mz, and [Formula: see text] were determined to be 1.320×10(5)g/mol, 1.012×10(5)g/mol, 2.139×10(5)g/mol, and 21.8±3.2%nm by using HPSEC-MALLS, respectively. The ν value from [Formula: see text] was calculated to be 0.52±0.01, which firstly clarified that BDP existed as random coils in 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution. AFM and SEM combined with Congo-red test also revealed that the polysaccharide was irregular globular like or curly structure. Furthermore, in vitro tests on RAW264.7 murine macrophages cells revealed that BDP exhibited significant immunomodulatory activity.

  16. [Malaria in Algerian Sahara].

    PubMed

    Hammadi, D; Boubidi, S C; Chaib, S E; Saber, A; Khechache, Y; Gasmi, M; Harrat, Z

    2009-08-01

    Thanks to the malaria eradication campaign launched in Algeria in 1968, the number of malaria cases fell down significantly from 95,424 cases in 1960 to 30 cases in 1978. At that time the northern part of the country was declared free of Plasmodium falciparum. Only few cases belonging to P. vivax persisted in residual foci in the middle part of the country. In the beginning of the eighties, the south of the country was marked by an increase of imported malaria cases. The resurgence of the disease in the oases coincided with the opening of the Trans-Saharan road and the booming trade with the neighbouring southern countries. Several authors insisted on the risk of introduction of malaria or its exotic potential vectors in Algeria via this new road. Now, the totality of malaria autochthonous cases in Algeria are located in the south of the country where 300 cases were declared during the period (1980-2007). The recent outbreak recorded in 2007 at the borders with Mall and the introduction of Anopheles gambiae into the Algerian territory show the vulnerability of this area to malaria which is probably emphasized by the local environmental changes. The authors assess the evolution of malaria in the Sahara region and draw up the distribution of the anopheles in this area.

  17. Shifts in xylem vessel diameter and embolisms in grafted apple trees of differing rootstock growth potential in response to drought.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, Taryn L; Centinari, Michela; Bauerle, William L

    2011-11-01

    We investigated responses of plant growth rate, hydraulic resistance, and xylem cavitation in scion-rootstock-combinations of Malus domestica L. cv. Honeycrisp scions grafted onto a high-shoot vigor (HSV) rootstock, (semi-dwarfing Malling111), or onto a low-shoot vigor (LSV) rootstock, (dwarfing Budagovsky 9), in response to substrate moisture limitation. Adjustments in xylem vessel diameter and frequency were related to hydraulic resistance measurements for high- versus low- vigor apple trees. We observed a greater tolerance to water deficit in the high-shoot compared to the low-shoot vigor plants under water deficit as evidenced by increased growth in several plant organs, and greater scion anatomical response to limited water availability with ca. 25% increased vessel frequency and ca. 28% narrower current season xylem ring width. Whereas water limitation resulted in greater graft union hydraulic resistance of high-shoot vigor trees, the opposite was true when water was not limiting. The graft union of the low-shoot vigor rootstock exhibited higher hydraulic resistance under well-watered conditions. Scions of high-shoot vigor rootstocks had fewer embolisms at low plant water status compared to scions of low-shoot vigor rootstocks, presumably as a result of large differences in xylem vessel diameter. Our results demonstrated that anatomical differences were related to shifts in hydraulic conductivity and cavitation events, a direct result of grafting, under limited soil water.

  18. The risk of pedestrian collisions with peripheral visual field loss

    PubMed Central

    Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L.; Goldstein, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds. The risk density was found to be highly anisotropic. It peaked at ≈45° eccentricity. Increasing pedestrian speed range shifted the risk to higher eccentricities. The risk density is independent of time to collision. The model results were compared to the binocular residual peripheral island locations of 42 patients with forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The natural residual island prevalence also peaked nasally at about 45° but temporally at about 75°. This asymmetry resulted in a complementary coverage of the binocular field of view. Natural residual binocular island eccentricities seem well matched to the collision-risk density function, optimizing detection of other walking pedestrians (nasally) and of faster hazards (temporally). Field expansion prism devices will be most effective if they can create artificial peripheral islands at about 45° eccentricities. The collision risk and residual island findings raise interesting questions about normal visual development. PMID:27919101

  19. Terraforming Mars: Can We Feed Ourselves If We Go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, James M.; Elliot, Kandis

    2003-01-01

    Scientists and engineers have recognized for a long time that transporting food supplies from Earth to extraterrestrial colonies is not a feasible option over the long run because of weight, distance, and ultimately costs. It has therefore been accepted that colonists on the Moon and Mars will have to be capable of feeding themselves from greenhouse-grown crops. A number of greenhouse designs have been proposed, and the designs fall into two categories: inflatable greenhouses manufactured on Earth and transported to Mars and greenhouses manufactured on Mars using local materials and resources. Both types come in small, spartan versions and large-scale architectural masterpieces, the latter envisioning beautiful mall-like vistas in which grain fields and orchards are interspersed with fishponds and goat pastures, while strawberry-munching gardeners oversee the scene. We propose some guidelines for the construction of greenhouses on Mars with the emphasis on the biological challenges presented by growing plants and other organisms on a continual basis to sustain a human population. We regard greenhouses to be the first, small terraformed surface areas on Mars and will suggest how the knowledge gained in their operation may be applied to the later course of biological terraforming of the entire planet.

  20. Modeling the thermal characteristics of masonry mortar containing recycled materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laney, Morgan Gretchen

    As the building industry in the United States rapidly expands, the reuse of recycled demolition waste aggregates is becoming increasingly more important. Currently, the building industry is the largest consumer of natural resources. The constant use of raw virgin aggregate is resulting in depleting resources, lack of space for landfills, increasing costs, and heightened levels of pollution. The use of these recycled aggregates in building envelopes and the study of thermal properties are becoming a popular area of research in order to improve building energy usage. The construction of Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB) is encouraged by the United States government as a result of the unresolved finite resources and environmental pollution. The focus of this research is on the impact of using recycled demolition waste aggregates on thermal properties, including specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, in masonry mortar applications. The new forms of aggregate were analyzed for efficiency and practical utilization in construction in seven locations across the United States by embedding the new material into the building envelope of a strip mall mercantile build model from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in the EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Program (BESP). It was determined that the recycled aggregate mortar mixtures performed as well as or better than the traditional mortar mix. Opportunities for future research in recycled aggregate mortar mixtures exist in a regional analysis, a regional recycled aggregate cost analysis, and a life cycled cost analysis (LCCA).

  1. Climate Change Potential Impacts on the Built Environment and Possible Adaptation Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment consists of components that exist at a range of scales from small (e.g., houses, shopping malls) to large (e.g., transportation networks) to highly modified landscapes such as cities. Thus, the impacts of climate change on the built environment may have a multitude of effects on humans and the land. The impact of climate change may be exacerbated by the interaction of different events that singly may be minor, but together may have a synergistic set of impacts that are significant. Also, mechanisms may exist wherein the built environment, particularly in the form of cities, may affect weather and the climate on local and regional scales. Hence, a city may be able to cope with prolonged heat waves, but if this is combined with severe drought, the overall result could be significant or even catastrophic, as accelerating demand for energy to cooling taxes water supplies needed both for energy supply and municipal water needs. This presentation surveys potential climate change impacts on the built environment from the perspective of the National Climate Assessment, and explores adaptation measures that can be employed to mitigate these impacts.

  2. Structural characterization of hemoglobins from Monilifera and Frenulata tubeworms (Siboglinids): first discovery of giant hexagonal-bilayer hemoglobin in the former "Pogonophora" group.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Cédric; Andersen, Ann C; Bruneaux, Matthieu; Le Guen, Dominique; Terrier, Peran; Leize-Wagner, Emmanuelle; Zal, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Siboglinids are symbiotic polychete annelids having hemoglobins as essential oxygen- and sulfide-carriers for their endosymbiotic bacteria. We analyzed the structure of the hemoglobins from two species of siboglinids: the monilifera Sclerolinum contortum and the frenulata Oligobrachia webbi (i.e. haakonmosbiensis) from Norwegian cold seeps. Measured by Multi-Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS), Sclerolinum shows a 3190+/-50 kDa hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) and a 461+/-46 kDa ring-Hb, just as vestimentifera, whereas Oligobrachia has a 409+/-3.7 kDa ring-Hb only. Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) showed Sclerolinum HBL-Hb composed of seven monomeric globins (15-16 kDa), three disulfide-bonded globin heterodimers and three linkers. The heterodimers always contain globin-b (15814.4+/-1.5 Da). Sclerolinum ring-Hb is composed of globins and dimers with identical masses as its HBL-Hb, but lacks linkers. Oligobrachia ring-Hb has three globin monomers (14-15 kDa) only, with no disulfide-bonded dimers. Comparison of Sclerolinum hemoglobins between Storegga and Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, using the normalized height of deconvoluted ESI-MS peaks, shows differences in globin monomers abundances that could reflect genetic differences or differential gene expression between distinct seep populations. The discovery of HBL-Hb in Sclerolinum is a new element supporting the hypothesis of monilifera being phylogenetically more closely related to vestimentifera, than to frenulata.

  3. Three dimensional indoor positioning based on visible light with Gaussian mixture sigma-point particle filter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wenjun; Zhang, Weizhi; Wang, Jin; Amini Kashani, M. R.; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, location based services (LBS) have found their wide applications in indoor environments, such as large shopping malls, hospitals, warehouses, airports, etc. Current technologies provide wide choices of available solutions, which include Radio-frequency identification (RFID), Ultra wideband (UWB), wireless local area network (WLAN) and Bluetooth. With the rapid development of light-emitting-diodes (LED) technology, visible light communications (VLC) also bring a practical approach to LBS. As visible light has a better immunity against multipath effect than radio waves, higher positioning accuracy is achieved. LEDs are utilized both for illumination and positioning purpose to realize relatively lower infrastructure cost. In this paper, an indoor positioning system using VLC is proposed, with LEDs as transmitters and photo diodes as receivers. The algorithm for estimation is based on received-signalstrength (RSS) information collected from photo diodes and trilateration technique. By appropriately making use of the characteristics of receiver movements and the property of trilateration, estimation on three-dimensional (3-D) coordinates is attained. Filtering technique is applied to enable tracking capability of the algorithm, and a higher accuracy is reached compare to raw estimates. Gaussian mixture Sigma-point particle filter (GM-SPPF) is proposed for this 3-D system, which introduces the notion of Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The number of particles in the filter is reduced by approximating the probability distribution with Gaussian components.

  4. Evolution of Eocene to Oligocene arc-related volcanism in the North Patagonian Andes (39-41°S), prior to the break-up of the Farallon plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannelli, Sofía B.; Litvak, Vanesa D.; Fernández Paz, Lucía; Folguera, Andrés; Ramos, Miguel E.; Ramos, Víctor A.

    2017-01-01

    Voluminous Paleogene magmatic rocks (44 to 29 Ma) are found in a retroarc position in the Northern Patagonian to Southern Central Andes ( 39-42°S), whose origin remains controversial. Geochemical data in these Eocene to Oligocene volcanic associations are herein used to unravel their origin and understand changes in subduction parameters. Geochemical signatures indicate arc-related associations and reflect changing geodynamic boundary conditions of the Andean margin through time. In particular, Eocene magmatism ( 44 Ma; Pilcaniyeu Belt) shows an alkaline-like signature and limited slab influence. Reported contemporaneous within-plate magmatism ( 47-43 Ma) in an easternmost position reflects a more typical enriched source. Oligocene arc-like volcanism ( 29 Ma; El Maitén Belt), which developed in an extensional retroarc setting, shows a higher contribution from slab-derived fluids and a calc-alkaline source. A comparison with younger arc-related magmas from the region ( 26-20 Ma), emplaced in an intra- to retroarc position (Cura Mallín and Abanico basins), indicates a progressive increase in slab-signature, associated with a tholeiitic magma source. We propose that these compositional variations could be directly related to changes in plate configuration before and after the Farallon plate break-up and the initiation of a more orthogonal convergence typical of the present Andean-type subduction zone.

  5. First Results From The Washington DC Metropolitan Area Lightning Mapping Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Hall, J.; Krehbiel, P.; Rison, B.; Zubrick, S.

    2006-12-01

    An experimental portable lightning mapping array (LMA) operating in the upper VHF TV band (Channels 7-13; 174-216 MHz) was deployed in the Washington DC Metropolitan area during the summer 2006 to locate and monitor the overall lightning activity. The LMA network provides total lightning data to support lightning research as well as proxy data to benefit the development of applications for planned observing systems such as the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper. The portable LMA hardware is a compactly-housed, easily deployed version of the LMA stations installed North Alabama, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, which operate in the lower VHF TV band (Channels 2-6, 54-88 MHz). Real-time LMA data products are provided to the National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in Sterling, VA to aid in their forecast and warning operations. Forecasters at WFO Sterling have already found the lightning data from the Washington DC demonstration network to be very useful in assessing the development of storm systems. On July 4, 2006, data from the LMA aided forecasters as they monitored an area of convection that later developed into a line of severe storms that moved southward through the Washington DC metropolitan area across the Washington Mall. Additional applications of lightning mapping data in the Baltimore-Washington DC urban environment will be discussed.

  6. Living off-grid in an arid environment without a well : can residential and commercial/industrial water harvesting help solve water supply problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Axness, Carl L.; Ferrando, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Our family of three lives comfortably off-grid without a well in an arid region ({approx}9 in/yr, average). This year we expect to achieve water sustainability with harvested or grey water supporting all of our needs (including a garden and trees), except drinking water (about 7 gallons/week). We discuss our implementation and the implication that for an investment of a few thousand dollars, many single family homes could supply a large portion of their own water needs, significantly reducing municipal water demand. Generally, harvested water is very low in minerals and pollutants, but may need treatment for microbes in order to be potable. This may be addressed via filters, UV light irradiation or through chemical treatment (bleach). Looking further into the possibility of commercial water harvesting from malls, big box stores and factories, we ask whether water harvesting could supply a significant portion of potable water by looking at two cities with water supply problems. We look at the implications of separate municipal water lines for potable and clean non-potable uses. Implications on changes to future building codes are explored.

  7. Physical characterization and profiling of airway epithelial derived exosomes using light scattering.

    PubMed

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Gupta, Richa

    2015-10-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles have been gaining interest during the last decade due to their emerging role in biology and, disease pathogenesis and their biomarker potential. Almost all published research related to exosomes and other extracellular vesicles include some form of physical characterization. Therefore, these vesicles should be precisely profiled and characterized physically before studying their biological role as intercellular messengers, biomarkers or therapeutic tools. Using a combination of light scattering techniques, including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and multi-angle laser light scattering combined with size exclusion separation (SEC-MALLS), we physically characterized and compared distinct extracellular vesicles derived from the apical secretions of two different cultured airway epithelial cells. The results indicated that epithelial cells release vesicles with distinct physical properties and sizes. Human primary tracheobronchial cell culture (HTBE) derived vesicles have a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 340 nm while their radius of gyration (Rg) is approximately 200 nm. Electron microscopy analysis, however, revealed that their spherical component is 40-100 nm in size, and they carry filamentous, entangled membrane mucins on their surface that increases their overall radius. The mucin decoration on the surface defines their size and charge as measured using light scattering techniques. Their surface properties mirror the properties of the cells from which they are derived. This may provide a unique tool for researchers to elucidate the unanswered questions in normal airway biology and innate and adaptive defense, including the remodeling of airways during inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis.

  8. Pedestrian Detection by Laser Scanning and Depth Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsi, A.; Lovas, T.; Molnar, B.; Somogyi, A.; Igazvolgyi, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Pedestrian flow is much less regulated and controlled compared to vehicle traffic. Estimating flow parameters would support many safety, security or commercial applications. Current paper discusses a method that enables acquiring information on pedestrian movements without disturbing and changing their motion. Profile laser scanner and depth camera have been applied to capture the geometry of the moving people as time series. Procedures have been developed to derive complex flow parameters, such as count, volume, walking direction and velocity from laser scanned point clouds. Since no images are captured from the faces of pedestrians, no privacy issues raised. The paper includes accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters based on video footage as reference. Due to the dense point clouds, detailed geometry analysis has been conducted to obtain the height and shoulder width of pedestrians and to detect whether luggage has been carried or not. The derived parameters support safety (e.g. detecting critical pedestrian density in mass events), security (e.g. detecting prohibited baggage in endangered areas) and commercial applications (e.g. counting pedestrians at all entrances/exits of a shopping mall).

  9. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-05-21

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 10⁵ Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  10. Determination of physicochemical properties of sulphated fucans from sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida using light scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Chung, Donghwa; You, SangGuan

    2008-11-15

    The weight average molecular weight (Mw) of the intact sulphated fucans extracted with water from the sporophyll of Undaria pinnatifida without acid treatment was determined using the high performance size exclusion chromatography coupled to multiangle laser light scattering and refractive index detection (HPSEC-MALLS-RI) system. The effects of different heating conditions on the determination of Mw were investigated. The extracted intact fucoidans mostly consisted of carbohydrates (54.9%) and sulphate (41.5%) with monosaccharide composition of 78.8% fucose and 21.2% galactose. The Mw of the intact fucoidans was reduced from 23,600 to 5200kDa when heated in boiling water for 1-15min. Microwave heating for 30s decreased the Mw of fucoidans to 2400kDa despite no significant polymer degradation. The results indicate that the 30s-microwave heating yielded a more accurate Mw value of the intact fucoidans than any other heat treatments used in this study.

  11. Regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide: Solution conformation and antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junlong; Yang, Wen; Tang, YinYing; Xu, Qing; Huang, Shengli; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ji; Lei, Ziqiang

    2016-01-20

    Regioselective modification is an effective approach to synthesize polysaccharides with different structure features and improved properties. In this study, regioselective sulfation of Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide (SRSASP) was prepared by using triphenylchloromethane (TrCl) as protecting precursor. The decrease in fractal dimension (df) values (1.56-2.04) of SRSASP was observed in size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) analysis. Compared to sample substituted at C-6, SRSASP showed a more expanded conformation of random coil, which was attributed to the breakup of hydrogen bonds and elastic contributions. Circular dichroism (CD), methylene blue (MB) and congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the conformational transition and stiffness of the chains after sulfation. SRSASP exhibited enhanced antioxidant activities in the DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Sulfation at C-2 or C-3 was favorable for the chelation which might prevent the generation of hydroxyl radicals. It concluded that the degree of substitution and substitution position were the factors influencing biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides.

  12. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  13. Impaired behavior on real-world tasks following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Hathaway-Nepple, Julie; Anderson, Steven W

    2007-04-01

    Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortices (VMPC) commonly manifest blatant behavioral navigation defects in the real world, but it has been difficult to measure these impairments in the clinic or laboratory. Using a set of "strategy application" tasks, which were designed by Shallice and Burgess (1991) to be ecologically valid for detecting executive dysfunction, we investigated the hypothesis that VMPC damage would be associated with defective performance on such tasks, whereas damage outside the VMPC region would not. A group of 9 patients with bilateral VMPC damage was contrasted with comparison groups of participants with (a) prefrontal brain damage outside the VMPC region (n = 8); (b) nonprefrontal brain damage (n = 17); and (c) no brain damage (n = 20). We found support for the hypothesis: VMPC patients had more impaired performances on the strategy application tasks, especially on a Multiple Errands Test that required patients to execute a series of unstructured tasks in a real-world setting (shopping mall). The results are consistent with the notion that efficacious behavioral navigation is dependent on the VMPC region. However, the strategy application tasks were relatively time consuming and effortful, and their diagnostic yield over and above conventional executive functioning tests may not be sufficient to warrant their inclusion in standard clinical assessment.

  14. Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at 14 public places in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Chan, L.Y.; Chiu, M.Y.

    1999-05-01

    The indoor and outdoor air quality of 14 public places with mechanical ventilation systems in Hong Kong were investigated from October 1996 to March 1997. Fourteen public places located in urban residential, commercial, industrial, and rural areas were selected for indoor/outdoor (I/O) air pollutant measurement. The public places included restaurants, libraries, recreation places, shopping malls, sport centers, and a car park. The concentrations of SO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons (THC), and particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) were measured during peak traffic hours at each sampling location. I/O correlations between indoor and outdoor air quality were performed. High I/O ratios of CO, CO{sub 2}, THC, and PM{sub 10} were due to a high infiltration rate and the presence of indoor sources. The results show that the I/O ratios at public places were higher than those at homes and offices. Insufficient ventilation caused high CO{sub 2} levels. The I/O ratios of PM{sub 10} and CO at public places where tobacco smoking is permitted were 4 times and 1.6 times those where smoking is prohibited.

  15. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-05

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS.

  16. Ambient air quality monitoring during the H1N1 influence period in Pune (India).

    PubMed

    Pathak, M; Deshpande, A; Mirashe, P K; Sorte, R B; Ojha, A

    2010-10-01

    Ambient air quality in an urban area is directly linked with activity level in the city including transport, business and industrial activities. Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB) has established an ambient air quality network in the city including state-of-the-art continuous air quality monitoring stations which indicate short duration air quality variations for criteria and non-criteria pollutants. The influence of H1N1 outbreak in Pune hitting its worst pandemic condition, led the civic authorities to implement stringent isolation measures including closure of schools, colleges, business malls, cinema halls, etc. Additionally, the fear of such a pandemic brought the city to a stand still. It was therefore necessary to assess the impacts of such activity level on ambient air quality in the city. It has been observed that such events have positive impacts on air quality of the city. There was a decrease in PM concentration almost to the tune of 30 to 40% if the impacts of precipitation, i.e. seasonal variations, are taken into account. Similarly, the non criteria pollutants too showed a marked but unusual decrease in their concentrations in this ever growing city. The influence of these in turn led to lowered concentrations of secondary pollutants, i.e. O3. Overall, the ambient air quality of Pune was found to be improved during the study period.

  17. 3D Tracking via Shoe Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangmin; Liu, Guo; Liu, Jian; Chen, Xiaochuang; Ma, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Most location-based services are based on a global positioning system (GPS), which only works well in outdoor environments. Compared to outdoor environments, indoor localization has created more buzz in recent years as people spent most of their time indoors working at offices and shopping at malls, etc. Existing solutions mainly rely on inertial sensors (i.e., accelerometer and gyroscope) embedded in mobile devices, which are usually not accurate enough to be useful due to the mobile devices’ random movements while people are walking. In this paper, we propose the use of shoe sensing (i.e., sensors attached to shoes) to achieve 3D indoor positioning. Specifically, a short-time energy-based approach is used to extract the gait pattern. Moreover, in order to improve the accuracy of vertical distance estimation while the person is climbing upstairs, a state classification is designed to distinguish the walking status including plane motion (i.e., normal walking and jogging horizontally), walking upstairs, and walking downstairs. Furthermore, we also provide a mechanism to reduce the vertical distance accumulation error. Experimental results show that we can achieve nearly 100% accuracy when extracting gait patterns from walking/jogging with a low-cost shoe sensor, and can also achieve 3D indoor real-time positioning with high accuracy. PMID:27801839

  18. Does an education intervention improve physician signature legibility? Pilot study of a prospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Glisson, James K; Morton, Mary E; Bond, Allyn H; Griswold, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Illegible physician signatures in patient records can lead to inaccurate documentation, improper billing, and potential legal issues. Many studies in the current literature address legibility of prescriptions and medication orders; however, few focus on legibility of physicians' signatures. The purpose of the present quality improvement survey was to evaluate physician signature legibility on patient charts at the University of Mississippi Medical Center's Adult Internal Medicine Clinic. At the time of the study, the clinic was known as the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) Adult Internal Medicine Clinic. Effective July 1, 2009, UMMC entered into a collaboration with Jackson-Hinds Comprehensive Health Center (JHCHC), a federally qualified health center. The clinic is now known as the Federally Qualified Health Center at the Jackson Medical Mall. In this pilot study, we examined clinic notes and billing sheets for legible physician signatures over a three-month period. Midway through the study, an intervention group was given name stamps and a standardized discussion on the importance of signature legibility and proper name stamp usage. Legibility of resident signatures in the intervention group increased from 26 percent to 60 percent. Legibility of attending signatures in the intervention group increased from 1.4 percent to 86 percent. Results suggest the significant impact of resident education on changing practice behavior.

  19. Practical Implementation of Semi-Automated As-Built Bim Creation for Complex Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, S.; Jung, J.; Heo, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent days, for efficient management and operation of existing buildings, the importance of as-built BIM is emphasized in AEC/FM domain. However, fully automated as-built BIM creation is a tough issue since newly-constructed buildings are becoming more complex. To manage this problem, our research group has developed a semi-automated approach, focusing on productive 3D as-built BIM creation for complex indoor environments. In order to test its feasibility for a variety of complex indoor environments, we applied the developed approach to model the `Charlotte stairs' in Lotte World Mall, Korea. The approach includes 4 main phases: data acquisition, data pre-processing, geometric drawing, and as-built BIM creation. In the data acquisition phase, due to its complex structure, we moved the scanner location several times to obtain the entire point clouds of the test site. After which, data pre-processing phase entailing point-cloud registration, noise removal, and coordinate transformation was followed. The 3D geometric drawing was created using the RANSAC-based plane detection and boundary tracing methods. Finally, in order to create a semantically-rich BIM, the geometric drawing was imported into the commercial BIM software. The final as-built BIM confirmed that the feasibility of the proposed approach in the complex indoor environment.

  20. [Self-estimation of the quality of life in adult patients after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II)].

    PubMed

    Konstanty, J; Guzik, B; Maleta, P; Korpanty, G; Pfitzner, R

    2001-01-01

    Health estimation was performed in 134 patients (where 67% were women), aged 17-70, mean 42 years, 2-3 years after surgical correction of atrial septal defect type II (ASD II). The study consists of clinical examination and self-estimation of the quality of life with help of a mall questionnaire, with return ratio of 90%. The improvement of health status was declared by 80% of patients, where 23% stated considerable improvement. While 15% did not confirm any significant changes and 5% noticed worsening quality of life status (mainly connected with postoperative pain). The physical condition improved similarly, with range of tolerable physical effort doubled. The frequency of dyspnea, chest pain and palpitation decreased from 72%, 67% and 87% to 47%, 43% and 47%, respectively, as well as their intensity. More over, the frequency of anxiety decreased from 70% to 62% with reduction of its intensity. Both, before and after surgery, the environmental estimation and self-estimation was very good (77% versus 78%, 78% versus 89%) respectively, and predominant were optimistic attitudes. Post-operative improvement of the quality of life correlating to the clinical state, confirms the suitableness of surgical correction of ASD II, independent of age.

  1. Chlorinated organic compounds in ground water at Roosevelt Field, Nassau County, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, D.A.; Pearsall, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have been detected in water from five public-supply wells and six cooling-water wells that tap the Magothy aquifer at Roosevelt Field, a 200-acre area that is now a large shopping mall and office-building complex. The cooling water is discharged after use to the water table (upper glacial) aquifer through a nearby recharge basin and a subsurface drain field. Three plumes of TCE in groundwater have been delineated--the source plume, which has penetrated both aquifers , and two more recent plumes emanating from the two discharge sites in the water-table aquifer. Concentrations of inorganic constituents in the three plumes are the same as those in ambient water in the area. The two secondary plumes discharged cooling water extended at least 1,000 ft south-southeastward in the direction of regional groundwater flow. Pumping at wells screened in the middle and basal sections of the Magothy aquifers, where clay layers are absent and sandy zones provide good vertical hydraulic connection within the aquifer system, has increased the rate of downward contaminant advection. The transient increases in downward movement are cumulative over time and have brought TCE to the bottom of the Magothy aquifer, 500 ft below land surface. (USGS)

  2. STEPPING - Smartphone-Based Portable Pedestrian Indoor Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukianto, C.; Sternberg, H.

    2011-12-01

    Many current smartphones are fitted with GPS receivers, which, in combination with a map application form a pedestrian navigation system for outdoor purposes. However, once an area with insufficient satellite signal coverage is entered, these navigation systems cease to function. For indoor positioning, there are already several solutions available which are usually based on measured distances to reference points. These solutions can achieve resolutions as low as the sub-millimetre range depending on the complexity of the set-up. STEPPING project, developed at HCU Hamburg Germany aims at designing an indoor navigation system consisting of a small inertial navigation system and a new, robust sensor fusion algorithm running on a current smartphone. As this system is theoretically able to integrate any available positioning method, it is independent of a particular method and can thus be realized on a smartphone without affecting user mobility. Potential applications include --but are not limited to: Large trade fairs, airports, parking decks and shopping malls, as well as ambient assisted living scenarios.

  3. Structural and physicochemical properties of lotus seed starch treated with ultra-high pressure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zebin; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Lu, Xu; Zhou, Meiling; Zheng, Mingjing; Zheng, Baodong

    2015-11-01

    Aqueous lotus seed starch suspensions (15%, w/w) were subjected to ultra-high pressure treatment (UHP, 100-600 MPa) for 30 min. The effects of UHP treatment on the structural and physicochemical properties of starch were investigated. The SEM and laser diffraction particle size analysis revealed that UHP treatment affected the shape and size distribution of starch granules. The morphological structure of starch was completely destroyed at 600 MPa, indicating complete gelatinization. Analysis of HPSEC-MALLS-RI suggested that the dispersity index of UHP-treated starch were decreased from 1.28 to 1.11. According to XRD analyses, UHP treatment converted native starch (C-type) into a B-type pattern. The swelling power and solubility presented a significant decrease at 85 and 95 °C, but opposite trends were found at 55-75 °C. The DSC results indicated a reduction in gelatinization temperatures and enthalpy with increasing pressure treatment. The RVA viscograms revealed that UHP-treated starch showed a decreased breakdown and setback viscosity, reflecting lower retrogradation tendency compared to native starch.

  4. Study on molecular structural characteristics of tea polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Du, Xianfeng; Lan, Jing; Liang, Qin

    2010-08-01

    Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is attracting more attention gradually due to its particular biological properties. However, molecular characteristics of TPS are unclear since appropriate method is still absent. So, study on the molecular characteristics of TPS was carried out by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and viscosimetry. The results showed that the molar masses of TPS ranged from 2.287 x 10(5) to 2.762 x 10(5)gmol(-1), the RMS radii distributed from 132.1 to 145.9 nm, and M(w)/M(n) is 1.028. The Mark-Houwink equation was established as [eta]=0.5423 M(w)(0.5379), and the intrinsic viscosity and molecular chain parameters were as follows: [eta]=1.007 dL g(-1), k(H)=0.845, k(K)=0.387, alpha=0.5379, K=0.5423. In addition, based on the slope of the RMS radius versus molar mass conformational plot being 0.24+/-0.00, we suggest that the molecular morphology of TPS is a homogeneous and spherical polymer with branch in solution.

  5. Unraveling the complexity of the zoo community: identifying the variables related to conservation performance in zoological parks.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, María C; Guillén-Salazar, Federico; Garcés-Narro, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Zoological parks make up a highly heterogeneous community. Ranging from small collections at shopping malls to highly developed bioparks, their contribution to conservation is expected to vary enormously. Although several studies have focused on assessing such contribution, the parameters used frequently do not apply when considering more modest zoos. The goals of this study are to determine, within the wide range of zoos, which type tend to fulfill the conservation mission of modern zoos and to identify the variables associated to their conservation performance. We used the requirements demanded by the European Community Zoos Directive 1999/22/EC, relating to the keeping of wild animals in zoological parks, to assess conservation performance in 72% of officially registered Spanish zoos. Sampled zoos were classified into groups according to their common characteristics, and then the variables related to how they met each of the Directive's requirements in the groups were assessed. We found that private zoological parks with large zoological collections, located within metropolitan areas, and members of a zoo association tended to fulfill the requirements. Being a member of a zoo association was the variable that better explained fulfillment of the requirements among the evaluated zoos. Data revealed that zoos not meeting any requirement were few, although those meeting all of them were not frequent. The requirement related to adequate record keeping showed the lowest level of fulfillment. We discuss the implications of our results and propose measures of change in order to promote the contribution of zoos to biodiversity conservation.

  6. Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfates, Screening of a High Anti-Complement Capacity of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfate and Its Biological Activity Studies in Attenuating Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lian; Li, Yan; Feng, Danyang; Xu, Linghua; Yin, Fengxin; Zang, Hengchang; Liu, Chunhui; Wang, Fengshan

    2016-01-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Hemolytic, anti-complement 3 deposition capacity and cell viability assays were carried out to investigate the biological activities in vitro. The results showed that LMWCS prepared from shark cartilage with the oxidative degradation method (LMWCS-S-O) had the best anti-complement capacity. LMWCS-S-O could inhibit the alternative pathway of the complement system and protect chondrocytes from cell death. The attenuating effect of LMWCS-S-O on Osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model in vivo. Functional wind-up, histological and C5b-9 analyses were used to evaluate the treatment effect on the OA model. In vivo results showed that LMWCS-S-O could attenuate OA. LMWCS-S-O with a high content of ΔDi-2,6diS and ΔDi-6S could be used for attenuating OA through regulating the complement system. PMID:27727159

  7. Architecture and health care: a place for sociology.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daryl; Nettleton, Sarah; Buse, Christina; Prior, Lindsay; Twigg, Julia

    2015-09-01

    Sociologists of health and illness have tended to overlook the architecture and buildings used in health care. This contrasts with medical geographers who have yielded a body of work on the significance of places and spaces in the experience of health and illness. A review of sociological studies of the role of the built environment in the performance of medical practice uncovers an important vein of work, worthy of further study. Through the historically situated example of hospital architecture, this article seeks to tease out substantive and methodological issues that can inform a distinctive sociology of healthcare architecture. Contemporary healthcare buildings manifest design models developed for hotels, shopping malls and homes. These design features are congruent with neoliberal forms of subjectivity in which patients are constituted as consumers and responsibilised citizens. We conclude that an adequate sociology of healthcare architecture necessitates an appreciation of both the construction and experience of buildings, exploring the briefs and plans of their designers, and observing their everyday uses. Combining approaches and methods from the sociology of health and illness and science and technology studies offers potential for a novel research agenda that takes healthcare buildings as its substantive focus.

  8. High-Throughput Typing Method To Identify a Non-Outbreak-Involved Legionella pneumophila Strain Colonizing the Entire Water Supply System in the Town of Rennes, France ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, D.; Le Cann, P.; Gerard, A.; Jarraud, S.; Lebeau, B.; Loisy-Hamon, F.; Vergnaud, G.; Pourcel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Two legionellosis outbreaks occurred in the city of Rennes, France, during the past decade, requiring in-depth monitoring of Legionella pneumophila in the water network and the cooling towers in the city. In order to characterize the resulting large collection of isolates, an automated low-cost typing method was developed. The multiplex capillary-based variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) (multiple-locus VNTR analysis [MLVA]) assay requiring only one PCR amplification per isolate ensures a high level of discrimination and reduces hands-on and time requirements. In less than 2 days and using one 4-capillary apparatus, 217 environmental isolates collected between 2000 and 2009 and 5 clinical isolates obtained during outbreaks in 2000 and 2006 in Rennes were analyzed, and 15 different genotypes were identified. A large cluster of isolates with closely related genotypes and representing 77% of the population was composed exclusively of environmental isolates extracted from hot water supply systems. It was not responsible for the known Rennes epidemic cases, although strains showing a similar MLVA profile have regularly been involved in European outbreaks. The clinical isolates in Rennes had the same genotype as isolates contaminating a mall's cooling tower. This study further demonstrates that unknown environmental or genetic factors contribute to the pathogenicity of some strains. This work illustrates the potential of the high-throughput MLVA typing method to investigate the origin of legionellosis cases by allowing the systematic typing of any new isolate and inclusion of data in shared databases. PMID:21821761

  9. Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Sebastian Piotr; Nes, Arnfinn; Wold, Anne-Berit; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Aaby, Kjersti

    2014-10-01

    Colour and chemical composition of fruits of 10 red raspberry genotypes grown in Nordic climate during three harvest seasons were studied. The main phenolic compounds in the fruits were ellagitannins and anthocyanins, contributing 57% and 42% to the quantified phenolic compounds, respectively. Cyanidin-3-sophoroside was the most abundant anthocyanin (61%). All quality parameters were significantly affected by genotype. The genotypes could be categorised into three groups. 'Veten' and 'RU984 06038' were characterised by high concentrations of flavonoids, i.e., anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides, and dark red colour. 'Octavia', 'Glen Magna', 'RU004 03067', 'Glen Ample' and 'RU974 07002' were characterised by light colour, high titratable acids and low flavonoid concentrations. 'Malling Hestia', 'RU024 01003' and 'RU004 04095' had high content of dry matter, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and ellagic acid containing compounds, in addition to high hue and chroma values. All quality parameters, except ascorbic acid and lambertianin C, varied significantly between harvest seasons. The lowest seasonal variation in fruit quality was observed in 'RU024 01003' and 'Glen Ample' and the highest 'RU004 03067' and 'Glen Magna'.

  10. Holographic optical receiver front end for wireless infrared indoor communications.

    PubMed

    Jivkova, S; Kavehrad, M

    2001-06-10

    Multispot diffuse configuration (MSDC) for indoor wireless optical communications, utilizing multibeam transmitter and angle diversity detection, is one of the most promising ways of achieving high capacities for use in high-bandwidth islands such as classrooms, hotel lobbies, shopping malls, and train stations. Typically, the optical front end of the receiver consists of an optical concentrator to increase the received optical signal power and an optical bandpass filter to reject the ambient light. Using the unique properties of holographic optical elements (HOE), we propose a novel design for the receiver optical subsystem used in MSDC. With a holographic curved mirror as an optical front end, the receiver would achieve more than an 10-dB improvement in the electrical signal-to-noise ratio compared with a bare photodetector. Features such as multifunctionality of the HOE and the receiver's small size, light weight, and low cost make the receiver front end a promising candidate for a user's portable equipment in broadband indoor wireless multimedia access.

  11. A hyperbranched β-d-glucan with compact coil conformation from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ting; Huang, Qilin; Wong, Kahing; Yang, Hong; Gan, Jingsi; Li, Yanru

    2017-06-15

    An alkali-soluble polysaccharide was extracted from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia (LRP). Its structural characteristics were determined by GC-MS, FT-IR, GC, 1D and 2D NMR combined with Smith degradation and methylation analysis. The LRP had a (1→3)-β-d-Glcp backbone with every three residues bearing a (1→6)-linked and hyperbranched side chain that contained three (1→6)-β-d-Glcp residues as secondary main chain and two terminal β-d-Glcp residues linked at O3. The degree of branching was 0.76 from GC-MS analysis, implying a highly branched structure for LRP. The Mw, z(1/2), Rh and [η] values of LRP in 0.25M LiCl/DMSO were measured by SEC-MALLS-Vis-RI combination technology to be 2.88×10(5)g/mol, 30.36nm, 22.34nm and 131.50ml/g, respectively. Furthermore, the exponent α of [η]-Mw, β of z(1/2)-Mw, the fractal dimension df and molecular parameter ρ were determined to be 0.20, 0.33, 2.50 and 1.36, demonstrating that the LRP was a hyperbranched polysaccharide and adopted a compact coil conformation in LiCl/DMSO.

  12. Purification of a Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan for SPECT Molecular Imaging of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Saboural, Pierre; Chaubet, Frédéric; Rouzet, Francois; Al-Shoukr, Faisal; Ben Azzouna, Rana; Bouchemal, Nadia; Picton, Luc; Louedec, Liliane; Maire, Murielle; Rolland, Lydia; Potier, Guy; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chauvierre, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    Fucoidans constitute a large family of sulfated polysaccharides with several biochemical properties. A commercial fucoidan from brown algae, containing low molecular weight polysaccharidic species constituted of l-fucose, uronic acids and sulfate groups, was simply treated here with calcium acetate solution. This treatment led to a purified fraction with a yield of 45%. The physicochemical characterizations of the purified fucoidan using colorimetric assay, MALLS, dRI, FT-IR, NMR, exhibited molecular weight distributions and chemical profiles similar for both fucoidans whereas the sulfate and l-fucose contents increased by 16% and 71%, respectively. The biodistribution study in rat of both compounds labeled with 99mTc evidenced a predominant renal elimination of the purified fucoidan, but the crude fucoidan was mainly retained in liver and spleen. In rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion, we then demonstrated the better efficiency of the purified fucoidan. This purified sulfated polysaccharide appears promising for the development of molecular imaging in acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25251032

  13. Customer adoption of small-scale on-site power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2001-04-01

    The electricity supply system is undergoing major regulatory and technological change with significant implications for the way in which the sector will operate (including its patterns of carbon emissions) and for the policies required to ensure socially and environmentally desirable outcomes. One such change stems from the rapid emergence of viable small-scale (i.e., smaller than 500 kW) generators that are potentially competitive with grid delivered electricity, especially in combined heat and power configurations. Such distributed energy resources (DER) may be grouped together with loads in microgrids. These clusters could operate semi-autonomously from the established power system, or macrogrid, matching power quality and reliability more closely to local end-use requirements. In order to establish a capability for analyzing the effect that microgrids may have on typical commercial customers, such as office buildings, restaurants, shopping malls, and grocery stores, an economic mod el of DER adoption is being developed at Berkeley Lab. This model endeavors to indicate the optimal quantity and type of small on-site generation technologies that customers could employ given their electricity requirements. For various regulatory schemes and general economic conditions, this analysis produces a simple operating schedule for any installed generators. Early results suggest that many commercial customers can benefit economically from on-site generation, even without considering potential combined heat and power and reliability benefits, even though they are unlikely to disconnect from the established power system.

  14. Solid-state Characterization of Felodipine-Soluplus® Amorphous Solid Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiannan; Cuellar, Kristina; Hammer, Nathan I.; Jo, Seongbong; Gryczke, Andreas; Kolter, Karl; Langley, Nigel; Repka, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to develop amorphous solid dispersion via hot melt extrusion technology to improve the solubility of a water-insoluble compound, felodipine. The solubility was dramatically increased by preparation of amorphous solid dispersions via hot-melt extrusion with an amphiphilic polymer, Soluplus®. Felodipine was found to be miscible with Soluplus® by calculating the solubility parameters. The solubility of felodipine within Soluplus® was determined to be in the range of 6.2–9.9% (w/w). Various techniques were applied to characterize the solid-state properties of the amorphous solid dispersions. These included Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to detect the formation of hydrogen bonding between the drug and the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the morphology of the solid dispersions. Among all the hot-melt extrudates, felodipine was found to be molecularly dispersed within the polymer matrix for the extrudates containing 10% drug, while few s mall crystals were detected in the 30 and 50% extrudates. In conclusion, solubility of felodipine was enhanced while a homogeneous solid dispersion was achieved for 10% drug loading. PMID:26530290

  15. An interdisciplinary heuristic evaluation method for universal building design.

    PubMed

    Afacan, Yasemin; Erbug, Cigdem

    2009-07-01

    This study highlights how heuristic evaluation as a usability evaluation method can feed into current building design practice to conform to universal design principles. It provides a definition of universal usability that is applicable to an architectural design context. It takes the seven universal design principles as a set of heuristics and applies an iterative sequence of heuristic evaluation in a shopping mall, aiming to achieve a cost-effective evaluation process. The evaluation was composed of three consecutive sessions. First, five evaluators from different professions were interviewed regarding the construction drawings in terms of universal design principles. Then, each evaluator was asked to perform the predefined task scenarios. In subsequent interviews, the evaluators were asked to re-analyze the construction drawings. The results showed that heuristic evaluation could successfully integrate universal usability into current building design practice in two ways: (i) it promoted an iterative evaluation process combined with multi-sessions rather than relying on one evaluator and on one evaluation session to find the maximum number of usability problems, and (ii) it highlighted the necessity of an interdisciplinary ad hoc committee regarding the heuristic abilities of each profession. A multi-session and interdisciplinary heuristic evaluation method can save both the project budget and the required time, while ensuring a reduced error rate for the universal usage of the built environments.

  16. Anionic Synthesis and Rheological Characterization of Poly(p-methylstyrene) Model Comb Architectures with a Defined and Very Low Degree of Long Chain Branching.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Michael; Barroso, Vitor C; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2010-12-15

    A method is presented for the synthesis of defined sparsely branched polystyrene-based homopolymer model combs. By the use of poly(p-methylstyrene) (PpMS) as backbone and side chains, a low, but well controlled amount of branching of typically less than 1 mol-% (e.g., 1 branch per approx. 200 backbone C-atoms) can be achieved. The used anionic synthesis offers full control of the molecular weight in combination with low polydispersity. Molecular weight and polydispersity were determined by SEC-MALLS, confirming the well defined synthesis with low polydispersity ($\\overline {{\\rm M}} _{{\\rm w}} /\\overline {{\\rm M}} _{{\\rm n}} $ < 1.07). The melt rheological properties of the synthesized linear and comb polymers were obtained in both oscillatory shear and uniaxial extensional flow. Using the so-called van Gurp-Palmen plot, clear differences between both synthesized topologies are clearly seen. The appearance of a second minimum for lower values of the complex modulus in shear is a clear indication of a second relaxation process attributable to the entangled side chains. The presence of the entangled side chains is responsible for the observed strain hardening obtained in extensional viscosity experiments, as compared to the linear polymers. These model samples open up the possibility to compare different advanced rheological methods, e.g., FT-rheology or extensional rheology, towards limiting sensitivity.

  17. An integrated framework for detecting suspicious behaviors in video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Thi Thi; Tin, Pyke; Hama, Hiromitsu; Toriu, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an integrated framework for detecting suspicious behaviors in video surveillance systems which are established in public places such as railway stations, airports, shopping malls and etc. Especially, people loitering in suspicion, unattended objects left behind and exchanging suspicious objects between persons are common security concerns in airports and other transit scenarios. These involve understanding scene/event, analyzing human movements, recognizing controllable objects, and observing the effect of the human movement on those objects. In the proposed framework, multiple background modeling technique, high level motion feature extraction method and embedded Markov chain models are integrated for detecting suspicious behaviors in real time video surveillance systems. Specifically, the proposed framework employs probability based multiple backgrounds modeling technique to detect moving objects. Then the velocity and distance measures are computed as the high level motion features of the interests. By using an integration of the computed features and the first passage time probabilities of the embedded Markov chain, the suspicious behaviors in video surveillance are analyzed for detecting loitering persons, objects left behind and human interactions such as fighting. The proposed framework has been tested by using standard public datasets and our own video surveillance scenarios.

  18. iParking: an intelligent indoor location-based smartphone parking service.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Yuwei; Pei, Ling; Chen, Liang

    2012-10-31

    Indoor positioning technologies have been widely studied with a number of solutions being proposed, yet substantial applications and services are still fairly primitive. Taking advantage of the emerging concept of the connected car, the popularity of smartphones and mobile Internet, and precise indoor locations, this study presents the development of a novel intelligent parking service called iParking. With the iParking service, multiple parties such as users, parking facilities and service providers are connected through Internet in a distributed architecture. The client software is a light-weight application running on a smartphone, and it works essentially based on a precise indoor positioning solution, which fuses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) signals and the measurements of the built-in sensors of the smartphones. The positioning accuracy, availability and reliability of the proposed positioning solution are adequate for facilitating the novel parking service. An iParking prototype has been developed and demonstrated in a real parking environment at a shopping mall. The demonstration showed how the iParking service could improve the parking experience and increase the efficiency of parking facilities. The iParking is a novel service in terms of cost- and energy-efficient solution.

  19. Theory and practice of size exclusion chromatography for the analysis of protein aggregates.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2014-12-01

    Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a historical technique widely employed for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of aggregates. The main advantage of this approach is the mild mobile phase conditions that permit the characterization of proteins with minimal impact on the conformational structure and local environment. Despite the fact that the chromatographic behavior and peak shape are hardly predictable in SEC, some generic rules can be applied for SEC method development, which are described in this review. During recent years, some improvements were introduced to conventional SEC that will also be discussed. Of these new SEC characteristics, we discuss (i) the commercialization of shorter and narrower columns packed with reduced particle sizes allowing an improvement in the resolution and throughput; (ii) the possibility of combining SEC with various detectors, including refractive index (RI), ultraviolet (UV), multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and viscometer (IV), for extensive characterization of protein samples and (iii) the possibility of hyphenating SEC with mass spectrometry (MS) detectors using an adapted mobile phase containing a small proportion of organic modifiers and ion-pairing reagents.

  20. Toward Development of a Face Recognition System for Watchlist Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2011-10-01

    The interest in face recognition is moving toward real-world applications and uncontrolled sensing environments. An important application of interest is automated surveillance, where the objective is to recognize and track people who are on a watchlist. For this open world application, a large number of cameras that are increasingly being installed at many locations in shopping malls, metro systems, airports, etc., will be utilized. While a very large number of people will approach or pass by these surveillance cameras, only a small set of individuals must be recognized. That is, the system must reject every subject unless the subject happens to be on the watchlist. While humans routinely reject previously unseen faces as strangers, rejection of previously unseen faces has remained a difficult aspect of automated face recognition. In this paper, we propose an approach motivated by human perceptual ability of face recognition which can handle previously unseen faces. Our approach is based on identifying the decision region(s) in the face space which belong to the target person(s). This is done by generating two large sets of borderline images, projecting just inside and outside of the decision region. For each person on the watchlist, a dedicated classifier is trained. Results of extensive experiments support the effectiveness of our approach. In addition to extensive experiments using our algorithm and prerecorded images, we have conducted considerable live system experiments with people in realistic environments.